WorldWideScience

Sample records for service accumulation emission

  1. 40 CFR 86.000-26 - Mileage and service accumulation; emission measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accumulated the mileage the manufacturer chose to accumulate on the test vehicle. Fuel economy data generated... determines. Unless the Administrator approves a manufacturer's request to develop specific deterioration... accumulation method is developed by the manufacturer to be consistent with good engineering practice and to...

  2. ECO2, Emissions Trading Services, development project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruokonen, A.

    2006-01-01

    Emissions Trading started within EU at the beginning of 2005. It caused substantial changes to the business environment of energy companies and energy intensive industry. The planning of Emissions Trading is a complicated process and companies will need consulting, IT systems and other services. Emissions Trading introduces a new factor of production emission allowances, which are tradable commodities. In future, Emissions Trading emissions, emission allowances and the prices of emission allowances have to be considered during the fuel purchasing and the energy production planning. And the best possible knowledge of the own emissions balance and market situation has a monetary value when trading emission allowances. Allocation of emission allowances has done in each country according to National Allocation Plan (NAP), accepted by EU. Finland itself and thus also the Finnish companies will be net buyers of emission allowances in long run. That means commonly that the Finnish companies have to buy more allowances meaning some extra costs to the companies. That's why it is very important to develop and provide to the companies an innovatory emissions planning, follow-up, management and reporting systems. With good emission balance management the extra costs of Emissions Trading will be as low as possible. In ECO2 project, Empower together with Power-Deriva, developed Expert services, Emissions Balance Management and Reporting services and Risk Management services for Emissions Trading and needed software and tools for these services. (orig.)

  3. 18 CFR 367.1080 - Account 108, Accumulated provision for depreciation of service company property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Accumulated provision for depreciation of service company property. 367.1080 Section 367.1080 Conservation of... Account 108, Accumulated provision for depreciation of service company property. (a) This account must be credited with the following: (1) Amounts charged to account 403, Depreciation expense (§ 367.4030), or to...

  4. The effect of technogenic emissions on the heavy metals accumulation by herbaceous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplygin, Victor; Minkina, Tatiana; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Burachevskaya, Marina; Sushkova, Svetlana; Poluektov, Evgeniy; Antonenko, Elena; Kumacheva, Valentina

    2018-02-07

    The effect of technogenic emissions on the input of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Mn, Cr, and Ni into plants from the Poaceae and Asteraceae families has been studied. Soil and plant contamination by anthropogenic emissions from industrial enterprises leads the decreasing of crop quality; therefore, the monitoring investigation of plants and soils acquires special importance. The herbaceous plants may be used as bioindicators for main environmental changes. It was found that the high level of anthropogenic load related to atmospheric emissions from the power plant favors the heavy metal (HM) accumulation in herbaceous plants. Contamination with Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni was revealed in plants growing near the power plant. Heavy metals arrive to plants from the soil in the form of mobile compounds. Plant family is one of the main factors affecting the HM distribution in the above- and underground parts of plants. Plants from the Poaceae family accumulate less chemical elements in their aboveground parts than the Asteraceae plants. Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Artemisia austriaca are HM accumulators. For assessing the stability of plants under contamination with HMs, metal accumulation by plants from soil (the bioconcentration factor) and metal phytoavailability from plants above- and underground parts (the acropetal coefficient) were calculated. According to the bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values, Poaceae species are most resistant to technogenic contamination with HMs. The translocation factor highest values were found for Tanacetum vulgare; the lowest bioconcentration factor values were typical for Poa pratensis.

  5. Modelling Holocene carbon accumulation and methane emissions of boreal wetlands – an Earth system model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Schuldt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the Last Glacial Maximum, boreal wetlands have accumulated substantial amounts of peat, estimated at 180–621 Pg of carbon. Wetlands have significantly affected the atmospheric greenhouse gas composition in the past and will play a significant role in future changes of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations. In order to investigate those changes with an Earth system model, biogeochemical processes in boreal wetlands need to be accounted for. Thus, a model of peat accumulation and decay was developed and included in the land surface model JSBACH of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM. Here we present the evaluation of model results from 6000 yr BP to the pre-industrial period. Over this period of time, 240 Pg of peat carbon accumulated in the model in the areas north of 40° N. Simulated peat accumulation rates agree well with those reported for boreal wetlands. The model simulates CH4 emissions of 49.3 Tg CH4 yr−1 for 6000 yr BP and 51.5 Tg CH4 yr−1 for pre-industrial times. This is within the range of estimates in the literature, which range from 32 to 112 Tg CH4 yr−1 for boreal wetlands. The modelled methane emission for the West Siberian Lowlands and Hudson Bay Lowlands agree well with observations. The rising trend of methane emissions over the last 6000 yr is in agreement with measurements of Antarctic and Greenland ice cores.

  6. Damage Accumulation in Cyclically-Loaded Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composites Monitored by Acoustic Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Aggelis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium osumilite (BMAS ceramic matrix composites reinforced with SiC-Tyranno fibers are tested in a cyclic loading protocol. Broadband acoustic emission (AE sensors are used for monitoring the occurrence of different possible damage mechanisms. Improved use of AE indices is proposed by excluding low-severity signals based on waveform parameters, rather than only threshold criteria. The application of such improvements enhances the accuracy of the indices as accumulated damage descriptors. RA-value, duration, and signal energy follow the extension cycles indicating moments of maximum or minimum strain, while the frequency content of the AE signals proves very sensitive to the pull-out mechanism.

  7. Advanced gas-emission anode design for microfluidic fuel cell eliminating bubble accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hao; Xuan, Jin; Wang, Huizhi; Leung, Dennis Y C; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Li

    2017-01-01

    A microfluidic fuel cell is a low cost, easily fabricated energy device and is considered a promising energy supplier for portable electronics. However, the currently developed microfluidic fuel cells that are fed with hydrocarbon fuels are confronted with a bubble problem especially when operating at high current density conditions. In this work, a gas-emission anode is presented to eliminate the gas accumulation at the anode. This gas-emission anode is verified as a valid design for discharging gaseous products, which is especially beneficial for stable operation of microfluidic fuel cells. The electrochemical performance of a counter-flow microfluidic fuel cell equipped with a gas-emission anode was measured. The results indicate that the specific design of the gas-emission anode is essential for reducing the oxygen reduction reaction parasitic effect at the anode. Fuel utilization of 76.4% was achieved at a flow rate of 0.35 µ l min −1 . Current–voltage curves of single electrodes were measured and the parasitic effect at the anode was identified as the main performance limiting factor in the presented anode design. (paper)

  8. A generic model for estimating biomass accumulation and greenhouse gas emissions from perennial crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledo, Alicia; Heathcote, Richard; Hastings, Astley; Smith, Pete; Hillier, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture is essential to maintain humankind but is, at the same time, a substantial emitter of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. With a rising global population, the need for agriculture to provide secure food and energy supply is one of the main human challenges. At the same time, it is the only sector which has significant potential for negative emissions through the sequestration of carbon and offsetting via supply of feedstock for energy production. Perennial crops accumulate carbon during their lifetime and enhance organic soil carbon increase via root senescence and decomposition. However, inconsistency in accounting for this stored biomass undermines efforts to assess the benefits of such cropping systems when applied at scale. A consequence of this exclusion is that efforts to manage this important carbon stock are neglected. Detailed information on carbon balance is crucial to identify the main processes responsible for greenhouse gas emissions in order to develop strategic mitigation programs. Perennial crops systems represent 30% in area of total global crop systems, a considerable amount to be ignored. Furthermore, they have a major standing both in the bioenergy and global food industries. In this study, we first present a generic model to calculate the carbon balance and GHGs emissions from perennial crops, covering both food and bioenergy crops. The model is composed of two simple process-based sub-models, to cover perennial grasses and other perennial woody plants. The first is a generic individual based sub-model (IBM) covering crops in which the yield is the fruit and the plant biomass is an unharvested residue. Trees, shrubs and climbers fall into this category. The second model is a generic area based sub-model (ABM) covering perennial grasses, in which the harvested part includes some of the plant parts in which the carbon storage is accounted. Most second generation perennial bioenergy crops fall into this category. Both generic sub

  9. Use of Acoustic Emission to Monitor Progressive Damage Accumulation in KEVLAR® 49 Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, J. M.; Andrade, E.; Saulsberry, R. L.

    2010-02-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) data acquired during intermittent load hold tensile testing of epoxy impregnated Kevlar® 49 (K/Ep) composite strands were analyzed to monitor progressive damage during the approach to tensile failure. Insight into the progressive damage of K/Ep strands was gained by monitoring AE event rate and energy. Source location based on energy attenuation and arrival time data was used to discern between significant AE attributable to microstructural damage and spurious AE attributable to noise. One of the significant findings was the observation of increasing violation of the Kaiser effect (Felicity ratio <1.0) with damage accumulation. The efficacy of three different intermittent load hold stress schedules that allowed the Felicity ratio to be determined analytically is discussed.

  10. Use of Acoustic Emission to Monitor Progressive Damage Accumulation in Kevlar (R) 49 Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess M.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Andrade, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) data acquired during intermittent load hold tensile testing of epoxy impregnated Kevlar(Registeres TradeMark) 49 (K/Ep) composite strands were analyzed to monitor progressive damage during the approach to tensile failure. Insight into the progressive damage of K/Ep strands was gained by monitoring AE event rate and energy. Source location based on energy attenuation and arrival time data was used to discern between significant AE attributable to microstructural damage and spurious AE attributable to noise. One of the significant findings was the observation of increasing violation of the Kaiser effect (Felicity ratio < 1.0) with damage accumulation. The efficacy of three different intermittent load hold stress schedules that allowed the Felicity ratio to be determined analytically is discussed.

  11. Ethene, propene, butene and isoprene emissions from a ponderosa pine forest measured by relaxed eddy accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Robert C.; Deventer, Malte Julian; Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Warneke, Carsten; Ortega, John; Shen, Steve; Martinez, Luis; Koss, Abigail; Lerner, Brian M.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Smith, James N.; Guenther, Alex B.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2017-11-01

    Alkenes are reactive hydrocarbons that influence local and regional atmospheric chemistry by playing important roles in the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone and in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. The simplest alkene, ethene (ethylene), is a major plant hormone and ripening agent for agricultural commodities. The group of light alkenes (C2-C4) originates from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources, but their biogenic sources are poorly characterized, with limited field-based flux observations. Here we report net ecosystem fluxes of light alkenes and isoprene from a semiarid ponderosa pine forest in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, USA using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) technique during the summer of 2014. Ethene, propene, butene and isoprene emissions have strong diurnal cycles, with median daytime fluxes of 123, 95, 39 and 17 µg m-2 h-1, respectively. The fluxes were correlated with each other, followed general ecosystem trends of CO2 and water vapor, and showed similar sunlight and temperature response curves as other biogenic VOCs. The May through October flux, based on measurements and modeling, averaged 62, 52, 24 and 18 µg m-2 h-1 for ethene, propene, butene and isoprene, respectively. The light alkenes contribute significantly to the overall biogenic source of reactive hydrocarbons: roughly 18 % of the dominant biogenic VOC, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The measured ecosystem scale fluxes are 40-80 % larger than estimates used for global emissions models for this type of ecosystem.

  12. Energy, emissions and emergency medical services: Policy matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lawrence H.; Blanchard, Ian E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the energy consumption and emissions associated with health services is important for minimizing their environmental impact and guiding their adaptation to a low-carbon economy. In this post-hoc analysis, we characterize the energy burden of North American emergency medical services (EMS) agencies and estimate the potential marginal damage costs arising from their emissions as an example of how and why health services matter in environmental and energy policy, and how and why environmental and energy policy matter to health services. We demonstrate EMS systems are energy intensive, and that vehicle fuels represent 80% of their energy burden while electricity and natural gas represent 20%. We also demonstrate that emissions from EMS operations represent only a small fraction of estimated health sector emissions, but for EMS systems in the United States the associated marginal damage costs are likely between $2.7 million and $9.7 million annually. Significant changes in the supply or price of energy, including changes that arise from environmental and energy policy initiatives designed to constrain fossil fuel consumption, could potentially affect EMS agencies and other health services. We encourage cross disciplinary research to proactively facilitate the health system's adaptation to a low-carbon economy. - Highlights: ► Estimated EMS-related emissions less than 1% of health sector emissions. ► Damage costs of U.S. EMS-related emissions estimated at $2.7 to $9.7 million. ► EMS energy burden is approximately 442 MJ per ambulance response. ► Approximately 80% of EMS energy burden is vehicle fuels. ► Energy supply, price and policy could impact EMS (and other health) services. ► Research needed to facilitate health services’ adaptation to a low carbon economy.

  13. Significance of 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-glucose accumulation in the stomach on positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ukawa, Kunio; Ohkawa, Nobuhiko

    2009-01-01

    To explain the accumulation of 18 F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-glucose ( 18 FDG) on positron emission tomography (PET) in the stomach and differences in its pattern, we focus on the accumulation pattern in association with endoscopic findings of the gastric mucosa and Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection. Of 599 cases undergoing 18 FDG-PET examinations, we retrospectively analyzed the pattern of 18 FDG accumulation in the stomach, findings of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and Hp infection. The pattern of 18 FDG accumulation was classified into three groups: localized accumulation only in the fornix (Group A, 32 patients), diffuse accumulation throughout the entire stomach (Group B, 49 patients), and no accumulation (Group C, 191 patients). Regarding the relation between Hp infection and 18 FDG accumulation, Hp infection was positive in 56.3% of Group A, 73.5% of Group B, and 24.1% of Group C, with significant differences (p 18 FDG accumulation and gastric mucosal inflammation, when Groups A and B were compared with Group C, nearly half of the cases in the former groups had papular redness with a significantly higher frequency of redness and erosion. Three cases found to have malignant tumor were limited to the former groups. One mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma case was also found in the same group. Accumulation of 18 FDG largely corresponded to mucosal inflammation including superficial gastritis and erosive gastritis, and therefore the main cause of non-specific 18 FDG accumulation was considered to be inflammatory mucosa (mainly redness). The accumulation pattern was not associated with atrophic changes of the gastric mucosa or with Hp infection, but with mucosal inflammatory changes, including redness and erosion localized to the fornix. Accumulation of 18 FDG in the stomach suggests a high probability of the presence of inflammatory change in the gastric mucosa forming a background for the development of cancer or malignant lymphoma, and thus requires

  14. Benzo(a)pyrene accumulation in soils of technogenic emission zone by subcritical water extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Kizilkaya, Ridvan; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Bauer, Tatiana; Gulser, Coskun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of research is the assessment of main marker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content in soils of emission zone of the power complex plant in soils with use of ecologically clean and effective subcritical water extraction method. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk Power Plant emissions from burning coal. In 2000, monitoring plots were established at different distances from the NPS (1.0-20.0 km). Soil samples for the determination of soil properties and the contents of BaP were taken from a depth of 0-20 cm. The soil cover in the region under study consisted of ordinary chernozems, meadow-chernozemic soils, and alluvial meadow soils. This soil revealed the following physical and chemical properties: Corg-3.1-5.0%, pH-7.3-7.6, ECE-31.2-47.6 mmol(+)/100g; CaCO3-0.2-1.0%, the content of physical clay - 51-67% and clay - 3-37%. BaP extraction from soils was carried out by a subcritical water extraction method. Subcritical water extraction of BaP from soil samples was conducted in a specially developed extraction cartridge made of stainless steel and equipped with screw-on caps at both ends. It was also equipped with a manometer that included a valve for pressure release to maintain an internal pressure of 100 atm. The extraction cartridge containing a sample and water was placed into an oven connected to a temperature regulator under temperature 250oC and pressure 60 atm. The BaP concentration in the acetonitrile extract was determined by HPLC. The efficiency of BaP extraction from soil was determined using a matrix spike. The main accumulation of pollutant in 20 cm layer of soils is noted directly in affected zone on the plots situated at 1.2, 1.6, 5.0, 8.0 km from emission source in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximum quantity of a pollutant was founded in the soil of the plot located mostly close to a source of pollution in the direction of prevailing winds

  15. [Capital accumulation patterns: capital and services in the current transformations of the health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andreazzi, Maria de Fátima Siliansky; Kornis, George Edward Machado

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce elements of the capitalist society economic reproduction to the discussion around the current dynamics of health accumulation. It identifies the direction and significance of capital accumulation in the health area as well as the characteristics of the economic environment where the competition currently takes place. The hypothetic hypertrophy of the financial sphere is seen as a means for structuring the capitalist economy since the late twentieth century. The former delimitations between industrial production and service delivery are blurred and weakened; the competition process shows new features and the contradictions - internally between the different elements of the health industry and externally with other sectors - are changing. This article aggregates elements for a contemporary analysis of the "medical-industrial complex" on the basis of a theoretical-historical-conceptual approach. We identify changes in the capital dynamics of this complex at international and national level and stress the increasing role of the health services as a forefront of capital accumulation. The new approach is based on the economic thinking of Marx in addition to the current discussions about the theory of financial capital accumulation and the new productive configurations of the large corporations.

  16. Coastal vegetation invasion increases greenhouse gas emission from wetland soils but also increases soil carbon accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yaping; Chen, Guangcheng; Ye, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Soil properties and soil–atmosphere fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O from four coastal wetlands were studied throughout the year, namely, native Kandelia obovata mangrove forest vs. exotic Sonneratia apetala mangrove forest, and native Cyperus malaccensis salt marsh vs. exotic Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Soils of the four wetlands were all net sources of greenhouse gases while Sonneratia forest contributed the most with a total soil–atmosphere CO 2 -equivalent flux of 137.27 mg CO 2 m −2 h −1 , which is 69.23%, 99.75% and 44.56% higher than that of Kandelia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively. The high underground biomass and distinctive root structure of Sonneratia might be responsible for its high greenhouse gas emission from the soil. Soils in Spartina marsh emitted the second largest amount of total greenhouse gases but it ranked first in emitting trace greenhouse gases. Annual average CH 4 and N 2 O fluxes from Spartina soil were 13.77 and 1.14 μmol m −2 h −1 , respectively, which are 2.08 and 1.46 times that of Kandelia, 1.03 and 1.15 times of Sonneratia, and 1.74 and 1.02 times of Cyperus, respectively. Spartina has longer growing season and higher productivity than native marshes which might increase greenhouse gas emission in cold seasons. Exotic wetland soils had higher carbon stock as compared to their respective native counterparts but their carbon stocks were offset by a larger proportion because of their higher greenhouse gas emissions. Annual total soil–atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases reduced soil carbon burial benefits by 8.1%, 9.5%, 6.4% and 7.2% for Kandelia, Sonneratia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively, which narrowed down the gaps in net soil carbon stock between native and exotic wetlands. The results indicated that the invasion of exotic wetland plants might convert local coastal soils into a considerable atmospheric source of greenhouse gases although they at the same time increase soil carbon accumulation

  17. Coastal vegetation invasion increases greenhouse gas emission from wetland soils but also increases soil carbon accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yaping [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China); Chen, Guangcheng [Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, Fujian (China); Ye, Yong, E-mail: yeyong.xmu@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China)

    2015-09-01

    Soil properties and soil–atmosphere fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from four coastal wetlands were studied throughout the year, namely, native Kandelia obovata mangrove forest vs. exotic Sonneratia apetala mangrove forest, and native Cyperus malaccensis salt marsh vs. exotic Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Soils of the four wetlands were all net sources of greenhouse gases while Sonneratia forest contributed the most with a total soil–atmosphere CO{sub 2}-equivalent flux of 137.27 mg CO{sub 2} m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, which is 69.23%, 99.75% and 44.56% higher than that of Kandelia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively. The high underground biomass and distinctive root structure of Sonneratia might be responsible for its high greenhouse gas emission from the soil. Soils in Spartina marsh emitted the second largest amount of total greenhouse gases but it ranked first in emitting trace greenhouse gases. Annual average CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes from Spartina soil were 13.77 and 1.14 μmol m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, respectively, which are 2.08 and 1.46 times that of Kandelia, 1.03 and 1.15 times of Sonneratia, and 1.74 and 1.02 times of Cyperus, respectively. Spartina has longer growing season and higher productivity than native marshes which might increase greenhouse gas emission in cold seasons. Exotic wetland soils had higher carbon stock as compared to their respective native counterparts but their carbon stocks were offset by a larger proportion because of their higher greenhouse gas emissions. Annual total soil–atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases reduced soil carbon burial benefits by 8.1%, 9.5%, 6.4% and 7.2% for Kandelia, Sonneratia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively, which narrowed down the gaps in net soil carbon stock between native and exotic wetlands. The results indicated that the invasion of exotic wetland plants might convert local coastal soils into a considerable atmospheric source of greenhouse gases although they at the

  18. Prospects for international trade in environmental services: An analysis of international carbon emission off-sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation presents a case study analysis in which the costs to a US electric utility of reducing its carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions are compared with the costs of carbon-saving forestry projects in Costa Rica and Guatemala. The results show that a large electric utility in the south-central US would find it relatively inexpensive, even profitable given a conducive regulatory treatment, to reduce its CO 2 emissions by a few percent over the next ten years, through direct investment in energy end-use efficiency improvements. In comparison, the costs of the forestry projects studied in Central America range from $1/TC to a worst-case value of about $55/TC, with most project costs between $5 and $13/TC, depending on the type of project, the climate, and the opportunity cost of land. The total amount of CO 2 storage potential is significant, about 100 million tons per country, but not enough to suggest that forestry can offset more than a few percent of global CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel use. These case studies suggest that international trade in the environmental service of reducing global CO 2 accumulation could have significant economic and ecological benefits. A transaction in which a utility pays for forestry projects in exchange for credit against an emission reduction policy is an example of an international carbon emission offset (ICEO). ICEO's could provide a currency for funding carbon-saving services as a way to comply with national policies to reduce CO 2 emissions, as long as compliance is allowed through investments in other countries. This type of North-South transfer is necessary to reconcile economic efficiency and international equity, because of the disparity between the national allocations of responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions and opportunities for emission reductions

  19. Enhanced Emission by Accumulated Charges at Organic/Metal Interfaces Generated during the Reverse Bias of Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro Nozoe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A high frequency rectangular alternating voltage was applied to organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs with the structure ITO/TPD/Alq3/Al and ITO/CoPc/Alq3/Al, where ITO is indium-tin-oxide, TPD is 4,4′-bis[N-phenyl-N-(m-tolylamino]biphenyl, CoPc is cobalt phthalocyanine, and Alq3 is Tris(8-quinolinolatoaluminum, and the effect on emission of the reverse bias was examined. The results reveal that the emission intensity under an alternating reverse-forward bias is greater than that under an alternating zero-forward bias. The difference in the emission intensity (∆I increased both for decreasing frequency and increasing voltage level of the reverse bias. In particular, the change in emission intensity was proportional to the voltage level of the reverse bias given the same frequency. To understand ΔI, this paper proposes a model in which an OLED works as a capacitor under reverse bias, where positive and negative charges accumulate on the metal/organic interfaces. In this model, the emission enhancement that occurs during the alternating reverse-forward bias is rationalized as a result of the charge accumulation at the organic/metal interfaces during the reverse bias, which possibly modulates the vacuum level shifts at the organic/metal interfaces to reduce both the hole injection barrier at the organic/ITO interface and the electron injection barrier at the organic/Al interface under forward bias.

  20. Emission and Accumulation of Monoterpene and the Key Terpene Synthase (TPS) Associated with Monoterpene Biosynthesis in Osmanthus fragrans Lour

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Xiangling; Liu, Cai; Zheng, Riru; Cai, Xuan; Luo, Jing; Zou, Jingjing; Wang, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans is an ornamental and economically important plant known for its magnificent aroma, and the most important aroma-active compounds in flowers are monoterpenes, mainly β-ocimene, linalool and linalool derivatives. To understand the molecular mechanism of monoterpene production, we analyzed the emission and accumulation patterns of these compounds and the transcript levels of the genes involved in their biosynthesis in two O. fragrans cultivars during flowering stages. The resu...

  1. Emission and Accumulation of Monoterpene and the Key Terpene Synthase (TPS) Associated with Monoterpene Biosynthesis in Osmanthus fragrans Lour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangling; Liu, Cai; Zheng, Riru; Cai, Xuan; Luo, Jing; Zou, Jingjing; Wang, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans is an ornamental and economically important plant known for its magnificent aroma, and the most important aroma-active compounds in flowers are monoterpenes, mainly β-ocimene, linalool and linalool derivatives. To understand the molecular mechanism of monoterpene production, we analyzed the emission and accumulation patterns of these compounds and the transcript levels of the genes involved in their biosynthesis in two O. fragrans cultivars during flowering stages. The results showed that both emission and accumulation of monoterpenes varied with flower development and glycosylation had an important impact on floral linalool emission during this process. Gene expression demonstrated that the transcript levels of terpene synthase (TPS) genes probably played a key role in monoterpene production, compared to the genes in the MEP pathway. Phylogenetic analysis showed that OfTPS1 and OfTPS2 belonged to a TPS-g subfamily, and OfTPS3 and OfTPS4 clustered into a TPS-b subfamily. Their transient and stable expression in tobacco leaves suggested that OfTPS1 and OfTPS2 exclusively produced β-linalool, and trans-β-ocimene was the sole product from OfTPS3, while OfTPS4, a predictive sesquiterpene synthase, produced α-farnesene. These results indicate that OfTPS1, OfTPS2, and OfTPS3 could account for the major floral monoterpenes, linalool and trans-β-ocimene, produced in O. fragrans flowers. PMID:26793212

  2. Emission and accumulation of monoterpene and the key terpene synthase (TPS associated with monoterpene biosynthesis in Osmanthus fragrans Lour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xaingling eZeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osmanthus fragrans is an ornamental and economically important plant known for its magnificent aroma, and the most important aroma-active compounds in flowers are monoterpenes, mainly β-ocimene, linalool and linalool derivatives. To understand the molecular mechanism of monoterpene production, we analyzed the emission and accumulation patterns of these compounds and the transcript levels of the genes involved in their biosynthesis in two O. fragrans cultivars during flowering stages. The results showed that both emission and accumulation of monoterpenes varied with flower development and glycosylation had an important impact on floral linalool emission during this process. Gene expression demonstrated that the transcript levels of terpene synthase (TPS genes probably played a key role in monoterpene production, compared to the genes in the MEP pathway. Phylogenetic analysis showed that OfTPS1 and OfTPS2 belonged to a TPS-g subfamily, and OfTPS3 and OfTPS4 clustered into a TPS-b subfamily. Their transient and stable expression in tobacco leaves suggested that OfTPS1 and OfTPS2 exclusively produced β-linalool, and trans-β-ocimene was the sole product from OfTPS3, while OfTPS4, a predictive sesquiterpene synthase, produced α-farnesene. These results indicate that OfTPS1, OfTPS2 and OfTPS3 could account for the major floral monoterpenes, linalool and trans-β-ocimene, produced in O. fragrans flowers.

  3. Accumulation of selected elements in the pharyngeal tonsils of children as a result of secondary dust emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gerycka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of secondary dust and car emission on the intoxication of adenoids. Material and methods. The amount of Pb, Be, Ba, Ca, Mg and Sr in pharyngeal tonsils of children living in Tychy (n 86, and in Chorzów (n 76 as well as the amount of the selected elements in suspended dust was determined by the ICP – AES method. The biological material had previously been subjected to mineralization using of nitric acid (V spectrally pure Merck. Results. Secondary emission as a potential additional source of trace elements in tonsils is described by secondary emission coefficient and by the additional weight of the metal present in general air pollution. Conclusions. The degree of accumulation of analyzed elements in the adenoid tissue mostly depends on the content of these elements in soluble form in suspended dust in the ground layer of air, as a result of secondary and car emissions.

  4. A Temporal Association between Accumulated Petrol (Gasoline Lead Emissions and Motor Neuron Disease in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. S. Laidlaw

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The age standardised death rate from motor neuron disease (MND has increased from 1.29 to 2.74 per 100,000, an increase of 112.4% between 1959 and 2013. It is clear that genetics could not have played a causal role in the increased rate of MND deaths over such a short time span. We postulate that environmental factors are responsible for this rate increase. We focus on lead additives in Australian petrol as a possible contributing environmental factor. Methods: The associations between historical petrol lead emissions and MND death trends in Australia between 1962 and 2013 were examined using linear regressions. Results: Regression results indicate best fit correlations between a 20 year lag of petrol lead emissions and age-standardised female death rate (R2 = 0.86, p = 4.88 × 10−23, male age standardised death rate (R2 = 0.86, p = 9.4 × 10−23 and percent all cause death attributed to MND (R2 = 0.98, p = 2.6 × 10−44. Conclusion: Legacy petrol lead emissions are associated with increased MND death trends in Australia. Further examination of the 20 year lag between exposure to petrol lead and the onset of MND is warranted.

  5. Cost, Emissions, and Customer Service Trade-Off Analysis In Pickup and Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This research offers a novel formulation for including emissions into fleet assignment and vehicle routing, and for the : trade-offs faced by fleet operators between cost, emissions, and service quality. This approach enables evaluation of : the impa...

  6. Studies on the hepatosplenic volume and the accumulation rate of 99mTc Sn colloid in patients with liver cirrhosis by using single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shizou; Mimura, Hisashi; Noda, Takuo; Hamazaki, Keisuke; Takakura, Norio; Tsuge, Hiroshi; Awai, Sachio; Hiraki, Yoshio; Orita, Kunzo

    1988-01-01

    The method using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for measurement of the hepatosplenic volume and the accumulation rate of 99m Tc Sn colloid was studied, and applied to patients with liver cirrhosis. The hepatosplenic volume calculated by this method was well correlated with that by computed tomography (r = 0.938). The accumulation rate obtained by this method was almost equal to that by whole body scintigraphy. In liver cirrhosis (Child B and C group) the liver volume was atrophic and the splenic volume hypertrophic. The liver accumulation rate was decreased corresponding with the degree of liver cirrhosis, but the accumulation rate per volume was decreased in Child B and C. The splenic accumulation rate was increased in Child B and C, but the accumulation rate per volume was not significant between control group and liver cirrhosis. The measurement of the hepatosplenic volume and accumulation rate by SPECT is useful to evaluate the hepatosplenic function. (author)

  7. Accumulation of heavy metals in an ecosystem influenced by zinc-plant emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Czuchajowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, Fe and Mg reaching the selected ecosystem in the dust emitted by a zinc-mill, was estimated in the leaves of Pinus silvestris, Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea, the main plant components of the system, and in the five upper soil layers. The values of metal concentration were different for the three considered species and showed-for each of them - dependence on the pollution degree of the stand. This regularity concerned Pb, Zn, Cd and Mn but not Fe and Mg. A significant positive correlation exists between the content of Pb, Zn and Cd in the soil and their concentration in leaves, the correlation for Mil is significant but negative. Manganese in leaves proved to be an antagonist in respect to the other metals.

  8. Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in two species of Tillandsia in relation to atmospheric emission sources in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannaz, Eduardo D.; Carreras, Hebe A.; Perez, Carlos A.; Pignata, Maria L.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz and Pav. f. capillaris and Tillandsia permutata A. Cast. to accumulate heavy metals was evaluated in relation to potential atmospheric emission sources in Argentina. The sampling areas (n = 38) were chosen in the province of Cordoba, located in the center of Argentina, and categorized according to land use, anthropogenic activities and/or distance to potential heavy metal emission sources. In each sampling site, pools of 40-50 individuals of each species were made from plants collected along the four cardinal directions. The concentrations of V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Br of these samples were measured by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis with Synchrotron Radiation. Each species was submitted to a cluster analysis in order to discriminate different groups of heavy metals as tracers of natural or anthropogenic sources. A Contamination Factor (CF) was calculated using the concentrations of the elements in each sample compared to their concentrations in the control samples. Finally, the rank coefficients of correlation between the CFs and the categorical variables characteristic of each site (land use and anthropogenic load) were analyzed. A positive correlation was found for T. capillaris between the CFs of V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn and the urban-industrial category, whereas the CF values for Zn and Pb were positively correlated with the road category. In T. permutata there was a positive correlation between the CF of Zn and the urban-industrial category and the CF of Pb with the road category. We therefore conclude that T. capillaris is a more efficient metal accumulator in passive biomonitoring studies

  9. Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in two species of Tillandsia in relation to atmospheric emission sources in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wannaz, Eduardo D. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal - IMBIV/CONICET-UNC, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria (X5016GCA) Cordoba (Argentina); Carreras, Hebe A. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal - IMBIV/CONICET-UNC, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria (X5016GCA) Cordoba (Argentina); Perez, Carlos A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron - LNLS/CNPq, Caixa Postal 6192, 13038-970 Campinas (Brazil); Pignata, Maria L. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal - IMBIV/CONICET-UNC, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria (X5016GCA) Cordoba (Argentina)]. E-mail: pignata@com.uncor.edu

    2006-05-15

    The ability of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz and Pav. f. capillaris and Tillandsia permutata A. Cast. to accumulate heavy metals was evaluated in relation to potential atmospheric emission sources in Argentina. The sampling areas (n = 38) were chosen in the province of Cordoba, located in the center of Argentina, and categorized according to land use, anthropogenic activities and/or distance to potential heavy metal emission sources. In each sampling site, pools of 40-50 individuals of each species were made from plants collected along the four cardinal directions. The concentrations of V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Br of these samples were measured by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis with Synchrotron Radiation. Each species was submitted to a cluster analysis in order to discriminate different groups of heavy metals as tracers of natural or anthropogenic sources. A Contamination Factor (CF) was calculated using the concentrations of the elements in each sample compared to their concentrations in the control samples. Finally, the rank coefficients of correlation between the CFs and the categorical variables characteristic of each site (land use and anthropogenic load) were analyzed. A positive correlation was found for T. capillaris between the CFs of V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn and the urban-industrial category, whereas the CF values for Zn and Pb were positively correlated with the road category. In T. permutata there was a positive correlation between the CF of Zn and the urban-industrial category and the CF of Pb with the road category. We therefore conclude that T. capillaris is a more efficient metal accumulator in passive biomonitoring studies.

  10. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This student guide is for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting, testing, and servicing an emission control system. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 221-222. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

  11. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Posttests. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, David T.; May, Theodore R.

    This book of posttests is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, available separately as CE 031 220. Focus of the posttests is inspecting, testing, and servicing emission control systems. One multiple choice posttest is provided that covers the seven performance objectives contained in…

  12. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Review Exercise Book. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This book of pretests and review exercises is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, available separately as CE 031 220. Focus of the exercises and pretests is inspecting, testing, and servicing emission control systems. Pretests and performance checklists are provided for each of the…

  13. Genetic parameters of methane emissions determined using portable accumulation chambers in lambs and ewes grazing pasture and genetic correlations with emissions determined in respiration chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, A; Hickey, S M; Rowe, S J; Janssen, P H; Shackell, G; Elmes, S; Bain, W E; Wing, J; Greer, G J; Bryson, B; MacLean, S; Dodds, K G; Pinares-Patiño, C S; Young, E A; Knowler, K; Pickering, N K; McEwan, J C

    2018-05-07

    Methane (CH4) emission traits were previously found to be heritable and repeatable in sheep fed alfalfa pellets in respiration chambers (RC). More rapid screening methods are, however, required to increase genetic progress and to provide a cost effective method to the farming industry for maintaining the generation of breeding values in the future. The objective of the current study was to determine CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using several one-hour portable accumulation chamber (PAC) measurements from lambs and again as ewes, while grazing ryegrass based pasture. Many animals with PAC measurements were also measured in RC while fed alfalfa pellets at 2.0 × maintenance metabolizable energy requirements (MEm). Heritability estimates from mixed models for CH4 and CO2 production (g/d) were 0.19 and 0.16, respectively, when measured using PAC with lambs; 0.20 and 0.27, respectively, when measured using PAC with ewes; and 0.23 and 0.34, respectively, when measured using RC with lambs. For measured gas traits, repeatabilities of measurements collected 14 days apart ranged from 0.33 to 0.55 for PAC (combined lambs and ewes) and were greater at 0.65 to 0.76 for the same traits measured using RC. Genetic correlations (rg) between PAC in lambs and ewes were 0.99 for CH4, 0.93 for CH4+CO2 and 0.85 for CH4/(CH4+CO2), suggesting CH4 emissions in lambs and ewes are the same trait. Genetic correlations between PAC and RC measurements were lower, at 0.62 to 0.67 for CH4 and 0.41 to 0.42 for CH4+CO2, likely reflecting different environmental conditions associated with the protocols used with the two measurement methods. The CH4/(CH4+CO2) ratio was the most similar genetic trait measured using PAC (both lambs and ewes, 63 and 66% selection efficiency, respectively) compared with CH4 yield (g/kg DMI) measured using RC. These results suggest that PAC measurements have considerable value as a rapid low cost method to estimate breeding values for CH4 emissions in sheep.

  14. Pre-service Acoustic Emission Testing for Metal Pressure Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong O; Yoon, Woon Ha; Lee, Tae Hee; Lee, Jong Kyu

    2003-01-01

    The field application of acoustic emission(AE) testing for brand-new metal pressure vessel were performed. We will introduce the test procedure for acoustic emission test such as instrument check distance between sensors, sensor location, whole system calibration, pressurization sequence, noise reduction and evaluation. The data of acoustic emission test contain many noise signal, these noise can be reduced by time filtering which based on the description of observation during AE test

  15. Automatic semi-continuous accumulation chamber for diffuse gas emissions monitoring in volcanic and non-volcanic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, Matteo; Raco, Brunella; Norelli, Francesco; Virgili, Giorgio; Continanza, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Since various decades the accumulation chamber method is intensively used in monitoring activities of diffuse gas emissions in volcanic areas. Although some improvements have been performed in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility of the detectors, the equipment used for measurement of gas emissions temporal variation usually requires expensive and bulky equipment. The unit described in this work is a low cost, easy to install-and-manage instrument that will make possible the creation of low-cost monitoring networks. The Non-Dispersive Infrared detector used has a concentration range of 0-5% CO2, but the substitution with other detector (range 0-5000 ppm) is possible and very easy. Power supply unit has a 12V, 7Ah battery, which is recharged by a 35W solar panel (equipped with charge regulator). The control unit contains a custom programmed CPU and the remote transmission is assured by a GPRS modem. The chamber is activated by DataLogger unit, using a linear actuator between the closed position (sampling) and closed position (idle). A probe for the measure of soil temperature, soil electrical conductivity, soil volumetric water content, air pressure and air temperature is assembled on the device, which is already arranged for the connection of others external sensors, including an automatic weather station. The automatic station has been tested on the field at Lipari island (Sicily, Italy) during a period of three months, performing CO2 flux measurement (and also weather parameters), each 1 hour. The possibility to measure in semi-continuous mode, and at the same time, the gas fluxes from soil and many external parameters, helps the time series analysis aimed to the identification of gas flux anomalies due to variations in deep system (e.g. onset of volcanic crises) from those triggered by external conditions.

  16. Modelling and mapping trace element accumulation in Sphagnum peatlands at the European scale using a geomatic model of pollutant emissions dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-de-Quijano, Maria; Joly, Daniel; Gilbert, Daniel; Toussaint, Marie-Laure; Franchi, Marielle; Fallot, Jean-Michel; Bernard, Nadine

    2016-07-01

    Trace elements (TEs) transported by atmospheric fluxes can negatively impact isolated ecosystems. Modelling based on moss-borne TE accumulation makes tracking TE deposition in remote areas without monitoring stations possible. Using a single moss species from ombrotrophic hummock peatlands reinforces estimate quality. This study used a validated geomatic model of particulate matter dispersion to identify the origin of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu accumulated in Sphagnum capillifolium and the distance transported from their emission sources. The residential and industrial sectors of particulate matter emissions showed the highest correlations with the TEs accumulated in S. capillifolium (0.28(Zn)-0.56(Cu)) and (0.27(Zn)-0.47(Cu), respectively). Distances of dispersion varied depending on the sector of emissions and the considered TE. The greatest transportation distances for mean emissions values were found in the industrial (10.6 km when correlating with all TEs) and roads sectors (13 km when correlating with Pb). The residential sector showed the shortest distances (3.6 km when correlating with Cu, Cd, and Zn). The model presented here is a new tool for evaluating the efficacy of air pollution abatement policies in non-monitored areas and provides high-resolution (200 × 200 m) maps of TE accumulation that make it possible to survey the potential impacts of TEs on isolated ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 18 CFR 367.1110 - Account 111, Accumulated provision for amortization of service company property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING... (§ 367.4040), for the current amortization of limited-term service company property investments. (2...

  18. 17 CFR 256.108 - Accumulated provision for depreciation and amortization of service company property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., unless the company maintains costs and related reserves for specific units or types of property. (c... depreciation and amortization of service company property. 256.108 Section 256.108 Commodity and Securities... COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Balance Sheet...

  19. C and N accumulations in soil aggregates determine nitrous oxide emissions from cover crop treated rice paddy soils during fallow season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanik, Prabhat, E-mail: prabhat2003@gmail.com; Haque, Md. Mozammel; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo, E-mail: pjkim@gnu.ac.kr

    2014-08-15

    considered especially for fallow season to calculate total GWP. - Highlights: • Cover crop application increased CH{sub 4} emission from rice paddy soil. • N{sub 2}O emission was decreased instead of applying N-rich cover crops. • N was accumulated mainly in smaller soil aggregates during rice cultivation. • N accumulation increased N{sub 2}O emission potentials of soil aggregates. • Higher amount of N{sub 2}O was emitted in the fallow season from cover crop treated soil.

  20. C and N accumulations in soil aggregates determine nitrous oxide emissions from cover crop treated rice paddy soils during fallow season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramanik, Prabhat; Haque, Md. Mozammel; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Cover crop application increased CH 4 emission from rice paddy soil. • N 2 O emission was decreased instead of applying N-rich cover crops. • N was accumulated mainly in smaller soil aggregates during rice cultivation. • N accumulation increased N 2 O emission potentials of soil aggregates. • Higher amount of N 2 O was emitted in the fallow season from cover crop treated soil

  1. Accumulation chamber as monitoring system for biogas emission from solid waste land filling: preliminary experimental results and elaborations on italian provincial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capaccioni, B.; Pirillo, L.; Didero, M.; Lucci, P.; Scartoni, P.; Tatano, F.

    2005-01-01

    On site CO 2 flux measurements with the static, not stationary accumulation chamber system were experimentally carried out in no. 5 MSW (active and closed) landfills located in the territory of the Province of Arezzo (Tuscany Region). Corresponding CO 2 emission flux maps were contoured and analysed, revealing a possible, preliminary geometrical classification of biogas dispersion: diffuse dispersion (internal), lateral/angular dispersion (internal), and external dispersion. Also specific (volume and surface) biogas emission parameters were calculated and graphically compared for the monitored inactive facilities [it

  2. Inventory and mitigation opportunities for HFC-134a emissions from nonprofessional automotive service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Tao; Potts, Winston; Collins, John F.; Austin, Jeff

    2014-12-01

    Many vehicle owners in the United States recharge their vehicles' air conditioning systems with small containers of hydrofluorocarbon-134a (HFC-134a, CH2FCF3), at a frequency estimated to be once every year on average. Such nonprofessional service produces immediate emissions of this potent greenhouse gas during service and from the residual heel in partially used containers. The nonprofessional operations are also associated with increased delayed refrigerant emissions that occur because owners are less likely to repair leaks than professional technicians. In California, an estimated 1.3 million nonprofessional service operations performed each year generate 0.27 ± 0.07 million metric ton CO2 equivalent (MMTCO2e) of immediate emissions and 0.54 ± 0.08 MMTCO2e of delayed emissions, using a Global Warming Potential of 1300 for HFC-134a. The immediate emissions can be largely mitigated by a regulation that requires self-sealing valves and improved labeling instructions on the containers, a deposit-return-recycling program for the containers, and a consumer education program. If 95% of the used containers were to be returned by consumers for recycling of the container heel, the annual immediate emissions would be reduced by 0.26 ± 0.07 MMTCO2e. In the United States, an estimated 24 million nonprofessional service operations are performed each year, generating 5.1 ± 1.4 MMTCO2e of immediate emissions and 10.4 ± 1.5 MMTCO2e of delayed emissions. Mitigation measures equivalent to the California regulation would reduce nationwide immediate emissions by 4.9 ± 1.4 MMTCO2e, if 95% of the used cans were returned for recycling. These business-as-usual emissions and mitigation potentials are projected to stay approximately constant until around 2022, and remain at significant levels into the 2030s.

  3. Trace moisture emissions from heated metal surfaces in hydrogen service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, Hans H.; Yao Jianlong; Raynor, Mark W.

    2004-01-01

    The formation of trace moisture by exposure of dry heated surfaces of 316 L stainless-steel, Restek Silcosteel registered , and nickel 1/8 in. outer diameter line segments to purified Ar and H 2 was studied using atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry at flow rates of 2 slpm. Prior to H 2 exposure, adsorbed moisture was removed by heating incrementally to 500 deg. C in an argon matrix, where the Restek Silcosteel registered material released a maximum of 50 ppb moisture at 300 deg. C and moisture spikes from the Ni and stainless-steel surfaces reached several 100 ppb. Upon exposure to H 2 , persistent low ppb moisture emissions due to the reduction of surface oxide species were observed at temperatures as low as 100 deg. C. Spikes at 300-500 deg. C ranged from ∼100 ppb for the stainless-steel lines to 400 ppb for the Restek Silcosteel registered material. The observed moisture emissions have to be considered as a potential contamination source for high-purity processes utilizing H 2 purge at elevated temperatures

  4. Analyzing the Effects of Car Sharing Services on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Jung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the environmental impacts of roundtrip car sharing services by investigating transportation behavior. Car sharing should contribute to reduced greenhouse gas GHG emissions; however, such schemes include both positive and negative environmental effects, including: (1 reduced CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent from substituting private vehicle use for more fuel-efficient car sharing vehicles, (2 increased CO2e as car-less individuals switch from public transit to car sharing vehicles and (3 reduced CO2e due to fewer vehicles. This study examines the impacts of this modal shift on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions using three types of models: a mixed logit model to analyze car sharing service preferences; a binary logit model to analyze whether individuals are willing to forgo vehicle ownership or planned purchases to use car sharing services; and a linear regression to determine how much private vehicle or public transportation use would be replaced by car sharing and the resulting effects on mobility. Total emissions from the current car sharing market equal 1,025,589.36 t CO2e/year. However, an increase in electric vehicle (EV charging stations to 50% of the number of gasoline-fuel stations would increase the probability of electric car sharing vehicle use, thereby reducing emissions by 655,773 t CO2e. This study shows that forgoing vehicle purchases does not offset the increased GHG emissions caused by the shift from public transportation or private vehicle use to car sharing.

  5. Potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through the use of mobility services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grischkat, Sylvie; Hunecke, Marcel; Böhler, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    gas emissions per person and year was found to be 78 kg in an optimistic scenario and 25 kg in a pessimistic scenario. Extrapolated to the German metropolitan population, behaviour-related measures alone could result in a 1.8 million ton (optimistic scenario) or 0.6 million ton (pessimistic scenario......This study evaluates potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the passenger transport sector achievable through the use of mobility services. Beside car-sharing and -pooling, six services targeted at improving and encouraging the use of urban public transportation were considered......) reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, respectively. In order to exploit this potential fully, however, target group specific information should be obtained and communication strategies developed, as addressed in this paper. This study further presents the limitation of reduction potential quantification...

  6. A Consideration on Service Business Model for Saving Energy and Reduction of CO2 Emissions Using Inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Michitaka; Yabutani, Takashi

    This paper considers the effectiveness of service business approach for reducing CO2 emission. “HDRIVE” is a service business using inverters to reduce energy consumption of motor drive. The business model of this service is changed for finding new opportunities of CO2 emission reduction by combining various factors such as financial service or long-term service contract. Risk analysis of this business model is very important for giving stable services to users for long term. HDRIVE business model is found to be suitable for this objective. This service can be applied to the industries such as chemical or steel industry effectively, where CO2 emission is very large, and has the possibility of creating new business considering CDM or trading CO2 emission right. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated through several examples in real business.

  7. Environmental monitoring to the sources of atmospheric emission by the Trad-MCN bioassay and analysis of the accumulative potential for uranium and fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Alessandra C.F.E., E-mail: alessandra@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). Div. de Monitoracao Ambiental; Ramos, Monique M.B., E-mail: monique@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). Div. de Analise de Seguranca; Alves, Edenise S., E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.b [Instituto de Botanica de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Anatomia

    2009-07-01

    The biomonitoring of the atmospheric contamination constitutes important procedure for adoption of environmental control measures. Biological assays have been employed to evaluate genotoxic agents in the atmosphere. The Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay has been extensively used in environmental monitoring owing to its efficiency in the detection of chromosomic damages in cytological preparations of easy execution. In this study we tested the viability of use of Trad-MCN with Tradescantia pallida cv. Purpurea for environmental monitoring in the Experimental Center Aramar (CEA), in Ipero - SP and its leaf accumulation capacity. The plants were exposed in situ, in flower-beds or flowerpots, established close to the sources of atmospheric emission. The bioassay was accomplished according to the usual protocol. The micronucleus frequencies were compared using the variance Kruskal-Wallis test. The obtained results indicated that the biomonitoring model adopted was not the ideal for the CEA, considering that the plant suffered the influence of climatic condition. However the plant showed to have accumulative potential for uranium. (author)

  8. Environmental monitoring to the sources of atmospheric emission by the Trad-MCN bioassay and analysis of the accumulative potential for uranium and fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Alessandra C.F.E.; Ramos, Monique M.B.; Alves, Edenise S.

    2009-01-01

    The biomonitoring of the atmospheric contamination constitutes important procedure for adoption of environmental control measures. Biological assays have been employed to evaluate genotoxic agents in the atmosphere. The Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay has been extensively used in environmental monitoring owing to its efficiency in the detection of chromosomic damages in cytological preparations of easy execution. In this study we tested the viability of use of Trad-MCN with Tradescantia pallida cv. Purpurea for environmental monitoring in the Experimental Center Aramar (CEA), in Ipero - SP and its leaf accumulation capacity. The plants were exposed in situ, in flower-beds or flowerpots, established close to the sources of atmospheric emission. The bioassay was accomplished according to the usual protocol. The micronucleus frequencies were compared using the variance Kruskal-Wallis test. The obtained results indicated that the biomonitoring model adopted was not the ideal for the CEA, considering that the plant suffered the influence of climatic condition. However the plant showed to have accumulative potential for uranium. (author)

  9. Airborne observations of large scale accumulations of air traffic emissions in the North Atlantic flight corridor within a stagnant anticyclone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, H; Schulte, P; Ziereis, H; Schumann, U [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Arnold, F [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Ovarlez, J [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Meteorologie; Velthoven, P van [Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Inst., De Bilt (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    Vertical and horizontal trace gas distributions were measured west of Ireland during a 7-day period in June 1995 within an extended stagnant anticyclone located in the North Atlantic flight corridor. Four subsequent flights (21, 24, 26, 28 June) with the DLR Falcon research aircraft were performed including observations of NO, O{sub 3}, HNO{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, and meteorological parameters. NO volume mixing ratios in the upper troposphere from vertical profile measurements averaged over the corridor height range increased by 74 pptv (60%) during the observation period. Averaged NO concentrations measured along constant level flight legs at 10.7 km from 50 to 54 deg N increased by 87 pptv. Corresponding simulations with a 3-d chemistry transport model of KNMI reveal similar increases of NO{sub x} for the measuring area over the 7-day period for a model run with air traffic emissions which is not obtained for a run with no air traffic NO{sub x}. (author) 15 refs.

  10. Airborne observations of large scale accumulations of air traffic emissions in the North Atlantic flight corridor within a stagnant anticyclone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, H.; Schulte, P.; Ziereis, H.; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Arnold, F. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Ovarlez, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Meteorologie; Velthoven, P. van [Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Inst., De Bilt (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Vertical and horizontal trace gas distributions were measured west of Ireland during a 7-day period in June 1995 within an extended stagnant anticyclone located in the North Atlantic flight corridor. Four subsequent flights (21, 24, 26, 28 June) with the DLR Falcon research aircraft were performed including observations of NO, O{sub 3}, HNO{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, and meteorological parameters. NO volume mixing ratios in the upper troposphere from vertical profile measurements averaged over the corridor height range increased by 74 pptv (60%) during the observation period. Averaged NO concentrations measured along constant level flight legs at 10.7 km from 50 to 54 deg N increased by 87 pptv. Corresponding simulations with a 3-d chemistry transport model of KNMI reveal similar increases of NO{sub x} for the measuring area over the 7-day period for a model run with air traffic emissions which is not obtained for a run with no air traffic NO{sub x}. (author) 15 refs.

  11. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, María Julieta; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Leonardo Nieto, Gastón; Pignata, María Luisa

    2012-09-30

    Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, María Julieta; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Nieto, Gastón Leonardo; Pignata, María Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Soybean grown near metal sources presents a toxicological hazard from heavy metals for Chinese consumers. ► Rhizosphere soil is the most suitable compartment for toxicological studies. ► Soil guidelines should be modified considering the exchangeable metals. - Abstract: Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions.

  13. Sedimentary mercury (Hg) in the marginal seas adjacent to Chinese high-Hg emissions: Source-to-sink, mass inventory, and accumulation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihun; Lim, Dhongil; Jung, Dohyun; Kang, Jeongwon; Jung, Hoisoo; Woo, Hanjun; Jeong, Kapsik; Xu, Zhaokai

    2018-03-01

    We comprehensively investigated sedimentary Hg in Yellow and East China Seas (YECSs), which constitute potentially important depocenters for large anthropogenic Hg emissions from mainland China. A large dataset of Al-TOC-Hg concentrations led to an in-depth understanding of sedimentary Hg in the entire YECSs, including distribution and its determinants, source-to-sink, background levels, inventory in flux and budget, and accumulation history. Especially, the net atmospheric Hg flux to the sediments was estimated to be 1.3 × 10 -5  g/m 2 /yr, which corresponded reasonably well to that calculated using a box model. About 21.2 tons of atmospheric Hg (approximately 4% of the total anthropogenic atmospheric Hg emissions from China) were buried annually in the YECS basin. This result implies that most of atmospheric Hg from China is transferred to the surface of the Pacific (including the East/Japan Sea and South China Sea) by the westerlies and, consequently, can play a critical role in open-sea aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CO2 emissions in the global supply chains of services: An analysis based on a multi-regional input–output model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wencheng; Peng, Shuijun; Sun, Chuanwang

    2015-01-01

    As the service sector dominates the economy in developed countries, its environmental impact has become an important issue. Based on a multi-regional input–output model, this paper estimates consumption-based emissions of service sectors of 41 countries and regions, and discusses the emission abatement policy of service sectors. The results indicate that consumption-based emissions of the service sector in most countries and regions are much greater than direct emissions generated by the service sector. Further decomposition by production sources demonstrates that final demand for services in certain countries causes substantial emissions in the other countries. In most countries, major parts of consumption-based emissions of the service sector come from upstream emissions in non-service sectors due to the intermediate consumption of non-service inputs in the service sector. For the US and China, the consumption-based emissions of their service sectors are traced back to different service consumption bundles and production sectors, which enable us to identify service categories and production sectors that play key roles in the impact of service sectors on CO 2 emissions. Finally, policy implications of the results are discussed for the climate effect of the service-oriented economy, global mitigation of climate change, sustainability, and the decarbonization of the service sector. - Highlights: • A consumption perspective for the assessment of the environmental impact of the service sector. • International supply chain effect is analyzed using a global input–output model. • Consumption-based emissions of the service sector are decomposed in two ways. • Policy implications for emissions mitigation in the service-oriented economy.

  15. Emissions impacts and benefits of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and vehicle-to-grid services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Denholm, Paul

    2009-02-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been promoted as a potential technology to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants by using electricity instead of petroleum, and byimproving electric system efficiency by providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services. We use an electric power system model to explicitly evaluate the change in generator dispatches resulting from PHEV deployment in the Texas grid, and apply fixed and non-parametric estimates of generator emissions rates, to estimate the resulting changes in generation emissions. We find that by using the flexibility of when vehicles may be charged, generator efficiency can be increased substantially. By changing generator dispatch, a PHEVfleet of up to 15% of light-duty vehicles can actually decrease net generator NOx emissions during the ozone season, despite the additional charging load. By adding V2G services, such as spinning reserves and energy storage, CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions can be reduced even further.

  16. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Maria Julieta [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen, E-mail: jrodriguez@com.uncor.edu [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Nieto, Gaston Leonardo; Pignata, Maria Luisa [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soybean grown near metal sources presents a toxicological hazard from heavy metals for Chinese consumers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rhizosphere soil is the most suitable compartment for toxicological studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil guidelines should be modified considering the exchangeable metals. - Abstract: Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions.

  17. Evaluation of damage accumulation behavior and strength anisotropy of NITE SiC/SiC composites by acoustic emission, digital image correlation and electrical resistivity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Takashi; Ozawa, Kazumi; Asakura, Yuuki; Kohyama, Akira; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cracking process of the composites is essential to establish the design basis for practical applications. This study aims to investigate the damage accumulation process and its anisotropy for nano-infiltration transient eutectic sintered (NITE) SiC/SiC composites by various characterization techniques such as the acoustic emission (AE), digital image correlation (DIC) and electrical resistivity (ER) measurements. Cracking behavior below the proportional limit stress (PLS) was specifically addressed. Similar to the other generic SiC/SiC composites, the 1st AE event was identified below the PLS for NITE SiC/SiC composites with a dependency of fabric orientation. The DIC results support that the primary failure mode depending on fiber orientation affected more than the other minor modes did. Detailed AE waveform analysis by wavelet shows a potential to classify the failure behavior depending on architecture. Cracking below the PLS is a potential concern in component deign but the preliminary ER measurements imply that the impact of cracking below the PLS on composite function was limited

  18. Methodologies for assessing the use-phase power consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of telecommunications network services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chien A; Gygax, André F; Wong, Elaine; Leckie, Christopher A; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Kilper, Daniel C

    2013-01-02

    Internet traffic has grown rapidly in recent years and is expected to continue to expand significantly over the next decade. Consequently, the resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of telecommunications service-supporting infrastructures have become an important issue. In this study, we develop a set of models for assessing the use-phase power consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of telecom network services to help telecom providers gain a better understanding of the GHG emissions associated with the energy required for their networks and services. Due to the fact that measuring the power consumption and traffic in a telecom network is a challenging task, these models utilize different granularities of available network information. As the granularity of the network measurement information decreases, the corresponding models have the potential to produce larger estimation errors. Therefore, we examine the accuracy of these models under various network scenarios using two approaches: (i) a sensitivity analysis through simulations and (ii) a case study of a deployed network. Both approaches show that the accuracy of the models depends on the network size, the total amount of network service traffic (i.e., for the service under assessment), and the number of network nodes used to process the service.

  19. Energy intensity and greenhouse gas emission of a purchase in the retail park service sector: An integrative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farreny, Ramon; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the energetic metabolism of a retail park service system under an integrative approach. Energy flow accounting was applied to a case study retail park in Spain, representative of the sector across Europe, after redefining the functional unit to account for both direct energy use (buildings, gardens and outdoor lighting) and indirect energy use (employee and customer transportation). A life cycle assessment (LCA) was then undertaken to determine energy global warming potential (GWP) and some energy intensity and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission indicators were defined and applied. The results emphasise the importance of service systems in global warming policies, as a potential emission of 9.26 kg CO 2 /purchase was obtained for the case study, relating to a consumption of 1.64 KOE of energy, of which 21.9% was spent on buildings and 57.9% on customer transportation. Some strategies to reduce these emissions were considered: increased supply, energy efficiency, changes in distribution of modes of transport, changes in location and changes in the mix of land uses. A combination of all of these elements in a new retail park could reduce GHG emissions by more than 50%, as it is planning strategies, which seem to be the most effective. (author)

  20. Calculation of Selected Emissions from Transport Services in Road Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konečný Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with road public transport and its impact on the environment. According to the methodology given in EN 16258, CO2 emission value has been calculated. The input data for the calculation and the results are shown in the tables. The declaration is created according to STN CEN / TR 14310, which contains recommendations for compiling environmental reports. Finally, the comparison of the environmental impact of a bus and a passenger car, when converted to one passenger, bus has a lower CO2 emission than a passenger car in that section.

  1. Tomography by positrons emission: integral unit to the service of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez D, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    The applications of the Positron emission tomography (PET) together with the one radiopharmaceutical 2 - [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in the area of the medical imaging is expanding quickly and it possesses a bigger impact at the moment in favor of those patient to who suffers an oncological, cardiac or neurological illness in Mexico. (Author)

  2. The Effects of Ride Hailing Services on Travel and Associated Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Towards the close of the first decade of the 21st Century, ride-hailing services began to enter the transportation market through smart phone applications that allowed consumers to hail and pay for a ride from drivers using their own vehicle. The inf...

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic products, indoor dust, sediment and fish from informal e-waste recycling sites in Vietnam: a comprehensive assessment of contamination, accumulation pattern, emissions, and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Hoang Quoc; Nam, Vu Duc; Tri, Tran Manh; Ha, Nguyen Manh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thuy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Anh, Duong Hong; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Minh, Tu Binh

    2017-08-01

    Residue concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in different kinds of samples including consumer products, indoor dust, sediment and fish collected from two e-waste recycling sites, and some industrial, urban and suburban areas in Vietnam were determined to provide a comprehensive assessment of the contamination levels, accumulation pattern, emission potential and human exposure through dust ingestion and fish consumption. There was a large variation of PBDE levels in plastic parts of obsolete electronic equipment (from 1730 to 97,300 ng/g), which is a common result observed in consumer plastic products reported elsewhere. PBDE levels in indoor dust samples collected from e-waste recycling sites ranged from 250 to 8740 ng/g, which were markedly higher than those in industrial areas and household offices. Emission rate of PBDEs from plastic parts of disposed electronic equipment to dust was estimated to be in a range from 3.4 × 10 -7 to 1.2 × 10 -5 (year -1 ) for total PBDEs and from 2.9 × 10 -7 to 7.2 × 10 -6 (year -1 ) for BDE-209. Some fish species collected from ponds in e-waste recycling villages contained elevated levels of PBDEs, especially BDE-209, which were markedly higher than those in fish previously reported. Overall, levels and patterns of PBDE accumulation in different kinds of samples suggest significant emission from e-waste sites and that these areas are potential sources of PBDE contamination. Intakes of PBDEs via fish consumption were generally higher than those estimated through dust ingestion. Intake of BDE-99 and BDE-209 through dust ingestion contributes a large proportion due to higher concentrations in dust and fish. Body weight normalized daily intake through dust ingestion estimated for the e-waste recycling sites (0.10-3.46 ng/day/kg body wt.) were in a high range as compared to those reported in other countries. Our results highlight the potential releases of PBDEs from informal recycling activities and

  4. Evaluation of Acoustic Emission NDE of Composite Crew Module Service Module/Alternate Launch Abort System (CCM SM/ALAS) Test Article Failure Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2010-01-01

    Failure tests of CCM SM/ALAS (Composite Crew Module Service Module / Alternate Launch Abort System) composite panels were conducted during July 10, 2008 and July 24, 2008 at Langley Research Center. This is a report of the analysis of the Acoustic Emission (AE) data collected during those tests.

  5. The Medical Case for a Positron Emission Tomography and X-ray Computed Tomography Combined Service in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bulushi, Naima K; Bailey, Dale; Mariani, Giuliano

    2013-11-01

    The value of a positron emission tomography and X-ray computed tomography (PET/CT) combined service in terms of diagnostic accuracy, cost-effectiveness and impact on clinical decision-making is well-documented in the literature. Its role in the management of patients presenting with cancer is shifting from early staging and restaging to the early assessment of the treatment response. Currently, the application of PET/CT has extended to non-oncological specialties-mainly neurology, cardiology and rheumatology. A further emerging application for PET/CT is the imaging of infection/inflammation. This article illustrates some of the PET/CT applications in both oncological and non-oncological disorders. In view of the absence of this modality in Oman, this article aims to increase the awareness of the importance of these imaging modalities and their significant impact on diagnosis and management in both oncological and non-oncological specialties for patients of all age groups as well as the decision-makers.

  6. Evaluating CO2 emissions, cost, and service quality trade-offs in an urban delivery system case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Wygonik

    2011-07-01

    The results demonstrate there is not a trade-off between CO2 emissions and cost, but that these two metrics trend together. This suggests the most effective way to encourage fleet operators to limit emissions is to increase the cost of fuel or CO2 production, as this is consistent with current incentives that exist to reduce cost, and therefore emissions.

  7. Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the services section is (1) to offer complete services in health-physics measurements according to international quality standards, (2) to improve continuously these measurement techniques and to follow up international recommendations and legislation concerning the surveillance of workers, (3) to support and advise nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination. Achievements related to gamma spectrometry, whole-body counting, beta and alpha spectrometry, dosimetry, radon measurements, calibration, instrumentation, and neutron activation analysis are described

  8. Heat and cold accumulators in vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauranen, P.; Wikstroem, L. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Advanced Materials, Tampere (Finland)); Heikkinen, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Building Services and Indoor Environment, Espoo (Finland)); Laurikko, J.; Elonen, T. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Emission Control, Espoo (Finland)); Seppaelae, A. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Applied Thermodynamics, Espoo (Finland)). Email: ari.seppala@tkk.fi

    2009-07-01

    Phase Change Material (PCM) based heat and cold accumulators have been tailored for transport applications including a mail delivery van as well as the cold chains of foodstuff and blood products. The PCMs can store relative large amount of thermal energy in a narrow temperature interval as latent heat of fusion of their melting and crystallization processes. Compact heat and cold accumulators can be designed using PCMs. The aim of the project has been to reduce the exhaust gas and noise emissions and improve the fuel economy of the transport systems and to improve the reliability of the cold chains studied by storing thermal energy in PCM accumulators. (orig.)

  9. Advanced accumulator for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, Taiki; Chikahata, Hideyuki

    1997-01-01

    Advanced accumulators have been incorporated into the APWR design in order to simplify the safety system configuration and to improve reliability. The advanced accumulators refill the reactor vessel with a large discharge flow rate in a large LOCA, then switch to a small flow rate to continue safety injection for core reflooding. The functions of the conventional accumulator and the low head safety injection pump are integrated into this advanced accumulator. Injection performance tests simulating LOCA conditions and visualization tests for new designs have been carried out. This paper describes the APWR ECCS configuration, the advanced accumulator design and some of the injection performance and visualization test results. It was verified that the flow resistance of the advanced accumulator is independent of the model scale. The similarity law and performance data of the advanced accumulator for applying APWR was established. (author)

  10. Take-off engine particle emission indices for in-service aircraft at Los Angeles International Airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard H; Shook, Michael A; Ziemba, Luke D; DiGangi, Joshua P; Winstead, Edward L; Rauch, Bastian; Jurkat, Tina; Thornhill, Kenneth L; Crosbie, Ewan C; Robinson, Claire; Shingler, Taylor J; Anderson, Bruce E

    2017-12-19

    We present ground-based, advected aircraft engine emissions from flights taking off at Los Angeles International Airport. 275 discrete engine take-off plumes were observed on 18 and 25 May 2014 at a distance of 400 m downwind of the runway. CO 2 measurements are used to convert the aerosol data into plume-average emissions indices that are suitable for modelling aircraft emissions. Total and non-volatile particle number EIs are of order 10 16 -10 17 kg -1 and 10 14 -10 16 kg -1 , respectively. Black-carbon-equivalent particle mass EIs vary between 175-941 mg kg -1 (except for the GE GEnx engines at 46 mg kg -1 ). Aircraft tail numbers recorded for each take-off event are used to incorporate aircraft- and engine-specific parameters into the data set. Data acquisition and processing follow standard methods for quality assurance. A unique aspect of the data set is the mapping of aerosol concentration time series to integrated plume EIs, aircraft and engine specifications, and manufacturer-reported engine emissions certifications. The integrated data enable future studies seeking to understand and model aircraft emissions and their impact on air quality.

  11. Take-off engine particle emission indices for in-service aircraft at Los Angeles International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard H.; Shook, Michael A.; Ziemba, Luke D.; Digangi, Joshua P.; Winstead, Edward L.; Rauch, Bastian; Jurkat, Tina; Thornhill, Kenneth L.; Crosbie, Ewan C.; Robinson, Claire; Shingler, Taylor J.; Anderson, Bruce E.

    2017-12-01

    We present ground-based, advected aircraft engine emissions from flights taking off at Los Angeles International Airport. 275 discrete engine take-off plumes were observed on 18 and 25 May 2014 at a distance of 400 m downwind of the runway. CO2 measurements are used to convert the aerosol data into plume-average emissions indices that are suitable for modelling aircraft emissions. Total and non-volatile particle number EIs are of order 1016-1017 kg-1 and 1014-1016 kg-1, respectively. Black-carbon-equivalent particle mass EIs vary between 175-941 mg kg-1 (except for the GE GEnx engines at 46 mg kg-1). Aircraft tail numbers recorded for each take-off event are used to incorporate aircraft- and engine-specific parameters into the data set. Data acquisition and processing follow standard methods for quality assurance. A unique aspect of the data set is the mapping of aerosol concentration time series to integrated plume EIs, aircraft and engine specifications, and manufacturer-reported engine emissions certifications. The integrated data enable future studies seeking to understand and model aircraft emissions and their impact on air quality.

  12. 17 CFR 256.190 - Accumulated deferred income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... proprietary capital ... (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 4. Deferred Debits § 256.190 Accumulated deferred income taxes. (a...

  13. Microbial accumulation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Dong Faqin; Dai Qunwei

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of microbial accumulation of uranium and the effects of some factors (including pH, initial uranium concentration, pretreatment of bacteria, and so on) on microbial accumulation of uranium are discussed briefly. The research direction and application prospect are presented. (authors)

  14. 47 CFR 78.103 - Emissions and emission limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emissions and emission limitations. 78.103... CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.103 Emissions and emission limitations. (a) A CARS station may be authorized to employ any type of emission, for which there are technical standards...

  15. Who controls the logistics emissions? Challenges in making fragmented supply chains environmentally sustainable from logistics service providers’ perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Maisam; Sternberg, Henrik; Nilsson, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    that impact the cost and time requirements from customers of logistics services are not yet a reality. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) This paper implies that LSP sustainability cannot be investigated in isolation if a company does not manage proprietary resources. Practical implications (if......Purpose The purpose of this article is to explore the environmental impact of Logistics Service Provider (LSP) activities in the light of increased customer attention and fragmentation of the industry. It also explores to what extent the LSPs can actually monitor the environmental impact...... of logistics activities in the supply chain? Design/methodology/approach The methodology of this paper is a literature review, a qualitative interview survey, and three case studies. A framework on sustainability challenges in supply chains derived from the literature is used to structure and analyze...

  16. A Comparative Assessment of Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hypothetical Electric Airport Transportation Services in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiwanit, J.

    2018-05-01

    Global warming is an increase of average temperature in the atmosphere, which causes adverse effects on the environment. Carbon dioxide (CO2) from transportation sector is one of the main contributors of the overall greenhouse gases (GHG). To cope with this issue, electric car services are increasingly seen as popular alternative modes of green transportation especially for urban cities as it is more flexible, more environmentally-friendly, and less expensive than the use of conventional vehicles. The study analyses and compare the hypothetical electric car systems from airport transportation services. Center of Environmental Science of Leiden University (CML) 2001, the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) method, is applied to convert life cycle inventory data into environmental impacts. The observed results showed that the electric shuttle bus had the highest impact in global warming potential (GWP) compared to other transportation types. Alternatively, this Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study that evaluated different transportations provided important information for decision makers on quantifying the differences between each scenario.

  17. Efficiency and CO[sub 2] emission analysis of pathways by which methane can provide transportation services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, P; Scott, D S [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1992-07-01

    Methane is expected to have an increasingly important role as an energy source in the future. As a result, methane will become a major energy source for the transportation sector. Future energy systems will also be selected for efficiency and environmental gentility. Six candidate pathways by which the energy for service transportation can be provided, using methane as the sole energy source, are proposed and are compared with the use of gasoline from petroleum. These pathways involve methanol, methane and hydrogen used in spark ignition engines and solid polymer fuel cells. The energy conversion processes in each pathway are analysed based on the second law of thermodynamics. Two performance criteria are used: total exergy input to the pathway and total carbon dioxide produced along the pathway. All results are normalized to a unit of transportation service, in this case 1 km of city driving. A surprising result is that the methanol spark ignition engine pathway is the least efficient and produces the greatest amount of carbon dioxide, of the pathways examined. Hydrogen and fuel cell pathways are found to be optimal using the criteria of this paper. (author)

  18. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  19. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  20. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  1. Creation / accumulation city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doevendans, C.H.; Schram, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    A distinction between basic archetypes of urban form was made by Bruno Fortier: the accumulation city as opposed to the creation city. These archetypes derive from archaeology - being based on the Roman and the Egyptian city - but are interpreted as morphological paradigms, as a set of assumptions

  2. Selenium accumulation by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate 100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues, which

  3. Accumulation of satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.S.; Ruskol, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (10 8 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  4. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  5. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  6. Modelling Carbon Emissions in Calluna vulgaris–Dominated Ecosystems when Prescribed Burning and Wildfires Interact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Victor M.; Alday, Josu G.; Lee, HyoHyeMi; Allen, Katherine A.; Marrs, Rob H.

    2016-01-01

    A present challenge in fire ecology is to optimize management techniques so that ecological services are maximized and C emissions minimized. Here, we modeled the effects of different prescribed-burning rotation intervals and wildfires on carbon emissions (present and future) in British moorlands. Biomass-accumulation curves from four Calluna-dominated ecosystems along a north-south gradient in Great Britain were calculated and used within a matrix-model based on Markov Chains to calculate above-ground biomass-loads and annual C emissions under different prescribed-burning rotation intervals. Additionally, we assessed the interaction of these parameters with a decreasing wildfire return intervals. We observed that litter accumulation patterns varied between sites. Northern sites (colder and wetter) accumulated lower amounts of litter with time than southern sites (hotter and drier). The accumulation patterns of the living vegetation dominated by Calluna were determined by site-specific conditions. The optimal prescribed-burning rotation interval for minimizing annual carbon emissions also differed between sites: the optimal rotation interval for northern sites was between 30 and 50 years, whereas for southern sites a hump-backed relationship was found with the optimal interval either between 8 to 10 years or between 30 to 50 years. Increasing wildfire frequency interacted with prescribed-burning rotation intervals by both increasing C emissions and modifying the optimum prescribed-burning interval for minimum C emission. This highlights the importance of studying site-specific biomass accumulation patterns with respect to environmental conditions for identifying suitable fire-rotation intervals to minimize C emissions. PMID:27880840

  7. Modelling Carbon Emissions in Calluna vulgaris-Dominated Ecosystems when Prescribed Burning and Wildfires Interact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Victor M; Alday, Josu G; Lee, HyoHyeMi; Allen, Katherine A; Marrs, Rob H

    2016-01-01

    A present challenge in fire ecology is to optimize management techniques so that ecological services are maximized and C emissions minimized. Here, we modeled the effects of different prescribed-burning rotation intervals and wildfires on carbon emissions (present and future) in British moorlands. Biomass-accumulation curves from four Calluna-dominated ecosystems along a north-south gradient in Great Britain were calculated and used within a matrix-model based on Markov Chains to calculate above-ground biomass-loads and annual C emissions under different prescribed-burning rotation intervals. Additionally, we assessed the interaction of these parameters with a decreasing wildfire return intervals. We observed that litter accumulation patterns varied between sites. Northern sites (colder and wetter) accumulated lower amounts of litter with time than southern sites (hotter and drier). The accumulation patterns of the living vegetation dominated by Calluna were determined by site-specific conditions. The optimal prescribed-burning rotation interval for minimizing annual carbon emissions also differed between sites: the optimal rotation interval for northern sites was between 30 and 50 years, whereas for southern sites a hump-backed relationship was found with the optimal interval either between 8 to 10 years or between 30 to 50 years. Increasing wildfire frequency interacted with prescribed-burning rotation intervals by both increasing C emissions and modifying the optimum prescribed-burning interval for minimum C emission. This highlights the importance of studying site-specific biomass accumulation patterns with respect to environmental conditions for identifying suitable fire-rotation intervals to minimize C emissions.

  8. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100. 36.503 Section 36.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis of...

  9. Accumulation chamber as monitoring system for biogas emission from solid waste land filling: preliminary experimental results and elaborations on italian provincial scale; Camera di accumulo portatile per il monitoraggio di emissioni di biogas da discarica: risultati sperimentali ed elaborazioni preliminari a scala provinciale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capaccioni, B.; Pirillo, L. [Urbino Univ. Carlo Bo, Urbino (Italy). Istituto di Vulcanologia e Geochimica; Didero, M. [Urbino Univ. Carlo Bo, Urbino (Italy). Istituto di Geologia Applicata; Lucci, P.; Scartoni, P. [Area Territorio e Ambiente Provincia di Arezzo, Arezzo (Italy). Servizio Ecologia; Tatano, F. [Urbino Univ. Carlo Bo, Urbino (Italy). Facolta' di Scienze Ambientali

    2005-04-01

    On site CO{sub 2} flux measurements with the static, not stationary accumulation chamber system were experimentally carried out in no. 5 MSW (active and closed) landfills located in the territory of the Province of Arezzo (Tuscany Region). Corresponding CO{sub 2} emission flux maps were contoured and analysed, revealing a possible, preliminary geometrical classification of biogas dispersion: diffuse dispersion (internal), lateral/angular dispersion (internal), and external dispersion. Also specific (volume and surface) biogas emission parameters were calculated and graphically compared for the monitored inactive facilities. [Italian] La metodologia strumentale portatile della camera di accumulo, statica non stazionaria, e' stata adoperata sperimentalmente per la misura on site di flussi puntuali di emissione di CO{sub 2} in cinque discariche (attive e non) per RSU ed assimilabili localizzate nel territorio della Provincia di Arezzo. Si sono elaborate, ed analizzate criticamente, le corrispondenti mappe areali di flusso, che hanno consentito di delineare una possibile classificazione geometrica - ancorche' preliminare - di dispersioni di biogas generabili da discarica: diffuse interne, laterali/angolari interne, esterne. Con riferimento alle discariche inattive d'indagine, si sono altresi' determinati, e rappresentati graficamente, i valori di possibili parametri specifici (volumetrico, superficiale) di dispersione di biogas.

  10. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  11. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  12. Preparing enterprises in Baden-Wuerttemberg for emission trading: determining their need for information, consulting services and training.; Vorbereitung baden-wuerttembergischer Unternehmen auf den Emissionsrechtehandel: Ermittlung von Informations-, Beratungs- und Schulungsbedarf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Betz, R.; Kaeser, S.

    2004-03-19

    In order to achieve the climate-related objectives of the Kyoto Protocol in the most profitable way, the EU Parliament and the Ministers' Council have decided on a regulation which obligates the operators of certain CO2-intensive systems to participate in the emission trading (Published in the Union's official gazette of 25 October 2003: Regulation 2003/87/EG OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL dt. 13 October 2003 on a system for the trade with greenhouse emission certificates in the Union and for the amendment of the regulation 96/61/EG of the Council). Starting in 2005, this includes the operators of certain systems like larger power and heat generation plants, refineries and coking plants, production plants of the iron and steel industry, cement, glass and ceramics industries and the cellulose and paper industry. To the German environmental politics, the European system of emission trading means a change in the paradigms, bringing new strategical and organisatory challenges for the enterprises involved. In order to complete lacking information regarding the approaching trading with emission rights, the first thing to do is to identify Baden-Wuerttemberg's enterprises' needs for information, consulting services and training. This should be the basis for the development of a draft concept for the need for information, consulting services and training.

  13. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  14. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  15. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The volume contains six papers which together provide an overall review of the inspection technique known as acoustic emission or stress wave emission. The titles are: a welder's introduction to acoustic emission technology; use of acoustic emission for detection of defects as they arise during fabrication; examples of laboratory application and assessment of acoustic emission in the United Kingdom; (Part I: acoustic emission behaviour of low alloy steels; Part II: fatigue crack assessment from proof testing and continuous monitoring); inspection of selected areas of engineering structures by acoustic emission; Japanese experience in laboratory and practical applications of acoustic emission to welded structures; and ASME acoustic emission code status. (U.K.)

  16. Bladder-type hydropneumatic accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anigas, F.

    1985-01-01

    Hydropneumatic pressure accumulators allow liquids to be stored under pressure, their operating principle being based on the inherent compressibility of elements in a liquid and gaseous state. A wide range of fluids can be covered by means of the appropriate choice of the material for the body and bladder. Their main applications are: energy accumulation, safety reserve, suspension. (author)

  17. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  18. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, F.; Ronchetti, M.; Elser, V.

    1988-01-01

    We study the relaxation of 2D quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously. Whereas ideal, quasiperiodic networks are stable against such perturbations, we find significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation we observe in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, we find a dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate

  19. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  20. Emission of Tc-99 from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxenburger, H.J.; Schuettelkopf, H.; Bohn, B.

    1984-11-01

    No noticeable Tc-activities are emitted from nuclear power stations. The emissions with the gaseous effluents exceed but rarely the detection limit of 25 nCi/h. Likewise, the emission with the liquid effluents remains below the detection limit of about 0.5 nCi/m 3 . Neither can a remarkable emission be recorded from the facilities of the Central Decontamination Services Department (HDB) of KfK. The emissions from the evaporation system for low level solutions and from the evaporation system for low level solutions and from the incineration facility for solid wastes do not exceed or rarely exceed to a minor extent the detection limit of 0.3 pCi/m 3 waste air. Also with the liquid effluents only minor Tc-amounts are discharged of 0.3 nCi/m 3 at the maximum. In the distillate of the medium level solutions discharged from the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK) to HDB as so-called tritiated water 2 nCi/m 3 Tc-99 at the maximum are contained. Only in the gaseous effluents from the evaporation system for medium level solutions emissions of up to 14 pCi/m 3 can be detected. The detection limits are almost permanently exceeded by the gaseous effluents from WAK. Small amounts of Tc-99 of 7 pCi/m 3 exhaust air at the maximum are released to the environment. However, the amount of Tc accumulated over the sampling period is insignificant from the radioecological point of view. (orig./HP) [de

  1. ALOKASI PENDAPATAN DARI JASA PENGURANGAN EMISI MELALUI PENCEGAHAN DEFORESTASI: SEBUAH TINJAUAN ALOKASI BENEFIT DAN KERANGKA HUKUM FISKAL (Alocation of Benefit from Emission Reduction Service Through Deforestation Avoided: An Overview of Benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamat Rahmat

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Deforestasi menyumbang emisi gas rumah kaca sebesar 18% dari total emisi gas rumah kaca per tahun. REDD (Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forests Degradation adalah mekanisme yang dikembangkan untuk mengurangi emisi gas rumah kaca akibat deforestasi dan degradasi hutan. Para pihak menginginkan agar REDD juga berperan dalam pengentasan kemiskinan masyarakat sekitar hutan di negara berkembang. Masyarakat sekitar hutan merupakan salah satu pihak yang berhak untuk memperoleh alokasi dari pendapatan tersebut. Peraturan perundangan yang mengatur alokasi pendapatan dari REDD hingga saat ini belum tersedia. Paper ini mengemukakan gagasan mengenai proporsi alokasi pendapatan dari REDD. Upaya ini diharapkan dapat menjadi bahan pertimbangan bagi pemangku kebijakan dalam menyusun peraturan perundangan yang diperlukan. Proporsi hipotetik alokasi pendapatan yang dikemukakan di sini diupayakan untuk mengakomodir para pihak, antara lain: pemerintah pusat, pemerintah daerah dan masyarakat sekitar hutan. Proporsi hipotetik tersebut merupakan hasil tinjauan terhadap kerangka hukum fiskal yang tersedia dan azas alokasi benefit.   ABSTRACT Deforestation contributed to green house gas emission until 18% of total emission per year. REDD (Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forests Degradation is a mechanism developed for reducing green house gas emission from deforestation and forest degradation. Annex 1 countries insist Non Annex 1 countries (developing countries to implement REDD as well as poverty eradication of local community. Local community is a considered stakeholder to get benefit from deforestation avoided service. On the other hand, the legal status of benefit allocation mechanism is unavailable. This paper contributed a hypothetical allocation to stakeholders. The stakeholders involve in this mechanism are: national government, local government and local community. The hypothetical proportion has been resulted by an overview of recent

  2. Choice Rules and Accumulator Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a preference accumulation model that can be used to implement a number of different multi-attribute heuristic choice rules, including the lexicographic rule, the majority of confirming dimensions (tallying) rule and the equal weights rule. The proposed model differs from existing accumulators in terms of attribute representation: Leakage and competition, typically applied only to preference accumulation, are also assumed to be involved in processing attribute values. This allows the model to perform a range of sophisticated attribute-wise comparisons, including comparisons that compute relative rank. The ability of a preference accumulation model composed of leaky competitive networks to mimic symbolic models of heuristic choice suggests that these 2 approaches are not incompatible, and that a unitary cognitive model of preferential choice, based on insights from both these approaches, may be feasible. PMID:28670592

  3. Tomography by positrons emission: integral unit to the service of Mexico; Tomografia por emision de positrones: unidad integral al servicio de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez D, F A [Unidad PET-Ciclotron, Facultad de Medicina, UNAM (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The applications of the Positron emission tomography (PET) together with the one radiopharmaceutical 2 - [{sup 18} F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in the area of the medical imaging is expanding quickly and it possesses a bigger impact at the moment in favor of those patient to who suffers an oncological, cardiac or neurological illness in Mexico. (Author)

  4. Analysis of international and European policy instruments: pollution swapping . Task 2 Service contract "Integrated measures in agriculture to reduce ammonia emissions"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Velthof, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    This Report describes the results of Task 2 ‘Analysis of International and European policy instruments’. The aim of this task is to analyze the existing International and European policy instruments aiming at reducing emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane to the atmosphere and nitrate to

  5. Induced Plant Accumulation of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Kavanagh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium’s (Li value has grown exponentially since the development of Li-ion batteries. It is usually accessed in one of two ways: hard rock mineral mining or extraction from mineral-rich brines. Both methods are expensive and require a rich source of Li. This paper examines the potential of agro-mining as an environmentally friendly, economically viable process for extracting Li from low grade ore. Agro-mining exploits an ability found in few plant species, to accumulate substantial amounts of metals in the above ground parts of the plant. Phyto-mined metals are then retrieved from the incinerated plants. Although the actual amount of metal collected from a crop may be low, the process has been shown to be profitable. We have investigated the suitability of several plant species including: Brassica napus and Helianthus annuus, as Li-accumulators under controlled conditions. Large plant trials were carried out with/without chelating agents to encourage Li accumulation. The question we sought to answer was, can any of the plant species investigated accumulate Li at levels high enough to justify using them to agro-mine Li. Results show maximum accumulated levels of >4000 mg/kg Li in some species. Our data suggests that agro-mining of Li is a potentially viable process.

  6. Ammonia flux above fertilized corn in central Illinois, USA, using relaxed eddy accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research is to quantify NH3 flux above an intensively managed cornfield in the Midwestern United States to improve understanding of NH3 emissions and evaluations of new and existing emission models. A relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system was deployed above a corn canopy in ce...

  7. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  8. Modeling sediment accumulation in North American playa wetlands in response to climate change, 1940-2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Lucy; Skagen, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Playa wetlands on the west-central Great Plains of North America are vulnerable to sediment infilling from upland agriculture, putting at risk several important ecosystem services as well as essential habitats and food resources of diverse wetland-dependent biota. Climate predictions for this semi-arid area indicate reduced precipitation which may alter rates of erosion, runoff, and sedimentation of playas. We forecasted erosion rates, sediment depths, and resultant playa wetland depths across the west-central Great Plains and examined the relative roles of land use context and projected changes in precipitation in the sedimentation process. We estimated erosion with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) using historic values and downscaled precipitation predictions from three general circulation models and three emissions scenarios. We calibrated RUSLE results using field sediment measurements. RUSLE is appealing for regional scale modeling because it uses climate forecasts with monthly resolution and other widely available values including soil texture, slope and land use. Sediment accumulation rates will continue near historic levels through 2070 and will be sufficient to cause most playas (if not already filled) to fill with sediment within the next 100 years in the absence of mitigation. Land use surrounding the playa, whether grassland or tilled cropland, is more influential in sediment accumulation than climate-driven precipitation change.

  9. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  10. Emission inventory; Inventaire des emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontelle, J.P. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    Statistics on air pollutant (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ammonium) emissions, acid equivalent emissions and their evolution since 1990 in the various countries of Europe and the USA, are presented. Emission data from the industrial, agricultural, transportation and power sectors are given, and comparisons are carried out between countries based on Gnp and population, pollution import/export fluxes and compliance to the previous emission reduction objectives

  11. Emissions of road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, K.; Tuominen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Information on the emissions and energy consumption of different vehicles per transported amount of goods has up to last years been minimal. The unit emissions mean the amount of harmful compounds in the flue gases of a vehicle per service, time or energy unit. National three-year MOBILE 2-research program, started in 1999, determines the unit emissions of all the traffic sectors in Finland. VTT Building and Transport mainly carry out the research, but the Institute of Transportation Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TTKK) is responsible for a part of the research. The objective of the project is to create common rules for the determination of unit emissions values, and to determine the best possible values for Finnish conditions. Unit emission data is mainly needed for evaluation of the environmental impacts of production plants and other activities containing transportation of commodities. At the web sites of VTT Building and Transport there are about 60 pages of text and tables (about 4000 values) on unit emissions. The URL of the pages is http://www.vtt.fi/rte/projects/lipastoe/index.htm. These web pages present data on all the transportation sectors (road, railroad, water and air transportation), most of the materials concerning road transportation. Following compounds and values are included: CO, HC, NO x , particulates, SO 2 , CO 2 and energy consumption. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions values have also been presented

  12. Padrões de acumulação setorial: finanças e serviços nas transformações contemporâneas da saúde Capital accumulation patterns: capital and services in the current transformations of the health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Siliansky de Andreazzi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é introduzir elementos da reprodução econômica da sociedade capitalista na avaliação da dinâmica contemporânea da acumulação da saúde. São identificadas a direção e o sentido da acumulação de capital e o ambiente onde se desenvolvem os atuais processos de competição.O trabalho considerou a hipótese da hipertrofia da órbita financeira como um modo de estruturação da economia capitalista desde o último quartel do século XX, onde ficam embaçadas e corroídas antigas delimitações entre produção de bens e prestação de serviços. Mudam os padrões de competição entre as empresas, bem como as contradições internas e externas ao setor saúde. A abordagem é teórico-histórico-conceitual, visando aportar elementos para uma abordagem contemporânea do tema "complexo médico-industrial". São identificadas transformações internacionais e nacionais referentes à dinâmica do capital no complexo, com destaque para o crescente papel dos serviços. A nova abordagem é elaborada a partir do pensamento econômico de Marx, acrescido da discussão contemporânea sobre financeirização e novas configurações produtivas da grande empresa. Ao final, o caráter das contradições existentes no interior do complexo produtivo da saúde é problematizado.The purpose of this article is to introduce elements of the capitalist society economic reproduction to the discussion around the current dynamics of health accumulation. It identifies the direction and significance of capital accumulation in the health area as well as the characteristics of the economic environment where the competition currently takes place. The hypothetic hypertrophy of the financial sphere is seen as a means for structuring the capitalist economy since the late twentieth century. The former delimitations between industrial production and service delivery are blurred and weakened; the competition process shows new features and the

  13. Ultra-wide-band accumulation of coherent undulator synchrotron radiation in a resonating cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Seo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavity accumulation of coherent undulator synchrotron radiation emitted by a train of periodic electron bunches is investigated. Phase-matching conditions for accumulation of radiation emitted by successive bunches are analyzed and numerically confirmed. While the coherent emission of a single bunch is optimal at grazing resonance, the accumulated radiation targeted at the upper resonant frequency of the waveguide mode is found to have much broader bandwidth and higher efficiency as the resonance steps away from the grazing condition. Numerical results confirm that stimulated superradiance is responsible for the accumulated radiation.

  14. Effects of Aluminium Sulfate on Cadmium Accumulation in Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamvarn, Vararas; Boontanon, Narin; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Kumsopa, Acharaporn; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Cadmium accumulation in Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 rice cultivars was investigated upon treatment with aluminium sulfate as a precipitant. Rice was grown hydroponically in a medium containing 4 ppm cadmium nitrate with or without 4 ppm aluminium sulfate. Root, stem with leaves and grain samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Without the addition of aluminium sulfate, Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 accumulated 24.71∫ 3.14 ppm and 34.43 ∫ 4.51 ppm (dry weight of whole plant) of cadmium, respectively. With aluminium sulfate, cadmium accumulation increased to 40.66 ∫ 2.47 ppm and 62.94 ∫ 10.69 ppm, respectively. The addition of aluminium sulfate to the planting medium did not reduce cadmium accumulation but caused the rice to accumulate more cadmium especially in the shoots and grains. This observation might serve as the basis for future research on the management of agricultural areas that are contaminated with cadmium and aluminium

  15. Corporate taxation and capital accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Bond; Jing Xing

    2010-01-01

    We present new empirical evidence that aggregate capital accumulation is strongly influenced by the user cost of capital and, in particular, by corporate tax incentives summarised in the tax-adjusted user cost. We use sectoral panel data for the USA, Japan, Australia and ten EU countries over the period 1982-2007. Our panel combines data on capital stocks, value-added and relative prices from the EU KLEMS database with measures of effective corporate tax rates from the Oxford University Centr...

  16. WEALTH TAXATION AND WEALTH ACCUMULATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Katrine Marie Tofthøj; Jakobsen, Kristian Thor; Kleven, Henrik

    Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific d...... on wealth accumulation. Our simulations show that the long-run elasticity of wealth with respect to the net-of-tax return is sizeable at the top of distribution. Our paper provides the type of evidence needed to assess optimal capital taxation.......Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific...... design of the wealth tax, these changes provide a compelling quasi-experiment for understanding behavioral responses among the wealthiest segments of the population. We find clear reduced-form effects of wealth taxes in the short and medium run, with larger effects on the very wealthy than...

  17. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  18. How Knowledge Accumulation changed the Competitive Advantage of Strategy Consulting Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); M.G. Baaij (Marc); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractResearch evidence confirms that the accumulation of knowledge contributes to the competitive advantage of firms. In the strategy consulting industry, one of the most knowledge-intensive professional services industries, however, established firms that exploited their knowledge

  19. Embodied greenhouse gas emission by Macao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.S.; Chen, G.Q.; Lai, T.M.; Ahmad, B.; Chen, Z.M.; Shao, L.; Ji, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive inventory of cities' greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) is the basis for cities to make appropriate mitigation plans. However, previous studies on cities' GHG emissions consider emissions occurring within the city boundary (Scope 1) and out of boundary electricity emissions (Scope 2), but neglect indirect emissions associated with commodities consumed by cities (Scope 3), resulting in emission leakage. To cope with this problem, a systematic accounting covering all 3 scopes is presented in a case study of Macao for the years 2005–2009, based on the latest embodied emission intensity databases for China and for the world. The results show that total emissions are dominated by indirect emissions mainly embodied in imports, which is 3–4 times direct emissions during the period concerned. It is verified that accounting under Scopes 1 and 2 cannot capture the full picture of cities' emissions, especially cities like Macao which are dominated by service industry and inevitably sustained by massive materials and services from other regions. Our study suggests that Macao should adjust its current GHG mitigation policies which consider only its emissions occurring within its border, as Macao is a net GHG emissions importer. This work is the first assessment of Macao's embodied GHG emissions. - Highlights: • A systematic accounting procedure is presented to inventory a city's GHG emissions. • A comprehensive review of GHG emissions is performed for Macao. • Indirect GHG emissions dominate Macao's embodied GHG emissions. • Macao induced large amount of GHG emissions in other regions through trade. • The variation in GHG emission structure against socio-economic changes is revealed

  20. Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopod mollusca was investigated by radiotracer experiments and elemental analysis. In the radiotracer experiments, Octopus vulgaris took up cobalt-60 from seawater fairly well and the concentration of the nuclide in whole body attained about 150 times the level of seawater at 25th day at 20 0 C. Among the tissues and organs measured, branchial heart which is the specific organ of cephalopods showed the highest affinity for the nuclide. The organ accumulated about 50% of the radioactivity in whole body in spite of its little mass as 0.2% of total body weight. On the other hand, more than 90% of the radioactivity taken up from food (soft parts of Gomphina melanaegis labelled with cobalt-60 previously in an aquarium) was accumulated in liver at 3rd day after the single administration and then the radioactivity in the liver seemed to be distributed to other organs and tissues. The characteristic elution profiles of cobalt-60 was observed for each of the organs and tissues in Sephadex gel-filtration experiment. It was confirmed by the gel-filtration that most of cobalt-60 in the branchial heart was combined with the constituents of low molecular weights. The average concentration of stable cobalt in muscle of several species of cephalopods was 5.3 +- 3.0 μg/kg wet and it was almost comparable to the fish muscle. On the basis of soft parts, concentration of the nuclide closed association among bivalve, gastropod and cephalopod except squid that gave lower values than the others. (author)

  1. Ecosystem services in ECOCLIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Boegh, Eva; Bendtsen, J

    that actions initiated to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions are sustainable and not destructive to existing ecosystem services. Therefore it is important to address i.e. land use change in relation to the regulating services of the ecosystems, such as carbon sequestration and climate regulation. At present...... a thorough understanding of the ecosystem processes controlling the uptake or emissions of GHG is fundamental. Here we present ECOCLIM in the context of ecosystem services and the experimental studies within ECOCLIM which will lead to an enhanced understanding of Danish ecosystems....

  2. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  3. Method for assessing the probability of accumulated doses from an intermittent source using the convolution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.H.

    1980-10-01

    A technique is discussed for computing the probability distribution of the accumulated dose received by an arbitrary receptor resulting from several single releases from an intermittent source. The probability density of the accumulated dose is the convolution of the probability densities of doses from the intermittent releases. Emissions are not assumed to be constant over the brief release period. The fast fourier transform is used in the calculation of the convolution

  4. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition accumulated in rural forest soils of southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Kemp, Kaare; Kystol, J.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-three years of measurements of atmospheric heavy metal (HM) deposition (bulk precipitation) in Denmark combined with European emission inventories form the basis for calculating a 50-year accumulated atmospheric input to a remote forest plantation on the island of Laesoe. Soil samples taken...... in atmospheric deposition and in soils. The accumulated atmospheric deposition is of the same magnitude as the increase of these metals in the top soil....

  5. Charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen Knøster; McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1999-01-01

    At present, the phenomenon of charge accumulation in solid dielectrics is under intense experimental study. Using a field theoretical approach, we review the basis for charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics. Thereafter, this macroscopic approach is applied to planar geometries such that the mat......At present, the phenomenon of charge accumulation in solid dielectrics is under intense experimental study. Using a field theoretical approach, we review the basis for charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics. Thereafter, this macroscopic approach is applied to planar geometries...

  6. Radiocaesium accumulation by different plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filiptsova, G.G.

    2000-01-01

    Using the model object influence of mineral nutritions level on radiocaesium accumulation by different plant species has been studied. It was shown the wheat roots accumulation the minimal value on radiocaesium on normal potassium level, the rye roots accumulation maximal level radiocaesium. (authors)

  7. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation expense—telecommunications...

  8. Nickel-accumulating plant from Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C; Brooks, R R

    1972-01-01

    A small shrub Hybanthus floribundus (Lindl.) F. Muell. Violaceae growing in Western Australia accumulates nickel and cobalt to a very high degree. Values of up to 23% nickel in leaf ash may represent the highest relative accumulation of a metal on record. The high accumulation of nickel poses interesting problems in plant physiology and plant biochemistry. 9 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  9. Energy Accumulation by Hydrogen Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiřina Čermáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic power plants as a renewable energy source have been receiving rapidly growing attention in the Czech Republic and in the other EU countries. This rapid development of photovoltaic sources is having a negative effect on the electricity power system control, because they depend on the weather conditions and provide a variable and unreliable supply of electric power. One way to reduce this effect is by accumulating electricity in hydrogen. The aim of this paper is to introduce hydrogen as a tool for regulating photovoltaic energy in island mode. A configuration has been designed for connecting households with the photovoltaic hybrid system, and a simulation model has been made in order to check the validity of this system. The simulation results provide energy flows and have been used for optimal sizing of real devices. An appropriate system can deliver energy in a stand-alone installation.

  10. Electron-Positron Accumulator (EPA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    After acceleration in the low-current linac LIL-W, the electrons and positrons are accumulated in EPA to obtain a sufficient intensity and a suitable time-structure, before being passed on to the PS for further acceleration to 3.5 GeV. Electrons circulate from right to left, positrons in the other direction. Dipole bending magnets are red, focusing quadrupoles blue, sextupoles for chromaticity-control orange. The vertical tube at the left of the picture belongs to an optical transport system carrying the synchrotron radiation to detectors for beam size measurement. Construction of EPA was completed in spring 1986. LIL-W and EPA were conceived for an energy of 600 MeV, but operation was limited to 500 MeV.

  11. Nickel accumulation by Hybanthus floribundus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C

    1974-04-26

    Several ecotypes of Hybanthus floribundus are found across the southern part of Australia. However, the three nickel accumulating ecotypes are restricted to a broad belt in Western Australia. Nickel concentrations in this shrub were observed to decrease southwards (from 8000 to 1000 p.p.m.) as the annual rainfall increased from 7 inches to more than 30 inches. Studies have shown that nickel concentrations increase from the roots through the rootstock, into the stems and reach maximum towards the leaf tips. High nickel concentrations are also seen in seed capsules (1500 p.p.m.), seeds (2000 p.p.m.) and flowers. The maximum nickel concentration recorded is 1.6% (26% nickel in ash) in mature leaf tissue. 16 references, 2 tables.

  12. Data mining for service

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Virtually all nontrivial and modern service related problems and systems involve data volumes and types that clearly fall into what is presently meant as "big data", that is, are huge, heterogeneous, complex, distributed, etc. Data mining is a series of processes which include collecting and accumulating data, modeling phenomena, and discovering new information, and it is one of the most important steps to scientific analysis of the processes of services.  Data mining application in services requires a thorough understanding of the characteristics of each service and knowledge of the compatibility of data mining technology within each particular service, rather than knowledge only in calculation speed and prediction accuracy. Varied examples of services provided in this book will help readers understand the relation between services and data mining technology. This book is intended to stimulate interest among researchers and practitioners in the relation between data mining technology and its application to ...

  13. A Dextral Primary Progressive Aphasia Patient with Right Dominant Hypometabolism and Tau Accumulation and Left Dominant Amyloid Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Kyoung Jang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA is a degenerative disease that presents as progressive decline of language ability with preservation of other cognitive functions in the early stages. Three subtypes of PPA are known: progressive nonfluent aphasia, semantic dementia, and logopenic aphasia (LPA. Patients and Methods: We report the case of a 77-year-old patient with PPA whose clinical findings did not correspond to the three subtypes but mainly fit LPA. Unlike other LPA patients, however, this patient showed a right hemisphere predominant glucose hypometabolism and tau accumulation and a left hemisphere predominant amyloid deposition. The right-handed patient presented with comprehension difficulty followed by problems naming familiar objects. This isolated language problem had deteriorated rapidly for 2 years, followed by memory difficulties and impairment of daily activities. Using a Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery, aphasia was consistent with a severe form of Wernicke's aphasia. According to the brain magnetic resonance imaging and 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography results, right hemisphere atrophy and hypometabolism, more predominant on the right hemisphere than the left, were apparent despite the fact that Edinburgh Handedness Questionnaire scores indicated strong right-handedness. On Pittsburgh compound B-PET, amyloid accumulation was asymmetrical with the left hemisphere being more predominant than the right, whereas 18F-T807-PET showed a right dominant tau accumulation. Conclusions: This is the first report of atypical PPA, in which the patient exhibited crossed aphasia and asymmetrical amyloid accumulation.

  14. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, A.V.; Goncharenko, G.G.; Kilchevsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  15. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs

  16. Technologies and policies for "hard to scrub" emissions sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, J.

    2016-12-01

    The science of climate change yields harsh math regarding atmospheric accumulations of GHGs. The world is far from target trajectories for 2C or 1.5C, and the global carbon budget is severe. To achieve those targets requires two things. First, we must field technologies that reduce emissions from the "hard to scrub" parts of the US and global economies, such as heavy industry (cement and steel), aviation, ocean shipping, and household cooking and heating. Second, we will likely need negative emissions pathways for those sources that prove extremely difficult to remove or reduce - the climate equivalent of adding revenue to one's budget. Such pathways may well need to convert GHG emissions (especially CO2 and methane) into useful products with minimal infrastructure builds. Dramatic advances in advanced manufacturing, 3D printing, simulation, modeling, and data analytics have made possible solutions which were previously unthinkable or impossible. This include "bespoke reactors", which can simultaneously perform separations and conversions; low-cost modular chemical systems of any scale; biologically inspired or biologically mediated energy services; direct air carbon-capture systems; and electrochemical pathways for emissions reduction and conversion. However, these approaches are unlikely to be fielded without policy actions or reforms that support such systems in competitive global energy markets. Such policy measures do NOT require a carbon price. Rather, they could include individual or combined measures such as emission or performance standards, financial incentives (like tax credits or low-cost access to capital), border adjustable tariffs, creation of CO2 utilities, ands public good surcharges. Innovation in both technical and policy arenas are needed to achieve the goals of the Paris agreement signatories, and these innovations can be simultaneously configured to deliver substantive greenhouse gas mitigation.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.; Schaeffer, R.

    1994-01-01

    In a recent paper, Rudd et al. have suggested that, per unit of electrical energy produced, greenhouse-gas emissions from some hydroelectric reservoirs in northern Canada may be comparable to emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants. The purpose of this comment is to elaborate these issues further so as to understand the potential contribution of hydroelectric reservoirs to the greenhouse effect. More than focusing on the total budget of carbon emissions (be they in the form of CH 4 or be they in the form of CO 2 ), this requires an evaluation of the accumulated greenhouse effect of gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs and fossil-fuelled power plants. Two issues will be considered: (a) global warming potential (GWP) for CH 4 ; and (b) how greenhouse-gas emissions from hydroelectric power plants stand against emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants with respect to global warming

  18. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straus, A.; Lopez Pumarega, M.I.; Di Gaetano, J.O.; D'Atellis, C.E.; Ruzzante, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is related to our activities on acoustic emission (A.E.). The work is made with different materials: metals and fibre reinforced plastics. At present, acoustic emission transducers are being developed for low and high temperature. A test to detect electrical discharges in electrical transformers was performed. Our experience in industrial tests to detect cracks or failures in tanks or tubes is also described. The use of A.E. for leak detection is considered. Works on pattern recognition of A.E. signals are also being performed. (Author)

  19. ACCUMULATION AND CONSUMPTION IN MICROECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghey A. Amelkin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two main processes are common for an economic system. They are consumption and accumulation. The first one is described by utility function, either cardinal or ordinal one. The mathematical model for accumulation process can be constructed using wealth function introduced within the frame of irreversible microeconomics. Characteristics of utility and wealth functions are compared and a problem of extreme performance of resources exchange process is solved for a case when both the consumption and accumulation exist.

  20. Methane emission from tidal freshwater marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Nat, F.J.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    In two tidal freshwater marshes, methane emission, production and accumulation in the pore-water have been studied. The two sites differ in their dominant vegetation, i.e., reed and bulrush, and in their heights above sea level. The reed site was elevated in relation to the bulrush site and had

  1. Rate of ice accumulation during ice storms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The rate of glaze ice accumulation is the result of a complex process dependent on numerous meteorological and physical factors. The aim of this paper was to estimate the distribution rate of glaze ice accumulation on conductors in southern Quebec for use in the design of mechanical and electrical de-icing devices. The analysis was based on direct observations of ice accumulation collected on passive ice meters. The historical database of Hydro-Quebec, which contains observations at over 140 stations over period of 25 years, was used to compute accumulation rates. Data was processed so that each glaze ice event was numbered in a chronological sequence. Each event consisted of the time series of ice accumulations on each of the 8 cylinders of the ice meters, as well as on 5 of its surfaces. Observed rates were converted to represent the average ice on a 30 mm diameter conductor at 30 m above ground with a span of 300 m. Observations were corrected to account for the water content of the glaze ice as evidenced by the presence of icicles. Results indicated that despite significant spatial variations in the expected severity of ice storms as a function of location, the distribution function for rates of accumulation were fairly similar and could be assumed to be independent of location. It was concluded that the observations from several sites could be combined in order to obtain better estimates of the distribution of hourly rates of ice accumulation. However, the rates were highly variable. For de-icing strategies, it was suggested that average accumulation rates over 12 hour periods were preferable, and that analyses should be performed for other time intervals to account for the variability in ice accumulation rates over time. In addition, accumulation rates did not appear to be highly correlated with average wind speed for maximum hourly accumulation rates. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  2. Emissions from biomass burning in the Yucatan

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Yokelson; J. D. Crounse; P. F. DeCarlo; T. Karl; S. Urbanski; E. Atlas; T. Campos; Y. Shinozuka; V. Kapustin; A. D. Clarke; A. Weinheimer; D. J. Knapp; D. D. Montzka; J. Holloway; P. Weibring; F. Flocke; W. Zheng; D. Toohey; P. O. Wennberg; C. Wiedinmyer; L. Mauldin; A. Fried; D. Richter; J. Walega; J. L. Jimenez; K. Adachi; P. R. Buseck; S. R. Hall; R. Shetter

    2009-01-01

    In March 2006 two instrumented aircraft made the first detailed field measurements of biomass burning (BB) emissions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics as part of the MILAGRO project. The aircraft were the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 and a University of Montana/ US Forest Service Twin Otter. The initial emissions of up to 49 trace gas or particle...

  3. The positron accumulator ring for the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is designed to accumulate and damp positrons from the 450-MeV linac during the 0.5-s cycle time of the injector synchrotron for the APS 7-GeV storage ring. During 0.4 s of each synchrotron cycle, up to 24 linac pulses are injected into the horizontal phase space of the PAR at a 60-Hz rate. Each injected pulse occupies about 1.3 of the circumference of the accumulator ring. After 0.1 s for longitudinal damping, the single accumulated bunch is transferred to one of the 353-MHz buckets of the injector synchrotron RF system. The bunch is accelerated to 7 GeV and transferred to the storage ring, while the PAR accumulates the next bunch of positrons. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. The positron accumulator ring for the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is designed to accumulate and damp positrons from the 450-MeV linac during the 0.5-s cycle time of the injector synchrotron for the APS 7-GeV storage ring. During 0.4 s of each synchrotron cycle, up to 24 linac pulses are injected into the horizontal phase space of the PAR at a 60-Hz rate. Each injected pulse occupies about 1/3 of the circumference of the accumulator ring. After 0.1 s for longitudinal damping, the single accumulated bunch is transferred to one of the 353-MHz buckets of the injector synchrotron RF system. The bunch is accelerated to 7 GeV and transferred to the storage ring, while the PAR accumulates the next bunch of positrons. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Aflatoxin Accumulation in a Maize Diallel Cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Paul Williams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, occur naturally in maize. Contamination of maize grain with aflatoxin is a major food and feed safety problem and greatly reduces the value of the grain. Plant resistance is generally considered a highly desirable approach to reduction or elimination of aflatoxin in maize grain. In this investigation, a diallel cross was produced by crossing 10 inbred lines with varying degrees of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in all possible combinations. Three lines that previously developed and released as sources of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation were included as parents. The 10 parental inbred lines and the 45 single crosses making up the diallel cross were evaluated for aflatoxin accumulation in field tests conducted in 2013 and 2014. Plants were inoculated with an A. flavus spore suspension seven days after silk emergence. Ears were harvested approximately 60 days later and concentration of aflatoxin in the grain determined. Parental inbred lines Mp717, Mp313E, and Mp719 exhibited low levels (3–12 ng/g of aflatoxin accumulation. In the diallel analysis, both general and specific combining ability were significant sources of variation in the inheritance of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. General combining ability effects for reduced aflatoxin accumulation were greatest for Mp494, Mp719, and Mp717. These lines should be especially useful in breeding for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Breeding strategies, such as reciprocal recurrent selection, would be appropriate.

  6. Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhainsa, K.C.; D'Souza, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes from aqueous solution was investigated in laboratory condition. The objective was to evaluate the uranium accumulation potential and adopt the plant in uranium containing medium to improve its uptake capacity. The plant was found to tolerate and grow in the pH range of 3-7. Accumulation of uranium improved with increasing pH and the plant could remove 70% uranium from the medium (20 mg/L) within 24 hours of incubation at pH 5-6. Uptake of uranium on either side of this pH range decreased

  7. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrabi, K.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  8. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested

  9. Manganese accumulation in the brain: MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Nomiyama, K.; Takase, Y.; Nakazono, T.; Nojiri, J.; Kudo, S. [Saga Medical School, Department of Radiology, Saga (Japan); Noguchi, T. [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Manganese (Mn) accumulation in the brain is detected as symmetrical high signal intensity in the globus pallidi on T1-weighted MR images without an abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. In this review, we present several cases of Mn accumulation in the brain due to acquired or congenital diseases of the abdomen including hepatic cirrhosis with a portosystemic shunt, congenital biliary atresia, primary biliary cirrhosis, congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt without liver dysfunction, Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome with a diffuse intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and patent ductus venosus. Other causes of Mn accumulation in the brain are Mn overload from total parenteral nutrition and welding-related Mn intoxication. (orig.)

  10. The accumulation of femtosecond laser radiation energy in crystals of lithium fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresvyanskiy, V. P.; Glazunov, D. S.; Alekseev, S. V.; Losev, V. F.; Chadraa, B.; Bukhtsooj, O.; Baasankhuu, N.; Zandan, B.; Martynovich, E. F.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of studies of energy accumulation during the non-destructive interaction of extremely intense near infrared laser radiation with model wide band gap dielectric crystals of lithium fluoride, when the intensity of pulses is sufficient for effective highly nonlinear absorption of light and for the excitation of the electron subsystem of matter and the energy of pulses is still not sufficient for significant heating, evaporation, laser breakdown or other destruction to occur. We studied the emission of energy in the form of light sum of thermally stimulated luminescence accumulated under conditions of self-focusing and multiple filamentation of femtosecond laser radiation. It was established that it's the F2 and F3+ color centers and supplementary to them centers of interstitial type which accumulate energy under the action of a single femtosecond laser pulses. When irradiated by series of pulses the F3, F3- and F4 centers additionally appear. F2 centers are the main centers of emission in the process of thermally stimulated luminescence of accumulated energy. The interstitial fluoride ions (I-centers) are the kinetic particles. They split off from the X3- centers in the result of thermal decomposition of latter on the I-centers and molecules X20. I-centers recombine with F3+ centers and form F2 centers in excited state. The latter produce the characteristic emission spectrum emitted in the form of thermally stimulated luminescence.

  11. Emissão de folhas e início de acumulação de amido em raízes de uma variedade de mandioca em função da época de plantio Leaf emergence and beginning of starch accumulation in roots of a cassava variety as a function of planting date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Schons

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O número de folhas acumulado (NF na haste principal está associado com o aparecimento de vários estádios de desenvolvimento da cultura da mandioca. O início de acumulação de amido (IAA nas raízes tuberosas da mandioca marca o início da translocação dos fotoassimilados para o principal órgão de reserva nessa espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o filocrono e identificar um indicador morfológico baseado no NF para o IAA em mandioca plantada em diferentes épocas. Um experimento a campo foi conduzido em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, com quatro épocas de plantio (28/09; 11/10; 16/11 e 27/12/2005. A variedade de mandioca usada foi a "RS 13", plantada em baldes de 12 litros, enterrados no espaçamento com 2,0 x 0,8m. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com 11 repetições. A soma térmica diária (STd, °C dia foi calculada a partir da emergência e acumulada por: STa = sigmaSTd. O IAA foi determinado nas plantas de cada balde quando uma raiz atingia um diâmetro de 1cm. O NF na data do IAA e o número final de folhas (NFF até o primeiro simpódio também foram determinados. O filocrono variou de 20,3 a 29,5°C dia folha-1 e seus valores foram maiores quanto mais tardio foi o plantio. O NFF variou entre as épocas de plantio, aumentando com o atraso do plantio. O NF no IAA foi similar nas quatro épocas de plantio e ocorreu quando, em média, o NF corresponde a 20,9 (±1,0 folhas.The accumulated number of leaves (NF on the main stem is related to the appearance of several developmental stages in cassava. The beginning of starch accumulation (IAA in the fibrous roots of cassava switches the source/sink ratio because of the translocation of photoassimilates to the major storage organ in this species. This study was aimed at estimating the phyllochron and identifing a morphological indicator based on NF for IAA in cassava grown in several planting dates. A field experiment was carried out in Santa Maria, RS

  12. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Hisato; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi

    1997-01-01

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  13. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, M.

    1977-12-01

    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  14. HORMONAL REGULATION OF SELENIUM ACCUMULATION BY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal regulation is considered to be a unique mechanism controlling growth and development of living organism. The review discusses the correlations between pant hormonal status of non-accumulators and hyper-accumulators of Se with the accumulation levels of this microelement. The phenomenon of stimulation and redistribution of selenium as a result of phytohormone treatment, the peculiarities of phytohormones effect among different species and cultivars, and influence of plant sexualization on selenium accumulation are described in article. Data of hormonal regulation of selenium level for spinach, garlic, perennial onion, Brassica chinenesis and Valeriana officialis are presented in the review.

  15. Root transcripts associated with arsenic accumulation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rasika M Potdukhe

    2018-02-06

    Feb 6, 2018 ... an option for development of a sustainable phytoremediation process for As mitigation. Accumulation of ... People living in areas contaminated with. As suffer .... RNA was used to enrich mRNA and cDNA library construc- tion.

  16. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TFtransgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  17. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    C?zar, Andr?s; Sanz-Mart?n, Marina; Mart?, Elisa; Gonz?lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, B?rbara; G?lvez, Jos? ?.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright: © 2015 Cózar et al. Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by ...

  18. Credit Constraints, Political Instability, and Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Risto Herrala; Rima Turk-Ariss

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the complex interactions between credit constraints, political instability, and capital accumulation using a novel approach based on Kiyotaki and Moore’s (1997) theoretical framework. Drawing on a unique firm-level data set from Middle-East and North Africa (MENA), empirical findings point to a large and significant effect of credit conditions on capital accumulation and suggest that continued political unrest worsens credit constraints. The results support the view that financ...

  19. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alterna...

  20. Vegetative cover and PAHs accumulation in soils of urban green space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chi; Ouyang Zhiyun; Wang Meie; Chen Weiping; Jiao Wentao

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how urban land uses influence soil accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the urban green spaces composed of different vegetative cover. How did soil properties, urbanization history, and population density affect the outcomes were also considered. Soils examined were obtained at 97 green spaces inside the Beijing metropolis. PAH contents of the soils were influenced most significantly by their proximity to point source of industries such as the coal combustion installations. Beyond the influence circle of industrial emissions, land use classifications had no significant effect on the extent of PAH accumulation in soils. Instead, the nature of vegetative covers affected PAH contents of the soils. Tree–shrub–herb and woodland settings trapped more airborne PAH and soils under these vegetative patterns accumulated more PAHs than those of the grassland. Urbanization history, population density and soil properties had no apparent impact on PAHs accumulations in soils of urban green space. - Highlights: ► Land use did not affect PAHs in soils except for areas adjacent to industrial sources. ► Tree–shrub–herb and woodland cover amass more PAHs in soils than grassland cover. ► Urban development and soil property factors had little effect on PAHs in soils. - Industrial emissions aside, vegetative cover is the dominant factor controlling accumulation of PAHs in urban green space soils.

  1. 47 CFR 90.207 - Types of emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types of emissions. 90.207 Section 90.207... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.207 Types of emissions. Unless specified elsewhere in this part, stations will be authorized emissions as provided for in paragraphs (b) through (n) of...

  2. Accumulation of radionuclides by lichen symbionts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifontova, M G; Kulikov, N V [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh

    1983-01-01

    The aim of investigation is the quantitative estimation of ability and role of separate symbionts in the accumulation of radionuclides. As investigation volumes, durably cultivated green lichen alga Trebouxia erici and lichen fungi extracted from Cladonia rangiferina, Parmelia caperata and Acarospora fuscata are used. The accumulation of radioactive isotopes with fungi and seaweeds is estimated according to accumulation coefficients (AC) which are the ratio of radiation concentration in plants and agarized medium. Radionuclide content (/sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs) is determined radiometrically. A special series of experiments is done to investigate radionuclide accumulation dependences with lichen seaweed and fungi on light conditions. It is shown that both symbionts of lichen-seaweed and fungus take part in the accumulation of radionuclide from outer medium (atmospheric fall-out and soil). However fungus component constituting the base of structural organization of thallus provides the greater part of radionuclides accumulated by the plant. Along with this the violation of viability of seaweed symbionts particularly in the case of light deficiency brings about the reduction of /sup 137/Cs sorption by seaweeds and tells on the total content of radiocesium in plant thallus.

  3. User instructions for the DESCARTES environmental accumulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, T.B.; Eslinger, P.W.; Nichols, W.E.; Lessor, K.S.; Ouderkirk, S.J.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project work is conducted under several technical and administrative tasks, among which is the Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates task. The staff on this task have developed a suite of computer codes which are used to estimate doses to individuals in the public. This document contains the user instructions for the DESCARTES (Dynamic estimates of concentrations and Accumulated Radionuclides in Terrestrial Environments) suite of codes. In addition to the DESCARTES code, this includes two air data preprocessors, a database postprocessor, and several utility routines that are used to format input data needed for DESCARTES

  4. Stray-electron accumulation and effects in HIF accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Furman, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Stoltz, P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    Stray electrons can be introduced in positive-charge accelerators for heavy ion fusion (or other applications) as a result of ionization of ambient gas or gas released from walls due to halo-ion impact, or as a result of secondary-electron emission. Electron accumulation is impacted by the ion beam potential, accelerating fields, multipole magnetic fields used for beam focus, and the pulse duration. We highlight the distinguishing features of heavy-ion accelerators as they relate to stray-electron issues, and present first results from a sequence of simulations to characterize the electron cloud that follows from realistic ion distributions. Also, we present ion simulations with prescribed random electron distributions, undertaken to begin to quantify the effects of electrons on ion beam quality

  5. Acoustic emission from thermal-gradient cracks in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.R.; Kupperman, D.S.; Wrona, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    A feasibility study has been conducted to evaluate the potential use of acoustic emission to monitor thermal-shock damage in direct electrical heating of UO 2 pellets. In the apparatus used for the present tests, two acoustic-emission sensors were placed on extensions of the upper and lower electrical feedthroughs. Commercially available equipment was used to accumulate acoustic-emission data. The accumulation of events displayed on a cathode-ray-tube screen indicates the total number of acoustic-emission events at a particular location within the pellet stack. These tests have indicated that acoustic emission can be used to monitor thermal-shock damage in UO 2 pellets subjected to direct-electrical heating. 8 references

  6. Acoustic emission on thermoelastic martensitic transformations in alloys in the course of mechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, V.A.; Kokhanenko, D.V.

    2004-01-01

    The connection of the emission process with the process of the deformation accumulation and relaxation in the cycle of the martensitic transformations is studied. The martensitic transformations cycling was investigated by cycling change in the temperature in the Ti 50 Ni 50 Cu 10 alloys. The deformation accumulation and recovery is observed in the alloys undergoing the thermoelastic martensitic transformations under the mechanical loading conditions. The acoustic emission, accompanying the martensitic transformations, reflects the peculiarities of the alloy deformation behavior by the martensitic transformations. The anomalous acoustic effect correlates with the reversible deformation accumulation and does not correlates with the irreversible deformation accumulation [ru

  7. Nickel accumulation and storage in bradyrhizobium japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, R.J.; Pihl, T.D.; Stults, L.; Sray, W.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogenase-depressed (chemolithotrophic growth conditions) and heterotrophically grown cultures of Bradyrhizobium japonicum accumulated nickel about equally over a 3-h period. Both types of cultures accumulated nickel primarily in a form that was not exchangeable with NiCl 2 , and they accumulated much more Ni than would be needed for the Ni-containing hydrogenase. The nickel accumulated by heterotrophically incubated cultures could later be mobilized to allow active hydrogenase synthesis during derepression in the absence of nickel, while cells both grown with Ni and the derepressed without nickel had low hydrogenase activities. The level of activity in cells grown with Ni and then derepressed without nickel was about the same as that in cultures derepressed in the presence of nickel. The Ni accumulated by heterotrophically grown cultures was associated principally with soluble proteins rather than particulate material, and this Ni was not lost upon dialyzing an extract containing the soluble proteins against either Ni-containing or EDTA-containing buffer. However, this Ni was lost upon pronase or low pH treatments. The soluble Ni-binding proteins were partially purified by gel filtration and DEAE chromatography. They were not antigenically related to hydrogenase peptides. Much of the 63 Ni eluted as a single peak of 48 kilodaltons. Experiments involving immunuprecipitation of 63 Ni-containing hydrogenase suggested that the stored source of Ni in heterotrophic cultures that could later be mobilized into hydrogenase resided in the nonexchangeable Ni-containing fraction rather than in loosely bound or ionic forms

  8. Evaluation of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in the larynx of unilateral vocal fold paralysis cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimura, Yoshitsugu; Hayashi, Ibuki; Higashikawa, Masahiko; Okamura, Terue; Nakai, Ken; Ichihara, Kengo

    2011-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is employed to decide the treatment strategy for malignant tumors clinically. Meanwhile, glucose metabolism is enhanced in the exercise of muscles. Because vocal folds always conduct glucose metabolism by phonation and swallowing, physiological accumulation of FDG may be found in the normal larynx. In this study we examined FDG accumulation in the larynx of patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis established by endoscope. FDG-PET/CT was taken one hour after the FDG administration (early image) and again two hours later (delayed image). All patients had no chance to utter after the FDG administration. In 25 of the 28 patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis, standardized uptake value (SUV) max was higher, by visual inspection, in the normal side of the larynx than in the paralyzed side. None of the 3 patients in whom no accumulation was seen on the non-paralyzed side had malignant disease. In both images, SUV max of the normal side was significantly higher than paralyzed side (p<0.01). In the delayed images, accumulation of FDG was significantly higher than that in the early images (p<0.01). We believe that strong FDG accumulation in the normal side of the larynx of patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis may owe to high glucose metabolism of the vocal muscles from muscle hyperkinesis. We conclude that unilateral accumulation in the larynx suggests not only cancer of that same side of the larynx but also paralysis of the other side. (author)

  9. Ordinary differential equation for local accumulation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M

    2011-08-21

    Cell differentiation in a developing tissue is controlled by the concentration fields of signaling molecules called morphogens. Formation of these concentration fields can be described by the reaction-diffusion mechanism in which locally produced molecules diffuse through the patterned tissue and are degraded. The formation kinetics at a given point of the patterned tissue can be characterized by the local accumulation time, defined in terms of the local relaxation function. Here, we show that this time satisfies an ordinary differential equation. Using this equation one can straightforwardly determine the local accumulation time, i.e., without preliminary calculation of the relaxation function by solving the partial differential equation, as was done in previous studies. We derive this ordinary differential equation together with the accompanying boundary conditions and demonstrate that the earlier obtained results for the local accumulation time can be recovered by solving this equation. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  10. Selenium accumulation in the cockle Anadara trapezia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, Dianne F.; Maher, William A.; Kyd, Jennelle

    2004-01-01

    An extensive study on Se accumulation in a population of Anadara trapezia from a marine lake is reported. The effects of organism mass, gender, reproductive cycle, and season on Se accumulation and tissue distribution were investigated. Analyses showed that gender and reproductive cycle had no significant effect on Se accumulation. A. trapezia showed a strong positive correlation between Se burden and tissue mass. Constant Se concentrations were observed within individual populations but varied spatially with sediment Se concentrations. Se concentrations in tissues decreased from gills > gonad/intestine > mantle > muscle > foot, which remained constant over 12 months, however, significantly lower concentrations were observed in the summer compared to winter. A. trapezia is a good biomonitor for Se, as gender and size do not effect concentration, however, season of collection must be reported if changes in Se bioavailability are to be identified in short term studies, or during intersite comparisons. - Capsule: The marine bivalve Anadara trapezia is a good bioindicator for marine selenium contamination

  11. Accumulation of fluoride by plants and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njenga, L.W.; Kariuki, D.N.

    1994-01-01

    Fluoride in plant and vegetable samples has been determined using ion selective electrode. The analysis was carried out after ashing the sample on an open flame, adding perchloric acid and allowing the hydrogen fluoride to diffuse into sodium hydroxide layer.The results obtained show that kale and pumpkins can accumulate more than ten times their normal values of fluoride while plants were found to accumulate upto 100μg/g fluoride when exposed to highlevels of fluoride in water or soil. (author)

  12. Carbon accumulation in pristine and drained mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekilae, M.

    2011-07-01

    The carbon accumulation of 73 peat columns from 48 pristine and drained mires was investigated using a total of 367 dates and age-depth models derived from bulk density measurements. Peat columns were collected from mires of varying depth, age, degree of natural state and nutrient conditions in aapa mire and raised bog regions and coastal mires from southern and central Finland and Russian Karelia. Particular attention was paid to the accumulation of carbon over the last 300 years, as this period encompasses the best estimates of the oxic layer (acrotelm) age across the range of sites investigated. In general, drained mires are initially more nutrient-rich than pristine mires. Organic matter decomposes more rapidly at drained sites than at pristine sites, resulting in thinner peat layers and carbon accumulation but a higher dry bulk density and carbon content. The average carbon accumulation was calculated as 24.0 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine sites and 19.4 g m-2 yr-1 at drained sites, while for peat layers younger than 300 years the respective figures were 45.3 and 34.5 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine and drained sites. For the <300-year-old peat layers studied here, the average thickness was 19 cm less and the carbon accumulation rate 10.8 g m-2 yr-1 lower in drained areas than in pristine areas. The amount carbon accumulation of surface peat layers depends upon the mire site type, vegetation and natural state; variations reflect differences in plant communities as well as factors that affect biomass production and decay rates. The highest accumulation rates and thus carbon binding for layers younger than 300 years were measured in the ombrotrophic mire site types (Sphagnum fuscum bog and Sphagnum fuscum pine bog), and the second highest rates in wet, treeless oligotrophic and minerotrophic mire site types. The lowest values of carbon accumulation over the last 300 years were obtained for the most transformed, sparsely forested and forested mire site types, where the water

  13. Thermal energy accumulators. A bibliographical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlety, Paul

    1971-01-01

    Energy storage is a challenge, notably for spacecraft, submarines and non-polluting automotive vehicles. After a comparison of mass energies of different principles of energy accumulation (magnetic, electrostatic, solid elasticity, kinetic energy, gaseous elasticity, electro-chemistry, sensitive heat, freezing heat, fuels, radioactivity, nuclear fission or fusion, mass energy), the author discusses the choice of thermal storage, presents the main bodies used for thermal energy accumulation (molten salts such as lithium hydride or lithium salt eutectics, or other compounds such as alumina, paraffins), and gives an overview of the main theoretical problems [fr

  14. Pollution and International Trade in Services

    OpenAIRE

    Arik Levinson

    2009-01-01

    Two central topics in recent rounds of international trade negotiations have been environmental concerns, and services trade. While each is undoubtedly important, they are unrelated. In this paper I show that the services-environment link is small, for two reasons. First, services account for only a small fraction of overall pollution. For none of five major air pollutants does the service sector account for even four percent of total emissions; for three of the five services account for less...

  15. Emission Inventory for Fugitive Emissions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Nielsen, Malene

    This report presents the methodology and data used in the Danish inventory of fugitive emissions from fuels for the years until 2007. The inventory of fugitive emissions includes CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2, dioxin, PAH and particulate matter. In 2007 the total Danish emission of greenhouse...

  16. Implications of metal accumulation mechanisms to phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Abdul R; Schröder, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Trace elements (heavy metals and metalloids) are important environmental pollutants, and many of them are toxic even at very low concentrations. Pollution of the biosphere with trace elements has accelerated dramatically since the Industrial Revolution. Primary sources are the burning of fossil fuels, mining and smelting of metalliferous ores, municipal wastes, agrochemicals, and sewage. In addition, natural mineral deposits containing particularly large quantities of heavy metals are found in many regions. These areas often support characteristic plant species thriving in metal-enriched environments. Whereas many species avoid the uptake of heavy metals from these soils, some of them can accumulate significantly high concentrations of toxic metals, to levels which by far exceed the soil levels. The natural phenomenon of heavy metal tolerance has enhanced the interest of plant ecologists, plant physiologists, and plant biologists to investigate the physiology and genetics of metal tolerance in specialized hyperaccumulator plants such as Arabidopsis halleri and Thlaspi caerulescens. In this review, we describe recent advances in understanding the genetic and molecular basis of metal tolerance in plants with special reference to transcriptomics of heavy metal accumulator plants and the identification of functional genes implied in tolerance and detoxification. Plants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity and respond to avoid detrimental effects in a variety of different ways. The toxic dose depends on the type of ion, ion concentration, plant species, and stage of plant growth. Tolerance to metals is based on multiple mechanisms such as cell wall binding, active transport of ions into the vacuole, and formation of complexes with organic acids or peptides. One of the most important mechanisms for metal detoxification in plants appears to be chelation of metals by low-molecular-weight proteins such as metallothioneins and peptide ligands, the phytochelatins. For

  17. Radio Frequency Sensing of Particulate Matter Accumulation on a Gasoline Particulate Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Sappok, Alex [Filter Sensing Technologies; Ragaller, Paul [Filter Sensing Technologies; Bromberg, L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    2016-10-30

    Filter Sensing Technology’s radio frequency (RF) sensor for particulate filter on-board diagnostics (OBD) was studied on a lean gasoline engine at the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The response of the RF sensor to particulate matter (PM) or “soot” accumulation on the gasoline particulate filter (GPF) installed in the engine exhaust was evaluated. In addition, end plugs of the GPF were purposely removed, and subsequent changes to the RF sensor measured soot loading on the GPF were characterized. Results from the study showed that the RF sensor can accurately measure soot accumulation on a GPF; furthermore, the predicted decreased soot accumulation due to plug removal was detected by the RF sensor. Overall, the studies were short and preliminary in nature; however, clearly, the RF sensor demonstrated the capability of measuring GPF soot loading at a level suitable for use in lean gasoline engine emission control OBD and control.

  18. Assessing Multiple Pathways for Achieving China’s National Emissions Reduction Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve China’s target of carbon intensity emissions reduction in 2030, there is a need to identify a scientific pathway and feasible strategies. In this study, we used stochastic frontier analysis method of energy efficiency, incorporating energy structure, economic structure, human capital, capital stock and potential energy efficiency to identify an efficient pathway for achieving emissions reduction target. We set up 96 scenarios including single factor scenarios and multi-factors combination scenarios for the simulation. The effects of each scenario on achieving the carbon intensity reduction target are then evaluated. It is found that: (1 Potential energy efficiency has the greatest contribution to the carbon intensity emissions reduction target; (2 they are unlikely to reach the 2030 carbon intensity reduction target of 60% by only optimizing a single factor; (3 in order to achieve the 2030 target, several aspects have to be adjusted: the fossil fuel ratio must be lower than 80%, and its average growth rate must be decreased by 2.2%; the service sector ratio in GDP must be higher than 58.3%, while the growth rate of non-service sectors must be lowered by 2.4%; and both human capital and capital stock must achieve and maintain a stable growth rate and a 1% increase annually in energy efficiency. Finally, the specific recommendations of this research were discussed, including constantly improved energy efficiency; the upgrading of China’s industrial structure must be accelerated; emissions reduction must be done at the root of energy sources; multi-level input mechanisms in overall levels of education and training to cultivate the human capital stock must be established; investment in emerging equipment and accelerate the closure of backward production capacity to accumulate capital stock.

  19. Accumulative pollution, "clean technology," and policy design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toman, M.A.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the optimal long-term management of an accumulative but assimilable pollutant through economic incentive policies that restrict more damaging production processes and induce more benign alternatives. Using a simple general equilibrium approach, we consider the possibility that

  20. Uptake, accumulation and some biochemical responses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under the conditions of these increasing zinc concentrations, the highest zinc accumulation was obtained in the roots of the plants treated with 10 mM applications. The zinc concentration in the vegetative parts, was highest in the root and was lowest in the cotyledons. The highest bioconcentration factor (BCF) value was ...

  1. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umukoro

    1977-09-09

    Sep 9, 1977 ... 1Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), EEA Famaillá, Argentina. 2Department of Plant Sciences, University of California Davis, CA, USA. Accepted 17 October, 2012. The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa. Duch.) nursery ...

  2. Capital accumulation and embodied technological progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, P.M.

    This paper combines technology adoption with capital accumulation taking into account technological progress. We model this as a multi-stage optimal control problem and solve it using the corresponding maximum principle. The model with linear revenue can be solved analytically, while the model with

  3. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Có zar, André s; Sanz-Martí n, Marina; Martí , Elisa; Gonzá lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bá rbara; Gá lvez, José Á .; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  4. Organic carbon accumulation in Brazilian mangal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Sanders, Luciana M.; Sathy Naidu, A.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.

    2010-12-01

    This study reviews the organic carbon (OC) accumulation rates in mangrove forests, margins and intertidal mudflats in geographically distinct areas along the Brazilian coastline (Northeastern to Southern). Our initial results indicate that the mangrove forests in the Northeastern region of Brazil are accumulating more OC (353 g/m 2/y) than in the Southeastern areas (192 g/m 2/y) being that the sediment accumulation rates, 2.8 and 2.5 mm/y, and OC content ˜7.1% and ˜5.8% (dry sediment weight) were contributing factors to the discrepancies between the forests. The intertidal mudflats on the other hand showed substantially greater OC accumulation rates, sedimentation rates and content 1129 g/m 2/y and 234 g/m 2/y; 7.3 and 3.4 mm/y; 10.3% and ˜2.7% (OC of dry sediment weight content), respectively, in the Northeastern compared to the Southeastern region. Mangrove forests in the South-Southeastern regions of Brazil may be more susceptible to the rising sea level, as they are geographically constricted by the vast mountain ranges along the coastline.

  5. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cózar

    Full Text Available Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2, as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled, are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  6. Curriculum Development through YTS Modular Credit Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This document reports the evaluation of the collaborately developed Modular Training Framework (MainFrame), a British curriculum development project, built around a commitment to a competency-based, modular credit accumulation program. The collaborators were three local education authorities (LEAs), those of Bedfordshire, Haringey, and Sheffield,…

  7. Immunohistochemical evaluation of iron accumulation in term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classical immunohistochemical studies on placenta have shown that there is a linear increase in iron storage in the placenta in the first half of a normal pregnancy, however, these stocks are decreased in normal 3rd trimester placenta. Iron accumulation in term placentas of preeclamptic and normal pregnancies were ...

  8. NUTRIENTS ACCUMULATION IN FRUITS OF BERRY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Parascovia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of observations and biochemical analysis of the berries made during the years 2013-2014 in Republic of Moldova, it was found that bacciferous species included in the study had a wide spectrum of colors, from white, orange, red to blue and black. The possibility to extend the consumption of fresh berries is because these species ripen in series starting with honeysuckle in May, then one by one until September: strawberry, raspberry, currant, gooseberry, barberry, jostaberry, blueberry, sea buckthorn, blackberry, chokeberry, guilder rose. Chokeberries accumulated the highest average amount of soluble solids - 18.02%, jostaberries highlighted with the highest average amount of accumulated sugars - 9.56%. Red currant highlighted with the highest acidity - 5.22%, while blueberries with low acidity - 1.43%. Rosehip has accumulated the highest average amount of tannins and coloring substances - 546.65 mg%. Rosehip berries accumulated the highest amount of vitamin C average - 292.38 mg%, the black currant - 179.69 mg%, jostaberry - 112.86 mg%, and sea buckthorn - 96.7 mg%. The highest average values of the coefficient sugar / acid certifying good qualities were found in: blueberries - 4.39, guelder rose - 3.93, gooseberry - 3.55.

  9. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) nursery runner plants, cv. eCamarosaf, was determined for three growing seasons. Plant growth and fruit production patterns were also evaluated. The experiments were carried out on plants propagated in high ...

  10. RF SYSTEM FOR THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRODOWSKI, J.; DELONG, J.; METH, M.; SMITH, K.; ZALTSMAN, A.

    2001-01-01

    During accumulation the RF beam current in the spallation neutron source ring rises from 0 to 50 amperes. A clean, 250 nanosecond gap is needed for the extraction kicker risetime. Large momentum spread and small peak current are needed to prevent instabilities and stopband related losses. A robust RF system meeting these requirements has been designed

  11. Reduced collagen accumulation after major surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L N; Kallehave, F; Karlsmark, T

    1996-01-01

    .01)). This decline was significantly higher in the six patients who had a postoperative infection (median 3.02 (range -0.06 to 6.14) versus 0.36 (range -1.56 to 12.60) micrograms/cm, P = 0.02). This study shows that major surgery is associated with impairment of subcutaneous collagen accumulation in a test wound...

  12. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  13. Capital accumulation in private information economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2005), s. 1-22 ISSN 1534-5998 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : moral hazard * capital accumulation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1172&context=bejm

  14. Accumulating Project Management Knowledge Using Process Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niederman, Fred; March, Salvatore T.; Mueller, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Process theory has become an important mechanism for the accumulation of knowledge in a number of disciplines. In contrast with variance theory, which focuses on co-variation of dependent and independent variables, process theory focuses on sequences of activities, their duration and the intervals

  15. Contextual investigation of factors affecting sludge accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit latrines in slums areas of Uganda fill up faster than might be expected from some estimates owing to inappropriate use and failure to consider critical factors affecting sludge accumulation rates at the planning, design and construction stages. This study sought to investigate factors affecting filling rates of lined pit latrines ...

  16. Temporal accumulation of oriented visual features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugeault, Nicolas; Krüger, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for accumulating on-line a model of a moving object (e.g., when manipulated by a robot). The proposed scheme is based on Bayesian filtering of local features, filtering jointly position, orientation and appearance information. The work presented here is novel ...

  17. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Cózar, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  18. Accumulation of nanocarriers in the ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schädlich, Andreas; Hoffmann, Stefan; Mueller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Several nanocarrier systems are frequently used in modern pharmaceutical therapies. Within this study a potential toxicity risk of all nanoscaled drug delivery systems was found. An accumulation of several structurally different nanocarriers but not of soluble polymers was detected in rodent ovar...... but the results might as well open a new field of targeted ovarian therapies....

  19. Phytochelatin and cadmium accumulation in wheat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolt, J.P.; Sneller, F.E.C.; Bryngelson, T.; Lundborg, T.; Schat, H.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential heavy metal that can be harmful at low concentrations in organisms. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease Cd accumulation in the grains of wheats aimed for human consumption. In response to Cd, higher plants synthesize sulphur-rich peptides, phytochelatins (PCs).

  20. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  1. Snow as an accumulator of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brown

    1976-01-01

    Using simple analytical techniques, the amounts of air pollutants accumulated in winter snow were determined and the results correlated with lichen survival on trees. Pollutants measured were particulate matter, sulfate, and chloride. An inverse relationship was found between amounts of each of these pollutants and the abundance of various lichens.

  2. Electric charger for an accumulator or battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robers, E.W.J.; Molenaar, B.A.M.; Smit, W.; Bech, L.P.; Bouman, C.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to an electric charger for an accumulator or a battery or the like, which is adapted for rapid charging during an on-period and comprises for this purpose control means for starting and ending the on-period. The charger is provided with a circuit for converting a supply voltage

  3. Mitochondrial accumulation of APP and Abeta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Pavel F; Petersen, Anna Camilla Hansson; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that alterations in energy metabolism are among the earliest events that occur in the Alzheimer disease (AD) affected brain. Energy consumption is drastically decreased in the AD-affected regions of cerebral cortex and hippocampus pointing towards compromised mitocho...

  4. Complex forest dynamics indicate potential for slowing carbon accumulation in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulston, John W; Wear, David N; Vose, James M

    2015-01-23

    Over the past century forest regrowth in Europe and North America expanded forest carbon (C) sinks and offset C emissions but future C accumulation is uncertain. Policy makers need insights into forest C dynamics as they anticipate emissions futures and goals. We used land use and forest inventory data to estimate how forest C dynamics have changed in the southeastern United States and attribute changes to land use, management, and disturbance causes. From 2007-2012, forests yielded a net sink of C because of net land use change (+6.48 Tg C yr(-1)) and net biomass accumulation (+75.4 Tg C yr(-1)). Forests disturbed by weather, insect/disease, and fire show dampened yet positive forest C changes (+1.56, +1.4, +5.48 Tg C yr(-1), respectively). Forest cutting caused net decreases in C (-76.7 Tg C yr(-1)) but was offset by forest growth (+143.77 Tg C yr(-1)). Forest growth rates depend on age or stage of development and projected C stock changes indicate a gradual slowing of carbon accumulation with anticipated forest aging (a reduction of 9.5% over the next five years). Additionally, small shifts in land use transitions consistent with economic futures resulted in a 40.6% decrease in C accumulation.

  5. Accumulation of Radiocesium in Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, Y.; Takenaka, C.; Kanasashi, T. [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, 464-8601, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture (Japan); Deguchi, S. [School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture, 464-8601 (Japan); Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu City, Mie Prefecture, 514-0102 (Japan); Ozawa, H. [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Koriyama City Fukushima Prefecture, 963-0112 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    1. Introduction: After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) had deposited on forests in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to comprehend radiocesium circulation in forest ecosystem, it is important to understand about properties of {sup 137}Cs accumulation of each plant species. In addition, {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants would be candidates of phyto-remediation, which is a remediation method using plants to remove pollutants from environment. We aimed to find {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants and to clarify the accumulate mechanisms. 2. Materials and Methods: We collected soil and plant samples at 22 points in Fukushima Prefecture more than once a year from May 2011 to October 2013. Surface (0-5 cm) soils were collected at the same site as the plant sampling. The soil samples were air-dried for 2-3 weeks and then passed through a 2 mm sieve. Foliar samples were washed with tap water to remove soil particles and rinsed with deionized water for {sup 137}Cs and other elements analysis. The samples were dried at 80 deg. C for 48 hr and ground with a mill mixer. {sup 137}Cs activities in soil and plant samples were determined by means of high-purity Ge detector (HPGe). The elements concentrations of the plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after wet digestion with HNO{sub 3}. 3. Results and Discussion: As a whole trend, evergreen tree species such as Camellia japonica and Cryptomeria japonica contained {sup 137}Cs at high concentration due to the deposited {sup 137}Cs on old leaves and foliar absorption. The activities in leaves of deciduous tree species were lower than those in evergreen trees. However, we confirmed that a deciduous tree species, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, collected in 2012 and 2013 accumulated {sup 137}Cs, whereas that collected in 2011 did not accumulate {sup 137}Cs. The {sup 137}Cs concentration of E. sciadophylloides in 2012 and 2013 were higher than those of

  6. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K.; Turunen, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  7. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K; Turunen, J; Alm, J [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  8. Anthropogenic mercury emissions from 1980 to 2012 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Deng, Meihua; Li, Tingqiang; Japenga, Jan; Chen, Qianqian; Yang, Xiaoe; He, Zhenli

    2017-07-01

    China was considered the biggest contributor for airborne mercury in the world but the amount of mercury emission in effluents and solid wastes has not been documented. In this study, total national and regional mercury emission to the environment via exhaust gases, effluents and solid wastes were accounted with updated emission factors and the amount of goods produced and/or consumed. The national mercury emission in China increased from 448 to 2151 tons during the 1980-2012 period. Nearly all of the emissions were ended up as exhaust gases and solid wastes. The proportion of exhaust gases decreased with increasing share of solid wastes and effluents. Of all the anthropogenic sources, coal was the most important contributor in quantity, followed by mercury mining, gold smelting, nonferrous smelting, iron steel production, domestic wastes, and cement production, with accounting for more than 90% of the total emission. There was a big variation of regional cumulative mercury emission during 1980-2012 in China, with higher emissions occurred in eastern areas and lower values in the western and far northern regions. The biggest cumulative emission occurred in GZ (Guizhou), reaching 3974 t, while the smallest cumulative emission was lower than 10 t in XZ (Tibet). Correspondingly, mercury accumulation in soil were higher in regions with larger emissions in unit area. Therefore, it is urgent to reduce anthropogenic mercury emission and subsequent impact on ecological functions and human health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Greenhouse gases and emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, A.; Dudek, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Global cooperation is essential in cutting greenhouse-gas emissions, say Alice LeBlanc and Daniel J. Dudek of the Environmental Defense in New York City. The first step, they continue, is agreement among nations on an overall global limit for all greenhouse gases, followed by an allocation of the global limit among nations. The agreements must contain effective reporting and monitoring systems and enforcement provisions, they add. The Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed by most nations of the world in Brazil in 1992, provides the foundation for such an agreement, LeBlanc and Dudek note. open-quotes International emissions trading is a way to lower costs and expand reduction options for the benefit of all,close quotes they contend. Under such an arrangement, an international agency would assign allowances, stated in tons of carbon dioxide. Countries would be free to buy and sell allowances, but no country could exceed, in a given year, the total allowances it holds. By emitting less than its allowed amount, a country would accumulate more allowances, which it could sell. The authors claim such a system would offer benefits to the world economy by saving billions of dollars in pollution-reduction costs while still achieving emission limits established in an international agreement

  10. FAX SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Telephone Service

    2002-01-01

    As from 1st of July 2002, responsibility for running the Fax Service will be transfered to the Printer Service. Future requests for machines, toner and breakdown should be sent to Printer.Support@cern.ch - tel 78888. Telephone Service

  11. Nuclear services for Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.

    1991-01-01

    The UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) became AEA Technology in April 1990. The commercial interests are focussed through 4 business units: AEA Reactor Services, with whom several contracts have been won from Japanese customers for high resolution Field Emission Gun Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (FEGSTEM); AEA Fuel Services, a contract is being negotiated with an existing Japanese customer; AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, with whom further development of an alternative approach to evaporation of liquid waste effluent for specific application in Japan is in progress; AEA Fusion. 1 fig

  12. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Gaitán

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1, compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1. We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1 and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced. Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services.

  13. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán, Lucía; Läderach, Peter; Graefe, Sophie; Rao, Idupulapati; van der Hoek, Rein

    2016-01-01

    Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1), compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1). We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA) out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1) and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced). Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services.

  14. Experimental study of advanced continuous acoustic emission monitoring of BWR components. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, J.W.; Hartman, W.F.

    1980-09-01

    The program consisted of installing, maintaining, and monitoring AE sensors located on primary piping, nozzles, and valves in the BWR system. Analysis of the AE data was correlated to the results of supplementary nondestructive testing techniques used during the in-service inspection, performed at refueling outages. Purpose of the program was to develop the on-line surveillance acoustic emission technique in order to identify areas of possible structural degradation. Result of reducing inspection time was to reduce accumulated radiation exposure to inspecting personnel and to reduce the amount of critical plant outage time by identifying the critical inspection areas during operation. The program demonstrated the capability of acoustic emission instrumentation to endure the nuclear reactor environment. The acoustic emission sensors withstood 12 months of reactor operation at temperatures of 400 0 F and greater in high radiation fields. The preamplifiers, also mounted in the reactor environment, operated for the 12-month period in 100% humidity, 250 0 F conditions. The remaining cable and AE instrumentation were operated in controlled environments

  15. Service Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Hsuan, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the studies on service modularity with a goal of informing service science and advancing contemporary service systems research. Modularity, a general systems property, can add theoretical underpinnings to the conceptual development of service science...... in general and service systems in particular. Our research is guided by the following question: how can modularity theory inform service system design? We present a review of the modularity literature and associated concepts. We then introduce the contemporary service science and service system discourse...

  16. Unknown and abnormal accumulation in the chest in bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshiaki; Takeuchi, Masashi; Tokunaga, Koji; Maeda, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Kazuhiko.

    1979-01-01

    In scintigraphies of forty patients with hemiplegia following appoplexia, focal abnormal accumulations in the chest region were seen in bone scintigraphies of four patients. These hot accumulations could be neither rib fracture, rib metastases, nor abnormal calcium accumulation. A mechanism of these accumulation remains to undicided. We believe that this phenomena is related to abnormal bone metabolism in hemiplegial condition. (author)

  17. Plasma emission mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melrose, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Only three emission processes are thought to play a role in solar radio emission: plasma emission, gyromagnetic emission and bremsstrahlung. In this chapter plasma emission is discussed and the processes involved in its production are treated, namely, the generation of Langmuir turbulence, the partial conversion into fundamental transverse radiation, production of secondary Langmuir waves and the generation of second-harmonic transverse radiation. (U.K.)

  18. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed

  19. The future of the antiproton accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autin, B.

    1983-01-01

    When the Antiproton Accumulator was designed in 1977, it was considered as an element of the high energy proton-antiproton collision experiments in the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Since that time, antiproton physics has become more and more popular: a second experimental area was built in the SPS, the Intersecting Storage Rings started a special antiproton programme and a considerable interest has bloomed in the energy range of nuclear physics with the LEAR machine. Moreover, any projection on hadron physics in the coming years shows an insatiable appetite of experimentalists for more antiprotons. Therefore, basic studies have been pursued since the beginning of last year to transform the accumulator into an abundant source of antiprotons

  20. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; Ferro Vázquez, Cruz; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Costa Casais, Manuela; Taboada Rodríguez, Teresa; Rodríguez Lado, Luis

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  1. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T. [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1986-03-15

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed.

  2. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  3. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, O [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Gresillon, D [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1994-07-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Costa, O.; Gresillon, D.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs

  5. Significance of Tc-99m pyrophosphate accumulation in unstable angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tange, Shoichi; Kondo, Chisato; Ohta, Yoshiko; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Shigeta, Akiko; Uchida, Tatsuro; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Kaneko, Noboru; Hosoda, Saichi

    1993-01-01

    Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) and Tl-201 simultaneous dual energy single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed in 33 patients with clinically unstable angina. According to the presence or absence of PYP accumulation in the myocardium, the patients were classified as PYP (+) group (n=22) and PYP (-) group (n=11). Clinical features, types of unstable angina, ECG changes, and serial creatine kinase (CK) data were compared in the two groups. The 'new angina at rest' type of unstable angina was more significantly common in the PYP (+) group (16/22) than the PYP (-) group (2/11). The remaining 6 patients in the PYP (+) group and 2 patients in the PYP (-) group had 'angina of effort with changing pattern'. There was a significant difference in the occurrence of ST elevation and ST depression between the group: 59% in the PYP (+) group vs. 18% in the PYP (-) group for ST elevation and 23% in the PYP (+) group vs. 64% in the PYP (-) group for ST depression. The PYP (+) group showed significant improvement in ejection fraction in the stable state (57±12%) as compared with the unstable state (62±11%), although there was no difference between the stable and unstable state in the PYP (-) group. Although wall motion abnormality index (WMI) was poorer in the PYP (+) group than the PYP (-) group, it improved to the same degree as the PYP (-) group one month later. These data suggest that the area showing PYP (+) may reflect stunned myocardium and that Tc-99m PYP accumulation may correlate with clinical features of unstable angina. (N.K.)

  6. The Antiproton Accumulator becomes Antiproton Decelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The photos show the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) transformed into Antiproton Decelerator. The AA was used at CERN between 1981 and 1999 before being replaced by the Antiproton Decelerator (AD). The AA was used to collect and stochastically cool antiprotons used in proton-antiproton collisions in the SPS collider. This lead to the discovery of the W and Z bosons in 1983 and the Nobel Prize for Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer in 1984.

  7. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman, D A; Roggli, V L

    1989-01-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predic...

  8. Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

    2014-01-01

    Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, W. Tyler; Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated

  10. Child Benefit Payments and Household Wealth Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin Stephens Jr.; Takashi Unayama

    2014-01-01

    Using the life-cycle/permanent income hypothesis, we theoretically and empirically assess the impact of child benefit payments on household wealth accumulation. Consistent with the predictions of the model, we find that higher cumulative benefits received increase current assets, higher future benefit payments lower asset holding, and that these effects systematically vary over the life-cycle. We find different wealth responses to child benefit payments for liquidity constrained and unconstra...

  11. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, W. Tyler, E-mail: watkinswt@virginia.edu; Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Moore, Joseph A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Gordon, James [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Hugo, Geoffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  12. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, W Tyler; Moore, Joseph A; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D; Siebers, Jeffrey V

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  13. Credit Market Development and Human Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Wai-Hong

    2008-01-01

    In a two period overlapping generations economy with asymmetric information, we investigate the interaction between credit market development and human capital accumulation. As is typical, young borrowers supply their endowed unit of labor time to earn wage income which is used as internal funds. In contrast to conventional setups, young lenders distribute theirs between acquiring education and working for earnings. Through identifying the risk types of borrowers by a costly screening tech...

  14. ACCUMULATED DEFORMATION MODELING OF PERMANENT WAY BASED ON ENTROPY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kurhan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work provides a theoretical research about the possibility of using methods that determine the lifetime of a railway track not only in terms of total stresses, and accounting its structure and dynamic characteristics. The aim of these studies is creation the model of deformations accumulation for assessment of service life of a railway track taking into account these features. Methodology. To simulate a gradual change state during the operation (accumulation of deformations the railway track is presented as a system that consists of many particles of different materials collected in a coherent design. It is appropriate to speak not about the appearance of deformations of a certain size in a certain section of the track, and the probability of such event on the site. If to operate the probability of occurrence of deviations, comfortable state of the system is characterized by the number of breaks of the conditional internal connections. The same state of the system may correspond to different combinations of breaks. The more breaks, the more the number of options changes in the structure of the system appropriate to its current state. Such a process can be represented as a gradual transition from an ordered state to a chaotic one. To describe the characteristics of the system used the numerical value of the entropy. Findings. Its entropy is constantly increasing at system aging. The growth of entropy is expressed by changes in the internal energy of the system, which can be determined using mechanical work forces, which leads to deformation. This gives the opportunity to show quantitative indication of breaking the bonds in the system as a consequence of performing mechanical work. According to the results of theoretical research methods for estimation of the timing of life cycles of railway operation considering such factors as the structure of the flow of trains, construction of the permanent way, the movement of trains at high

  15. The accumulation of metals in lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Mâșu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to accumulate metal in the lichen communities has been used to identify the level of air pollution due road traffic. Several analyses have been conducted in the study, on tissue from lichens collected from six areas: the park of a town, various sites on the town’s freeway and on a county road segment with moderate traffic. The analyzed lichens were from the Parmelia spp. species which grow naturally on trees found in borderline lanes of motorways. Based on the degree of heavy metal accumulation such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe Mn, Pb, Ni and Zn in the Parmelia spp. lichens, a correlation has been made, with the road traffic. According to the metal bioaccumulation degree in lichens tissue, it has been established that the sources such as traffic from the outskirts of cities, from the perimeter of gas stations and of county roads continuously spread products which contain these elements, into the atmosphere. The fast information regarding the quality of the air in the environment allows the use of lichens as organism which can indicate environmental conditions and their modification by accumulating substances.

  16. Plume residence and toxic material accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Holpuch, R.

    1975-01-01

    Increased growth rates and 137 Cs concentrations in plume resident trout are thought to be the result of increased metabolism, food consumption, and activity caused by exposure to increased water temperature and flow in thermal discharges. These exposure conditions could contribute to increased accumulation of biologically active, toxic substances by primary forage and predator fish species in the Great Lakes. Uptake and retention of various toxic substances by predators depend on concentrations in forage species (trophic transfer), ambient water, and point source effluents (direct uptake). Contaminants of immediate concern in Great Lakes systems (e.g., chlorinated hydrocarbons) accumulate in adipose tissue, and body concentrations have been correlated with total lipid content in fish. In addition to direct toxic effects on fish, many lipophilic contaminants are known to cause severe human health problems when ingested at concentrations commonly found in Lake Michigan salmonids. Although power plants may or may not be the direct source of a toxic substance, the thermal discharge environment may contribute to the accumulation of toxic substances in fish and the transfer of these materials to man

  17. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, our study enables some interactions among economic variables which are not found in the existing literature on economic growth with renewable resources. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the propensity to consume the renewable resource increases the interest rate and reduces the national and production sector’s capital stocks, wage rate and level of the consumption good. Moreover, it initially reduces and then increases the capital stocks of the resource sector and the consumption and price of the renewable resource. The stock of the renewable resource is initially increased and then reduced. Finally, labor is redistributed from the production to the resource sector.

  18. The impact of shrubbification on soil organic matter accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, L.; Wookey, P. A.; Subke, J. A.; Baxter, R.; Garnett, M.

    2017-12-01

    The degree to which increasing vegetation productivity in the Arctic can offset permafrost carbon emissions under a warming climate is highly uncertain. Most ecosystem or earth system models predict that plant C inputs to permafrost soils will balance or exceed losses with warming, at least until about mid-century. Observations on the ground however, question whether vegetation change in Arctic ecosystems will result in even a transient net C sink. In the European Arctic, for example, rhizosphere processes associated with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi have been implicated in driving rapid cycling - and thus lower storage - of soil organic C (SOC) under deciduous shrubs. Short-term incubation studies also show that decomposition of SOC can be stimulated or "primed" by new inputs of labile plant C. The implication is that as Arctic vegetation shifts towards a greater abundance of productive, and mostly ECM, deciduous trees and shrubs, net C losses from soils may result. Over decadal timescales however, the impact of changing vegetation and associated rhizosphere processes on C stock trajectories is complex - shifts in productivity and mycorrhizal status will be accompanied by other biological and physical changes that can impact decomposition. Encroachment of shrubs will likely influence both litter quality and quantity, as well as soil temperature and moisture regimes due to altered transpiration rates, shading and snow accumulation. Short-term studies, and those based on instantaneous flux measurements, can provide only limited information as to what the impact of shrubbification on SOC stocks will be. Here we use radiocarbon data, in combination with a vertically-resolved isotopic model, to examine how and why SOC accumulation in tundra soils differs between vegetation types over decades to centuries. We compare soil profiles under ECM birch, N-fixing alder, and ericaceous/lichen heath tundra in the Canadian Arctic. Early model results suggest that under alder

  19. Vehicle Emissions Risk Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahem, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Vehicle emissions are considered as a main source for air pollution. Emissions regulation is now well developed in most countries to meet cleaner air quality. Reducing emissions by using cleaner fuels, which meet certain specification, is not enough to get cleaner air, yet the vehicle technology is not improved. Here we will outline the following: - development in fuel specification and emissions regulation. main facts linking vehicle emissions, fuel properties and air quality. catalytic converter technology. Emissions sources: In modem cities, vehicle traffic is potentially a major source of emissions. However sometimes other sources of emissions from industry and other stationary sources can be equally important and include emissions that are of greater toxicity than those from vehicles

  20. Development of bench marking services for energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions in forest industry; Metsaeteollisuuden energiatehokkuutta ja CO{sub 2}-paeaestoejae koskevien benchmarking-palvelujen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarentaus, A. [Poeyry Forest Industry Consulting Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2006-12-19

    The goal of the project is to develop energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} missions related benchmarking services for pulp and paper and mechanical wood working industry. The services make it possible to 1) position individual production plants based on their energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} missions, 2) offer process phase level information on energy-efficient and low mission process technology, 3) analyse changes in the competitive position both at production plant as well as country level due to changes in CO{sub 2}-allocation and energy procurement. (orig.)

  1. Isoprene emission from wetland sedges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ekberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available High latitude wetlands play an important role for the surface-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4, but fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC in these ecosystems have to date not been extensively studied. This is despite BVOC representing a measurable proportion of the total gaseous C fluxes at northern locations and in the face of the high temperature sensitivity of these systems that requires a much improved process understanding to interpret and project possible changes in response to climate warming. We measured emission of isoprene and photosynthetic gas exchange over two growing seasons (2005–2006 in a subarctic wetland in northern Sweden with the objective to identify the physiological and environmental controls of these fluxes on the leaf scale. The sedge species Eriophorum angustifolium and Carex rostrata were both emitters of isoprene. Springtime emissions were first detected after an accumulated diurnal mean temperature above 0°C of about 100 degree days. Maximum measured growing season standardized (basal emission rates (20°C, 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 were 1075 (2005 and 1118 (2006 μg C m−2 (leaf area h−1 in E. angustifolium, and 489 (2005 and 396 (2006 μg C m−2 h−1 in C. rostrata. Over the growing season, basal isoprene emission varied in response to the temperature history of the last 48 h. Seasonal basal isoprene emission rates decreased with leaf nitrogen (N, which may be explained by the typical growth and resource allocation pattern of clonal sedges as the leaves age. The observations were used to model emissions over the growing season, accounting for effects of temperature history, links to leaf assimilation rate and the light and temperature dependencies of the cold-adapted sedges.

  2. A Lógica da acumulação capitalista na economia informacional | The logic of capitalist accumulation in the informational economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouzid Izerrougene

    2010-03-01

    Abstract This article aims to discuss the current conditions for capital accumulation and labour-capital relations in the new context of the informational economy. It anlyses the changes in the creation of new values of use and exchange that involve technological innovations, new products and services and distributive conflicts. Keywords informacional economy, accumulation, relations capital-work, technologies of information and communication

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart IIIii of... - Work Practice Standards-Required Actions for Liquid Mercury Spills and Accumulations and Hydrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Actions for Liquid Mercury Spills and Accumulations and Hydrogen and Mercury Vapor Leaks 3 Table 3 to... Standards—Required Actions for Liquid Mercury Spills and Accumulations and Hydrogen and Mercury Vapor Leaks... cell back into service until the leaking equipment is repaired. 3. A decomposer or hydrogen system...

  4. Ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the la......The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries...

  5. Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Different Composting Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsiung Chang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate green house gas emissions from compost preparations, methane and carbon dioxide concentrations and emission rates at different accumulative times and composting periods were determined. While the accumulative time was less than 10 min with a closed acrylic chamber, meth ane and carbon dioxide emissions in creased slightly but with high fluntuation in the sampling e ror, and these values decreased significantly when the accumulative time was more than 20 min. During the 8 weeks of composting, the methane emission rate reaches its peak near the end of the second week and the carbon dioxide emission rate does the same near the end of third week. Meth ane and carbon dioxide emissions had high val ues at the first stage of com post ing and then de creased grad u ally for the ma tu rity of com post. Carbon dioxide emission (y was significantly related to temperature (x1, moisture content (x2, and total or ganiccarbon (x3; and there gression equation is: y = 3.11907x1 + 6.19236x2 - 6.63081x3 - 50.62498. The re gres sion equa tion be tween meth ane emis sion (y? and mois ture con tent (x2, pH (x4, C/N ra tio (x5, and ash con tent (x6 is: y?= 0.13225x2 - 0.97046x4 - 1.10599x5 - 0.55220x6 + 50.77057 in the ini tial com post ing stage (weeks 1 to 3; while, the equa tion is: y?= 0.02824x2 - 0.0037x4 - 0.1499x5 - 0.07013x6 + 4.13589 in the later compost ing stage (weeks 4 to 8. Dif ferent stage composts have significant variation of properties and greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, the emissions may be reduced by manipulating the proper factors.

  6. Positron emission tomography: a new paradigm in cancer management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez Gutierrez, Diana Isabel; De los Reyes, Amelia; Llamas Olier, Augusto

    2007-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is currently building a positron emission tomography facility that will house a cyclotron and a PET fusion scanner. lt should be operational as of december 2007, being a cancer dedicated national referral center, the NCI should provide both positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals and medical services to institutions and patients nationwide. PET technology provides metabolic information that has been documented to be useful in patient care. The properties of positron decay allow accurate imaging of the in vivo distribution of positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. a wide array of positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals has been used to characterize multiple physiologic and pathologic states. The major clinical PET applications are in cancer patients using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). FDG, an analogue of glucose, accumulates in most tumors in a greater amount than it does in normal tissue. PET is being used in diagnosis and follow-up of several malignancies, and the list of articles supporting its use continues to grow. in this article, the instrumentation aspects of PET are described and most of the clinical applications in oncology are described

  7. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Moisture accumulation in a building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, T.W.; Checkwitch, K.

    1988-09-01

    In a large number of cases, the failure of a building envelope can be traced to the accumulation of moisture. In a cold winter climate, characteristic of the Canadian prairies, moisture is deposited in the structure by the movement of warm, moist air through the envelope. Tests on the moisture accumulation in a building envelope were initiated in a test house at an Alberta research facility during the 1987/88 heating season. The indoor moisture generation rate was measured and compared with the value inferred from the measured air infiltration rate. With the flue open, the moisture generation rate was approximately 5.5 kg/d of which 0.7 kg/d entered the building envelope; the remainder was exhausted through the flue. With the flue blocked, the moisture generation rate decreased to 3.4 kg/d, while the amount of moisture migrating through the envelope increased to 4.0 kg/d. The moisture accumulation in wall panels located on the north and south face of the test house was also monitored. Moisture was allowed to enter the wall cavity via a hole in the drywall. The fiberglass insulation remained dry throughout the test period. The moisture content of the exterior sheathing of the north panel increased to a maximum of 18% wt in the vicinity of the hole, but quickly dried when the ambient temperatures increased towards the end of the season. The south panel showed very little moisture accumlation due to the effects of solar radiation. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F; Castillo, S; Laberty- Robert, C; Pellizon-Birelli, M [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France); and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  10. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax

  11. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Jere R; Mitchell, Olivia S; Soo, Cindy K; Bravo, David

    2012-05-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Estimated impacts are substantial enough to imply that investments in financial literacy could have large wealth payoffs.

  12. Radionuclide accumulations in Clinch River fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1976-01-01

    Fish samples were collected from several locations above Melton Hill Dam, which is upstream from the liquid effluent release point of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The sampling locations were chosen to determine the accumulation of natural and man-made radionuclides in fish from areas in the Clinch River not influenced by the Laboratory's liquid effluents. Bass, carp, crappie, shad, bluegill, and other sunfish were collected; ten fish per species were composited to form a single sample for each location. The gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Estimates of radiological dose to man subsequent to ingestion of these fish are made

  13. Rapid charging of nickel-cadmium accumulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruck, F

    1972-01-01

    Four types of charging of gas-tight Ni-Cd accumulators (a) normal; (b) accelerated; (c) rapid; and (d) ultra-rapid are described. For rapid charging, a built-in temperature sensor cuts off charging current at a prescribed point. In ultra-rapid charging, 50% charge can be attained in 3.5 min. and 25% charge within 50 sec. In the second phase of ultra-rapid charging, a surplus of oxygen is released at the positive electrode and a safety valve is provided for pressure reduction. Characteristic curves are given for various rates of charging and some data on discharge rates is also given.

  14. Accumulator ring design for the NSNS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.; Alessi, J.; Beebe-Wang, J.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the proposed National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5 μs with average beam power of 1 MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60 Hz with 1 x 10 14 protons per pulse at 1 GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1 msec long H - beam bunches of 28 mA from a 1 GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented, other possible technological choices and design options considered, but not adopted, are also briefly reviewed

  15. Evaluation of two models for predicting elemental accumulation by arthropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, J.R.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Two different models have been proposed for predicting elemental accumulation by arthropods. Parameters of both models can be quantified from radioisotope elimination experiments. Our analysis of the 2 models shows that both predict identical elemental accumulation for a whole organism, though differing in the accumulation in body and gut. We quantified both models with experimental data from 134 Cs and 85 Sr elimination by crickets. Computer simulations of radioisotope accumulation were then compared with actual accumulation experiments. Neither model showed exact fit to the experimental data, though both showed the general pattern of elemental accumulation

  16. Reporting from industries covered by the emissions trading scheme for emissions trading regulations. Guide to greenhouse gas emission reporting form 2012; Rapportering fra industri omfattet av kvoteplikt etter klimakvoteforskriften. Veileder til kvoterapporteringsskjema 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-01

    Tradable carbon emissions should be reported to the Climate and Pollution Agency (KLIF) by 1 March the following year that the emissions took place. Reporting of tradable carbon emissions will be achieved by the use of Klif reporting service.(eb)

  17. Emissions Modeling Clearinghouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Emissions Modeling Clearinghouse (EMCH) supports and promotes emissions modeling activities both internal and external to the EPA. Through this site, the EPA...

  18. National Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Emission Inventory contains measured, modeled, and estimated data for emissions of all known source categories in the US (stationary sources, fires,...

  19. Emissions Trading Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about emissions trading programs, also known as cap and trade programs, which are market-based policy tools for protecting human health and the environment by controlling emissions from a group of sources.

  20. What Is Emissions Trading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  1. World Emission RETRO ANTHRO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions data were generated monthly covering a period of 1960 to 2000. Anthropogenic emissions in the RETRO inventory are derived...

  2. Emissions & Measurements - Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) support measurement and laboratory analysis approaches to accurately characterize source emissions, and near sour...

  3. Biodiesel Emissions Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using existing data, the EPA's biodiesel emissions analysis program sought to quantify the air pollution emission effects of biodiesel for diesel engines that have not been specifically modified to operate on biodiesel.

  4. Dioxin emissions and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the seminar discussed dioxin emissions and sources, dioxin pollution of soils, waste water and sewage sludge, stocktaking of emission sources, and exposure and risk analyses for dioxin and other pollutants. (EF) [de

  5. National Emission Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajtakova, E.; Spisakova, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation the Slovak National Emission Information System (NEIS) is presented. The NEIS represents hierarchical oriented modular system of acquisition, verification, saving and reporting of data about annual emissions and payments for pollution of atmosphere

  6. Lead accumulation by some plant species cultivated in the vicinity of a lead factory in Sfax; Accumulation du plomb par quelques especes vegetales cultivees au voisinage d'une fonderie de plomb a Sfax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elloumi, N.; Ben Abdallah, F.; Mezghani, I.; Boukhris, M. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Lab. d' Ecologie Vegetale, Unite de Recherche Biologie de la Vegetation en Milieu Aride, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2003-06-01

    Atmospheric emissions, particularly the particles containing high concentrations of heavy metals, have harmful effects on the environment. The aim of this work is to evaluate the accumulation of a lead factory emissions, on the vegetation near the factory in function of time, distance and climatic factors. Analyses results have showed an important lead accumulation by vegetation located in the vicinity of the factory. Plant species studied here (olive trees, palm trees, almond trees, pomegranate trees and vine) have shown high and variable lead accumulation. Highest concentrations (over than 400 {mu}g/g) were recorded in non-washed leaves of olive trees surrounding the factory. Rapid and considerable decrease of lead content was, however, recorded for the same species situated at a distance bigger than 1 km from the source. Interaction effects study of several factors, such as climatic factors and diversity of plant species on lead accumulation by plants, have shown that the degree of lead accumulation was related to wind direction and distance from pollution source. Lead concentrations in species planted in the NW of the factory and exposed to SE wind direction were higher than that of ones exposed to any other direction. High lead concentrations in the vicinity of the factory seem to indicate that particles and gaseous pollutants fallout in the surrounding of the factory are as much important as the chimney height is reduced. (authors)

  7. An Incentive-Based Solution of Sustainable Mobility for Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Herrador

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Incentivized Sustainable Mobility” is a conceptual business model which involves four stakeholders: citizens, municipalities, commerce and mobility services. A platform named “ISUMO” (Incentivized Sustainable Mobility provides technological support to this business model, integrating a set of metaservices that unifies the existing ICTs of transportation plus a unique patented QR-based (Quick Response low-cost charging device for electric vehicles. Essentially, the system tracks and registers citizens’ transportation activities (anonymously and voluntarily and evaluates each through a scoring system while their ecological footprint is calculated. Afterwards, citizens are able to exchange their accumulated points for discount QR coupons, to be redeemed in the associated commerce in order to purchase their products or services. The breakthrough of this business model is that it enhances awareness of sustainable mobility practices, increasing their attractiveness as perceived by the stakeholders with diverse benefits; citizens (and indirectly, the municipalities initiate a new consumption pattern of “coupons culture” linked to sustainable mobility, the urban economy is stimulated, and the use of mobility services grows, providing a new business opportunity regarding electric vehicles. It is expected that continuous exploration of the model and implementation will contribute to sustainable social and economic development aiming at CO2 emissions reduction, headline targets of the Europe 2020 strategy.

  8. Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem goods and services are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature and contribute to environmental and human health and well-being. Ecosystem-focused research will develop methods to measure ecosystem goods and services.

  9. Web Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topic data in XML format. Using the Web service, software developers can build applications that utilize MedlinePlus health topic information. The service accepts keyword searches as requests and returns relevant ...

  10. Service Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the challenges in relation to an ongoing project named converged advanced mobile media platform (CAMMP), where all the different stakeholders need to have a saying in the service development for the upcoming rich, mobile broadcasting services....

  11. Benchmarking Anthropogenic Heavy Metals Emissions: Australian and Global Urban Environmental Health Risk Based Indicators of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejkovski, Nick

    2016-01-01

    In Australia, the impacts of urbanisation and human activity are evident in increased waste generation and the emissions of metals into the air, land or water. Metals that have accumulated in urban soils almost exclusively anthropogenically can persist for long periods in the environment. Anthropogenic waste emissions containing heavy metals are a…

  12. Blue Emission in Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Sohini; Sengupta, Abhigyan; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band struc...

  13. Accumulation and metabolism of radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1981-01-01

    After the injection of RI into the mantle cavity of Iidako (Octopus ocellatus), changes of whole body radioactivity were examined. Both the inorganic and organic forms of cobalt were most heavily distributed in the branchial heart. Cyanocobalamin was distributed in an extremely small amount in the liver, but was more distributed in the arms, or gonad. Mn and Zn were almost equally distributed in most portions, but were scarcely accumulated in the branchial heart. Like Co, Fe was ubiquitous in the branchial heart. In relation to the gel filtration pattern of the branchial heart extract, Co-chloride mostly flowed out into the small molecular zone, and cyano-cobalamin into the heavy molecular zone. Mn, Zn and Fe flowed out into similar portions, and the outflux of protein in absorption spectrum was also similar. Only Co and Fe were concentrated in the branchial heart, suggesting not only that their forms of accumulation were similar, but also that Mn and Zn were present in similar forms. (Chiba, N.)

  14. Selenium accumulation and metabolism in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Ertani, Andrea; Parrasia, Sofia; Vecchia, Francesca Dalla

    2017-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an intriguing element because it is metabolically required by a variety of organisms, but it may induce toxicity at high doses. Algae primarily absorb selenium in the form of selenate or selenite using mechanisms similar to those reported in plants. However, while Se is needed by several species of microalgae, the essentiality of this element for plants has not been established yet. The study of Se uptake and accumulation strategies in micro- and macro-algae is of pivotal importance, as they represent potential vectors for Se movement in aquatic environments and Se at high levels may affect their growth causing a reduction in primary production. Some microalgae exhibit the capacity of efficiently converting Se to less harmful volatile compounds as a strategy to cope with Se toxicity. Therefore, they play a crucial role in Se-cycling through the ecosystem. On the other side, micro- or macro-algae enriched in Se may be used in Se biofortification programs aimed to improve Se content in human diet via supplementation of valuable food. Indeed, some organic forms of selenium (selenomethionine and methylselenocysteine) are known to act as anticarcinogenic compounds and exert a broad spectrum of beneficial effects in humans and other mammals. Here, we want to give an overview of the developments in the current understanding of Se uptake, accumulation and metabolism in algae, discussing potential ecotoxicological implications and nutritional aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Primitive Accumulation and Temporalities of Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of the article is the statement that capitalism is composed of many different, incoherent temporalities, as well as that apprehension of capitalism from the angle of primitive accumulation enables the more accurate grasp of the modes of its functioning, including the complexity created by the interactions of the temporalities mentionned. The problem of primitive accumulation is, as Sandro Mezzadra proves, a good starting point for analysing this issue. It allows us to pose two questions: first, the question of the relation between the historical dimension and the structural logic of capitalism; second, the question of hierarchical relation between the center and the periphery of the capitalist system.Dipesh Chakrabarty’s project of ‘provincializing Europe’ proves helpful here, as it’s goal is deconstruction of the categories of progress, modernization and the capital with its abstract structure. The aim is not to negate the fact that capitalist abstraction is a real force, but to show that this force develops by means of constant assimiliation of the other – redefined as ‘backward’ or archaic. The linear scheme is in force, because it is the main mechanism of imposing the power of capital; as such, it is not politically neutral.

  16. Beam accumulation with the SIS electron cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, M.; Groening, L.; Blasche, K.; Franczak, B.; Franzke, B.; Winkler, T.; Parkhomchuk, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    An electron cooling system has started operation in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS which is used to increase the intensity for highly charged ions. Fast transverse cooling of the hot ion beam after horizontal multiturn injection allows beam accumulation at the injection energy. After optimization of the accumulation process an intensity increase in a synchrotron pulse by more than one order of magnitude has been achieved. For highly charged ions the maximum number of particles has been increased from 1x10 8 to 1x10 9 . For lighter ions intensity limitations have been encountered which are caused by the high phase space density of the cooled ion beam. Momentum spreads in the 10 -4 range and emittances well below 10 π mm mrad have been demonstrated. Recombination losses both in the residual gas and with the free cooler electrons determine the maximum intensity for highly charged ions. Systematic measurements of the recombination rates have been performed providing data for an optimum choice of the charge state. Strong enhancement of the recombination rate with free electrons compared to theoretical calculations of radiative electron capture have been observed

  17. Injection and accumulation method in the TARN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, S.; Katayama, T.

    1979-03-01

    The test accumulation ring for NUMATRON (TARN) is being constructed at INS, University of Tokyo. The main purpose of the TARN is to establish some techniques related to beam injection and RF stacking, ultrahigh vacuum, and beam monitoring and handling. In this paper, the injection and accumulation methods in the TARN are described. The combination of multiturn injection and RF stacking is applied to the TARN. Heavy ions from the INS sector focusing (SF) cyclotron are injection through a magnetic and an electrostatic inflectors. Two pulse magnets and a bump field excited by square wave current are used for the multiturn injection method. The procedure of the RF stacking is as follows. The beam from the cyclotron is transported to the ring, and is injected by a multiturn method. Then, the RF accelerating voltage is put on, and the beam is captured in the stable region of the RF acceleration. The RF voltage and the frequency are adiabatically changed, and the beam is moved to the stacking orbit. The RF voltage is put off, and the beam remains on the stacking orbit. In the present system, a repetitive stacking scheme is applied for the RF stacking. The momentum spread after the RF stacking is approximately proportional to the stacking number in synchrotron phase space. The stacking number is chosen so that the total aperture required for the combined method may not exceed the available aperture in the ring doughnut. (Kato, T.)

  18. Technetium accumulation, fate, and behavior in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Wildung, R.E.; Garland, T.R.

    1978-01-01

    Technetium, a product of the nuclear fuel cycle, is highly soluble in water and mobile in soils as the pertechnetate ion (TcO - 4 ). Soluble ions in soil have the potential for competing with nutrient ions for membrane carrier sites involved in ion uptake by plants. A study was, therefore, undertaken to determine the availability, toxicity, and mechanism of pertechnetate uptake by soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams). Technetium was effectively accumulated by plants at soil concentrations of 0.01 to 0.1 μg/g and in nutrient culture at levels as low as 0.02 pg/ml. Plants grown on soils containing technetium at levels below 0.1 μg/g effectively removed up to 90% of the technetium from soil. Minimal mobilization of technetium from vegetative tissues to the seed occurred during senescence. Chemical analyses indicated that the xylem-mobile form of technetium was TcO 4 - . The uptake rate of technetium by intact plants was multiphasic over the concentration range of 0.01 to 10μM; this suggests active uptake and a specificity for technetium in the root absorption process. Because of the efficiency of technetium accumulation and the probability of its chemical toxicity, competition kinetic studies were undertaken to identify possible nutrient analogs. Nutrients effective in reducing technetium uptake included the Mn 2+ , SO 4 2- , H 2 PO 4 - , and MoO 4 2- ions

  19. Deleterious mutation accumulation in organelle genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, M; Blanchard, J L

    1998-01-01

    It is well established on theoretical grounds that the accumulation of mildly deleterious mutations in nonrecombining genomes is a major extinction risk in obligately asexual populations. Sexual populations can also incur mutational deterioration in genomic regions that experience little or no recombination, i.e., autosomal regions near centromeres, Y chromosomes, and organelle genomes. Our results suggest, for a wide array of genes (transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, and proteins) in a diverse collection of species (animals, plants, and fungi), an almost universal increase in the fixation probabilities of mildly deleterious mutations arising in mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes relative to those arising in the recombining nuclear genome. This enhanced width of the selective sieve in organelle genomes does not appear to be a consequence of relaxed selection, but can be explained by the decline in the efficiency of selection that results from the reduction of effective population size induced by uniparental inheritance. Because of the very low mutation rates of organelle genomes (on the order of 10(-4) per genome per year), the reduction in fitness resulting from mutation accumulation in such genomes is a very long-term process, not likely to imperil many species on time scales of less than a million years, but perhaps playing some role in phylogenetic lineage sorting on time scales of 10 to 100 million years.

  20. Emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Emission Computed Tomography is a technique used for producing single or multiple cross-sectional images of the distribution of radionuclide labelled agents in vivo. The techniques of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) are described with particular regard to the function of the detectors used to produce images and the computer techniques used to build up images. (UK)

  1. Service marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić-Hodović Vesna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of postindustrial society and services revolution created numerous changes in size of consumer demand, consumer reaction and priorities. Continuous change on the side of demand and offer must follow changes in marketing orientation. Leader in that change is services marketing which by knowing services range and all the changes builds a new concept called Relationship Marketing.

  2. 47 CFR 25.207 - Cessation of emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cessation of emissions. 25.207 Section 25.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.207 Cessation of emissions. Space stations shall be made capable of ceasing radio...

  3. Emissions from biomass burning in the Yucatan [Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Yokelson; J. D. Crounse; P. F. DeCarlo; T. Karl; S. Urbanski; E. Atlas; T. Campos; Y. Shinozuka; V. Kapustin; A. D. Clarke; A. Weinheimer; D. J. Knapp; D. D. Montzka; J. Holloway; P. Weibring; F. Flocke; W. Zheng; D. Toohey; P. O. Wennberg; C. Wiedinmyer; L. Mauldin; A. Fried; D. Richter; J. Walega; J. L. Jimenez; K. Adachi; P. R. Buseck; S. R. Hall; R. Shetter

    2009-01-01

    In March 2006 two instrumented aircraft made the first detailed field measurements of biomass burning (BB) emissions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics as part of the MILAGRO project. The aircraft were the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 and a University of Montana/US Forest Service Twin Otter. The initial emissions of up to 49 trace gas or particle...

  4. 40 CFR 86.117-96 - Evaporative emission enclosure calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... periodic determination of enclosure background emissions. Prior to its introduction into service, annually... procedure: (1) Carefully measure the internal length, width and height of the enclosure, accounting for... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaporative emission enclosure...

  5. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Emission Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, testing, and servicing of automotive emission control systems. The course is comprised of one unit, Fundamentals of Emission Systems. The unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives directions for unit completion. The…

  6. Performance Comparisons of Improved Regular Repeat Accumulate (RA and Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA Turbo Decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulkadhim Hamad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different techniques are used to improve the turbo decoding of regular repeat accumulate (RA and irregular repeat accumulate (IRA codes. The adaptive scaling of a-posteriori information produced by Soft-output Viterbi decoder (SOVA is proposed. The encoded pilots are another scheme that applied for short length RA codes. This work also suggests a simple and a fast method to generate a random interleaver having a free 4 cycle Tanner graph. Progressive edge growth algorithm (PEG is also studied and simulated to create the Tanner graphs which have a great girth.

  7. Accumulation of sunscreen in human skin after daily applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Akerström, Ulf; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sunscreen applied to the skin provides a considerable sun protection factor (SPF) even after 8 h. Sunscreen use for consecutive days may therefore result in an accumulation of the product. This study investigated the consequences of accumulation for SPF....

  8. Changing Patterns of Publication Productivity: Accumulative Advantage or Institutional Isomorphism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Eric L.; Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates two competing perspectives, accumulated advantage and institutional isomorphism, on the relationship between publication productivity and institutional hierarchy. Accumulated advantage refers to the continuing attraction of students, faculty, and research dollars to prestige universities. Institutional isomorphism denotes the tendency…

  9. Integrated services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chafcouloff, S.; Michel, G.; Trice, M.; Clark, G.; Cosad, C.; Forbes, K.

    1995-01-01

    Integrated services is the name given to several services grouped together under a single contract. Four key factors determine the success of integrated services projects: teamwork, common objectives, technology, and shared benefits. For oil companies, integration means smoother, more efficient operations by bringing service companies on board as part of the team. For the service industry, it means a radical change in the way business is conducted, taking on more responsibility in return for greater incentives. This article reviews the need for change and the approach Schlumberger has adopted to meet this challenge. 20 figs., 20 refs

  10. Integrated services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chafcouloff, S.; Michel, G.; Trice, M. [Schlumberger Integrated Project Management Group, Montrouge (France); Clark, G. [Schlumberger Testing Services, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Cosad, C.; Forbes, K. [Schlumberger Integrated Project Management Group, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Integrated services is the name given to several services grouped together under a single contract. Four key factors determine the success of integrated services projects: teamwork, common objectives, technology, and shared benefits. For oil companies, integration means smoother, more efficient operations by bringing service companies on board as part of the team. For the service industry, it means a radical change in the way business is conducted, taking on more responsibility in return for greater incentives. This article reviews the need for change and the approach Schlumberger has adopted to meet this challenge. 20 figs., 20 refs

  11. Increased accumulation of N-isopropyl-p-(123I)-iodoamphetamine in two cases with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, K.; Ono, S.; Fukunaga, M.; Morita, R.; Yasuda, T.; Higashi, Y.; Terao, A.

    1989-01-01

    We present two cases with mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS), which showed both increased and decreased accumulation of N-isopropyl-p-( 123 I)-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The increased accumulation of the tracer occurred before low density appeared on conventional computed tomography, suggesting that 123 I-IMP SPECT may be useful in pathophysiological study of MELAS. (orig.)

  12. Uncertainty on Fatigue Damage Accumulation for Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented.......In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented....

  13. Influenced prior loading on the creep fatigue damage accumulation of heat resistant steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloos, K.H.; Granacher, J.; Scholz, A.

    1990-01-01

    On two heat resistant power plant steels the influence of prior strain cycling on the creep rupture behaviour and the influence of prior creep loading on the strain cycling behaviour is investigated. These influences concern the number of cycles to failure and the rupture time being the reference values of the generalized damage accumulation rule and they are used for a creep fatigue analysis of the results of long term service-type strain cycling tests. (orig.) [de

  14. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  15. Shipping emissions in ports

    OpenAIRE

    Merk, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Shipping emissions in ports are substantial, accounting for 18 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, 0.4 million tonnes of NOx, 0.2 million of SOx and 0.03 million tonnes of PM10 in 2011. Around 85% of emissions come from containerships and tankers. Containerships have short port stays, but high emissions during these stays. Most of CO2 emissions in ports from shipping are in Asia and Europe (58%), but this share is low compared to their share of port calls (70%). European ports have much less emi...

  16. Mass balance-based regression modeling of PAHs accumulation in urban soils, role of urban development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Chi; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Chang, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents in 68 soils samples collected at housing developments that represent different length of development periods across Beijing. Based on the data, we derived a mass balanced mathematical model to simulate the dynamics of PAH accumulations in urban soils as affected by the urban developments. The key parameters were estimated by fitting the modified mass balance model to the data of PAH concentrations vs. building age of the sampling green area. The total PAH concentrations would increase from the baseline of 267 ng g −1 to 3631 ng g −1 during the period of 1978–2048. It showed that the dynamic changes in the rates of accumulations of light and heavy PAH species were related to the shifting of sources of fuels, combustion efficiencies, and amounts of energy consumed during the course of development. - Highlights: • Introduced a mass balance model for soil PAHs accumulation with urbanization. • Reconstructed the historical data of PAH accumulation in soil of Beijing, China. • The soil PAH concentrations would be doubled in the following 40 years. • The composition of PAH emissions were shifting to light PAH species. - Introduced a regression modeling approach to predict the changes of PAH concentrations in urban soil

  17. Phenylpropanoid Scent Compounds in Petunia x hybrida Are Glycosylated and Accumulate in Vacuoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cna'ani, Alon; Shavit, Reut; Ravid, Jasmin; Aravena-Calvo, Javiera; Skaliter, Oded; Masci, Tania; Vainstein, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Floral scent has been studied extensively in the model plant Petunia. However, little is known about the intracellular fate of scent compounds. Here, we characterize the glycosylation of phenylpropanoid scent compounds in Petunia x hybrida. This modification reduces scent compounds' volatility, reactivity, and autotoxicity while increasing their water-solubility. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analyses revealed that flowers of petunia cultivars accumulate substantial amounts of glycosylated scent compounds and that their increasing level parallels flower development. In contrast to the pool of accumulated aglycones, which drops considerably at the beginning of the light period, the collective pool of glycosides starts to increase at that time and does not decrease thereafter. The glycoside pool is dynamic and is generated or catabolized during peak scent emission, as inferred from phenylalanine isotope-feeding experiments. Using several approaches, we show that phenylpropanoid scent compounds are stored as glycosides in the vacuoles of petal cells: ectopic expression of Aspergillus niger β-glucosidase-1 targeted to the vacuole resulted in decreased glycoside accumulation; GC–MS analysis of intact vacuoles isolated from petal protoplasts revealed the presence of glycosylated scent compounds. Accumulation of glycosides in the vacuoles seems to be a common mechanism for phenylpropanoid metabolites. PMID:29163617

  18. National Emissions Inventory (NEI) 2005 Point Facility Data for the US (US EPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays 2005 USEPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI) point facility information for the United States. The map service was created for inclusion...

  19. National Emissions Inventory (NEI) 2011 Point Facility Data for the US (US EPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays 2011 USEPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI) point facility information for the United States. The map service was created for inclusion...

  20. Sectoral roles in greenhouse gas emissions and policy implications for energy utilization and carbon emissions trading: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jianping; Lei, Yalin; Xu, Qun; Wang, Xibo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a decomposition and emissions matrix is developed to identify the roles (giver or taker) played by the sectors in the greenhouse gas emissions for the economy of Beijing in China. Our results indicate that services were the most important emitter if we consider the total (direct and indirect) emissions. In addition to Construction, Scientific studies and technical services and Finance sectors of services were the largest takers. They have a large role in boosting greenhouse gas emissions throughout the economy of Beijing. As the basis and supporter of production activities, the electricity production and the transportation sectors were the greatest givers. More emphasis should be placed on using clean energy and carbon capture and storage technologies to reduce emissions within these sectors. Based on the roles played by these sectors in greenhouse gas emissions, some policy implications were proposed for energy utilization and carbon emissions trading.

  1. 26 CFR 1.1368-2 - Accumulated adjustments account (AAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accumulated adjustments account (AAA). 1.1368-2... adjustments account (AAA). (a) Accumulated adjustments account—(1) In general. The accumulated adjustments account is an account of the S corporation and is not apportioned among shareholders. The AAA is relevant...

  2. 47 CFR 32.3300 - Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating. 32.3300....3300 Accumulated depreciation—nonoperating. (a) This account shall include the accumulated amortization and depreciation associated with the investment contained in Account 2006, Nonoperating Plant. (b...

  3. Human accumulation of mercury in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2007-01-01

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a high intake of mercury especially from marine mammals. To determine whether the mercury is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver, kidney and spleen from adult ethnic Greenlanders who died between 1990 and 1994 from...... a wide range of causes, natural and violent. Liver, kidney and spleen samples from between 33 and 71 case subjects were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury, and liver samples also for selenium. Metal levels in men and women did not differ and were not related to age except in one case, i.......e. for total mercury in liver, where a significant declining concentration with age was observed. The highest total mercury levels were found in kidney followed by liver and spleen. Methylmercury followed the same pattern, but levels were much lower, constituting only 19% of the total mercury concentration...

  4. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index....... The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark, and the study further investigates whether the organisational affiliation, project financing, and LAG co-financing can explain the degree of social capital accumulation. Furthermore, the author has tested if there are connections between motivation...... for pursuing development projects similar to those implemented previously and the degree of social capital. The paper concludes that there are indications that projects hosted by municipalities tend to show the most social capital, there is no connection between the amount of project financing and social...

  5. 10Be accumulation in a soil chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavich, M.J.; Brown, L.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the concentration of the cosmogenic isotope 10Be in soil samples from various horizons at six sites, including three independently dated Rappahannock River terraces and a previously undated Piedmont soil to which we have assigned an age. All of the incident 10Be can be accounted for in one of these soils and a second is within a factor of two. In three soils, whose concentrations vary widely with depth, a significant fraction of the incident 10Be cannot be accounted for. Incomplete sampling, and enhanced Be mobility caused by organic components, are the probable reasons for the low inventory of Be from these three soils. Overall, the data from these six sites indicate that 10Be accumulation could be used to assign ages to soils if Be is not mobilized and lost from the soil profile. ?? 1984.

  6. Defect accumulation under cascade damage conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkaus, H.; Singh, B.N.; Woo, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    in terms of this reaction kinetics taking into account cluster production, dissociation, migration and annihilation at extended sinks. Microstructural features which are characteristic of cascade damage and cannot be explained in terms of the conventional single defect reaction kinetics are emphasized......There is now ample evidence from both experimental and computer simulation studies that in displacement cascades not only intense recombination takes place but also efficient clustering of both self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and vacancies. The size distributions of the two types of defects produced...... reactions kinetics associated with the specific features of cascade damage is described, with emphasis on asymmetries between SIA and vacancy type defects concerning their production, stability, mobility and interactions with other defects. Defect accumulation under cascade damage conditions is discussed...

  7. Net accumulation of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilsholm, Sissi; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg; Dethloff, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution (50 km) climate change simulations for an area covering the entire Arctic have been conducted with the regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM. The experiments were forced at the lateral boundary by large-scale atmospheric conditions from transient climate change scenario simulations...... with HIRHAM for periods representing present-day (1961-1990) and the future (2071-2100) in the two scenarios. We find that due to a much better representation of the surface topography in the RCM, the geographical distribution of present-day accumulation rates simulated by the RCM represents a substantial...... improvement compared to the driving OAGCM. Estimates of the regional net balance are also better represented by the RCM. In the future climate the net balance for the Greenland Ice Sheet is reduced in all the simulation, but discrepancies between the amounts when based on ECHAM4/OPYC3 and HIRHAM are found...

  8. Human accumulation of mercury in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, P.; Mulvad, G.; Pedersen, H. S.

    2007-01-01

    a wide range of causes, natural and violent. Liver, kidney and spleen samples from between 33 and 71 case subjects were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury, and liver samples also for selenium. Metal levels in men and women did not differ and were not related to age except in one case, i......In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a high intake of mercury especially from marine mammals. To determine whether the mercury is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver, kidney and spleen from adult ethnic Greenlanders who died between 1990 and 1994 from.......e. for total mercury in liver, where a significant declining concentration with age was observed. The highest total mercury levels were found in kidney followed by liver and spleen. Methylmercury followed the same pattern, but levels were much lower, constituting only 19% of the total mercury concentration...

  9. Scalar Similarity for Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Johannes; Thomas, Christoph; Foken, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method allows the measurement of trace gas fluxes when no fast sensors are available for eddy covariance measurements. The flux parameterisation used in REA is based on the assumption of scalar similarity, i.e., similarity of the turbulent exchange of two scalar quantities. In this study changes in scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour were assessed using scalar correlation coefficients and spectral analysis. The influence on REA measurements was assessed by simulation. The evaluation is based on observations over grassland, irrigated cotton plantation and spruce forest. Scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour showed a distinct diurnal pattern and change within the day. Poor scalar similarity was found to be linked to dissimilarities in the energy contained in the low frequency part of the turbulent spectra ( definition.

  10. BPA and BSH accumulation in experimental tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, H.; Sedgwick, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    The accumulation of boronated compounds into tumors is a critical component to the success of BNCT. To date, great variability has been demonstrated in the tumor:blood ratio achieved in samples both from different patients and within samples taken from the same patient. The factors that probably influence the level of uptake include the vascular perfusion within the tumor, the permeability of these vessels and the viability of the tumor cells themselves. These experiments were designed to measure these various factors in different experimental tumor models and to relate these measurements to the uptake of both BPA (Boronophenylalanine) and BSH (Sodiumborocaptate). They demonstrate that within different tumors there can be wide variations in the vascular parameters. In addition, the viability of the tumor cells may also be an important determinant of tumor uptake. (author)

  11. Accumulation of Co by abalone, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Taiji; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Nakahara, Motokazu; Shimizu, Chiaki.

    1982-01-01

    The appearance of radioactive Co in the liver of abalone from sea water was examined to consider the effect of chemical forms of Co(CoCl 2 and cyanocobalamin; vitamin B 12 ) in sea water upon the metabolisms in marine organisms. Organic 57 Co(cyanocobalamin) from sea water appeared in the liver of abalone combining with a constituent with a molecular weight of 4 x 10 4 . The constituent had the activity of vitamin B 12 , while inorganic 60 Co(CoCl 2 ) appeared combining with three constituents with molecular weights more than or equal to 1.5 x 10 6 , 7 x 10 3 and less than or equal to 1.5 x 10 3 which did not show the activities of vitamin B 12 . The effect of chemical forms of Co in sea water is significant in its accumulation by some species of marine organisms. (author)

  12. Himalayan Strain Accumulation 100 ka Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, J. M.; Murphy, M. A.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Crustal scale fault systems and tectonostratigraphic units in the Himalaya can be traced for 2500 km along strike. However regional studies have shown that there is variability in the location and rate of strain accumulation which appears to be driven by Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) geometry and convergence obliquity. GPS illuminates the modern interseismic strain rate and the historical record of great earthquakes elucidates variations in strain accumulation over 103 years. To connect these patterns with the 106 year structural and thermochronometric geologic record we examine normalized river channel steepness (ksn), a proxy for rock uplift rate, which develops over 104 - 105 years. Here we present a ksn map of the Himalaya and compare it with bedrock geology, precipitation, the historic earthquake record, GPS, seismicity, and seismotectonic models. Our map shows significant along strike changes in the magnitude of channel steepness, the areal extent of swaths of high ksn channels, and their location with respect to the range front. Differences include the juxtaposition of two narrow (30 - 40 km) range parallel belts of high ksn in west Nepal and Bhutan coincident with MHT duplexes and belts of microseismcity, with a single broad (70 km) swath of high ksn and microseismicity in central and eastern Nepal. Separating west and central Nepal a band of low ksn crosses the range coincident with the West Nepal Fault (WNF) and the lowest rate of microseismicity in Nepal. To the west the orogen is obliquely convergent and has less high ksn channels, while the orthogonally convergent region to the east contains the highest concentration of oversteepened channels in the Himalaya supporting the idea that the WNF is a strain partitioning boundary. The syntaxes are characterized by locally high channel steepness surrounded by low to moderate ksn channels consistent with the hypothesis that rapid exhumation within the syntaxes is sustained by an influx of lower crust.

  13. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  14. Tipping news in information accumulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J. K.

    2010-05-01

    As a continuous opinion dynamics model, the information accumulation system (IAS) includes three basic mechanisms of the news, the inheritance and the diffusion as contributing to the information accumulation process of a system. A system is composed of agents who diffuse information through internal interaction, while each of them has incomplete memory or inheritance rate. The news comes from external sources of information, such as mass media. Previously the model IAS was studied only for the small news problems. In this study, a tipping news problem is considered. A key question of the problem is: what is the minimum strength of advertisement that can tip the minority opinion to a majority one? Dynamics of the IAS is briefly revisited with a special interest on nonlinear behavior of the model. In particular, it is shown that a discrete map of the IAS for a single color problem can be transformed into a logistic map, from which the dynamics of the IAS can be better understood. To show the applicability of the IAS model, the result is applied to explain the concept of the critical population size, which claims that there is a minimum population size for a social knowledge system to be continuously inherited without being lost. And critical size of the tipping news is found analytically in terms of IAS parameters. Some of the key results from the present study are compared in detail with the results from the Brownian particle model, which is believed to be the most similar model to the IAS. The concept of tipping news is used to show that a traditional society can tip at an exceptionally low inter-community exposure. Finally, the result was applied to the language competition problem.

  15. Air Emissions Factors and Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions factors are used in developing air emissions inventories for air quality management decisions and in developing emissions control strategies. This area provides technical information on and support for the use of emissions factors.

  16. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Roadside Soil in Urban Area and the Related Impacting Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meie; Zhang, Haizhen

    2018-05-24

    Heavy metal contamination in roadside soil due to traffic emission has been recognized for a long time. However, seldom has been reported regarding identification of critical factors influencing the accumulation of heavy metals in urban roadside soils due to the frequent disturbances such as the repair of damaged roads and green belt maintanance. Heavy metals in the roadside soils of 45 roads in Xihu district, Hangzhou city were investigated. Results suggested the accumulation of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Zn in roadside soil was affected by human activity. However, only two sites had Pb and Zn excessing the standards for residential areas, respectively, according to Chinese Environmental Quality Standards for soils. The concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were significantly and positively correlated to soil pH and organic matter. An insignificant correlation between the age of the roads or vegetation cover types and the concentration of heavy metals was found although they were reported closely relating to the accumulation of heavy metals in roadside soils of highways. The highest Pb, Cd, and Cr taking place in sites with heavy traffic and significant differences in the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn among the different categories of roads suggested the contribution of traffic intensity. However, it was difficult to establish a quantitative relationship between traffic intensity and the concentrations of heavy metals in the roadside soil. It could be concluded that impaction of traffic emission on the accumulation of heavy metals in roadside soils in urban area was slight and soil properties such as pH and organic matters were critical factors influencing the retention of heavy metals in soils.

  17. Peatlands in Finland accumulate carbon more than the peat production and utilization liberates it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maentymaa, E.

    1997-01-01

    The peatlands in Finland bind more carbon dioxide then it is liberated into the air in peat combustion and production. Because the carbon accumulation into peatlands is higher than that of liberation, the peat deposits increase all the time in spite of peat economy. The emissions of methane, which is tens of times worse greenhouse gas then CO 2 , have decreased by 40 % due to forest drainage. Very small amounts of methane is released into the atmosphere from peat production sites. This is proven by the national SILMU research programme investigating the atmospheric changes

  18. Accumulation of metal ions by pectinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, S.; Deiana, L.; Palma, A.; Premoli, A.; Senette, C.

    2009-04-01

    The knowledge of the mechanisms which regulate the interactions of metal ions with partially methyl esterified linear polymers of α-1,4 linked D-galacturonic acid units (pectinates), well represented in the root inner and outer apoplasm, is of great relevance to understand the processes which control their accumulation at the soil-root interface as well as their mobilization by plant metabolites. Accumulation of a metal by pectinates can be affected by the presence of other metals so that competition or distribution could be expected depending on the similar or different affinity of the metal ions towards the binding sites, mainly represented by the carboxylate groups. In order to better understand the mechanism of accumulation in the apoplasm of several metal ions, the sorption of Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III) by a Ca-polygalacturonate gel, used as model of the soil-root interface, with a degree of esterification of 18% (PGAE1) and 65% (PGAE2) was studied at pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 in the presence of CaCl2 2.5 mM.. The results show that sorption increases with increasing both the initial metal concentration and pH. A similar sorption trend was evidenced for Cu(II) and Pb(II) and for Zn(II) and Cd(II), indicating that the mechanism of sorption for these two ionic couples is quite different. As an example, at pH 6.0 and an initial metal concentration equal to 2.0 mM, the amount of Cu(II) and Pb(II) sorbed was about 1.98 mg-1 of PGAE1 while that of Cd(II) and Zn(II) was about 1.2 mg-1. Cr(III) showed a rather different sorption trend and a much higher amount (2.8 mg-1of PGAE1 at pH 6.0) was recorded. The higher affinity of Cr(III) for the polysaccharidic matrix is attributable to the formation of Cr(III) polynuclear species in solution, as shown by the distribution diagrams obtained through the MEDUSA software. On the basis of these findings, the following affinity towards the PGAE1 can be assessed: Cr(III) > Cu(II) ? Pb(II) > Zn (II) ? Cd

  19. Management services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, S.K.; Alford, D.R.; Barnette, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    The Management Services Section provides coordinated professional administrative services to the Fusion Energy Division (FED), allowing the work of technical professionals to be more fully concentrated in their areas of specialty. Services are provided in general administration, personnel, financial management, communications (including text and graphics generation), management information, library, safety, quality assurance, and nonprogrammatic engineering services. Highlights of the past year included adoption of the Procurement Module in the FED Management Information System (MIS) for use by the entire Laboratory, completion of the Personnel Module of the MIS, greatly increased personnel recruiting activity, and increased industrial subcontracting activity

  20. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Cern Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after the use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  1. BP's emissions trading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, David G.; House, Joshua C.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, BP reduced its emissions of greenhouse gases by more than 10%. BP's success in cutting emissions is often equated with its use of an apparently market-based emissions trading program. However no independent study has ever examined the rules and operation of BP's system and the incentives acting on managers to reduce emissions. We use interviews with key managers and with traders in several critical business units to explore the bound of BP's success with emissions trading. No money actually changed hands when permits were traded, and the main effect of the program was to create awareness of money-saving emission controls rather than strong price incentives. We show that the trading system did not operate like a 'textbook' cap and trade scheme. Rather, the BP system operated much like a 'safety valve' trading system, where managers let the market function until the cost of doing so surpassed what the company was willing to tolerate

  2. Avoided emissions of a fuel-efficient biomass cookstove dwarf embodied emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L. Wilson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three billion people cook their food on biomass-fueled fires. This practice contributes to the anthropogenic radiative forcing. Fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves have the potential to reduce CO2-equivalent emissions from cooking, however, cookstoves made from modern materials and distributed through energy-intensive supply chains have higher embodied CO2-equivalent than traditional cookstoves. No studies exist examining whether lifetime emissions savings from fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves offset embodied emissions, and if so, by what margin. This paper is a complete life cycle inventory of “The Berkeley–Darfur Stove,” disseminated in Sudan by the non-profit Potential Energy. We estimate the embodied CO2-equivalent in the cookstove associated with materials, manufacturing, transportation, and end-of-life is 17 kg of CO2-equivalent. Assuming a mix of 55% non-renewable biomass and 45% renewable biomass, five years of service, and a conservative 35% reduction in fuel use relative to a three-stone fire, the cookstove will offset 7.5 tonnes of CO2-equivalent. A one-to-one replacement of a three-stone fire with the cookstove will save roughly 440 times more CO2-equivalent than it “costs” to create and distribute. Over its five-year life, we estimate the total use-phase emissions of the cookstove to be 13.5 tonnes CO2-equivalent, and the use-phase accounts for 99.9% of cookstove life cycle emissions. The dominance of use-phase emissions illuminate two important insights: (1 without a rigorous program to monitor use-phase emissions, an accurate estimate of life cycle emissions from biomass cookstoves is not possible, and (2 improving a cookstove's avoided emissions relies almost exclusively on reducing use-phase emissions even if use-phase reductions come at the cost of substantially increased non-use-phase emissions.

  3. Potential effects of emission taxes on CO2 emissions in OECD and LDC countries. Working paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messner, S.; Strubegger, M.

    1990-12-01

    A set of existing optimization models representing the energy systems of the OECD and LDC countries (the LDC region covers all less developed countries excluding centrally planned economies) with a time horizon up to 2020 was applied to derive first-order estimates of the techno-economic potential for emission reduction. The driving force for the introduction of reduction measures was a scheme of taxes levied on the emissions of 6 relevant pollutants-including the greenhouse gases CO 2 and methane. The tax levels introduced are based on the taxes discussed by the Swedish government administration; they are the break-even point to test which measures are cost-effective and which emission levels can be reached at these costs. The regional models offer the choice between the following alternatives as response to increases in expenditures caused by emission taxes: (*) Reduction of final energy demand by supplying the requested services by other means (i.e., conservation). (*) Substitution of 'dirty' fuels by fuels entailing less pollution. (*) Introduction of 'clean' technologies for the same purposes (e.g., a combined cycle based on coal gasification is a much cleaner process for electricity generation from coal than conventional coal power plants). (*) For SO 2 and NO x emissions pollution reduction technologies (i.e., scrubbers and catalysts) can be added to existing technologies in order to reduce emissions. Alternative scenarios with emission taxes are compared to a base scenario without taxes related to pollutant emissions. The results indicate that an increase in CO 2 emissions in the OECD and LDC regions of 47% over the next 30 years in the base scenario would be changed into stabilization up to 2010 by measures induced by the tax levels introduced. Thereafter, however, energy consumption growth in the LDC area, in conjunction with the exhaustion of economically viable emission reduction measures, reverse this trend: CO 2 emissions start to increase again after

  4. Developments in acoustic emission for application to nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Developments in acoustic emission are summarised as they relate to the principal applications to nuclear reactors, and light water reactor pressure vessels in particular. Improvement in the understanding of acoustic emission has come from materials tests and these confirm the problems in applying the technique for in-service or periodic proof test monitoring of growing fatique cracks. Applications in LMFBR have confirmed that acoustic emission can be applied in the nuclear environment and the detection of stress corrosion cracking in both BWR and LMFBR seems possible. Some information is included on the developing interest in applying the techniques of acoustic emission for leak detection during shop hydro and in-service monitoring. Acoustic emission is also being developed for weld fabrication monitoring and recently introduced pattern recognition techniques are having a significant impact in this application. (author)

  5. Accumulated surface damage on ZnS crystals produced by closely spaced pairs of picosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, L.L.; Lee, H.W.H.

    1988-12-01

    Excitation of a transparent ZnS crystal by repetitive picosecond dye laser pulses causes an accumulated surface modification leading to optical damage. The onset of the damage is detected by an abrupt increase in the emission of neutral Zn (and possibly S 2 ) from the surface. Comparison of the neutral emission thresholds with pulse-pair and single-pulse excitation shows that linear absorption is the dominant laser-surface interaction. In general, this measurement technique shows considerable promise for investigating the possible influence of nonlinear absorption or excitation processes on damage mechanisms. The data suggest that heating of small absorbing regions produces the surface modification that leads to the observed surface ablation. The nature of the damage observed at fluences above the threshold suggests that it is caused by heating of a relatively large (/approximately/10 - 100 μm) surface region that has been modified by the accumulation pulses. 3 refs., 5 figs

  6. Prompt neutron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, R.

    1959-01-01

    It is shown that Ramanna and Rao's tentative conclusion that prompt fission neutrons are emitted (in the fragment system) preferentially in the direction of fragment motion is not necessitated by their angular distribution measurements, which are well explained by the usual assumptions of isotropic emission with a Maxwell (or Maxwell-like) emission spectrum. The energy distribution (Watt spectrum) and the angular distribution, both including the effects of anisotropic emission, are given. (author) [fr

  7. Carbon sequestration through urban ecosystem services: A case study from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuittinen, Matti; Moinel, Caroline; Adalgeirsdottir, Kristjana

    2016-09-01

    Plants and soil are natural regulators of atmospheric CO2. Whereas plants sequester atmospheric carbon, soils deposit it for decades. As cities become increasingly more densely built, the available land area for such ecosystem services may decrease. We studied seven different housing areas in the Finnish city of Espoo to ascertain the extent to which site efficiency affects to the ecosystem services if the full life-cycle GHG emissions of these areas are taken into account. The results show that the impact of CO2 uptake through carbon sinks in growing plants and the uptake of soil organic carbon vary greatly. Its share of all emissions varied from a marginal value of 1.2% to a more considerable value of 11.9%. The highest potential was calculated for a detached house located on a large site, while the weakest was calculated for compact apartment blocks. The study revealed that in order to quantify this potential more accurately, several knowledge gaps must first be addressed. These include impartial growth algorithms for Nordic wood species, missing accumulation factors for soil organic carbon in cold climates and statistical maintenance scenarios for gardens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The carbon emissions generated in all that we consume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to increase the understanding of the fundamental drivers of carbon emissions in the UK and to show how all carbon emissions can be attributed to the delivery of products and services to meet the needs of the end consumer. From this work, it is possible to identify the products and services which have the highest carbon emissions associated with their supply chains. The study was undertaken on behalf of the Carbon Trust by the Centre for Environmental Strategy at the University of Surrey and Enviros Consulting. The analysis was based on an economic model developed at the University of Surrey, which analysed the UK's carbon emissions in terms of the total carbon embodied in consumer products and services. The results of the analysis can be cast in a variety of ways depending on the classifications used. The study starts with an analysis of the traditional production perspective and then reclassifies carbon emissions into consumption categories before combining those categories into high-level consumer needs categories. This analysis leads to the following general conclusions: From the traditional production perspective: The Electricity Production category has the highest emissions at almost 24 MtC (millions tonnes carbon per annum); The Other Land Transport category (comprising road freight, buses and coaches, taxis etc.) and the Refining Industries category have second and third highest emissions at 7.9 MtC and 7.1 MtC respectively; and The categories relating to the provision of final products and services to the consumer all have emissions of less than 2 MtC. This perspective shows total emissions of 88.1 MtC. It excludes aviation fuel emissions (11.0 MtC), domestic electricity (22.0 MtC), domestic fuel use (25.3 MtC), domestic private transport fuel use (18.3 MtC) and the UK carbon trade balance (11.7 MtC), totalling 88.3 MtC. The emissions can then be reallocated from this traditional production perspective to different consumption

  9. Radio emission from Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velusamy, T.

    1976-01-01

    The basic features of the different radio emissions from the planet Jupiter are reviewed. These radio emissions characterized into three types as thermal, decimetric and decametric, are discussed. The coherent emission mechanism for the origin of the decametric bursts and the acceleration mechanism for relativistic electrons in the decimetric radiation have not been properly understood. The emissions are much related to the magnetic field of Jupiter. The system III rotation period for Jupiter has been calculated as 092 55 m 29.74 S. (A.K.)

  10. VOC emissions chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In order to support the development of test methods and reference materials for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from building materials and furnishings,...

  11. Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL) utilizes a low-frequency acceleration measurement system for the characterization of rigid body inertial forces generated...

  12. Spatiotemporal patterns of mercury accumulation in lake sediments of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevnick, Paul; Cooke, Colin A.; Barraza, Daniella; Blais, Jules M.; Coale, Kenneth; Cumming, Brian F.; Curtis, Chris; Das, Biplob; Donahue, William F.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Fitzgerald, William F.; Furl, Chad V.; Gray, John R.; Hall, Roland I.; Jackson, Togwell A.; Laird, Kathleen R.; Lockhart, W. Lyle; Macdonald, Robie W.; Mast, M. Alisa; Mathieu, Callie; Muir, Derek C.G.; Outridge, Peter; Reinemann, Scott; Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Ruiz-Fernandex, Ana Carolina; St. Louis, V.L.; Sanders, Rhea; Sanei, Hamed; Skierszkan, Elliott; Van Metre, Peter C.; Veverica, Timothy; Wiklund, Johan A.; Wolfe, Brent B.

    2016-01-01

    For the Western North America Mercury Synthesis, we compiled mercury records from 165 dated sediment cores from 138 natural lakes across western North America. Lake sediments are accepted as faithful recorders of historical mercury accumulation rates, and regional and sub-regional temporal and spatial trends were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. Mercury accumulation rates in sediments have increased, on average, four times (4×) from 1850 to 2000 and continue to increase by approximately 0.2 μg/m2 per year. Lakes with the greatest increases were influenced by the Flin Flon smelter, followed by lakes directly affected by mining and wastewater discharges. Of lakes not directly affected by point sources, there is a clear separation in mercury accumulation rates between lakes with no/little watershed development and lakes with extensive watershed development for agricultural and/or residential purposes. Lakes in the latter group exhibited a sharp increase in mercury accumulation rates with human settlement, stabilizing after 1950 at five times (5×) 1850 rates. Mercury accumulation rates in lakes with no/little watershed development were controlled primarily by relative watershed size prior to 1850, and since have exhibited modest increases (in absolute terms and compared to that described above) associated with (regional and global) industrialization. A sub-regional analysis highlighted that in the ecoregion Northwestern Forest Mountains, mercury deposited to watersheds is delivered to lakes. Research is warranted to understand whether mountainous watersheds act as permanent sinks for mercury or if export of “legacy” mercury (deposited in years past) will delay recovery when/if emissions reductions are achieved.

  13. Accumulation of radioactive iron in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yuzuru

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation and excretion of radioactive iron in some marine organisms was investigated by radio-tracer experiments. The concentration factor, biological half-life, distribution in body, and combining form in some organs, are compared and discussed between mollusks and fishes. The results obtained are: 1) The concentration factor of seaweed was higher than those of worm and fish in uptake from seawater. Abalone showed a higher concentration factor than fish. 2) The first component of excretion curve was small in case of a longer period of uptake from seawater. 3) Abalone and octopus showed a higher radioactivity retention than flounder and black-fish. 4) The fish fed labelled seaweed showed a lower radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled worm. 5) The fish fed radioisotopes with prey showed a higher radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled prey. 6) Biological half-lives were longer in abalone and octopus than in fishes. The biological half-lives of radioactive iron in fishes varied according to the uptake modes. 7) The distribution ratio of radioactive iron in organisms were large in the liver and degestive tract. 8) The GFC profile of 59 Fe in some organs of organisms showed combining form of same molecular weight of proteinous matter. (author)

  14. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yujun; Li, Jian-Dong; Yan, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis

  15. ISABELLE, accumulators, bunched beams and cosmictrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.

    1977-01-01

    An elaboration of the ISABELLE concept as the model for a high energy, high luminosity proton-proton facility is given. Its place in the total high energy physics program is discussed. Certain features of the ISABELLE design which have not been consolidated, in particular injection and modes of beam operation, are considered. A new scheme is reviewed, one which could provide quick beam turn-on after construction, one in which there is a high probability of reaching and perhaps even exceeding the design objectives, one which should provide comparatively more flexible and reliable operation for physics, and finally one whose presence opens up a window to a much higher energy region. The new system involves the use of a physically separate current accumulator, allowing, therefore, the optimal utilization of the superconducting structures. The fact that an obvious addition to the complex will permit pp collisions in the 4 TeV center-of-mass energy region, which corresponds to an equivalent lab energy of approximately 10 16 eV, i.e., cosmic ray energies, prompts the added structure to be referred to as the COSMICTRON. The facility operated in the ''new'' manner proposed is considered to be ''the best ISABELLE that can be built.''

  16. Radionuclide accumulation in fruit bodies of macromycetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.N.; Eliashevich, N.V.

    2000-01-01

    By materials of the observation net within the limits of the Byelorussian sector of the ChNPP 30-rm zone (contamination up to 16.65 MBq/m 2 ) the radioactivity was considered at the territories with the background contamination (up to 37 kBq/m 2 ), at the South-Bobrujsk (up to 185 kBq/m 2 ) and Volozhinsk (up to 555 kBq/m 2 ) fallout spots. The accumulation and proportionality coefficients of 137 Cs in 36 species and 90 Sr in 19 species of macromycetes of various tropic groups under the drought y year conditions, their changeability by forest formations and in the time within the range of 1992-1998 are determined. The average two-fold increase in the species contamination a year with increased atmospheric humidity (1998) is indicated. The closer contamination correlation of the Boletus edulis with photosynthetically active part of the Betula pendula and Pinus sylvestris, as compared to the soil pollution, shows the possibility of indicating the pollution of short-living fruit bodies of fungi by the pollution of the plants-symbiotrophs [ru

  17. Novel method of charging an accumulator ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschke, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    For high power fusion applications, a circular accelerator for heavy ions is not likely to be competitive with a linear accelerator. This is principally because one requires rather high accelerator efficiencies, and quite large average power. Efficiencies greater than or equal to 10 percent, and perhaps 30 and 50 MW of average beam power are needed. On the other hand, the linear accelerator can be built to satisfy these constraints, and in addition, it is ideally suited for multi-turn injection. A difficulty with multi-turn injection is that in typical application it is rather lossy. With care, and sufficient phase space dilution, one might hope to obtain greater than or equal to 90 percent injection efficiency, but even at these levels the large amount of beam power lost in the accumulator might have serious consequences for the machine operation. Therefore, it is desirable to be able to use ''box car'' stacking, which is essentially 100 percent without particle loss. A method of operating the linear accelerator so that the output beam is of suitable instantaneous current to permit box-car stacking with the linac output is proposed

  18. Bilirubin Binding to PPARα Inhibits Lipid Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, David E.; John, Kezia; Trabbic, Christopher J.; Luniwal, Amarjit; Hankins, Michael W.; Baum, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical and population studies have demonstrated that increased serum bilirubin levels protect against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant, and the beneficial actions of moderate increases in plasma bilirubin have been thought to be due to the antioxidant effects of this bile pigment. In the present study, we found that bilirubin has a new function as a ligand for PPARα. We show that bilirubin can bind directly to PPARα and increase transcriptional activity. When we compared biliverdin, the precursor to bilirubin, on PPARα transcriptional activation to known PPARα ligands, WY 14,643 and fenofibrate, it showed that fenofibrate and biliverdin have similar activation properties. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with biliverdin suppressed lipid accumulation and upregulated PPARα target genes. We treated wild-type and PPARα KO mice on a high fat diet with fenofibrate or bilirubin for seven days and found that both signal through PPARα dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of bilirubin on lowering glucose and reducing body fat percentage was blunted in PPARα KO mice. These data demonstrate a new function for bilirubin as an agonist of PPARα, which mediates the protection from adiposity afforded by moderate increases in bilirubin. PMID:27071062

  19. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnino Maldonado-Bascón

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively.

  20. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yujun [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Li, Jian-Dong [Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Yan, Chen, E-mail: Chen_Yan@urmc.rochester.edu [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  1. Earthworms accumulate alanine in response to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Slotsbo, Stine; Henriksen, Per G; Bayley, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Earthworms have ecologically significant functions in tropical and temperate ecosystems and it is therefore important to understand how these animals survive during drought. In order to explore the physiological responses to dry conditions, we simulated a natural drought incident in a laboratory trial exposing worms in slowly drying soil for about one month, and then analyzed the whole-body contents of free amino acids (FAAs). We investigated three species forming estivation chambers when soils dry out (Aporrectodea tuberculata, Aporrectodea icterica and Aporrectodea longa) and one species that does not estivate during drought (Lumbricus rubellus). Worms subjected to drought conditions (alanine that was significantly upregulated in all tested species. Alanine was the most important FAA reaching 250-650μmolg(-1) dry weight in dehydrated Aporrectodea species and 300μmolg(-1) dry weight in L. rubellus. Proline was only weakly upregulated in some species as were a few other FAAs. Species forming estivation chambers (Aporrectodea spp.) did not show a better ability to conserve body water than the non-estivating species (L. rubellus) at the same drought level. These results suggest that the accumulation of alanine is an important adaptive trait in drought tolerance of earthworms in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cobalt accumulation and circulation by blackgum trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.A.

    1975-01-01

    Blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.) trees accumulate far greater concentrations of cobalt in mature foliage than do other species on the same site (363 ppM in ash of blackgum, compared with about 3 ppM by mockernut hickory and about 1 ppM by red maple, tulip tree, and white oak). Cobalt concentrations in dormant woody tissues of blackgum also significantly exceed those in the other four species. Inoculation of six blackgums with 60 Co revealed that cobalt remains mobile in the trees for at least 3 years. Foliar concentrations of stable cobalt increase uniformly until senescence. In late August, foliage accounts for only 9 percent of total tree weight but 57 percent of total tree cobalt. Losses of cobalt from trees occur almost entirely by leaf abscission, and the loss rates of weight and cobalt from decomposing litter are similar. Retention of cobalt in the biologically active soil layers perpetuates zones of cobalt concentration created by this species in woodlands

  3. Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, James

    Newspaper librarians discussed the public use of their newspapers' libraries. Policies run the gamut from well-staffed public information services, within or outside the newspaper library, to no service at all to those outside the staff of the paper. Problems of dealing with tax and law enforcement agencies were covered, as well as cooperative…

  4. Registration Service

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Following a reorganization in Building 55, please note that the Registration Service is now organised as follows :  Ground floor: access cards (76903). 1st floor : registration of external firms’ personnel (76611 / 76622); car access stickers (76633); biometric registration (79710). Opening hours: 07-30 to 16-00 non-stop. GS-SEM Group General Infrastructure Services Department

  5. Telephone Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN exchange switches will be updated on Thursday 2 June between 7.00 p.m. and midnight. Telephone services may be affected and possibly even disrupted during this operation. 

  6. Cleaning Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, James L.

    This curriculum guide provides cleaning services instructional materials for a ninth- and tenth-grade Coordinated Vocational Education and Training: Home and Community Services program. It includes 2 sections and 11 instructional units. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives, teacher activities,…

  7. Accumulation Characteristics of Pb by Zea Mays of Different Genotyoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Rong-lin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine the characteristics of lead(Pb accumulation by different maize genotypes, two low accumulation genotypes(Quchen 11, Quchen 3 and two high accumulation maize genotypes(Jingfeng 8, Xuyu 1446 were used in a field experiment under Pb stress(2 000 mg·kg-1. The following parameters were measured including the change of plant biomass , Pb contents in different plant parts, total Pb uptake,Pb accumulation and translocation of different maize varieties,soil pH value and available Pb contents in soils. The results showed that: (1Compared with the control, the Pb stress caused a decrease at differnet levels on the biomass of roots, stems, leaves and grains of the four maize genotypes. The plant biomass decreased by 9.65%~20.46%. And the decrease level on the plant biomass of the low accumulation maize genotypes was less than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (2The Pb contents were found highest in the roots(95.39~121.02 mg·kg-1, followed by the leaves(25.56~43.21 mg·kg-1 and stems(14.06~25.41 mg·kg-1, and lest in the grains(2.52~5.38 mg·kg-1. Moreover, the Pb contents in roots were higher of low accumulation maize genotypes than high accumulation maize genotypes. In contrast, the Pb contents in the stems, leaves and grains were less of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. The total Pb accumulation of maize was 4.46~7.94 mg per plant, and which was significant less of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (3For the four maize genotypes, both the accumulation factor and translocation factor of Pb were less than 1, and were smaller of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (4The pH values in soils were 6.60~6.82, which were significant higher of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes, the available Pb contents in soils were 969.86~1 116.15 mg·kg-1。

  8. Service Modeling for Service Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Yoshiki; Tomiyama, Tetsuo

    Intensification of service and knowledge contents within product life cycles is considered crucial for dematerialization, in particular, to design optimal product-service systems from the viewpoint of environmentally conscious design and manufacturing in advanced post industrial societies. In addition to the environmental limitations, we are facing social limitations which include limitations of markets to accept increasing numbers of mass-produced artifacts and such environmental and social limitations are restraining economic growth. To attack and remove these problems, we need to reconsider the current mass production paradigm and to make products have more added values largely from knowledge and service contents to compensate volume reduction under the concept of dematerialization. Namely, dematerialization of products needs to enrich service contents. However, service was mainly discussed within marketing and has been mostly neglected within traditional engineering. Therefore, we need new engineering methods to look at services, rather than just functions, called "Service Engineering." To establish service engineering, this paper proposes a modeling technique of service.

  9. Spatial and temporal disaggregation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions from the City of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecia Nickless

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology used to spatially and temporally disaggregate carbon dioxide emission estimates for the City of Cape Town, to be used for a city-scale atmospheric inversion estimating carbon dioxide fluxes. Fossil fuel emissions were broken down into emissions from road transport, domestic emissions, industrial emissions, and airport and harbour emissions. Using spatially explicit information on vehicle counts, and an hourly scaling factor, vehicle emissions estimates were obtained for the city. Domestic emissions from fossil fuel burning were estimated from household fuel usage information and spatially disaggregated population data from the 2011 national census. Fuel usage data were used to derive industrial emissions from listed activities, which included emissions from power generation, and these were distributed spatially according to the source point locations. The emissions from the Cape Town harbour and the international airport were determined from vessel and aircraft count data, respectively. For each emission type, error estimates were determined through error propagation techniques. The total fossil fuel emission field for the city was obtained by summing the spatial layers for each emission type, accumulated for the period of interest. These results will be used in a city-scale inversion study, and this method implemented in the future for a national atmospheric inversion study.

  10. Atmospheric emissions from road transportation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baidya, S.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.

    2009-01-01

    India has become one of the biggest emitters of atmospheric pollutants from the road transportation sector globally. Here we present an up-to-date inventory of the exhaust emissions of ten species. This inventory has been calculated bottom-up from the vehicle mileage, differentiating by seven vehicle categories, four age/technology layers and three fuel types each, for the seven biggest cities as well as for the whole nation. The age composition of the rolling fleet has been carefully modelled, deducting about one quarter of vehicles still registered but actually out-of-service. The vehicle mileage is calibrated to the national fuel consumption which is essential to limit uncertainties. Sensitivity analyses reveal the primary impact of the emission factors and the secondary influence of vehicle mileage and stock composition on total emissions. Emission estimates since 1980 are reviewed and qualified. A more comprehensive inspection and maintenance is essential to limit pollutant emissions; this must properly include commercial vehicles. They are also the most important vehicle category to address when fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions shall be contained. (author)

  11. CDBG Public Services Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public services, including senior services, legal services, youth services, employment training, health services, homebuyer counseling, food...

  12. Convergence of carbon dioxide emissions in different sectors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Juan; Zhang, Kezhong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze differences in per capita carbon dioxide emissions from 1996 to 2010 in six sectors across 28 provinces in China and examine the σ-convergence, stochastic convergence and β-convergence of these emissions. We also investigate the factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector. The results show that per capita carbon dioxide emissions in all sectors converged across provinces from 1996 to 2010. Factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector vary: GDP (gross domestic product) per capita, industrialization process and population density impact convergence in the Industry sector, while GDP per capita and population density impact convergence in the Transportation, Storage, Postal, and Telecommunications Services sector. Aside from GDP per capita and population density, trade openness also impacts convergence in the Wholesale, Retail, Trade, and Catering Service sector. Population density is the only factor that impacts convergence in the Residential Consumption sector. - Highlights: • Analyze differences in CO 2 emissions in six sectors among 28 provinces in China. • Examine the convergence of CO 2 emissions in six sectors. • Investigate factors impact on convergence of CO 2 emissions in each sector. • Factors impact on convergence of per capita CO 2 emissions in each sector vary

  13. Vulnerability of damage-accumulating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Niels C.

    1996-01-01

    Disastrous failures have shown that systems can be highly vulnerable. Quantified vulnerability can help designers and regulators to decide how much vulnerability is tolerable. Vulnerability of a system to a specified disturbance is defined as the ratio of the probability of failure of the disturbed system to the probability of failure of the undisturbed system. This vulnerability can be specialized to particular system types. It is adapted here to systems that are expected to deteriorate while in service due to processes such as fatigue, creep, corrosion, aging, neglect or insufficient maintenance. Application is illustrated by vulnerability to fatigue under constant and variable stress

  14. Examining air pollution in China using production- and consumption-based emissions accounting approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Guan, Dabo; Su, Xin; Zhao, Hongyan; He, Kebin

    2014-12-16

    Two important reasons for China's air pollution are the high emission factors (emission per unit of product) of pollution sources and the high emission intensity (emissions per unit of GDP) of the industrial structure. Therefore, a wide variety of policy measures, including both emission abatement technologies and economic adjustment, must be implemented. To support such measures, this study used the production- and consumption-based emissions accounting approaches to simulate the SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and VOC emissions flows among producers and consumers. This study analyzed the emissions and GDP performance of 36 production sectors. The results showed that the equipment, machinery, and devices manufacturing and construction sectors contributed more than 50% of air pollutant emissions, and most of their products were used for capital formation and export. The service sector had the lowest emission intensities, and its output was mainly consumed by households and the government. In China, the emission intensities of production activities triggered by capital formation and export were approximately twice that of the service sector triggered by final consumption expenditure. This study suggests that China should control air pollution using the following strategies: applying end-of-pipe abatement technologies and using cleaner fuels to further decrease the emission factors associated with rural cooking, electricity generation, and the transportation sector; continuing to limit highly emission-intensive but low value-added exports; developing a plan to reduce construction activities; and increasing the proportion of service GDP in the national economy.

  15. Eugenol stimulates lactate accumulation yet inhibits volatile fatty acid production and eliminates coliform bacteria in cattle and swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D L

    2004-01-01

    To determine how eugenol affects fermentation parameters and faecal coliforms in cattle and swine waste slurries stored anaerobically. Waste slurries (faeces:urine:water, 50:35:15) were blended with and without additives and aliquoted to triplicate 1-l flasks. Faecal coliforms were eliminated in cattle and swine waste slurries within 1 or 2 days with additions of eugenol at 10.05 mm (0.15%) and 16.75 mm (0.25%). At these concentrations volatile fatty acids (VFA) were reduced ca 70 and 50% in cattle and swine waste, respectively, over 6-8 weeks. Additionally, in cattle waste, eugenol stimulated the accumulation of lactate (>180 mm) when compared with thymol treatment (20 mm lactate). In swine waste, lactate accumulation did not occur without additives; eugenol and thymol stimulated lactate accumulation to concentrations of 22 and 32 mm, respectively. Eugenol added to cattle waste may be more beneficial than thymol because not only does it effectively control faecal coliforms and odour (VFA production), it also stimulates lactate accumulation. This in turn, causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. Plant essential oils have the potential to solve some of the environmental problems associated with consolidated animal feeding operations. Thymol and eugenol reduce fermentative activity, thus, have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and odour, and curtail transmission of pathogens in cattle and swine wastes.

  16. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  17. Accumulation and hyperaccumulation of copper in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, V.; Trnkova, L.; Huska, D.; Babula, P.; Kizek, R.

    2009-04-01

    Copper is natural component of our environment. Flow of copper(II) ions in the environment depends on solubility of compounds containing this metal. Mobile ion coming from soil and rocks due to volcanic activity, rains and others are then distributed to water. Bio-availability of copper is substantially lower than its concentration in the aquatic environment. Copper present in the water reacts with other compounds and creates a complex, not available for organisms. The availability of copper varies depending on the environment, but moving around within the range from 5 to 25 % of total copper. Thus copper is stored in the sediments and the rest is transported to the seas and oceans. It is common knowledge that copper is essential element for most living organisms. For this reason this element is actively accumulated in the tissues. The total quantity of copper in soil ranges from 2 to 250 mg / kg, the average concentration is 30 mg / kg. Certain activities related to agriculture (the use of fungicides), possibly with the metallurgical industry and mining, tend to increase the total quantity of copper in the soil. This amount of copper in the soil is a problem particularly for agricultural production of food. The lack of copper causes a decrease in revenue and reduction in quality of production. In Europe, shows the low level of copper in total 18 million hectares of farmland. To remedy this adverse situation is the increasing use of copper fertilizers in agricultural soils. It is known that copper compounds are used in plant protection against various illnesses and pests. Mining of minerals is for the development of human society a key economic activity. An important site where the copper is mined in the Slovakia is nearby Smolníka. Due to long time mining in his area (more than 700 years) there are places with extremely high concentrations of various metals including copper. Besides copper, there are also detected iron, zinc and arsenic. Various plant species

  18. Reducing CO2 emissions in Sierra Leone and Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, O.

    1991-01-01

    With soring population growth rates and minimal economic growth, the nations of Africa are afflicted with innumerable problems. Why then should Africa's developing countries worry about CO 2 emissions? First, because agricultural activities form the backbone of most African economies; thus, these nations may be particularly vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. Second, acting to reduce carbon emissions will bring about more efficient energy use. All of Africa could benefit from the improved use of energy. Finally, the accumulation of CO 2 in the atmosphere is a global problem with individual solutions; in order to reduce international emissions, all countries, including those in Africa, must contribute. Typical of many African countries, Ghana and Sierra Leone have among the lowest levels of energy demand per capita across the globe. primary energy demand per capita in these two West African nations equals about one quarter of the world's average and about one twentieth of the US average. This work summarizes the results of two long-term energy use and carbon emissions scenarios for Sierra Leone and Ghana. In the high emissions (HE) scenario for 2025, policy changes focused on galvanizing economic growth lead to significant increases in energy use and carbon emissions in Ghana and Sierra Leone between 1985 and 2025. In the low emissions (LE) scenario, the implementation of policies aimed specifically at curtailing CO 2 emissions significantly limits the increase in carbon in both nations by 2025

  19. Cigar burning under different smoking intensities and effects on emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethloff, Ole; Mueller, Christian; Cahours, Xavier; Colard, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    The effect of smoking intensity on cigar smoke emissions was assessed under a range of puff frequencies and puff volumes. In order to potentially reduce emissions variability and to identify patterns as accurately as possible, cigar weights and diameters were measured, and outliers were excluded prior to smoking. Portions corresponding to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the cigar, measured down to the butt length, were smoked under several smoking conditions, to assess nicotine, CO and water yields. The remaining cigar butts were analysed for total alkaloids, nicotine, and moisture. Results showed accumulation effects during the burning process having a significant impact on smoke emission levels. Condensation and evaporation occur and lead to smoke emissions dependent on smoking intensity. Differences were observed for CO on one side as a gas phase compound and nicotine on the other side as a particulate phase compound. For a given intensity, while CO emission increases linearly as the cigar burns, nicotine and water emissions exhibited an exponential increase. Our investigations showed that a complex phenomena occurs during the course of cigar smoking which makes emission data: difficult to interpret, is potentially misleading to the consumer, and inappropriate for exposure assessment. The results indicate that, tobacco content and physical parameters may well be the most robust basis for product characterisation and comparison rather than smoke emission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Smoke emissions in small-scale burning of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomi, S.

    1993-01-01

    The article is based on research carried out in Finland and Sweden on the subject of emissions of smoke in the small-scale burning of wood and the factors affecting it. Due to incomplete combustion, small-scale burning of wood is particularly typified by its emissions of solid particles, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and PAH compounds. Included among factors influencing the volume of emissions are the load imposed on the heating device, the manner in which the fuel is fed into the firebox, fuel quality, and heating device structure. Emissions have been found to be at their minimum in connection with heating systems based on accumulators. Emissions can be significantly reduced by employing state-of-the-art technology, appropriate ways of heating and by dry fuel. A six-year bioenergy research programme was launched early in 1993 in Finland. All leading research institutions and enterprises participate in this programme. Reduction of emissions has been set as the central goal in the part dealing with small-scale burning of wood. Application of catalytic combustion in Finnish-made heating devices is one of the programmes development targets. Up to this date, the emissions produced in the small-scale burning of wood are not mentioned in official regulations pertaining to approved heating devices. In Sweden tar emissions are applied as a measure of the environmental impact imposed by heating devices

  1. Metal accumulation in wild-caught opossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, J Mitchell; Siddiqui, Samreen; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-06-01

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is widespread in the USA, ranging south through Latin America. The ecology of opossums is such that they are in frequent contact with soils, suggesting that they may function as a valuable bioindicator for chemical contamination in terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, there have been virtually no toxicology studies on opossums. Here, we provide the first analysis of metal contaminants in opossum liver tissues. Liver samples were obtained from 471 opossums, collected from 2003 to 2006, at four sites in North Florida and South Georgia, USA, and concentrations of copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc were measured. We found little evidence of age differences in the concentration of any of the metals. However, there were at least some significant differences between years, males and females, and between sites for each metal, although the pattern of these differences was not always consistent across metals. Concentrations of metals in liver tissue were positively correlated with one another, primarily of each metal (except Pb) with zinc. Reference levels of metal contaminants are not available for opossums, but concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in our samples were for the most part significantly higher than those reported from liver tissues of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) collected at the same sites and in the same years. Data from other small mammals studied elsewhere further indicate that metal concentrations in opossums were high, but at this time, it is not possible to determine if these elevated levels generated toxicity. The substantial temporal and spatial variation we found in metal concentrations suggests that determination of baseline levels for opossums may not be straightforward. Nonetheless, this is the first study quantifying metal accumulation in the livers of Didelphis virginiana and, as such, provides an important starting point for future research.

  2. Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) consists of 8 dipole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized via one 12-pulse dc power supply. The power supply consists of four phase controlled half-wave wye group converters. Each of the two half-wave converters are connected through an interphase transformer to obtain a full-wave converter with 120 degrees conduction. The input voltage for these two half-wave converters are 180 degrees apart. The two full-wave converters are connected in parallel through a third interphase transformer. This type of connection of the converters not only provides the required output current, it also improves the input power factor of the power supply. The output of the wye group converters is filtered through a passive L-R-C filter to reduce the ripple content of the output current. At low current values of the power supply the current ripple is high, thus a large filter is needed, which adds to the cost of the power supply, however at high output current levels, the current ripple is less severe. The large size of the filter can be reduced by adding an anti-parallel rectifier diode(D1) to the output of the power supply. A freewheeling diode(D2) is connected before the choke to circulate the current once the power supply is turned off. In order to measure the current in the magnet a high precision, low drift, zero flux current transductor is used. This transductor senses the magnet current which provides a feedback signal to control the gating of the converter's thyristors. A true 14 bit Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) is programmed by the control computer for the required current value, providing a reference for the current regulator. Fast correction of the line transients is provided by a relatively fast voltage loop controlled by a high gain slow response current loop

  3. Evidence accumulation in the magnitude system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lambrechts

    Full Text Available Perceptual interferences in the estimation of quantities (time, space and numbers have been interpreted as evidence for a common magnitude system. However, if duration estimation has appears sensitive to spatial and numerical interferences, space and number estimation tend to be resilient to temporal manipulations. These observations question the relative contribution of each quantity in the elaboration of a representation in a common mental metric. Here, we elaborated a task in which perceptual evidence accumulated over time for all tested quantities (space, time and number in order to match the natural requirement for building a duration percept. For this, we used a bisection task. Experimental trials consisted of dynamic dots of different sizes appearing progressively on the screen. Participants were asked to judge the duration, the cumulative surface or the number of dots in the display while the two non-target dimensions varied independently. In a prospective experiment, participants were informed before the trial which dimension was the target; in a retrospective experiment, participants had to attend to all dimensions and were informed only after a given trial which dimension was the target. Surprisingly, we found that duration was resilient to spatial and numerical interferences whereas space and number estimation were affected by time. Specifically, and counter-intuitively, results revealed that longer durations lead to smaller number and space estimates whether participants knew before (prospectively or after (retrospectively a given trial which quantity they had to estimate. Altogether, our results support a magnitude system in which perceptual evidence for time, space and numbers integrate following Bayesian cue-combination rules.

  4. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    1996-01-01

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. This paper describes a long-term (26 week) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 1) the length of exposure, and it describes three 8-week experiments relating concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 2) their concentration in soil 3) the soil organic matter content and, 4) the degree of chlorination. In the 26-week experiment, the concentration of 1,2,4 - trichlorobenzene in earthworms fluctuated only slightly about a mean of 0.63 ppm (Fig. 1). Although a statistically significant decrease can be demonstrated over the test (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.62 p earthworms showed a cyclical trend that coincided with replacement of the media, and a slight but statistically significant tendency to increase from about 2 to 3 ppm over the 26 weeks (r = 0.55, p earthworms increased as the concentrations in the soil increased (Fig. 2), but leveled off at the highest soil concentrations. The most surprising result of this study was the relatively low concentrations in earthworms compared to those in soils. The average concentration of each of the six isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene in earthworms was only about 1 ppm (Table 2); the isomeric structure did not affect accumulation. The concentration of organic matter in soil had a prominent effect on hexachlorobenzene concentrations in earthworms (Fig. 3). Hexachlorobenzene concentrations decreased steadily from 9.3 ppm in earthworms kept in soil without any peat moss added to about 1 ppm in soil containing 16 or 32% organic matter.

  5. Diatom. A potential bio-accumulator of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, N.; Pal, R.; Ramaswami, A.; Nayak, D.; Lahiri, S.

    2006-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of gold in trace concentration by Nitzschia obtusa and Navicula minima, two members of bacillariophyceae, has been studied. It has been observed that Nitzschia obtusa showed better accumulation of gold in acidic pH in comparison to neutral and basic pH. Maximum accumulation was observed with 1 mg x kg -1 or less gold concentration. However, the accumulation by the living cells was reduced when the matrix concentration was higher. Navicula minima, on the other hand, found to be a better accumulator of gold in wide ranges of pH and substrate concentration of the media. It was also inferred that the gold accumulation by diatom was mainly due to adsorption by biosilica (siliceous frustules of dead diatom cells). Accumulated gold was recovered with conc. HNO 3 . (author)

  6. Study of Cycling Air-Cooling System with a Cold Accumulator for Micro Gas-Turbine Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochkov, V. F.; Stepanova, T. A.; Katenev, G. M.; Tumanovskii, V. A.; Borisova, P. N.

    2018-05-01

    Using the cycling air-cooling systems of the CTIC type (Combustion Turbine Inlet Cooling) with a cold accumulator in a micro gas-turbine installation (micro-GTI) to preserve its capacity under the seasonal temperature rise of outside air is described. Water ice is used as the body-storage in the accumulators, and ice water (water at 0.5-1.0°C) is used as the body that cools air. The ice water circulates between the accumulator and the air-water heat exchanger. The cold accumulator model with renewable ice resources is considered. The model contains the heat-exchanging tube lattice-evaporator covered with ice. The lattice is cross-flowed with water. The criterion heat exchange equation that describes the process in the cold accumulator under consideration is presented. The calculations of duration of its active operation were performed. The dependence of cold accumulator service life on water circulation rate was evaluated. The adequacy of the design model was confirmed experimentally in the mock-up of the cold accumulator with a refrigerating machine periodically creating a 200 kg ice reserve in the reservoir-storage. The design model makes it possible to determine the weight of ice reserve of the discharged cold accumulator for cooling the cycle air in the operation of a C-30 type micro- GTI produced by the Capstone Company or micro-GTIs of other capacities. Recommendations for increasing the working capacity of cold accumulators of CTIC-systems of a micro-GTI were made.

  7. Uncertainties in emission inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardenne, van J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Emission inventories provide information about the amount of a pollutant that is emitted to the atmosphere as a result of a specific anthropogenic or natural process at a given time or place. Emission inventories can be used for either policy or scientific purposes. For

  8. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 24 selections. Some of the titles are: Positron Emission Tomography Instrumentation, Generator Systems for Positron Emitters, Reconstruction Algorithms, Cerebral Glucose Consumption: Methodology and Validation, Cerebral Blood Flow Tomography Using Xenon-133 Inhalation: Methods and Clinical Applications, PET Studies of Stroke, Cardiac Positron Emission Tomography, and Use of PET in Oncology

  9. National pollutants emission limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Pawelec, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

  10. National pollutants emission limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Pawelec, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

  11. Database of emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  12. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  13. Arsenic accumulation and speciation in plants from different habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Bergqvist, Claes; Greger, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This is the postprint version of the article. The published version of the article can be located here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0883292711004914 Understanding As accumulation in plants is necessary in order to alleviate problems with As in the environment and to improve sustainable As phytotechnologies. To find suitable candidates for phytoremediation purposes and to investigate specific accumulation patterns due to growth habitat and plant groups, As accumulation...

  14. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  15. Managing the Budget: Stock-Flow Reasoning and the CO2 Accumulation Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Ben R; Kary, Arthur; Moore, Chris; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2016-01-01

    The majority of people show persistent poor performance in reasoning about "stock-flow problems" in the laboratory. An important example is the failure to understand the relationship between the "stock" of CO2 in the atmosphere, the "inflow" via anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and the "outflow" via natural CO2 absorption. This study addresses potential causes of reasoning failures in the CO2 accumulation problem and reports two experiments involving a simple re-framing of the task as managing an analogous financial (rather than CO2 ) budget. In Experiment 1 a financial version of the task that required participants to think in terms of controlling debt demonstrated significant improvements compared to a standard CO2 accumulation problem. Experiment 2, in which participants were invited to think about managing savings, suggested that this improvement was fortuitous and coincidental rather than due to a fundamental change in understanding the stock-flow relationships. The role of graphical information in aiding or abetting stock-flow reasoning was also explored in both experiments, with the results suggesting that graphs do not always assist understanding. The potential for leveraging the kind of reasoning exhibited in such tasks in an effort to change people's willingness to reduce CO2 emissions is briefly discussed. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Mercury, zinc, and copper accumulation in mangrove sediments surrounding a large landfill in southeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, W.; Moscatelli, M.; Rezende, L.G.; Lacerda, L.D

    2002-12-01

    Mangrove sediments may prevent movement of metals to adjacent bodies of water. - The accumulation of Hg, Zn, and Cu was evaluated in mangrove sediments located between a large, 20-years-old landfill and waters of Guanabara Bay (southeast Brazil). The contamination history of the area provides substantial evidence that metal accumulation in the study site is influenced by past metal emissions from multiple sources (e.g. contaminated rivers and the landfill surrounding the site). At the southern part of the site, metal levels are up to 890 ng g{sup -1} Hg, 850 {mu}g g{sup -1} Zn, and 58 {mu}g g{sup -1} Cu. Enrichment factors and excess (background-deducted) concentration inventories show a high spatial variability of metal contamination and storage in the site, with differences often by a factor higher than two within a sampling station and higher than five between sampling stations. These contrasts are attributable to a coupling between spatial variability of anthropogenic metal input and metal behavior and retention within the sediments. Results indicate that during the last few decades mangrove sediments retained a substantial part of metal emissions to the site, probably reducing the metal transport to Guanabara Bay waters, and suggest the suitability of mangrove ecosystems as physical and biogeochemical barriers to metal contaminant transport.

  17. Mercury, zinc, and copper accumulation in mangrove sediments surrounding a large landfill in southeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, W.; Moscatelli, M.; Rezende, L.G.; Lacerda, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    Mangrove sediments may prevent movement of metals to adjacent bodies of water. - The accumulation of Hg, Zn, and Cu was evaluated in mangrove sediments located between a large, 20-years-old landfill and waters of Guanabara Bay (southeast Brazil). The contamination history of the area provides substantial evidence that metal accumulation in the study site is influenced by past metal emissions from multiple sources (e.g. contaminated rivers and the landfill surrounding the site). At the southern part of the site, metal levels are up to 890 ng g -1 Hg, 850 μg g -1 Zn, and 58 μg g -1 Cu. Enrichment factors and excess (background-deducted) concentration inventories show a high spatial variability of metal contamination and storage in the site, with differences often by a factor higher than two within a sampling station and higher than five between sampling stations. These contrasts are attributable to a coupling between spatial variability of anthropogenic metal input and metal behavior and retention within the sediments. Results indicate that during the last few decades mangrove sediments retained a substantial part of metal emissions to the site, probably reducing the metal transport to Guanabara Bay waters, and suggest the suitability of mangrove ecosystems as physical and biogeochemical barriers to metal contaminant transport

  18. Drug accumulation in the presence of the multidrug resistance pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayesh, S; Litman, Thomas; Stein, W D

    1997-01-01

    We studied the interaction between the multidrug transporter, P-glycoprotein, and two compounds that interact with it: vinblastine, a classical substrate of the pump, and verapamil, a classical reverser. Steady-state levels of accumulation of these two drugs were determined in a multidrug resistant...... P388 leukemia cell line, P388/ADR. The time course of accumulation of these drugs, and the effect of energy starvation and the presence of chloroquine on the level of their steady-state accumulation were quite disparate. Vinblastine inhibited the accumulation of verapamil whereas it enhanced...

  19. Manipulation of [C-11]-5-hydroxytryptophan and 6-[F-18]fluoro-3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine accumulation in neuroendocrine tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neels, Oliver C.; Koopmans, Klaas P.; Jager, Pieter L.; Vercauteren, Laya; van Waarde, Aren; Doorduin, Janine; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Kema, Ido P.; Elsinga, Philip H.

    2008-01-01

    [C-11]-5-Hydroxytryptophan ([C-11]HTP) and 6-[F-18]fluoro-3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine [F-18]FDOPA) are used to image neuroendocrine tumors with positron emission tomography. The precise mechanism by which these tracers accumulate in tumor cells is unknown. We aimed to study tracer uptake via large

  20. IT Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific costs and risks. The term 'service' is...

  1. Service modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.W.A.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Lankhorst, M.M.; Jonkers, H.; Zoet, M.; Engelsman, W.; Versendaal, J.; Proper, H.A.; Debije, L.; Gaaloul, K.; Lankhorst, M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of enterprise services involves making design decisions at different levels, ranging from strategic to infrastructural choices, and concerning many different aspects, ranging from customer interaction to information registration concerns. In order to support an agile development

  2. Emissions from Biomass Burning in the Yucatan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokelson, R.; Crounse, J. D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Karl, T.; Urbanski, S.; Atlas, E.; Campos, T.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kapustin, V.; Clarke, A. D.; hide

    2009-01-01

    In March 2006 two instrumented aircraft made the first detailed field measurements of biomass burning (BB) emissions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics as part of the MILAGRO project. The aircraft were the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 and a University of Montana/US Forest Service Twin Otter. The initial emissions of up to 49 trace gas or particle species were measured from 20 deforestation and crop residue fires on the Yucatan peninsula. This included two trace gases useful as indicaters of BB (HCN and acetonitrile) and several rarely, or never before, measured species: OH, peroxyacetic acid, propanoic acid, hydrogen peroxide, methane sulfonic acid, and sulfuric acid. Crop residue fires emitted more organic acids and ammonia than deforestation fires, but the emissions from the main fire types were otherwise fairly similar. The Yucatan fires emitted unusually amounts of SO2 and particle chloride, likely due to a strong marine influence on the peninsula.

  3. 46 CFR 13.127 - Service: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... restricted endorsement, a specific product) handled while the applicant accumulated the service; (2) The... discharged at the same time, a person may receive credit for only one transfer, one loading, and one discharge a watch. (5) Credit for a transfer during a watch of less than four hours accrues only if the...

  4. Site-specific accumulation and dynamic change of flavonoids in Apocyni Veneti Folium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cui-Hua; Xu, Hu; Liu, Xun-Hong; Zou, Li-Si; Wang, Mei; Liu, Zi-Xiu; Fu, Xing-Sheng; Zhao, Hui; Yan, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Site-specific accumulation of flavonoids in Apocyni Veneti Folium was determined by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) and the localization of catechins also was observed via vanillin-HCl staining under the conventional optical microscope. The contents of five flavonoids in Apocyni Veneti Folium from different harvest times and growth parts were measured using HPLC method. LSCM observation showed that flavonoids are accumulated in cuticle of epidermal cells and vessel walls, especially in protoplasts and nucleolus of the collenchyma cells and the epidermal cells. Catechins are localized in the palisade parenchyma cells and vessel walls, particularly in the laticifers found in the phloem. On the basis of the difference of the maximal emission wavelength between quercetin and kaempferol derivatives which have fluorescence behavior by appropriate treatment, kaempferol and its derivatives are localized exclusively in the cuticle. Results showed that the content of astragalin in Apocyni Veneti Folium from different parts revealed the decreasing trend, while hyperin and isoquercitrin were higher in June and July analyzed by HPLC. In summary, the site-specific accumulation of flavonoids in Apocyni Veneti Folium can be determined by LSCM and vanillin-HCl staining. The contents of flavonoids in Apocyni Veneti Folium are correlated with harvest times and growth parts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Wet and Dry Atmospheric Mercury Deposition Accumulates in Watersheds of the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Grant, C.; Grimm, J.; Drohan, P. J.; Bennett, J.; Lawler, D.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants and other sources such as waste incineration can be deposited to landscapes in precipitation and in dry fallout. Some mercury reaches watersheds and streams, where it can accumulate in sediments and biota. Human exposure to mercury occurs primarily through fish consumption, and currently mercury fish eating advisories are in place for many of the streams and lakes in the state. Here, we explored mercury in air, soils, water, and biota. To quantify atmospheric mercury deposition, we measured both wet and dry mercury deposition at over 10 locations in Pennsylvania, from which we present variation in mercury deposition and initial assessments of factors affecting the patterns. Further, we simulated mercury deposition at unmonitored locations in Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States over space and time with a high-resolution modeling technique that reflects storm tracks and air flow patterns. To consider mercury accumulation in watersheds, we collected data on soil mercury concentrations in a set of soil samples, and collected baseline data on mercury in streams draining 35 forested watersheds across Pennsylvania, spanning gradients of atmospheric deposition, climate and geology. Mercury concentrations were measured in stream water under base-flow conditions, in streambed sediments, aquatic mosses, and in fish tissues from brook trout. Results indicate that wet and dry atmospheric deposition is a primary source of mercury that is accumulating in watersheds of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States.

  6. Accumulation of MRI contrast agents in malignant fibrous histiocytoma for gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, T.; Ichikawa, H.; Akisue, T.; Fujita, I.; Kishimoto, K.; Hara, H.; Imabori, M.; Kawamitsu, H.; Sharma, P.; Brown, S.C.; Moudgil, B.M.; Fujii, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Kurosaka, M.; Fukumori, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron-capture therapy with gadolinium (Gd-NCT) has therapeutic potential, especially that gadolinium is generally used as a contrast medium in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The accumulation of gadolinium in a human sarcoma cell line, malignant fibrosis histiocytoma (MFH) Nara-H, was visualized by the MRI system. The commercially available MRI contrast medium Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, dimeglumine gadopentetate aqueous solution) and the biodegradable and highly gadopentetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (Gd-nanoCPs) were prepared as MRI contrast agents. The MFH cells were cultured and collected into three falcon tubes that were set into the 3-tesra MRI system to acquire signal intensities from each pellet by the spin echo method, and the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) was calculated. The amount of Gd in the sample was measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrography (ICP-AES). The accumulation of gadolinium in cells treated with Gd-nanoCPs was larger than that in cells treated with Gd-DTPA. In contrast, and compared with the control, Gd-DTPA was more effective than Gd-nanoCPs in reducing T1, suggesting that the larger accumulation exerted the adverse effect of lowering the enhancement of MRI. Further studies are warranted to gain insight into the therapeutic potential of Gd-NCT.

  7. Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a “pulsed beam”; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a “continuous beam.” A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose

  8. Simulating the Earth System Response to Negative Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.; Milne, J.; Littleton, E. W.; Jones, C.; Canadell, J.; Peters, G. P.; van Vuuren, D.; Davis, S. J.; Jonas, M.; Smith, P.; Ciais, P.; Rogelj, J.; Torvanger, A.; Shrestha, G.

    2016-12-01

    The natural carbon sinks of the land and oceans absorb approximately half the anthropogenic CO2 emitted every year. The CO2 that is not absorbed accumulates in the Earth's atmosphere and traps the suns rays causing an increase in the global mean temperature. Removing this left over CO2 using negative emissions technologies (NETs) has been proposed as a strategy to lessen the accumulating CO2 and avoid dangerous climate change. Using CMIP5 Earth system model simulations this study assessed the impact on the global carbon cycle, and how the Earth system might respond, to negative emissions strategies applied to low emissions scenarios, over different times horizons from the year 2000 to 2300. The modeling results suggest that using NETs to remove atmospheric CO2 over five 50-year time horizons has varying effects at different points in time. The effects of anthropogenic and natural sources and sinks, can result in positive or negative changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Results show that historic emissions and the current state of the Earth System have impacts on the behavior of atmospheric CO2, as do instantaneous anthropogenic emissions. Indeed, varying background scenarios seemed to have a greater effect on atmospheric CO2 than the actual amount and timing of NETs. These results show how NETs interact with the physical climate-carbon cycle system and highlight the need for more research on earth-system dynamics as they relate to carbon sinks and sources and anthropogenic perturbations.

  9. Carbon emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the spatial-temporal pattern and processes of China's energy-related carbon emissions. Based on extensive quantitative analysis, it outlines the character and trajectory of China's energy-related carbon emissions during the period 1995-2010, examining the distribution pattern of China's carbon emissions from regional and sectoral perspectives and revealing the driving factors of China's soaring emission increase. Further, the book investigates the supply chain carbon emissions (the carbon footprints) of China's industrial sectors. Anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious challenges currently facing humankind. China is the world's largest developing country, top primary energy consumer and carbon emitter. Achieving both economic growth and environmental conservation is the country's twofold challenge. Understanding the status, features and driving forces of China's energy-related carbon emissions is a critical aspect of attaining global sustainability. This work, for the first time, presents both key findings on and a systematic evaluation of China's carbon emissions from energy consumption. The results have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing with regard to climate change mitigation. The book will be of great interest to readers around the world, as it addresses a topic of truly global significance.

  10. Carbon emissions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhu [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Sustainability Science Program

    2016-07-01

    This study analyzes the spatial-temporal pattern and processes of China's energy-related carbon emissions. Based on extensive quantitative analysis, it outlines the character and trajectory of China's energy-related carbon emissions during the period 1995-2010, examining the distribution pattern of China's carbon emissions from regional and sectoral perspectives and revealing the driving factors of China's soaring emission increase. Further, the book investigates the supply chain carbon emissions (the carbon footprints) of China's industrial sectors. Anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious challenges currently facing humankind. China is the world's largest developing country, top primary energy consumer and carbon emitter. Achieving both economic growth and environmental conservation is the country's twofold challenge. Understanding the status, features and driving forces of China's energy-related carbon emissions is a critical aspect of attaining global sustainability. This work, for the first time, presents both key findings on and a systematic evaluation of China's carbon emissions from energy consumption. The results have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing with regard to climate change mitigation. The book will be of great interest to readers around the world, as it addresses a topic of truly global significance.

  11. 40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1708-99 Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and... are incorporated by reference (see § 86.1). (v) Hybrid electric vehicle requirements. Deterioration factors for hybrid electric vehicles shall be based on the emissions and mileage accumulation of the...

  12. Tax systems for CO{sub 2} emissions climate goals for 2020. Consequences for the commercial and service sector; Avgiftssystemer for CO{sub 2}-utslipp ved klimamaal for 2020. Effekter for handels- og tjenestenaeringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjertnaes, Geir H.; Tsygankova, Marina

    2011-06-15

    The population and sample for this survey are based on data from The Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register (GAB) as of 1 January 2008. GAB is a computer register containing information about ground properties and addresses in Norway. Defined by type of building, around 130 000 buildings within the services sector are included in the register. Buildings with an unspecified owner, buildings smaller than 200 m2 and some special types of buildings (garages etc.) were excluded from the population, thus giving a total of just over 60 000 buildings. The gross sample was made up of 8 100 buildings, and questionnaires were sent to the landowners of these buildings. In addition to the Statistics Norway sample, data from Enova and Statsbygg, among others, was used. The net sample included about 5 000 buildings. The relatively low number of usable questionnaires in the Statistics Norway sample was related to both the quality of the data in GAB and in the reported data. The use of energy per square metre between the different types of buildings in the survey varies considerably. This is due to several factors, such as time of use of the buildings, the amount of technical equipment in the buildings, energy efficiency etc. The average for all the buildings in the survey for 2008 was 226 kWh/m2. Total energy consumption in the survey was slightly more than 5 TWh distributed over 22.5 million m2 of heated area. Electric power accounted for 83 per cent of the energy used and was by far the largest energy carrier. District heating was the second largest energy carrier with 11 per cent, while heating oil accounted for about 3 per cent. Wood and pellets made up slightly less than 2 per cent and other energy carriers totalled 0.4 per cent. Schools and kindergartens had by far the lowest use of energy, with an average of 159 kWh/m2. This is related to the relatively low time of use of the buildings and fewer technical installations using energy. On the other hand, hospitals are

  13. Positron emission tomography in the evaluation of subdural hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, K.; Bergstroem, M.; Eriksson, L.

    1980-01-01

    Fifteen patients with 21 subdural effusions were investigated both with transmission computer assisted tomography (CAT) and positron emission tomography (PET). The tracer in the emission studies was 68 Ga-EDTA. Twelve lesions were visualized both with CAT and PET. Five lesions that were negative or doubtful on CAT were visualized with PET, whereas four lesions negative or doubtful on PET were demonstrated by CAT. The two methods complement each other due to the fact that they are based on different mechanisms: CAT mainly on attenuation of the fluid collection. PET on isotope accumulation, particularly in the hematoma membranes

  14. Secondary Electron Emission from Dust and Its Effect on Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, B. K.; Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2011-11-01

    Hydrogen plasma is produced in a plasma chamber by striking discharge between incandescent tungsten filaments and the permanent magnetic cage [1], which is grounded. The magnetic cage has a full line cusped magnetic field geometry used to confine the plasma elements. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to study the plasma parameters in various discharge conditions. The charge accumulated on the dust particles is calculated using the capacitance model and the dust current is measured by the combination of a Faraday cup and an electrometer at different discharge conditions. It is found Secondary electron emission from dust having low emission yield effects the charging of dust particles in presence of high energetic electrons.

  15. Secondary Electron Emission from Dust and Its Effect on Charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, B. K.; Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen plasma is produced in a plasma chamber by striking discharge between incandescent tungsten filaments and the permanent magnetic cage [1], which is grounded. The magnetic cage has a full line cusped magnetic field geometry used to confine the plasma elements. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to study the plasma parameters in various discharge conditions. The charge accumulated on the dust particles is calculated using the capacitance model and the dust current is measured by the combination of a Faraday cup and an electrometer at different discharge conditions. It is found Secondary electron emission from dust having low emission yield effects the charging of dust particles in presence of high energetic electrons.

  16. Development and application of a mobile laboratory for measuring emissions from diesel engines. 1. Regulated gaseous emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, David R; Shah, Sandip D; Johnson, Kent; Miller, J Wayne; Norbeck, Joseph M

    2004-04-01

    Information about in-use emissions from diesel engines remains a critical issue for inventory development and policy design. Toward that end, we have developed and verified the first mobile laboratory that measures on-road or real-world emissions from engines at the quality level specified in the U.S. Congress Code of Federal Regulations. This unique mobile laboratory provides information on integrated and modal regulated gaseous emission rates and integrated emission rates for speciated volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and particulate matter during real-world operation. Total emissions are captured and collected from the HDD vehicle that is pulling the mobile laboratory. While primarily intended to accumulate data from HDD vehicles, it may also be used to measure emission rates from stationary diesel sources such as back-up generators. This paper describes the development of the mobile laboratory, its measurement capabilities, and the verification process and provides the first data on total capture gaseous on-road emission measurements following the California Air Resources Board (ARB) 4-mode driving cycle, the hot urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS), the modified 5-mode cycle, and a 53.2-mi highway chase experiment. NOx mass emission rates (g mi(-1)) for the ARB 4-mode driving cycle, the hot UDDS driving cycle, and the chase experimentwerefoundto exceed current emission factor estimates for the engine type tested by approximately 50%. It was determined that congested traffic flow as well as "off-Federal Test Procedure cycle" emissions can lead to significant increases in per mile NOx emission rates for HDD vehicles.

  17. Electronic Reporting of Air Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulations require affected sources to perform emissions source tests, conduct continuous emissions monitoring, and submit compliance and emissions reports. This site provides technical resources and access for providing such submissions.

  18. Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS) estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vegetation and nitric oxide (NO) emission from soils. Recent BEIS development has been restricted to the SMOKE system

  19. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory contains information on direct emissions of greenhouse gases as well as indirect or potential emissions of greenhouse...

  20. Emission sources and quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, B.

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines emission sources and quantities for SO 2 and NO x . Natural SO 2 is released from volcanic sources and to a much lower extent from marsh gases. In nature NO x is mainly produced in the course of the chemical and bacterial denitrification processes going on in the soil. Manmade pollutants are produced in combustion processes. The paper concentrates on manmade pollution. Aspects discussed include: mechanism of pollution development; manmade emission sources (e.g. industry, traffic, power plants and domestic sources); and emission quantities and forecasts. 11 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Quantification in emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this lecture is to understand the possibilities and limitations of the quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) images. It is also to identify the conditions to be fulfilled to obtain reliable quantitative measurements from images. Content: 1 - Introduction: Quantification in emission tomography - definition and challenges; quantification biasing phenomena 2 - Main problems impacting quantification in PET and SPECT: problems, consequences, correction methods, results (Attenuation, scattering, partial volume effect, movement, un-stationary spatial resolution in SPECT, fortuitous coincidences in PET, standardisation in PET); 3 - Synthesis: accessible efficiency, know-how, Precautions, beyond the activity measurement

  2. Single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this lecture is to present the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging technique. Content: 1 - Introduction: anatomic, functional and molecular imaging; Principle and role of functional or molecular imaging; 2 - Radiotracers: chemical and physical constraints, main emitters, radioisotopes production, emitters type and imaging techniques; 3 - Single photon emission computed tomography: gamma cameras and their components, gamma camera specifications, planar single photon imaging characteristics, gamma camera and tomography; 4 - Quantification in single photon emission tomography: attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution, partial volume effect, movements, others; 5 - Synthesis and conclusion

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  4. Household carbon dioxide emissions from peasants and herdsmen in northwestern arid-alpine regions, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Jiansheng; Zeng, Jingjing; Li, Yan; Wang, Qin; Maraseni, Tek; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Clarke-Sather, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed household CO 2 emissions (related to the consumption of necessary and luxury goods and services) of peasants and herdsmen households in arid-alpine regions in Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia provinces, China. We also explored whether agriculture types, family income and family size have played any role in household CO 2 emissions. In order to address these issues, we: (i) developed assessment indicators for household emissions; (ii) conducted semi-structured questionnaire household surveys; and (iii) employed input-output analysis (IOA). The results showed that, the average household CO 2 emission per capita is 1.43 tons (t) CO 2 ; the proportion of subsistence emissions (related to the consumption of necessary goods and services) accounts for 93.24%, whereas luxury emissions (generated due to consumption of specific goods and services that are consumed only when household income improves) only account for 6.76%t. Moreover, household CO 2 emissions increase with family income and family size, but per capita emissions are inversely related to family size. The highest average household emissions were found in the alpine agricultural and pastoral region (6.18 t CO 2 ), followed by the irrigated agricultural region (6.07 t CO 2 ) and the rain-fed agricultural region (5.34 t CO 2 ). In consideration of insignificant amount of household emissions from these poor and vulnerable groups of the society, this study suggests to follow the principle of fairness while making energy conservation, emission reduction and adaptation policies. - Highlights: ► Per capita emissions decrease as the household size increases. ► The subsistence emissions accounts for 93.24% of the total emissions. ► If heating related emissions are excluded, household emissions are negligible. ► The reduction of emissions below current levels is almost impossible. ► Poor and vulnerable groups should be given special consideration

  5. Total lipid accumulation and fatty acid profiles of microalga Spirulina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient limitation in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus increased lipid accumulation under depleted growth in Spirulina strains. Nitrogen limitation was found more effective than phosphorus in accumulating lipid. The fatty acid profile was variable: palmitic (48%), linolenic (21%) and linoleic acids (15%) were the most ...

  6. Simple non-invasive assessment of advanced glycation endproduct accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerwaldt, R; Graaff, R; Links, TP; Jager, JJ; Alderson, NL; Thorpe, [No Value; Baynes, JW; Gans, ROB; Smit, AJ

    Aims/hypothesis. The accumulation of AGE is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus and renal failure. All current measurements of AGE accumulation require invasive sampling. We exploited the fact that several AGE exhibit autofluorescence to develop a

  7. Salt stress induced ion accumulation, ion homeostasis, membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt stress induced ion accumulation, ion homeostasis, membrane injury and sugar contents in salt-sensitive rice ( Oryza sativa L. spp. indica ) roots under isoosmotic conditions. ... The accumulation of sugars in PT1 roots may be a primary salt-defense mechanism and may function as an osmotic control. Key words: ...

  8. Ammonium and hydroxylamine uptake and accumulation in Nitrosomonas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, I.; Look, C.; Bock, E.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Starved cells of Nitrosomonas europaea and further ammonia oxidizers were able to rapidly accumulate ammonium and hydroxylamine to an internal concentration of about 1 and 0.8 M, respectively. In kinetic studies, the uptake/accumulation rates for ammonium [3.1 mmol (g protein)(-1) min(-1)] and

  9. Heavy metal accumulation by carrageenan and agar producing algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, K.S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Biology; Bird, K.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States). Center for Marine Science Research

    1994-09-01

    The accumulation of six heavy metals Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn and Pb was measured in living and lzophilized algal thalli. The agar producing algae were Gracilaria tikvahiae and Gelidium pusillum. The carrageenan producing macroalgae were Agardhiella subulata and the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte phases of Chondrus crispus. These produce primarily iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, respectively. At heavy metal concentrations of 0.5 mg L{sup -1}, living thalli of Gracilaria tikvahiae generally showed the greatest amount of accumulation of the 6 heavy metals tested. The accumulation of Pb was greater in the living thalli of all four species than in the lyophilized thalli. Except for Agardhiella subulata, lyophilized thalli showed greater accumulation of Ni, Cu and Zn. There was no difference in heavy metal accumulation between living and lyophilized thalli in the accumulation of Cd. Manganese showed no accumulation at the tested concentration. There did not appear to be a relationship between algal hydrocolloid characteristics and the amounts of heavy metals accumulated. (orig.)

  10. Characterization of distinct Arctic aerosol accumulation modes and their sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, R.; Dall'Osto, M.; Skov, H.

    2018-01-01

    -August). By association to chemical composition, cloud condensation nuclei properties, and meteorological variables, three typical accumulation mode aerosol clusters were identified: Haze (32% of the time), Bimodal (14%) and Aged (6%). In brief: (1) Haze accumulation mode aerosol shows a single mode at 150 nm, peaking...

  11. Accumulation and management in global historical perspective: An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, Lissa L.

    2014-01-01

    This essay introduces a special issue dedicated to the theme ‘accumulation and management in global historical perspective’. The concepts and practices of accumulation and management are explored in ways that work to de-center the history of science and empire. Particular attention is paid to four

  12. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared

  13. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared.

  14. Chronology of p53 protein accumulation in gastric carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craanen, M. E.; Blok, P.; Dekker, W.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1995-01-01

    p53 Protein accumulation in early gastric carcinoma was studied in relation to the histological type (Lauren classification) and the type of growth pattern, including the chronology of p53 protein accumulation during carcinogenesis. Forty five, paraffin embedded gastrectomy specimens from early

  15. The study of accumulation of Sr 90 by plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusov, G.D.; Kudryashova, N.N.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the absorption and desorption of ions Sr 90 by plant cells and influence of different physical and chemical factors of environment on that processes were investigated. The kinetics of strontium accumulation have been obtained and the factors of accumulation of Sr 90 have been determined for a plant cell itself and its separate compartments

  16. In Vivo Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyani; Purwakusumah, E. P.; Andrianto, D.

    2017-03-01

    This is a preliminary research report on the use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to establish anti-obesity screening assay of the natural plant resources. Nematode C. elegans has been used as experimental animal model for understanding lipid accumulation. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of selected plant extracts on lipid accumulation in C. elegans. Currently no report could be found regarding lipid accumulation in C.elegans treated with ethanolic leaf extracts of jabon merah (Anthocephalus macrophyllus), jati belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia), and Mindi (Melia Azedarach) plants. Lipid accumulation was determined qualitatively using lipid staining method and quantitatively by colorimetry using sulpho-phospho-vanillin reagent. Data showed that lipid accumulation was inhibited up to 72% by extract of M. azedarach, about 35% by both of A. macrophyllus and G. ulmifolia extracts, and up to 25% by orlistat (a synthetic slimming drug). Ethanolic extract of A. macrophyllus, G. ulmifolia, and M. azedarach leaves were shown to inhibit lipid accumulation in C. elegans and M. azedarach leaves extracts was the most effective inhibitor. C.elegans were shown to be an effective model for in vivo lipid accumulation mechanism and potential to be used as a rapid screening assay for bioactive compounds with lipid accumulation inhibitory activity.

  17. Influence of land use on phytomass accumulation in Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of indigenous vegetation for production purposes impacts negatively on biodiversity but does this necessarily equate with a decrease in phytomass accumulation, which may influence carbon sequestration? Phytomass accumulation was studied for common land covers of beef ranching or dairy farming ...

  18. Verification of Agricultural Methane Emission Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, R. L.; Pattey, E.; Worth, D. E.; VanderZaag, A.; Mauder, M.; Srinivasan, R.; Worthy, D.; Sweeney, C.; Metzger, S.

    2017-12-01

    It is estimated that agriculture contributes more than 40% of anthropogenic methane (CH4) emissions in North America. However, these estimates, which are either based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology or inverse modeling techniques, are poorly validated due to the challenges of separating interspersed CH4 sources within agroecosystems. A flux aircraft, instrumented with a fast-response Picarro CH4 analyzer for the eddy covariance (EC) technique and a sampling system for the relaxed eddy accumulation technique (REA), was flown at an altitude of about 150 m along several 20-km transects over an agricultural region in Eastern Canada. For all flight days, the top-down CH4 flux density measurements were compared to the footprint adjusted bottom-up estimates based on an IPCC Tier II methodology. Information on the animal population, land use type and atmospheric and surface variables were available for each transect. Top-down and bottom-up estimates of CH4 emissions were found to be poorly correlated, and wetlands were the most frequent confounding source of CH4; however, there were other sources such as waste treatment plants and biodigesters. Spatially resolved wavelet covariance estimates of CH4 emissions helped identify the contribution of wetlands to the overall CH4 flux, and the dependence of these emissions on temperature. When wetland contribution in the flux footprint was minimized, top-down and bottom-up estimates agreed to within measurement error. This research demonstrates that although existing aircraft-based technology can be used to verify regional ( 100 km2) agricultural CH4 emissions, it remains challenging due to diverse sources of CH4 present in many regions. The use of wavelet covariance to generate spatially-resolved flux estimates was found to be the best way to separate interspersed sources of CH4.

  19. Enabling Routes as Context in Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brilingaite, Agne; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Zokaite, Nora

    With the continuing advances in wireless communications, geo-positioning, and portable electronics, an infrastructure is emerging that enables the delivery of on-line, location-enabled services to very large numbers of mobile users. A typical usage situation for mobile services is one characteriz...... and accumulates the routes of a user along with their usage patterns and that makes the routes available to services. Experiences from using the component on logs of GPS positions acquired from vehicles traveling within a real road network are reported....... by a small screen and no keyboard, and by the service being only a secondary focus of the user. Under such circumstances, it is particularly important to deliver the "right" information and service at the right time, with as little user interaction as possible. This may be achieved by making services context...

  20. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA

  1. Investigation of the gallium-67 citrate hilar accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yuji

    1987-01-01

    To study the 67 Ga hilar accumulation, author quantitatively analyzed 67 Ga scintigrams of patients having no chest disease and normal chest roentgenograms. Relationship between hilar accumulation and smoking was quantitatively and experimentally studied. The conclusions were as follows: 1. There was significant relationship between smoking and 67 Ga hilar accumulation but there was no significant relationship between aging and the hilar accumulation. 2. The 67 Ga uptake of the hilar lymph node of smoked rat was higher than that of control group on microautoradiogram. The histological finding of the hilar lymph node of smoked rat was sinus histiocytosis. 3. Activated histiocytosis of hilar lymphatic sinus by some factors including smoking seemed to be responsible for 67 Ga hilar accumulation, of which mechanism was unknown. (author)

  2. Flow field induced particle accumulation inside droplets in rectangular channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Michael; Moskopp, Michael; Seemann, Ralf

    2015-07-07

    Particle concentration is a basic operation needed to perform washing steps or to improve subsequent analysis in many (bio)-chemical assays. In this article we present field free, hydrodynamic accumulation of particles and cells in droplets flowing within rectangular micro-channels. Depending on droplet velocity, particles either accumulate at the rear of the droplet or are dispersed over the entire droplet cross-section. We show that the observed particle accumulation behavior can be understood by a coupling of particle sedimentation to the internal flow field of the droplet. The changing accumulation patterns are explained by a qualitative change of the internal flow field. The topological change of the internal flow field, however, is explained by the evolution of the droplet shape with increasing droplet velocity altering the friction with the channel walls. In addition, we demonstrate that accumulated particles can be concentrated, removing excess dispersed phase by splitting the droplet at a simple channel junction.

  3. Accumulation of D- vs. L-isomers of alanine and leucine in rat prostatic adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.; Schmall, B.; Bigler, R.E.; Zanzonico, P.B.; Kleinert, E.; Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    It has been reported that tumor tissue may accumulate some D-amino acids preferentially over the L-isomers. In order to investigate the potential use of carbon-11 labeled amino acid isomers for in vivo tumor studies with positron emission tomography in patients, the tissue distributions of alanine and leucine, substrates for the A-type and L-type amino acid transport systems, respectively, were studied in Copenhagen rates bearing the Dunning R3327G prostatic adenocarcinoma. The authors have previously reported differences in the accumulation of A-type vs. L-type amino acids in rat prostatic adenocarcinoma and normal tissues. All compounds were labeled with C-14 in the carboxyl position with specific activities of 30.0-56.6 mCi/mmol. Higher levels of C-14 activity (Relative Concentration (RC)=dpm found per gm tissue + dpm inject per gm animal mass) were observed in tumor tissue using D-alanine (0.71) compared to L- (0.21) or DL-alanine (0.27) at 45 min post-injection. While tumor/prostate and tumor/liver ratios were above 2 for all three substrates, tumor/blood and tumor/muscle were above one for only the D-isomer. Comparisons made with D-, L-, and DL-leucine also demonstrated a higher level of RC in tumor tissue with the D-isomer (0.84) vs. the L-(0.66) and DL-leucine (0.63). In this case, however, tumor/blood, tumor/prostate, and tumor/muscle ratios were above one for all three substrates, while tumor/liver ratios were below one. These results support the observation of a preferential accumulation of D-amino acids in tumor tissue over the natural L-isomers. Observed differences in the accumulation of the isomers in normal tissues are discussed

  4. National Emission Inventory (NEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data exchange allows states to submit data to the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Emissions Inventory (NEI). NEI is a national database of air...

  5. 2011 NATA - Emissions Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes all emissions sources that were modeled in the 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), inlcluding point, nonpoint, and mobile sources, and...

  6. Cardiac positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, M.; Ejmalian, G.

    2003-01-01

    Positron emission tomography is an intrinsically tool that provide a unique and unparalleled approach for clinicians and researchers to interrogate the heart noninvasively. The ability to label substances of physiological interest with positron-emitting radioisotopes has permitted insight into normal blood flow and metabolism and the alterations that occur with disease states. Positron emission tomography of the heart has evolved as a unique, noninvasive approach for the assessment of myocardial perfusion, metabolism, and function. Because of the intrinsic quantitative nature of positron emission tomography measurements as well as the diverse compounds that can be labeled with positron- emitting radioisotopes, studies with positron emission tomography have provided rich insight into the physiology of the heart under diverse conditions

  7. Pulsar Emission Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Emission spectrum is calculated for a weak axisymmetric pulsar. Also calculated are the observed spectrum, efficiency, and the observed efficiency. The underlying flow of electrons and positrons turns out to be curiously intricate.

  8. Biogenic Emission Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic emissions sources come from natural sources and need to accounted for in photochemical grid models. They are computed using a model which utilizes spatial information on vegetation and land use.

  9. Photon enhanced thermionic emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

    2014-10-07

    Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

  10. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iio, Masahiro

    1982-01-01

    Utilization of positron emission tomography was reviewed in relation to construction and planned construction of small-size medical cyclotrons, planned construction of positron cameras and utilization of short-lived radionuclides. (Chiba, N.)

  11. Radiated Emissions Test Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-02

    1. Draft Department of Transportation (DOT) Test Plan to Develop : Interference Tolerance Masks for GNSS Receivers in the L1 : Radiofrequency Band (1559 1610 MHz) provides high level : overview of radiated emissions test setup : 2. Presenta...

  12. Nanoscale Terahertz Emission Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Kim, Hyewon; Colvin, Vicki L.

    By utilizing plasmonic coupling to an AFM probe, we demonstrate Laser Terahertz Emission Nanoscopy (LTEN) with sub-20 nm resolution. We demonstrate the resolution by imaging a single gold nanorod on an InAs substrate....

  13. Documentation Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnay, J.; Chosson, L.; Croize, M.; Ducloux, A.; Flores, S.; Jarroux, D.; Melka, J.; Morgue, D.; Mottin, C.

    1998-01-01

    This service assures the treatment and diffusion of the scientific information and the management of the scientific production of the institute as well as the secretariat operation for the groups and services of the institute. The report on documentation-library section mentions: the management of the documentation funds, search in international databases (INIS, Current Contents, Inspects), Pret-Inter service which allows accessing documents through DEMOCRITE network of IN2P3. As realizations also mentioned are: the setup of a video, photo database, the Web home page of the institute's library, follow-up of digitizing the document funds by integrating the CD-ROMs and diskettes, electronic archiving of the scientific production, etc

  14. Sucrose accumulation in watermelon fruits: genetic variation and biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yativ, Merav; Harary, Idan; Wolf, Shmuel

    2010-05-15

    Sugar accumulation, the key process determining fruit quality, is controlled by both the translocation of sugars and their metabolism in developing fruits. Sugar composition in watermelon, as in all cucurbit fruits, includes sucrose, fructose and glucose. The proportions of these three sugars are determined primarily by three enzyme families: invertases, sucrose synthases (SuSys) and sucrose phosphate synthases (SPSs). The goal of the present research was to explore the process of sugar metabolism in watermelon fruits. Crosses between the domestic watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and three wild species provided a wide germplasm to explore genetic variability in sugar composition and metabolism. This survey demonstrated great genetic variability in sugar content and in the proportions of sucrose, glucose and fructose in mature fruits. Genotypes accumulating high and low percentage of sucrose provided an experimental system to study sugar metabolism in developing fruits. Insoluble invertase activity was high and constant throughout fruit development in control lines and in genotypes accumulating low levels of sucrose, while in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose, activity declined sharply 4 weeks after pollination. Soluble acid invertase activity was significantly lower in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose than in low-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. Conversely, activities of SuSy and SPS were higher in the high-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. The present results establish that, within the genus Citrullus, there are genotypes that accumulate a high percentage of sucrose in the fruit, while others accumulate high percentages of glucose and fructose. The significant negative correlation between insoluble invertase activity and fruit sucrose level suggests that sucrose accumulation is affected by both phloem unloading and sugar metabolism. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J.; Menzi, H.; Pain, B.F.; Misselbrook, T.H.; Daemmgen, U.; Hendriks, H.; Doehler, H.

    2005-01-01

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH 3 . At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH 3 , and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH 3 emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH 3 abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH 3 emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH 3 emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH 3 emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost

  16. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, J. [ADAS Research, Woodthorne, Wergs Road, Wolverhampton WV6 8TQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jim.webb@adas.co.uk; Menzi, H. [Swiss College of Agriculture, Laenggasse 85, CH-3052 Zollikofen (Switzerland); Pain, B.F. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Misselbrook, T.H. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Daemmgen, U. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Agroecology, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Hendriks, H. [National Reference Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, Ede (Netherlands); Doehler, H. [KTBL, Bartningstrasse 49, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH{sub 3}. At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH{sub 3}, and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH{sub 3} abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH{sub 3} emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH{sub 3} emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost.

  17. Emission spectrochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives, R.D.; Bruks, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    The emission spectrochemical method of analysis based on the fact that atoms of elements can be excited in the electric arc or in the laser beam and will emit radiation with characteristic wave lengths is considered. The review contains the data on spectrochemical analysis, of liquids geological materials, scheme of laser microprobe. The main characteristics of emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescent analysis, are aeneralized

  18. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar, Preethi; Himabindu, Pucha

    2000-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a non-invasive nuclear imaging technique used to study different molecular pathways and anatomical structures. PET has found extensive applications in various fields of medicine viz. cardiology, oncology, psychiatry/psychology, neuro science and pulmonology. This study paper basically deals with the physics, chemistry and biology behind the PET technique. It discusses the methodology for generation of the radiotracers responsible for emission of positrons and the annihilation and detection techniques. (author)

  19. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, O.

    1989-01-01

    The principle is briefly described of positron emission tomography, and its benefits and constraints are listed. It is emphasized that positron emission tomography (PET) provides valuable information on metabolic changes in the organism that are otherwise only very difficult to obtain, such as brain diagnosis including relationships between mental disorders and the physiology and pathophysiology of the brain. A PET machine is to be installed in Czechoslovakia in the near future. (L.O.)

  20. Multi-sectorial convergence in greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Guilherme de; Bourscheidt, Deise Maria

    2017-07-01

    This paper uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to test the hypothesis of per capita convergence in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for a multi-sectorial panel of countries. The empirical strategy applies conventional estimators of random and fixed effects and Arellano and Bond's (1991) GMM to the main pollutants related to the greenhouse effect. For reasonable empirical specifications, the model revealed robust evidence of per capita convergence in CH 4 emissions in the agriculture, food, and services sectors. The evidence of convergence in CO 2 emissions was moderate in the following sectors: agriculture, food, non-durable goods manufacturing, and services. In all cases, the time for convergence was less than 15 years. Regarding emissions by energy use, the largest source of global warming, there was only moderate evidence in the extractive industry sector-all other pollutants presented little or no evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ecological strategies of Al-accumulating and non-accumulating functional groups from the cerrado sensu stricto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The cerrado's flora comprises aluminum-(Al accumulating and non-accumulating plants, which coexist on acidic and Al-rich soils with low fertility. Despite their existence, the ecological importance or biological strategies of these functional groups have been little explored. We evaluated the leaf flushing patterns of both groups throughout a year; leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al, total flavonoids and polyphenols; as well as the specific leaf area (SLA on young and mature leaves within and between the groups. In Al-accumulating plants, leaf flushed throughout the year, mainly in May and September; for non-accumulating plants, leaf flushing peaked at the dry-wet seasons transition. However, these behaviors could not be associated with strategies for building up concentrations of defense compounds in leaves of any functional groups. Al-accumulating plants showed low leaf nutrient concentrations, while non-accumulating plants accumulated more macronutrients and produced leaves with high SLA since the juvenile leaf phase. This demonstrates that the increase in SLA is slower in Al-accumulating plants that are likely to achieve SLA values comparable to the rest of the plant community only in the wet season, when sunlight capture is important for the growth of new branches.

  2. Ecological strategies of Al-accumulating and non-accumulating functional groups from the cerrado sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcelo C de; Bueno, Paula C P; Morellato, Leonor P C; Habermann, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The cerrado's flora comprises aluminum-(Al) accumulating and non-accumulating plants, which coexist on acidic and Al-rich soils with low fertility. Despite their existence, the ecological importance or biological strategies of these functional groups have been little explored. We evaluated the leaf flushing patterns of both groups throughout a year; leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al, total flavonoids and polyphenols; as well as the specific leaf area (SLA) on young and mature leaves within and between the groups. In Al-accumulating plants, leaf flushed throughout the year, mainly in May and September; for non-accumulating plants, leaf flushing peaked at the dry-wet seasons transition. However, these behaviors could not be associated with strategies for building up concentrations of defense compounds in leaves of any functional groups. Al-accumulating plants showed low leaf nutrient concentrations, while non-accumulating plants accumulated more macronutrients and produced leaves with high SLA since the juvenile leaf phase. This demonstrates that the increase in SLA is slower in Al-accumulating plants that are likely to achieve SLA values comparable to the rest of the plant community only in the wet season, when sunlight capture is important for the growth of new branches.

  3. Integral quality programs for radiodiagnostics Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alastuey, F.; Barranco, C.; Marco, R.; Perez, C.; Sanchez, J.; Pardo, J.; Madrid, G.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the work entitled ''Integral Quality Programs for Radiodiagnostics Services'' is to present the experience accumulated over the past 10 years by the Radiodiagnostics Service of C.M.E. Ramon y Cajal in Zaragoza. The term ''integral quality'' will be defined conceptually in order to differentiate it from the classical quality control which refers exclusively to the control of radiology equipment. The problem will be reviewed from the historical point of view and a basic, homologated model, contrasted on the basis of the work of these 10 years, is proposed mainly to serve as the backbone for the working system in a Radiodiagnostics Service. (Author) 46 ref

  4. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key

  5. Emission of partial dislocations from triple junctions of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutkin, M Yu; Ovid'ko, I A; Skiba, N V

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical model is suggested that describes emission of partial Shockley dislocations from triple junctions of grain boundaries (GBs) in deformed nanocrystalline materials. In the framework of the model, triple junctions accumulate dislocations due to GB sliding along adjacent GBs. The dislocation accumulation at triple junctions causes partial Shockley dislocations to be emitted from the dislocated triple junctions and thus accommodates GB sliding. Ranges of parameters (applied stress, grain size, etc) are calculated in which the emission events are energetically favourable in nanocrystalline Al, Cu and Ni. The model accounts for the corresponding experimental data reported in the literature

  6. Traumatic Brain Injury service (TBI) Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This Service provides access to Tramatic Brain injury patient data consult notes. The service also provides one write service method writeNote. The Service supports...

  7. Mail Service

    CERN Multimedia

    TS-FM Group

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 19 October 2004 Please note that the distribution and collection of mail are likely to be disrupted on Tuesday, October 19, 2004, because of traffic and other restrictions enforced on that day in connection with CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The service may be completely interrupted in certain areas. Group TS-FM, Tel. 77551

  8. PFInancial services

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Briti ettevõttest International Financial Services, mis viib maailmas läbi kampaaniat PPP (Public Private Partnership) ja PFI (Private Finance Initiative) - erasektori ja avaliku sektori vahelise koostöö reklaamimiseks ja edendamiseks. Firma esindajad kohtusid Eesti ametnikega

  9. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service - Tel. 7 2155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  10. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Dosimetry Service

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  11. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service - Tel. 72155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  12. Fuel Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, A.

    1982-09-01

    FRAGEMA has developed most types of inspection equipments to work on irradiated fuel assemblies and on single fuel rods during reactor outages with an efficiency compatible with the utilities operating priorities. In order to illustrate this statement, two specific examples of inspection equipments are shortly described: the on-site removable fuel rod assembly examination stand, and the fuel assembly multiple examination device. FRAGEMA has developed techniques for the identifiction of the leaking fuel rods in the fuel assembly and the tooling necessary to perform the replacement of the faulted element. These examples of methods, techniques and equipments described and the experience accumulated through their use allow FRAGEMA to qualify for offering the supply of the corresponding software, hardware or both whenever an accurate understanding of the fuel behaviour is necessary and whenever direct intervention on the assembly and associated components is necessary due to safety, operating or economical reasons

  13. Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger W.; McClelland, John F.

    1989-12-01

    Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy (TIRES) is a new technique that reduces the occurrence of self-absorption in optically thick solid samples so that analytically useful emission spectra may be observed. Conventional emission spectroscopy, in which the sample is held at an elevated, uniform temperature, is practical only for optically thin samples. In thick samples the emission from deep layers of the material is partially absorbed by overlying layers.1 This self-absorption results in emission spectra from most optically thick samples that closely resemble black-body spectra. The characteristic discrete emission bands are severely truncated and altered in shape. TIRES bypasses this difficulty by using a laser to heat only an optically thin surface layer. The increased temperature of the layer is transient since the layer will rapidly cool and thicken by thermal diffusion; hence the emission collection must be correlated with the laser heating. TIRES may be done with both pulsed and cw lasers.2,3 When a pulsed laser is used, the spectrometer sampling must be synchronized with the laser pulsing so that only emission during and immediately after each laser pulse is observed.3 If a cw laser is used, the sample must move rapidly through the beam. The hot, transient layer is then in the beam track on the sample at and immediately behind the beam position, so the spectrometer field of view must be limited to this region near the beam position.2 How much self-absorption the observed emission suffers depends on how thick the heated layer has grown by thermal diffusion when the spectrometer samples the emission. Use of a pulsed laser synchronized with the spectrometer sampling readily permits reduction of the time available for heat diffusion to about 100 acs .3 When a cw laser is used, the heat-diffusion time is controlled by how small the spectrometer field of view is and by how rapidly the sample moves past within this field. Both a very small field of view and a

  14. Innovation in Services: From Service Concepts to Service Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Fynes, Brian; Lally, Anne Marie

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Identifying the nature of service experiences is recognised As being of primary importance in the shaping of an enhanced competitive position for industry; however service managers often have difficulty articulating the true nature of their service concept. The definition of service concept is a fundamental part of the strategic advantage seeking Processes of service design, service development and service innovation. In response to the competitive Imperative for improved product/...

  15. Estimated HCFC-22 emissions for 1990-2050 in China and the increasing contribution to global emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifang; Bie, Pengju; Wang, Ziyuan; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Jiang, Hanyu; Xu, Weiguang; Zhang, Jianbo; Hu, Jianxin

    2016-05-01

    Chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2, HCFC-22) is a widely used refrigerant and foaming agent that is not only an ozone-depleting substance (ozone depletion potential (ODP), 0.04) but also a greenhouse gas (global warming potential (GWP), 1780). A comprehensive historical emission inventory for 1990-2014 was produced using a bottom-up method, and a projection through to 2050 was made for China. The results demonstrated that historical emissions increased sharply from 0.2 Gg/yr in 1990 to 127.2 Gg/yr in 2014. Room air-conditioners (RACs), industrial and commercial refrigeration (ICR), and extruded polystyrene (XPS) were three primary emission sources, and accounted for an average of 95.4% of the total emissions over the period studied. The percentage of global HCFC-22 emissions originating from China significantly increased from 0.1% in 1990 to 31.6% in 2012, with an average growth rate of 1.4% per year. Under the Montreal Protocol phasing-out (MPPO) scenario, future emissions were expected to reach a peak of 133.5 Gg/yr in 2016 and then continuously decline to 10.2 Gg/yr in 2050. The accumulative reduction for 2015-2050 would be 5533.8 Gg (equivalent to 221.4 CFC-11-eq Gg and 9850.1 CO2-eq Tg), which is approximately equivalent to the total CO2 emission for China in 2012 (9900 Tg) (Olivier et al., 2013), compared with the no Montreal Protocol scenario (NMP). Under the MPPO scenario, two cases were analyzed to explore the future emission ranges in China. A comparison between the two cases implied that the choice of emission reduction policy will have a considerable impact on HCFC-22 emissions.

  16. Cationic Organochalcogen with Monomer/Excimer Emissions for Dual-Color Live Cell Imaging and Cell Damage Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Xi-Juan; Wang, Kang-Nan; Sun, Li-Li; Cao, Qian; Ke, Zhuo-Feng; Cao, Du-Xia; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2018-04-25

    Studies on the development of fluorescent organic molecules with different emission colors for imaging of organelles and their biomedical application are gaining lots of focus recently. Here, we report two cationic organochalcogens 1 and 2, both of which exhibit very weak green emission (Φ 1 = 0.12%; Φ 2 = 0.09%) in dilute solution as monomers, but remarkably enhanced green emission upon interaction with nucleic acids and large red-shifted emission in aggregate state by the formation of excimers at high concentration. More interestingly, the monomer emission and excimer-like emission can be used for dual color imaging of different organelles. Upon passively diffusing into cells, both probes selectively stain nucleoli with strong green emission upon 488 nm excitation, whereas upon 405 nm excitation, a completely different stain pattern by staining lysosomes (for 1) or mitochondria (for 2) with distinct red emission is observed because of the highly concentrated accumulation in these organelles. Studies on the mechanism of the accumulation in lysosomes (for 1) or mitochondria (for 2) found that the accumulations of the probes are dependent on the membrane permeabilization, which make the probes have great potential in diagnosing cell damage by sensing lysosomal or mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. The study is demonstrative, for the first time, of two cationic molecules for dual-color imaging nucleoli and lysosomes (1)/mitochondria (2) simultaneously in live cell based on monomer and excimer-like emission, respectively, and more importantly, for diagnosing cell damage.

  17. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  18. Apparently normal accumulation in the patellae on bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Masanori; Yoshida, Kiyo; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Ishigaki, Takeo

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the influences of gender and ages on accumulation in the patellae on scintigram. The subjects were 828 patients who underwent bone scintigraphy during the past one and half years at the Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Hospital. Patients younger than 20 years old and those with abnormality of the patellae were excluded. The degree of accumulation in the patellae was evaluated using the A-P whole body scintigraphy in comparison with accumulation at the diaphysis of the femur and classified to two categories, ''Positive'' (higher accumulation than that of the diaphysis of the femur) and ''Negative'' (equal or lower than that of the diaphysis of the femur). In general, the degree of accumulation was higher in females than in males. In both males and females, the degree of accumulation increased with age. A difference between the two sides in the degree of accumulation in the patellae was observed in 32% of subjects. The results of this study may serve as basic data for the interpretation of bone scintigrams. (author)

  19. Potential effects of emission taxes on CO2 emissions in the OECD and LDCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messner, S.; Strubegger, M.

    1991-01-01

    A set of existing optimization models, which represent the energy systems of the OECD and LDCs (less developed countries excluding centrally planned economies) with a time horizon to 2020, has been applied to derive first-order estimates of the techno-economic potential for emission reduction. The driving force for the introduction of reduction measures is a scheme of taxes levied on the emission of six pollutants, including the greenhouse gases CO 2 and methane. The tax levels introduced are based on taxes discussed by the Swedish government: they are the break-even point to test which measures are cost-effective and which emission levels can be reached at these costs. The regional models include the following alternatives: (i) reduction of final energy demand by supplying the requested services by other means (i.e., conservation); (ii) substitution of new fuels for polluting fuels; (iii) introduction of clean technologies for the same purposes; (iv) additions of pollution-reduction technologies. Alternative scenarios with emission taxes are compared with a base scenario without taxes related to pollutant emissions. The results indicate that an increase in CO 2 emissions in the OECD and LDC regions of 47% over the next 30 yr in the base scenario would be changed to stable levels to 2010 by tax-induced measures. Thereafter, energy-consumption growth in the LDCs reverses this trend. (author)

  20. Noncondensable gas accumulation phenomena in nuclear power plant piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Aoki, Kazuyoshi; Sato, Teruaki; Shida, Akira; Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Nishikawa, Akira; Inagaki, Tetsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    In the case of the boiling water reactor, hydrogen and oxygen slightly exist in the main steam, because these noncondensable gases are generated by the radiolytic decomposition of the reactor water. BWR plants have taken measures to prevent noncondensable gas accumulation. However, in 2001, the detonation of noncondensable gases occurred at Hamaoka-1 and Brunsbuttel, resulting in ruptured piping. The accumulation phenomena of noncondensable gases in BWR closed piping must be investigated and understood in order to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Therefore, an experimental study on noncondensable gas accumulation was carried out. The piping geometries for testing were classified and modeled after the piping of actual BWR plants. The test results showed that 1) noncondensable gases accumulate in vertical piping, 2) it is hard for noncondensable gases to accumulate in horizontal piping, and 3) noncondensable gases accumulate under low-pressure conditions. A simple accumulation analysis method was proposed. To evaluate noncondensable gas accumulation phenomena, the three component gases were treated as a mixture. It was assumed that the condensation amount of the vapor is small, because the piping is certainly wrapped with heat insulation material. Moreover, local thermal equilibrium was assumed. This analysis method was verified using the noncondensable gas accumulation test data on branch piping with a closed top. Moreover, an experimental study on drain trap piping was carried out. The test results showed that the noncondensable gases dissolved in the drain water were discharged from the drain trap, and Henry's law could be applied to evaluate the amount of dissolved noncondensable gases in the drain water. (author)

  1. The Energy Burden and Environmental Impact of Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Petra G.; Canyon, Deon V.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We reviewed the English-language literature on the energy burden and environmental impact of health services. Methods. We searched all years of the PubMed, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect databases for publications reporting energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, or the environmental impact of health-related activities. We extracted and tabulated data to enable cross-comparisons among different activities and services; where possible, we calculated per patient or per event emissions. Results. We identified 38 relevant publications. Per patient or per event, health-related energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are quite modest; in the aggregate, however, they are considerable. In England and the United States, health-related emissions account for 3% and 8% of total national emissions, respectively. Conclusions. Although reducing health-related energy consumption and emissions alone will not resolve all of the problems of energy scarcity and climate change, it could make a meaningful contribution. PMID:23078475

  2. Microbial accumulation of uranium from nuclear liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    This investigation includes the isolation, identification and the fluctuations of the population densities of microorganisms in the nuclear liquid waste released by some laboratories of Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission. The efficiency of uranium accumulation on isolates (22 bacterial strains, 24 fungal strains and 6 yeast strains) was assessed in aqueous solution using fluorometric techniques. Two of the isolated microoganisms namely Bacillus sp. -15B and Mucor sp.16F showed exceptionally high attitude towards uranium accumulation. Optimal conditions required for efficient accumulation and recovery of uranium was then studied using the two selected isolates. 10 figs.; 162 refs.; 16 tabs

  3. Cesium accumulation in native trees from the Brazilian Cerrado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J.D.; Miranda, M.V.F.E.S.; Santos, T.O.; Cantinha, R.S.; Fernandes, E.A.D.N.

    2016-01-01

    Even considered not essential for plants, cesium may cycle within forest ecosystems. Taking into account the lack of knowledge on the distribution of this chemical element in Brazilian ecosystems, this work encompasses the unexpected cesium accumulation in native plant leaves from Cerradao, a Brazilian hotspot of world biodiversity. Some trees were Cs accumulators, achieving mass fractions in leaves 700 times higher (up to 12.7 mg kg -1 ) when compared to other Brazilian native tree leaves from the Atlantic Forest. In fact, such trace element accumulation in leaves was not previously noticed for Brazilian ecosystems despite the intra- and inter-species variability observed in Cerrado tree leaves. (author)

  4. How to Measure Carbon Emission Reduction in China’s Public Building Sector: Retrospective Decomposition Analysis Based on STIRPAT Model in 2000–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minda Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Productive building energy efficiency (BEE work is an approved factor in the progress of sustainable urbanization in China, with the assessment of carbon emission reduction in China’s public buildings (CERCPB being an essential element of this endeavor. Nevertheless, such evaluation has been hampered by inadequate and inefficient approaches; this is the first study to utilize the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index Type I (LMDI-I to decompose the equation of China’s public building carbon emissions (CPBCE with the connected driving factors (population in China, floor areas of China’s existing public buildings, building service level index of China’s existing public buildings, and the comparable CPBCE intensity, and this equation was established by the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT model. The LMDI and STIRPAT approaches subsequently assessed the CERCPB values from 2001 to 2015. The results indicated that: (1 Only the contribution of the comparable CPBCE intensity to CPBCE was negative during 2001–2015; this represents the CERCPB value for the period. (2 The assessment results indicated that CERCPB has accumulated considerably with the swift progress of BEE work in China in 2001–2015. The CERCPB values in 2001–2005, 2006–2010, and 2011–2015 were 69.29, 158.53, and 277.86 million tons of carbon dioxide, respectively. (3 This study demonstrated that the positive effect of implementing public BEE work in China had led to significant results in 2001–2015, which can be regarded as a prerequisite for producing the considerable accumulation of CERCPB over this period. Overall, this study illustrated the feasibility of employing the LMDI and STIRPAT approaches for assessing the CERCPB value. Accordingly, we believe the results of this study are a significant driving force in the next phase of the development of the carbon emission control strategy of public buildings and sustainable

  5. Households' direct CO-2 emissions according to location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavailhes, Jean; Hilal, Mohamed; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    Limiting direct emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) by households is an important factor for achieving reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in compliance with the Kyoto Protocol and European policy. The two main sources of emissions are, in descending order, housing and commuting between home and the workplace or place of study. Average housing-related emissions are 3, 150 kg of CO 2 per year, reaching 4, 200 kg of CO 2 per year in mountain and semi-continental climates. Individual houses in urban centres, often old and with fuel-oil heating, emit more CO 2 than peri-urban dwellings, which are more recent and often have 100% electric heating. Conversely, emissions from commuting are higher in peri-urban areas, where the needs for transport are greater but less transport services are on offer. (authors)

  6. New trends in emission control in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Radzimirski, Stanislaw

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses recent changes in the European legislation for exhaust emissions from motor vehicles. It starts with a comprehensive explanation of both the structure and range of applicability of new regulations, such as Euro 5 and Euro 6 for light-duty vehicles and Euro VI for heavy-duty vehicles. Then it introduces the most important issues in in-service conformity and conformity of production for vehicles, describing the latest procedures for performing exhaust emissions tests under both bench and operating conditions. Subsequently, it reports on portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) and their application for assessing the emissions of gaseous and particulate matter alike, under actual operating conditions and in all transport modes. Lastly, the book presents selected findings from exhaust emissions research on engines for a variety of transport vehicles, such as light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, as well as non-road vehicles, which include farm tractors, groundwork and forest machinery, diese...

  7. Economical benzene emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetz, R.

    1999-01-01

    Benzene has been classified as a toxic compound under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. This has prompted the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) to introduce specific reporting and monitoring guidelines for the oil and gas industry regarding excessive benzene emissions. Glycol dehydration units have been determined to be the major single source of benzene emissions causing air and soil pollution. DualTank Corp. has designed a condensation and storage tank unit to enhance emission reduction, odour elimination and liquid recovery from dehydration units. Their newly designed combined tank unit consists of a large, uninsulated surface area for cooling, and an excessive internal volume for increased retention time. The first prototype was installed in December 1998 at an Enerplus Resources Site. The system provides excellent benzene emission reduction and the elimination of odours and visual plumes. Effective January 1, 1999, the petroleum and natural gas industry must either clean up excessive emissions voluntarily or face government imposed regulations, facility shutdowns and/or fines. 1 fig

  8. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Dechun; XING Jianping; JIAO Weiping; WONG Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions.The results showed that the maximal influx (Vmax) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties.The value of Vmax for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuangyou II-93.The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with Cd as CdSO4 for both the varieties.Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil.Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  9. Emissions inventory for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, V.H.P.; Renteria, J.S. [Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Col. Tiacopac San Angel (Mexico); Hernandez, C.G. [Departamento del Distrito Federal, Col. Centro (Mexico)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The emissions inventory bears a broad relationship to the energy balance, reflecting the dependence of the emissions with reference to the use of energy. Actually the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel in the transport sector represents collectively, the greatest comparative expense of energy and the major contributor of the ozone precursor pollutants HC, NO{sub x} and CO, relative to the total volume of emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Also, the industrial sector introduces significant emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} due to its energy consumption of fuel oils and natural gas. In contrast, the great majority of suspended particulate in the MCMA emanate from degradation processes of surface soil along the periphery of the urban zone. To the federal and local authorities charged with the design of strategies for prevention and control of atmospheric pollution, the emissions inventory is a strategic tool that reflects the relative intensity of the various emitters to the load capacity of the atmosphere. A comprehensive inventory was compiled for 1995, categorizing the emissions generated by four sectors: industry, services, transport and surface soils and vegetation, considering the following pollutants: TSP, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, HC and CO. The combined pollutant emissions are 4,009,628 tons/year of which 3% are generated by the industry, 10% by the services sector, 75% by the transport sector, and 12% by surface soils and vegetation.

  10. PRIVATE BANKING AND WEALTH MANAGEMENT SERVICES OFFERED BY BANKS

    OpenAIRE

    IMOLA DRIGĂ; DORINA NIŢĂ; IOAN CUCU

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the features of private banking business focusing on the substantial growth in private banking over the last decade as commercial banks have targeted upmarket high net worth individuals. The accumulation of wealth has prompted the development of private banking services for high net worth individuals, offering special relationships and investment services. Private banking is about much more than traditional banking services of deposits and loans. It's about providing a one-...

  11. Our services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In this video-films services of the VUJE, a. s. are presented. The company VUJE provides reconstruction and modernization of nuclear installations, research, development and production of equipment for nuclear power plants and electric industry, development of diagnostic methods, training on simulator of reactor, increase of reactor safety, preparation of documentation about NPP for the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic, measures for radiation protection and protection of the environment as well as development and application of information technologies.

  12. Accumulation of different visual feature descriptors in a coherent framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, J.B.; Pilz, F.; Kraft, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    We present a temporal accumulation scheme which disambiguates different kinds of visual 3D descriptors within one coherent framework. The accumulation consists of a twofold process: First, by means of a Bayesian filtering outliers become eliminated and second, the precision of the extracted infor...... information becomes enhanced by means of an unscented Kalman filtering process. It is a particular property of our algorithm to be able to deal with different kinds of visual descriptors by the very same mechanism. We show quantitative and qualitative results.......We present a temporal accumulation scheme which disambiguates different kinds of visual 3D descriptors within one coherent framework. The accumulation consists of a twofold process: First, by means of a Bayesian filtering outliers become eliminated and second, the precision of the extracted...

  13. SELENIUM ACCUMULATION BY BASIL PLANTS (OCINUM BASILICUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium accumulation level in basil plants is investigated. A direct correlation between selenium concentration and essential oil content is demonstrated for basil and other aroma plants. No correlation is found between selenium and flavonoids.

  14. LIPID ACCUMULATION OF CHLORELLA VULGARIS UNDER DIFFERENT PHOSPHATE CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Karolina Rokicka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation and utilization of microalgae is now a intensively developing area of research. Some species of microalgae, under appropriate conditions, accumulate large amounts of lipids in the cells. This lipids have a suitable profile of fatty acids for biodiesel production. The culture of microalgae for lipids accumulation should be performed in certain physicochemical conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of variable ortophophates concentrations in the culture medium for lipids accumulation of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and to determine of parameters of the phosphoric shock in the medium. The study confirmed the possibility of the use of the phosphoric shock in the medium to maximize lipids accumulation by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. In the study, 45.23% of the oil was obtained from the biomass from the culture with phosphoric shock in the medium and 18% less of the oil was obtained from the biomass from the standard culture.

  15. Effects of zinc exposure on the accumulation, haematology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of zinc exposure on the accumulation, haematology and immunology of Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Ekrem Şanver Çelik, Hasan Kaya, Sevdan Yilmaz, Mehmet Akbulut, Arınç Tulgar ...

  16. Seasonal dynamics of Co60 accumulation by Elodea canadensis Rich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochenin, V.F.; Chebotina, M.Ya.

    1975-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of Co 60 accumulation by one of the most widely distributed fresh-water plants, elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich), were studied. Accumulation was shown to vary with the season. A very low coefficient of accumulation (500-700 units) was typical for the summer period (June to August). It increased in the fall, reached its highest values (3500-4000) in mid-winter (January), and dropped sharply in the spring. Radioisotope concentrations in the plant varied similarly. The cumulative capacity of plants for Co 60 may vary by a factor of 6 to 7 during the year. It is suggested that the seasonal changes in Co 60 accumulation may be caused by both differences in the physiological state of the plants at different times of the year, and by seasonal variations in the hydrochemical regime of the water reservoir. Experiments were done to clarify which of these mechanisms is the determining factor. (V.A.P.)

  17. Relationship Between Accumulation and Influx of Pollutants in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    The paper discusses the long term mass balance of pollutants in highway ponds. The accumulations of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and six heavy metals have been measured in eight Danish detention ponds, which receive runoff from highways only. For each pollutant the accumulation has...... been compared to the long-term influx, estimated from short-term measurements of concentrations in highway runoff. The results show that a large proportion of the incoming heavy metals in short-term runoff events has accumulated in the ponds. This is not the case for the toxic organic compounds....... The results also show that the accumulation rates for the heavy metals depend significantly on the relative pond area (pond area divided by catchment area). The conclusion is that the mass balances of heavy metals and PAHs in highway ponds can be estimated with acceptable accuracy from a combination of short...

  18. A Transformational Approach to Parametric Accumulated-Cost Static Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haemmerlé, Rémy; López García, Pedro; Liqat, Umer

    2016-01-01

    Traditional static resource analyses estimate the total resource usage of a program, without executing it. In this paper we present a novel resource analysis whose aim is instead the static profiling of accumulated cost, i.e., to discover, for selected parts of the program, an estimate or bound...... of the resource usage accumulated in each of those parts. Traditional resource analyses are parametric in the sense that the results can be functions on input data sizes. Our static profiling is also parametric, i.e., our accumulated cost estimates are also parameterized by input data sizes. Our proposal is based...... on the concept of cost centers and a program transformation that allows the static inference of functions that return bounds on these accumulated costs depending on input data sizes, for each cost center of interest. Such information is much more useful to the software developer than the traditional resource...

  19. Factors associated with pentosidine accumulation in the human vitreous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Deemter, Marielle; Bank, Ruud A.; Vehof, Jelle; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

    Purpose: To explore factors associated with pentosidine accumulation in the human vitreous. Methods: Vitreous samples were obtained during trans pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole or rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Patient characteristics included age, gender, and diabetes mellitus. Ocular

  20. Simulation and experiemntal study on damper by accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaobin; Zhou Yong; Chen Wuxing; Hu Junhua

    2010-01-01

    In order to prevent stressing penstocks broken by earthquake or other shock waves, dampers are used widely in nuclear power plant or pipelines transporting radioactive material. A new-style damper by accumulator is introduced. Inside the damper an accumulator is installed, the outward corrugated tubes are added outside the piston rod. So it has advantages of small volume, no oil leakage. The simulation and experimental research show that if the clearance between the piston and cylinder, the spring stiffness of accumulator or the throttle valve size is varied, the dynamic performance of the impact displacement, resistance in low velocity and lock-up velocity of dampe would be influenced. The support of nuclear classified pipelines can be satisfied by using this new-style accumulator damper. (authors)

  1. PIXE study on arsenic accumulation by a fern. Pteris vittata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.

    2010-01-01

    Pteris vittata is a fern reported to be an arsenic hyper-accumulator. To develop the practical application of the fern to a phytoremediation technique, it is necessary to explicate the effective accumulation mechanism. In this study, the arsenic distribution and the elemental correlation in the cellular level were examined in the fronds supplied with arsenate and arsenite separately via xylem vessel using an in-air micro-PIXE system at Tohoku University. The difference in transportation rate between arsenate and arsenite as well as the translocation of elements necessary for plant metabolism was revealed in different tissues of the fronds accumulating arsenic in high concentration. Hence, the in-air micro-PIXE analysis is an effective measure for undertaking phytoremediation research of hyper-accumulator plants. (author)

  2. Accumulation of Proline under Salinity and Heavy metal stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Seed germination and growth parameters of seedlings of cauliflower were observed after 5, 10 and 15 ... Keywords: Abiotic stress, salinity, proline and heavy metals. The responses of ..... induced accumulation of free proline in a metal-tolerant.

  3. Dynamical spin accumulation in large-spin magnetic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płomińska, Anna; Weymann, Ireneusz; Misiorny, Maciej

    2018-01-01

    The frequency-dependent transport through a nanodevice containing a large-spin magnetic molecule is studied theoretically in the Kondo regime. Specifically, the effect of magnetic anisotropy on dynamical spin accumulation is of primary interest. Such accumulation arises due to finite components of frequency-dependent conductance that are off diagonal in spin. Here, employing the Kubo formalism and the numerical renormalization group method, we demonstrate that the dynamical transport properties strongly depend on the relative orientation of spin moments in electrodes of the device, as well as on intrinsic parameters of the molecule. In particular, the effect of dynamical spin accumulation is found to be greatly affected by the type of magnetic anisotropy exhibited by the molecule, and it develops for frequencies corresponding to the Kondo temperature. For the parallel magnetic configuration of the device, the presence of dynamical spin accumulation is conditioned by the interplay of ferromagnetic-lead-induced exchange field and the Kondo correlations.

  4. Skeletal muscle apolipoprotein B expression reduces muscular triglyceride accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Emil D; Ploug, Thorkil; Størling, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background. Lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. In cardiac myocytes, lipoprotein secretion controlled by apolipoproteinB (apoB) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) affects lipid homeostasis. Design. In t...... accumulation and attenuates peripheral insulin resistance in obese mice........ In this study, we investigated whether expression of a human apoB transgene affects triglyceride accumulation and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle in fat fed obese mice. Results. Expression of apoB and MTP mRNA and the human apoB transgene was seen in skeletal muscle of the transgene mice. Human apo......Abstract Background. Lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. In cardiac myocytes, lipoprotein secretion controlled by apolipoproteinB (apoB) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) affects lipid homeostasis. Design...

  5. Case Study – Idling Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores the use of idle reduction technologies (IRTs) on emergency service vehicles in police, fire, and ambulance applications. Various commercially available IRT systems and approaches can decrease, or ultimately eliminate, engine idling. Fleets will thus save money on fuel, and will also decrease their criteria pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise.

  6. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health......Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from....... The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...

  7. Practical acoustic emission testing

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended for non-destructive testing (NDT) technicians who want to learn practical acoustic emission testing based on level 1 of ISO 9712 (Non-destructive testing – Qualification and certification of personnel) criteria. The essential aspects of ISO/DIS 18436-6 (Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines – Requirements for training and certification of personnel, Part 6: Acoustic Emission) are explained, and readers can deepen their understanding with the help of practice exercises. This work presents the guiding principles of acoustic emission measurement, signal processing, algorithms for source location, measurement devices, applicability of testing methods, and measurement cases to support not only researchers in this field but also and especially NDT technicians.

  8. Instantaneous wave emission model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1970-12-01

    A useful treatment of electrostatic wave emission by fast particles in a plasma is given. First, the potential due to a fast particle is expressed as a simple integration over the particle orbit; several interesting results readily follow. The potential in the wake of an accelerating particle is shown to be essentially that produced through local excitation of the plasma by the particle free-streaming about its instantaneous orbit. Application is made to one dimension, and it is shown that the wave emission and adsorption synchronize to the instantaneous velocity distribution function. Guided by these calculations, we then formulate a test particle model for computing the instantaneous wave emission by fast particles in a Vlasov plasma. This model lends itself to physical interpretation and provides a direct approach to many problems. By adopting a Fokker-Planck description for the particle dynamics, we calculate the broadening of the wave-particle resonance due to velocity diffusion and drag

  9. Tomography by positrons emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosconi, Sergio L.

    1999-01-01

    The tomography by positrons emission is a technology that allows to measure the concentration of positrons emission in a tri dimensional body through external measurements. Among the isotope emissions have carbon isotopes are ( 11 C), of the oxygen ( 15 O), of the nitrogen ( 13 N) that are three the element that constitute the base of the organic chemistry. Theses have on of the PET's most important advantages, since many biological interesting organic molecules can be tracer with these isotopes for the metabolism studies 'in vivo' through PET, without using organic tracers that modify the metabolism. The mentioned isotopes, also possess the characteristic of having short lifetime, that constitute on of PET's advantages from the dosimetric point of view. Among 11 C, 15 O, and 13 N, other isotopes that can be obtained of a generator as the 68 Ga and 82 Rb

  10. Carbon emissions control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.U.

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to address a fundamental issue: the cost of slowing climate change. Experts in eight nations were asked to evaluate, using the best economic models available, the prospects for reducing fossil fuel-based carbon emissions in their respective nations. The nations selected as case studies include: the Soviet Union, Poland, the United States, Japan, Hungary, France, the United Kingdom, and Canada. As important contributors to the greenhouse effect, these industrialized nations must find ways to substantially reduce their emissions. This is especially critical given that developing nations' emissions are expected to rise in the coming decades in the search for economic development. Ten papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  11. Physical and chemical characterization of residential oil boiler emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Michael D; Beck, Lee; Barfield, Pamela; Lavrich, Richard J; Dong, Yuanji; Vander Wal, Randy L

    2008-04-01

    The toxicity of emissions from the combustion of home heating oil coupled with the regional proximity and seasonal use of residential oil boilers (ROB) is an important public health concern. Yet scant physical and chemical information about the emissions from this source is available for climate and air quality modeling and for improving our understanding of aerosol-related human health effects. The gas- and particle-phase emissions from an active ROB firing distillate fuel oil (commonly known as diesel fuel) were evaluated to address this deficiency. Ion chromatography of impactor samples showed that the ultrafine ROB aerosol emissions were approximately 45% (w/w) sulfate. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected various n-alkanes at trace levels, sometimes in accumulation mode particles, and out of phase with the size distributions of aerosol mass and sulfate. The carbonaceous matter in the ROB aerosol was primarily light-adsorbing elemental carbon. Gas chromatography-atomic emission spectroscopy measured a previously unrecognized organosulfur compound group in the ROB aerosol emissions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy of ROB soot indicated the presence of a highly ordered primary particle nanostructure embedded in larger aggregates. Organic gas emissions were measured using EPA Methods TO-15 and TO-11A. The ROB emitted volatile oxygenates (8 mg/(kg of oil burned)) and olefins (5 mg/(kg of oil burned)) mostly unrelated to the base fuel composition. In the final analysis, the ROB tested was a source of numerous hazardous air pollutants as defined in the Clean Air Act Amendments. Approximations conducted using emissions data from the ROB tests show relatively low contributions to a regional-level anthropogenic emissions inventory for volitile organic compounds, PM2.5, and SO2 mass.

  12. Response of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura to zinc stress: Zn accumulation, metallothionein and cell ultrastructure of the midgut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Yinghua; Zhang, Guren; Wang, Jianwu

    2012-01-01

    By exposing the common cutworm Spodoptera litura Fabricius larvae to a range of Zinc (Zn) stress, we investigated the effects of dietary Zn on Zn accumulation, metallothionein (MT), and on the ultrastructure of the midgut. The techniques we used were inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), real-time PCR combined with cadmium-hemoglobin total saturation, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. There was a significant dose–response relationship between the Zn accumulations in the midgut of the larvae and the Zn concentrations in the diet. Furthermore, both MT content and MT gene expression in the midgut were significantly induced in the 50–500 mg Zn/kg treatments, and were significantly positively correlated with the Zn accumulations in the midgut. When S. litura larvae were fed with the diet treated with 500 mg Zn/kg, Zn accumulation and MT content in the midgut was 4450.85 mg Zn/kg and 372.77 mg/kg, respectively, thereafter there was a little increase; the level of MT gene expression was maximal, thereafter there was a sharp decrease. TEM showed that numerous electron-dense granules (EDGs) and vacuoles appeared in the cytoplasm of the midgut cells, their number and size being closely correlated with the Zn accumulations in the midgut. Moreover, the nuclei were strongly influenced by Zn stress, evidenced by chromatin condensation and irregular nuclear membranes. Therefore, after being exposed to Zn in the threshold (500 mg Zn/kg) range, S. litura larvae could accumulate Zn in the midgut, which led to the induction of MT and changes in cell ultrastructure (mainly the presence of EDGs). The induction of MT and precipitation of Zn in EDGs may be the effective detoxification mechanisms by which the herbivorous insect S. litura defends itself against heavy metals. -- Graphical abstract: When the herbivorous insect Spodoptera litura Fabricius larvae were fed on the artificial diet with different concentrations of Zn

  13. Enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira; Tsuruta, Takehiko [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Some microorganisms having excellent ability to accumulate uranium were isolated, from soil and water systems in and around the Ningyo-toge Station of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by electron-beam irradiation was examined, and the ability of JW-046 was increased 3-5% by the irradiation. The irradiation affect the growth of some of microorganisms tested. (author)

  14. MODELING OF TEMPERATURE FIELDS IN A SOLID HEAT ACCUMULLATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Belimenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Currently, one of the priorities of energy conservation is a cost savings for heating in commercial and residential buildings by the stored thermal energy during the night and its return in the daytime. Economic effect is achieved due to the difference in tariffs for the cost of electricity in the daytime and at night. One of the most common types of devices that allow accumulating and giving the resulting heat are solid heat accumulators. The main purpose of the work: 1 software development for the calculation of the temperature field of a flat solid heat accumulator, working due to the heat energy accumulation in the volume of thermal storage material without phase transition; 2 determination the temperature distribution in its volumes at convective heat transfer. Methodology. To achieve the study objectives a heat transfer theory and Laplace integral transform were used. On its base the problems of determining the temperature fields in the channels of heat accumulators, having different cross-sectional shapes were solved. Findings. Authors have developed the method of calculation and obtained solutions for the determination of temperature fields in channels of the solid heat accumulator in conditions of convective heat transfer. Temperature fields over length and thickness of channels were investigated. Experimental studies on physical models and industrial equipment were conducted. Originality. For the first time the technique of calculating the temperature field in the channels of different cross-section for the solid heat accumulator in the charging and discharging modes was proposed. The calculation results are confirmed by experimental research. Practical value. The proposed technique is used in the design of solid heat accumulators of different power as well as full-scale production of them was organized.

  15. [Lorenz was right, or does aggressive energy accumulate?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudriavtseva, N N

    2004-06-01

    Evidence supporting the fact that inherited mechanisms of regulation of aggressive behavior as a result of a repeated experience of aggression ending in victories are transformed into pathological mechanisms based on accumulation of neurochemical shifts in the brain, enhancing aggressiveness, and forming aggressive motivation in aggressive winners. This confirms the concept by Lorenz on the existence of a mechanism (but not instinct) of a spontaneous accumulation of aggressive energy that needs a discharge and formation of permanent attraction to manifestation of aggression.

  16. Perlite as a carrier of phosphate-accumulating bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivankovic, T.; Hrenovic, J.; Sekovanic, L.; Tofant, A.

    2009-01-01

    The phosphate (P)-accumulating bacteria are important for biological P removal from wastewater. Currently, attention is being drawn to the immobilisation of desired bacteria on different carriers in order to achieve a better efficiency of the wastewater treatment. In this study, two size fractions (0.1-1 and 0.1-2 mm) of different forms of expanded perlite (original, autoclaved and magnesium-exchanged) were investigates as possible carriers of P accumulating bacterium. (Author)

  17. Mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation to thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, Toshihiro

    1987-01-01

    In this study 91 patients with goiter were scintigraphed for the duration of 84 minutes after intravenous administration of thallium-201 by digital γ camera lined to computer data system. Regions of interest (ROIs) were assigned for thyroid tumor, normal thyroid and back ground, and time-activity curves (TACs) were generated from these ROIs. Na + , K + -ATPase activity of microsome fraction from thyroid tumor and the normal thyroid glands was determined. The first 15 minutes accumulation of each ROI was determined as the early accumulation of thallium-201 for tumor and the normal thyroid glands. Papillary and follicular carcinomas, showing the high accumulation of thallium-201, had high activity of Na + , K + -ATPase. Microfollicular adenomas had high activity of Na + , K + -ATPase and demonstrated intense accumulation of thallium-201. However, colloid adenoma had a similar level of Na + , K + -ATPase activity to that of the normal thyroid glands and did not demonstrate radionuclide accumulation. Consequently, radionuclide accumulation in thallium-201 thyroid scintigraphy was closely correlated to Na + , K + -ATPase activity of thyroid tumor. Thyroid blood flow was measured by hydrogen gas clearance method. Thyroid blood flow of papillary carcinoma was smaller, as compared with normal thyroid blood flow. TAC of papillary carcinoma showed flattening. Thallium-201 accumulation in early image was also found to correspond to thyroid blood flow. From this study we can conclude that mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation in a thyroid tumor depends on Na + , K + -ATPase activity and thyroid blood flow. Washout of TAC in thallium-201 scintigraphy appears dependent on blood flow of a thyroid nodule. (author)

  18. Anthropogenic impact on diffuse trace metal accumulation in river sediments from agricultural reclamation areas with geochemical and isotopic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Wei; Ouyang, Wei, E-mail: wei@itc.nl; Hao, Fanghua; Lin, Chunye

    2015-12-01

    A better understanding of anthropogenic impact can help assess the diffuse trace metal accumulation in the agricultural environment. In this study, both river sediments and background soils were collected from a case study area in Northeast China and analyzed for total concentrations of six trace metals, four major elements and three lead isotopes. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni have accumulated in the river sediments after about 40 years of agricultural development, with average concentrations 1.23–1.71 times higher than local soil background values. Among them Ni, Cr and Cu were of special concern and they may pose adverse biological effects. By calculating enrichment factor (EF), it was found that the trace metal accumulation was still mainly ascribed to natural weathering processes, but anthropogenic contribution could represent up to 40.09% of total sediment content. For Pb, geochemical and isotopic approaches gave very similar anthropogenic contributions. Principal component analysis (PCA) further suggested that the anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni inputs were mostly related to the regional atmospheric deposition of industrial emissions and gasoline combustion, which had a strong affinity for iron oxides in the sediments. Concerning Cd, however, it mainly originated from local fertilizer applications and was controlled by sediment carbonates. - Graphical abstract: The trace metal accumulation was mainly ascribed to natural weathering processes, but anthropogenic contribution could represent up to 40.09% of total sediment content. Anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni mostly came from atmospheric deposition, while fertilizer application was the main anthropogenic source of Cd. - Highlights: • Trace metals have accumulated in the Naolihe sediments. • Natural weathering was still a major contributor to metal accumulation. • Anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni mostly came from atmospheric deposition. • Local fertilizer application was the main

  19. Foliar accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in native tree species from the Atlantic Forest (SE-Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ana Paula L; Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Domingos, Marisa

    2016-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic to living organisms. They can accumulate on foliar surfaces due to their affinity with apolar organic compounds, which enables the use of native plant species as sentinels of atmospheric PAH deposition in polluted ecosystems. The present study extends the knowledge about this subject in the tropical region by focusing on the PAH accumulation in the foliage of dominant tree species (Astronium graveolens, Croton floribundus, Piptadenia gonoacantha) in four remnants of Semi-deciduous Atlantic Forest surrounded by diversified sources of PAHs and located in the cities of Campinas, Paulínia, Holambra and Cosmópilis (central-eastern part of São Paulo State, SE-Brazil). Leaves of the tree species were collected in the forest remnants during the wet and dry seasons (2011 to 2013). All samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a fluorescence detector for identification of 14 PAHs. The native tree species showed distinct capacities to accumulate PAHs. All of them accumulated proportionally more light PAHs than heavy PAHs, mainly during the dry period. P. gonoacantha was the most effective accumulator species. Higher accumulations of most of the PAHs occurred during the dry periods. The predominance of moderately (1 ≤ EF forest remnants indicated that vehicular sources were widely distributed in the entire region. The predominance of the moderate to high enrichment of ACE in leaf samples from the forest remnants located in Paulínia, Holambra and Cosmópolis indicated that they were also affected by emissions from petrochemical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Using Service Scenarios to Model Business Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    The purpose of the paper is to present and evaluate the notion of service scenarios. A service is work done by a service executor in interaction with a service consumer. A service scenario is a model of a service system and the roles that are played by the actors participating and interacting...... during the execution of a service. The model represents the roles and the interactions between the participants. Service scenarios can be used to model specific services and roles played by human beings and IT systems in the execution of services. The use of service scenarios is demonstrated by means...... of a case study in a public library. The case study indicates that service systems should be understood as socio-technical systems in which service executors and service consumers co-create value in mutual interaction with each other and with a set of shared resources....