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Sample records for serve large proportions

  1. Large-Scale Analysis of Art Proportions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    While literature often tries to impute mathematical constants into art, this large-scale study (11 databases of paintings and photos, around 200.000 items) shows a different truth. The analysis, consisting of the width/height proportions, shows a value of rarely if ever one (square) and with majo......While literature often tries to impute mathematical constants into art, this large-scale study (11 databases of paintings and photos, around 200.000 items) shows a different truth. The analysis, consisting of the width/height proportions, shows a value of rarely if ever one (square...

  2. Very large area multiwire spectroscopic proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; Mastropietro, M.; La Padula, C.D.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of a five year development program, a final prototype of a Very Large Area Spectroscopic Proportional Counter (VLASPC), to be employed in space borne payloads, was produced at the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati. The instrument is the last version of a new generation of Multiwire Spectroscopic Proportional Counters (MWSPC) succesfully employed in many balloon borne flights, devoted to hard X-ray astronomy. The sensitive area of this standard unit is 2700 cm 2 with an efficiency higher than 10% in the range 15-180 keV (80% at 60 keV). The low cost and weight make this new type of VLASPC competitive with Nal arrays, phoswich and GSPC detectors in terms of achievable scientific results. (orig.)

  3. Very large area multiwire spectroscopic proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; Mastropietro, M.; La Padula, C.D.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F. (Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati (Italy))

    1981-07-01

    As a result of a five year development program, a final prototype of a Very Large Area Spectroscopic Proportional Counter (VLASPC), to be employed in space borne payloads, was produced at the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati. The instrument is the last version of a new generation of Multiwire Spectroscopic Proportional Counters (MWSPC) successfully employed in many balloon borne flights, devoted to hard X-ray astronomy. The sensitive area of this standard unit is 2700 cm/sup 2/ with an efficiency higher than 10% in the range 15-180 keV (80% at 60 keV). The low cost and weight make this new type of VLASPC competitive with Nal arrays, phoswich and GSPC detectors in terms of achievable scientific results.

  4. Nitrogen large area proportional counter with gas regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidner, L.; Sadri, E.

    1984-10-01

    A nitrogen large area proportional chamber with gas regeneration is introduced to measure alpha and beta/gamma activites. In contrast to the flow counters used till now the new detector is independent of an external gas supply. The gas amplification factor of nitrogen keeps constant up to an impurity of 2% of O 2 . Oxygen diffusing through unavoidable leakages into the counting gas is removed by an activated catalyzer using low temperature copper oxidation. Humidty is adsorbed by a molecular sieve. The closed counter consists of three components: the actual detector, a gas purification cartridge and a gas circulating pump. Finally, the report describes long run experiments being carried out with prototypes. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Predicting capacities of runways serving new large aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gopalakrishnan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simplified approach for predicting the allowable load repetitions of New Large Aircraft (NLA loading for airfield runways based on Non-Destructive Test (NDT data. Full-scale traffic test results from the Federal Aviation Administration’s National Airport Pavement Test Facility (NAPTF were used to develop the NDT-based evaluation methodology. Four flexible test pavement sections with variable (unbound layer thicknesses were trafficked using six-wheel and four-wheel NLA test gears until the test pavements were deemed failed. Non-destructive tests using a Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD were conducted prior to the initiation of traffic testing to measure the pavement surface deflections. In the past, pavement surface deflections have been successfully used as an indicator of airport pavement life. In this study, the HWD surface deflections and the derived Deflection Basin Parameters (DBPs were related to functional performance of NAPTF flexible pavements through simple regression analysis. The results demonstrated the usefulness of NDT data for predicting the performance of airport flexible pavements serving the next generation of aircrafts.

  6. A gas proportional scintillation counter for use in large area detector systems without photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruch, J.E.F.; Brooke, G.; Kellermann, E.W.; Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.

    1978-03-01

    The properties of a prototype gas proportional scintillation detector, for use in large numbers, are examined. The detector is designed to focus a light signal, which is proportional to ionisation loss, into a fibre optic lightguide. It is shown that a single charged particle traversing the detector produces enough light out of the lightguide to be seen by a TV camera. Problems of lifetime and large scale detector production are discussed. Properties of saturation, linearity, position sensitivity, and operating limits are examined. It is shown that an array of gas proportional scintillation detectors when used with fibre optic lightguides and TV camera readout could offer significant improvements in cost per area and reliability over a scintillator plus photomultiplier or a wire proportional chamber array. (author)

  7. Large-proportional shrunken bio-replication of shark skin based on UV-curing shrinkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huawei; Che, Da; Zhang, Xin; Yue, Yue; Zhang, Deyuan

    2015-01-01

    The shark skin effect has attracted worldwide attention because of its superior drag reduction. As the product of natural selection, the maximum drag reduction of shark skin is found in its normal living environment. Large-proportional shrinkage of shark skin morphology is greatly anticipated for its adaptation to faster fluid flow. One novel approach, large-proportional shrunken bio-replication, is proposed as a method to adjust the optimal drag reduction region of shark skin based on the shrinkage of UV-cured material. The shark skin is taken as a replica template to allow large-proportional shrinking in the drag reduction morphology by taking advantage of the shrinkage of UV-curable material. The accuracy of the large-proportional shrunken bio-replication approach is verified by a comparison between original and shrunken bio-replicated shark skin, which shows that the shrinking ratio can reach 23% and the bio-replication accuracy is higher than 95%. In addition, the translation of the optimum drag reduction peak of natural surface function to various applications and environments is proved by drag reduction experiments. (technical note)

  8. proportional counting chamber for large-area-coated β sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 6. 2 π proportional counting chamber for large-area-coated β sources ... A provision is made for change ofthe source and immediate measurement of source activity. These sources are used to calibrate the efficiency of contamination monitors at radiological ...

  9. A gas proportional scintillation counter for use in large area detector systems without photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruch, J.E.F.; Brooke, G.; Kellerman, E.W.; Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The properties of a prototype gas proportional scintillation (GPS) detector module are described. The module (25X25X14cm 3 ) is intended to form the basic unit of large area (up to approximately 100 m 2 ) calorimetric cosmic ray burst detector. Ionisation from particle tracks in the module is collected onto a point electrode where the GPS signal is generated. A concave mirror focusses this point source onto the end of a fibre optic light guide. In the proposed large area detector these fibres are brought together onto a low light level TV camera which performs the readout. The prototype module has demonstrated an adequate light output for the detection of single muons by such a readout system and also permitted the investigation of the main operating parameters (gas mixture, EHT, pressure, etc) and operational requirements such as proportionality and long term stability. (Auth.)

  10. Properties of a barium fluoride-TMAE-multiwire proportional chamber detector using a large single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woody, C.L.; Petridou, C.I.; Smith, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of a detector consisting of a large barium fluoride crystal and a multiwire proportional chamber operating at low pressure with TMAE have been studied. Measurements of the time resolution, pulse width, energy resolution, photoelectron yield and the effective energy threshold were carried out in a test beam using minimum ionizing particles. Although the detector is sensitive to signals originating from an adsorbed layer of TMAE from the crystal surface, no indication of such a signal was observed. 7 refs., 6 figs

  11. A large area two-dimensional position sensitive multiwire proportional detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, M M D; Souza, F A; Alonso, E E; Fujii, R J; Meyknecht, A B; Added, N; Aissaoui, N; Cardenas, W H Z; Ferraretto, M D; Schnitter, U; Szanto, E M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Yamamura, M S; Carlin, N

    1999-01-01

    Large area two-dimensional position sensitive multiwire proportional detectors were developed to be used in the study of light heavy-ion nuclear reactions at the University of Sao Paulo Pelletron Laboratory. Each detector has a 20x20 cm sup 2 active area and consists of three grids (X-position, anode and Y-position) made of 25 mu m diameter gold plated tungsten wires. The position is determined through resistive divider chains. Results for position resolution, linearity and efficiency as a function of energy and position for different elements are reported.

  12. {sup 10}B multi-grid proportional gas counters for large area thermal neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, K. [ESS, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bigault, T. [ILL, BP 156, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Birch, J. [Linköping University, SE-581, 83 Linköping (Sweden); Buffet, J. C.; Correa, J. [ILL, BP 156, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Hall-Wilton, R. [ESS, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Hultman, L. [Linköping University, SE-581, 83 Linköping (Sweden); Höglund, C. [ESS, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Linköping University, SE-581, 83 Linköping (Sweden); Guérard, B., E-mail: guerard@ill.fr [ILL, BP 156, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Jensen, J. [Linköping University, SE-581, 83 Linköping (Sweden); Khaplanov, A. [ILL, BP 156, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); ESS, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Kirstein, O. [Linköping University, SE-581, 83 Linköping (Sweden); Piscitelli, F.; Van Esch, P. [ILL, BP 156, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Vettier, C. [ESS, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2013-08-21

    {sup 3}He was a popular material in neutrons detectors until its availability dropped drastically in 2008. The development of techniques based on alternative convertors is now of high priority for neutron research institutes. Thin films of {sup 10}B or {sup 10}B{sub 4}C have been used in gas proportional counters to detect neutrons, but until now, only for small or medium sensitive area. We present here the multi-grid design, introduced at the ILL and developed in collaboration with ESS for LAN (large area neutron) detectors. Typically thirty {sup 10}B{sub 4}C films of 1 μm thickness are used to convert neutrons into ionizing particles which are subsequently detected in a proportional gas counter. The principle and the fabrication of the multi-grid are described and some preliminary results obtained with a prototype of 200 cm×8 cm are reported; a detection efficiency of 48% has been measured at 2.5 Å with a monochromatic neutron beam line, showing the good potential of this new technique.

  13. Global asymptotic stabilization of large-scale hydraulic networks using positive proportional controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    An industrial case study involving a large-scale hydraulic network underlying a district heating system subject to structural changes is considered. The problem of controlling the pressure drop across the so-called end-user valves in the network to a designated vector of reference values under...... directional actuator constraints is addressed. The proposed solution consists of a set of decentralized positively constrained proportional control actions. The results show that the closed-loop system always has a globally asymptotically stable equilibrium point independently on the number of end......-users. Furthermore, by a proper design of controller gains the closed-loop equilibrium point can be designed to belong to an arbitrarily small neighborhood of the desired equilibrium point. Since there exists a globally asymptotically stable equilibrium point independently on the number of end-users in the system...

  14. proportional counting chamber for large-area-coated β sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The system consists of a multiwire-based proportional counter with gas ... volume of the detector to avoid any loss of detection efficiency due to absorption in the entrance ... Figure 1. (a) Energy levels of 90Sr decay scheme and (b) energy distribution of β- ... High voltage is applied to the anode grid and high electric field is.

  15. Proportional reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is widely acknowledged as a key to success in school mathematics, yet students’ continual difficulties with proportion-related tasks are well documented. This paper draws on a large research study that aimed to support 4th to 9th grade teachers to design and implement tasks...

  16. Large differences in proportions of harmful and benign amino acid substitutions between proteins and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Gerard C P; Vihinen, Mauno

    2017-07-01

    Genes and proteins are known to have differences in their sensitivity to alterations. Despite numerous sequencing studies, proportions of harmful and harmless substitutions are not known for proteins and groups of proteins. To address this question, we predicted the outcome for all possible single amino acid substitutions (AASs) in nine representative protein groups by using the PON-P2 method. The effects on 996 proteins were studied and vast differences were noticed. Proteins in the cancer group harbor the largest proportion of harmful variants (42.1%), whereas the non-disease group of proteins not known to have a disease association and not involved in the housekeeping functions had the lowest number of harmful variants (4.2%). Differences in the proportions of the harmful and benign variants are wide within each group, but they still show clear differences between the groups. Frequently appearing protein domains show a wide spectrum of variant frequencies, whereas no major protein structural class-specific differences were noticed. AAS types in the original and variant residues showed distinctive patterns, which are shared by all the protein groups. The observations are relevant for understanding genetic bases of diseases, variation interpretation, and for the development of methods for that purpose. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Proportional and Integral Thermal Control System for Large Scale Heating Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Van Tran

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) Flight Loads Laboratory is a unique national laboratory that supports thermal, mechanical, thermal/mechanical, and structural dynamics research and testing. A Proportional Integral thermal control system was designed and implemented to support thermal tests. A thermal control algorithm supporting a quartz lamp heater was developed based on the Proportional Integral control concept and a linearized heating process. The thermal control equations were derived and expressed in terms of power levels, integral gain, proportional gain, and differences between thermal setpoints and skin temperatures. Besides the derived equations, user's predefined thermal test information generated in the form of thermal maps was used to implement the thermal control system capabilities. Graphite heater closed-loop thermal control and graphite heater open-loop power level were added later to fulfill the demand for higher temperature tests. Verification and validation tests were performed to ensure that the thermal control system requirements were achieved. This thermal control system has successfully supported many milestone thermal and thermal/mechanical tests for almost a decade with temperatures ranging from 50 F to 3000 F and temperature rise rates from -10 F/s to 70 F/s for a variety of test articles having unique thermal profiles and test setups.

  18. Large and Small Dendritic Spines Serve Different Interacting Functions in Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. W. Paulin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The laying down of memory requires strong stimulation resulting in specific changes in synaptic strength and corresponding changes in size of dendritic spines. Strong stimuli can also be pathological, causing a homeostatic response, depressing and shrinking the synapse to prevent damage from too much Ca2+ influx. But do all types of dendritic spines serve both of these apparently opposite functions? Using confocal microscopy in organotypic slices from mice expressing green fluorescent protein in hippocampal neurones, the size of individual spines along sections of dendrite has been tracked in response to application of tetraethylammonium. This strong stimulus would be expected to cause both a protective homeostatic response and long-term potentiation. We report separation of these functions, with spines of different sizes reacting differently to the same strong stimulus. The immediate shrinkage of large spines suggests a homeostatic protective response during the period of potential danger. In CA1, long-lasting growth of small spines subsequently occurs consolidating long-term potentiation but only after the large spines return to their original size. In contrast, small spines do not change in dentate gyrus where potentiation does not occur. The separation in time of these changes allows clear functional differentiation of spines of different sizes.

  19. Large proportional chambers for muon detection in the CELLO experiment at PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.; Bouchez, J.; Cozzika, G.; Ducros, Y.; Durand, A.; Francinet, G.; Gaidot, A.; Heitzmann, J.; Martin, H.; Maillet, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    We describe the muon detector in the CELLO experiment. This detector is composed of one layer of proportional chambers placed after a total of 5 interaction lengths of matter. These chambers have cathode read-out, thus enabling the unambiguous determination of coordinates. A total of 32 chambers has been built in order to cover 95% of the total solid angle. The read-out electronics use the FILAS intergrated chips made by EFCIS. Data concentration is done by a multiplexing system which addresses only those chambers which have some information. The precision is poor, but sufficient for muon detection: sigma = +-6 mm. (orig.)

  20. Catering in a large hospital--does serving from a buffet system meet the patients' needs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.F.; Nielsen, M.A.; Biltz, C.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: It has been suggested that serving from a buffet system may increase food intake. This observational study estimates the energy intake in a representative group of patients admitted to a hospital, where the food is served from a buffet system. MATERIAL: One hundred and sixteen ...

  1. Proportionality lost - proportionality regained?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the European Court of Justice (the ECJ) seems to have accepted restrictions on the freedom of establishment and other basic freedoms, despite the fact that a more thorough proportionality test would have revealed that the restriction in question did not pass the 'rule of reason' ...

  2. Volatile fatty acids production in the rumen of young heifers given diets containing a large proportion of concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshio, Shuichi; Tahata, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Haruo; Ami, Tsuyako

    1977-01-01

    The rate of production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the rumen of animals on high concentrate feeding was studied with eighteen young heifers fitted with a permanent rumen fistula, using a single injection method of 14 C-acetate and polyethylene glycol (PEG) in order to get some basic informations of rumen fermentation on concentrate diets. The results obtained were as follows; 1) The pH value, total VFA concentration, and proportion of each acid on all-concentrate diets showed distinguished differences in comparison with those of the animals fed a large proportion of hay, but varied widely between days and heifers. 2) VFA proportions were significantly correlated with pH. At the pH value of about 5.2, acetic acid was minimum, and propionic acid and valeric acid were maximum in molar proportion. 3) It was suggested that, in the case of all-concentrate feeding for a long period, the VFA production in the rumen was depressed to 33.5-41% of digestible energy. In the animals fed hay and concentrate, the percentage was about 50%. (auth.)

  3. Proportional incidence and radiological review of large (T2+) breast cancers as surrogate indicators of screening programme performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciatto, S.; Bernardi, D.; Pellegrini, M.; Borsato, G.; Peterlongo, P.; Gentilini, M.A.; Caumo, F.; Frigerio, A.; Houssami, N.

    2012-01-01

    Surrogate measures of screening performance [e.g. interval cancer (IC) proportional incidence] allow timely monitoring of sensitivity and quality. This study explored measures using large (T2+) breast cancers as potential indicators of screening performance. The proportional incidence of T2+ cancers (observed/expected cases) in a population-based screening programme (Trento, 2001-2009) was estimated. A parallel review of 'negative' preceding mammograms for screen-detected T2+ and for all ICs, using 'blinded' independent readings and case-mixes (54 T2+, 50 ICs, 170 controls) was also performed. T2+ cancers were observed in 168 screening participants: 48 at first screen, 67 at repeat screening and 53 ICs. The T2+ estimated proportional incidence was 68% (observed/expected = 168/247), corresponding to an estimated 32% reduction in the rate of T2+ cancers in screening participants relative to that expected without screening. Majority review classified 27.8% (15/54) of T2+ and 28% (14/50) of ICs as screening error (P = 0.84), with variable recall rates amongst radiologists (8.8-15.2%). T2+ review could be integrated as part of quality monitoring and potentially prove more feasible than IC review for some screening services. circle Interval breast cancers, assumed as screening failures, are monitored to estimate screening performance circle Large (T2+) cancers at screening may also represent failed prior screening detection circle Analysis of T2+ lesions may be more feasible than assessing interval cancers circle Analysis of T2+ cancers is a potential further measure of screening performance. (orig.)

  4. Proportional incidence and radiological review of large (T2+) breast cancers as surrogate indicators of screening programme performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciatto, S.; Bernardi, D.; Pellegrini, M.; Borsato, G.; Peterlongo, P. [APSS, U.O. Senologia Clinica e Screening Mammografico, Dipartimento di Radiodiagnostica, Trento (Italy); Gentilini, M.A. [APSS, Servizio Osservatorio Epidemiologico, Direzione promozione ed educazione alla salute, Trento (Italy); Caumo, F. [Centro di Prevenzione Senologica, Verona (Italy); Frigerio, A. [CRR, Centro di Riferimento Regionale per lo Screening Mammografico, Torino (Italy); Houssami, N. [University of Sydney, Screening and Test Evaluation Program, School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney (Australia)

    2012-06-15

    Surrogate measures of screening performance [e.g. interval cancer (IC) proportional incidence] allow timely monitoring of sensitivity and quality. This study explored measures using large (T2+) breast cancers as potential indicators of screening performance. The proportional incidence of T2+ cancers (observed/expected cases) in a population-based screening programme (Trento, 2001-2009) was estimated. A parallel review of 'negative' preceding mammograms for screen-detected T2+ and for all ICs, using 'blinded' independent readings and case-mixes (54 T2+, 50 ICs, 170 controls) was also performed. T2+ cancers were observed in 168 screening participants: 48 at first screen, 67 at repeat screening and 53 ICs. The T2+ estimated proportional incidence was 68% (observed/expected = 168/247), corresponding to an estimated 32% reduction in the rate of T2+ cancers in screening participants relative to that expected without screening. Majority review classified 27.8% (15/54) of T2+ and 28% (14/50) of ICs as screening error (P = 0.84), with variable recall rates amongst radiologists (8.8-15.2%). T2+ review could be integrated as part of quality monitoring and potentially prove more feasible than IC review for some screening services. circle Interval breast cancers, assumed as screening failures, are monitored to estimate screening performance circle Large (T2+) cancers at screening may also represent failed prior screening detection circle Analysis of T2+ lesions may be more feasible than assessing interval cancers circle Analysis of T2+ cancers is a potential further measure of screening performance. (orig.)

  5. Calibration of the Large Area X-Ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) Instrument on board AstroSat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antia, H. M.; Yadav, J. S.; Chauhan, Jai Verdhan; Chitnis, Varsha; Dedhia, Dhiraj; Shah, Parag; Gujar, V. M.; Katoch, Tilak; Kurhade, V. N.; Madhwani, Pankaj; Manojkumar, T. K.; Nikam, V. A.; Pandya, A. S.; Parmar, J. V.; Pawar, D. M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Agrawal, P. C. [UM-DAE Centre of Excellence for Basic Sciences, University of Mumbai, Kalina, Mumbai 400098 (India); Manchanda, R. K. [University of Mumbai, Kalina, Mumbai 400098 (India); Paul, Biswajit [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Raman Research Institute, Bengaluru 560080 (India); Pahari, Mayukh; Misra, Ranjeev [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007 (India); and others

    2017-07-01

    We present the calibration and background model for the Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) detectors on board AstroSat . The LAXPC instrument has three nominally identical detectors to achieve a large collecting area. These detectors are independent of each other, and in the event analysis mode they record the arrival time and energy of each photon that is detected. The detectors have a time resolution of 10 μ s and a dead-time of about 42 μ s. This makes LAXPC ideal for timing studies. The energy resolution and peak channel-to-energy mapping were obtained from calibration on the ground using radioactive sources coupled with GEANT4 simulations of the detectors. The response matrix was further refined from observations of the Crab after launch. At around 20 keV the energy resolution of the detectors is 10%–15%, while the combined effective area of the three detectors is about 6000 cm{sup 2}.

  6. Body fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes in pregnant women are associated with gestational insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, H; Wetterling, L; Bosaeus, M; Odén, B; Odén, A; Jennische, E; Edén, S; Holmäng, A; Lönn, M

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy is accompanied by fat gain and insulin resistance. Changes in adipose tissue morphology and function during pregnancy and factors contributing to gestational insulin resistance are incompletely known. We sought to characterize adipose tissue in trimesters 1 and 3 (T1/T3) in normal weight (NW) and obese pregnant women, and identify adipose tissue-related factors associated with gestational insulin resistance. Twenty-two NW and 11 obese women were recruited early in pregnancy for the Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study. Examinations and sampling of blood and abdominal adipose tissue were performed longitudinally in T1/T3 to determine fat mass (air-displacement plethysmography); insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR); size, number and lipolytic activity of adipocytes; and adipokine release and density of immune cells and blood vessels in adipose tissue. Fat mass and HOMA-IR increased similarly between T1 and T3 in the groups; all remained normoglycemic. Adipocyte size increased in NW women. Adipocyte number was not influenced, but proportions of small and large adipocytes changed oppositely in the groups. Lipolytic activity and circulating adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein increased in both groups. Adiponectin release was reduced in NW women. Fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes were most strongly associated with T3 HOMA-IR by multivariable linear regression (R(2)=0.751, Pinsulin resistance.

  7. Serving large portions of vegetable soup at the start of a meal affected children's energy and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spill, Maureen K; Birch, Leann L; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2011-08-01

    This study tested whether varying the portion of low-energy-dense vegetable soup served at the start of a meal affects meal energy and vegetable intakes in children. Subjects were 3- to 5-year-olds (31 boys and 41 girls) in daycare facilities. Using a crossover design, children were served lunch once a week for four weeks. On three occasions, different portions of tomato soup (150, 225, and 300 g) were served at the start of the meal, and on one occasion no soup was served. Children had 10 min to consume the soup before being served the main course. All foods were consumed ad libitum. The primary outcomes were soup intake as well as energy and vegetable intake at the main course. A mixed linear model tested the effect of soup portion size on intake. Serving any portion of soup reduced entrée energy intake compared with serving no soup, but total meal energy intake was only reduced when 150 g of soup was served. Increasing the portion size increased soup and vegetable intake. Serving low-energy-dense, vegetable soup as a first course is an effective strategy to reduce children's intake of a more energy-dense main entrée and increase vegetable consumption at the meal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Serving large portions of vegetable soup at the start of a meal affected children’s energy and vegetable intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spill, Maureen K.; Birch, Leann L.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested whether varying the portion of low-energy-dense vegetable soup served at the start of a meal affects meal energy and vegetable intakes in children. Subjects were 3- to 5-year-olds (31 boys and 41 girls) in daycare facilities. Using a crossover design, children were served lunch once a week for four weeks. On three occasions, different portions of tomato soup (150, 225, and 300 g) were served at the start of the meal, and on one occasion no soup was served. Children had 10 minutes to consume the soup before being served the main course. All foods were consumed ad libitum. The primary outcomes were soup intake as well as energy and vegetable intake at the main course. A mixed linear model tested the effect of soup portion size on intake. Serving any portion of soup reduced entrée energy intake compared with serving no soup, but total meal energy intake was only reduced when 150 g of soup was served. Increasing the portion size increased soup and vegetable intake. Serving low-energy-dense, vegetable soup as a first course is an effective strategy to reduce children’s intake of a more energy-dense main entrée and increase vegetable consumption at the meal. PMID:21596073

  9. High proportion of large genomic deletions and a genotype phenotype update in 80 unrelated families with juvenile polyposis syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aretz, S; Stienen, D; Uhlhaas, S

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) the frequency of large genomic deletions in the SMAD4 and BMPR1A genes was unknown. METHODS: Mutation and phenotype analysis was used in 80 unrelated patients of whom 65 met the clinical criteria for JPS (typical JPS) and 15 were susp...

  10. The unexpectedly large proportion of high-mass star-forming cores in a Galactic mini-starburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, F.; Nony, T.; Louvet, F.; Marsh, K. A.; Bontemps, S.; Whitworth, A. P.; Men'shchikov, A.; Nguyáën Luong, Q.; Csengeri, T.; Maury, A. J.; Gusdorf, A.; Chapillon, E.; Könyves, V.; Schilke, P.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Didelon, P.; Gaudel, M.

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the processes that determine the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a critical unsolved problem, with profound implications for many areas of astrophysics1. In molecular clouds, stars are formed in cores—gas condensations sufficiently dense that gravitational collapse converts a large fraction of their mass into a star or small clutch of stars. In nearby star-formation regions, the core mass function (CMF) is strikingly similar to the IMF, suggesting that the shape of the IMF may simply be inherited from the CMF2-5. Here, we present 1.3 mm observations, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array telescope, of the active star-formation region W43-MM1, which may be more representative of the Galactic-arm regions where most stars form6,7. The unprecedented resolution of these observations reveals a statistically robust CMF at high masses, with a slope that is markedly shallower than the IMF. This seriously challenges our understanding of the origin of the IMF.

  11. The unexpectedly large proportion of high-mass star-forming cores in a Galactic mini-starburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, F.; Nony, T.; Louvet, F.; Marsh, K. A.; Bontemps, S.; Whitworth, A. P.; Men'shchikov, A.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Csengeri, T.; Maury, A. J.; Gusdorf, A.; Chapillon, E.; Könyves, V.; Schilke, P.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Didelon, P.; Gaudel, M.

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the processes that determine the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a critical unsolved problem, with profound implications for many areas of astrophysics1. In molecular clouds, stars are formed in cores—gas condensations sufficiently dense that gravitational collapse converts a large fraction of their mass into a star or small clutch of stars. In nearby star-formation regions, the core mass function (CMF) is strikingly similar to the IMF, suggesting that the shape of the IMF may simply be inherited from the CMF2-5. Here, we present 1.3 mm observations, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array telescope, of the active star-formation region W43-MM1, which may be more representative of the Galactic-arm regions where most stars form6,7. The unprecedented resolution of these observations reveals a statistically robust CMF at high masses, with a slope that is markedly shallower than the IMF. This seriously challenges our understanding of the origin of the IMF.

  12. Utilizing Web 2.0 Technologies for Library Web Tutorials: An Examination of Instruction on Community College Libraries' Websites Serving Large Student Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blummer, Barbara; Kenton, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    This is the second part of a series on Web 2.0 tools available from community college libraries' Websites. The first article appeared in an earlier volume of this journal and it illustrated the wide variety of Web 2.0 tools on community college libraries' Websites serving large student bodies (Blummer and Kenton 2014). The research found many of…

  13. Effect of the proportion of Duroc genes in crosses with Large White and Landrace pigs on the characteristics of seasoned Parma ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bonomi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the linear and quadratic effects of the proportion of Duroc genes on the characteristicsof seasoned Parma hams by means of a covariance model. The study was carried out on 167 pigs (87 castratedmales, 80 females from different crosses among Duroc (D, Large White (LW and Landrace (L breeds, slaughteredat 300 d of age (live weight 170 kg. All pigs were raised under similar conditions. The curing period was 380 days. Theproportion of Duroc genes was 0% (LWxL; n. 33, 25% [(LWx(DxL; n. 31 and Lx(DxLW; n. 35] and 50%[Dx(LWx(LWxL; n. 68]. The increase in the proportion of Duroc genes had a positive linear effect (Pquadratic effect (P=0.01 on the yield of deboned ham while ham fat thickness decreased linearly (P=0.07 andincreased quadratically (P(Pfor lightness (Pfeatured a linear increase in moisture (Pin addition to significant quadratic effects with an increase in the proportion of Duroc genes. In conclusion, crossbreedingwith the Duroc breed (up to 50% makes it possible to obtain positive quality characteristics of cured Parma ham.

  14. Planning alternative organizational frameworks for a large scale educational telecommunications system served by fixed/broadcast satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkmeyer, J.

    1973-01-01

    This memorandum explores a host of considerations meriting attention from those who are concerned with designing organizational structures for development and control of a large scale educational telecommunications system using satellites. Part of a broader investigation at Washington University into the potential uses of fixed/broadcast satellites in U.S. education, this study lays ground work for a later effort to spell out a small number of hypothetical organizational blueprints for such a system and for assessment of potential short and long term impacts. The memorandum consists of two main parts. Part A deals with subjects of system-wide concern, while Part B deals with matters related to specific system components.

  15. Substance use outcomes of patients served by a large US implementation of Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Arnie; Linford, Robyn; Bray, Jeremy

    2017-02-01

    To estimate changes in the substance use behaviors of patients who received services as part of the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) grant program. We use a pre-post design and performance monitoring data collected by SBIRT organizations. For a sample of 17 575 patients, we compare pre-SBIRT substance use with substance use 6 months after receipt of SBIRT services. SBIRT's correlation with changes in substance use was estimated using generalized linear mixed models to account for the clustering of patients within health-care facility and US state. From pre- to post-SBIRT we found large and statistically significant decreases for almost every measure of substance use. Model-adjusted means indicate that the prevalence of alcohol use was lower 6 months later by 35.6%, heavy drinking by 43.4% and illicit drug use by 75.8%. Greater intervention intensity was associated with larger decreases in substance use. The study design does not support causal conclusions and estimated decreases in reported substance use are due, at least in part, to a well-known set of confounders and natural substance use patterns that may be unrelated to any particular SBIRT intervention. Compared with previously published findings on the Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment grant program, our estimates of substance use reduction were smaller, but still consistently large in absolute magnitude and within ranges of estimates from past trials of Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. The effects of the proportions of dietary macronutrients on the digestibility, post-prandial endocrine responses and large intestinal fermentation of carbohydrate in working dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S R; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K J; Ravindran, G; Ugarte, C E; Thomas, D G

    2009-12-01

    To compare the effects of feeding diets varying in the proportions of macronutrients on the digestibility, post-prandial endocrine responses and large intestinal fermentation of carbohydrate in working dogs. The apparent digestibility of two test diets, one comprising low-carbohydrate, high-protein dry biscuits (Diet 1), and one comprising high-carbohydrate, low-protein dry biscuits (Diet 2), fed to 12 adult Harrier Hounds (n=5 female), was determined using the indigestible-marker and total-collection methods. Serial breath samples were collected from each dog before and after feeding, and analysed for concentrations of hydrogen. Concentrations of glucose and insulin in plasma were established from serial blood samples obtained after feeding. The apparent dry matter, protein, fat and energy digestibility of Diet 1 were higher, but the carbohydrate digestibility was lower (pdogs occurred earlier for Diet 1 than Diet 2 (pdogs fed Diet 2 than Diet 1 (pdogs fed Diet 2 compared with those fed Diet 1 (pdogs, including higher apparent nutrient digestibility, slower release of glucose into the bloodstream, and reduced large intestinal fermentation of carbohydrate. A low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet may be beneficial for specific groups of dogs, including working dogs subjected to prolonged bouts of exercise requiring a sustained energy source, or those with diabetes mellitus requiring better glycaemic control.

  17. Multiwire proportional chamber development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, R. F.; Pollvogt, U.; Eskovitz, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The development of large area multiwire proportional chambers, to be used as high resolution spatial detectors in cosmic ray experiments is described. A readout system was developed which uses a directly coupled, lumped element delay-line whose characteristics are independent of the MWPC design. A complete analysis of the delay-line and the readout electronic system shows that a spatial resolution of about 0.1 mm can be reached with the MWPC operating in the strictly proportional region. This was confirmed by measurements with a small MWPC and Fe-55 X-rays. A simplified analysis was carried out to estimate the theoretical limit of spatial resolution due to delta-rays, spread of the discharge along the anode wire, and inclined trajectories. To calculate the gas gain of MWPC's of different geometrical configurations a method was developed which is based on the knowledge of the first Townsend coefficient of the chamber gas.

  18. Enhancing Diversity In The Geosciences; Intensive Field Experience In USA And Mexico For Middle And High School Teachers Serving Large Hispanic Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Bautista, R. M.; Kitts, K. B.; Velazquez Oliman, G.; Perry, E. C.

    2008-12-01

    To encourage Hispanic participation and enrolment in the geosciences and ultimately enhance diversity within the discipline, we recruited ten middle and high school science teachers serving large Hispanic populations (60-97%) for a paid three-week field experience supported by an NSF Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences grant. In 2006, the field experiences focused on volcanic events and the water problems of the Central part of Mexico. In 2008, the field experiences focused on karstic and hydrogeological conditions of the Yucatan Peninsula. In addition to the geological aspects of the fieldwork experience, the trip to Mexico exposed the teachers to a social environment outside of their community where they interacted with a diverse group of scientists from the Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Centro de Investigacion Cientifica de Yucatan (CICY) and Centro Nacional de Desastres (CENAPRED). A key part of this project was the encounter between American and Mexican teachers that included a day of presentations, panel discussion and some class-room activities. Direct interaction between the cooperating teachers and the American and Mexican geoscientists provided actual scientific research experiences to educate and to help dispel misconceptions the teachers themselves may have had about who geoscientists really are and what they do. Teachers of the 2006 group produced educational materials from their field experiences and presented these materials at professional conferences. We measured the efficacy of these activities quantitatively via pre- and post-tests assessing confidence levels, preconceptions and biases, NIU staff observations of participants in their home institutions, and evaluations of participants' field books and pedagogical materials. We present these data here and identify specific activities that are both effective and efficient in changing teacher behaviours and attitudes enabling them to better connect with their

  19. Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) Instrument on AstroSat and Some Preliminary Results from its performance in the orbit

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, P. C.; Yadav, J. S.; Antia, H. M.; Dedhia, Dhiraj; Shah, P.; Chauhan, Jai Verdhan; Manchanda, R. K.; Chitnis, V. R.; Gujar, V. M.; Katoch, Tilak; Kurhade, V. N.; Madhwani, P.; Manojkumar, T. K.; Nikam, V. A.; Pandya, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Large Area X-ray Propositional Counter (LAXPC) instrument on AstroSat is aimed at providing high time resolution X-ray observations in 3 to 80 keV energy band with moderate energy resolution. To achieve large collecting area, a cluster of three co-aligned identical LAXPC detectors, is used to realize an effective area in access of about 6000 cm2 at 15 keV. The large detection volume of the LAXPC detectors, filled with xenon gas at about 2 atmosphere pressure, results in detection efficiency g...

  20. The use of a new PMOS monolithic integrated circuit for the electronic equipment of a large multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareyre, P.; Borgeaud, P.; Poinsignon, J.; Billion, B.

    1975-01-01

    A new monolithic 8-channel PMOS integrated circuit has been developed for an experiment to be carried out on the CERN 300 GeV accelerator. The circuit, read-out electronics and tests performed on 12 large MWPCs (total of 48 000 channels) are described and the results are presented. (Auth.)

  1. Proportionality for Military Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Gary D

    2000-01-01

    .... Especially lacking is a realization that there are four distinct types of proportionality. In determining whether a particular resort to war is just, national leaders must consider the proportionality of the conflict (i.e...

  2. Electronics for proportional drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremont, G.; Friend, B.; Mess, K.H.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Tarle, J.C.; Verweij, H.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration); Geske, K.; Riege, H.; Schuett, J.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration); Semenov, Y.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration)

    1980-01-01

    An electronic system for the read-out of a large number of proportional drift tubes (16,000) has been designed. This system measures deposited charge and drift-time of the charge of a particle traversing a proportional drift tube. A second event can be accepted during the read-out of the system. Up to 40 typical events can be collected and buffered before a data transfer to a computer is necessary. (orig.)

  3. The Principle of Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... in relationship to the process of harmonization of the European capital markets.JEL classifications: G30, G32, G34 and G38Keywords: Ownership Structure, Dual Class Shares, Pyramids, EU companylaws....

  4. Libraries serving dialogue

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Odile

    2014-01-01

    This book based on experiences of libraries serving interreligious dialogue, presents themes like library tools serving dialogue between cultures, collections dialoguing, children and young adults dialoguing beyond borders, story telling as dialog, librarians serving interreligious dialogue.

  5. Technology of serving

    OpenAIRE

    Taskov, Nako

    2013-01-01

    The book “Technology of serving” was prepared according to the curriculum and it is intended for students at the faculty of tourism and business logistics in republic of Macedonia In its contents on the subject of Technology of serving it includes the following - the rooms for serving, the types of catering objects in which food and beverages are served, professional serving staff, equipment and inventory for serving, card selection services in serving .,getting to know drin...

  6. Planning Alternative Organizational Frameworks For a Large Scale Educational Telecommunications System Served by Fixed/Broadcast Satellites. Memorandum Number 73/3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkmeyer, John

    Considerations relating to the design of organizational structures for development and control of large scale educational telecommunications systems using satellites are explored. The first part of the document deals with four issues of system-wide concern. The first is user accessibility to the system, including proximity to entry points, ability…

  7. Development of multiwire proportional chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    Charpak, G

    1969-01-01

    It has happened quite often in the history of science that theoreticians, confronted with some major difficulty, have successfully gone back thirty years to look at ideas that had then been thrown overboard. But it is rare that experimentalists go back thirty years to look again at equipment which had become out-dated. This is what Charpak and his colleagues did to emerge with the 'multiwire proportional chamber' which has several new features making it a very useful addition to the armoury of particle detectors. In the 1930s, ion-chambers, Geiger- Muller counters and proportional counters, were vital pieces of equipment in nuclear physics research. Other types of detectors have since largely replaced them but now the proportional counter, in new array, is making a comeback.

  8. Plastid Transcriptomics and Translatomics of Tomato Fruit Development and Chloroplast-to-Chromoplast Differentiation: Chromoplast Gene Expression Largely Serves the Production of a Single Protein[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlau, Sabine; Bock, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Plastid genes are expressed at high levels in photosynthetically active chloroplasts but are generally believed to be drastically downregulated in nongreen plastids. The genome-wide changes in the expression patterns of plastid genes during the development of nongreen plastid types as well as the contributions of transcriptional versus translational regulation are largely unknown. We report here a systematic transcriptomics and translatomics analysis of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plastid genome during fruit development and chloroplast-to-chromoplast conversion. At the level of RNA accumulation, most but not all plastid genes are strongly downregulated in fruits compared with leaves. By contrast, chloroplast-to-chromoplast differentiation during fruit ripening is surprisingly not accompanied by large changes in plastid RNA accumulation. However, most plastid genes are translationally downregulated during chromoplast development. Both transcriptional and translational downregulation are more pronounced for photosynthesis-related genes than for genes involved in gene expression, indicating that some low-level plastid gene expression must be sustained in chromoplasts. High-level expression during chromoplast development identifies accD, the only plastid-encoded gene involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, as the target gene for which gene expression activity in chromoplasts is maintained. In addition, we have determined the developmental patterns of plastid RNA polymerase activities, intron splicing, and RNA editing and report specific developmental changes in the splicing and editing patterns of plastid transcripts. PMID:18441214

  9. Restrictions and Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses three central aspects of the freedoms under European Community law, namely 1) the prohibition against restrictions as an important extension of the prohibition against discrimination, 2) a prohibition against exit restrictions which is just as important as the prohibition...... against host country restrictions, but which is often not recognised to the same extent by national law, and 3) the importance of also identifying and recognising an exit restriction, so that it is possible to achieve the required test of appropriateness and proportionality in relation to the rule...

  10. The divine proportion

    CERN Document Server

    Huntley, H E

    1970-01-01

    Using simple mathematical formulas, most as basic as Pythagoras's theorem and requiring only a very limited knowledge of mathematics, Professor Huntley explores the fascinating relationship between geometry and aesthetics. Poetry, patterns like Pascal's triangle, philosophy, psychology, music, and dozens of simple mathematical figures are enlisted to show that the ""divine proportion"" or ""golden ratio"" is a feature of geometry and analysis which awakes answering echoes in the human psyche. When we judge a work of art aesthetically satisfying, according to his formulation, we are making it c

  11. A large proportion of asymptomatic Plasmodium infections with low and sub-microscopic parasite densities in the low transmission setting of Temotu Province, Solomon Islands: challenges for malaria diagnostics in an elimination setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Ivor

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries are scaling up malaria interventions towards elimination. This transition changes demands on malaria diagnostics from diagnosing ill patients to detecting parasites in all carriers including asymptomatic infections and infections with low parasite densities. Detection methods suitable to local malaria epidemiology must be selected prior to transitioning a malaria control programme to elimination. A baseline malaria survey conducted in Temotu Province, Solomon Islands in late 2008, as the first step in a provincial malaria elimination programme, provided malaria epidemiology data and an opportunity to assess how well different diagnostic methods performed in this setting. Methods During the survey, 9,491 blood samples were collected and examined by microscopy for Plasmodium species and density, with a subset also examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs. The performances of these diagnostic methods were compared. Results A total of 256 samples were positive by microscopy, giving a point prevalence of 2.7%. The species distribution was 17.5% Plasmodium falciparum and 82.4% Plasmodium vivax. In this low transmission setting, only 17.8% of the P. falciparum and 2.9% of P. vivax infected subjects were febrile (≥38°C at the time of the survey. A significant proportion of infections detected by microscopy, 40% and 65.6% for P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively, had parasite density below 100/μL. There was an age correlation for the proportion of parasite density below 100/μL for P. vivax infections, but not for P. falciparum infections. PCR detected substantially more infections than microscopy (point prevalence of 8.71%, indicating a large number of subjects had sub-microscopic parasitemia. The concordance between PCR and microscopy in detecting single species was greater for P. vivax (135/162 compared to P. falciparum (36/118. The malaria RDT detected the 12 microscopy and

  12. A nuclear proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a nuclear proportional counter comprising in a bulb filled with a low-pressure gas, a wire forming an anode and a cathode, characterized in that said cathode is constituted by two plane plates parallel to each other and to the anode wire, and in that two branches of a circuit are connected to the anode wire end-portions, each branch comprising a pre-amplifier, a measuring circuit consisting of a differentiator-integrator-differentiator amplifier and a zero detector, one of the branches comprising an adjustable delay circuit, both branches jointly attacking a conversion circuit for converting the pulse duration into amplitudes said conversion circuit being followed by a multi-channel analyzer, contingently provided with a recorder [fr

  13. Load proportional safety brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    This brake is a self-energizing mechanical friction brake and is intended for use in a rotary drive system. It incorporates a torque sensor which cuts power to the power unit on any overload condition. The brake is capable of driving against an opposing load or driving, paying-out, an aiding load in either direction of rotation. The brake also acts as a no-back device when torque is applied to the output shaft. The advantages of using this type of device are: (1) low frictional drag when driving; (2) smooth paying-out of an aiding load with no runaway danger; (3) energy absorption proportional to load; (4) no-back activates within a few degrees of output shaft rotation and resets automatically; and (5) built-in overload protection.

  14. Macroeconomic Proportions and Corellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The work is focusing on the main proportions and correlations which are being set up between the major macroeconomic indicators. This is the general frame for the analysis of the relations between the Gross Domestic Product growth rate and the unemployment rate; the interaction between the inflation rate and the unemployment rate; the connection between the GDP growth rate and the inflation rate. Within the analysis being performed, a particular attention is paid to �the basic relationship of the economic growth� by emphasizing the possibilities as to a factorial analysis of the macroeconomic development, mainly as far as the Gross Domestic Product is concerned. At this point, the authors are introducing the mathematical relations, which are used for modeling the macroeconomic correlations, hence the strictness of the analysis being performed.

  15. Macroeconomic Proportions and Corellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Mitrut

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The work is focusing on the main proportions and correlations which are being set up between the major macroeconomic indicators. This is the general frame for the analysis of the relations between the Gross Domestic Product growth rate and the unemployment rate; the interaction between the inflation rate and the unemployment rate; the connection between the GDP growth rate and the inflation rate. Within the analysis being performed, a particular attention is paid to “the basic relationship of the economic growth” by emphasizing the possibilities as to a factorial analysis of the macroeconomic development, mainly as far as the Gross Domestic Product is concerned. At this point, the authors are introducing the mathematical relations, which are used for modeling the macroeconomic correlations, hence the strictness of the analysis being performed.

  16. A Helpful Serving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockower, David

    2006-01-01

    This article briefly describes how a fifth-grade class collaborated with a downtown diner for several months and then actually ran the restaurant for four hours. Through the Chatters Cafe, a local high school cafe that serves as a culinary arts training ground for high school students, fifth graders had the opportunity to prepare and serve dinner…

  17. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine

    2014-01-01

    on the theme, originally proposed by Fischer Black. In CPPI, a financial institution guarantees a floor value for the “insured” portfolio and adjusts the stock/bond mix to produce a leveraged exposure to the risky assets, which depends on how far the portfolio value is above the floor. Plain-vanilla portfolio...... insurance largely died with the crash of 1987, but CPPI is still going strong. In the frictionless markets of finance theory, the issuer’s strategy to hedge its liability under the contract is clear, but in the real world with transactions costs and stochastic jump risk, the optimal strategy is less obvious...

  18. Why do they serve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Stéphanie; Glad, Ane

    2016-01-01

    that after the mission, peace-keepers are generally more disappointed than peace-enforcers. Our results also show that self-benefit motives are important for younger soldiers with only a high school education, and that this group usually serves as peace-enforcers during their gap year....... the survey both before and after deployment. Soldiers are deployed to different missions under the same circumstances. To conceptualize motives among soldiers, we use factor analysis and find three factors: challenge, self-benefit, and fidelity. Challenge represents an occupational orientation; fidelity...

  19. Drama is Served

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svømmekjær, Heidi Frank

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on how the theme of food is used for making social, gender, and other distinctions in the weekly Danish radio series The Hansen Family (The Danish Broadcasting Corporation, 1929-49) and in relation to other radio programmes from the 1930s and 1940s. These distinctions serve t...... with the wife. To Mrs. Hansen, it is the fruit of hard labour rather than a meal to be enjoyed. On a more general level, food is a limited resource, which often causes social tensions to burst onto the surface of human interaction....

  20. Proportioning of light weight concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmus, Lars

    1996-01-01

    Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory......Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory...

  1. Predicting Volleyball Serve-Reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T J M; Fonseca, Sofia; Araujo, Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four

  2. Proportional green time scheduling for traffic lights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kovacs; Le, T. (Tung); R. Núñez Queija (Rudesindo); Vu, H. (Hai); N. Walton

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the decentralized scheduling of a large number of urban traffic lights. We investigate factors determining system performance, in particular, the length of the traffic light cycle and the proportion of green time allocated to each junction. We study the effect of the length

  3. High variation in manufacturer-declared serving size of packaged discretionary foods in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskelberg, Hila; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Flood, Victoria; Rangan, Anna; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Trevena, Helen; Zheng, Jazzmin Miaobing; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Gill, Timothy; Wu, Jason H Y

    2016-05-28

    Despite the potential of declared serving size to encourage appropriate portion size consumption, most countries including Australia have not developed clear reference guidelines for serving size. The present study evaluated variability in manufacturer-declared serving size of discretionary food and beverage products in Australia, and how declared serving size compared with the 2013 Australian Dietary Guideline (ADG) standard serve (600 kJ). Serving sizes were obtained from the Nutrition Information Panel for 4466 packaged, discretionary products in 2013 at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia, and categorised into fifteen categories in line with the 2013 ADG. For unique products that were sold in multiple package sizes, the percentage difference between the minimum and the maximum serving size across different package sizes was calculated. A high variation in serving size was found within the majority of food and beverage categories - for example, among 347 non-alcoholic beverages (e.g. soft drinks), the median for serving size was 250 (interquartile range (IQR) 250, 355) ml (range 100-750 ml). Declared serving size for unique products that are available in multiple package sizes also showed high variation, particularly for chocolate-based confectionery, with median percentage difference between minimum and maximum serving size of 183 (IQR 150) %. Categories with a high proportion of products that exceeded the 600 kJ ADG standard serve included cakes and muffins, pastries and desserts (≥74 % for each). High variability in declared serving size may confound interpretation and understanding of consumers interested in standardising and controlling their portion selection. Future research is needed to assess if and how standardising declared serving size might affect consumer behaviour.

  4. Proportional Symbol Mapping in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Tanimura

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Visualization of spatial data on a map aids not only in data exploration but also in communication to impart spatial conception or ideas to others. Although recent carto-graphic functions in R are rapidly becoming richer, proportional symbol mapping, which is one of the common mapping approaches, has not been packaged thus far. Based on the theories of proportional symbol mapping developed in cartography, the authors developed some functions for proportional symbol mapping using R, including mathematical and perceptual scaling. An example of these functions demonstrated the new expressive power and options available in R, particularly for the visualization of conceptual point data.

  5. Optical fusions and proportional syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert-Vanel, Michel

    2002-06-01

    A tragic error is being made in the literature concerning matters of color when dealing with optical fusions. They are still considered to be of additive nature, whereas experience shows us somewhat different results. The goal of this presentation is to show that fusions are, in fact, of 'proportional' nature, tending to be additive or subtractive, depending on each individual case. Using the pointillist paintings done in the manner of Seurat, or the spinning discs experiment could highlight this intermediate sector of the proportional. So, let us try to examine more closely what occurs in fact, by reviewing additive, subtractive and proportional syntheses.

  6. ServAR: An augmented reality tool to guide the serving of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Megan E; Bucher, Tamara; Smith, Shamus P; Collins, Clare E

    2017-05-12

    Accurate estimation of food portion size is a difficult task. Visual cues are important mediators of portion size and therefore technology-based aids may assist consumers when serving and estimating food portions. The current study evaluated the usability and impact on estimation error of standard food servings of a novel augmented reality food serving aid, ServAR. Participants were randomised into one of three groups: 1) no information/aid (control); 2) verbal information on standard serving sizes; or 3) ServAR, an aid which overlayed virtual food servings over a plate using a tablet computer. Participants were asked to estimate the standard serving sizes of nine foods (broccoli, carrots, cauliflower, green beans, kidney beans, potato, pasta, rice, and sweetcorn) using validated food replicas. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared median served weights of each food to reference standard serving size weights. Percentage error was used to compare the estimation of serving size accuracy between the three groups. All participants also performed a usability test using the ServAR tool to guide the serving of one randomly selected food. Ninety adults (78.9% female; a mean (95%CI) age 25.8 (24.9-26.7) years; BMI 24.2 (23.2-25.2) kg/m 2 ) completed the study. The median servings were significantly different to the reference portions for five foods in the ServAR group, compared to eight foods in the information only group and seven foods for the control group. The cumulative proportion of total estimations per group within ±10%, ±25% and ±50% of the reference portion was greater for those using ServAR (30.7, 65.2 and 90.7%; respectively), compared to the information only group (19.6, 47.4 and 77.4%) and control group (10.0, 33.7 and 68.9%). Participants generally found the ServAR tool easy to use and agreed that it showed potential to support optimal portion size selection. However, some refinements to the ServAR tool are required to improve the user experience. Use of the

  7. Proportional counter end effects eliminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meekins, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    An improved gas-filled proportional counter which includes a resistor network connected between the anode and cathode at the ends of the counter in order to eliminate ''end effects'' is described. 3 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

  8. Analogical proportions: another logical view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Richard, Gilles

    This paper investigates the logical formalization of a restricted form of analogical reasoning based on analogical proportions, i.e. statements of the form a is to b as c is to d. Starting from a naive set theoretic interpretation, we highlight the existence of two noticeable companion proportions: one states that a is to b the converse of what c is to d (reverse analogy), while the other called paralogical proportion expresses that what a and b have in common, c and d have it also. We identify the characteristic postulates of the three types of proportions and examine their consequences from an abstract viewpoint. We further study the properties of the set theoretic interpretation and of the Boolean logic interpretation, and we provide another light on the understanding of the role of permutations in the modeling of the three types of proportions. Finally, we address the use of these proportions as a basis for inference in a propositional setting, and relate it to more general schemes of analogical reasoning. The differences between analogy, reverse-analogy, and paralogy is still emphasized in a three-valued setting, which is also briefly presented.

  9. Bayesian inference on proportional elections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hideki Vatanabe Brunello

    Full Text Available Polls for majoritarian voting systems usually show estimates of the percentage of votes for each candidate. However, proportional vote systems do not necessarily guarantee the candidate with the most percentage of votes will be elected. Thus, traditional methods used in majoritarian elections cannot be applied on proportional elections. In this context, the purpose of this paper was to perform a Bayesian inference on proportional elections considering the Brazilian system of seats distribution. More specifically, a methodology to answer the probability that a given party will have representation on the chamber of deputies was developed. Inferences were made on a Bayesian scenario using the Monte Carlo simulation technique, and the developed methodology was applied on data from the Brazilian elections for Members of the Legislative Assembly and Federal Chamber of Deputies in 2010. A performance rate was also presented to evaluate the efficiency of the methodology. Calculations and simulations were carried out using the free R statistical software.

  10. Saving Money Using Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Jessica A.; Garney, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    It is beneficial for students to discover intuitive strategies, as opposed to the teacher presenting strategies to them. Certain proportional reasoning tasks are more likely to elicit intuitive strategies than other tasks. The strategies that students are apt to use when approaching a task, as well as the likelihood of a student's success or…

  11. Disease proportions attributable to environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineis Paolo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several issues surrounding the estimation of attributable proportions, particularly with reference to environmental causes of cancers, and critically examines two recently published papers. These issues encompass potential biases as well as the very definition of environment and of environmental agent. The latter aspect is not just a semantic question but carries implications for the focus of preventive actions, whether centred on the material and social environment or on single individuals.

  12. PEP quark search proportional chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, S I; Harris, F; Karliner, I; Yount, D [Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA); Ely, R; Hamilton, R; Pun, T [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.; Guryn, W; Miller, D; Fries, R [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA)

    1981-04-01

    Proportional chambers are used in the PEP Free Quark Search to identify and remove possible background sources such as particles traversing the edges of counters, to permit geometric corrections to the dE/dx and TOF information from the scintillator and Cerenkov counters, and to look for possible high cross section quarks. The present beam pipe has a thickness of 0.007 interaction lengths (lambdasub(i)) and is followed in both arms each with 45/sup 0/ <= theta <= 135/sup 0/, ..delta..phi=90/sup 0/ by 5 proportional chambers, each 0.0008 lambdasub(i) thick with 32 channels of pulse height readout, and by 3 thin scintillator planes, each 0.003 lambdasub(i) thick. Following this thin front end, each arm of the detector has 8 layers of scintillator (one with scintillating light pipes) interspersed with 4 proportional chambers and a layer of lucite Cerenkov counters. Both the calculated ion statistics and measurements using He-CH/sub 4/ gas in a test chamber indicate that the chamber efficiencies should be >98% for q=1/3. The Landau spread measured in the test was equal to that observed for normal q=1 traversals. One scintillator plane and thin chamber in each arm will have an extra set of ADC's with a wide gate bracketing the normal one so timing errors and tails of earlier pulses should not produce fake quarks.

  13. Serving the world's poor, profitably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahalad, C K; Hammond, Allen

    2002-09-01

    By stimulating commerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid, multi-nationals could radically improve the lives of billions of people and help create a more stable, less dangerous world. Achieving this goal does not require MNCs to spearhead global social-development initiatives for charitable purposes. They need only act in their own self-interest. How? The authors lay out the business case for entering the world's poorest markets. Fully 65% of the world's population earns less than $2,000 per year--that's 4 billion people. But despite the vastness of this market, it remains largely untapped. The reluctance to invest is easy to understand, but it is, by and large, based on outdated assumptions of the developing world. While individual incomes may be low, the aggregate buying power of poor communities is actually quite large, representing a substantial market in many countries for what some might consider luxury goods like satellite television and phone services. Prices, and margins, are often much higher in poor neighborhoods than in their middle-class counterparts. And new technologies are already steadily reducing the effects of corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, and other such barriers. Because these markets are in the earliest stages of economic development, revenue growth for multi-nationals entering them can be extremely rapid. MNCs can also lower costs, not only through low-cost labor but by transferring operating efficiencies and innovations developed to serve their existing operations. Certainly, succeeding in such markets requires MNCs to think creatively. The biggest change, though, has to come from executives: Unless business leaders confront their own preconceptions--particularly about the value of high-volume, low-margin businesses--companies are unlikely to master the challenges or reap the rewards of these developing markets.

  14. Proportional representation apportionment methods and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pukelsheim, Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    The book offers an in-depth study of the translation of vote counts into seat numbers in proportional representation systems  – an approach guided by practical needs. It also provides plenty of empirical instances illustrating the results. It analyzes in detail the 2014 elections to the European Parliament in the 28 member states, as well as the 2009 and 2013 elections to the German Bundestag. This second edition is a complete revision and expanded version of the first edition published in 2014, and many empirical election results that serve as examples have been updated. Further, a final chapter has been added assembling biographical sketches and authoritative quotes from individuals who pioneered the development of apportionment methodology. The mathematical exposition and the interrelations with political science and constitutional jurisprudence make this an apt resource for interdisciplinary courses and seminars on electoral systems and apportionment methods.

  15. Pulse triggering mechanism of air proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, T.; Mori, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the pulse triggering mechanism of a cylindrical proportional counter filled with air at atmospheric pressure for the incidence of β-rays. Experimental results indicate that primary electrons created distantly from the anode wire by a β-ray are transformed into negative ions, which then detach electrons close to the anode wire and generate electron avalanches thus triggering pulses, while electrons created near the anode wire by a β-ray directly trigger a pulse. Since a negative ion pulse is triggered by a single electron detached from a negative ion, multiple pulses are generated by a large number of ions produced by the incidence of a single β-ray. It is therefore necessary not to count pulses triggered by negative ions but to count those by primary electrons alone when use is made of air proportional counters for the detection of β-rays. (orig.)

  16. Incisors’ proportions in smile esthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulaimani, Fahad F; Batwa, Waeil

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To determine whether alteration of the maxillary central and lateral incisors’ length and width, respectively, would affect perceived smile esthetics and to validate the most esthetic length and width, respectively, for the central and lateral incisors. Materials and Methods: Photographic manipulation was undertaken to produce two sets of photographs, each set of four photographs showing the altered width of the lateral incisor and length of the central length. The eight produced photographs were assessed by laypeople, dentists and orthodontists. Results: Alteration in the incisors’ proportion affected the relative smile attractiveness for laypeople (n=124), dentists (n=115) and orthodontists (n=68); dentists and orthodontists did not accept lateral width reduction of more than 0.5 mm (P<0.01), which suggests that the lateral to central incisor width ratio ranges from 54% to 62%. However, laypeople did not accept lateral width reduction of more than 1 mm (P<0.01), widening the range to be from 48% to 62%. All groups had zero tolerance for changes in central crown length (P<0.01). Conclusion: All participants recognized that the central incisors’ length changes. For lateral incisors, laypeople were more tolerant than dentists and orthodontists. This suggests that changing incisors’ proportions affects the relative smile attractiveness. PMID:24987650

  17. Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Jessen, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    be made arbitrarily small—and thus the credit rating arbitrarily high—by increasing leverage, but the ratings obtained strongly depend on assumptions on the credit environment (high spread or low spread). More importantly, CPDO loss distributions are found to exhibit a wide range of tail risk measures......Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs) are structured credit derivatives that generate high coupon payments by dynamically leveraging a position in an underlying portfolio of investment-grade index default swaps. CPDO coupons and principal notes received high initial credit ratings from...... the major rating agencies, based on complex models for the joint transition of ratings and spreads for all names in the underlying portfolio. We propose a parsimonious model for analysing the performance of CPDO strategies using a top-down approach that captures the essential risk factors of the CPDO. Our...

  18. Large Area X-Ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) Instrument on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. C. Agrawal

    2017-06-19

    Jun 19, 2017 ... high time resolution X-ray observations in 3–80 keV energy band with moderate energy ... able to detect low-and high-frequency QPOs (up ... black hole binaries will provide a tool to probe .... cessed for pulse height analysis.

  19. Position-sensitive proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    A position-sensitive proportional counter circuit uses a conventional (low-resistance, metal-wire anode) counter for spatial resolution of an ionizing event along the anode, which functions as an RC line. A pair of preamplifiers at the anode ends act as stabilized active-capacitance loads, each comprising a series-feedback, low-noise amplifier and a unity-gain, shunt-feedback amplifier whose output is connected through a feedback capacitor to the series-feedback amplifier input. The stabilized capacitance loading of the anode allows distributed RC-line position encoding and subsequent time difference decoding by sensing the difference in rise times of pulses at the anode ends where the difference is primarily in response to the distributed capacitance along the anode. This allows the use of lower resistance wire anodes for spatial radiation detection which simplifies the counter construction of handling of the anodes, and stabilizes the anode resistivity at high count rates (>10 6 counts/sec). (author)

  20. NRPC ServCat priorities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This document lists the Natural Resource Program Center’s priority ServCat documents. It is recommended that these documents- which include annual narrative reports,...

  1. Military Cultural Competency: Understanding How to Serve Those Who Serve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonura, Kimberlee Bethany; Lovald, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to define and describe the different constituents of the military population, and present the challenges this demographic faces when pursuing higher education. The essay also discusses key aspects higher education professionals must understand in order to better serve military populations, such as federal regulations and…

  2. Proportional wire calorimeters at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J.A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Gas calorimeters have recently increased in popularity because they provide a simple method of achieving a high degree of calorimeter segmentation with only a modest loss in energy resolution compared with liquid argon or scintillator calorimeters. High radiation levels at ISABELLE will result in gas calorimeter lifetimes similar to those of MWPCs, although the intermediate speed of these devices may cause some resolution degradation due to signal pileup. Schemes for calibration and monitoring gas calorimeters in situ must be evolved and will presumably utilize a combination of pulsers, imbedded 55 Fe sources, etc. Most of the recent development work on gas calorimeters has been centered on electromagnetic (em) calorimetry for large detectors at CESR and PEP. Data on the performance of gas calorimeters are given and compared with the liquid argon results of Hitlin et al. The hadronic gas calorimeter results of Anderson et al. are shown along with typical energy resolution results from various scintillator and liquid argon steel calorimeters

  3. Viking-Age Sails: Form and Proportion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Vibeke

    2017-04-01

    Archaeological ship-finds have shed much light on the design and construction of vessels from the Viking Age. However, the exact proportions of their sails remain unknown due to the lack of fully preserved sails, or other definite indicators of their proportions. Key Viking-Age ship-finds from Scandinavia—the Oseberg Ship, the Gokstad Ship and Skuldelev 3—have all revealed traces of rigging. In all three finds, the keelson—with the mast position—is preserved, together with fastenings for the sheets and the tack, indicating the breadth of the sail. The sail area can then be estimated based on practical experience of how large a sail the specific ship can carry, in conjunction with hull form and displacement. This article presents reconstructions of the form and dimensions of rigging and sail based on the archaeological finds, evidence from iconographic and written sources, and ethnographic parallels with traditional Nordic boats. When these sources are analysed, not only do the similarities become apparent, but so too does the relative disparity between the archaeological record and the other sources. Preferential selection in terms of which source is given the greatest merit is therefore required, as it is not possible to afford them all equal value.

  4. Divine proportions in attractive and nonattractive faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancherz, Hans; Knapp, Verena; Erbe, Christina; Heiss, Anja Melina

    2010-01-01

    To test Ricketts' 1982 hypothesis that facial beauty is measurable by comparing attractive and nonattractive faces of females and males with respect to the presence of the divine proportions. The analysis of frontal view facial photos of 90 cover models (50 females, 40 males) from famous fashion magazines and of 34 attractive (29 females, five males) and 34 nonattractive (13 females, 21 males) persons selected from a group of former orthodontic patients was carried out in this study. Based on Ricketts' method, five transverse and seven vertical facial reference distances were measured and compared with the corresponding calculated divine distances expressed in phi-relationships (f=1.618). Furthermore, transverse and vertical facial disproportion indices were created. For both the models and patients, all the reference distances varied largely from respective divine values. The average deviations ranged from 0.3% to 7.8% in the female groups of models and attractive patients with no difference between them. In the male groups of models and attractive patients, the average deviations ranged from 0.2% to 11.2%. When comparing attractive and nonattractive female, as well as male, patients, deviations from the divine values for all variables were larger in the nonattractive sample. Attractive individuals have facial proportions closer to the divine values than nonattractive ones. In accordance with the hypothesis of Ricketts, facial beauty is measurable to some degree. COPYRIGHT © 2009 BY QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO, INC.

  5. Quality measurement by proportional counter with B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onizuka, Yoshihiko; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi

    2005-01-01

    The dosimetry of air and the tissue-equivalent phantom made of acryl are carried out by the tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and TEPC with wall contained B, and both results were compared. The changes of quality with distance from the beam center are determined by the frequency mean renewal energy y F (y)and the dose mean renewal energy y D (y) as indicators of quality. Both y F (y)and y D (y) of tissue-equivalent phantom are larger than air, but very large change was not observed in all distance. The dose rate is determined by y D (y), the number of events and measurement time. Change of dose rate was larger than the change of quality. The maximum value of dose rate depended on γray and neutron beam showed at the point 2 cm away from the center. (S.Y.)

  6. Global Drought Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Drought Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of drought hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per...

  7. Impossibility Theorem in Proportional Representation Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The study examines general axiomatics of Balinski and Young and analyzes existed proportional representation methods using this approach. The second part of the paper provides new axiomatics based on rational choice models. New system of axioms is applied to study known proportional representation systems. It is shown that there is no proportional representation method satisfying a minimal set of the axioms (monotonicity and neutrality).

  8. Cognitive and Metacognitive Aspects of Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modestou, Modestina; Gagatsis, Athanasios

    2010-01-01

    In this study we attempt to propose a new model of proportional reasoning based both on bibliographical and research data. This is impelled with the help of three written tests involving analogical, proportional, and non-proportional situations that were administered to pupils from grade 7 to 9. The results suggest the existence of a…

  9. Evaluating Middle Years Students' Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Geoff; Goos, Merrilyn; O'Brien, Mia

    2012-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is a key aspect of numeracy that is not always developed naturally by students. Understanding the types of proportional reasoning that students apply to different problem types is a useful first step to identifying ways to support teachers and students to develop proportional reasoning in the classroom. This paper describes…

  10. Proportioning of U3O8 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermak, V.; Markvart, M.; Novy, P.; Vanka, M.

    1989-01-01

    The tests are briefly described or proportioning U 3 O 8 powder of a granulometric grain size range of 0-160 μm using a vertical screw, a horizontal dual screw and a vibration dispenser with a view to proportioning very fine U 3 O 8 powder fractions produced in the oxidation of UO 2 fuel pellets. In the tests, the evenness of proportioning was assessed by the percentage value of the proportioning rate spread measured at one-minute intervals at a proportioning rate of 1-3 kg/h. In feeding the U 3 O 3 in a flame fluorator, it is advantageous to monitor the continuity of the powder column being proportioned and to assess it radiometrically by the value of the proportioning rate spread at very short intervals (0.1 s). (author). 10 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  11. Food and drink serving contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and drink catering service is almost as old as the civilization itself. Even though this vocation is a part of the catering activity, Serbian law does not foresee this contract section as personalized. Key legal sources for this kind of contract are business customs. Food and drink serving contract is a mixed-type contract and its legal nature is very interesting due to its complexity. Specific for this contract is the fact that it is not an ordinary service, but also an activity which requires a degree of culinary skills, knowledge of customs of other nations, as well as other skills. The very category of a good professional in business economy / hospitality industry is very dynamic, as it needs to be evaluated according to all given circumstances, which may be rather unpredictable. By considering the legal nature, but also the rights and obligations of the contracting parties, we tried to point to the questions that require a special attention. Legal sources that indirectly refer to food and drink serving contracts were taken into account. Apart from the Law on Obligatory Relations, we also considered here the Law on Tourism also pointing to the comparative law and jurisprudence.

  12. Why do card issuers charge proportional fees?

    OpenAIRE

    Oz Shy; Zhu Wang

    2008-01-01

    This paper explains why payment card companies charge consumers and merchants fees which are proportional to the transaction values instead of charging a fixed per-transaction fee. Our theory shows that, even in the absence of any cost considerations, card companies earn much higher profit when they charge proportional fees. It is also shown that competition among merchants reduces card companies' gains from using proportional fees relative to a fixed per-transaction fee. Merchants are found ...

  13. Relating arithmetical techniques of proportion to geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijayanti, Dyana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how textbooks introduce and treat the theme of proportion in geometry (similarity) and arithmetic (ratio and proportion), and how these themes are linked to each other in the books. To pursue this aim, we use the anthropological theory of the didactic....... Considering 6 common Indonesian textbooks in use, we describe how proportion is explained and appears in examples and exercises, using an explicit reference model of the mathematical organizations of both themes. We also identify how the proportion themes of the geometry and arithmetic domains are linked. Our...

  14. Calibration of proportional counters in microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, M.N.

    1982-01-01

    Many microdosimetric spectra for low LET as well as high LET radiations are measured using commercially available (similar to EG and G) Rossi proportional counters. This paper discusses the corrections to be applied to data when calibration of the counter is made using one type of radiation, and then the counter is used in a different radiation field. The principal correction factor is due to differences in W-value of the radiation used for calibration and the radiation for which microdosimetric measurements are made. Both propane and methane base tissue-equivalent (TE) gases are used in these counters. When calibrating the detectors, it is important to use the correct stopping power value for that gas. Deviations in y-bar/sub F/ and y-bar/sub D/ are calculated for 60 Co using different extrapolation procedures from 0.15 keV/μm to zero event size. These deviations can be as large as 30%. Advantages of reporting microdosimetric parameters such as y-bar/sub F/ and y-bar/sub D/ above a certain minimum cut-off are discussed

  15. Proportional Reasoning and the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Geoff; Hilton, Annette; Dole, Shelley L.; Goos, Merrilyn; O'Brien, Mia

    2012-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is an important aspect of formal thinking that is acquired during the developmental years that approximate the middle years of schooling. Students who fail to acquire sound proportional reasoning often experience difficulties in subjects that require quantitative thinking, such as science, technology, engineering, and…

  16. Adaptive bayesian analysis for binomial proportions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available of testing the proportion of some trait. For example, say, we are interested to infer about the effectiveness of a certain intervention teaching strategy, by comparing proportion of ‘proficient’ teachers, before and after an intervention. The number...

  17. Mix Proportion Design of Asphalt Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianhu; Gao, Lingling; Du, Shoujun

    2017-12-01

    Based on the gradation of AC and SMA, this paper designs a new type of anti slide mixture with two types of advantages. Chapter introduces the material selection, ratio of ore mixture ratio design calculation, and determine the optimal asphalt content test and proportioning design of asphalt concrete mix. This paper introduces the new technology of mix proportion.

  18. Proportional gas scintillation detectors and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr, I.

    1978-01-01

    The principle is described of a gas proportional scintillation detector and its function. Dependence of Si(Li) and xenon proportional detectors energy resolution on the input window size is given. A typical design is shown of a xenon detector used for X-ray spetrometry at an energy of 277 eV to 5.898 keV and at a gas pressure of 98 to 270 kPa. Gas proportional scintillation detectors show considerable better energy resolution than common proportional counters and even better resolution than semiconductor Si(Li) detectors for low X radiation energies. For detection areas smaller than 25 mm 2 Si(Li) detectors show better resolution, especially for higher X radiation energies. For window areas 25 to 190 mm 2 both types of detectors are equal, for a window area exceeding 190 mm 2 the proportional scintillation detector has higher energy resolution. (B.S.)

  19. Serving Boys through Readers' Advisory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Based on more than twenty years' experience working to get boys interested in reading, the author now offers his first readers' advisory volume. With an emphasis on nonfiction and the boy-friendly categories of genre fiction, the work offers a wealth of material including: (1) Suggestions for how to booktalk one-on-one as well as in large groups;…

  20. Icon arrays help younger children's proportional reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Azzurra; Vagharchakian, Laurianne; Xu, Fei

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the effects of two context variables, presentation format (icon arrays or numerical frequencies) and time limitation (limited or unlimited time), on the proportional reasoning abilities of children aged 7 and 10 years, as well as adults. Participants had to select, between two sets of tokens, the one that offered the highest likelihood of drawing a gold token, that is, the set of elements with the greater proportion of gold tokens. Results show that participants performed better in the unlimited time condition. Moreover, besides a general developmental improvement in accuracy, our results show that younger children performed better when proportions were presented as icon arrays, whereas older children and adults were similarly accurate in the two presentation format conditions. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? There is a developmental improvement in proportional reasoning accuracy. Icon arrays facilitate reasoning in adults with low numeracy. What does this study add? Participants were more accurate when they were given more time to make the proportional judgement. Younger children's proportional reasoning was more accurate when they were presented with icon arrays. Proportional reasoning abilities correlate with working memory, approximate number system, and subitizing skills. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Background simulation for the Spherical Proportional Counter and its use for the detection of optical photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougamont, E; Colas, P; Dastgheibi-Fard, A; Derre, J; Giomataris, I; Gerbier, G; Gros, M; Magnier, P; Navick, X F; Tsiledakis, G; Salin, P; Savvidis, I; Vergados, J D

    2013-01-01

    The recently developed Spherical Proportional Counter [1] allows to instrument large target masses with good energy resolution and sub-keV energy threshold. The moderate cost of this detector, its simplicity and robustness, makes this technology a promising approach for many domains of physics and applications, like dark matter detection and low energy neutrino searches. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations are essential to evaluate the background level expected at the sub-keV energy regime. The simulated background here, it refers to the contribution of the construction material of the detector and the effect of the environmental gamma radiation. This detector due to its spherical shape could be also served as an optical photon detector provided it is equipped with PMTs, for Double Beta decay and Dark Matter searches. All calculations shown here are obtained using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code

  2. Count rate effect in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, B.

    1980-01-01

    A critical evaluaton is presented of the actual state of investigations and explanations of the resolution and pulse height changes resulted in proportional counters from radiation intensity variations. (author)

  3. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used...... in practice due to the lack of reliable estimation procedures. We suggest such procedures and show that their performance improve considerably on existing methods. We also suggest a goodness-of-fit test for the proportional odds assumption. We derive the large sample properties and provide estimators...

  4. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, Donovan S; Morgan, Penelope; Smith, Alistair M S; Kolden, Crystal A; Hudak, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day. (letters)

  5. Proportion congruency effects: Instructions may be enough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eEntel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Learning takes time, namely, one needs to be exposed to contingency relations between stimulus dimensions in order to learn, whereas intentional control can be recruited through task demands. Therefore showing that control can be recruited as a function of experimental instructions alone, that is, adapting the processing according to the instructions before the exposure to the task, can be taken as evidence for existence of control recruitment in the absence of learning. This was done by manipulating the information given at the outset of the experiment. In the first experiment, we manipulated list-level congruency proportion. Half of the participants were informed that most of the stimuli would be congruent, whereas the other half were informed that most of the stimuli would be incongruent. This held true for the stimuli in the second part of each experiment. In the first part, however, the proportion of the two stimulus types was equal. A proportion congruent effect was found in both parts of the experiment, but it was larger in the second part. In our second experiment, we manipulated the proportion of the stimuli within participants by applying an item-specific design. This was done by presenting some color words most often in their congruent color, and other color words in incongruent colors. Participants were informed about the exact word-color pairings in advance. Similar to Experiment 1, this held true only for the second experimental part. In contrast to our first experiment, informing participants in advance did not result in an item-specific proportion effect, which was observed only in the second part. Thus our results support the hypothesis that instructions may be enough to trigger list-level control, yet learning does contribute to the proportion congruent effect under such conditions. The item-level proportion effect is apparently caused by learning or at least it is moderated by it.

  6. Proportional hazards models of infrastructure system recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, Kash; Baroud, Hiba

    2014-01-01

    As emphasis is being placed on a system's ability to withstand and to recover from a disruptive event, collectively referred to as dynamic resilience, there exists a need to quantify a system's ability to bounce back after a disruptive event. This work applies a statistical technique from biostatistics, the proportional hazards model, to describe (i) the instantaneous rate of recovery of an infrastructure system and (ii) the likelihood that recovery occurs prior to a given point in time. A major benefit of the proportional hazards model is its ability to describe a recovery event as a function of time as well as covariates describing the infrastructure system or disruptive event, among others, which can also vary with time. The proportional hazards approach is illustrated with a publicly available electric power outage data set

  7. The Origins of Scintillator Non-Proportionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W. W.; Bizarri, G. A.; Williams, R. T.; Payne, S. A.; Vasil'ev, A. N.; Singh, J.; Li, Q.; Grim, J. Q.; Choong, W.-S.

    2012-10-01

    Recent years have seen significant advances in both theoretically understanding and mathematically modeling the underlying causes of scintillator non-proportionality. The core cause is that the interaction of radiation with matter invariably leads to a non-uniform ionization density in the scintillator, coupled with the fact that the light yield depends on the ionization density. The mechanisms that lead to the luminescence dependence on ionization density are incompletely understood, but several important features have been identified, notably Auger-like processes (where two carriers of excitation interact with each other, causing one to de-excite non-radiatively), the inability of excitation carriers to recombine (caused either by trapping or physical separation), and the carrier mobility. This paper reviews the present understanding of the fundamental origins of scintillator non-proportionality, specifically the various theories that have been used to explain non-proportionality.

  8. Serving Data to the GLAST Users Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    The scientific community will access the public GLAST data through the website of the GLAST Science Support Center (GSSC). For most data products the GSSC website will link to the NASA High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center's (HEASARC) Browse interface, which will actually serve the data. For example, data from the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) from a given burst will be packaged together and accessible through Browse. However, the photon and event data produced by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), GLAST's primary instrument, will be distributed through a custom GSSC interface. These data will be collected over the LAT's large field-of-view, usually while the LAT is scanning the sky, and thus photons from a particular direction cannot be attributed to a single 'observation' in the traditional sense. Users will request all photons detected from a region on the sky over a specified time and energy range. Through its website the GSSC will also provide long and short term science timelines, spacecraft position and attitude histories, exposure maps and other scientific data products. The different data products provided by the GSSC will be described

  9. Investigation of a multiwire proportional chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijn, J.

    1976-01-01

    The article discusses some aspects of a prototype multiwire proportional chamber for electron detection located at IKO in Amsterdam, i.e. voltage, counting rates, noise and gas mixture (argon, ethylene bromide). The efficiency and performance of the chamber have been investigated and an error analysis is given

  10. Author: IM Rautenbach PROPORTIONALITY AND THE LIMITATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    public law, it is not clear to me that there are any differences at this more abstract ... Bills of Rights entrench "basic principles of rationality and proportionality – of ..... Sweet Europe of Rights 10-11; Van Dijk and Van Hoof Theory and Practice.

  11. Obtaining a Proportional Allocation by Deleting Items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, B.; de Haan, R.; Schlotter, I.; Röthe, J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the following control problem on fair allocation of indivisible goods. Given a set I of items and a set of agents, each having strict linear preference over the items, we ask for a minimum subset of the items whose deletion guarantees the existence of a proportional allocation in the

  12. Triangular tube proportional wire chamber system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badtke, D H; Bakken, J A; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B J; Chien, C Y; Madansky, L; Matthews, J A.J.; Pevsner, A; Spangler, W J [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA); Lee, K L [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1981-10-15

    We report on the characteristics of the proportional tube chamber system which has been constructed for muon identification in the PEP-4 experiment at SLAC. The mechanical and electrical properties of the extruded aluminum triangular tubes allow these detectors to be used as crude drift chambers.

  13. Commanding to 'Nudge' via the Proportionality Principle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.P. Purnhagen (Kai); E. van Kleef (Ellen)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis piece assesses whether nudging techniques can be argued to be a less restrictive but equally effective way to regulate diets in EU law. It has been argued that nudging techniques, due to their freedom-preserving nature, might influence the proportionality test in such a way that

  14. Multistate cohort models with proportional transfer rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoen, Robert; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    of transfer rates. The two living state case and hierarchical multistate models with any number of living states are analyzed in detail. Applying our approach to 1997 U.S. fertility data, we find that observed rates of parity progression are roughly proportional over age. Our proportional transfer rate...... approach provides trajectories by parity state and facilitates analyses of the implications of changes in parity rate levels and patterns. More women complete childbearing at parity 2 than at any other parity, and parity 2 would be the modal parity in models with total fertility rates (TFRs) of 1.40 to 2......We present a new, broadly applicable approach to summarizing the behavior of a cohort as it moves through a variety of statuses (or states). The approach is based on the assumption that all rates of transfer maintain a constant ratio to one another over age. We present closed-form expressions...

  15. Cylindrical geometry for proportional and drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadoulet, B.

    1975-06-01

    For experiments performed around storage rings such as e + e - rings or the ISR pp rings, cylindrical wire chambers are very attractive. They surround the beam pipe completely without any dead region in the azimuth, and fit well with the geometry of events where particles are more or less spherically produced. Unfortunately, cylindrical proportional or drift chambers are difficult to make. Problems are discussed and two approaches to fabricating the cathodes are discussed. (WHK)

  16. 2 π gaseous flux proportional detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, E.A.; Costello, E.D.; Di Carlo, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    A counting system has been developed in order to measure carbon-14 samples obtained in the course of a study of a plasmapheresis treatment for diabetic children. The system is based on the use of a 2π gaseous flux proportional detector especially designed for the stated purpose. The detector is described and experiment results are given, determining the characteristic parameters which set up the working conditions. (Author) [es

  17. General methods for analyzing bounded proportion data

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Abu

    2017-01-01

    This thesis introduces two general classes of models for analyzing proportion response variable when the response variable Y can take values between zero and one, inclusive of zero and/or one. The models are inflated GAMLSS model and generalized Tobit GAMLSS model. The inflated GAMLSS model extends the flexibility of beta inflated models by allowing the distribution on (0,1) of the continuous component of the dependent variable to come from any explicit or transformed (i.e. logit or truncated...

  18. Commanding to 'Nudge' via the Proportionality Principle?

    OpenAIRE

    Purnhagen, Kai; van Kleef, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis piece assesses whether nudging techniques can be argued to be a less restrictive but equally effective way to regulate diets in EU law. It has been argued that nudging techniques, due to their freedom-preserving nature, might influence the proportionality test in such a way that authorities need to give preference to nudging techniques over content-related or information regulation. We will illustrate on the example of EU food law how behavioural sciences have first altered t...

  19. Contingency proportion systematically influences contingency learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrin, Noah D; MacLeod, Colin M

    2018-01-01

    In the color-word contingency learning paradigm, each word appears more often in one color (high contingency) than in the other colors (low contingency). Shortly after beginning the task, color identification responses become faster on the high-contingency trials than on the low-contingency trials-the contingency learning effect. Across five groups, we varied the high-contingency proportion in 10% steps, from 80% to 40%. The size of the contingency learning effect was positively related to high-contingency proportion, with the effect disappearing when high contingency was reduced to 40%. At the two highest contingency proportions, the magnitude of the effect increased over trials, the pattern suggesting that there was an increasing cost for the low-contingency trials rather than an increasing benefit for the high-contingency trials. Overall, the results fit a modified version of Schmidt's (2013, Acta Psychologica, 142, 119-126) parallel episodic processing account in which prior trial instances are routinely retrieved from memory and influence current trial performance.

  20. Principles of operation of multiwire proportional and drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauli, F.

    1987-01-01

    The first multiwire proportional chamber, in its modern conception, was constructed and operated in the years 1967-68. It was soon recognized that the main properties of a multiwire proportional chamber, i.e. very good time resolution, good position accuracy and self-triggered operation, are very attractive for the use of the new device in high-energy physics experiments. Today, most fast detectors contain a large number of proportional chambers, and their use has spread to many different fields of applied research, such as X-ray and heavy ion astronomy, nuclear medicine, and protein crystallography. In many respects, however, multiwire proportional chambers are still experimental devices, requiring continuous attention for good operation and sometimes reacting in unexpected ways to a change in the environmental conditions. Furthermore, in the fabrication and operation of a chamber people seem to use a mixture of competence, technical skill and magic rites, of the kind ''I do not know why I'm doing this but somebody told me to do so''. In these notes the authors illustrate the basic phenomena underlying the behaviour of a gas detector, with the hope that the reader will not only better understand the reasons for some irrational-seeming preferences (such as, for example, in the choice of the gas mixture), but will also be able better to design detectors for his specific experimental needs

  1. Performance of fine grained photon position detector using proportional tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemiev, V.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gordeev, A.; Gorodkov, Y.; Kamishkov, Y.; Lubimov, V.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Shevchenko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Bamberger, A.; Fuchs, M.; Giesen, G.; Heck, W.; Ludwig, J.; Marx, R.; Mocken, T.; Runge, K.; Skodzek, E.; Weber, H.C.; Weltin, A.; Wuelker, M.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the NA24 experiment at the CERN-SPS a photon position detector serves to separate direct photons from abundantly produced π 0 decay photons: electromagnetic showers are measured with an energy- and position-resolution sufficiently good to give a two-gamma resolving power of 1.2 cm. The shower detector covers 3 x 3 m 2 and consists of 12 layers of triangular proportional tubes (7.73 mm pitch) sandwiched with lead (altogether 9.6 X 0 ). For eight layers the analog information is provided by an ADC system. Ambiguities are resolved by the digital information of four additional layers inclined by 45 0 . Prototypes were built in order to test gas mixtures and electronics. The electromagnetic shower development in the PPD and the prototypes are reproduced by Monte Carlo calculations. The homogeneity of the PPD has been checked by calibration measurements. (orig.)

  2. Minority Serving Institutions Reporting System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The database will be used to track SSA's contributions to Minority Serving Institutions such as Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), Tribal Colleges...

  3. Designing an optimally proportional inorganic scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai, E-mail: jai.singh@cdu.edu.au [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Koblov, Alexander [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2012-09-01

    The nonproportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators is studied theoretically as a function of the rates of bimolecular and Auger quenching processes occurring within the electron track initiated by a gamma- or X-ray photon incident on a scintillator. Assuming a cylindrical track, the influence of the track radius and concentration of excitations created within the track on the scintillator light yield is also studied. Analysing the calculated light yield a guideline for inventing an optimally proportional scintillator with optimal energy resolution is presented.

  4. Designing an optimally proportional inorganic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jai; Koblov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The nonproportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators is studied theoretically as a function of the rates of bimolecular and Auger quenching processes occurring within the electron track initiated by a gamma- or X-ray photon incident on a scintillator. Assuming a cylindrical track, the influence of the track radius and concentration of excitations created within the track on the scintillator light yield is also studied. Analysing the calculated light yield a guideline for inventing an optimally proportional scintillator with optimal energy resolution is presented.

  5. Rate dependent image distortions in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trow, M.W.; Bento, A.C.; Smith, A.

    1994-01-01

    The positional linearity of imaging proportional counters is affected by the intensity distribution of the incident radiation. A mechanism for this effect is described, in which drifting positive ions in the gas produce a distorting electric field which perturbs the trajectories of the primary electrons. In certain cases, the phenomenon causes an apparent improvement of the position resolution. We demonstrate the effect in a detector filled with a xenon-argon-CO 2 mixture. The images obtained are compared with the results of a simulation. If quantitative predictions for a particular detector are required, accurate values of the absolute detector gain, ion mobility and electron drift velocity are needed. ((orig.))

  6. Hydrogen high pressure proportional drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arefiev, A.; Balaev, A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and operation performances of a proportional drift detector PDD are described. High sensitivity of the applied PAD makes it possible to detect the neutron-proton elastic scattering in the energy range of recoil protons as low as 1 keV. The PDD is filled with hydrogen up to the pressure at 40 bars. High purity of the gas is maintained by a continuously operating purification system. The detector has been operating for several years in a neutron beam at the North Area of the CERN SPS

  7. Visualizing Proportions and Dissimilarities by Space-filling Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Guerrero, Vanesa; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of visualizing a set of individuals, which have attached a statistical value given as a proportion, and a dissimilarity measure. Each individual is represented as a region within the unit square, in such a way that the area of the regions represent...... the proportions and the distances between them represent the dissimilarities. To enhance the interpretability of the representation, the regions are required to satisfy two properties. First, they must form a partition of the unit square, namely, the portions in which it is divided must cover its area without...... is solved heuristically by using the Large Neighborhood Search technique. The methodology proposed in this paper is applied to three real-world datasets: the first one concerning financial markets in Europe and Asia, the second one about the letters in the English alphabet, and finally the provinces...

  8. Measurements of electron attachment by oxygen molecule in proportional counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosaki, M., E-mail: tosaki.mitsuo.3v@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kawano, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Isozumi, Y. [Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    We present pulse height measurements for 5-keV Auger electrons from a radioactive {sup 55}Fe source mounted at the inner cathode surface of cylindrical proportional counter, which is operated with CH{sub 4} admixed dry air or N{sub 2}. A clear shift of the pulse height has been observed by varying the amount of the admixtures; the number of electrons, created in the primary ionization by Auger electrons, is decreased by the electron attachment of the admixtures during their drift from the place near the source to the anode wire. The large gas amplification (typically 10{sup 4}) in the secondary ionization of proportional counter makes it possible to investigate a small change in the number of primary electrons. The electron attenuation cross-section of O{sub 2} has been evaluated by analyzing the shifts of the pulse height caused by the electron attachment to dry air and N{sub 2}.

  9. Using Title XX to Serve Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiname, John D.; And Others

    With the passage in early 1975 of the social service amendments to the Social Security Act, referred to as Title XX, a major new opportunity to serve children and youth has emerged. Seizing the opportunity will be largely dependent on the well-prepared presentation of a case for the needs of young people by dedicated advocates in every state.…

  10. Low proportion of high school senior athletes receiving recommended immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Rizzone, Katherine H; Cribbs, Sarah P; Roumie, Christianne L

    2014-05-01

    The preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) often serves as the only preventive health care visit for athletes, but immunization status is not uniformly addressed in such visits. Thus, athletes may not be receiving recommended immunizations. Our aim was to determine the proportion of high school senior athletes who received all recommended immunizations. Our hypothesis was that females would be less likely than males to receive all recommended immunizations given suboptimal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake. We conducted a cross-sectional survey evaluation of the immunization status of high school senior athletes in Davidson County, TN. The primary composite outcome was receipt of recommended immunizations for tetanus, meningococcal, and seasonal influenza. For females, the primary outcome also included completion of the HPV series. A total of 162 participants, 104 males and 58 females, were included. More males than females received all recommended immunizations (15.4% vs 3.5%; P = 0.02). When HPV immunization was excluded from the composite outcome, there was no difference in the proportion of males and females who received all recommended immunizations (15.4% vs 15.5%; P = 0.98). The odds of receiving all recommended immunizations was 0.14 (95% CI, 0.03-0.72) for females compared with males when adjusted for covariates. Athletes seen at retail-based clinics for their PPE were less likely to receive all recommended immunizations compared with athletes seen in primary care (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02-0.69). Only 1 in 6 high school senior athletes received the recommended tetanus, meningococcal, and influenza immunizations. A lower proportion of females, only 1 in 28, received all recommended immunizations due to the HPV series. Policy changes requiring a review of immunizations at the PPE would benefit many high school athletes.

  11. Amplifier Design for Proportional Ionization Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W. H.

    1950-08-24

    This paper presents the requirements of a nuclear amplifier of short resolving time, designed to accept pulses of widely varying amplitudes. Data are given which show that a proportional ionization chamber loaded with a 1,000-ohm resistor develops pulses of 0.5 microsecond duration and several volts amplitude. Results indicate that seven basic requirements are imposed on the amplifier when counting soft beta and gamma radiation in the presence of alpha particles, without absorbers. It should, (1) have a fast recovery time, (2) have a relatively good low frequency response, (3) accept pulses of widely varying heights without developing spurious pulsed, (4) have a limiting output stage, (5) preserve the inherently short rise time of the chamber, (6) minimize pulse integration, and (7) have sufficient gain to detect the weak pulses well below the chamber voltage at which continuous discharge takes place. The results obtained with an amplifier which meets these requirements is described. A formula is derived which indicates that redesign of the proportional ionization chamber might eliminate the need for an amplifier. This may be possible if the radioactive particles are collimated parallel to the collecting electrode.

  12. Kalman-predictive-proportional-integral-derivative (KPPID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluerasu, A.; Sutton, M.

    2004-01-01

    With third generation synchrotron X-ray sources, it is possible to acquire detailed structural information about the system under study with time resolution orders of magnitude faster than was possible a few years ago. These advances have generated many new challenges for changing and controlling the state of the system on very short time scales, in a uniform and controlled manner. For our particular X-ray experiments on crystallization or order-disorder phase transitions in metallic alloys, we need to change the sample temperature by hundreds of degrees as fast as possible while avoiding over or under shooting. To achieve this, we designed and implemented a computer-controlled temperature tracking system which combines standard Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) feedback, thermal modeling and finite difference thermal calculations (feedforward), and Kalman filtering of the temperature readings in order to reduce the noise. The resulting Kalman-Predictive-Proportional-Integral-Derivative (KPPID) algorithm allows us to obtain accurate control, to minimize the response time and to avoid over/under shooting, even in systems with inherently noisy temperature readings and time delays. The KPPID temperature controller was successfully implemented at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratories and was used to perform coherent and time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments.

  13. Proportional-Integral-Resonant AC Current Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOJIC, D.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an improved stationary-frame AC current controller based on the proportional-integral-resonant control action (PIR is proposed. Namely, the novel two-parameter PIR controller is applied in the stationary-frame AC current control, accompanied by the corresponding parameter-tuning procedure. In this way, the proportional-resonant (PR controller, common in the stationary-frame AC current control, is extended by the integral (I action in order to enable the AC current DC component tracking, and, also, to enable the DC disturbance compensation, caused by the voltage source inverter (VSI nonidealities and by nonlinear loads. The proposed controller parameter-tuning procedure is based on the three-phase back-EMF-type load, which corresponds to a wide range of AC power converter applications, such as AC motor drives, uninterruptible power supplies, and active filters. While the PIR controllers commonly have three parameters, the novel controller has two. Also, the provided parameter-tuning procedure needs only one parameter to be tuned in relation to the load and power converter model parameters, since the second controller parameter is directly derived from the required controller bandwidth value. The dynamic performance of the proposed controller is verified by means of simulation and experimental runs.

  14. BCE selector valves and flow proportional sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippy, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Electrical/Instrumentation systems for the B-Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility (BCE) function as required by project criteria. Tests will be run to: Verify the operation of the solenoid valve and associated limit switches installed for the BCE portion of W-007H; Operate the solenoid valve and verify the proper operation of the associated limit switches based on the position of the solenoid valve;and, Demonstrate the integrity of the Sample Failure Alarm Relay XFA-211BA-BCE-1, and Power Failure ALarm Relay JFA-211BA-BCE-1 located inside the Flow Proportional Sampler in Building 211 BA

  15. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L.; Loughlin, M.

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments

  16. CWRU multiwire proportional counter readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevington, P.R.; Leskovec, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    An electronic system is described which translates pulses from individual wires of multiwire proportional counters into binary addresses indicating the location of the wires in the chambers. The system combines a fast (<100 ns) serial scan of an event buffer with parallel encoding to provide fast transfer of addresses (250 ns per hit). The buffer has provision for disabling the input less than 40 ns after detection of an event to suppress recording of multiple hits caused by individual events. The encoder can digitize the address of every hit encountered or just the first addresses of contiguous hits. The system includes a coincidence trigger for determining whether timing criteria have been satisfied between chambers and with external devices. Events which do not meet the coincidence criteria are typically reset within 400 ns. The addresses are transferred to a computer interface through CAMAC modules. Multiple buffering permits further data acquisition during CAMAC transfer cycles. (Auth.)

  17. Fabrication of preamplifier for proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfi, Y.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Talebi, B.; Mohammadi, A.; Etaati, Gh.

    2002-01-01

    We have tried to describe techniques of preamplifier fabrication for proportional counter. At first electronic circuit of preamplifier has been analyzed by means of Or cad 9.1. Then we assembled the circuit. Thereafter essential and standard parameters of preamplifier has been measured and compared with foreign made one, according to IEEE standard method. (IEEE Std 301-1988) Specification for our preamplifier is: 1. Rise time of output plus: 25 nsec. 2. Fall time of output pulse: 50μ sec. 3. Charge sensitive: 46.3 mV/pc. 4. Average noise: 500 ion pair (rms) 5. Count R ate L imit: 9.14*10 10 Count/sec. 6. Resolution: %1.3 7. Spectrum of Bf3 detector to 300μ Ci Am-Be source for this preamplifier is the same as foreign one. On the Whole comparison of this preamplifier with the foreign one shows that their parameters similarity is about %95

  18. Tables of Confidence Limits for Proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    0.972 180 49 0.319 0.332 0,357 175 165 0.964 0.969 0.976 ISO 50 0.325 0.338 0.363 175 166 0.969 0.973 0.980 180 51 0.331 0.344 0.368 175 167 0.973 0.977...0.528 180 18 0.135 0 145 0.164 180 19 0.141 0.151 0.171 ISO 80 0.495 0,508 0.534 347 UPPER CONFIDENCE LIMIT FOR PROPORTIONS CONFIDENCE LEVEL...500 409 0.8401 0.8459 0.8565 500 355 0.7364 0.7434 0.7564 500 356 0.7383 0.7453 0.7582 500 410 0.8420 0.8478 0 8583 500 357 0.7402 0.7472 0.7602 500

  19. Proportional chamber with data analog output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.E.; Prokof'ev, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    A proportional multiwier chamber is described. The chamber makes it possible to determine angles at wich a pion strikes a polarized target. A delay line, made of 60-core flat cable is used for removing signals from the chamber. From the delay line, signals are amplified and successively injected into shapers and a time-to-amplitude converter. An amplitude of the time-to amplitude converter output signal unambiguously determines the coordinate of a point at which a particle strikes the chamber plane. There are also given circuits of amplifiers, which consist of a preamplifier with gain 30 and a main amplifier with adjustable gain. Data on testing the chamber with the 450 MeV pion beam is demonstrated. The chamber features an efficiency of about 98 per cent under load of 2x10 5 s -1

  20. Proportional counter system for radiation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, M; Okudera, S

    1970-11-21

    A gas such as Xe or Kr employed in counter tubes is charged into the counter tube of a gas-flow type proportional counter for radiation measurement and into a vessel having a volume larger than that of the counter tube. The vessel communicates with the counter tube to circulate the gas via a pump through both the vessel and tube during measurement. An organic film such as a polyester synthetic resin film is used for the window of the counter tube to measure X-rays in the long wavelength range. Accordingly, a wide range of X-rays can be measured including both long and short wavelengths ranges by utilizing only one counter tube, thus permitting the gases employed to be effectively used.

  1. Count rate effect in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, B.

    1980-01-01

    A new concept is presented explaining changes in spectrometric parameters of proportional counters which occur due to varying count rate. The basic feature of this concept is that the gas gain of the counter remains constant in a wide range of count rate and that the decrease in the pulse amplitude and the detorioration of the energy resolution observed are the results of changes in the shape of original current pulses generated in the active volume of the counter. In order to confirm the validity of this statement, measurements of the gas amplification factor have been made in a wide count rate range. It is shown that above a certain critical value the gas gain depends on both the operating voltage and the count rate. (author)

  2. A versatile gas-flow proportional counter for Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibicu, I., E-mail: bibicu@infim.ro [National Institute for Materials Physics (Romania); Nicolescu, G. [IFIN-HH, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Romania); Cretu, C. [Transylvania University, Physics Department (Romania)

    2009-07-15

    This article presents a versatile gas-flow proportional counter for surface and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy, suitable for studies with {sup 57}Fe, {sup 119}Sn and {sup 151}Eu isotopes. The main advantages obtained by new design are: (1) the height of the detection volume can be changed in large limits from 0 to 38 mm, (2) the detection volume can be choose symmetrical or not in respect with anode plan, (3) the anode replacement is easily (4) and different anode configuration can be used. The characteristics of the detector, operating at room temperature, are reported.

  3. Energy resolution limitations in a gas scintillation proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, D.G.; de Korte, P.A.J.; Peacock, A.; Bleeker, J.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation is made of the factors limiting the energy resolution of a gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC). Several of these limitations originate in the drift region of such a counter and data is presented, giving a quantitative description of those effects. Data is also presented of a GSPC without a drift region, that therefore largely circumvents most of those degrading factors. The results obtained so far indicate that in that detector the limitation to the resolution is most probably due to cleanliness of the gas. Further research is underway in order to assess quantitatively the limiting factors in such a driftless GSPC

  4. 77 FR 13173 - Best Equipped Best Served

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... on the best equipped, best performing, best served concept for implementation in the 2012-2014... Advisory Committee (NAC). FAA is seeking stakeholder input on the technical and operational feasibility of...

  5. A phenomenological SMA model for combined axial–torsional proportional/non-proportional loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodaghi, M.; Damanpack, A.R.; Aghdam, M.M.; Shakeri, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a simple and robust phenomenological model for shape memory alloys (SMAs) is proposed to simulate main features of SMAs under uniaxial as well as biaxial combined axial–torsional proportional/non-proportional loadings. The constitutive model for polycrystalline SMAs is developed within the framework of continuum thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The model nominates the volume fractions of self-accommodated and oriented martensite as scalar internal variables and the preferred direction of oriented martensitic variants as directional internal variable. An algorithm is introduced to develop explicit relationships for the thermo-mechanical behavior of SMAs under uniaxial and biaxial combined axial–torsional proportional/non-proportional loading conditions and also thermal loading. It is shown that the model is able to simulate main aspects of SMAs including self-accommodation, martensitic transformation, orientation and reorientation of martensite, shape memory effect, ferro-elasticity and pseudo-elasticity. A description of the time-discrete counterpart of the proposed SMA model is presented. Experimental results of uniaxial tension and biaxial combined tension–torsion non-proportional tests are simulated and a good qualitative correlation between numerical and experimental responses is achieved. Due to simplicity and accuracy, the model is expected to be used in the future studies dealing with the analysis of SMA devices in which two stress components including one normal and one shear stress are dominant

  6. Subjective Proportions: 18th-Century Interpretations of Paestum’s ‘Disproportion’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid de Jong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When 18th-century travellers saw the Doric temples of Paestum in Southern Italy with their own eyes, they observed for the first time true examples of the proportions of archaic Greek architecture. Contrary to the Roman proportional systems, the Greek ones had been largely unavailable to architects until then. With the rediscovery of Paestum, conveniently located south of Naples and not in far away Greece, the secret of Greek proportions was no more. Architects were able to precisely measure the temples and wrote many accounts about their primitive forms and proportions. But what did architects mean exactly when describing the proportions as primitive? What kinds of reflections did these proportions provoke? This article treats proportions as aesthetics, or as visible proportions, not as a numerical system. The discourse on proportions changed in this period, giving more weight to their cultural and historical meaning. The writings by such architects as Soane, Wilkins, and Labrouste demonstrate how Paestum functioned as a laboratory to unveil the secret of primitive proportions, and how, with the different meanings architects attached to them, it enlarged and renewed the debate on proportions.

  7. Environmental drivers of sapwood and heartwood proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Martin; Beer, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances combining information on stem volume from remote sensing with allometric relationships derived from forest inventory databases have led to spatially continuous estimates of stem, branch, root and foliage biomass in northern boreal and temperate forests. However, a separation of stem biomass into sapwood and heartwood mass has remained unsolved, despite their important differences in biogeochemical function, for instance concerning their contribution to tree respiratory costs. Although relationships between sapwood cross-sectional area and supported leaf area are well established, less is known about relations between sapwood or heartwood mass and other traits (e.g. stem mass), since these biomass compartments are more difficult to measure in practice. Here we investigate the variability in sapwood and heartwood proportions and determining environmental factors. For this task we explore an available biomass and allometry database (BAAD) and study relative sapwood and heartwood area, volume, mass and density in dependence of tree species, age and climate. First, a theoretical framework on how to estimate sap- and heartwood mass from stem mass is developed. Subsequently, the underlying assumptions and relationships are explored with the help of the BAAD. The established relationships can be used to derive spatially continuous sapwood and heartwood mass estimates by applying them to remote sensing based stem volume products. This would be a fundamental step forward to a data-driven estimate of autotrophic respiration.

  8. Depicted serving size: cereal packaging pictures exaggerate serving sizes and promote overserving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Aner; Niemann, Stina; Wansink, Brian

    2017-02-06

    Extensive work has focused on the effects of nutrition label information on consumer behavior on the one hand, and on the effects of packaging graphics on the other hand. However, little work has examined how serving suggestion depictions - graphics relating to serving size - influence the quantity consumers serve themselves. The current work examines the prevalence of exaggerated serving size depictions on product packaging (study 1) and its effects on food serving in the context of cereal (study 2). Study 1 was an observational field survey of cereal packaging. Study 2 was a mixed experimental cross-sectional design conducted at a U.S. university, with 51 student participants. Study 1 coded 158 US breakfast cereals and compared the serving sizes depicted on the front of the box with the suggested serving size stated on the nutrition facts panel. Study 2 measured the amount of cereal poured from exaggerated or accurate serving size depictions. Study 1 compared average servings via t-tests. Study 2 used a mixed model with cereal type as the repeated measure and a compound symmetry covariance matrix. Study 1 demonstrated that portion size depictions on the front of 158 cereal boxes were 65.84% larger (221 vs. 134 calories) than the recommended portions on nutrition facts panels of those cereals. Study 2 showed that boxes that depicted exaggerated serving sizes led people to pour 20% more cereal compared to pouring from modified boxes that depicted a single-size portion of cereal matching suggested serving size. This was 45% over the suggested serving size. Biases in depicted serving size depicted on cereal packaging are prevalent in the marketplace. Such biases may lead to overserving, which may consequently lead to overeating. Companies should depict the recommended serving sizes, or otherwise indicate that the depicted portion represents an exaggerated serving size.

  9. Depicted serving size: cereal packaging pictures exaggerate serving sizes and promote overserving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aner Tal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive work has focused on the effects of nutrition label information on consumer behavior on the one hand, and on the effects of packaging graphics on the other hand. However, little work has examined how serving suggestion depictions - graphics relating to serving size - influence the quantity consumers serve themselves. The current work examines the prevalence of exaggerated serving size depictions on product packaging (study 1 and its effects on food serving in the context of cereal (study 2. Methods Study 1 was an observational field survey of cereal packaging. Study 2 was a mixed experimental cross-sectional design conducted at a U.S. university, with 51 student participants. Study 1 coded 158 US breakfast cereals and compared the serving sizes depicted on the front of the box with the suggested serving size stated on the nutrition facts panel. Study 2 measured the amount of cereal poured from exaggerated or accurate serving size depictions. Study 1 compared average servings via t-tests. Study 2 used a mixed model with cereal type as the repeated measure and a compound symmetry covariance matrix. Results Study 1 demonstrated that portion size depictions on the front of 158 cereal boxes were 64.7% larger (221 vs. 134 calories than the recommended portions on nutrition facts panels of those cereals. Study 2 showed that boxes that depicted exaggerated serving sizes led people to pour 17.8% more cereal compared to pouring from modified boxes that depicted a single-size portion of cereal matching suggested serving size. This was 42% over the suggested serving size. Conclusions Biases in depicted serving size depicted on cereal packaging are prevalent in the marketplace. Such biases may lead to overserving, which may consequently lead to overeating. Companies should depict the recommended serving sizes, or otherwise indicate that the depicted portion represents an exaggerated serving size.

  10. High proportion of smaller ranged hummingbird species coincides with ecological specialization across the Americas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Jesper; Martín González, Ana M.; Maruyama, Pietro K.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological communities that experience stable climate conditions have been speculated to preserve more specialized interspecific associations and have higher proportions of smaller ranged species (SRS). Thus, areas with disproportionally large numbers of SRS are expected to coincide geographicall...

  11. A notational analysis of elite tennis serve and serve-return strategies on slow surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Eric; Leroy, David; Thouvarecq, Régis; Stein, Jean-François

    2009-03-01

    A notational analysis of singles events at the French Open Grand Slam tournament was undertaken in 2005 and 2006 to characterize the game patterns and strategies of serve and serve-return and to determine their influence on the point issue on a clay court surface. One hundred sixteen men's singles matches were video analyzed. The flat serve (57.6%), particularly down the "T" location (50.3%), allowed servers to win significantly more points than the topspin (24.1%) and slice serves (18.3%). When the topspin was the first serve strategy, servers kept a high percentage of points won from the serve (52.4%). This strategy was essentially used on the second serve (91.6%) by playing the "T" location in the deuce court and the wide zone in the advantage court. Returns to the central zone allowed receivers to win more points (73.3% on first serve and 65.9% on second serve) than plays to external locations. The results highlight the high impact of the first shots of all opponents on the rally. Even on clay, the slowest court surface, serves and serve-returns remain the strokes that most influence the match results in modern tennis games.

  12. Verbal and perceptual analogical reasoning and proportional metaphor comprehension in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, M A; Sullivan, M P

    1987-09-01

    In contrast to the common assumption that young children have little or no ability to reason by analogy or to comprehend proportional metaphors, the present study demonstrated that children as young as age 5 years have an emerging ability to solve both verbal and perceptual proportional analogy problems and to detect the meanings of proportional metaphoric sentences. These results were largely because the experimental tasks were designed to minimize the number of factors that would restrict the performance of young children. The results indicated that the years between 5 and 7 mark a steady improvement in analogical reasoning and proportional metaphor comprehension, but that children ages 5, 6, and 7 display a wide-ranging ability in these areas. It was also found that perceptual analogical reasoning was statistically related to verbal analogical reasoning and to proportional metaphor comprehension, and that perceptual analogical reasoning and proportional metaphor comprehension were both statistically related to receptive vocabulary development.

  13. Fuel cell serves as oxygen level detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Monitoring the oxygen level in the air is accomplished by a fuel cell detector whose voltage output is proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen in the sampled gas. The relationship between output voltage and partial pressure of oxygen can be calibrated.

  14. Understanding decimal proportions: discrete representations, parallel access, and privileged processing of zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sashank; Karl, Stacy R

    2013-05-01

    Much of the research on mathematical cognition has focused on the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, with considerably less attention paid to more abstract number classes. The current research investigated how people understand decimal proportions--rational numbers between 0 and 1 expressed in the place-value symbol system. The results demonstrate that proportions are represented as discrete structures and processed in parallel. There was a semantic interference effect: When understanding a proportion expression (e.g., "0.29"), both the correct proportion referent (e.g., 0.29) and the incorrect natural number referent (e.g., 29) corresponding to the visually similar natural number expression (e.g., "29") are accessed in parallel, and when these referents lead to conflicting judgments, performance slows. There was also a syntactic interference effect, generalizing the unit-decade compatibility effect for natural numbers: When comparing two proportions, their tenths and hundredths components are processed in parallel, and when the different components lead to conflicting judgments, performance slows. The results also reveal that zero decimals--proportions ending in zero--serve multiple cognitive functions, including eliminating semantic interference and speeding processing. The current research also extends the distance, semantic congruence, and SNARC effects from natural numbers to decimal proportions. These findings inform how people understand the place-value symbol system, and the mental implementation of mathematical symbol systems more generally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How Finland Serves Gifted and Talented Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…

  16. Improvement of a gas scintillation proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Zhiping; Liu Liye; Ma Jizeng; Chen Baowei; Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso

    2008-01-01

    A prototype GSPC without the gas purification system was developed in China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP). Xenon filled GSPC has many advantages, including high energy resolution, large detection area, ability for implementing position sensitive detection, etc. It may find a wide application in low energy X-ray and γ-ray fields, e.g., astronomy X-ray detection, medical imaging. Further applications in neutron and charged heavy particle detection are also possible. Several tests for 241 Am and 55 Fe have been carried out to check out its preliminary performance. Currently the energy resolution is still far from expectation, nevertheless, the concept is proved to be promising and the experimental results suggest the way for further improvements. The possible ways for improvement of the detector performance are discussed in conclusion. This work was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China. (author)

  17. Golden Proportion in Frontal Social Smile from Orthodontic Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    z Tabatabaei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical attraction has a significant effect on all aspects of personal life, and in this category facial appearance is the most important part of the body in prediction of attractiveness. In the face, mouth and specially shape and size of anterior teeth is important to gain dental and facial esthetic. The aim of this study is evaluation of golden proportion from orthodontic view in maxillary anterior teeth in both sexes. Methods: Considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, 100 students of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences were selected, and photographs of their frontal social smile were taken by a standard method from 30cm distance. Then visible part of central, lateral and canine teeth was measured by Photoshop software (Adobe Photoshop ver8 with 0.1mm precision. Data was evaluated by descriptive statistical analysis and sample T-test using SPSS. Results: According to descriptive statistical analysis and sample T- test, mean ratio of central to lateral teeth in the left side in men and women was 1.209±0.199 and 1.157±0.156 and in the right side in men and women was 1.179± 0.27 and 1.158± 0.145, respectively. The ratio of lateral to canine teeth in the left side in men and women was 1.522±0.146 and 1.494±0.127 and in the right side in men and women was 1.55±0.164 and 1.51±0.114, respectively. Golden proportion was seen between central and lateral teeth in 16% in the right side and 3.4% in the left side only in men. Conclusion: Golden proportion was seen between central and lateral in the left side and right side in men, but due to large canine in men, this proportion was not seen between lateral and canine teeth and so due to small lateral in women, it was not seen between anterior teeth.

  18. Pressure control of hydraulic servo system using proportional control valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kyong Uk; Oh, In Ho; Lee, Ill Yeong

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a control scheme for the hydraulic servo system which can rapidly control the pressure in a hydraulic cylinder with very short stroke. Compared with the negligible stroke of the cylinder in the system, the flow gain of the proportional pressure control valve constituting the hydraulic servo system is relatively large and the time delay on the response of the valve is quite long. Therefore, the pressure control system, in this study tends to get unstable during operations. Considering the above mentioned characteristics of the system, a two-degree-of-freedom control scheme, composed of the I-PDD 2 ... feedback compensator and the feedforward controller, is proposed. The reference model scheme is used in deciding the parameters of the controllers. The validity of the proposed control scheme is confirmed through the experiments

  19. Serving the fuel cycle: preparing tomorrow's packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.

    2001-01-01

    The main fleet of transport packagings serving today the fuel cycle was born more than 20 years ago. Or was it they? The present paper will show that serving the fuel cycle by preparing tomorrow's logistics is actually an on-going process, rather than a rupture. We shall review the great packagings of the fuel cycle: In the front end, the major actors are the UF 4 , UF 6 , enriched UF 6 , UO 2 powders, fresh fuel packagings. In the back end of the fuel cycle, we find the dry transport casks of the TN-12, TN-17, TN-13, family and also the Excellox wet flasks. In the waste management, a whole fleet of containers, culminating in the TN Gemini, are available or being created. (author)

  20. DO ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE TOOLS SERVE GOVERNANCE?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Ariff; J. Ratnatunga

    2008-01-01

    A brief review of recent literature on corporate governance is provided, which is then concluded with a proposed corporate governance framework as a starting point for further development. We propose that it is stakeholder concentration that determines the quality of corporate governance. Next objective of this paper is the more ambitious one of addressing the role of accounting and finance disciplines to serve corporate governance. We test empirically if the use of some accounting and financ...

  1. Serving Diverse Knowledge Systems in Academia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Birdsall

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Libraries and academic disciplines are experiencing a major transformation to the digital era. A challenge for libraries is to adapt and coordinate their transformation with differing rates and types of changes in teaching, research, and scholarly communication among the disciplines they serve. This paper argues libraries need to acknowledge the diversity of knowledge systems and adopt a strategy that requires collaboration between libraries and multiple communities of knowing in the development and provision of heterogeneous services.

  2. Research brief : Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Shimizu, M.; Wansink, B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a

  3. Toss differences between the slice serve and the kick serve in tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Carboch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pre-contact information of servers' motion is important for receiving players in tennis. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine whether serving players use the same ball toss for kick serve (KS and slice serve (SS at two different directions of serves, from the receiver's view. Methods: 10 male right-handed professional tennis players with an average ATP ranking of 533 were videotaped from the receiver's view using a high-speed video camera (200 Hz. Firstly, they served SS and then KS from deuce court. After reaching 3 successful SS and 3 KS to the correct location, the same procedure followed from the ad court. Kinematic analysis was used to obtain the point of ball release, vertical toss peak and racquet-ball contact. Results: Even though the release point was found nearly in the same location, the vertical toss peak of KS was horizontally to the right compared to SS and the point of racquet ball-contact of KS was even more to the right by approximately 30 cm from the receiver's view. Similar findings were obtained from deuce court and ad court. Conclusions: We found differences in the ball toss execution between KS and SS. The serve toss can provide useful information for receiving players. Serving players should use the same toss for each type of serve to hide their intention.

  4. Timeliness of abnormal screening and diagnostic mammography follow-up at facilities serving vulnerable women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, L Elizabeth; Walker, Rod; Hubbard, Rebecca; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2013-04-01

    Whether timeliness of follow-up after abnormal mammography differs at facilities serving vulnerable populations, such as women with limited education or income, in rural areas, and racial/ethnic minorities is unknown. We examined receipt of diagnostic evaluation after abnormal mammography using 1998-2006 Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium-linked Medicare claims. We compared whether time to recommended breast imaging or biopsy depended on whether women attended facilities serving vulnerable populations. We characterized a facility by the proportion of mammograms performed on women with limited education or income, in rural areas, or racial/ethnic minorities. We analyzed 30,874 abnormal screening examinations recommended for follow-up imaging across 142 facilities and 10,049 abnormal diagnostic examinations recommended for biopsy across 114 facilities. Women at facilities serving populations with less education or more racial/ethnic minorities had lower rates of follow-up imaging (4%-5% difference, Pfacilities serving more rural and low-income populations had lower rates of biopsy (4%-5% difference, Pfacilities serving vulnerable populations had longer times until biopsy than those at facilities serving nonvulnerable populations (21.6 vs. 15.6 d; 95% confidence interval for mean difference 4.1-7.7). The proportion of women receiving recommended imaging within 11 months and biopsy within 3 months varied across facilities (interquartile range, 85.5%-96.5% for imaging and 79.4%-87.3% for biopsy). Among Medicare recipients, follow-up rates were slightly lower at facilities serving vulnerable populations, and among those women who returned for diagnostic evaluation, time to follow-up was slightly longer at facilities that served vulnerable population. Interventions should target variability in follow-up rates across facilities, and evaluate effectiveness particularly at facilities serving vulnerable populations.

  5. Acquaintance molestation and youth-serving organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Kenneth V; Dietz, Park

    2014-10-01

    This article is based not only on the research literature but also on the extensive field experience of the authors in consulting with investigators, attorneys, and organizations on the prevention, investigation, prosecution, and civil litigation of molestation of children within or in connection with youth-serving organizations. Acquaintance molesters have often pursued careers or sought out paid or volunteer work with organizations through which they can meet children. To address the problem of such offenders, it is necessary for youth-serving organizations to recognize the diversity of sexual activity, the phenomena of "nice-guy" offenders and compliant child victims, and the grooming/seduction process, each of which is reviewed here. The four most important protection practices for organizations are screening; management, and supervision; response to suspicions, allegations, and complaints; and prevention and awareness programs. The authors recommend general approaches to each of these and describe the reasons many organizations resist implementing available preventive measures. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Virtual Globes: Serving Science and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Qureshi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Globes reached the mass market in 2005. They created multi-million dollar businesses in a very short time by providing novel ways to explore data geographically. We use the term “Virtual Globes” as the common denominator for technologies offering capabilities to annotate, edit and publish geographic information to a world-wide audience and to visualize information provided by the public and private sectors, as well as by citizens who volunteer new data. Unfortunately, but not surprising for a new trend or paradigm, overlapping terms such as “Virtual Globes”, “Digital Earth”, “Geospatial Web”, “Geoportal” or software specific terms are used heterogeneously. We analyze the terminologies and trends in scientific publications and ask whether these developments serve science and society. While usage can be answered quantitatively, the authors reason from the literature studied that these developments serve to educate the masses and may help to democratize geographic information by extending the producer base. We believe that we can contribute to a better distinction between software centered terms and the generic concept as such. The power of the visual, coupled with the potential of spatial analysis and modeling for public and private purposes raises new issues of reliability, standards, privacy and best practice. This is increasingly addressed in scientific literature but the required body of knowledge is still in its infancy.

  7. Validity of mathematical proportions in maxillary anterior teeth among Bangladeshi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monwarul Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the existence and suitability of mathematical proportions between the widths of maxillary anterior teeth in Bangladeshi population having an esthetic smile, with the aid of digital photographs and computer analysis. Place of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics of Dhaka Dental College and Hospital, Dhaka. Period of Study: The study was conducted from April 2016 to September 2016. Sample Selection: The study samples collected from Students of Dhaka Dental College, Mirpur-14, Dhaka, Bangladesh, with age limit 18–35 years. Materials and Methods: Standardized frontal images of 100 dental students of Dhaka Dental College were captured. All the images were downloaded to a personal computer, and width of each tooth was measured by the scale tool of Photoshop CS version 8.0. All the data were analyzed (through standard statistical method using Statistical Package for Social Science Software version 20 (IBM Corp., USA. Results: The golden proportion existed in 17% of the perceived width ratios of lateral incisor to central incisor and 4% of the width ratios of canine to lateral incisor in natural dentition. Sixty-six percent lateral incisors are following the golden percentage, but only 7% central incisors and 21% canines are following the golden percentage. The recurring esthetic dental (RED proportion existed in only 4% of participants. Conclusions: The golden proportion, golden percentage, and the RED proportion cannot be used as constant proportions to create a harmonious proportion throughout the width of maxillary anterior teeth. The adjusted golden percentage might serve as a guideline to create harmonious proportions in maxillary anterior teeth for Bangladeshi population.

  8. Estimation of the false discovery proportion with unknown dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Xu

    2017-09-01

    Large-scale multiple testing with correlated test statistics arises frequently in many scientific research. Incorporating correlation information in approximating false discovery proportion has attracted increasing attention in recent years. When the covariance matrix of test statistics is known, Fan, Han & Gu (2012) provided an accurate approximation of False Discovery Proportion (FDP) under arbitrary dependence structure and some sparsity assumption. However, the covariance matrix is often unknown in many applications and such dependence information has to be estimated before approximating FDP. The estimation accuracy can greatly affect FDP approximation. In the current paper, we aim to theoretically study the impact of unknown dependence on the testing procedure and establish a general framework such that FDP can be well approximated. The impacts of unknown dependence on approximating FDP are in the following two major aspects: through estimating eigenvalues/eigenvectors and through estimating marginal variances. To address the challenges in these two aspects, we firstly develop general requirements on estimates of eigenvalues and eigenvectors for a good approximation of FDP. We then give conditions on the structures of covariance matrices that satisfy such requirements. Such dependence structures include banded/sparse covariance matrices and (conditional) sparse precision matrices. Within this framework, we also consider a special example to illustrate our method where data are sampled from an approximate factor model, which encompasses most practical situations. We provide a good approximation of FDP via exploiting this specific dependence structure. The results are further generalized to the situation where the multivariate normality assumption is relaxed. Our results are demonstrated by simulation studies and some real data applications.

  9. PROPORTIONS AND HUMAN SCALE IN DAMASCENE COURTYARD HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salim Ferwati

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Interior designers, architects, landscape architects, and even urban designers, agree that environment, as a form of non-verbal communication means, has a symbolic dimension to it. As for its aesthetic dimension, it seems that beauty is related to a certain proportion, partially and as a whole. Suitable proportion leaves a good impression upon the beholders, especially when it matches human proportion. That in fact was the underlining belief of LeCorbusier, according to which he developed his Modular concept. The study searches for a modular, or proportion, system that governs the design of Damascene traditional house. By geometrical and mathematical examinations of 28 traditional houses, it was found that a certain proportional relationship existed; however, these proportional relationships were not fixed ones. The study relied on analyzing the Iwan elevation as well as the inner courtyard proportion in relation to the building area. Charts, diagrams and tables were produced to summarize the results.

  10. The effect of proportional v. value pricing on fountain drink purchases: results from a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Tang, Xuyang; Runge, Carlisle Ford; French, Simone A; Rothman, Alexander J

    2018-05-15

    Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is a public health priority, yet finding an effective and acceptable policy intervention is challenging. One strategy is to use proportional pricing (a consistent price per fluid ounce) instead of the typical value-priced approach where large beverages offer better value. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether proportional pricing affects the purchasing of fountain beverages at a university cinema concession stand. Four price strategies for beverages were evaluated over ten weekends of film screenings. We manipulated two factors: the price structure (value pricing v. proportional pricing) and the provision of information about the price per fluid ounce (labels v. no labels). The key outcomes were the number and size of beverages purchased. We analysed data using regression analyses, with standard errors clustered by film and controlling for the day and time of purchase. A university cinema concession stand in Minnesota, USA, in spring 2015. University students. Over the study period (360 beverages purchased) there were no significant effects of the proportional pricing treatment. Pairing a label with the standard value pricing increased the likelihood of purchasing large drinks but the label did not affect purchasing when paired with proportional pricing. Proportional prices did not significantly affect the size of beverages purchased by students at a university cinema, but adding a price-per-ounce label increased large drink purchases when drinks were value-priced. More work is needed to address whether pricing and labelling strategies might promote healthier beverage purchases.

  11. Alyeska/SERVS technological innovations for oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S.O.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of technological innovations in spill response by Alyeska Pipeline Service Company/SERVS (ship escort response vessel system), was presented. The company has developed a number of spill response techniques which have needed new strategies and modified equipment for fulfillment of the Prince William Sound Tanker Oil Discharge Prevention and Contingency Plan. One of the strategies was the training of personnel to be ready to deploy massive quantities of equipment on short notice to potential spill sites over an 11,000 square mile water body with more than 3,200 miles of wilderness shoreline. Specific response equipment and decision-making tools have been developed in direct support of large scale programs. Along with oil slick tracking buoys and mini barges, SERVS has developed high capacity skimmers with recovery capacities approaching 2,000 to 3,000 barrels of liquid per hour and strategy boom-towing vessels which divert oil into a long U shaped containment boom. SERVS fishing vessel program, hatchery protection and remote response center equipment program, and wildlife treatment facilities were also described. 10 refs., 13 figs

  12. Utilities' ''obligation to serve'' under deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    The utility no longer has protected status, and the traditional franchise concept is under attack. Exclusive rights once conveyed to the utilities are being denied and not just in the area of gas sales. Exclusive rights once conveyed to utilities will be denied in more areas. State by state, the utilities' franchise is being examined to see which, if any, of its provisions are necessary in a deregulated environment. Can the free market provide everything that's been provided for many years under monopolistic arrangements? Some of the most critical and difficult of these provisions concern the obligation to serve, which utilities, in most states, have assumed as part of their franchise agreement. Regulators, courts, utilities, marketers and others are busy sorting through these issues, but resolution could take years. The paper discusses deregulation, universal service fee, representation without taxation, suppliers and marketer restrictions

  13. Unregulated serving sizes on the Canadian nutrition facts table – an invitation for manufacturer manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Yin Man Chan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serving sizes on the Nutrition Facts table (NFt on Canadian packaged foods have traditionally been unregulated and non-standardized. The federal government recently passed legislation to regulate the serving sizes listed on the NFt. The objective of this study was to compare the serving sizes on food product NFts to the recommendations in the 2003 Nutrition Labelling regulation (Schedule M reference amounts, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA ranges, and Canada’s Food Guide recommendations. An additional objective was to determine if food and beverage products that report smaller serving sizes have a higher calorie density, compared to similar products with a larger serving size. Methods Data for 10,487 products were retrieved from the 2010 Food Label Information Program (FLIP database and categorized according to Schedule M categories. Correlations between calorie density and manufacturer stated serving size were tested and the proportion of products meeting recommendations were tabulated. Results 35% of products had serving sizes on the NFt that were smaller than the Schedule M reference amount and 23% exceeded the reference amount. 86% of products fell within the CFIA’s recommended serving size ranges; however, 70% were within the lower-half of the range. Several bread and juice categories exceeded CFG’s recommendations, while several dairy product categories were smaller than the recommendations. Of the 50 Schedule M sub-categories analyzed, 31 (62% exhibited a negative correlation between serving size and calorie density. Conclusion While most products fell within the CFIA’s recommended serving size ranges, there was a tendency for products with a higher calorie density to list smaller serving sizes.

  14. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Monteagudo

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors.The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%. The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69 and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals.The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations.

  15. Pressure control valve using proportional electro-magnetic solenoid actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, So Nam; Ham, Young Bog; Park, Pyoung Won

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental characteristics of electro-hydraulic proportional pressure control valve. In this study, poppet and valve body which are assembled into the proportional solenoid were designed and manufactured. The constant force characteristics of proportional solenoid actuator in the control region should be independent of the plunger position in order to be used to control the valve position in the fluid flow control system. The stroke-force characteristics of the proportional solenoid actuator is determined by the shape (or parameters) of the control cone. In this paper, steady state and transient characteristics of the solenoid actuator for electro-hydraulic proportional valve are analyzed using finite element method and it is confirmed that the proportional solenoid actuator has a constant attraction force in the control region independently on the stroke position. The effects of the parameters such as control cone length, thickness and taper length are also discussed

  16. Development of extruded resistive plastic tubes for proportional chamber cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.

    1982-01-01

    Carbon mixed plastic tubes with resistivity of 10 3 approx. 10 4 Ωcm have been molded with an extrusion method and used for the d.c. cathode of a proportional counter and a multi-wire proportional chamber. The signal by gas multiplication was picked up from a strip r.f. cathode set outside the tube. The characteristics of the counter in the proportional and limited streamer modes have been studied

  17. Proportion and clinical features of never-smokers with non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jaeyoung; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Dong-Wan; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Tae; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Park, Young Sik

    2017-01-01

    Background The proportion of never-smokers with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is increasing, but that in Korea has not been well addressed in a large population. We aimed to evaluate the proportion and clinical features of never-smokers with NSCLC in a large single institution. Methods We analyzed clinical data of 1860 consecutive patients who were newly diagnosed with NSCLC between June 2011 and December 2014. Results Of the 1860 NSCLC patients, 707 (38.0%) were never-smokers. The propo...

  18. Multiwire proportional chamber for Moessbauer spectroscopy: development and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.S. da.

    1985-12-01

    A new Multiwere proportional Chamber designed for Moessbauer Spectroscopy is presented. This detector allows transmission backscattering experiments using either photons or electrons. The Moessbauer data acquisition system, partially developed for this work is described. A simple method for determining the frontier between true proportional and semi-proportional regions of operation in gaseous detectors is proposed. The study of the tertiary gas mixture He-Ar-CH 4 leads to a straight forward way of energy calibration of the electron spectra. Moessbauer spectra using Fe-57 source are presented. In particular those obtained with backsattered electrons show the feasibility of depth selective analysis with gaseous proportional counters. (author) [pt

  19. Should fatty acid signature proportions sum to 1 for diet estimation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.; Budge, Suzanne M.; Thiemann, Gregory W.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of predator diets, including how diets might change through time or differ among predators, provides essential insights into their ecology. Diet estimation therefore remains an active area of research within quantitative ecology. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) is an increasingly common method of diet estimation. QFASA is based on a data library of prey signatures, which are vectors of proportions summarizing the fatty acid composition of lipids, and diet is estimated as the mixture of prey signatures that most closely approximates a predator’s signature. Diets are typically estimated using proportions from a subset of all fatty acids that are known to be solely or largely influenced by diet. Given the subset of fatty acids selected, the current practice is to scale their proportions to sum to 1.0. However, scaling signature proportions has the potential to distort the structural relationships within a prey library and between predators and prey. To investigate that possibility, we compared the practice of scaling proportions with two alternatives and found that the traditional scaling can meaningfully bias diet estimators under some conditions. Two aspects of the prey types that contributed to a predator’s diet influenced the magnitude of the bias: the degree to which the sums of unscaled proportions differed among prey types and the identifiability of prey types within the prey library. We caution investigators against the routine scaling of signature proportions in QFASA.

  20. Oxytocin promotes group-serving dishonesty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalvi, Shaul; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2014-04-15

    To protect and promote the well-being of others, humans may bend the truth and behave unethically. Here we link such tendencies to oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to promote affiliation and cooperation with others. Using a simple coin-toss prediction task in which participants could dishonestly report their performance levels to benefit their group's outcome, we tested the prediction that oxytocin increases group-serving dishonesty. A double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment allowing individuals to lie privately and anonymously to benefit themselves and fellow group members showed that healthy males (n = 60) receiving intranasal oxytocin, rather than placebo, lied more to benefit their group, and did so faster, yet did not necessarily do so because they expected reciprocal dishonesty from fellow group members. Treatment effects emerged when lying had financial consequences and money could be gained; when losses were at stake, individuals in placebo and oxytocin conditions lied to similar degrees. In a control condition (n = 60) in which dishonesty only benefited participants themselves, but not fellow group members, oxytocin did not influence lying. Together, these findings fit a functional perspective on morality revealing dishonesty to be plastic and rooted in evolved neurobiological circuitries, and align with work showing that oxytocin shifts the decision-maker's focus from self to group interests. These findings highlight the role of bonding and cooperation in shaping dishonesty, providing insight into when and why collaboration turns into corruption.

  1. Preparation of Ready to Serve Grape Juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mya Mya Than, Daw; Molly Ahad, Daw; Khin Khin Lay, Daw

    1997-10-01

    Studies were carried out at the Food Technology Research Department of Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department to prepare ready to serve grape juice from ripe fruits of the red varieties of grapes. The sugar content of grapes varied from (10) to (14) % depending on the season. To get a maximum content of (16) % sugar in the juice, (2) to (6) % sugar was added. The yields of the seasonal grape juice varied from (62.5) to (72.2) % by weight. The tannin content was (0.36) % by volume in the fresh juice. It was decreased to (0.03) % by volume after the cold storage at (10)C for (10 to 15) days. The pH of the original fruit juice was (3.2). The best juice was obtain when the pH of the juice was(4.0). To obtain the higher yield of the juice, desirable bright colour and rapid clarification, (0.01) %. Pectinex enzyme was added. In this investigation grape juice was preserved with (0.1) % sodium benzoate. Storage studies, which also included microbiological aspects indicated that the pasteurized grape juice bottle can be stored at room temperature for minimum (6) months without any deterioration in quality

  2. A proposal: LEIR to serve biomedicine

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    LEIR is the CERN facility that produces high-density ion beams for the LHC and for the SPS fixed target experiments. Since its operational schedule is not fully booked, LEIR could, in principle, be exploited even further. A brainstorming meeting recently took place at CERN to evaluate the possibility of modifying LEIR to serve the biomedical community. Discussions are in progress.   The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR). LEIR is a small synchrotron with a circumference of about 78 m. It currently receives particles from Linac 3 and prepares beams for the SPS and the LHC. “In order for LEIR to be able to provide ion beams with appropriate energies for studies of interest for biomedical applications, a new ejection system with new beam lines needs to be designed,” explains Christian Carli, from the Beams Department. “In addition, Linac 3 could be upgraded to include a second ion source and a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) optimized for ions of interest for bi...

  3. Multiwire proportional chamber with a supporting line on anode wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorov, V.A.; Golovkin, S.V.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of experimental investigations on a supporting line (wire) used in large-sized proportional chambers to compensate for electrostatic forces. The length of anode wires (gilded tungsten of 0.02 mm in diameter) in the chamber constituted 600 mm, the pitch 2 mm, the total number of channels 192. High-voltage electrodes are made of Cu-Be wire of 0.1 mm in diameter, the pitch is 2 mm. The gap between anode and cathode plates is 6 mm. The supporting line is an enamelled nichrome wire of 0.2 mm in diameter enclosed in an additional fluoroplastic insulation. The outside diameter was equal to 0.4 mm. The supporting line was placed through the centre of the chamber at right angles and immediately adjacent to anode wires with the tension of 2000 g. A negative compensating potential was applied to it. The controllable parameter was the chamber efficiency at variable paAameters: (1) an operating voltage in the chamber; (2) Vsub(c) - a compensating potential of the supporting line, and (3) a beam axis relative coordinate. The performed investigations showed that the supporting line of this type is simple and reliable in operation (electric breakdown occurs at Vsub(c) > 3.5 kV). The noneffective zone in the supporting region can be reduced to approximately 2.4 mm which constitutes approximately 0.3% of the chamber total sensitive region

  4. Medical applications of multi-wire proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reading, D.H.

    1976-05-01

    The adaption of Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) for medical applications has necessitated bi-dimensional readout. This is achieved by analysing signals induced onto the cathode planes. At a useful X-ray energy of 40 to 45 keV, just above the K absorption edge in Xenon, the efficiency and resolution are both optimized. Poor resolution events due to K shell fluorescent capture and Auger emission, or L shell photo-electron emission, may be rejected by using energy discrimination - resulting in approximately halving the efficiency to 8% for a 1.6 cm thick atmospheric pressure chamber, but with sub millimeter inherent resolution. This is still far inferior to film resolution, but the MWPC is useful when numbers are required for computation or retrieval. Short descriptions of the MWPC applications to bone density measurements and tomography are given. Its use when pressurized as a gamma camera is discussed, and it is concluded that it may prove useful as a portable special purpose camera, or as one with a very large area thus compensating for low efficiency. Developments with liquid filled chambers are given and also the promising positron imaging hybrid MWPC. (author)

  5. Characterizing dinner meals served and consumed by low-income preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A; O'Neil, Carol E; Stuff, Janice E; Hughes, Sheryl O; Liu, Yan

    2012-12-01

    A dinner meal is consumed by approximately 95% of preschool children, yet few studies have characterized the dinner meal within a broader environmental context. The primary goal of this study was to identify the average quantities of foods served and consumed at the dinner meal by preschool children. A secondary goal was to look at factors that influenced the total amounts of food and energy consumed among preschoolers at the dinner meal. Food intake at a family dinner meal was measured using digital photography in African-American and Hispanic-American preschool children (n = 231). Pictorial records were converted to gram and energy estimates of food served and consumed; grams were converted to kilocalories for each food using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) nutritional software. Foods were categorized by groups/subgroups. Comparison of means and coefficient of variation was examined overall and by food groups for food grams (and energy) served, consumed, and wasted. The relationship of mother/child characteristics to amounts served and consumed were analyzed by regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Plate waste was high; 30% of the foods served to the child at the dinner meal were not consumed. The amounts of food and beverage served and consumed varied within and among the food groups studied. The proportion of children served a major food group at the dinner meal varied considerably: 44% fruit/juice, 97% vegetables, 99% grains, 97% meats, 74% dairy, 66% sweetened beverages, 92% fat and oils, and 40% sweets and sugars. The amount of food served was positively associated with the amount consumed (p dinner meal was positively associated with energy intake consumed (p < 0.0001). Plate waste and variation in amounts served and consumed was substantial. The amount of food served was positively associated with the amount of food consumed by preschool children.

  6. Unit Fractions in the Context of Proportionality: Supporting Students' Reasoning about the Inverse Order Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Jose Luis; Visnovska, Jana; Zuniga, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a classroom design experiment, conducted in a fourth grade classroom, that served to explore an instructional path in which the introduction of unit fractions and supporting proportional reasoning coincide. Central to this path is the use of means of support in which the objects that unit fractions quantify are not characterized as…

  7. Serving some and serving all: how providers navigate the challenges of providing racially targeted health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Amy

    2017-10-01

    Racially targeted healthcare provides racial minorities with culturally and linguistically appropriate health services. This mandate, however, can conflict with the professional obligation of healthcare providers to serve patients based on their health needs. The dilemma between serving a particular population and serving all is heightened when the patients seeking care are racially diverse. This study examines how providers in a multi-racial context decide whom to include or exclude from health programs. This study draws on 12 months of ethnographic fieldwork at an Asian-specific HIV organization. Fieldwork included participant observation of HIV support groups, community outreach programs, and substance abuse recovery groups, as well as interviews with providers and clients. Providers managed the dilemma in different ways. While some programs in the organization focused on an Asian clientele, others de-emphasized race and served a predominantly Latino and African American clientele. Organizational structures shaped whether services were delivered according to racial categories. When funders examined client documents, providers prioritized finding Asian clients so that their documents reflected program goals to serve the Asian population. In contrast, when funders used qualitative methods, providers could construct an image of a program that targets Asians during evaluations while they included other racial minorities in their everyday practice. Program services were organized more broadly by health needs. Even within racially targeted programs, the meaning of race fluctuates and is contested. Patients' health needs cross cut racial boundaries, and in some circumstances, the boundaries of inclusion can expand beyond specific racial categories to include racial minorities and underserved populations more generally.

  8. X-ray proportional counter for the Viking Lander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glesius, F.L.; Kroon, J.C.; Castro, A.J.; Clark, B.C.

    1978-01-01

    A set of four sealed proportional counters with optimized energy response is employed in the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer units aboard the two Viking Landers. The instruments have provided quantitative elemental analyses of soil samples taken from the Martian surface. This paper discusses the design and development of these miniature proportional counters, and describes their performance on Mars

  9. Putative golden proportions as predictors of facial esthetics in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekens, Rosemie M A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; van 't Hof, Martin A; van 't Hof, Bep E; Maltha, Jaap C

    2008-10-01

    In orthodontics, facial esthetics is assumed to be related to golden proportions apparent in the ideal human face. The aim of the study was to analyze the putative relationship between facial esthetics and golden proportions in white adolescents. Seventy-six adult laypeople evaluated sets of photographs of 64 adolescents on a visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 to 100. The facial esthetic value of each subject was calculated as a mean VAS score. Three observers recorded the position of 13 facial landmarks included in 19 putative golden proportions, based on the golden proportions as defined by Ricketts. The proportions and each proportion's deviation from the golden target (1.618) were calculated. This deviation was then related to the VAS scores. Only 4 of the 19 proportions had a significant negative correlation with the VAS scores, indicating that beautiful faces showed less deviation from the golden standard than less beautiful faces. Together, these variables explained only 16% of the variance. Few golden proportions have a significant relationship with facial esthetics in adolescents. The explained variance of these variables is too small to be of clinical importance.

  10. Putative golden proportions as predictors of facial esthetics in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiekens, R.M.A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Hof, B.E. van 't; Maltha, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, facial esthetics is assumed to be related to golden proportions apparent in the ideal human face. The aim of the study was to analyze the putative relationship between facial esthetics and golden proportions in white adolescents. METHODS: Seventy-six adult laypeople

  11. The principle of proportionality and European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.; Rutgers, J.; Sirena, P.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the role of the principle of proportionality within contract law, in balancing the rights and obligations of the contracting parties. It illustrates that the principle of proportionality is one of the general principles which govern contractual relations, and as such it is an

  12. The Improved Estimation of Ratio of Two Population Proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Ramkrishna S.; Singh, Housila P.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, first we obtained the correct mean square error expression of Gupta and Shabbir's linear weighted estimator of the ratio of two population proportions. Later we suggested the general class of ratio estimators of two population proportions. The usual ratio estimator, Wynn-type estimator, Singh, Singh, and Kaur difference-type…

  13. Attention Modulation by Proportion Congruency: The Asymmetrical List Shifting Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Elger L.; Duthoo, Wout; Notebaert, Wim; Risko, Evan F.

    2013-01-01

    Proportion congruency effects represent hallmark phenomena in current theorizing about cognitive control. This is based on the notion that proportion congruency determines the relative levels of attention to relevant and irrelevant information in conflict tasks. However, little empirical evidence exists that uniquely supports such an attention…

  14. 16 CFR 240.9 - Proportionally equal terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proportionally equal terms. 240.9 Section 240.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.9 Proportionally equal terms. (a...

  15. Global stabilisation of large-scale hydraulic networks with quantised and positive proportional controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    a set of decentralised, logarithmic quantised and constrained control actions with properly designed quantisation parameters. That is, an attractor set with a compact basin of attraction exists. Subsequently, the basin can be increased by increasing the control gains. In our work, this result...... is extended by showing that an attractor set with a global basin of attraction exists for arbitrary values of positive control gains, given that the upper level of the quantiser is properly designed. Furthermore, the proof is given for general monotone quantisation maps. Since the basin of attraction...

  16. Which Mixed-Member Proportional Electoral Formula Fits You Best? Assessing the Proportionality Principle of Positive Vote Transfer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-member proportional systems (MMP) are a family of electoral systems which combine district-based elections with a proportional seat allocation. Positive vote transfer systems belong to this family. This article explains why they might be better than their siblings, and examines under which ...

  17. Eighth Grade In-Service Teachers' Knowledge of Proportional Reasoning and Functions: A Secondary Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    A secondary data analysis was conducted using a large dataset from a study related to online professional development for eighth grade teachers of mathematics. Using this data, the paper provides a snapshot of the current state of teachers' knowledge related to proportional reasoning and functions. The paper also considers how teachers' knowledge…

  18. Proportional fair scheduling with superposition coding in a cellular cooperative relay system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaneko, Megumi; Hayashi, Kazunori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Many works have tackled on the problem of throughput and fairness optimization in cellular cooperative relaying systems. Considering firstly a two-user relay broadcast channel, we design a scheme based on superposition coding (SC) which maximizes the achievable sum-rate under a proportional...... fairness constraint. Unlike most relaying schemes where users are allocated orthogonally, our scheme serves the two users simultaneously on the same time-frequency resource unit by superposing their messages into three SC layers. The optimal power allocation parameters of each SC layer are derived...... by analysis. Next, we consider the general multi-user case in a cellular relay system, for which we design resource allocation algorithms based on proportional fair scheduling exploiting the proposed SC-based scheme. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithms allowing simultaneous user allocation...

  19. Policy coherence, integration, and proportionality in tobacco control: Should tobacco sales be limited to government outlets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; McDaniel, Patricia A; Hiilamo, Heikki; Malone, Ruth E

    2017-08-01

    Multiple factors, including marijuana decriminalization/legalization, tobacco endgame discourse, and alcohol industry pressures, suggest that the retail regulatory environment for psychoactive or addictive substances is a dynamic one in which new options may be considered. In most countries, the regulation of tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol is neither coherent, nor integrated, nor proportional to the potential harms caused by these substances. We review the possible consequences of restricting tobacco sales to outlets run by government-operated alcohol retail monopolies, as well as the likely obstacles to such a policy. Such a move would allow governments more options for regulating tobacco sales, and increase coherence, integration, and proportionality of substance regulation. It might also serve as an incremental step toward an endgame goal of eliminating sales of commercial combustible tobacco.

  20. Evaluation of B10Plus+* proportional detectors for neutron coincidence counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddingfield, David H.; Yoon, Seokryung [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna, (Austria)

    2015-07-01

    GE-Reuter-Stokes (GERS) has developed a new line of neutron proportional counters, the B10Plus+* proportional counter. The detector design is intended to serve as a cost-effective alternative to traditional {sup 3}He proportional counters in a variety of applications. The detector is a hybrid design 10B-lined tube optimized with the addition of a small quantity of 3He gas to improve the detector performance and efficiency. As a demonstration of the B10Plus+* detector, GERS has constructed a Uranium Neutron Collar (UNCL) system consisting of B-10Plus+* proportional counters. GERS has designed and built a demonstration UNCL system intended to match the performance of a Type-I UNCL design in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) geometry operating in thermal mode. GERS offered their system on loan to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Division of Technical and Scientific Services for an assessment of the detector technology and the demonstration system. We have characterized the demonstration UNCL system and compared its performance with a traditional Type-I UNCL design in regular use by the IAEA. This paper summarizes our findings and observations during the characterization and testing activity. (authors)

  1. How youth-serving organizations enable acquaintance molesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, some of the country's most prominent institutions have been ensnared in child sex abuse scandals. While each abuse incident features its own particular circumstances, institutions that have been the subject of these scandals have displayed similar patterns of organizational behavior that allowed molesting to occur and molesters to escape accountability. We can learn from those patterns to better understand and combat acquaintance molestation in youth-serving organizations. Although sex abuse is an inherent risk in youth work, American youth-serving organizations have responded to this risk largely on a case-by-case basis after abuse incidents have been revealed, rather than through proactive strategies to reduce the risk of abuse and to respond effectively to allegations. An examination of abuse scandals reveals common patterns of behavior among paid and volunteer staff in organizations that did not enact comprehensive, proactive strategies: Faith in the organiation blinded staff to the liklihood of abuse; organizations kept workers ignorant about the extent of the abuse problem; when abuse accusations arose, staff gave the benefit of the doubt to the adult; when abuse accusations were confirmed, staffers did not know how to respond; and not knowing how to resopnd, staff prioritized the protection of the organization. As a result, child molesters have been falsely exonerated or not held accountable, abused children have been disbelieved, and abuse has continued. These organizations inadvertently achieved the opposite of their missions: They enabled child molesters at the expense of children. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. The proportionate value of proportionality in palliative sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Proportionality, as it pertains to palliative sedation, is the notion that sedation should be induced at the lowest degree effective for symptom control, so that the patient's consciousness may be preserved. The pursuit of proportionality in palliative sedation is a widely accepted imperative advocated in position statements and guidelines on this treatment. The priority assigned to the pursuit of proportionality, and the extent to which it is relevant for patients who qualify for palliative sedation, have been overstated. Copyright 2014 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  3. An integrated photosensor readout for gas proportional scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.A.M.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Conde, C.A.N.

    1996-01-01

    A xenon gas proportional scintillation counter has been instrumented with a novel photosensor that replaces the photomultiplier tube normally used to detect the VUV secondary scintillation light. In this implementation, the collection grid of a planar gas proportional scintillation counter also functions as a multiwire proportional chamber to amplify and detect the photoelectrons emitted by a reflective CsI photocathode in direct contact with the xenon gas. This integrated concept combines greater simplicity, compactness, and ruggedness (no optical window is used) with low power consumption. An energy resolution of 12% was obtained for 59.6 keV x-rays

  4. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG: a new test for discriminating gestational trophoblastic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A

    2014-11-01

    Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a variant of hCG with large oligosaccharide side chains. Although hCG is produced by syncytiotrophoblast cells, hyperglycosylated hCG marks cytotrophoblast cell. Hyperglycosylated hCG signals placental implantation. Total hCG in serum and urine is measured by the Siemens Immulite hCG pregnancy test; the result is in milli-international unit per milliliter. Hyperglycosylated hCG is determined by the B152 microtiter plate assay; the result is in nanogram per milliliter. Hyperglycosylated hCG results can be converted to milli-international unit per milliliter equivalents by multiplying by 11. The test measures proportion hyperglycosylated hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG / total hCG. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG marks cases intent on developing persistent hydatidiform mole (68% detection at 17% false detection). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG also marks persistent hydatidiform mole (100% detection at 5.1% false detection). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG distinguishes choriocarcinoma and gestational trophoblastic neoplasm cases, absolutely discriminating aggressive cases and minimally aggressive cases. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG identifies quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease cases. It recognizes quiescent cases that become persistent disease (100% detection at 0% false positive). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG is an invaluable test for discriminating gestational trophoblastic diseases.

  5. A reduced feedback proportional fair multiuser scheduling scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    . A slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we propose a novel proportional fair multiuser switched

  6. DC motor proportional control system for orthotic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, H. T.; Allen, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Multi-channel proportional control system for operation of dc motors for use with externally-powered orthotic arm braces is described. Components of circuitry and principles of operation are described. Schematic diagram of control circuit is provided.

  7. Proportional feedback control of laminar flow over a hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Il [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Dong Gun [Severe Accident and PHWR Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In the present study, we perform a proportional feedback control of laminar flow over a hemisphere at Re = 300 to reduce its lift fluctuations by attenuating the strength of the vortex shedding. As a control input, blowing/suction is distributed on the surface of hemisphere before the separation, and its strength is linearly proportional to the transverse velocity at a sensing location in the centerline of the wake. The sensing location is determined based on a correlation function between the lift force and the time derivative of sensing velocity. The optimal proportional gains for the proportional control are obtained for the sensing locations considered. The present control successfully attenuates the velocity fluctuations at the sensing location and three dimensional vertical structures in the wake, resulting in the reduction of lift fluctuations of hemisphere.

  8. Operability test report for 211BA flow proportional sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenfels, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This operability report will verify that the 211-BA flow proportional sampler functions as intended by design. The sampler was installed by Project W-007H and is part of BAT/AKART for the BCE liquid effluent stream

  9. Horst Wenninger, serving CERN for 35 years

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The name Horst Wenninger has been closely connected to current and future developments at CERN. On 30 September, he retired from CERN after 35 years. In the 1960s, while working as an assistant at the Institute for High Energy Physics of the University of Heidelberg, Horst Wenninger was already participating in bubble chamber experiments at CERN. From 1968 onwards, when he joint the BEBC project, he worked at CERN as member of the BEBC construction and operations team for almost 20 years, starting off as a young physicist, occupying key roles as BEBC coordinator, becoming the BEBC group leader during the time of its full exploitation, and seeing the termination of the project in 1984. (You can still see the BEBC tank and piston on the lawn in front of Microcosm.) In 1984 the Director General Herwig Schopper appointed him Leader of the Experimental Physics Facilities (EF) Division. This division continued to provide support for large experimental facilities, e.g. the OMEGA spectrometer, and experiments such ...

  10. A parsimonious model for the proportional control valve

    OpenAIRE

    Elmer, KF; Gentle, CR

    2001-01-01

    A generic non-linear dynamic model of a direct-acting electrohydraulic proportional solenoid valve is presented. The valve consists of two subsystems-s-a spool assembly and one or two unidirectional proportional solenoids. These two subsystems are modelled separately. The solenoid is modelled as a non-linear resistor-inductor combination, with inductance parameters that change with current. An innovative modelling method has been used to represent these components. The spool assembly is model...

  11. Reduction of degraded events in miniaturized proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, R.; Kirsten, T. (Max Planck Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1991-11-15

    A method to reduce the number of degraded events in miniaturized proportional counters is described. A shaping of the outer cathode leads to a more uniform gas gain along the counter axis. The method is useful in situations in which the total number of decay events is very low. The effects leading to degraded events are studied theoretically and experimentally. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated by using it for the proportional counter of the GALLEX solar neutrino experiment. (orig.).

  12. Proportioning and performance evaluation of self-consolidating concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuhao

    A well-proportioned self-consolidating concrete (SCC) mixture can be achieved by controlling the aggregate system, paste quality, and paste quantity. The work presented in this dissertation involves an effort to study and improve particle packing of the concrete system and reduce the paste quantity while maintaining concrete quality and performance. This dissertation is composed of four papers resulting from the study: (1) Assessing Particle Packing Based Self-Consolidating Concrete Mix Design; (2) Using Paste-To-Voids Volume Ratio to Evaluate the Performance of Self-Consolidating Concrete Mixtures; (3) Image Analysis Applications on Assessing Static Stability and Flowability of Self-Consolidating Concrete, and (4) Using Ultrasonic Wave Propagation to Monitor Stiffening Process of Self-Consolidating Concrete. Tests were conducted on a large matrix of SCC mixtures that were designed for cast-in-place bridge construction. The mixtures were made with different aggregate types, sizes, and different cementitious materials. In Paper 1, a modified particle-packing based mix design method, originally proposed by Brouwers (2005), was applied to the design of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) mixs. Using this method, a large matrix of SCC mixes was designed to have a particle distribution modulus (q) ranging from 0.23 to 0.29. Fresh properties (such as flowability, passing ability, segregation resistance, yield stress, viscosity, set time and formwork pressure) and hardened properties (such as compressive strength, surface resistance, shrinkage, and air structure) of these concrete mixes were experimentally evaluated. In Paper 2, a concept that is based on paste-to-voids volume ratio (Vpaste/Vvoids) was employed to assess the performance of SCC mixtures. The relationship between excess paste theory and Vpaste/Vvoids was investigated. The workability, flow properties, compressive strength, shrinkage, and surface resistivity of SCC mixtures were determined at various ages

  13. Against proportional shortfall as a priority-setting principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Samuel

    2018-05-01

    As the demand for healthcare rises, so does the need for priority setting in healthcare. In this paper, I consider a prominent priority-setting principle: proportional shortfall. My purpose is to argue that proportional shortfall, as a principle, should not be adopted. My key criticism is that proportional shortfall fails to consider past health.Proportional shortfall is justified as it supposedly balances concern for prospective health while still accounting for lifetime health, even though past health is deemed irrelevant. Accounting for this lifetime perspective means that the principle may indirectly consider past health by accounting for how far an individual is from achieving a complete, healthy life. I argue that proportional shortfall does not account for this lifetime perspective as it fails to incorporate the fair innings argument as originally claimed, undermining its purported justification.I go on to demonstrate that the case for ignoring past health is weak, and argue that past health is at least sometimes relevant for priority-setting decisions. Specifically, when an individual's past health has a direct impact on current or future health, and when one individual has enjoyed significantly more healthy life years than another.Finally, I demonstrate that by ignoring past illnesses, even those entirely unrelated to their current illness, proportional shortfall can lead to instances of double jeopardy, a highly problematic implication. These arguments give us reason to reject proportional shortfall. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. The Relationship Between Maximum Isometric Strength and Ball Velocity in the Tennis Serve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiget Ernest

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze the relationship between maximum isometric strength levels in different upper and lower limb joints and serve velocity in competitive tennis players as well as to develop a prediction model based on this information. Twelve male competitive tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 17.2 ± 1.0 years; body height: 180.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 71.9 ± 5.6 kg were tested using maximum isometric strength levels (i.e., wrist, elbow and shoulder flexion and extension; leg and back extension; shoulder external and internal rotation. Serve velocity was measured using a radar gun. Results showed a strong positive relationship between serve velocity and shoulder internal rotation (r = 0.67; p < 0.05. Low to moderate correlations were also found between serve velocity and wrist, elbow and shoulder flexion – extension, leg and back extension and shoulder external rotation (r = 0.36 – 0.53; p = 0.377 – 0.054. Bivariate and multivariate models for predicting serve velocity were developed, with shoulder flexion and internal rotation explaining 55% of the variance in serve velocity (r = 0.74; p < 0.001. The maximum isometric strength level in shoulder internal rotation was strongly related to serve velocity, and a large part of the variability in serve velocity was explained by the maximum isometric strength levels in shoulder internal rotation and shoulder flexion.

  15. 28 CFR 522.14 - Inmates serving civil contempt commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmates serving civil contempt... ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER ADMISSION TO INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.14 Inmates serving civil contempt commitments. We treat inmates serving civil contempt commitments in...

  16. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if no...

  17. The principle of proportionality revisited: interpretations and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermerén, Göran

    2012-11-01

    The principle of proportionality is used in many different contexts. Some of these uses and contexts are first briefly indicated. This paper focusses on the use of this principle as a moral principle. I argue that under certain conditions the principle of proportionality is helpful as a guide in decision-making. But it needs to be clarified and to be used with some flexibility as a context-dependent principle. Several interpretations of the principle are distinguished, using three conditions as a starting point: importance of objective, relevance of means, and most favourable option. The principle is then tested against an example, which suggests that a fourth condition, focusing on non-excessiveness, needs to be added. I will distinguish between three main interpretations of the principle, some primarily with uses in research ethics, others with uses in other areas of bioethics, for instance in comparisons of therapeutic means and ends. The relations between the principle of proportionality and the precautionary principle are explored in the following section. It is concluded that the principles are different and may even clash. In the next section the principle of proportionality is applied to some medical examples drawn from research ethics and bioethics. In concluding, the status of the principle of proportionality as a moral principle is discussed. What has been achieved so far and what remains to be done is finally summarized.

  18. Variations in serving sizes of Australian snack foods and confectionery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Wendy L; Kury, Alexandra; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Dunford, Elizabeth; Chapman, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the serving size and energy content per serving of Australian packaged snack foods and confectionery products. Nutrition Information Panel data for 23 sub-categories of packaged snack foods (n = 3481) were extracted from The George Institute for Global Health's 2013 branded food composition database. Variations in serving size and energy content per serving were examined. Energy contents per serving were compared to recommendations in the Australian Dietary Guidelines. Serving sizes varied within and between snack food categories. Mean energy content per serving varied from 320 kJ to 899 kJ. More energy per serving than the recommended 600 kJ was displayed by 22% (n = 539) of snack foods classified in the Australian Dietary Guidelines as discretionary foods. The recommendation for energy content per serving was exceeded in 60% (n = 635) of snack foods from the Five Food Groups. Only 37% (n = 377) of confectionery products displayed the industry-agreed serving size of 25 g. Energy content per serving of many packaged snack foods do not align with the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the industry agreed serving size has not been taken up widely within the confectionery category. Given the inconsistencies in serving sizes, featuring serving size in front-of-pack information may hinder the objective of a clear and simple nutrition message. Messaging to help consumers make healthier choices should consider the variation in serving sizes on packaged snack foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Intentions of College Students to Serve as Informal Caregivers for Their Older Relatives: Theory of Planned Behavior Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gungeet; Gezan, Salvador; Delisle, Tony; Stopka, Christine; Pigg, Morgan; Tillman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    As the older adult population increases, the healthcare system is experiencing a shortage of professional health care providers and caregivers. Consequently, the role of family to serve as caregivers will expand to care for older relatives at home. Thus, a larger proportion of adult children will become caregivers, including young adults enrolled…

  20. A reduced feedback proportional fair multiuser scheduling scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed and ordered scheduling mechanism. A slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we propose a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-diversity scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the per-user feedback thresholds. We demonstrate by numerical examples that our reduced feedback proportional fair scheduler operates within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the achievable rates by the conventional full feedback proportional fair scheduler in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Prospective Teachers Proportional Reasoning and Presumption of Student Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiyem Sapti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the proportional reasoning of prospective teachers and their predictions about students' answers. Subjects were 4 prospective teacher  7th semester Department of Mathematics Education, Muhammadiyah University of Purworejo. Proportional reasoning task used to obtain research data. Subjects were asked to explain their reasoning and write predictions of student completion. Data was taken on October 15th, 2014. Interviews were conducted after the subjects completed the task and recorded with audio media. The research data were subject written work and interview transcripts. Data were analyzed using qualitative analysis techniques. In solving the proportional reasoning task, subjects using the cross product. However, they understand the meaning of the cross product. Subject also could predict students' reasoning on the matter.

  2. Proton-recoil proportional counter tests at TREAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.L.; Eichholz, J.J.; Burrows, D.R.; DeVolpi, A.

    1979-01-01

    A methane filled proton-recoil proportional counter will be used as a fission neutron detector in the fast-neutron hodoscope. To provide meaningful fuel-motion information the proportional counter should have: a linear response over a wide range of reactor powers background ratio (the number of high energy neutrons detected must be maximized relative to low energy neutrons, and gamma ray sensitivity must be kept small); and a detector efficiency for fission neutrons above 1 MeV of approximately 1%. In addition, it is desirable that the detector and the associated amplifier/discriminator be capable of operating at counting rates in excess of 500 kHz. This paper reports on tests that were conducted on several proportional counters at the TREAT reactor

  3. Multiaxial low cycle fatigue life under non-proportional loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takamoto; Sakane, Masao; Ohsuga, Kazuki

    2013-01-01

    A simple and clear method of evaluating stress and strain ranges under non-proportional multiaxial loading where principal directions of stress and strain are changed during a cycle is needed for assessing multiaxial fatigue. This paper proposes a simple method of determining the principal stress and strain ranges and the severity of non-proportional loading with defining the rotation angles of the maximum principal stress and strain in a three dimensional stress and strain space. This study also discusses properties of multiaxial low cycle fatigue lives for various materials fatigued under non-proportional loadings and shows an applicability of a parameter proposed by author for multiaxial low cycle fatigue life evaluation

  4. Self-Serving Bias or Simply Serving the Self? Evidence for a Dimensional Approach to Narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborski, Michael; Brown, Ryan P; Chowning, Karolyn

    2012-06-01

    Previous research has suggested that narcissism can be conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of the related, but unique, dimensions of grandiosity and entitlement. The current studies examined the divergent associations of grandiosity and entitlement with respect to different types of self-serving strategies. In Study 1, we found that narcissistic grandiosity, but not entitlement, was positively associated with a self-enhancing strategy of unrealistic optimism. This association was not mediated by self-esteem. In Study 2, narcissistic entitlement, but not grandiosity, was predictive of unethical decision-making, an interpersonal self-promotional strategy that advances the self at the expense of others. Together, both studies support a model of narcissism consisting of a relatively intrapersonal dimension of grandiosity and a relatively interpersonal dimension of entitlement.

  5. Flow proportional sampling of low level liquid effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colley, D.; Jenkins, R.

    1989-01-01

    A flow proportional sampler for use on low level radioactive liquid effluent has been developed for installation on all CEGB nuclear power stations. The sampler, operates by drawing effluent continuously from the main effluent pipeline, through a sampler loop and returning it to the pipeline. The effluent in this loop is sampled by taking small, frequent aliquots using a linear acting shuttle valve. The frequency of operation of this valve is controlled by a flowmeter installed in the effluent line; sampling rate being directly proportional to effluent flowrate. (author)

  6. Neutron dosimetry using proportional counters with tissue equivalent walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerviller, H. de

    1965-01-01

    The author reminds the calculation method of the neutron absorbed dose in a material and deduce of it the conditions what this material have to fill to be equivalent to biological tissues. Various proportional counters are mode with walls in new tissue equivalent material and filled with various gases. The multiplication factor and neutron energy response of these counters are investigated and compared with those obtained with ethylene lined polyethylene counters. The conditions of working of such proportional counters for neutron dosimetry in energy range 10 -2 to 15 MeV are specified. (author) [fr

  7. Gas scintillation proportional counters for x-ray synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.; Bavdaz, M.

    1992-01-01

    Gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPCs) as x-ray detectors provide some advantages and disadvantages compared with proportional counters. In this paper the various configurations of xenon filled GSPC are described including both imaging and nonimaging devices. It is intended that this work be used to configure a GSPC for a particular application and predict its general performance characteristics. The general principles of operation are described and the performance characteristics are then separately considered. A high performance, imaging, driftless GSPC is described in which a single intermediate window is used between the PMT and gas cell

  8. Avalanche localization and its effects in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Okuno, H.; Walenta, A.H.

    1977-11-01

    Avalanche development around the anode wire in a gas proportional counter is investigated. In the region of proportional gas amplification, the avalanche is found to be well localized on one side of the anode wire, where the electrons arrive along the field lines from the point of primary ionization. Induced signals on electrodes surrounding the anode wire are used to measure the azimuthal position of the avalanche on the anode wire. Practical applications of the phenomena such as left-right assignment in drift chambers and measurement of the angular direction of the primary ionization electrons drifting towards the anode wire are discussed

  9. Medicare's Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program in Surgery May Disproportionately Affect Minority-serving Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Terry; Ryan, Andrew M; Gonzalez, Andrew A; Dimick, Justin B

    2015-06-01

    To project readmission penalties for hospitals performing cardiac surgery and examine how these penalties will affect minority-serving hospitals. The Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program will potentially expand penalties for higher-than-predicted readmission rates to cardiac procedures in the near future. The impact of these penalties on minority-serving hospitals is unknown. We examined national Medicare beneficiaries undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in 2008 to 2010 (N = 255,250 patients, 1186 hospitals). Using hierarchical logistic regression, we calculated hospital observed-to-expected readmission ratios. Hospital penalties were projected according to the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program formula using only coronary artery bypass grafting readmissions with a 3% maximum penalty of total Medicare revenue. Hospitals were classified into quintiles according to proportion of black patients treated. Minority-serving hospitals were defined as hospitals in the top quintile whereas non-minority-serving hospitals were those in the bottom quintile. Projected readmission penalties were compared across quintiles. Forty-seven percent of hospitals (559 of 1186) were projected to be assessed a penalty. Twenty-eight percent of hospitals (330 of 1186) would be penalized less than 1% of total Medicare revenue whereas 5% of hospitals (55 of 1186) would receive the maximum 3% penalty. Minority-serving hospitals were almost twice as likely to be penalized than non-minority-serving hospitals (61% vs 32%) and were projected almost triple the reductions in reimbursement ($112 million vs $41 million). Minority-serving hospitals would disproportionately bear the burden of readmission penalties if expanded to include cardiac surgery. Given these hospitals' narrow profit margins, readmission penalties may have a profound impact on these hospitals' ability to care for disadvantaged patients.

  10. Insensitivity of proportional fairness in critically loaded bandwidth sharing networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasiou, M.; Zhang, J.; Zwart, B.

    2014-01-01

    Proportional fairness is a popular service allocation mechanism to describe and analyze the performance of data networks at flow level. Recently, several authors have shown that the invariant distribution of such networks admits a product form distribution under critical loading. Assuming

  11. Proportion of patients in the Uganda rheumatic heart disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proportion of patients in the Uganda rheumatic heart disease registry with advanced ... of Cardiology guidelines on the management of valvular heart disease. ... disease that require surgical treatment yet they cannot access this therapy due to ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  12. Digital signal processing for 3He proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kawarabayashi, Jun; Kurahashi, Tomohiko; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1994-01-01

    Numerical analysis of individual pulses from 3 He proportional counters has been performed. A parametric approach has been used for the identification of a charge particle track direction. Using area parameters, a clear separation of events was observed for the wall effect on a triton and a proton, respectively. ((orig.))

  13. Are Explicit Apologies Proportional to the Offenses They Address?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, John; Raymond, Chase Wesley

    2016-01-01

    We consider here Goffman's proposal of proportionality between virtual offenses and remedial actions, based on the examination of 102 cases of explicit apologies. To this end, we offer a typology of the primary apology formats within the dataset, together with a broad categorization of the types of virtual offenses to which these apologies are…

  14. Radiation loading effect proportional chamber on the performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, T.D.; Kalinina, N.A.; Karpukhin, V.V.; Kruglov, V.V.; Khazins, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of a space charge which appears under the effect of radiation loading on counting characteristics of a proportional chamber, is experimentally investigated. Calculations are made which take into account the effect of a space charge of positive ions formed in the chamber. The investigations have been carried out on the test board which consists of a one-coordinate proportional chamber, a telescope of two scintillation counters and a collimated 90 Sr β-source. The proportional chamber has the 160x160 mm dimensions. The signal wires with the 50 μm diameter are located with the step of s=10 mm. High-voltage planes are coiled with a wire with the 100 μm diameter and a 2 mm step. The distance between high-voltage planes are 18 mm. The chamber is blown through with a gaseous mixture, its composition is 57% Ar+38% CH 4 +5% (OCH 3 ) 2 CH 2 . When carrying out measurements in wide ranges, the density of radiation loading and the amplifier threshold are changed. The experimental results show a considerable effect of radiation loading and the value of amplifier threshold on the value of a counting characteristic. This should be taken into account when estimating the performance of a proportional chamber according to board testing using radioactive sources, as conditions for investigations are usually different from those of a physical experiment on an accelerator

  15. Contribution of working memory in the parity and proportional judgments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanik, J.K.; Zajenkowski, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents experimental evidence on the differences in a sentence-picture verification task under additional memory load between parity and proportional quantifiers. We asked subjects to memorize strings of four or six digits, then to decide whether a quantified sentence was true for a

  16. Amplification and discrimination of signals from proportional multiwire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, L.; Bosio, C.; Cordelli, M.

    1976-03-01

    A circuit is described which detects signals from proportional multiwire chambers. The threshold is about 3μ A and the time jitter of the pulse obtained is better than 2.5 ns. The circuit has one negative input and two complementary outputs. The realized module includes 8 channels with common trigger level control and was built as NIM standard unit

  17. Attentional Control and the Relatedness Proportion Effect in Semantic Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2 experiments, participants completed both an attentional control battery (OSPAN, antisaccade, and Stroop tasks) and a modified semantic priming task. The priming task measured relatedness proportion (RP) effects within subjects, with the color of the prime indicating the probability that the to-be-named target would be related. In Experiment…

  18. Transposition of Knowledge: Encountering Proportionality in an Algebra Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Anna. L. V.; Kilhamn, Cecilia

    2018-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of the process in which "knowledge to be taught" was transposed into "knowledge actually taught," concerning a task including proportional relationships in an algebra setting in a grade 6 classroom. We identified affordances and constraints of the task by describing the mathematical…

  19. Methods of calculus for neutron spectrometry in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butragueno, J.L.; Blazquez, J.B.; Barrado, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Response functions for cylindrical proportional counters with hidrogenated gases have been determined, taking in account only wall effect, by means of two independent calculus methods. One of them is a Montecarlo application and the other one analytical at all. Results of both methods have been compared. (author) [es

  20. Methods of calculus for neutron spectrometry in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butragueno Casado, J.L.; Blazquez Martinez, J.B.; Barrado Menendez, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Response functions for cylindrical proportional counters with hydrogenated gases have been determined, taking in account only wall effect, by means of two independent calculus methods. One of them is a Monte Carlo application and the other one analytica at all. Results of both methods have been compared. (Author)

  1. Pulse-shape discrimination in IAEA tritium proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florkowski, T.

    1981-01-01

    Two systems of pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) for the reduction of background in low-level proportional counters were tested. A tentative conclusion is drawn that both PSD systems, although they decrease slightly the meson background, do not bring improvement in the analytical accuracy

  2. Development of proportional counters using photosensitive gases and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-10-01

    An introduction to the history and to the principle of operation of wire chambers using photosensitive gases and liquids is presented. Their use as light sensors coupled to Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters and BaF 2 , as well as their use in Cherenkov Ring imaging, is discussed in some detail. 42 references, 21 figures

  3. Position sensitive proportional counters as focal plane detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.L.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The rise time and charge division techniques for position decoding with RC-line proportional counters are reviewed. The advantages that these detectors offer as focal plane counters for nuclear spectroscopy performed with magnetic spectrographs are discussed. The theory of operation of proportional counters as position sensing devices is summarized, as well as practical aspects affecting their application. Factors limiting the position and energy resolutions obtainable with a focal plane proportional counter are evaluated and measured position and energy loss values are presented for comparison. Detector systems capable of the multiparameter measurements required for particle identification, background suppression and ray-tracing are described in order to illustrate the wide applicability of proportional counters within complex focal plane systems. Examples of the use of these counters other than with magnetic spectrographs are given in order to demonstrate their usefulness in not only nuclear physics but also in fields such as solid state physics, biology, and medicine. The influence of the new focal plane detector systems on future magnetic spectrograph designs is discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Nature and proportion of total injuries at the Stellenbosch Rugby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the nature and proportion of total injuries occurring at Stellenbosch Rugby Football Club in Stellenbosch, South Africa, between the years 1973 - 1975 and 2003 - 2005. Design. Retrospective, descriptive study. Main outcome measures. Injured rugby players from the ...

  5. Flexible geometry hodoscope using proportional chamber cathode read-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubret, C.; Bellefon, A. de; Benoit, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Tristram, G.

    1978-01-01

    The construction of a cathode read-out proportional chamber, used as a low mass hodoscope is described. Results on efficiency, time resolution and space resolution are shown. The associative logic, which permits the use of the chamber as a coplanarity chamber is briefly presented

  6. Proportionality in the New German Insurance Contract Act 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Heiss (Helmut)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In 2008, the German legislature enacted a completely revised Insurance Contract Act, in which a new rule of proportionality replaced the former all-or-nothing principle for questions of liability. This article outlines the reasons for this shift and the impact of the

  7. A proportional counter for efficient backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, Z.; Marzec, J.; Cudny, W.; Holnicka, J.; Walentek, J.

    1979-01-01

    The authors present a novel gas-tight proportional counter with flat beryllium windows for backscatter Moessbauer spectroscopy. The krypton-filled counter has a geometry that approaches 2π and a resolution of 12% fwhm for the 14.4 keV line of 57 Fe, and is easy to manufacture. (Auth.)

  8. An Axiomatization of the Proportional Rule in Financial Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csoka, Péter; Herings, P. Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The most important rule to determine payments in real-life bankruptcy problems is the proportional rule. Many bankruptcy problems are characterized by network aspects and default may occur as a result of contagion. Indeed, in financial networks with defaulting agents, the values of the agents'

  9. Efficacy of two types of palliative sedation therapy defined using intervention protocols: proportional vs. deep sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kengo; Morita, Tatsuya; Yokomichi, Naosuke; Mori, Masanori; Naito, Akemi Shirado; Tsukuura, Hiroaki; Yamauchi, Toshihiro; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Fukuta, Kaori; Inoue, Satoshi

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of two types of palliative sedation defined using intervention protocols: proportional and deep sedation. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively recorded data of consecutive cancer patients who received the continuous infusion of midazolam in a palliative care unit. Attending physicians chose the sedation protocol based on each patient's wish, symptom severity, prognosis, and refractoriness of suffering. The primary endpoint was a treatment goal achievement at 4 h: in proportional sedation, the achievement of symptom relief (Support Team Assessment Schedule (STAS) ≤ 1) and absence of agitation (modified Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) ≤ 0) and in deep sedation, the achievement of deep sedation (RASS ≤ - 4). Secondary endpoints included mean scores of STAS and RASS, deep sedation as a result, and adverse events. Among 398 patients who died during the period, 32 received proportional and 18 received deep sedation. The treatment goal achievement rate was 68.8% (22/32, 95% confidence interval 52.7-84.9) in the proportional sedation group vs. 83.3% (15/18, 66.1-100) in the deep sedation group. STAS decreased from 3.8 to 0.8 with proportional sedation at 4 h vs. 3.7 to 0.3 with deep sedation; RASS decreased from + 1.2 to - 1.7 vs. + 1.4 to - 3.7, respectively. Deep sedation was needed as a result in 31.3% (10/32) of the proportional sedation group. No fatal events that were considered as probably or definitely related to the intervention occurred. The two types of intervention protocol well reflected the treatment intention and expected outcomes. Further, large-scale cohort studies are promising.

  10. Population Neuroscience: Dementia Epidemiology Serving Precision Medicine and Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Mary; Albanese, Emiliano; Seshadri, Sudha; Bennett, David A; Lyketsos, Constantine; Kukull, Walter A; Skoog, Ingmar; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2018-01-01

    Over recent decades, epidemiology has made significant contributions to our understanding of dementia, translating scientific discoveries into population health. Here, we propose reframing dementia epidemiology as "population neuroscience," blending techniques and models from contemporary neuroscience with those of epidemiology and biostatistics. On the basis of emerging evidence and newer paradigms and methods, population neuroscience will minimize the bias typical of traditional clinical research, identify the relatively homogenous subgroups that comprise the general population, and investigate broader and denser phenotypes of dementia and cognitive impairment. Long-term follow-up of sufficiently large study cohorts will allow the identification of cohort effects and critical windows of exposure. Molecular epidemiology and omics will allow us to unravel the key distinctions within and among subgroups and better understand individuals' risk profiles. Interventional epidemiology will allow us to identify the different subgroups that respond to different treatment/prevention strategies. These strategies will inform precision medicine. In addition, insights into interactions between disease biology, personal and environmental factors, and social determinants of health will allow us to measure and track disease in communities and improve population health. By placing neuroscience within a real-world context, population neuroscience can fulfill its potential to serve both precision medicine and population health.

  11. Serving the Poor : Designing a Mobile Service Platform for Smallholder Farmer Inclusion in Global Value Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karippacheril, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    The starting point for this research was the rapid proliferation of mobile devices, which had covered 95% of the world’s population by 2014. This research addresses the role of multi-sided mobile service platforms in improving the lives of smallholder farmers, who make up a large proportion of the

  12. Combining proportional and majoritarian democracy: An institutional design proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Ganghof

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a new way to combine the “proportional” and “majoritarian” visions of democracy. The proposal blends elements of mixed electoral systems, parliamentarism, presidentialism and bicameralism. Voters are given a single vote to make two simultaneous choices: one about the proportional composition of the legislature and one about the two top parties forming a majoritarian “confidence chamber” embedded within the legislature. Only the majority in this chamber has the power to dismiss the cabinet in a vote of no-confidence. The proposed system virtually guarantees the feasibility of identifiable and stable one-party cabinets governing with shifting, issue-specific majorities in a highly proportional legislature. It is illustrated with respect to the 2013 federal election in Germany.

  13. Sample Size Calculation for Controlling False Discovery Proportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulian Shang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The false discovery proportion (FDP, the proportion of incorrect rejections among all rejections, is a direct measure of abundance of false positive findings in multiple testing. Many methods have been proposed to control FDP, but they are too conservative to be useful for power analysis. Study designs for controlling the mean of FDP, which is false discovery rate, have been commonly used. However, there has been little attempt to design study with direct FDP control to achieve certain level of efficiency. We provide a sample size calculation method using the variance formula of the FDP under weak-dependence assumptions to achieve the desired overall power. The relationship between design parameters and sample size is explored. The adequacy of the procedure is assessed by simulation. We illustrate the method using estimated correlations from a prostate cancer dataset.

  14. Nonlinear kinematic hardening under non-proportional loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosen, N.S.

    1979-07-01

    Within the framework of conventional plasticity theory, it is first determined under which conditions Melan-Prager's and Ziegler's kinematic hardening rules result in identical material behaviour. Next, assuming initial isotropy and adopting the von Mises yield criterion, a nonlinear kinematic hardening function is proposed for prediction of metal behaviour. The model assumes that hardening at a specific stress point depends on the direction of the new incremental loading. Hereby a realistic response is obtained for general reversed loading, and a smooth behaviour is assured, even when loading deviates more and more from proportional loading and ultimately results in reversed loading. The predictions of the proposed model for non-proportional loading under plane stress conditions are compared with those of the classical linear kinematic model, the isotropic model and with published experimental data. Finally, the limitations of the proposaed model are discussed. (author)

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF HETEROGENEOUS PROPORTIONAL COUNTERS FOR NEUTRON DOSIMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzan, Faezeh; Waker, Anthony J

    2018-01-10

    The use of a custom-made cylindrical graphite proportional counter (Cy-GPC) along with a cylindrical tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) for neutron-gamma mixed-field dosimetry has been studied in the following steps: first, the consistency of the gamma dose measurement between the Cy-TEPC and the Cy-GPC was investigated over a range of 20 keV (X-ray) to 0.661 MeV (Cs-137 gamma ray). Then, with both the counters used simultaneously, the neutron and gamma ray doses produced by a P385 Neutron Generator (Thermo Fisher Scientific) together with a Cs-137 gamma source were determined. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. New proportional counter assembly in Gliwice 14C laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscicki, W.; Zastawny, A.

    1977-01-01

    The design and parameters are described of a proportional counter for low level counting. The cathode tube 80 mm in diameter and 30 cm in length is made of pure copper. The anode is a tungsten wire 0.05 mm in diameter. The cathode tube is surrounded by a cylindrical ring container with mercury. The total volume of the counter is 1.5 l and it is filled with carbon dioxide. At a pressure of 1 at of CO 2 the counter background is 4.20+-0.05 cpm and contemporary 14 C net effect 10.22+-0.10 cpm; at a pressure of 2 at of CO 2 the background is 4.40+-0.05 cpm and the contemporary 14 C net effect 20.53+-10 cpm. The efficiency of the proportional counter is 88% in both cases. (J.B.)

  17. Sexually dimorphic proportions of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) skeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galatius, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Sexual differences in growth, allometric growth patterns and skeletal proportions were investigated by linear measurements of skeletal parts on 225 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from the inner Danish and adjacent waters. Females show larger asymptotic sizes and extended period of growth...... to females is also found in the vertebral epiphyses that mature later in males than females, although the males finish growth at a younger age....

  18. Multiwire proportional counter (lecture by an electromagnetic delay line)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruere-Dawson, R.

    1989-01-01

    For track localisation of ionizing particles with multiwire proportional chamber, an electronic chain including amplifying, shaping and memorizing circuits is required for each wire. In order to lower the cost of this type of detector, an electromagnetic delay line is proposed among various possibilities. In this paper, different coupling modes between chamber and delay line are studied with their respective advantages. The realization of one meter long delay line with a unit delay time of 15 ns per cm is also presented [fr

  19. Quench gases for xenon- (and krypton-)filled proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, B.D.; Agrawal, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Xenon-filled proportional counters are used extensively in astronomy, particularly in the hard X-ray region. The choice of quench gas can have a significant effect on the operating characteristics of the instrument although the data necessary to make the choice are not easily obtainable. We present results which detail the performance obtained from both cylindrical and parallel field geometries for a wide variety of readily available, ultrahigh or research grade purity, quench gases. (orig.)

  20. Azimuthal spread of the avalanche in proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, H.; Fischer, J.; Radeka, V.; Walenta, A.H.

    1978-10-01

    The angular distribution of the avalanche around the anode wire in the gas proportional counter is determined by measuring the distribution of positive ions arriving on cathode strips surrounding the anode wire for each single event. The shape and width of the distribution depend on such factors as the gas gain, the anode diameter, the counting gas and the primary ionization density. Effects of these factors are studied systematically, and their importance for practical counter applications is discussed

  1. Metrology and Proportion in the Ecclesiastical Architecture of Medieval Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Behan, Avril; Moss, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the extent to which detailed empirical analysis of the metrology and proportional systems used in the design of Irish ecclesiastical architecture can be analysed to provide historical information not otherwise available. Focussing on a relatively limited sample of window tracery designs as a case study, it will first set out to establish what, if any, systems were in use, and then what light these might shed on the background, training and work practices of...

  2. Data-driven smooth tests of the proportional hazards assumption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraus, David

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-16 ISSN 1380-7870 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA101120604; GA ČR(CZ) GD201/05/H007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Cox model * Neyman's smooth test * proportional hazards assumption * Schwarz's selection rule Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.491, year: 2007

  3. Populational Growth Models Proportional to Beta Densities with Allee Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixo, Sandra M.; Rocha, J. Leonel; Pestana, Dinis D.

    2009-05-01

    We consider populations growth models with Allee effect, proportional to beta densities with shape parameters p and 2, where the dynamical complexity is related with the Malthusian parameter r. For p>2, these models exhibit a population dynamics with natural Allee effect. However, in the case of 1

  4. Fast multiwire proportional chamber data encoding system for proton tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.

    1979-01-01

    A data encoding system that rapidly generates the binary address of an active wire in a 512-wire multiwire proportional chamber has been developed. It can accept a second event on a different wire after a deadtime of 130 ns. The system incorporates preprocessing of the wire data to reject events that would require more than one wire address. It also includes a first-in, first-out memory to buffer the data flow

  5. Relating the Electrical Resistance of Fresh Concrete to Mixture Proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obla, K; Hong, R; Sherman, S; Bentz, D P; Jones, S Z

    2018-01-01

    Characterization of fresh concrete is critical for assuring the quality of our nation's constructed infrastructure. While fresh concrete arriving at a job site in a ready-mixed concrete truck is typically characterized by measuring temperature, slump, unit weight, and air content, here the measurement of the electrical resistance of a freshly cast cylinder of concrete is investigated as a means of assessing mixture proportions, specifically cement and water contents. Both cement and water contents influence the measured electrical resistance of a sample of fresh concrete: the cement by producing ions (chiefly K + , Na + , and OH - ) that are the main source of electrical conduction; and the water by providing the main conductive pathways through which the current travels. Relating the measured electrical resistance to attributes of the mixture proportions, such as water-cement ratio by mass ( w/c ), is explored for a set of eleven different concrete mixtures prepared in the laboratory. In these mixtures, w/c , paste content, air content, fly ash content, high range water reducer dosage, and cement alkali content are all varied. Additionally, concrete electrical resistance data is supplemented by measuring the resistivity of its component pore solution obtained from 5 laboratory-prepared cement pastes with the same proportions as their corresponding concrete mixtures. Only measuring the concrete electrical resistance can provide a prediction of the mixture's paste content or the product w*c ; conversely, when pore solution resistivity is also available, w/c and water content of the concrete mixture can be reasonably assessed.

  6. Proportionality in enterprise development of South African towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitland T. Seaman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated proportionalities in the enterprise structures of 125 South African towns through examining four hypotheses, (1 the magnitude of enterprise development in a town is a function of the population size of the town; (2 the size of an enterprise assemblage of a town is a function of the town’s age; (3 there are statistically significant relationships, and hence proportionalities, between the total number of enterprises in towns and some, if not all, of the enterprise numbers of different business sectors in towns; and (4 the implications of proportionalities have far-reaching implications for rural development and job creation. All hypotheses were accepted on the basis of statistically significant (p < 0.05 correlations, except for the second hypothesis – the age of a town does not determine the size of its enterprise assemblage. Analysis for the fourth hypothesis suggested that there are two broad entrepreneurial types in South African towns: ‘run-of-the-mill’ entrepreneurs and ‘special’ entrepreneurs, which give rise to different enterprise development dynamics. ‘Run-of-the-mill’ enterprises are dependent on, and limited by, local demand and if there is only a small demand, the entrepreneurial space is small. By comparison, ‘special’ enterprises have much larger markets because their products and/or services are exportable. We propose that the fostering of ‘special’ entrepreneurs is an imperative for local economic development in South African towns.

  7. Contributions to the methodology of multiwire proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrascu, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Ph.D. thesis presents first the realization, testing, optimization, and use of detection equipment based on position sensitive multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC), high resolution proportional counters, and of ΔE,E ionization chambers. In the second chapter it is presented the realization MWPC, in which the coordinate information is obtained by means of LC-delay lines, containing many original constructive elements. By using a system of three MWPC in coincidence, an experimental testing of the theoretically predicted pion generation in the 235 U fission process, was performed. An upper limit of 10 -11 for this process was found. In the 3-rd chapter there are presented the developments of high resolution proportional counters for X-ray spectrometry. Various penning mixtures of high purity gases were studied. The purity of gases was assured by a technology described in a Romanian patents. These counters are currently use in various applications as a rapid analysis of steel marks and in the mining industry. the 4-th chapter is dedicated to the construction and using of ΔE,E closed, high resolution ionization chambers. With these chambers the multinucleon transfer in the 27 Al( 14 M, X) reaction at 116 MeV bombarding energy was investigated. Also this type of chambers was used for the elaboration of an absolute method for analysis and profiling of impurities in silicon wafers. This method is described in the last part of the chapter. (Author) 117 Figs., 8 Tabs., 55 Refs

  8. An extended parametrization of gas amplification in proportional wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beingessner, S.P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Hargrove, C.K.

    1987-01-01

    It is normally assumed that the gas amplification in proportional chambers is a function of Townsend's first ionization coefficient, α, and that α is a function of the anode surface electric field only. Experimental measurements are presented demonstrating the breakdown of the latter assumption for electric fields, X, greater than about 150 V/cm/Torr on the anode wire surface for a gas mixture of 80/20 argon/methane. For larger values of X, the parametrization of the proportional gas gain data requires an additional term related to the gradient of the electric field near the wire. This extended gain parametrization remains valid until the onset of nonproportional contributions such as positive ion space charge saturation effects. Furthermore, deviations of the data from this parametrization are used to measure the onset of these space charge effects. A simple scaling dependence of the gain data on the product of pressure and wire radius over the whole proportional range is also demonstrated. (orig.)

  9. Duality between resource reservation and proportional share resource allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Ion; Abdel-Wahab, Hussein; Jeffay, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    We describe anew framework for resource allocation that unifies the well-known proportional share and resource reservation policies. Each client is characterized by two parameters: a weight that represents the rate at which the client 'pays' for the resource, and a share that represents the fraction of the resource that the client should receive. A fixed rate corresponds to a proportional share allocation, while a fixed share corresponds to a reservation. Furthermore, rates and shares are duals of each other. Once one parameters is fixed the other becomes fixed as well. If a client asks for a fixed share then the level of competition for the resource determines the rate at which it has to pay, while if the rate is fixed, level of competition determines the service time the clients should receive. To implement this framework we use a new proportional share algorithm, called earliest eligible virtual deadline first, that achieves optical accuracy in the rates at which process execute. This makes it possible to provide support for highly predictable, real-time services. As a proof of concept we have implemented a prototype of a CPU scheduler under the FreeBSD operating system. The experimental results show that our scheduler achieves the goal of providing integrated support for batch and real-time applications.

  10. Body physique and proportionality of Brazilian female artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciotti, Sarita; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gaya, Adroaldo; Maia, José

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to identify physique characteristics (anthropometry, somatotype, body proportionality) of Brazilian female artistic gymnasts, and to compare them across competitive levels (sub-elite versus non-elite) within competitive age-categories. Two hundred forty-nine female gymnasts (68 sub-elite; 181 non-elite) from 26 Brazilian gymnastics clubs, aged 9-20 years and split into four age-categories, were sampled. Gymnasts were assessed for 16 anthropometric traits (height, weight, lengths, widths, girths, and skinfolds); somatotype was determined according to Heath-Carter method, body fat was estimated by bioimpedance, and proportionality was computed based on the z-phantom strategy. Non-elite and sub-elite gymnasts had similar values in anthropometric characteristics, however non-elite had higher fat folds in all age-categories (P < 0.01). In general, mesomorphy was the salient somatotype component in all age-categories, and an increase in endomorphy, followed by a decrease in ectomorphy across age was observed. Regarding proportionality, profile similarity was found between sub-elite and non-elite within age-categories. In conclusion results suggest the presence of a typical gymnast's physical prototype across age and competitive level, which can be useful to coaches during their selection processes in clubs and regional/national teams.

  11. Implicit learning modulates attention capture: evidence from an item-specific proportion congruency manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, David R; Willoughby, Karen; Milliken, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    A host of research has now shown that our explicit goals and intentions can, in large part, overcome the capture of visual attention by objects that differ from their surroundings in terms of size, shape, or color. Surprisingly however, there is little evidence for the role of implicit learning in mitigating capture effects despite the fact that such learning has been shown to strongly affect behavior in a host of other performance domains. Here, we employ a modified attention capture paradigm, based on the work of Theeuwes (1991, 1992), in which participants must search for an odd-shaped target amongst homogeneous distracters. On each trial, there is also a salient, but irrelevant odd-colored distracter. Across the experiments reported, we intermix two search contexts: for one set of distracters (e.g., squares) the shape singleton and color singleton coincide on a majority of trials (high proportion congruent condition), whereas for the other set of distracters (e.g., circles) the shape and color singletons are highly unlikely to coincide (low proportion congruent condition). Crucially, we find that observers learn to allow the capture of attention by the salient distracter to a greater extent in the high, compared to the low proportion congruent condition, albeit only when search is sufficiently difficult. Moreover, this effect of prior experience on search behavior occurs in the absence of awareness of our proportion manipulation. We argue that low-level properties of the search displays recruit representations of prior experience in a rapid, flexible, and implicit manner.

  12. LDPC Codes with Minimum Distance Proportional to Block Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes characterized by minimum Hamming distances proportional to block sizes have been demonstrated. Like the codes mentioned in the immediately preceding article, the present codes are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. The previously mentioned codes have low decoding thresholds and reasonably low error floors. However, the minimum Hamming distances of those codes do not grow linearly with code-block sizes. Codes that have this minimum-distance property exhibit very low error floors. Examples of such codes include regular LDPC codes with variable degrees of at least 3. Unfortunately, the decoding thresholds of regular LDPC codes are high. Hence, there is a need for LDPC codes characterized by both low decoding thresholds and, in order to obtain acceptably low error floors, minimum Hamming distances that are proportional to code-block sizes. The present codes were developed to satisfy this need. The minimum Hamming distances of the present codes have been shown, through consideration of ensemble-average weight enumerators, to be proportional to code block sizes. As in the cases of irregular ensembles, the properties of these codes are sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. A code having too few such nodes tends to have an iterative decoding threshold that is far from the capacity threshold. A code having too many such nodes tends not to exhibit a minimum distance that is proportional to block size. Results of computational simulations have shown that the decoding thresholds of codes of the present type are lower than those of regular LDPC codes. Included in the simulations were a few examples from a family of codes characterized by rates ranging from low to high and by thresholds that adhere closely to their respective channel capacity thresholds; the simulation results from these examples showed that the codes in question have low

  13. Coordination and variability in the elite female tennis serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, David; Elliott, Bruce Clifford; Lay, Brendan; Reid, Machar

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the understanding of coordination and variability in the tennis serve may be of interest to coaches as they work with players to improve performance. The current study examined coordinated joint rotations and variability in the lower limbs, trunk, serving arm and ball location in the elite female tennis serve. Pre-pubescent, pubescent and adult players performed maximal effort flat serves while a 22-camera 500 Hz motion analysis system captured three-dimensional body kinematics. Coordinated joint rotations in the lower limbs and trunk appeared most consistent at the time players left the ground, suggesting that they coordinate the proximal elements of the kinematic chain to ensure that they leave the ground at a consistent time, in a consistent posture. Variability in the two degrees of freedom at the elbow became significantly greater closer to impact in adults, possibly illustrating the mechanical adjustments (compensation) these players employed to manage the changing impact location from serve to serve. Despite the variable ball toss, the temporal composition of the serve was highly consistent and supports previous assertions that players use the location of the ball to regulate their movement. Future work should consider these associations in other populations, while coaches may use the current findings to improve female serve performance.

  14. The National Insurance Academy: Serving India's Insurance Professionals and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Bhagyashree

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how a special library can meet the needs of a specific industry. The author focuses on India's National Insurance Academy (NIA) Library, which serves the insurance industry of India and some neighboring countries. It is where the author serves as the chief librarian.

  15. 75 FR 58283 - National Hispanic-Serving Institutions Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... National Hispanic-Serving Institutions Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... compete and thrive. Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) are key members of our higher education system... prosperous tomorrow for our Nation. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of...

  16. 45 CFR 2554.21 - How are papers served?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are papers served? 2554.21 Section 2554.21... SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 2554.21 How are papers served... pleading and paper filed in the proceeding shall contain a caption setting forth the title of the action...

  17. Assessing the Implications of Allowing Transgender Personnel to Serve Openly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Openly? There are 18 countries that allow transgender personnel to serve openly in their mili- taries: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia , Canada...clinical and cultural competence for the proper care of transgender patients. Surgical procedures quite similar to those used for gender transition...tries that allow transgender personnel to serve openly in their militaries: Austra- lia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia , Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark

  18. 20 CFR 639.8 - How is the notice served?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the notice served? 639.8 Section 639.8 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR WORKER ADJUSTMENT AND RETRAINING NOTIFICATION § 639.8 How is the notice served? Any reasonable method of delivery to the parties...

  19. Portion and Serving Sizes of Commonly Consumed Foods, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portion sizes were determined from weight equivalents of each food type consumed, average portion sizes for each food type were determined using the statistical ... Serving sizes determined: a serving of the various foods as expressed in household measures include; 1.3 slices of bread, 13.5 tablespoons of Ewedu soup, ...

  20. Leader self-definition and leader self-serving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rus, Diana; van Knippenberg, Daan; Wisse, Barbara

    The present research investigated the relationship between leader self-definition processes and leader self-serving behaviors. We hypothesized that self-definition as a leader interacts with social reference information (descriptive and injunctive) in predicting leader self-serving actions Six

  1. Minority-Serving Institutions and the Education of U.S. Underrepresented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Ginelle; Stage, Frances K.

    2014-01-01

    Numbers of students of color enrolling in higher educational institutions is expected to increase across all racial groups. With continued increases in minority enrollments, minority-serving institutions have and will continue to play a major role in educating student of color. A large national data set was used to examine the numbers of…

  2. PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY, CRITERION OF LEGITIMACY IN THE PUBLIC LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS ANDREESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A problem of essence of the state is the one to delimit the discretionary power, respectively the power abuse in the activity of the state’s institutions. The legal behavior of the state’s institutions consists in their right to appreciate them and the power excess generates the violation of a subjective right or of the right that is of legitimate interest to the citizen. The application and nonobservance of the principle of lawfulness in the activities of the state is a complex problem because the exercise of the state’s functions assumes the discretionary powers with which the states authorities are invested, or otherwise said the ‘right of appreciation” of the authorities regarding the moment of adopting the contents of the measures proposed. The discretionary power cannot be opposed to the principle of lawfulness, as a dimension of the state de jure. In this study we propose to analyze the concept of discretionary power, respectively the power excess, having as a guidance the legislation, jurisprudence and doctrine in the matter. At the same time we would like to identify the most important criterions that will allow the user, regardless that he is or not an administrator, a public clerk or a judge, to delimit the legal behavior of the state’s institutions from the power excess. Within this context, we appreciate that the principle of proportionality represents such a criterion. The proportionality is a legal principle of the law, but at the same time it is a principle of the constitutional law and of other law branches. It expresses clearly the idea of balance, reasonability but also of adjusting the measures ordered by the state’s authorities to the situation in fact, respectively to the purpose for which they have been conceived. In our study we choose theoretical and jurisprudence arguments according to which the principle of proportionality can procedurally be determined and used to delimit the discretionary power and

  3. Proportional counter response calculations for gallium solar neutrino detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, R.T.; Reynolds, D.

    1989-01-01

    Gallium bases solar neutrino detectors are sensitive to the primary pp reaction in the sun. Two experiments using gallium, SAGE in the Soviet Union and GALLEX in Europe, are under construction and will produce data by 1989. The radioactive /sup 71/Ge produced by neutrinos interacting with the gallium detector material, is chemically extracted and counted in miniature proportional counters. A number of calculations have been carried out to simulate the response of these counters to the decay of /sup 71/Ge and to background events

  4. Xenon-based Penning mixtures for proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, B.D.; Agrawal, P.C.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL

    1989-01-01

    The choice of quench gas can have a significant effect on the gas gain and energy resolution of gas-filed proportional counters. Details are given on the performance obtained with a variety of quench additives of varying ionization potentials for use in xenon-filled systems. It is confirmed that optimum performance is obtained when the ionization potential is closely matched to the first metastable level of xenon (8.3 eV) as is the case with xenon + trimethylamine and xenon + dimethylamine. For these mixtures the Penning effect is at its strongest. (orig.)

  5. A multiwire proportional counter for very high counting rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, A.F.; Guedes, G.P.; Tamura, E.; Pepe, I.M.; Oliveira, N.B.

    1997-12-01

    Preliminary measurements in a proportional counter with two independently counting wires showed that counting rates up to 10 6 counts/s per wire can be reached without critical loss in the true versus measured linearity relation. Results obtained with a detector containing 30 active wires (2 mm pitch) are presented. To each wire is associated a fast pre-amplifier and a discriminator channel. Global counting rates in excess to 10 7 events/s are reported. Data acquisition systems are described for 1D (real time) and 2D (off-line) position sensitive detection systems. (author)

  6. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance Strategies in Contagious Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buccioli, Alice; Kokholm, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    charging and for risk management. The literature on CPPI modeling typically assumes diffusive or Lévy-driven dynamics for the risky asset underlying the strategy. In either case the self-contagious nature of asset prices is not taken into account. In order to account for contagion while preserving......Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI) strategies are popular as they allow to gear up the upside potential of a stock index while limiting its downside risk. From the issuer's perspective it is important to adequately assess the risks associated with the CPPI, both for correct "gap'' fee...

  7. A multiwire proportional counter for very high counting rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, A F; Guedes, G P [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tamura, E [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pepe, I M; Oliveira, N B [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-12-01

    Preliminary measurements in a proportional counter with two independently counting wires showed that counting rates up to 10{sup 6} counts/s per wire can be reached without critical loss in the true versus measured linearity relation. Results obtained with a detector containing 30 active wires (2 mm pitch) are presented. To each wire is associated a fast pre-amplifier and a discriminator channel. Global counting rates in excess to 10{sup 7} events/s are reported. Data acquisition systems are described for 1D (real time) and 2D (off-line) position sensitive detection systems. (author) 13 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Multi-element proportional counter for radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliauga, P.; Rossi, H.H.; Johnson, G.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses design modifications of a multi-element proportional counter. The original counter exhibited poor resolution, as measured by the width of the event-size spectrum for low-energy photons. It was also suspected that the field inside each volume was not sufficiently symmetric. Results of the modifications showed that a dramatic improvement in resolution could be obtained in the chamber with tissue-equivalent septa if their potentials were adjusted to obtain optimal resolution. The full width at half maximum then approached, although it did not equal, that of a standard spherical counter

  9. Computer simulation of gain fluctuations in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, Nelgun; Tapan, . Ilhan

    2004-01-01

    A computer simulation code has been developed in order to examine the fluctuation in gas amplification in wire proportional counters which are common in detector applications in particle physics experiments. The magnitude of the variance in the gain dominates the statistical portion of the energy resolution. In order to compare simulation and experimental results, the gain and its variation has been calculated numerically for the well known Aleph Inner Tracking Detector geometry. The results show that the bias voltage has a strong influence on the variance in the gain. The simulation calculations are in good agreement with experimental results. (authors)

  10. Proportional counter with uniform electric field with Penning's mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, Z.; Marzec, J.; Zaremba, K.

    1984-01-01

    Some calculations are given and the design of proportional counters with a homogeneous electric field filled with Penning's mixtures, which ensure the best energy resolution is described. The counters with mixtures of Ne+Ar, Ne+CH 4 , Ne+CO 2 and Ar+C 2 H 2 have been checked. The admixtures (Ar, CH 4 , CO 2 , C 2 H 2 ) constitute from 0.1 to 2%, with pressure from 125 Tr to 760 Torr. The best energy resolution has been obtained for the mixture of Ne+1%CH 4 at the pressure of 190 Torr

  11. Developing a digital photography-based method for dietary analysis in self-serve dining settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Mary J; Loman, Brett R; Ellison, Brenna

    2017-07-01

    Current population-based methods for assessing dietary intake, including food frequency questionnaires, food diaries, and 24-h dietary recall, are limited in their ability to objectively measure food intake. Digital photography has been identified as a promising addition to these techniques but has rarely been assessed in self-serve settings. We utilized digital photography to examine university students' food choices and consumption in a self-serve dining hall setting. Research assistants took pre- and post-photos of students' plates during lunch and dinner to assess selection (presence), servings, and consumption of MyPlate food groups. Four coders rated the same set of approximately 180 meals for inter-rater reliability analyses; approximately 50 additional meals were coded twice by each coder to assess intra-rater agreement. Inter-rater agreement on the selection, servings, and consumption of food groups was high at 93.5%; intra-rater agreement was similarly high with an average of 95.6% agreement. Coders achieved the highest rates of agreement in assessing if a food group was present on the plate (95-99% inter-rater agreement, depending on food group) and estimating the servings of food selected (81-98% inter-rater agreement). Estimating consumption, particularly for items such as beans and cheese that were often in mixed dishes, was more challenging (77-94% inter-rater agreement). Results suggest that the digital photography method presented is feasible for large studies in real-world environments and can provide an objective measure of food selection, servings, and consumption with a high degree of agreement between coders; however, to make accurate claims about the state of dietary intake in all-you-can-eat, self-serve settings, researchers will need to account for the possibility of diners taking multiple trips through the serving line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Single channel analog pulse processor Asic for gas proportional counters and SI detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandratre, V.B.; Sarkar, Soumen; Kataria, S.K.; Viyogi, Y.P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the design and development of a single channel pulse processor in short Singleplex ASIC targeted for gas proportional counters/Si detectors. The design is optimized for the dynamic range of +500 fC to -500 fC with provision for externally adjusted pole-zero cancellation. A dedicated filter based on the de-convolution principle is used for the cancellation of the long hyperbolic signal tail produced by the slow drift of ions, typical in gas proportional with the filter time constants derived from the actual detector input signal shape. The pole-zero adjustment can be done by external dc voltage to achieve perfect base-line recovery to 1% after 5 μs. The simulated 0 pf noise is 500 e - rms for the peaking time of 1.2 μs with noise slope of 7e - -. The gain is 3.4 mv/fC over the entire linear dynamic range with power dissipation of 13 mW. This design is a modified version of Indiplex chip with features dynamic range equal gain on both polarities with nearly same noise and serves as diagnostic chip for Indiplex. The chip can be used for radiation monitoring instruments. (author)

  13. Proportional counter with a wire-anode lying on the dielectric surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, A.V.

    1983-01-01

    Proportional coUnter with wire-anode lying on the dielectric surface is described. The result of the accumulation of charges on the dielectric surface immediately near the wire-anode surface is that such a counter possesses electrostatic memory relative to distribution of the gas amplification coefficient along the anode. SUch a distribution can be received for example by means of irradiation by the neutrons or the γ-rays. The disposition of the wire-anode on the convex dielectric surface allows one to make the ring-shaped counters or the nonplane proportional chambers practically of any profile. However, the energy resolution of the counter with anode on the dielectric is worse than the resolution of counter with free anode particularly at the large gas amplification coefficient

  14. Study on the neutron dosimetric characteristics of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunomiya, T.; Kim, E.; Kurosawa, T.; Taniguchi, S.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Tsujimura, N.; Momose, T.; Shinohara, K. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Environment and Safety Division, Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    The neutron dosimetric characteristics of TEPC (Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter) has been investigated under a cooperative study between Tohoku University and JNC since 1997. This TEPC is a spherical, large volume, single-wire proportional counter (the model LETSW-5, manufactured by Far West Technology, Inc.) and filled with a tissue equivalent gas in a spherical detector of the A-150 tissue equivalent plastic. The TEPC can measure the spectra of absorbed dose in LET and easily estimate the tissue equivalent dose to neutron. This report summarizes the dosimetric characteristics of TEPC to the monoenergetic neutrons with energy from 8 keV to 15 MeV. It is found that TEPC can estimate the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), with an accuracy from 0.9 to 2 to the neutron above 0.25 MeV and TEPC has a good counting efficiency enough to measure neutron doses with low dose rate at the stray neutron fields. (author)

  15. An Analysis of Maxillary Anterior Teeth Dimensions for the Existence of Golden Proportion: Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, Nalla; Satwalekar, Parth; Srinivas, Siva; Reddy, Chandra Sekhar; Reddy, G Ramaswamy; Reddy, B Anantha

    2015-09-01

    Appearance of the face is a great concern to everyone, as it is a significant part of self-image. The study analyzed the clinical crown dimensions of the maxillary anterior teeth with respect to their apparent mesiodistal widths, width-to-height ratio to determine whether golden proportion existed among the South Indian population. A total of 240 dentulous subjects were chosen for the study (120 males and 120 females) age ranging between 18 and 28 years. Full face and anterior teeth images of the subjects were made on specially designed device resembling a face-bow, mounted onto the wall under a standard light source. The width and height of the maxillary central incisors were measured on the stone casts using a digital caliper. The mean perceived maxillary lateral incisor to central incisor width ratio was 0.67 in males and 0.703 in females. The mean perceived maxillary canine to lateral incisor width ratio was 0.744 in males and 0.714 in females. The mean width-to-height ratio of the maxillary central incisor was 79.49% in males and 79.197% in females. The golden proportion was not found between perceived mesiodistal widths of maxillary central and lateral incisors and nor between perceived mesiodistal widths of maxillary lateral incisors and canines. In the majority of subjects, the width-to-height ratio of maxillary central incisor was within 75-80%. There are no statistically significant differences in maxillary anterior teeth proportions between males and females. The results may serve as guidelines for treatment planning in restorative dentistry and periodontal surgery.

  16. On timing properties of the SRPO-304 proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.A.; Pugacheva, G.I.

    1979-01-01

    Data of measurements of the signal delay time and the time of development of the discharge in a proportional counter filled with 90% Xe + 10% CH 4 mixture at 0.3 atm are presented. The measurements were carried out on muons of cosmic rays. Signal delay distribution for the proportional counter are given relative to the time of passage through it of a charged particle. The data obtained shows that the average delay time is 0.8 μs when a particle passes near the counter centre, whereas when it passes near its side wall the average delay time is 1.5 μs. The investigation of the discharge development time distribution was carried out for two values of the discriminator threshold: 6 and 20 keV. It was determined that the discharge development time distribution depends but little on the place of particle passage in a counter. The average discharge development time is 1.5 μs, with the maximum time beina 4.3 μs. It is shown that the resolution time of logical circuits will be near 4 μs when the counter is combined with scintillation detectors

  17. Operability test procedure for 211BA flow proportional sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenfels, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this operability test procedure (OTP) is to verify the 211-BA flow proportional sampler system and components function correctly as intended by design. System test will include the sampling system, all associated instrumentation, and Facility Process Monitor and Control System (FPMCS). The combined chemical sewer stream from B Plant flows through sump 211BA-SMP-01 located in 211-BA and is continuously monitored for gamma and beta radiation and pH. 211-BA has been upgraded to include a flow proportional sampler. A specified sample volume will be withdrawn at programmed intervals from the 211BA sump and deposited in a 19 liter plastic carboy. The sampler will be programmed per the vendor installation and operations manual by B Plant instrument maintenance personnel. Samples will be taken during five consecutive sample cycles with the sample volumes and sample frequencies recorded for comparison purposes. Additional tests related to the sampler include the alarm circuitry for loss of power and failure to obtain sample

  18. The arcsine is asinine: the analysis of proportions in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warton, David I; Hui, Francis K C

    2011-01-01

    The arcsine square root transformation has long been standard procedure when analyzing proportional data in ecology, with applications in data sets containing binomial and non-binomial response variables. Here, we argue that the arcsine transform should not be used in either circumstance. For binomial data, logistic regression has greater interpretability and higher power than analyses of transformed data. However, it is important to check the data for additional unexplained variation, i.e., overdispersion, and to account for it via the inclusion of random effects in the model if found. For non-binomial data, the arcsine transform is undesirable on the grounds of interpretability, and because it can produce nonsensical predictions. The logit transformation is proposed as an alternative approach to address these issues. Examples are presented in both cases to illustrate these advantages, comparing various methods of analyzing proportions including untransformed, arcsine- and logit-transformed linear models and logistic regression (with or without random effects). Simulations demonstrate that logistic regression usually provides a gain in power over other methods.

  19. How mainstream economics serves the rich, obscures reality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    12Economics of the 1%: How mainstream economics serves the rich, ... revealing analysis of economic inequality contrasts with the silence of mainstream ... been the coordinating editor of the Journal of Australian Political Economy for the last ...

  20. Environmental Finance Center Serving EPA's Region 8 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Rural Water Association, headquartered in Duncan Oklahoma, has been selected through a competitive grants process to establish a regional Environmental Finance Center (EFC) serving EPA Region 8 states.

  1. Mass serving theory application to the analysis of maintenance system functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko Predrag Petrović

    2013-06-01

    that describe the process of serving within the given limited values of the parameters. The key indicators of effectiveness are: the number of serving channels; the average serving time and the average number of clients accessing the system per time unit. The best way of analysing the functioning of MSS in the optimum regime is a comparison of the two opposing criteria of effectiveness: the probability of serving and the ratio of the serving channel occupancy, assuming that the initial parameters - the average time of serving and the intensity of the input stream of clients - are constant. Under these conditions, the optimal number of serving channels should be determined. As a criterion of optimality, we accept the following fact: the MSS operates in the optimum regime if the probability of serving and the ratio of the serving channel occupancy are large enough, values so that the TE value is minimal. It can be noticed that the values of both probabilities are similar when the number of serving channels is 2. In other cases, these deviations are larger. The improvement of one criterion causes the deterioration of the other one and vice versa. It can be concluded that the optimal number of serving channels is when Ps and Pzk have equal values, and the values of probability exceed 51%. The analysis of the shown case of the optimization in the MSS indicates that the number of TE is oversized i.e. the largest number of technological requirements could be fulfilled with 2 TE (instead of 4 as in a real system. Retention time in the mass serving system When analyzing the retention time of technical means in the MSS, we can notice that, by increasing the number of serving channels, all values of time converge to a single value. Using the previous results which show that the number of 2 serving channels is optimal, we have analysed the range of values of retention time in the MSS for different values of malfunction intensity. The analyzed data show clearly how the retention

  2. 13 CFR 142.20 - How are papers served?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are papers served? 142.20... ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 142.20 How are papers served? Except for service of a complaint or a notice of hearing under §§ 142.11 and 142.14(b) respectively, service of papers must be made as...

  3. Economic importance and growth rate of broiler chickens served ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weight gain were N307.13 and N87.50 /kg for the birds served 120 ml FPLE/litre of water compared to control (N208.17 and N96.52/kg), respectively. An average NP of N273.56 was made for the broiler chickens served 30-120 ml FPLE/l of water with reference to control (N208.17), which was a difference of N64.39 per bird.

  4. HIGH SERVE - service for nuclear technology. Buyers' guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Deutsches Atomforum e.V. (German Atomic Forum) has organised a specialist conference with the title 'HIGH SERVE - service for nuclear technology' for October 1986. In parallel with the conference, an exhibition will make it possible for interested firms to present their service and product ranges. The experience gained in the preparation of this exhibition has been used to produce the 'HIGH SERVE - buyers guide'. The intention is to make the market more comprehensible. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Mixtures of organic and inorganic substrates, particle size and proportion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Raymundo Morales-Maldonado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to review the mixtures of organic and inorganic materials used in the preparation of a new material, particle size, proportion, and their response in plant. In Mexico, agricultural waste is considered as a pollutant reservoir; however, from another perspective, this represents an industry with great potential. The nutrients ingested by animals represent nutriments available for plants when properly recycled. An option that minimizes the risk of contamination and improves its quality is the production of compost and vermicompost. Both processes are an alternative to organic production. A material by itself does not meet the optimum conditions. Reducing the volume of an organic material increases compaction and compression of roots, affecting the efficiency of irrigation and fertilization, so it is necessary to make mixtures with inorganic materials, that is used in the development of a new material for better growing conditions of the plant.

  6. Determination of dose equivalent with tissue-equivalent proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, G.; Schuhmacher, H.; Menzel, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    Low pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) are instruments based on the cavity chamber principle and provide spectral information on the energy loss of single charged particles crossing the cavity. Hence such detectors measure absorbed dose or kerma and are able to provide estimates on radiation quality. During recent years TEPC based instruments have been developed for radiation protection applications in photon and neutron fields. This was mainly based on the expectation that the energy dependence of their dose equivalent response is smaller than that of other instruments in use. Recently, such instruments have been investigated by intercomparison measurements in various neutron and photon fields. Although their principles of measurements are more closely related to the definition of dose equivalent quantities than those of other existing dosemeters, there are distinct differences and limitations with respect to the irradiation geometry and the determination of the quality factor. The application of such instruments for measuring ambient dose equivalent is discussed. (author)

  7. Design of nuclear pulse shaped circuit based on proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qianqian; Cheng Yi; Tuo Xianguo

    2011-01-01

    Use the self-developed proportional to sample gas tritium in environment and make the measurement. For this detector, a kind of pulse shape circuit based on second order active low pass filtering circuit realized filtering and shaping nuclear pulse by high-speed operational amplifier, with less stages that has been approved for filter Gaussian wave. Use Multisim 10.0 to simulate the different parameters of the filter circuit. The simulation result was consistent with the theoretical results. The experiments proved the feasibility of this circuit, and at the same time provided a convenient and reliable method for analysis and optimization of the nuclear pulse waveform in order for discriminating by MCA. (authors)

  8. Functional form diagnostics for Cox's proportional hazards model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Larry F; Tsai, Chih-Ling

    2004-03-01

    We propose a new type of residual and an easily computed functional form test for the Cox proportional hazards model. The proposed test is a modification of the omnibus test for testing the overall fit of a parametric regression model, developed by Stute, González Manteiga, and Presedo Quindimil (1998, Journal of the American Statistical Association93, 141-149), and is based on what we call censoring consistent residuals. In addition, we develop residual plots that can be used to identify the correct functional forms of covariates. We compare our test with the functional form test of Lin, Wei, and Ying (1993, Biometrika80, 557-572) in a simulation study. The practical application of the proposed residuals and functional form test is illustrated using both a simulated data set and a real data set.

  9. Mixtures of organic and inorganic substrates, particle size and proportion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Maldonado, Emilio Raymundo; Casanova-Lugo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The mixtures of organic and inorganic materials used in the preparation of a new material, particle size, proportion and their response in plant were reviewed. Agricultural wastes are considered a pollutant reservoir in Mexico; however, for another perspective this represent an industry with great potential. The nutrients ingested by animals represent nutriments available for plants when properly recycled. The production of compost and vermicompost is an option that minimize the risk of contamination and improve quality. Both processes are an alternative for organic production. The efficiency of irrigation and fertilization are affected for the reducing the volumen of an organic material incresase compaction and compression of roots. The mixtures with inorganic materials are used in the development of a new material to obtain better growing conditions for the plant. (author) [es

  10. Imaging performance of a multiwire proportional-chamber positron camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mandez, V.; Del Guerra, A.; Nelson, W.R.; Tam, K.C.

    1982-08-01

    A new design - fully three-dimensional - Positron Camera is presented, made of six MultiWire Proportional Chamber modules arranged to form the lateral surface of a hexagonal prism. A true coincidence rate of 56000 c/s is expected with an equal accidental rate for a 400 μCi activity uniformly distributed in a approx. 3 l water phantom. A detailed Monte Carlo program has been used to investigate the dependence of the spatial resolution on the geometrical and physical parameters. A spatial resolution of 4.8 mm FWHM has been obtained for a 18 F point-like source in a 10 cm radius water phantom. The main properties of the limited angle reconstruction algorithms are described in relation to the proposed detector geometry

  11. The suppression of destructive sparks in parallel plate proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockshott, R.A.; Mason, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    The authors find that high energy background events produce localised sparks in parallel plate counters when operated in the proportional mode. These sparks increase dead-time and lead to degradation ranging from electrode damage to spurious pulsing and continuous breakdown. The problem is particularly serious in low energy photon detectors for X-ray astronomy which are required to have lifetimes of several years in the high radiation environment of space. For the parallel plate imaging detector developed for the European X-ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT) they investigate quantitatively the spark thresholds, spark rates and degradation processes. They discuss the spark mechanism, pointing out differences from the situation in spark chambers and counters. They show that the time profile of the sparks allows them to devise a spark suppression system which reduces the degradation rate by a factor of ''200.

  12. Design of pneumatic proportional flow valve type 5/3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laski, P. A.; Pietrala, D. S.; Zwierzchowski, J.; Czarnogorski, K.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper the 5/3-way pneumatic, proportional flow valve was designed and made. Stepper linear actuator was used to move the spool. The valve is controlled by the controlled based on a AVR microcontroller. Virtual model of the valve was created in CAD. The real element was made based on a standard 5/3-way manually actuated valve with hand lever, which was dismounted and replaced by linear stepper motor. All the elements was mounted in a specially made housing. The controller consists of microcontroller Atmega16, integrated circuit L293D, display, two potentiometers, three LEDs and six buttons. Series of research was also conducted. Simulation research were performed using CFD by the Flow Simulation addition to SolidWorks. During the experiments the valve characteristics of flow and pressure was determined.

  13. A Bayesian equivalency test for two independent binomial proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yohei; Shimokawa, Asanao; Yamada, Hiroshi; Miyaoka, Etsuo

    2016-01-01

    In clinical trials, it is often necessary to perform an equivalence study. The equivalence study requires actively denoting equivalence between two different drugs or treatments. Since it is not possible to assert equivalence that is not rejected by a superiority test, statistical methods known as equivalency tests have been suggested. These methods for equivalency tests are based on the frequency framework; however, there are few such methods in the Bayesian framework. Hence, this article proposes a new index that suggests the equivalency of binomial proportions, which is constructed based on the Bayesian framework. In this study, we provide two methods for calculating the index and compare the probabilities that have been calculated by these two calculation methods. Moreover, we apply this index to the results of actual clinical trials to demonstrate the utility of the index.

  14. Application of multiwire proportional chamber in BEPC test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Ji; Chen Ziyu; Ye Yunxiu; Cuiu Xiangzong; Li Jiacai

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) for the Test Beam on BEPC (Beijing Electron Positron Colider). The distance between the anode surface and the cathode surface of the MWPC is 6 mm. Both surfaces are made of gold-plated tungsten wires, the anode wires are 20 μm in diameter and 2 mm apart, and the cathode wires are 50 μm indiameter and 0.7 mm apart. Six adjacent wires are connected together to form a 4.2 mm wide cathode strip. The MWPC can localize the particles of e, π by cathode-induced charge centre-of-gravity read-out. For 5.9 keV γ photon, the positional resolution is less than 0.3 mm (FWHM) and for 1.1 GeV beam electron, 0.224 mm (FWHM) positional resolution is attained. (authors)

  15. Use of proportional tubes in a muon polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenney, C.J.; Eckhause, M.; Ginkel, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype muon polarimeter was built to study the feasibility of measuring the positive muon polarization in the decay K/sub L/ → μ + μ/sup /minus//. The system consisted of alternating layers of extruded aluminum gas proportional tubes and polarization-retaining absorber plates of either aluminum or marble. Longitudinally polarized positive muons from the Stopped Muon Channel at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) were stopped in the absorber plates where they precessed in a field of 60 gauss. Decay times were recorded in 100 ns first-in-first-out memories for all wires hit during a 12.8 μs period centered about the muon stop trigger. The performance of the system was studied for different beam rates and absorber thicknesses. The value of imposing time and spacial cuts on track data to enhance the precession signal was also investigated. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Optimization of maintenance policy using the proportional hazard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samrout, M. [Information Sciences and Technologies Institute, University of Technology of Troyes, 10000 Troyes (France)], E-mail: mohamad.el_samrout@utt.fr; Chatelet, E. [Information Sciences and Technologies Institute, University of Technology of Troyes, 10000 Troyes (France)], E-mail: chatelt@utt.fr; Kouta, R. [M3M Laboratory, University of Technology of Belfort Montbeliard (France); Chebbo, N. [Industrial Systems Laboratory, IUT, Lebanese University (Lebanon)

    2009-01-15

    The evolution of system reliability depends on its structure as well as on the evolution of its components reliability. The latter is a function of component age during a system's operating life. Component aging is strongly affected by maintenance activities performed on the system. In this work, we consider two categories of maintenance activities: corrective maintenance (CM) and preventive maintenance (PM). Maintenance actions are characterized by their ability to reduce this age. PM consists of actions applied on components while they are operating, whereas CM actions occur when the component breaks down. In this paper, we expound a new method to integrate the effect of CM while planning for the PM policy. The proportional hazard function was used as a modeling tool for that purpose. Interesting results were obtained when comparison between policies that take into consideration the CM effect and those that do not is established.

  17. A Praxeological Study of Proportionality in Mathematics Lower Secondary Textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijayanti, Dyana

    Research on the uses and contents of mathematics textbooks has expanded over the past decades, due to the central role textbooks occupy in mathematics teaching worldwide. However, the methodology of analysing the texts themselves often appears underdeveloped or even naïve, especially when it comes...... to specific mathematical content. The central idea of this thesis is to deploy the anthropological theory of the didactic, and especially the notion of praxeology, to analyse how textbooks treat three specific and related areas (or more precisely, sectors) of mathematical contents for lower secondary school......, namely "proportion and ratio" (in Arithmetic), "similar plane figures" (in Geometry), and "linear functions" (in Algebra). This leads to a new and very precise methodological tool for analysing the practices (types of tasks, techniques) supported by the textbooks through examples, explanations...

  18. Optimization of simultaneous tritium–radiocarbon internal gas proportional counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonicalzi, R. M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Mace, E. K.; Moran, J. J.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E.; Seifert, A.

    2016-03-01

    Specific environmental applications can benefit from dual tritium and radiocarbon measurements in a single compound. Assuming typical environmental levels, it is often the low tritium activity relative to the higher radiocarbon activity that limits the dual measurement. In this paper, we explore the parameter space for a combined tritium and radiocarbon measurement using a methane sample mixed with an argon fill gas in low-background proportional counters of a specific design. We present an optimized methane percentage, detector fill pressure, and analysis energy windows to maximize measurement sensitivity while minimizing count time. The final optimized method uses a 9-atm fill of P35 (35% methane, 65% argon), and a tritium analysis window from 1.5 to 10.3 keV, which stops short of the tritium beta decay endpoint energy of 18.6 keV. This method optimizes tritium counting efficiency while minimizing radiocarbon beta decay interference.

  19. Industrial defectoscope based on multiwire proportional chamber in CAMAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzeski, P.; Kazubek, M.; Mirkowski, J.; Szabatin, R.

    1976-01-01

    The defectoscope for non-destructive testing has been built at the Institute of Radioelectronics in collaboration with the Electrotechnical Institute, Non-destructive Division. The defectoscope consists of the following parts: gamma radiation detector, multiwire proportional chamber with γ-e converter, preamplifier system attached directly to the chamber wires, logic module of CAMAC philoscopy, and MERA 300 minicomputer. The defectoscope is used to detect material flaws in tested objects, irradiated from an internal radiation source. Minicomputer used enables data processing. The data collected in mincomputer memory are the radiological image of a tested object. It is possible to display the collected image on a television monitor, to display any profile of the image on an oscilloscope, to print the map of the image on a mosaic printer. (author)

  20. A Modified Proportional Navigation Guidance for Accurate Target Hitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moharampour

    2010-03-01

    First, the pure proportional navigation guidance (PPNG in 3-dimensional state is explained in a new point of view. The main idea is based on the distinction between angular rate vector and rotation vector conceptions. The current innovation is based on selection of line of sight (LOS coordinates. A comparison between two available choices for LOS coordinates system is proposed. An improvement is made by adding two additional terms. First term includes a cross range compensator which is used to provide and enhance path observability, and obtain convergent estimates of state variables. The second term is new concept lead bias term, which has been calculated by assuming an equivalent acceleration along the target longitudinal axis. Simulation results indicate that the lead bias term properly provides terminal conditions for accurate target interception.

  1. Boosted PWM open loop control of hydraulic proportional valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirante, R.; Innone, A.; Catalano, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative open loop control technique for direct single stage hydraulic proportional valves whose response rate is significantly higher than that obtained by standard open loop control techniques, even comparable to more costly commercial closed loop systems. Different from standard open loop techniques, which provide the coil with a constant current proportional to the target position, the control strategy proposed in this paper employs the peak and hold (P and H) technique, widely used in Diesel engine modern supply systems, to boost the duty cycle value of the pulse width modulation (PWM) signal for a short time, namely during the spool displacement, while maintaining a lower duty cycle for holding the spool in the required opening position. The developed 'boosted PWM' technique only requires a low cost microcontroller, such as a peripheral interface controller (PIC) equipped with a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) power driver. The PWM parameters are calibrated as a function of the spool displacement so as to maximize the response rate without introducing overshoots: the collected data are stored in the PIC. Different valve opening procedures with step response have been compared to demonstrate the merits of the proposed boosted PWM technique. No overshoots have been registered. Moreover, the proposed method is characterized by a significantly higher response rate with respect to a standard open loop control, which approximately has the same cost. Similar experimental tests show that the proposed boosted PWM technique has a response rate even higher than that provided by the more costly commercial closed loop system mounted on the valve, and it produces no overshoots

  2. Boosted PWM open loop control of hydraulic proportional valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirante, R.; Catalano, L.A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Gestionale, Politecnico di Bari, Via Re David 200, 70125 Bari (Italy); Innone, A. [Universita degli Studi di Foggia, via Napoli, 25 Foggia (Italy)

    2008-08-15

    This paper presents an innovative open loop control technique for direct single stage hydraulic proportional valves whose response rate is significantly higher than that obtained by standard open loop control techniques, even comparable to more costly commercial closed loop systems. Different from standard open loop techniques, which provide the coil with a constant current proportional to the target position, the control strategy proposed in this paper employs the peak and hold (P and H) technique, widely used in Diesel engine modern supply systems, to boost the duty cycle value of the pulse width modulation (PWM) signal for a short time, namely during the spool displacement, while maintaining a lower duty cycle for holding the spool in the required opening position. The developed 'boosted PWM' technique only requires a low cost microcontroller, such as a peripheral interface controller (PIC) equipped with a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) power driver. The PWM parameters are calibrated as a function of the spool displacement so as to maximize the response rate without introducing overshoots: the collected data are stored in the PIC. Different valve opening procedures with step response have been compared to demonstrate the merits of the proposed boosted PWM technique. No overshoots have been registered. Moreover, the proposed method is characterized by a significantly higher response rate with respect to a standard open loop control, which approximately has the same cost. Similar experimental tests show that the proposed boosted PWM technique has a response rate even higher than that provided by the more costly commercial closed loop system mounted on the valve, and it produces no overshoots. (author)

  3. Serve sizes and frequency of food consumption in Australian children aged 14 and 24 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, Chelsea; Magarey, Anthea; Byrne, Rebecca; Daniels, Lynne

    2017-02-01

    To describe the dietary intake of a sample of Australian children. Three days (1×24 hour recall, 2×24 hour records) of dietary intake data were collected from 409 and 363 mother-child dyads (resident in Brisbane and South Australia) at 14 (T2) and 24 (T3) months of age respectively as part of the NOURISH and SAIDI studies. Data presented include foods consumed by ≥10% of children, number of consumers and median serve size. Thirteen of 25 vegetables consumed by more than 10% of children at T2 were consumed by a lower proportion at T3 (9:1-5% less consumers; 4: 10-16% less). Eleven discretionary foods were consumed by greater than 10% of children at T2, and by T3, this number had almost doubled. Increased exposure to discretionary food and decreased exposure to vegetables is occurring in the transition toward family food, during a time of increasing independence and emerging neophobia. Implications for Public Health: The age-related decline in dietary quality is of concern, with potential concurrent impact on nutritional adequacy, development of food preferences and later eating patterns. Serve size data could be used to inform serve sizes for toddlers in future editions of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. © 2016 The Authors.

  4. Cost effective electronics for proportional and drift chambers of 'EPECUR' experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, I.G.; Andreev, V.A.; Budkovsky, P.E.; Filimonov, E.A.; Golubev, V.V.; Kanavets, V.P.; Kats, M.M.; Koroleva, L.I.; Kovalev, A.I.; Kozlenko, N.G.; Kozlov, V.S.; Krivshich, A.G.; Kulikov, V.V.; Morozov, B.V.; Nesterov, V.M.; Novinsky, D.V.; Ryltsov, V.V.; Sadler, M.E.; Sakharov, V.A.; Soboyede, D.; Sulimov, A.D.; Sumachev, V.V.; Svirida, D.N.; Trautman, V.Yu.; Walker, E.; Watson, S.

    2007-01-01

    The 'EPECUR' experimental setup is under construction at beam line 322 of the ITEP proton synchrotron. The experiment requires several large area drift chambers to provide reasonable acceptance and fine-pitch proportional chambers for beam particle tracking. The total number of electronic channels is about 7000. A new compact and cost effective readout system for these gaseous detectors was designed, prototyped and tested in the last two years. It is based on modern technologies in analog and digital electronics and data transfer protocols. This paper presents the functional description of the whole DAQ system, including test results as an illustration of its performance

  5. Proportion of biogenic carbon in flue gas by carbon 4 measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtomaeki, J.; Antson, O.; Jungner, H.

    2006-01-01

    The rules of EU's emissions trading system promote the decrease of fossile emissions. The usefulness of using waste fuels in emissions trading depends on the proportion of biogenic component. Companies need to verify the amount of renewable energy from produced energy or emissions. It can be estimated that the demand on emission measurement devices and services is large and increasing in EU and later also in the whole world. This project aims to clarify the possibilities and restrictions of C-14 isotope method in determining biogenic and fossile part of recycled fuel. (orig.)

  6. The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory's Mark I Multiwire Proportional Counter positron camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.; Stephenson, R.; Tappern, G.J.; Flesher, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    A small model of a proposed large aperture positron camera has been developed at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Based on Multiwire Proportional Counter technology it uses lead foil cathodes which function simultaneously as converters for the 511 keV gamma rays and readout electrodes for a delay line readout system. The detectors have been built up into a portable imaging system complete with a dedicated computer for data taking, processing and display. A complete hardware system and sufficient software was provided to permit hospital based colleagues to generate useful images easily. A complete description of the system is given with performance figures and some of the images obtained are presented. (author)

  7. An array of low-background 3He proportional counters for theSudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsbaugh, J.F.; Anaya, J.M.; Banar, J.; Bowles, T.J.; Browne,M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Burritt, T.H.; Cox-Mobrand, G.A.; Dai, X.; H.Deng,X.; Di Marco, M.; Doe, P.J.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Esch, E.-I.; Fergani, H.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Franklin, J.E.; Geissbuehler, P.; Germani, J.V.; Goldschmidt, A.; Guillian, E.; Hallin, A.L.; Harper, G.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heise, J.; Hime, A.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Kormos, L.L.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C.B.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lesko,K.T.; Loach, J.C.; Majerus, S.; Manor, J.; McGee, S.; Miknaitis, K.K.S.; Miller, G.G.; Morissette, B.; Myers, A.; Oblath, N.S.; O' Kee, H.M.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Reitzner,S.D.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Skensved, P.; Smith, A.R.; Smith,M.W.E.; Steiger, T.D.; Stonehill,L.C.; Thornewell, P.M.; Tolich, N.; VanDevender, B.A.; VanWechel, T.D.; Wall, B.L.; Tseung, H.W.C.; Wendland,J.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wouters, J.M.

    2007-02-01

    An array of Neutral-Current Detectors (NCDs) has been builtin order to make a unique measurement of the total active ux of solarneutrinos in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). Data in the thirdphase of the SNO experiment were collected between November 2004 andNovember 2006, after the NCD array was added to improve theneutral-current sensitivity of the SNO detector. This array consisted of36 strings of proportional counters lled with a mixture of 3He and CF4gas capable of detecting the neutrons liberated by the neutrino-deuteronneutral current reaction in the D2O, and four strings lled with a mixtureof 4He and CF4 gas for background measurements. The proportional counterdiameter is 5 cm. The total deployed array length was 398 m. The SNO NCDarray is the lowest-radioactivity large array of proportional countersever produced. This article describes the design, construction,deployment, and characterization of the NCD array, discusses theelectronics and data acquisition system, and considers event signaturesand backgrounds.

  8. The Relationship Between Maximum Isometric Strength and Ball Velocity in the Tennis Serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiget, Ernest; Corbi, Francisco; Fuentes, Juan Pedro; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the relationship between maximum isometric strength levels in different upper and lower limb joints and serve velocity in competitive tennis players as well as to develop a prediction model based on this information. Twelve male competitive tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 17.2 ± 1.0 years; body height: 180.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 71.9 ± 5.6 kg) were tested using maximum isometric strength levels (i.e., wrist, elbow and shoulder flexion and extension; leg and back extension; shoulder external and internal rotation). Serve velocity was measured using a radar gun. Results showed a strong positive relationship between serve velocity and shoulder internal rotation (r = 0.67; p isometric strength level in shoulder internal rotation was strongly related to serve velocity, and a large part of the variability in serve velocity was explained by the maximum isometric strength levels in shoulder internal rotation and shoulder flexion.

  9. Unintended pregnancies among women serving in the Israeli military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenstreich, Misgav; Loitner, Limor; Dar, Shir; Kedem, Ron; Smorgick, Noam; Vaknin, Zvi

    2017-07-01

    The objective was to identify the prevalence of and variables associated with unintended pregnancy among young, unmarried women serving in the Israeli military. We performed a retrospective cohort study of unmarried women drafted by the Israeli military between 2013 and 2015 at the age of 18 years. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between unintended pregnancy and women's education, IQ, immigration status, country of origin, neighborhood socioeconomic status and history of psychiatric illness. Most women (n=127,262) did not become pregnant while serving in the Israeli military. Unintended pregnancy was reported by 2365, with an additional 6 women reporting pregnancy resulting from sexual assault and 5 an intended pregnancy. Annual rates of unintended pregnancy among young women serving in the Israeli military declined from 1.69% in 2013 to 1.56% in 2014 and 1.33% in 2015. In multivariable models, unintended pregnancy was more common among women soldiers who had not graduated from high school (adjusted relative risk [RR], 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.69-6.04) and those who were first-generation immigrants (adjusted RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.90-2.35). Unintended pregnancy is rare among women serving into the Israeli military. Increasing contraceptive use among women who have not graduated from high school may further reduce rates of unintended pregnancy among women serving in the Israeli military. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of a Prolonged Tennis Match Play on Serve Biomechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Martin

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify kinematic, kinetic and performance changes that occur in the serve throughout a prolonged tennis match play. Serves of eight male advanced tennis players were recorded with a motion capture system before, at mid-match, and after a 3-hour tennis match. Before and after each match, electromyographic data of 8 upper limb muscles obtained during isometric maximal voluntary contraction were compared to determine the presence of muscular fatigue. Vertical ground reaction forces, rating of perceived exertion, ball speed, and ball impact height were measured. Kinematic and upper limb kinetic variables were computed. The results show decrease in mean power frequency values for several upper limb muscles that is an indicator of local muscular fatigue. Decreases in serve ball speed, ball impact height, maximal angular velocities and an increase in rating of perceived exertion were also observed between the beginning and the end of the match. With fatigue, the majority of the upper limb joint kinetics decreases at the end of the match. No change in timing of maximal angular velocities was observed between the beginning and the end of the match. A prolonged tennis match play may induce fatigue in upper limb muscles, which decrease performance and cause changes in serve maximal angular velocities and joint kinetics. The consistency in timing of maximal angular velocities suggests that advanced tennis players are able to maintain the temporal pattern of their serve technique, in spite of the muscular fatigue development.

  11. The effect of flooding on soil proportion and plant growth. 2. Its effect on the changes in soil proportion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out to study changes in soil proportion as affected by flooding. Barley plants were used as indicators. Black polyethylene columns were used as plant containers, and were filled with sandy loam Begbroke soil. Several parameters were used in the experiment, namely concentrations of oxygen carbon dioxide, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, and organic acids. Oxygen concentration dropped to about 2% one day after flooding, while the concentration of carbon dioxide, ethylene and organic acids turned out to be slowly increased with the extension of flooding time. No hydrogen sulfide was detectable as affected by various flooding periods. Different concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and ethylene were observed between the top and the lower layers of soil. (author)

  12. Robust estimation of the proportion of treatment effect explained by surrogate marker information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parast, Layla; McDermott, Mary M; Tian, Lu

    2016-05-10

    In randomized treatment studies where the primary outcome requires long follow-up of patients and/or expensive or invasive obtainment procedures, the availability of a surrogate marker that could be used to estimate the treatment effect and could potentially be observed earlier than the primary outcome would allow researchers to make conclusions regarding the treatment effect with less required follow-up time and resources. The Prentice criterion for a valid surrogate marker requires that a test for treatment effect on the surrogate marker also be a valid test for treatment effect on the primary outcome of interest. Based on this criterion, methods have been developed to define and estimate the proportion of treatment effect on the primary outcome that is explained by the treatment effect on the surrogate marker. These methods aim to identify useful statistical surrogates that capture a large proportion of the treatment effect. However, current methods to estimate this proportion usually require restrictive model assumptions that may not hold in practice and thus may lead to biased estimates of this quantity. In this paper, we propose a nonparametric procedure to estimate the proportion of treatment effect on the primary outcome that is explained by the treatment effect on a potential surrogate marker and extend this procedure to a setting with multiple surrogate markers. We compare our approach with previously proposed model-based approaches and propose a variance estimation procedure based on a perturbation-resampling method. Simulation studies demonstrate that the procedure performs well in finite samples and outperforms model-based procedures when the specified models are not correct. We illustrate our proposed procedure using a data set from a randomized study investigating a group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention for peripheral artery disease participants. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Implicit Learning Modulates Attention Capture: Evidence from an Item-Specific Proportion Congruency Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Thomson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A host of research has now shown that our explicit goals and intentions can, in large part, overcome the capture of visual attention by objects that differ from their surroundings in terms of size, shape, or color. Surprisingly however, there is little evidence for the role of implicit learning in mitigating capture effects despite the fact that such learning has been shown to strongly affect behavior in a host of other performance domains. Here, we employ a modified attention capture paradigm, based on the work of Theeuwes (1991; 1992, in which participants must search for an odd-shaped target amongst homogeneous distracters. On each trial, there is also a salient, but irrelevant odd-colored distracter. Across the experiments reported, we intermix two search contexts: for one set of distracters (e.g. squares the shape singleton and color singleton coincide on a majority of trials (high proportion congruent condition, whereas for the other set of distracters (e.g. circles the shape and color singletons are highly unlikely to coincide (low proportion congruent condition. Crucially, we find that observers learn to allow the capture of attention by the salient distracter to a greater extent in the high, compared to the low proportion congruent condition, albeit only when search is sufficiently difficult. Moreover, this effect of prior experience on search behavior occurs in the absence of awareness of our proportion manipulation. We argue that low-level properties of the search displays recruit representations of prior experience in a rapid, flexible, and implicit manner.

  14. The Accounting Profession: Serving the Public Interest or Capital Interest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A Kaidonis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As an integral facet of society, the accounting profession has a role in the State and thecorporate sector, and is also expected to serve the public interest. The capacity for theAustralian accounting profession to serve the public interest is considered in the context oflegislation and the accounting standard setting process. Specific reference is made to theCLERP Act 1999 and ASIC Act 2001. It is argued that the combined effect of these Acts is tolegislate bias so that accounting standards privilege the specific needs of holders of capital,that is capital interest. The assumption that capital markets are surrogate for the publicinterest is contested. Accordingly, if the accounting profession follows national objectives tosupport capital markets, it may undermine its role in serving society.

  15. Changes in wood product proportions in the Douglas-fir region with respect to size, age, and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Monserud; X. Zhou

    2007-01-01

    We examine both the variation and the changing proportions of different wood products obtained from trees and logs in the Douglas-fir region of the Northwestern United States. Analyses are based on a large product recovery database covering over 40 years of recovery studies; 13 studies are available for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)...

  16. Value for money or making the healthy choice: the impact of proportional pricing on consumers' portion size choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M; Alting, Esther; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Seidell, Jacob C

    2010-02-01

    Large food portion sizes are determinants of a high caloric intake, especially if they have been made attractive through value size pricing (i.e. lower unit prices for large than for small portion sizes). The purpose of the two questionnaire studies that are reported in this article was to assess the impact of proportional pricing (i.e. removing beneficial prices for large sizes) on people's portion size choices of high caloric food and drink items. Both studies employed an experimental design with a proportional pricing condition and a value size pricing condition. Study 1 was conducted in a fast food restaurant (N = 150) and study 2 in a worksite cafeteria (N = 141). Three different food products (i.e. soft drink, chicken nuggets in study 1 and a hot meal in study 2) with corresponding prices were displayed on pictures in the questionnaire. Outcome measures were consumers' intended portion size choices. No main effects of pricing were found. However, confronted with proportional pricing a trend was found for overweight fast food restaurant visitors being more likely to choose small portion sizes of chicken nuggets (OR = 4.31, P = 0.07) and less likely to choose large soft drink sizes (OR = 0.07, P = 0.04). Among a general public, proportional pricing did not reduce consumers' size choices. However, pricing strategies can help overweight and obese consumers selecting appropriate portion sizes of soft drink and high caloric snacks. More research in realistic settings with actual behaviour as outcome measure is required.

  17. Low energy recoil detection with a spherical proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidis, I.; Katsioulas, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Giomataris, I.; Papaevangellou, T.

    2018-01-01

    We present results for the detection of low energy nuclear recoils in the keV energy region, from measurements performed with the Spherical Proportional Counter (SPC). An 241Am-9Be fast neutron source is used in order to obtain neutron-nucleus elastic scattering events inside the gaseous volume of the detector. The detector performance in the keV energy region was measured by observing the 5.9 keV line of a 55Fe X-ray source, with energy resolution of 10% (σ). The toolkit GEANT4 was used to simulate the irradiation of the detector by an 241Am-9Be source, while SRIM was used to calculate the Ionization Quenching Factor (IQF), the simulation results are compared with the measurements. The potential of the SPC in low energy recoil detection makes the detector a good candidate for a wide range of applications, including Supernova or reactor neutrino detection and Dark Matter (WIMP) searches (via coherent elastic scattering).

  18. Flexible proportional-rate scheduling for OFDMA system

    KAUST Repository

    Leith, Alex

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study the sum-rate maximization algorithms for downlink and uplink orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems under proportional-rate constraint (PRC) and minimum-rate constraint. We develop a low-complexity weighted channel signal-to-noise ratio (w-SNR)-based ranking scheme for user selection on each subchannel in OFDMA combined with waterfilling (WF) power allocation. Both offline and online optimization algorithms are developed to optimize the SNR weight vector to maximize the sum rate while satisfying several constraints, such as PRC. The offline weight optimization technique relies on the analytical throughput results developed in this paper, and the online weight adaptation method tracks the user rates and meets the PRC using a subgradient search. Furthermore, we introduce a novel SNR operating region test to enhance the multiuser diversity gain and the sum rate. The proposed schemes have a low complexity, which is linear to the numbers of users and subchannels. Simulation results verify the accuracy of the developed analytical rates and fairness formulas, and show that the proposed w-SNR schemes can achieve higher sum rates than several benchmark schemes that provide the PRC with either short-term or long-term fairness. © 2013 IEEE. © 2013 ESO.

  19. Digital signal processing for He3 proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeynalov, Sh.S.; Ahmadov, Q.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : Data acquisition systems for nuclear spectroscopy have traditionally been based on systems with analog shaping amplifiers followed by analog-to-digital converters. Recently, however, new systems based on digital signal processing make possible to replace the analog shaping and timing circuitry the numerical algorithms to derive properties of the pulse such as its amplitude. DSP is a fully numerical analysis of the detector pulse signals and this technique demonstrates significant advantages over analog systems in some circumstances. From a mathematical point of view, one can consider the signal evolution from the detector to the ADC as a sequence of transformations that can be described by precisely defined mathematical expressions. Digital signal processing with ADCs has the possibility to utilize further information on the signal pulses from radiation detectors. In the experiment each step of the signal generation in the 3He filled proportional counter was described using digital signal processing techniques (DSP). The electronic system has consisted of a detector, a preamplifier and a digital oscilloscope. The pulses from the detector were digitized using a digital storage oscilloscope. This oscilloscope allowed signal digitization with accuracy of 8 bit (256 levels) and with frequency of up to 5 * 10 8 samples/s. As a neutron source was used Cf-252. To obtain detector output current pulse I(t) created by the motions of the ions/electrons pairs was written an algorithm which can easily be programmed using modern computer programming languages.

  20. Finishing procedures in Orthodontics: dental dimensions and proportions (microesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos Bodart Brandão

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present article is to describe procedures that can be performed to achieve excellence in orthodontic treatment finishing. The content is limited to microesthetics, which comprises the concept of ideal dental dimensions and proportions (white esthetics and its correlation with the periodontium (pink esthetics. Standards of normality are described both in their real dimensions (dental height and width, and in those effectively perceived by the observer, the virtual dimensions. METHODS: The best scientific evidence was sought in the literature to support the clinical procedures that must guide the professional to obtain maximum esthetic quality on their treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate what the other specialties in Dentistry expect from Orthodontics and, specially, what they have to offer. Clinical cases will be used to illustrate the dental movement that might maximize treatment outcome and to confront the ideal standards with the current state of the art. CONCLUSION: Treatment quality is directly related to the amount of procedures implemented by the orthodontist, associated with concepts and resources from Periodontics and Dental Prosthesis. Microesthetics cannot be seen in isolation, but rather as the key to establish a pleasant smile (miniesthetics in addition to a harmonious face (macroesthetics and a human being with high self-esteem (hyper-esthetics.

  1. Use of the helium-3 proportional counter for neutron spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialettes, H.; Le Thanh, P.

    1967-01-01

    Up to now, two methods have been mainly used for neutron spectrometry near nuclear installations: - photographic emulsion spectrometry - the so-called, 'multisphere' technique spectrometry. The first method, which is fairly difficult to apply, has a threshold energy of about 500 keV; this is a big disadvantage for an apparatus which has to be used for spectrometry around nuclear installations where the neutron radiation is very much degraded energetically. The second method does not suffer from this disadvantage but the results which it yields are only approximate. In order to extend the energy range of the neutron spectra studied with sufficient accuracy the use of a helium-3 proportional counter has been considered. This report presents the principles of operation of the helium-3 spectrometer, and the calculation methods which make it possible to take into account the two main effects tending to deform the spectra obtained: - energy absorption by the walls of the counter, - energy loss of the incident neutrons due to elastic collisions with helium-3 nuclei. As an example of the application, the shape of the neutron spectrum emitted by a polonium-lithium source is given; the results obtained are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. (authors) [fr

  2. Conflicts between domestic inequality and global poverty: lexicality versus proportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco García Gibson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current views on global justice often hold that affluent states are under at least two duties: a duty to reduce socioeconomic inequalities at home and a duty to reduce extreme poverty abroad. Potential duty conflicts deriving from resource scarcity can be solved in broadly two principled ways. The ‘lexical’ principle requires all disputed resources to be allocated to the weightiest duty. The ‘proportionality’ principle requires resources to be distributed between the two duties according to their relative weight (the weightiest duty receives the largest resource share, but the less weighty duty receives a share too. I argue that the proportionality principle is morally preferable. I show that it is sensitive to a number of factors that are intuitively relevant when solving duty conflicts: the number of affected individuals, the size of the benefits each individual could get, and the time it could take to eventually comply with the less weighty duty. Some argue that the lexical principle should nevertheless be preferred because domestic egalitarian duties are duties of justice, and they are therefore lexically prior to mere humanitarian duties to reduce global poverty. I reject this view by showing that duties of justice are not necessarily lexically prior to humanitarian duties, and that (even if they were duties to reduce global poverty can be regarded as duties of justice too.

  3. The European ‘Nomofilachia’ and the Principle of Proportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio BARONE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available *The European Court of Justice greatly contributes to the guarantees that Community law will be uniformly interpreted and applied (“nomofilachia” and the rights which individuals derive from the Community legal order will be effectively protected. This essay analyses some aspects of the European Union “nomofilachia”; the research is developed in two steps which are strictly correlated. In the first part, it will be underlined how the uniform interpretation and the uniform application of EC law go beyond the provisions of art. 234 of the EC Treat; and are supported by new kind of relations among the Court of Justice, national courts and national administrations. In the second part of the research, it will be highlighted the impact of the general principles of the European Community legal system, moulded through the “nomofilachia” function of the Luxembourg Court, as regards the activities of national administrations. The analysis gives a particular attention to the evolutionary dynamics of the proportionality principle. All these aspects work in a contemporary context of deep transformation of the traditional relations among law, courts, administrations and citizens. * This essay is the joint work of both authors with Barone primary responsible for paragraph 1,2,3,4,9 and Ansaldi for paragraph 5,6,7,8.

  4. Optimization of simultaneous tritium–radiocarbon internal gas proportional counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonicalzi, R.M. [Seattle Central College, 1701 Broadway, Seattle, WA 98122 (United States); Aalseth, C.E.; Day, A.R.; Hoppe, E.W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Mace, E.K., E-mail: Emily.Mace@pnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Moran, J.J.; Overman, C.T.; Panisko, M.E.; Seifert, A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Specific environmental applications can benefit from dual tritium and radiocarbon measurements in a single compound. Assuming typical environmental levels, it is often the low tritium activity relative to the higher radiocarbon activity that limits the dual measurement. In this paper, we explore the parameter space for a combined tritium and radiocarbon measurement using a natural methane sample mixed with an argon fill gas in low-background proportional counters of a specific design. We present an optimized methane percentage, detector fill pressure, and analysis energy windows to maximize measurement sensitivity while minimizing count time. The final optimized method uses a 9-atm fill of P35 (35% methane, 65% argon), and a tritium analysis window from 1.5 to 10.3 keV, which stops short of the tritium beta decay endpoint energy of 18.6 keV. This method optimizes tritium-counting efficiency while minimizing radiocarbon beta-decay interference. - Highlights: • Use of a single compound (methane) for dual tritium and radiocarbon measurements. • Optimized analysis window for simultaneous tritium and radiocarbon measurement. • Allows for optimization of tritium counting in the presence of radiocarbon.

  5. Flexible proportional-rate scheduling for OFDMA system

    KAUST Repository

    Leith, Alex; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Kim, Dongin; (Sherman) Shen X., Xuemin; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the sum-rate maximization algorithms for downlink and uplink orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems under proportional-rate constraint (PRC) and minimum-rate constraint. We develop a low-complexity weighted channel signal-to-noise ratio (w-SNR)-based ranking scheme for user selection on each subchannel in OFDMA combined with waterfilling (WF) power allocation. Both offline and online optimization algorithms are developed to optimize the SNR weight vector to maximize the sum rate while satisfying several constraints, such as PRC. The offline weight optimization technique relies on the analytical throughput results developed in this paper, and the online weight adaptation method tracks the user rates and meets the PRC using a subgradient search. Furthermore, we introduce a novel SNR operating region test to enhance the multiuser diversity gain and the sum rate. The proposed schemes have a low complexity, which is linear to the numbers of users and subchannels. Simulation results verify the accuracy of the developed analytical rates and fairness formulas, and show that the proposed w-SNR schemes can achieve higher sum rates than several benchmark schemes that provide the PRC with either short-term or long-term fairness. © 2013 IEEE. © 2013 ESO.

  6. Substantial proportion of global streamflow less than three months old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, Scott; Kirchner, James W.; Welker, Jeffrey M.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2016-02-01

    Biogeochemical cycles, contaminant transport and chemical weathering are regulated by the speed at which precipitation travels through landscapes and reaches streams. Streamflow is a mixture of young and old precipitation, but the global proportions of these young and old components are not known. Here we analyse seasonal cycles of oxygen isotope ratios in rain, snow and streamflow compiled from 254 watersheds around the world, and calculate the fraction of streamflow that is derived from precipitation that fell within the past two or three months. This young streamflow accounts for about a third of global river discharge, and comprises at least 5% of discharge in about 90% of the catchments we investigated. We conclude that, although typical catchments have mean transit times of years or even decades, they nonetheless can rapidly transmit substantial fractions of soluble contaminant inputs to streams. Young streamflow is less prevalent in steeper landscapes, which suggests they are characterized by deeper vertical infiltration. Because young streamflow is derived from less than 0.1% of global groundwater storage, we conclude that this thin veneer of aquifer storage will have a disproportionate influence on stream water quality.

  7. Out of proportion pulmonary hypertension in obstructive lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Kshitij; Tarawneh, Ahmad R; Alam, Shoaib

    2018-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is common (25-90%) in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs). Severe pulmonary hypertension, however, is quite rare (1-3%). The term 'out of proportion' pulmonary hypertension is still widely used. New guidelines instead propose to use the term 'Severe pulmonary hypertension' if mean pulmonary arterial pressure at least 35 mmHg or cardiac index (CI) is less than 2.0 l/min/m on right heart catheterization (RHC). Why only a minority of COPD patients develop severe pulmonary hypertension is unclear. When present, severe pulmonary hypertension in COPD is associated with increased dyspnea and decreased survival and often does not closely correlate with degree of obstructive abnormality on pulmonary function testing. COPD patients with severe pulmonary hypertension experience circulatory limitation at maximum exercise, and not ventilatory limitation, which is typical for moderate-to-severe COPD patients with no or moderate pulmonary hypertension. There is no conclusive evidence to support or completely reject the possibility of the use of specific pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) therapies in pulmonary hypertension associated with COPD. In mild-to-moderate COPD patients who have severe and progressive symptoms, and have evidence of severe pulmonary hypertension on RHC, specific PAH therapies may be used similar to WHO group-I PAH guidelines.

  8. Uncapacitated facility location problem with self-serving demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Monabbati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In classical uncapacitated facility location problems (UFLP the goal is to satisfy requirements of some demand points by setting up some servers, among potential facility locations, such that the total cost including service costs and fixed costs are minimized. In this paper a generalization of UFLP is considered in which some demand points, called self-serving, could be served exclusively by a new server at that point. Numerical experiments show that near optimal solutions are achieved by the proposed method.

  9. Proportion and clinical features of never-smokers with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaeyoung; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Dong-Wan; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Tae; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Park, Young Sik

    2017-02-08

    The proportion of never-smokers with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is increasing, but that in Korea has not been well addressed in a large population. We aimed to evaluate the proportion and clinical features of never-smokers with NSCLC in a large single institution. We analyzed clinical data of 1860 consecutive patients who were newly diagnosed with NSCLC between June 2011 and December 2014. Of the 1860 NSCLC patients, 707 (38.0%) were never-smokers. The proportions of women (83.7% vs. 5.6%) and adenocarcinoma (89.8% vs. 44.9%) were higher among never-smokers than among ever-smokers. Significantly more never-smokers were diagnosed at a younger median age (65 vs. 68 years, P smokers. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations (57.8% vs. 24.4%, P never-smokers, whereas Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog mutations (5.8% vs. 9.6%, P = 0.021) were less frequently encountered in never-smokers than in ever-smokers. Never-smokers showed longer survival after adjusting for the favorable effects of younger age, female sex, adenocarcinoma histology, better performance status, early stage disease, being asymptomatic at diagnosis, received antitumor treatment, and the presence of driver mutations (hazard ratio, 0.624; 95% confidence interval, 0.460-0.848; P = 0.003). More than one-third of the Korean patients with NSCLC were never-smokers. NSCLC in never-smokers had different clinical characteristics and major driver mutations and resulted in longer overall survival compared with NSCLC in ever-smokers.

  10. Alpha–beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); NRC-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Orion, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-08-11

    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha–beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha–beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha–beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  11. Digital signal processing for He3 proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadov, Q.S.; Institute of Radiation Problems, ANAS, Baku

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Data acquisition systems for nuclear spectroscopy have traditionally been based on systems with analog shaping amplifiers followed by analog-to-digital converters. Recently, however, new systems based on digital signal processing allow us to replace the analog shaping and timing circuitry the numerical algorithms to derive properties of the pulse such as its amplitude. DSP is a fully numerical analysis of the detector pulse signals and this technique demonstrates significant advantages over analog systems in some circumstances. From a mathematical point of view, one can consider the signal evolution from the detector to the ADC as a sequence of transformations that can be described by precisely defined mathematical expressions.Digital signal processing with ADCs has the possibility to utilize further information on the signal pulses from radiation detectors [1] [2]. In the experiment each step of the signal generation in the 3He filled proportional counter was described using digital signal processing techniques (DSP). The electronic system has consisted of a detector, a preamplifier and a digital oscilloscope. The pulses from the detector were digitized using a OTSZS-02 (250USB)-4 digital storage oscilloscope from ZAO R UDNEV-SHILYAYEV . This oscilloscope allowed signal digitization with accuracy of 8 bit(256 levels) and with frequency of up to 5.10''8 samples/s. As a neutron source was used Cf-252.To obtain detector output current pulse I(t) created by the motions of the ions/electrons pairs was written an algorithm which can easily be programmed using modern computer programming languages

  12. Proportion of gynecologic cancer patients using complementary and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supoken, Amornrat; Chaisrisawatsuk, Thitima; Chumworathayi, Bandit

    2009-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of cancer and for supportive care of cancer patients must be clearly separated. There is encouraging evidence for CAM in the latter area, such as acupuncture and progressive muscle relaxation for chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, and aromatherapy for decreasing anxiety and increasing quality of life. However, there are limited data about CAM used by gynecologic cancer patients, especially in Thai women. Therefore, the authors aimed to investigate the proportion and types of CAM using in our gynecologic cancer patients. This cross-sectional survey was conducted between October to December, 2008. Totals of 50 admitted and 50 walk-in gynecologic cancer patients 1 month after diagnosis, aged more than 20 years and able to give informed consent, were selected for one-by-one interview by random walking survey. Among the 100 interviewed patients, aged 21-69 (mean=50.12), there were 46 cases of cervical cancers, 35 of ovarian cancers, 18 of endometrial cancers (two of these also had ovarian cancers), 2 of malignant gestational trophoblastic diseases, 1 of vulvar cancer, and 1 liver cancer (in a patient with ovarian cancer). Some 67% (95% CI, 57.8-76.2%) of them used CAM. As diet modifications, 11 used Chinese vegetarian, 8 common vegetarian, 5 Cheewajit, and 1 macrobiotics. Five of them used dietary supplements while colonic detoxification was emplyed in three. As herbal medicines, 27 used Thai herbs, 4 Chinese herbs, and 1 a herbal sauna. Twelve were receiving Thai massage. As exercises, 23 used aerobics and 5 stretching. Interestingly, 62 of them used Buddhist praying while only 3 employed native magic. The three most common forms of CAM used by our gynecologic cancer patients were Buddhist praying (62/67, 92.5%), followed by herbal medicines (27/67, 40.3%) and exercises (25/67, 37.3%).

  13. Long-term plasticity is proportional to theta-activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Tsanov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Theta rhythm in the hippocampal formation is a main feature of exploratory behaviour and is believed to enable the encoding of new spatial information and the modification of synaptic weights. Cyclic changes of dentate gyrus excitability during theta rhythm are related to its function, but whether theta epochs per se are able to alter network properties of dentate gyrus for long time-periods is still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used low-frequency stimulation protocols that amplify the power of endogenous theta oscillations, in order to estimate the plasticity effect of endogenous theta oscillations on a population level. We found that stimulation-induced augmentation of the theta rhythm is linked to a subsequent increase of neuronal excitability and decrease of the synaptic response. This EPSP-to-Spike uncoupling is related to an increased postsynaptic spiking on the positive phases of theta frequency oscillations. Parallel increase of the field EPSP slope and the population spike occurs only after concurrent pre- and postsynaptic activation. Furthermore, we observed that long-term potentiation (>24 h occurs in the dentate gyrus of freely behaving adult rats after phasic activity of entorhinal afferents in the theta-frequency range. This plasticity is proportional to the field bursting activity of granule cells during the stimulation, and may comprise a key step in spatial information transfer. Long-term potentiation of the synaptic component occurs only when the afferent stimulus precedes the evoked population burst, and is input-specific. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data confirm the role of the dentate gyrus in filtering information to the subsequent network during the activated state of the hippocampus.

  14. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion size served to Head Start children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to identify caregivers' attitudes regarding amounts and types of foods served to Head Start preschoolers using qualitative methods. Researchers conducted 8 focus groups (4 African American; 4 Hispanic) with 33 African American and 29 Hispanic Head Start caregivers. Mode...

  15. Serving online customers lessons for libraries from the business world

    CERN Document Server

    Barclay, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    To compete in the digital age, libraries must provide outstanding customer service to their virtual users. Serving Online Customers: Lessons for Libraries from the Business World is a practical guide to help libraries adopt and adapt the best practices of e-business for their own online operations.

  16. 32 CFR 516.13 - Assistance in serving process overseas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Assistance in serving process overseas. 516.13 Section 516.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL... to or accompanying U.S. Forces in Korea, contact Staff Judge Advocate, US Forces Korea (Seoul...

  17. UPPER EXTREMITY KINEMATICS OF FLAT SERVE IN TENNIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brian McAllister

    kinematics on the ball velocity at the impact phase of a tennis flat serve. 15 elite male tennis players were recruited to participate in this study (mean age 18.4±3.3 .... For field calibration, a Direct Linear Transformation technique, developed by ...

  18. Labor Market Returns for Graduates of Hispanic-Serving Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Toby J.; Flores, Stella M.; Ryan, Christopher J., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    Latinos have become the largest minority group in American postsecondary education, a majority of whom attend two- or four-year Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs). However, little is known about labor market outcomes as result of attending these institutions. Using a unique student-level administrative database in Texas, and accounting for…

  19. Autonomy and Accountability in Schools Serving Disadvantaged Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Esther Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increased school autonomy and accountability have been a common denominator of national reforms in otherwise heterogeneous governance systems in Europe and the USA. The paper argues that because schools serving disadvantaged communities (SSDCs) often have lower average performance, they are more often sanctioned or under closer scrutiny,…

  20. Competence in Serving Children: Credentials Protectionism and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    Professional competency in psychologists wishing to treat children and families is an area of considerable concern and disagreement. Three types of practitioners comprise the bulk of the problem: clinical psychologists, who lack specific child-oriented training; developmental psychologists, who wish to serve children but lack traditional clinical…

  1. Lodge Programs Serving Family Functions for People with Psychiatric Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaga, Esther E.; McKinney, Kathleen G.; Pfaff, Judy

    2000-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with people affiliated with lodges, a community program for people with psychiatric disabilities, about their perceptions of promising practices. Responses validated the notion that the lodge serves many of the functions of a family. Provides excerpts from interviews to supplement this theme. Discusses implications for…

  2. 34 CFR 686.42 - Discharge of agreement to serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge of agreement to serve. 686.42 Section 686.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH...

  3. 34 CFR 686.12 - Agreement to serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agreement to serve. 686.12 Section 686.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH) GRANT PROGRAM...

  4. Educators as Serving Leaders in the Classroom and on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Counterintuitively, the more one develops as a leader, the less of a leader one becomes. What do great leaders do? Great leaders are ambitious first and foremost for the cause, the mission, the work--not themselves. Educators as "serving leaders" sense that every action they take, together with every decision that they make, either…

  5. 7 CFR 1230.53 - Nominee's agreement to serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... any relationship with the Council or a State association or any organization that has a contract with the Board and thereafter disclose, at any time while serving on the Board, any relationship with any...

  6. 7 CFR 1150.134 - Nominee's agreement to serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... agreement to: (a) Serve on the Board if appointed; (b) Disclose any relationship with any organization that operates a qualified State or regional program or has a contractual relationship with the Board; and (c...

  7. Total Cost of Ownership and Cost-to-Serve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen reviewer den eksisterende litteratur vedrørende økonomistyringsværktøjerne Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) og Cost-to-Serve (CtS). Herefter kortlægges det, hvordan TCO og CtS bidrager til en identificering af direkte omkostninger såvel som indirekte omkostninger henholdsvis up-stream og down...

  8. 16 CFR 500.26 - Representations of servings, uses, applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... net quantity (in terms of weight or mass, measure, or numerical count) of each such serving, use, or application: Provided, that such statement may be expressed in terms that differ from terms used in the... applications, if such amount is expressed in terms of standard units of weight or mass, measure, size, or count...

  9. Serving remote users in selected public university libraries in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of information services to support teaching, learning and research has long been a major objective of libraries in higher education. The students being served by these libraries, specifically in Kenya, may consist of on-campus and remote user groups. This study set out to explore the library section heads' ...

  10. On the losses of dissolved CO(2) during champagne serving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Bourget, Marielle; Villaume, Sandra; Jeandet, Philippe; Pron, Hervé; Polidori, Guillaume

    2010-08-11

    Pouring champagne into a glass is far from being consequenceless with regard to its dissolved CO(2) concentration. Measurements of losses of dissolved CO(2) during champagne serving were done from a bottled Champagne wine initially holding 11.4 +/- 0.1 g L(-1) of dissolved CO(2). Measurements were done at three champagne temperatures (i.e., 4, 12, and 18 degrees C) and for two different ways of serving (i.e., a champagne-like and a beer-like way of serving). The beer-like way of serving champagne was found to impact its concentration of dissolved CO(2) significantly less. Moreover, the higher the champagne temperature is, the higher its loss of dissolved CO(2) during the pouring process, which finally constitutes the first analytical proof that low temperatures prolong the drink's chill and helps it to retain its effervescence during the pouring process. The diffusion coefficient of CO(2) molecules in champagne and champagne viscosity (both strongly temperature-dependent) are suspected to be the two main parameters responsible for such differences. Besides, a recently developed dynamic-tracking technique using IR thermography was also used in order to visualize the cloud of gaseous CO(2) which flows down from champagne during the pouring process, thus visually confirming the strong influence of champagne temperature on its loss of dissolved CO(2).

  11. Contextual Interference Effects in Learning Three Badminton Serves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Sinah; Magill, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    This study was made to validate results obtained in laboratory research. Thirty female students learned three badminton serves in either a low, mixed, or high interference practice schedule and were given a retention and transfer test. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  12. To Build Proportions in Time, or Tie Knots in Space? A Reassessment of the Renaissance Turn in Architectural Proportions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Trachtenberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Alberti, and most critically since Wittkower’s 'Architectural Principles', architectural theory has tended to construe ‘proportions’ in plenary, static terms. The dimension of time and change that relentlessly affects all human endeavor is not accommodated by the celebrated Albertian ideal of immutable design perfection, so perfect in all respects that once attained ‘nothing can be added, taken away, or altered, but for the worse’. This article, drawing on the author’s recent book, 'Building-in-Time from Giotto to Alberti and Modern Oblivion' (Yale, 2010, outlines the antithetical, dynamic proportional methodology of the pre-Albertian architectural regime. Its point of departure was the author’s concept of durational aesthetics, according to which perfected architectural form is produced by a process of incessant revision. What distinguished this process from related ancient or neo-antique doctrines was above all its dynamic modality and participation in the fluid orientation and processes of ‘building-in-time’.

  13. Aplikasi Kontrol PI (Proportional Integral pada Katup Ekspansi Mesin Pendingin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Rudiyanto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan proses perancangan dan pembuatan kontrol katup ekspansi otomatis dengan menggunakan sistem kontrol PI, untuk melakukan proses pengontrolan temperatur ruang evaporator agar didapatkan hasil pembekuan yang lebih optimal. Sensor temperatur LM35 digunakan dalam penelitian ini untuk melakukan pembacaan temperatur pada ruang evaporator, yang mana dari hasil pembacaan sensor tersebut digunakan sebagai sinyal masukan untuk sistem kontrol PI. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian sensor LM35 mempunyai sensitivitas pembacaan sebesar 0,009335 V/oC.  Unjuk kerja sistem kontrol PI pada penelitian ini didapatkan respon yang baik pada nilai Kp = 20 dan Ki = 10, dimana dengan nilai berikut untuk mencapai temperatur set point waktu yang dibutuhkan selama 251 detik dengan nilai maximum overshoot lebih rendah yaitu -2,4 oC. Hasil pendinginan yang didapatkan pada penelitian ini dengan menggunakan sistem kontrol katup ekspansi otomatis didapat proses pendinginan yang lebih cepat dan energi yang dibutuhkan jauh lebih hemat yaitu sebesar 0,265 kWh.   The Application of A Control PI (Proportional Integral on Expansion Valves Refrigeration Machine  Abstract. This research aim to do design process and making control valve expansion automatic by using control system PI, which then applied on refrigerator plates touch to perform the process of control freezing temperatures. Censor temperature LM35 used in this research to do reading the temperature at evaporator room, of results reading sensors is used as input signal to control system PI. Based on the test result of testing censor LM35 have the sensitivity reading of almost accordance with the datav sheet is as much as 0,009335 V/oC. Were control sistem works PI the research this obtained response good to value center Kp = 20 and Ki =10. In which value, to reach set temperature point , the time it takes 251 seconds by value maximum overshoot point lower then -2.4°C. The result

  14. Comprehensive applications of the gas flow proportional counters for radiological surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, D.A.R.; Raman, Anand; Ashokkumar, P.; Sharma, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    Gas Flow Proportional Counters (GFPC) have been developed indigenously for various radiation protection applications. These detectors can be fabricated for 2 inches diameter filter paper sample counting applications to large area (∼1500 cm 2 ) detectors for surface contamination applications. Thin entrance windows allow non penetrating type of radiations like alpha and low energy beta particles, Efficiencies (for alpha and beta radiations) are comparable to conventional detectors used to measure these radiations. Poor gamma efficiency ( 2 /γ ratio, a high figure of merit and enables efficient gamma background rejection. These detectors are quite suitable for Indian environmental conditions. Three systems have been developed and successfully incorporated in to the radiation surveillance program at various nuclear facilities. The systems based on GFPC detectors include: a) Multiple sample gross alpha counting system; b) Laundry monitoring system; c) Alpha hand contamination monitoring system. The first of these enables simultaneous gross alpha counting of five air activity filter paper samples. The area of the detector surface is optimized to cover the 2 inches sized filter paper samples routinely used for the purpose. Five numbers of GFPC 's are arranged sequentially coupled to five individual amplifiers - micro controller modules to process the signal from the five counters. The laundry monitor which is micro controller based system consists of four large area multiwire GFPC detectors (700 cm 2 sensitive area) used to monitor alpha contamination of decontaminated laundry, Each detector uses a charge sensitive preamplifier coupled to I 2 C counter. The alpha hand monitoring system consists of four large area multiwire gas flow proportional detectors (330 cm 2 sensitive area each). A micro controller-based module is employed to initiate the counting process automatically when the hands are inserted in to the suitably designed window slots and provides audio and

  15. EMOTIONAL CONTAGION AND MOOD IN CROWD SERVING AS AUDIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beno Arnejcic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The global world is gradually becoming a world of separated crowds despite the artificial wire and wireless connection through television and the Internet. Crowds remain a prevailing subject of research in different social studies, and the research of changes in the psychological structure of crowds and their characteristics is still of primary interest. The main focus of the research is on the interpretation of the results of the research paper about a special separated crowd called audience. It was observed how students, constituting the crowd, perceive a crowd on video. The observation was focused on the research of emotional contagion and mood in the crowd serving as audience. While watching a mass event on a big screen, the crowd serving as audience emotionally converges with someone else, in our case with public speakers.

  16. Serving the Needs of the Latina Community for Health Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Yaros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Latinos remain the largest US population with limited health literacy (Andrulis D.P. & Brach, 2007. Concerned with how local media can meet the information needs of underserved audiences, we interviewed Latinas who were pregnant or mothers of young children living in a Spanish speaking community, and surveyed 33 local health professionals. Findings are that Latina women’s most common source of health information was family and friends. They said they tune to Spanish television and radio programs, but gave low grades to news media for health information. Medical professionals agreed that Latinas generally get their health information through friends and family, and rated the media poorly in terms of serving Latinas’ needs. Since the data indicate that the local news media are not serving Latinas’ health information needs as much as they could, we offer recommendations to potentially exploit new technological affordances and suggest expansion of conventional definitions of health literacy.

  17. The Myth That Insulating Boards Serves Long-Term Value

    OpenAIRE

    Bebchuk, Lucian Arye

    2013-01-01

    According to an influential view in corporate law writings and debates, pressure from shareholders leads companies to take myopic actions that are costly in the long term, and insulating boards from such pressure serves the long-term interests of companies as well as their shareholders. This board insulation claim has been regularly invoked in a wide range of contexts to support existing or tighter limits on shareholder rights and involvement. This paper subjects this view to a comprehensive ...

  18. Do Cooperative Banks Really Serve Agricultural Sector in Poland?

    OpenAIRE

    Zawojska, Aldona; Siudek, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the potential of cooperative banks for serving agricultural sector in Poland and to identify the areas with the most development potential. We discuss the transformation process in the cooperative banking system under market economy, and in particular investigate importance of cooperative banks for farms' financing on the basis of our survey of banks. Moreover, the role of cooperative banks in transmission of Government policy supporting farm sector in Poland...

  19. ServPPIN: a review of scientific findings

    OpenAIRE

    Rubalcaba , Luis; Di Meglio , Gisela; Gallouj , Faïz; Pyka , Andreas; Windrum , Paul; Green , Lawrence; Sundbo , Jon; Weber , Matthias; Dachs , Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    ServPPIN is a research project which focuses on the role of public and private services on growth and welfare and the particular role of public-private innovation networks (PPIN). Public-private innovation networks are considered to be an organisational platform in which public and private services can perform complementarities and synergies in many ways. The project analyses public and private services, and their impact on growth and welfare. In particular it focuses on service innovation an...

  20. Regulation, proportionality and discharges of radioactive wastes: UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, Bob; Butler, Gregg; Mc Glynn, Grace

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the UK Government and the Regulators have made a commitment to further improve the operation of the regulatory regime and to its operating within the principles of proportionality, transparency, consistency and accountability which underpin the Government's approach to regulation in general. Particular emphasis was to be placed upon ensuring that there is greater consistency in the treatment of risk and hazard; proportionate and cost effective delivery of public, worker and environmental protection; and an open and transparently applied regulatory system. It is noteworthy that with regard to radiation protection, there are different limits for public doses and workforce doses, with the latter 15 times greater. Allowable doses for medical patients are higher still. This discrepancy raises a question in itself. This presentation focuses on the practical application of the regulatory regime with particular regard to environmental discharges and disposals. Under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993, Operators within the UK nuclear industry are required to employ Best Practicable Means (BPM) to control and minimise radioactive discharges to ensure that doses from discharges are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). Scientific assessments to date indicate that there are no expectations of environmental harm from discharges at Sellafield (and hence likewise at other UK nuclear sites where the discharges are lower), even where those discharges have historically been up to two orders of magnitude higher than current levels. Current discharges result in doses which are a small fraction of those received by the UK population due to natural background radiation. In addition, there is no proven environmental harm from foreseeable future discharges from Sellafield or other UK nuclear sites. This is supported by independent work which illustrates that the public collective dose from Sellafield discharges is almost all delivered at risks of less that one in a

  1. Motivations and Paths to Becoming Faculty at Minority Serving Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Blake

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon 15 qualitative interviews with early- to mid-career faculty (seven men and eight women at Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs, this study examines the diverse motivations and paths those faculty members have taken to becoming professors at their respective institutions. The faculty come from a range of MSIs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Hispanic Serving Institutions, Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander Serving Institutions, and Predominantly Black Institutions across the country and represent a broad spectrum of disciplines. This study sheds light on factors that guide their choices of discipline and entrance into the faculty ranks at MSIs. Social cognitive career theory (SCCT was used as a lens during qualitative coding and analysis in order to develop the findings, which reveal that (1 teaching, activism, and community uplift were primary motivators to enter the professoriate; (2 supportive environmental factors, including single individuals, proved pivotal in influencing faculty to take these roles; and (3 career transitions into the academy were spurred by learning experiences that revealed disciplinary and teaching interests. The findings suggest that MSIs attract community-oriented individuals to their faculty positions, and that colleges and universities interested in diversifying their faculties should craft such roles in ways that are appealing to the populations that they are trying to recruit and retain.

  2. Operating a production pilot factory serving several scientific domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfiligoi, I.; Würthwein, F.; Andrews, W.; Dost, J. M.; MacNeill, I.; McCrea, A.; Sheripon, E.; Murphy, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    Pilot infrastructures are becoming prominent players in the Grid environment. One of the major advantages is represented by the reduced effort required by the user communities (also known as Virtual Organizations or VOs) due to the outsourcing of the Grid interfacing services, i.e. the pilot factory, to Grid experts. One such pilot factory, based on the glideinWMS pilot infrastructure, is being operated by the Open Science Grid at University of California San Diego (UCSD). This pilot factory is serving multiple VOs from several scientific domains. Currently the three major clients are the analysis operations of the HEP experiment CMS, the community VO HCC, which serves mostly math, biology and computer science users, and the structural biology VO NEBioGrid. The UCSD glidein factory allows the served VOs to use Grid resources distributed over 150 sites in North and South America, in Europe, and in Asia. This paper presents the steps taken to create a production quality pilot factory, together with the challenges encountered along the road.

  3. Operating a production pilot factory serving several scientific domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sfiligoi, I; Würthwein, F; Andrews, W; Dost, J M; MacNeill, I; McCrea, A; Sheripon, E; Murphy, C W

    2011-01-01

    Pilot infrastructures are becoming prominent players in the Grid environment. One of the major advantages is represented by the reduced effort required by the user communities (also known as Virtual Organizations or VOs) due to the outsourcing of the Grid interfacing services, i.e. the pilot factory, to Grid experts. One such pilot factory, based on the glideinWMS pilot infrastructure, is being operated by the Open Science Grid at University of California San Diego (UCSD). This pilot factory is serving multiple VOs from several scientific domains. Currently the three major clients are the analysis operations of the HEP experiment CMS, the community VO HCC, which serves mostly math, biology and computer science users, and the structural biology VO NEBioGrid. The UCSD glidein factory allows the served VOs to use Grid resources distributed over 150 sites in North and South America, in Europe, and in Asia. This paper presents the steps taken to create a production quality pilot factory, together with the challenges encountered along the road.

  4. Operation and application of tissue-equivalent proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdung, S.; Roos, H.

    1995-01-01

    The application of TEPCs during the past decades in dosimetry, radiation protection and radiation therapy has revealed their large potential but also the necessity of careful operation. This paper reviews the experience gathered in the past and summarises the experimental procedures to ensure proper TEPC operation. The measurement system is described including detector, electronics and quality assurance. The pulse height analysis and its interpretation in terms of microdosimetric spectra and mean values are presented as well as the variance method. On the basis of these evaluation procedures, the second part of the paper presents some typical examples of TEPC applications: dose spectrometry, time-of-flight techniques and the measurement of dose equivalent quantities. Special attention is paid to possible extensions but also to limitations of the use of TEPCs in the various fields of application. (Author)

  5. Proportional Load Sharing and Stability of DC Microgrid with Distributed Architecture Using SM Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rashad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available DC microgrids look attractive in distribution systems due to their high reliability, high efficiency, and easy integration with renewable energy sources. The key objectives of the DC microgrid include proportional load sharing and precise voltage regulation. Droop controllers are based on decentralized control architectures which are not effective in achieving these objectives simultaneously due to the voltage error and load power variation. A centralized controller can achieve these objectives using a high speed communication link. However, it loses reliability due to the single point failure. Additionally, these controllers are realized through proportional integral (PI controllers which cannot ensure load sharing and stability in all operating conditions. To address limitations, a distributed architecture using sliding mode (SM controller utilizing low bandwidth communication is proposed for DC microgrids in this paper. The main advantages are high reliability, load power sharing, and precise voltage regulation. Further, the SM controller shows high robustness, fast dynamic response, and good stability for large load variations. To analyze the stability and dynamic performance, a system model is developed and its transversality, reachability, and equivalent control conditions are verified. Furthermore, the dynamic behavior of the modeled system is investigated for underdamped and critically damped responses. Detailed simulations are carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  6. Positron imaging with multiwire proportional chamber-gamma converter hybrid detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, D.Y.H.

    1976-09-01

    A large area positron camera was developed using multiwire proportional chambers as detectors and electromagnetic delay lines for coordinate readout. Honeycomb structured gamma converters made of lead are coupled to the chambers for efficient gamma detection and good spatial resolution. Two opposing detectors, each having a sensitive area of 48 cm x 48 cm, are operated in coincidence for the detection of annihilation gammas (511 keV) from positron emitters. Detection efficiency of 4.2 percent per detector and spatial resolution of 6 to 7 mm FWHM at the mid-plane were achieved. The present camera operates at a maximum count rate of 24 K counts/min, limited by accidental coincidence. The theory for the gamma converter is presented along with a review of the operation of the multiwire proportional chamber and delay line readout. Calculated gamma converter efficiencies are compared with the measured results using a prototype test chamber. The characteristics of the positron camera system is evaluated, and the performance is shown to be consistent with calculation

  7. Non-Proportionality of Electron Response and Energy Resolution of Compton Electrons in Scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, L.; Marcinkowski, R.; Szawlowski, M.; Moszynski, M.; Czarnacki, W.; Syntfeld-Kazuch, A.; Szczesniak, T.; Pausch, G.; Plettner, C.; Roemer, K.

    2012-02-01

    Non-proportionality of light yield and energy resolution of Compton electrons in three scintillators (LaBr3:Ce, LYSO:Ce and CsI:Tl) were studied in a wide energy range from 10 keV up to 1 MeV. The experimental setup was comprised of a High Purity Germanium detector and tested scintillators coupled to a photomultiplier. Probing the non-proportionality and energy resolution curves at different energies was obtained by changing the position of various radioactive sources with respect to both detectors. The distance between both detectors and source was kept small to make use of Wide Angle Compton Coincidence (WACC) technique, which allowed us to scan large range of scattering angles simultaneously and obtain relatively high coincidence rate of 100 cps using weak sources of about 10 μCi activity. The results are compared with those obtained by direct irradiation of the tested scintillators with gamma-ray sources and fitting the full-energy peaks.

  8. A simple Bayesian approach to quantifying confidence level of adverse event incidence proportion in small samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    In both clinical development and post-marketing of a new therapy or a new treatment, incidence of an adverse event (AE) is always a concern. When sample sizes are small, large sample-based inferential approaches on an AE incidence proportion in a certain time period no longer apply. In this brief discussion, we introduce a simple Bayesian framework to quantify, in small sample studies and the rare AE case, (1) the confidence level that the incidence proportion of a particular AE p is over or below a threshold, (2) the lower or upper bounds on p with a certain level of confidence, and (3) the minimum required number of patients with an AE before we can be certain that p surpasses a specific threshold, or the maximum allowable number of patients with an AE after which we can no longer be certain that p is below a certain threshold, given a certain confidence level. The method is easy to understand and implement; the interpretation of the results is intuitive. This article also demonstrates the usefulness of simple Bayesian concepts when it comes to answering practical questions.

  9. Imaging micro-well proportional counters fabricated with masked UV laser ablation

    CERN Document Server

    Deines-Jones, P; Crawford, H; Hunter, S D

    2002-01-01

    The micro-well detector is a gas-proportional counter similar to the CAT (Bartol et al., J. Phys. III 6 (1996) 337) and WELL detectors (Bellazzini et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 423 (1999) 125). The micro-well is a cylindrical hole formed in the polymer substrate of commercially fabricated copper-clad flexible printed circuit board by UV laser ablation. The micro-wells are drilled at GSFC's UV laser-ablation facility. The cathode is a metal annulus that surrounds the opening of the well. The anode is a metal pad that fills the bottom of the well. Advantages of this topology include intrinsic two-dimensional sensing, thick robust electrodes, and large localized image charge on the cathodes. We have fabricated 5 cmx5 cm micro-well detectors with segmented anodes (1-d) and with both anodes and cathodes segmented (2-d), and have demonstrated: - stable, proportional operation at gas gains in excess of 30,000 in Ar- and Xe-based gases; - FWHM energy resolution of 20% at 6 keV in P-10; - preliminary 1-d spatial re...

  10. Digitally controlled analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for high-speed scanning probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukic, Maja; Todorov, Vencislav; Andany, Santiago; Nievergelt, Adrian P.; Yang, Chen; Hosseini, Nahid; Fantner, Georg E.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly all scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) contain a feedback controller, which is used to move the scanner in the direction of the z-axis in order to maintain a constant setpoint based on the tip-sample interaction. The most frequently used feedback controller in SPMs is the proportional-integral (PI) controller. The bandwidth of the PI controller presents one of the speed limiting factors in high-speed SPMs, where higher bandwidths enable faster scanning speeds and higher imaging resolution. Most SPM systems use digital signal processor-based PI feedback controllers, which require analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters. These converters introduce additional feedback delays which limit the achievable imaging speed and resolution. In this paper, we present a digitally controlled analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. The controller implementation allows tunability of the PID gains over a large amplification and frequency range, while also providing precise control of the system and reproducibility of the gain parameters. By using the analog PID controller, we were able to perform successful atomic force microscopy imaging of a standard silicon calibration grating at line rates up to several kHz.

  11. Methods used for the treatment of non-proportionally damped structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conoscente, J.P.; Maslenikov, O.R.; Johnson, J.J.

    1993-05-01

    Non-proportional or non-classical damping is defined as a form of viscous damping that introduces coupling between the undamped modal coordinates of motion. Such problems have practical applications in the dynamic analysis of soil-structure systems, structure-equipment systems, and structural systems made of materials with different energy dissipation capacities, which is applicable to seismic analysis of nuclear power plants. Presented in this report is a review of the methods most commonly used in structural analysis for the solution of the dynamic response of systems with non-proportional damping. Both rigorous and approximate methods are described. Since rigorous methods usually require large computational efforts, approximate methods using undamped mode shapes are often preferred. In the study described here, the accuracy of three approximate methods was evaluated for three benchmark problems, with various parametric variations. Results were compared with the exact solution for different combinations of structural properties. Based on these results, conclusions and recommendations are presented for the use of the selected approximate methods

  12. Healthy and Unhealthy Food Prices across Neighborhoods and Their Association with Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Proportion Black/Hispanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, David M; Auchincloss, Amy H; Robinson, Lucy F; Stehr, Mark F; Pham-Kanter, Genevieve

    2017-08-01

    This paper evaluates variation in food prices within and between neighborhoods to improve our understanding of access to healthy foods in urbanized areas and potential economic incentives and barriers to consuming a higher-quality diet. Prices of a selection of healthier foods (dairy, fruit juice, and frozen vegetables) and unhealthy foods (soda, sweets, and salty snacks) were obtained from 1953 supermarkets across the USA during 2009-2012 and were linked to census block group socio-demographics. Analyses evaluated associations between neighborhood SES and proportion Black/Hispanic and the prices of healthier and unhealthy foods, and the relative price of healthier foods compared with unhealthy foods (healthy-to-unhealthy price ratio). Linear hierarchical regression models were used to explore geospatial variation and adjust for confounders. Overall, the price of healthier foods was nearly twice as high as the price of unhealthy foods ($0.590 vs $0.298 per serving; healthy-to-unhealthy price ratio of 1.99). This trend was consistent across all neighborhood characteristics. After adjusting for covariates, no association was found between food prices (healthy, unhealthy, or the healthy-to-unhealthy ratio) and neighborhood SES. Similarly, there was no association between the proportion Black/Hispanic and healthier food price, a very small positive association with unhealthy price, and a modest negative association with the healthy-to-unhealthy ratio. No major differences were seen in food prices across levels of neighborhood SES and proportion Black/Hispanic; however, the price of healthier food was twice as expensive as unhealthy food per serving on average.

  13. Experimental measurements and theoretical simulations for neutron flux in self-serve facility of Dhruva reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Y.S.; Mishra, Abhishek; Singh, Tej

    2016-06-01

    Dhruva is a 100 MW th tank type research reactor with natural metallic uranium as fuel and heavy water as coolant, moderator and reflector. The reactor is utilized for production of a large variety of radioisotopes for fulfilling growing demands of various applications in industrial, agricultural and medicinal sectors, and neutron beam research in condensed matter physics. The core consists of two on-power tray rods for radioisotope production and fifteen experimental beam holes for neutron beam research. Recently, a self-serve facility has also been commissioned in one of the through tubes in the reactor for carrying out short term irradiations. To get accurate information about neutron flux spectrum, measurements have been carried out in self-serve facility of Dhruva reactor. The present report describes measurement method, analysis technique and results. Theoretical estimations for neutron flux were also carried out and a comparison between theoretical and experimental results is made. (author)

  14. Proportion of litters of purebred dogs born by caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Katy M; Adams, Vicki J

    2010-02-01

    To describe the frequency of caesarean sections in a large sample of pedigree dogs in the UK. Data on the numbers of litters born in the previous 10 years were available from a cross-sectional study of dogs belonging to breed club members (2004 Kennel Club/BSAVA Scientific Committee Purebred Dog Health Survey). In this survey 151 breeds were represented with data for households that had reported on at least 10 litters (range 10-14,15): this represented 13,141 bitches which had whelped 22,005 litters. The frequency of caesarean sections was estimated as the percentage of litters that were reported to be born by caesarean section (caesarean rates) and are reported by breed. The dogs were categorised into brachycephalic, mesocephalic and dolicocephalic breeds. The 10 breeds with the highest caesarean rates were the Boston terrier, bulldog, French bulldog, mastiff, Scottish terrier, miniature bull terrier, German wirehaired pointer, Clumber spaniel, Pekingese and Dandie Dinmont terrier. In the Boston terrier, bulldog and French bulldog, the rate was > 80%. These data provide evidence for the need to monitor caesarean rates in certain breeds of dog.

  15. Meta-analysis of proportion estimates of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in East Africa hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonda, Tolbert; Kumburu, Happiness; van Zwetselaar, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background: A high proportion of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae is causing common infections in all regions of the world. The burden of antibiotic resistance due to ESBL in East Africa is large but information is scarce and thus it is unclear how big the prob......Background: A high proportion of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae is causing common infections in all regions of the world. The burden of antibiotic resistance due to ESBL in East Africa is large but information is scarce and thus it is unclear how big...... the problem really is. To gain insight into the magnitude and molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in East Africa a literature search was performed in PubMed on 31 July 2015 to retrieve articles with relevant information on ESBL. Methods and results: Meta-analysis was performed...... to determine overall proportion estimate of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 4076 bacterial isolates were included in the analysis. The overall pooled proportion of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among included surveys done in East African hospitals was found to be 0. 42 (95 % CI: 0...

  16. What proportion of prescription items dispensed in community pharmacies are eligible for the New Medicine Service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Katharine M; Boyd, Matthew J; Thornley, Tracey; Boardman, Helen F

    2014-03-07

    The payment structure for the New Medicine Service (NMS) in England is based on the assumption that 0.5% of prescription items dispensed in community pharmacies are eligible for the service. This assumption is based on a theoretical calculation. This study aimed to find out the actual proportion of prescription items eligible for the NMS dispensed in community pharmacies in order to compare this with the theoretical assumption. The study also aimed to investigate whether the proportion of prescription items eligible for the NMS is affected by pharmacies' proximity to GP practices. The study collected data from eight pharmacies in Nottingham belonging to the same large chain of pharmacies. Pharmacies were grouped by distance from the nearest GP practice and sampled to reflect the distribution by distance of all pharmacies in Nottingham. Data on one thousand consecutive prescription items were collected from each pharmacy and the number of NMS eligible items recorded. All NHS prescriptions were included in the sample. Data were analysed and proportions calculated with 95% confidence intervals used to compare the study results against the theoretical figure of 0.5% of prescription items being eligible for the NMS. A total of 8005 prescription items were collected (a minimum of 1000 items per pharmacy) of which 17 items were eligible to receive the service. The study found that 0.25% (95% confidence intervals: 0.14% to 0.36%) of prescription items were eligible for the NMS which differs significantly from the theoretical assumption of 0.5%. The opportunity rate for the service was lower, 0.21% (95% confidence intervals: 0.10% to 0.32%) of items, as some items eligible for the NMS did not translate into opportunities to offer the service. Of all the prescription items collected in the pharmacies, 28% were collected by patient representatives. The results of this study show that the proportion of items eligible for the NMS dispensed in community pharmacies is lower than

  17. Novel Harmonic Regularization Approach for Variable Selection in Cox’s Proportional Hazards Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge-Jin Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variable selection is an important issue in regression and a number of variable selection methods have been proposed involving nonconvex penalty functions. In this paper, we investigate a novel harmonic regularization method, which can approximate nonconvex Lq  (1/2proportional hazards model using microarray gene expression data. The harmonic regularization method can be efficiently solved using our proposed direct path seeking approach, which can produce solutions that closely approximate those for the convex loss function and the nonconvex regularization. Simulation results based on the artificial datasets and four real microarray gene expression datasets, such as real diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DCBCL, the lung cancer, and the AML datasets, show that the harmonic regularization method can be more accurate for variable selection than existing Lasso series methods.

  18. Compact multiwire proportional chambers and electronics for the crystal ball detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiser, J.E.; Liberman, A.D.; Rolfe, J.

    1978-01-01

    A double gap of cylindrical proportional chambers has been designed and built for use with a large solid angle, modular NaI(Tl) array (The Crystal Ball). The chambers are constructed of three coaxial foam-epoxy shells, covered with an aluminum-mylar laminate. One of the high voltage cathodes in each chamber has been photo-etched to produce a pattern of stripes and precise position measurements of tracks passing transverse to the chamber axis are found by pulse height analyzing the shaped and amplified induced strip signals. Performance of the chamber using both the strip signals and the sense wire readout is presented. The design of both the signal handling electronics and the digital portions of the systems is discussed

  19. Radiation effects on the proportional counter X-ray detectors on board the NEAR spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, S.R.; Trombka, J.I.; Leidecker, H.W.; Clark, P.E.; Starr, R.; Goldsten, J.O.; Roth, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The X-ray proportional counters on board the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft have exhibited a resolution degradation and recovery phenomenon several times during the long cruise phase of the mission. The resolution is checked periodically by commanding an 55 Fe source into the window area. The degradation is seen as a low energy tailing of the 5.9 keV photopeak. Two events have occurred which provided good spectral data for better understanding the degradation phenomenon. In November 1997 a large solar particle event occurred that degraded the resolution and excited copper in the collimator. Eventually the detectors returned to normal. In January 1998 the spacecraft performed an Earth swingby gravity assist maneuver. The near Earth environment excited the magnesium and aluminum in the filter elements. The copper line was also produced. The NEAR spacecraft was launched in February 1996 and will rendezvous and orbit the asteroid 433 Eros in early 1999

  20. Low-pressure, multistep, multiwire proportional counter for the time-of-flight isochronous spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A low-pressure, multistep, multiwire proportional counter (MSMWPC) has been developed for the characterization and testing of the time-of-flight isochronous (TOFI) spectrometer and its associated secondary-beam transport line. This type of counter was selected because of its high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and good position (0.2 mm FWHM) and timing (180 ps FWHM) resolution. Furthermore, because the counter operates at low gas pressures (1-10 torr) and high electric-field strengths, which enable short collection times, it can be used as a transmission counter with thin gas-isolation windows and it can operate at high counting rates. Here the authors discuss the basic operating principle of the MSMWPC, describe the technical details of the detector and signal processing, and report on the performance they have measured for alpha particles and fission fragments

  1. Estimating the Proportion of True Null Hypotheses in Multiple Testing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluyemi Oyeniran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of estimating the proportion, π0, of the true null hypotheses in a multiple testing problem is important in cases where large scale parallel hypotheses tests are performed independently. While the problem is a quantity of interest in its own right in applications, the estimate of π0 can be used for assessing or controlling an overall false discovery rate. In this article, we develop an innovative nonparametric maximum likelihood approach to estimate π0. The nonparametric likelihood is proposed to be restricted to multinomial models and an EM algorithm is also developed to approximate the estimate of π0. Simulation studies show that the proposed method outperforms other existing methods. Using experimental microarray datasets, we demonstrate that the new method provides satisfactory estimate in practice.

  2. Depth of interaction detection with enhanced position-sensitive proportional resistor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, Ch.W.; Benlloch, J.M.; Sanchez, F.; Pavon, N.; Gimenez, N.; Fernandez, M.; Gimenez, M.; Sebastia, A.; Martinez, J.; Mora, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    A new method of determining the depth of interaction of γ-rays in thick inorganic scintillation crystals was tested experimentally. The method uses the strong correlation between the width of the scintillation light distribution within large continuous crystals and the γ-ray's interaction depth. This behavior was successfully reproduced by a theoretical model distribution based on the inverse square law. For the determination of the distribution's width, its standard deviation σ is computed using an enhanced position-sensitive proportional resistor network which is often used in γ-ray-imaging devices. Minor changes of this known resistor network allow the analog and real-time determination of the light distribution's 2nd moment without impairing the measurement of the energy and centroid. First experimental results are presented that confirm that the described method works correctly. Since only some cheap electronic components, but no additional detectors or crystals are required, the main advantage of this method is its low cost

  3. Identification of relativistic charged particles by means of ionisation energy loss in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1978-12-01

    A method is described of obtaining a useful degree of improvement in the particle discrimination capability of multiwire proportional counters. The normal multiple sampling technique using a suitable bias to combat the small magnitude of the relativistic rise in the ionization energy loss and the wide pulse height distributions obtained in thin gas counters requires a large number of samples for useful discrimination. In the method reported, this number is reduced by suppressing the delta ray contribution to the total charge pulse from the anode wire. A monte carlo model convoluting the 'delta ray suppressed' data from a one sample detector shows that when it is required to separate pions and electrons at 1 GeV/C with a detection efficiency for the electron of 90%, a 'suppressor' circuit can achieve a pion rejection ratio of 250:1 with 82 samples, whereas the truncated mean approach (lowest 70% of samples) requires 100 samples. (UK)

  4. Polycrystalline TiO2 Anatase with a Large Proportion of Crystal Facets (001): Lithium Insertion Electrochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouša, Milan; Lásková, Barbora; Zukalová, Markéta; Procházka, Jan; Chou, A.; Kavan, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 10 (2010), A1108-A1112 ISSN 0013-4651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : polycrystalline * TiO2 * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.420, year: 2010

  5. A very large proportion of young Danish women have polycystic ovaries: is a revision of the Rotterdam criteria needed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Ernst, Erik

    2010-01-01

    According to the Rotterdam 2003 criteria, an ovary is defined as polycystic if 12 or more follicles of 2-9 mm are present, when evaluating the ovary by ultrasonography on Days 3-5 of the menstrual cycle in women not using hormonal contraceptives. The aim of this population-based study...... was to estimate the prevalence of polycystic ovaries (PCO) in a representative sample of young Danish women according to the Rotterdam criteria....

  6. Restaurant Policies and Practices for Serving Raw Fish in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedeen, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    The number of restaurants serving sushi within Minnesota is continuously increasing. The practices and protocols of serving raw fish are complex and require detailed planning to ensure that food served to patrons will not cause illness. Although the popularity of sushi is increasing, there is a lack of research on food safety issues pertaining to preparation of raw fish and sushi rice. To address this gap, the Minnesota Department of Health Environmental Health Specialists Network Food program collected descriptive data on restaurant practices and policies concerning the service of raw fish and sushi rice in 40 Minnesota restaurants. At each restaurant, a specialist interviewed a restaurant manager, conducted an observation of the sushi prep areas in the restaurant kitchen, and reviewed parasite destruction letters and invoices from fish supplier(s). Over half of the restaurants (59%) were missing one or more of the parasite destruction letters from their fish supplier(s) guaranteeing that fish had been properly frozen to the time and temperature requirements in the Minnesota Food Code. A total of 42 parasite destruction letters from suppliers were observed; 10% were considered "adequate" letters. The majority of the letters were missing details pertaining to the types of fish frozen, the length of time fish were frozen, or details on what temperatures fish were held frozen or a combination of all three. Most restaurants were using time as a public health control for their sushi rice. For those restaurants using time as a public health control, 26% had a written procedure on-site, and approximately 53% were keeping track of time. Bare hand contact during sushi prep was observed in 17% of restaurants, and in more than 40% of the restaurants, at least one fish was mislabeled on the menu. Findings from this study indicate that many Minnesota restaurants are not complying with the Food Code requirements pertaining to parasite destruction for the service of raw fish or

  7. Proportional-integral controller based small-signal analysis of hybrid distributed generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Prakash K.; Mohanty, Soumya R.; Kishor, Nand

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We aim to minimize the deviation of frequency in an integrated energy resources like offshore wind, photovoltaic (PV), fuel cell (FC) and diesel engine generator (DEG) along with the energy storage elements like flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and battery energy storage system (BESS). → Further ultracapacitor (UC) as an alternative energy storage element and proportional-integral (PI) controller is addressed in order to achieve improvements in the deviation of frequency profiles. → A comparative assessment of frequency deviation for different hybrid systems is also carried out in the presence of high voltage direct current (HVDC) link and high voltage alternating current (HVAC) line. → In the study both qualitative and quantitative analysis reflects the improvements in frequency deviation profiles with use of ultracapacitor (UC) as energy storage element. -- Abstract: The large band variation in the wind speed and unpredictable solar radiation causes remarkable fluctuations of output power in offshore wind and photovoltaic system respectively, which leads to large deviation in the system frequency. In this context, to minimize the deviation in frequency, this paper presents integration of different energy resources like offshore wind, photovoltaic (PV), fuel cell (FC) and diesel engine generator (DEG) along with the energy storage elements like flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and battery energy storage system (BESS). Further ultracapacitor (UC) as an alternative energy storage element and proportional-integral (PI) controller is addressed in order to achieve improvements in the deviation of frequency profiles. A comparative assessment of frequency deviation for different hybrid systems is also carried out in the presence of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) link and high-voltage alternating current (HVAC) line. Frequency deviation for different isolated hybrid systems are presented graphically as well as in terms of

  8. Civilian social work: serving the military and veteran populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitsky, Laura; Illingworth, Maria; DuLaney, Megan

    2009-10-01

    This article discusses social work practice areas for civilian social workers who provide services to military service members,veterans, and their families. These practice areas include education, child welfare, domestic violence, mental health, health care, substance abuse, and criminal justice. The authors examine the impact of the contemporary military lifestyle and current military operations on service members and their families in the context of these practice areas, with the goal of compelling civilian social workers to acknowledge their responsibility to competently serve military and veteran clients.

  9. Minions: Empathetic Lessons From Small Yellow Creatures Serving the Despicable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerning, Halfdan; Vilsgaard, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Reviews the film Minions (2015) directed by Kyle Balda and Pierre Coffin (2015). Minions are fictional computer-animated yellow pill-shaped creatures who speak their own language. They live to serve the most despicable master they can find. The film tells the evolutionary story of the minions and......, their facial expressions, their display of character strengths, and their need for a purpose in life, we identify reasons why we are able to understand the minions as we understand ourselves. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)...

  10. Self-serving bias effects on job analysis ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucina, Jeffrey M; Martin, Nicholas R; Vasilopoulos, Nicholas L; Thibodeuax, Henry F

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether worker-oriented job analysis importance ratings were influenced by subject matter experts' (SME) standing (as measured by self-rated performance) on a competency. This type of relationship (whereby SMEs indicate that the traits they have are important for successful job performance) is an example of the self-serving bias (which is widely described in the social cognition literature and rarely described in the industrial/organizational psychology literature). An archival dataset covering 57 clerical and technical occupations with 26,682 participants was used. Support was found for the relationship between self-rated performance and importance ratings. Significant relationships (typically in the .30s) were observed for all 31 competencies that were studied. Controls were taken to account for common method bias and differences in the competencies required for each of the 57 occupations. Past research has demonstrated the effects of the self-serving bias on personality-based job analysis ratings. This study was the first to extend these findings to traditional job analysis, which covers other competencies in addition to personality. In addition, this study is the first to use operational field data instead of laboratory data.

  11. A quasi-proportional electoral system 'only for honest men'? The hidden potential for manipulating mixed compensatory electoral systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    , and Venezuela, however, demonstrate a particular loophole for such systems: strategic voting, organized by political parties. Large parties can achieve over-representation by encouraging their voters to split their votes. In this way, they outsmart the compensatory mechanism designed to lead to proportional...... results. These disproportional results are particularly controversial, since they are deliberate and strategic. This article takes the 2005 Albanian elections as its main case study, and uses simulations to illustrate its political consequences....

  12. Evaluation of Recurring Esthetic Dental Proportion in Natural Mandibular Anterior Dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti S Shah

    2015-01-01

    Results: After calculating proportions in mandibular anterior teeth, P value was found to be statistically insignificant (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, RED proportion was not seen in mandibular natural dentition.

  13. Clinical Supervision of Mental Health Professionals Serving Youth: Format and Microskills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailin, Abby; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Sale, Rafaella

    2018-03-21

    Clinical supervision is an element of quality assurance in routine mental health care settings serving children; however, there is limited scientific evaluation of its components. This study examines the format and microskills of routine supervision. Supervisors (n = 13) and supervisees (n = 20) reported on 100 supervision sessions, and trained coders completed observational coding on a subset of recorded sessions (n = 57). Results indicate that microskills shown to enhance supervisee competency in effectiveness trials and experiments were largely absent from routine supervision, highlighting potential missed opportunities to impart knowledge to therapists. Findings suggest areas for quality improvement within routine care settings.

  14. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Varadhan, S R S

    2016-01-01

    The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.

  15. Assessing the financial impacts of distributed energy on load serving entities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zeyu; Negash, Ahlmahz; Kirschen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the financial impact of distributed energy resources (DERs) owned and operated by commercial customers on the load serving entities (LSEs). DERs reduce the customers' electricity bills and hence the revenues collected by their LSE. However, changes in customer demand profiles can potentially reduce the aggregated system demand profile, and therefore, reduce the LSE's costs in wholesale markets. Analysis of these financial impacts indicates that the LSE's lost revenue ultimately outweighs its reduced expenses. This is largely due to a significant reduction in revenue from demand charges. Dispatchable DERs, including energy storages and demand response, result in more financial losses for LSEs than photovoltaics. The financial losses LSEs face indicate that redesigning commercial customer tariffs is necessary in order for LSEs to accommodate customer owned DERs properly. Several suggestions on modifying commercial tariffs are presented. - Highlights: • We analyze the financial impacts on load serving entities of DERs owned by commercial customers. • Under the selected commercial tariff, load serving entities suffer economic losses. • Energy storages and demand response results in more financial losses for LSE than photovoltaics. • We provide some suggestions for tariff modifications.

  16. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  17. Renewable energy for federal facilities serving native Americans: preprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiffert, P.; Sprunt Crawley, A.; Bartow, K.

    2000-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is targeting Federal facilities serving Native American populations for cost-effective renewable energy projects. These projects not only save energy and money, they also provide economic opportunities for the Native Americans who assist in producing, installing, operating, or maintaining the renewable energy systems obtained for the facilities. The systems include solar heating, solar electric (photovoltaic or PV), wind, biomass, and geothermal energy systems. In fiscal years 1998 and 1999, FEMP co-funded seven such projects, working with the Indian Health Service in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Bureau of Indian Affairs in the U.S. Department of the Interior, and their project partners. The new renewable energy systems are helping to save money that would otherwise be spent on conventional energy and reduce the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels

  18. Can gene fusions serve for fingerprints of radiogenic cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that malignancies in blood cells often bear specific chromosome translocations or gene fusions. In recent years, the presence of fusion genes became to be known also among solid cancers as driver mutations. However, representative solid cancers bearing specific gene fusions are limited to cancers of thyroid, prostate, and sarcomas among which only thyroid cancer risk is known to be related to radiation exposures. On the other hand, it is extremely rare to find recurrent reciprocal translocations among common cancers such as in the lung, stomach, breast, and colon, which form a major component of radiation risks. It is therefore unlikely that radiation increases the risk of cancer by inducing specific translocations (gene fusions) but more likely through induction of mutations (including deletions). Although gene fusions could play a role in radiation carcinogenesis, it does not seem good enough to serve for a radiation fingerprint. (author)

  19. Unanswered prayers: religiosity and the god-serving bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Heidi R; Uhalt, Joshua; Matthies, Brigitte K

    2014-01-01

    Two self-report experiments examined how religiosity affects attributions made for a target person's death. Online adults (Study 1, N = 427) and undergraduate students (Study 2, N = 326) read about Chris who had a heart attack, used religious or health behaviors, and lived or died. Participants made attributions to Chris and God (both studies), and reported their emotions (Study 2). Participants made more attributions to Chris when he lived than when he died, but only when he used health behaviors. The highly religious made more attributions to God, but not when Chris used religious behaviors and died (the God-serving bias); they reported the most positive emotions when Chris lived after using religious behaviors (the Hallelujah effect). Directions for future research in terms of implicit religious beliefs and normative evaluations of religion are discussed.

  20. Forestry serving urban societies in the north atlantic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the North Atlantic Region, the social services provided by forests play a major role. With the high level of urbanisation in many of these countries, forests and other green areas are of great importance as recreational settings for urban dwellers. In order to ensure that forests cater...... of Ministers and was organised in collaboration with the Nordic-Baltic Centre of Advanced Research on Forestry Serving Urbanised Societies (CARe-FOR-US), the European Forest Network, Icelandic Forest Research and the Icelandic Forestry Association. Over 120 delegates represented researchers, planners...... and managers of forests and other green areas, policy makers and students. This issue of TemaNord presents a selection of papers presented at the conference, covering topics such as planning for environmental services, urban forest strategies, public involvement, and urban woodland management....

  1. Serve, Teach, and Lead: It’s All about Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Crippen, PhD

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Once a person assumes the mantle of teacher, one becomes a leader, first, in the classroom and then in the school (Crippen, 2005. With this position comes a delicate power and responsibility to the moral imperative. As such, this issue is critical as a component of teacher preparation programs. Goodlad (2004 sounds the alarm that our teacher preparation programs are remiss in responding to the need for moral literacy in our schools. The following paper will introduce the philosophy of servant-leadership, a moral way of serving, as defined by Robert K. Greenleaf (1970/1991 and will respond to Goodlad’s call with possibilities for preservice teachers that help them examine and define their role in contributing to the common good through servant-leadership.

  2. Examination of neural systems sub-serving facebook "addiction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-12-01

    Because addictive behaviors typically result from violated homeostasis of the impulsive (amygdala-striatal) and inhibitory (prefrontal cortex) brain systems, this study examined whether these systems sub-serve a specific case of technology-related addiction, namely Facebook "addiction." Using a go/no-go paradigm in functional MRI settings, the study examined how these brain systems in 20 Facebook users (M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 1.3, range = 18-23) who completed a Facebook addiction questionnaire, responded to Facebook and less potent (traffic sign) stimuli. The findings indicated that at least at the examined levels of addiction-like symptoms, technology-related "addictions" share some neural features with substance and gambling addictions, but more importantly they also differ from such addictions in their brain etiology and possibly pathogenesis, as related to abnormal functioning of the inhibitory-control brain system.

  3. Books, Read-Alouds, and Voluntary Book Interactions: What Do We Know about Centers Serving Three-Year-Olds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesmer, Heidi Anne

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the quality of books, the quality of read-alouds, and children's voluntary interactions with books in childcare centers serving low-income 3-year-olds (N = 30). Although a large percentage of centers had book areas, the features of book areas differed. The highest percentage of books was highly recommended and appropriate (39%)…

  4. Why did humans develop a large brain?

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat Baron, Yves

    2012-01-01

    "Of all animals, man has the largest brain in proportion to his size"- Aristotle. Dr Yves Muscat Baron shares his theory on how humans evolved large brains. The theory outlines how gravity could have helped humans develop a large brain- the author has named the theory 'The Gravitational Vascular Theory'. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/why-did-humans-develop-a-large-brain/

  5. Forearm articular proportions and the antebrachial index in Homo sapiens, Australopithecus afarensis and the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank L'Engle; Cunningham, Deborah L; Amaral, Lia Q

    2015-12-01

    When hominin bipedality evolved, the forearms were free to adopt nonlocomotor tasks which may have resulted in changes to the articular surfaces of the ulna and the relative lengths of the forearm bones. Similarly, sex differences in forearm proportions may be more likely to emerge in bipeds than in the great apes given the locomotor constraints in Gorilla, Pan and Pongo. To test these assumptions, ulnar articular proportions and the antebrachial index (radius length/ulna length) in Homo sapiens (n=51), Gorilla gorilla (n=88), Pan troglodytes (n=49), Pongo pygmaeus (n=36) and Australopithecus afarensis A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 are compared. Intercept-adjusted ratios are used to control for size and minimize the effects of allometry. Canonical scores axes show that the proximally broad and elongated trochlear notch with respect to size in H. sapiens and A. afarensis is largely distinct from G. gorilla, P. troglodytes and P. pygmaeus. A cluster analysis of scaled ulnar articular dimensions groups H. sapiens males with A.L. 438-1 ulna length estimates, while one A.L. 288-1 ulna length estimate groups with Pan and another clusters most closely with H. sapiens, G. gorilla and A.L. 438-1. The relatively low antebrachial index characterizing H. sapiens and non-outlier estimates of A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 differs from those of the great apes. Unique sex differences in H. sapiens suggest a link between bipedality and forearm functional morphology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Inventory, differentiation, and proportional diversity: a consistent terminology for quantifying species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurasinski, Gerald; Retzer, Vroni; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2009-02-01

    Almost half a century after Whittaker (Ecol Monogr 30:279-338, 1960) proposed his influential diversity concept, it is time for a critical reappraisal. Although the terms alpha, beta and gamma diversity introduced by Whittaker have become general textbook knowledge, the concept suffers from several drawbacks. First, alpha and gamma diversity share the same characteristics and are differentiated only by the scale at which they are applied. However, as scale is relative--depending on the organism(s) or ecosystems investigated--this is not a meaningful ecological criterion. Alpha and gamma diversity can instead be grouped together under the term "inventory diversity." Out of the three levels proposed by Whittaker, beta diversity is the one which receives the most contradictory comments regarding its usefulness ("key concept" vs. "abstruse concept"). Obviously beta diversity means different things to different people. Apart from the large variety of methods used to investigate it, the main reason for this may be different underlying data characteristics. A literature review reveals that the multitude of measures used to assess beta diversity can be sorted into two conceptually different groups. The first group directly takes species distinction into account and compares the similarity of sites (similarity indices, slope of the distance decay relationship, length of the ordination axis, and sum of squares of a species matrix). The second group relates species richness (or other summary diversity measures) of two (or more) different scales to each other (additive and multiplicative partitioning). Due to that important distinction, we suggest that beta diversity should be split into two levels, "differentiation diversity" (first group) and "proportional diversity" (second group). Thus, we propose to use the terms "inventory diversity" for within-sample diversity, "differentiation diversity" for compositional similarity between samples, and "proportional diversity" for the

  7. 75 FR 49484 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions (AANAPISI), Native American-Serving Nontribal Institutions (NASNTI), Hispanic Serving Institutions-STEM and Articulation (HSI-STEM), and Predominantly Black Institutions (PBI...

  8. Proportional reasoning as a heuristic-based process: time constraint and dual task considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Ellen; Van Dooren, Wim; Schaeken, Walter; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2009-01-01

    The present study interprets the overuse of proportional solution methods from a dual process framework. Dual process theories claim that analytic operations involve time-consuming executive processing, whereas heuristic operations are fast and automatic. In two experiments to test whether proportional reasoning is heuristic-based, the participants solved "proportional" problems, for which proportional solution methods provide correct answers, and "nonproportional" problems known to elicit incorrect answers based on the assumption of proportionality. In Experiment 1, the available solution time was restricted. In Experiment 2, the executive resources were burdened with a secondary task. Both manipulations induced an increase in proportional answers and a decrease in correct answers to nonproportional problems. These results support the hypothesis that the choice for proportional methods is heuristic-based.

  9. Development of Proportional Pressure Control Valve for Hydraulic Braking Actuator of Automobile ABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Pin Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research developed a novel proportional pressure control valve for an automobile hydraulic braking actuator. It also analyzed and simulated solenoid force of the control valves, and the pressure relief capability test of electromagnetic thrust with the proportional valve body. Considering the high controllability and ease of production, the driver of this proportional valve was designed with a small volume and powerful solenoid force to control braking pressure and flow. Since the proportional valve can have closed-loop control, the proportional valve can replace a conventional solenoid valve in current brake actuators. With the proportional valve controlling braking and pressure relief mode, it can narrow the space of hydraulic braking actuator, and precisely control braking force to achieve safety objectives. Finally, the proposed novel proportional pressure control valve of an automobile hydraulic braking actuator was implemented and verified experimentally.

  10. Quality assurance regime for the fabrication and calibration of ambient dose rate measuring instruments with proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloesser, H.

    1997-01-01

    The proportional detectors FHZ 600A and FHZ 601A serve as examples to illustrate the quality assurance regime applied in fabrication and operation of the detector. Calibration is done by a licensed establishment connected to the standard 137 Cs calibration source at PTB. In addition to the basic calibration, the intrinsic selfdosing effect of the device and its response to cosmic radiation are known and can be taken into account in interpretations of measured results. The individual calibration of the intelligent probes of type FHZ 601A achieves a yet better measuring accuracy at higher dose rates, as compared to the basic calibration and performance of the FHZ 600A probes, as was shown by a type approval test. The paper also shows that control measurements and ''intelligent'' measuring systems with integrated checking routines improve the measuring reliability. (orig./CB) [de

  11. A Performance Analysis of Long-term Acute-Care Hospitals Owned by Large, Multistate Investor-Owned Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Preethy; Liu, Xinliang; McCue, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a descriptive assessment of the operating performance of for-profit long-term acute-care hospitals owned by multistate, investor-owned companies (large FP LTCHs) compared with FP LTCHs owned by smaller FP companies (small FP LTCHs) and nonprofit LTCHs (NP LTCHs). The study used the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services cost report data for 290 LTCHs from 2010 through 2012 to compare the financial performance of large and small FP LTCHs and NP LTCHs. The study found that the median operating profit margin for large FP LTCHs was 8.06%, which was twice as high as that of the small FP LTCHs and NP LTCHs (4.78% and 2.80%, respectively). Larger size, serving a greater proportion of private pay and more complex patients and incurring lower operating expenses, including salary expenses, may account for the higher operating margin of the large FP LTCHs.

  12. Serving human needs. Nuclear technologies in the marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jihui; Burkart, Werner

    2001-01-01

    Many peaceful nuclear technologies today stand firmly established. They are being widely applied and accepted around the world in such fields as health care, food production, manufacturing, electricity generation, and environmental protection. Among the IAEA's 132 Member States, interest in constructively applying the tools of nuclear science and technology - especially outside the energy sector - remains high, although priorities, needs, and policies have changed over time. For the IAEA - whose specific mandate is to 'accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity' - the changing and challenging global picture has strengthened efforts to enhance the contribution of nuclear science and technologies in key fields of human development. A multi-faceted programme of technical cooperation serves as the main vehicle for the transfer of nuclear science and technology to developing countries. The programme's emphasis is on supporting projects that respond to the priority needs of each country, produce an economic or social impact, and reflect the distinct advantages of nuclear technology over other approaches

  13. Are men well served by family planning programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, Karen; Croce-Galis, Melanie; Gay, Jill

    2017-01-23

    Although the range of contraceptives includes methods for men, namely condoms, vasectomy and withdrawal that men use directly, and the Standard Days Method (SDM) that requires their participation, family planning programming has primarily focused on women. What is known about reaching men as contraceptive users? This paper draws from a review of 47 interventions that reached men and proposes 10 key considerations for strengthening programming for men as contraceptive users. A review of programming shows that men and boys are not particularly well served by programs. Most programs operate from the perspective that women are contraceptive users and that men should support their partners, with insufficient attention to reaching men as contraceptive users in their own right. The notion that family planning is women's business only is outdated. There is sufficient evidence demonstrating men's desire for information and services, as well as men's positive response to existing programming to warrant further programming for men as FP users. The key considerations focus on getting information and services where men and boys need it; addressing gender norms that affect men's attitudes and use while respecting women's autonomy; reaching adolescent boys; including men as users in policies and guidelines; scaling up successful programming; filling gaps with implementation research and monitoring & evaluation; and creating more contraceptive options for men.

  14. Investigating Methods for Serving Visualizations of Vertical Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. T.; Cechini, M. F.; Lanjewar, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Boller, R. A.; Baynes, K.

    2017-12-01

    Several geospatial web servers, web service standards, and mapping clients exist for the visualization of two-dimensional raster and vector-based Earth science data products. However, data products with a vertical component (i.e., vertical profiles) do not have the same mature set of technologies and pose a greater technical challenge when it comes to visualizations. There are a variety of tools and proposed standards, but no obvious solution that can handle the variety of visualizations found with vertical profiles. An effort is being led by members of the NASA Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) team to gather a list of technologies relevant to existing vertical profile data products and user stories. The goal is to find a subset of technologies, standards, and tools that can be used to build publicly accessible web services that can handle the greatest number of use cases for the widest audience possible. This presentation will describe results of the investigation and offer directions for moving forward with building a system that is capable of effectively and efficiently serving visualizations of vertical profiles.

  15. An empirical typology of private child and family serving agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Collins-Camargo, Crystal; McBeath, Bowen; Wells, Rebecca; Bunger, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    Differences in how services are organized and delivered can contribute significantly to variation in outcomes experienced by children and families. However, few comparative studies identify the strengths and limitations of alternative delivery system configurations. The current study provides the first empirical typology of private agencies involved with the formal child welfare system. Data collected in 2011 from a national sample of private agencies were used to classify agencies into five distinct groups based on internal management capacity, service diversification, integration, and policy advocacy. Findings reveal considerable heterogeneity in the population of private child and family serving agencies. Cross-group comparisons suggest that differences in agencies' strategic and structural characteristics correlated with agency directors' perceptions of different pressures in their external environment. Future research can use this typology to better understand local service systems and the extent to which different agency strategies affect performance and other outcomes. Such information has implications for public agency contracting decisions and could inform system-level assessment and planning of services for children and families.

  16. AMR: Serving the needs of distributors and customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simard, C. [Hydro-Quebec, Metering and Meter-Reading Division, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    To keep pace with emerging competition in the North-American energy industry, Hydro-Quebec restructured its activities into four separate divisions. Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie, established in 1977, is the division responsible for energy transmission, whereas Hydro-Quebec Distribution, established in 2001, looks after distribution services. They and the two sister divisions (Hydro-Quebec Production and Hydro-Quebec Equipement) serve 2.8 million residential, institutional and industrial customers, scattered across 587,500 square kilometres. The restructuring provided the opportunity to adapt to new market realities. Automated Meter Reading (AMR) ties in directly with the new business-oriented approach the utility has adopted in the late 1990s. In addition to solving meter accessibility problems and reducing operating costs, automated meter reading provides customers with the opportunity to benefit from new services designed to meet specific needs. To date new services made possible by automated meter reading include customized reading date selection, aggregated billing, consumption tracking and load management. AMR not only translates into greater flexibility and added value for the customer. It also provides greater reliability, accuracy and better system management. In short, AMR paves the way for the optimization of the power supply, new consumption management capabilities, rate options, real-time billing and enhanced fraud detection.

  17. Assessing a Historically Hispanic Serving Institution Internationalization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Iuspa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a qualitative study conducted at a Historically Hispanic Serving Institution (HHSI to further the understanding of its internationalization decision-making process. The study uses the Internationalization Cube model to review the institution’s internal processes and policies toward internationalization and assess how its international activities align with its internationalization efforts. The Internationalization Cube, an eight-cell model, permits the positioning of Institutions of Higher Education (IHEs based on the analysis of its three dimensions and respective subcategories: policy, support, and implementation. The International Dimension Index (IDI and the Item Relevancy Index (IRI were also used to determine the level of alignment between the HHSI position on the Internationalization Cube and its international activities. The study finds that the HHSI is on Position 6 on the Internationalization Cube (priority policy, one-sided support, and systematic/structure implementation, and exhibits all the international activities considered indicators of internationalization but attention is needed to foreign language, international students, study abroad, faculty movement and involvement in international projects. The study concludes that an association exists between the institution’s position on the Internationalization Cube and its international activities, and adjustments in the institution’s policy, support, and implementation dimensions will be required to advance its position on the Internationalization Cube making its internationalization process more sustainable. This study makes a contribution to addressing the need to assess an IHE by presenting a holistic organizational framework instead of a fragmented international activities organizational analysis.

  18. Permafrost knowledge to serve as foundation for Inuit community planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibéryen, T.; Allard, M.

    2011-12-01

    With the recent announcement of Québec's provincial government's Plan Nord, Nunavik will see a 500 new houses sweep onto it's territory over the next 5 years. The local Inuit communities are confronted with the pressuring need to find suitable land to safely accommodate the new infrastructures in the long term. Additional to human and environmental constraints are those related to warming permafrost. Intensive studies on four Nunavik communities (Inukjuak, Puvirnituq, Akulivik, Kangirsuk) have allowed us to extensively consult local and regional authorities on their planning and management considerations. Recent and archived drilling data have been used to corroborate air photo interpretation, surficial geology and permafrost mapping. All collected information are integrated into aggregated maps that will eventually serve as community master plans. General recommendations on how to best manage and plan for community expansions on warming permafrost are made. Appropriate engineering techniques assuring long-term stable foundations are outlined and additionally mapped, taking into consideration the variable terrain conditions and simulated changes in permafrost temperature and active layer thickness according to climate change scenarios. The final purpose of our results is for them to support local and regional governments in their community planning process towards the best possible climate change adaptation strategies.

  19. Serving Canada's exporters and their customers abroad since 1946

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, T.

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Commercial Corporation (CCC) is a federal Crown corporation whose mandate is to facilitate trade between Canada and other nations, principally by partnering with Canadian suppliers in the sale of goods and services, and serving as a prime contractor and guarantor for sales by Canadian exporters to foreign buyers. CCC also acts as the purchasing agent contractor and manager for the U.S. Department of Defence of Canadian suppliers under a bilateral treaty. In essence, CCC participation constitutes a guarantee by the Canadian government that the Canadian supplier is capable, qualified, and that the contract terms will be met. The paper discusses the potential benefits of CCC participation in transactions for buyers, and for exporters, the intricacies of the progress payment program designed to provide working capital over and above normal cash flow, to share the risks amongst the parties to obtain pre-shipment financing for export sales, and to free up credit facilities. Eligibility criteria for the progress payment program, the process involved in becoming a participant, and associated costs to participants are also explained

  20. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Deuschel, Jean-Dominique; Deuschel, Jean-Dominique

    2001-01-01

    This is the second printing of the book first published in 1988. The first four chapters of the volume are based on lectures given by Stroock at MIT in 1987. They form an introduction to the basic ideas of the theory of large deviations and make a suitable package on which to base a semester-length course for advanced graduate students with a strong background in analysis and some probability theory. A large selection of exercises presents important material and many applications. The last two chapters present various non-uniform results (Chapter 5) and outline the analytic approach that allow

  1. A technique for searching for the 2 K capture in 124Xe with a copper proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilyuk, Yu. M.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Panasenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.; Tekueva, D. A.; Yakimenko, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    An experimental technique for searching for the 2 K capture in 124Xe with a large low-background copper proportional counter is described. Such an experiment is conducted at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory of the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The experimental setup is located in the Low-Background Deep-Level Laboratory at a depth of 4900 m.w.e., where the flux of muons of cosmic rays is suppressed by a factor of 107 relative to that at the Earth's surface. The setup incorporates a proportional counter and low-background shielding (18 cm of copper, 15 cm of lead, and 8 cm of borated polyethylene). The results of processing the data obtained in 5 months of live measurement time are presented. A new limit on the half-life of 124Xe with respect to the 2 K capture is set at the level of 2.5 × 1021 years.

  2. Large block test status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.; Lin, W.; Blair, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report is intended to serve as a status report, which essentially transmits the data that have been collected to date on the Large Block Test (LBT). The analyses of data will be performed during FY98, and then a complete report will be prepared. This status report includes introductory material that is not needed merely to transmit data but is available at this time and therefore included. As such, this status report will serve as the template for the future report, and the information is thus preserved

  3. Peak Operation of Cascaded Hydropower Plants Serving Multiple Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjian Shen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The bulk hydropower transmission via trans-provincial and trans-regional power networks in China provides great operational flexibility to dispatch power resources between multiple power grids. This is very beneficial to alleviate the tremendous peak load pressure of most provincial power grids. This study places the focus on peak operations of cascaded hydropower plants serving multiple provinces under a regional connected AC/DC network. The objective is to respond to peak loads of multiple provincial power grids simultaneously. A two-stage search method is developed for this problem. In the first stage, a load reconstruction strategy is proposed to combine multiple load curves of power grids into a total load curve. The purpose is to deal with different load features in load magnitudes, peaks and valleys. A mutative-scale optimization method is then used to determine the generation schedules of hydropower plants. In the second stage, an exterior point search method is established to allocate the generation among multiple receiving power grids. This method produces an initial solution using the load shedding algorithm, and further improves it by iteratively coordinating the generation among different power grids. The proposed method was implemented to the operations of cascaded hydropower plants on Xin-Fu River and another on Hongshui River. The optimization results in two cases satisfied the peak demands of receiving provincial power grids. Moreover, the maximum load difference between peak and valley decreased 12.67% and 11.32% in Shanghai Power Grid (SHPG and Zhejiang Power Grid (ZJPG, exceeding by 4.85% and 6.72% those of the current operational method, respectively. The advantage of the proposed method in alleviating peak-shaving pressure is demonstrated.

  4. Can protein-fortified pasta serve as a meat substitute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, C J; Tsay, R; Babayan, V K; Blackburn, G L

    1982-01-01

    A seventeen-day metabolic balance study was conducted with 13 healthy adult subjects to test the protein utilization of a meat-based diet and a protein-fortified pasta diet in an isonitrogenous, isocaloric inpatient study (averaging 112 gm of protein, and 2,500 cal). Intakes of calories, protein, fat, and carbohydrates, as well as ratios of meat protein or protein-fortified pasta protein (PEP), were controlled throughout the diets. The study was comprised of three experimental periods: a seven-day meat-protein control period, representing the typical american diet (TAD), averaging 18% protein, 40% fat, and 42% carbohydrate, a seven-day protein-enriched pasta control period (PEP), averaging 18% protein, 29% fat, and 53% carbohydrates, and a three-day PEP period composed of varied recipes, averaging 18% protein, 29% fat, and 53% carbohydrates. The subjects who consumed both the TAD and PEP diets achieved nitrogen balance (2.5 gN +/- 0.7 on the TAD, 2 gN +/- 0 on PEP with the PEP diet resulting in a decrease in plasma cholesterol (32 mg/dl, P less than .005), and a decrease in systolic (5.25 mm/Hg P less than .025) and diastolic blood pressure (5 mm/Hg, P less than .05), which was associated with an increase in urinary sodium excretion (19 +/- 17 mEq/day, P less than .025). In this study, it was determined that protein-fortified pasta may serve as a meat alternative. The PEP diet, which includes a beneficial change in fat/carbohydrate ratio, can alter lipid profiles, blood pressure, and sodium excretion, thus leading to improved health status and a decrease in cardiac risk factors.

  5. Training in Geoethics: Shared Values in Serving Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppoloni, S.; Di Capua, G.

    2014-12-01

    Geosciences have evident repercussions on society. Geoscientists possess knowledge and skills to investigate, manage and intervene on the Geosphere, and this implies ethical obligations. So, the adoption of ethical principles and standards is crucial if geoscientists want to best serve the public. Their ethical responsibility requires a more active role in interacting with society, by giving people valuable contexts that inform the need for sustainable development, and perspectives that reveal essential and delicate balances of natural systems that impact humanity. Geoethics consists of research and reflection on those values upon which to base appropriate behaviour and practices where human activities intersect the Geosphere, and should become an essential point of reference in geoscientists' curricula. Acting in this direction implies the awareness by the geological community of its ethical commitments and the necessity to train new generations of geoscientists that in the future will be able to transfer to society not only practical aspects of geological knowledge, but also a new way to understand our planet. The IAPG - International Association for Promoting Geoethics (www.iapg.geoethics.org) was born to build a new awareness in the scientific community. It aims at joining forces of geoscientists all over the world, through creation of an international, multidisciplinary and scientific platform for discussing ethical problems and dilemmas in Earth Sciences, for strengthening the research base on Geoethics through scientific publications and conferences. Its main goal is to give a new cultural framework of reference, in which to develop effective training tools, in order to sensitize young geoscientists on ethical and social issues related to their future work, starting from the definition of shared values within the scientific community. This work provides an overview on the IAPG goals, activities and ongoing initiatives.

  6. Growth Optimal Portfolio Selection Under Proportional Transaction Costs with Obligatory Diversification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, T.; Pasik Duncan, B.; Stettner, L.

    2011-01-01

    A continuous time long run growth optimal or optimal logarithmic utility portfolio with proportional transaction costs consisting of a fixed proportional cost and a cost proportional to the volume of transaction is considered. The asset prices are modeled as exponent of diffusion with jumps whose parameters depend on a finite state Markov process of economic factors. An obligatory portfolio diversification is introduced, accordingly to which it is required to invest at least a fixed small portion of our wealth in each asset.

  7. The proportion valid effect in covert orienting: strategic control or implicit learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risko, Evan F; Stolz, Jennifer A

    2010-03-01

    It is well known that the difference in performance between valid and invalid trials in the covert orienting paradigm (i.e., the cueing effect) increases as the proportion of valid trials increases. This proportion valid effect is widely assumed to reflect "strategic" control over the distribution of attention. In the present experiments we determine if this effect results from an explicit strategy or implicit learning by probing participant's awareness of the proportion of valid trials. Results support the idea that the proportion valid effect in the covert orienting paradigm reflects implicit learning not an explicit strategy.

  8. Anti-synchronization control of BAM memristive neural networks with multiple proportional delays and stochastic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Yuan, Manman; Luo, Xiong; Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Yao

    2018-01-01

    Proportional delay is a class of unbounded time-varying delay. A class of bidirectional associative memory (BAM) memristive neural networks with multiple proportional delays is concerned in this paper. First, we propose the model of BAM memristive neural networks with multiple proportional delays and stochastic perturbations. Furthermore, by choosing suitable nonlinear variable transformations, the BAM memristive neural networks with multiple proportional delays can be transformed into the BAM memristive neural networks with constant delays. Based on the drive-response system concept, differential inclusions theory and Lyapunov stability theory, some anti-synchronization criteria are obtained. Finally, the effectiveness of proposed criteria are demonstrated through numerical examples.

  9. 45 CFR 2551.81 - What type of clients are eligible to be served?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What type of clients are eligible to be served... FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SENIOR COMPANION PROGRAM Clients Served § 2551.81 What type of clients are eligible to be served? Senior Companions serve only adults, primarily older adults, who have...

  10. Risetime discrimination applied to pressurized Xe gas proportional counter for hard x-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Masami; Doi, Kosei

    1978-01-01

    A high pressure Xe proportional counter has been developed for hard X-ray observation. This counter has better energy-resolving power than a NaI scintillation counter, and the realization of large area is relatively easy. This counter is constructed with a cylindrical aluminum tube, and this tube can be used at 40 atmospheric pressure. The detection efficiency curves were obtained in relation to gas pressure. It is necessary to reduce impurities in the Xe gas to increase the energy-resolving power of the counter. The increase of gas pressure made the resolving power worse. The characteristics of the counter were stable for at least a few months. The wave form discrimination was applied to reduce the background signals such as pulses caused by charged particles and gamma-ray. This method has been used for normal pressure counter, and in the present study, it was applied for the high pressure counter. It was found that the discrimination method was able to be applied to this case. (Kato, T.)

  11. Different proportions of C/KCu7S4 hybrid structure for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shuge; Xi, Yi; Hu, Chenguo; Yue, Xule; Cheng, Lu; Wang, Guo

    2014-10-01

    KCu7S4 has the channel structure and minor resistance. Its double larger channels ensure that the ions can well exchange with other's, at the same time, can shorten the ionic diffusion path and improve the ionic and electronic transport. So KCu7S4 shows good electrochemical property. The paper reports a novel and high performance supercapacitor based on hybrid carbon particles and KCu7S4 (C/KCu7S4) electrode. For the hybrid structure with different proportions of C and KCu7S4, the C/KCu7S4 (1:10) hybrid supercapacitor shows preferable electrochemical performance and large specific capacitance (469 mF cm-2) at high charge-discharge rate (2 mA), still retaining ∼95% of the capacitance over 5000 cycles by charge-discharge process at a fixed current of 10 mA. Three supercapacitor units in series can light 50 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for 2.5 min, 10 LEDs for 4 min, one LED for 5.5 min. The much-increased capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability may be attributed to the superionic conductive KCu7S4 nanowires and C/KCu7S4 hybrid structure, which improve ionic and electronic transport, enhance the kinetics of redox reactions through the electrode system.

  12. The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory's Mark I multiwire proportional counter positron camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.; Stephenson, R.; Tappern, G.J.; Flesher, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    A small (30 cmx30 cm) model of a proposed large aperture positron camera has been developed at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Based on multiwire proportional counter technology, it uses lead foil cathodes which function simultaneously as converters for the 511 keV gamma rays and readout electrodes for a delay line readout system. The detectors have been built up into a portable imaging system complete with a dedicated computer for data taking, processing and display. This has permitted evaluation of this type of positron imaging system in the clinical environment using both cyclotron generated isotopes ( 15 O, 11 C, 18 F, 124 I) and available isotopic generator systems ( 82 Rb, 68 Ga). AT RAL we provided a complete hardware system and sufficient software to permit our hospital based colleagues to generate useful images with the minimum of effort. A complete description of the system is given with performance figures and some of the images obtained in three hospital visits are presented. Some detailed studies of the imaging performance of the positron camera are reported which have bearing on the design of future, improved systems. (orig.)

  13. A systematic random sampling scheme optimized to detect the proportion of rare synapses in the neuropil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Nuno Maçarico; Hepp, Klaus; Martin, Kevan A C

    2009-05-30

    Synapses can only be morphologically identified by electron microscopy and this is often a very labor-intensive and time-consuming task. When quantitative estimates are required for pathways that contribute a small proportion of synapses to the neuropil, the problems of accurate sampling are particularly severe and the total time required may become prohibitive. Here we present a sampling method devised to count the percentage of rarely occurring synapses in the neuropil using a large sample (approximately 1000 sampling sites), with the strong constraint of doing it in reasonable time. The strategy, which uses the unbiased physical disector technique, resembles that used in particle physics to detect rare events. We validated our method in the primary visual cortex of the cat, where we used biotinylated dextran amine to label thalamic afferents and measured the density of their synapses using the physical disector method. Our results show that we could obtain accurate counts of the labeled synapses, even when they represented only 0.2% of all the synapses in the neuropil.

  14. Helium-filled proportional counter and its operation mechanism at low temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Isozumi, Y; Kishimoto, S

    2002-01-01

    The operation mechanism of helium-filled proportional counter (HFPC) at about 4.2 K is explained. Unstable behavior of HFPC is caused by releasing secondary-electron from the cathode by four kinds of active particles such as He sub n sup + , non-resonance photon from excited helium atom, non-resonance photon from He sub 2 sup * (A sup 1 Su sup +) and He sub 2 sup m (a sup 3 Su sup +). On experiments of HFPC behavior at low temperature, the following facts were observed; 1) main charge formation process in the electron avalanche is direct ionization by electron without Hornbeck-Molnar process. Accordingly, the gas amplification factor becomes small at low temperature. 2) Stable helium cation is He sub 2 sup + at room temperature, but cluster at low temperature. Large after-pulse is observed in output signal depends on cluster ion. The probability of secondary-electron emission decreased. The gas gain increased with increasing anode voltage. 3) By decreasing reaction rate of atom and molecule collision at low t...

  15. The mediation proportion: a structural equation approach for estimating the proportion of exposure effect on outcome explained by an intermediate variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Susanne; Christensen, Ulla; Lynch, John

    2005-01-01

    It is often of interest to assess how much of the effect of an exposure on a response is mediated through an intermediate variable. However, systematic approaches are lacking, other than assessment of a surrogate marker for the endpoint of a clinical trial. We review a measure of "proportion...... of several intermediate variables. Binary or categorical variables can be included directly through threshold models. We call this measure the mediation proportion, that is, the part of an exposure effect on outcome explained by a third, intermediate variable. Two examples illustrate the approach. The first...... example is a randomized clinical trial of the effects of interferon-alpha on visual acuity in patients with age-related macular degeneration. In this example, the exposure, mediator and response are all binary. The second example is a common problem in social epidemiology-to find the proportion...

  16. Why the long face? The mechanics of mandibular symphysis proportions in crocodiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Walmsley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crocodilians exhibit a spectrum of rostral shape from long snouted (longirostrine, through to short snouted (brevirostrine morphologies. The proportional length of the mandibular symphysis correlates consistently with rostral shape, forming as much as 50% of the mandible's length in longirostrine forms, but 10% in brevirostrine crocodilians. Here we analyse the structural consequences of an elongate mandibular symphysis in relation to feeding behaviours. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Simple beam and high resolution Finite Element (FE models of seven species of crocodile were analysed under loads simulating biting, shaking and twisting. Using beam theory, we statistically compared multiple hypotheses of which morphological variables should control the biomechanical response. Brevi- and mesorostrine morphologies were found to consistently outperform longirostrine types when subject to equivalent biting, shaking and twisting loads. The best predictors of performance for biting and twisting loads in FE models were overall length and symphyseal length respectively; for shaking loads symphyseal length and a multivariate measurement of shape (PC1- which is strongly but not exclusively correlated with symphyseal length were equally good predictors. Linear measurements were better predictors than multivariate measurements of shape in biting and twisting loads. For both biting and shaking loads but not for twisting, simple beam models agree with best performance predictors in FE models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Combining beam and FE modelling allows a priori hypotheses about the importance of morphological traits on biomechanics to be statistically tested. Short mandibular symphyses perform well under loads used for feeding upon large prey, but elongate symphyses incur high strains under equivalent loads, underlining the structural constraints to prey size in the longirostrine morphotype. The biomechanics of the crocodilian mandible are largely

  17. Travel Models for Corridors of Metropolitan Areas Served by Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzeziński A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years adverse processes of suburbanization have been observed in cities. It has become a serious challenge for urban and transport planners, as it influences largely the quality of space, the quality of life, and the cost of running the city. This paper is dedicated to travel models in areas serviced by a railway system, and is based on a real-life survey example of the Błonie community, a district belonging to the Warsaw metropolitan area. Research carried out in 2014 focused on combined travels behaviors recorded using GPS locators as well as quantitative research (volumes of users across various transport systems.

  18. The Availability of Web 2.0 Tools from Community College Libraries' Websites Serving Large Student Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blummer, Barbara; Kenton, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Web 2.0 tools offer academic libraries new avenues for delivering services and resources to students. In this research we report on a content analysis of 100 US community college libraries' Websites for the availability of Web 2.0 applications. We found Web 2.0 tools utilized by 97% of our sample population and many of these sites contained more…

  19. A new facility to serve the neutrino community

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    Following the recommendations of the European Strategy document, CERN is setting up a programme to fulfill the needs of neutrino detector R&D. In the framework of this programme, a new neutrino platform will be brought to light in the North Area in 2016 and the ICARUS neutrino detector is heading to CERN this week to be refurbished and upgraded.   The first ICARUS TPC arrived at CERN on 1 December and is now being housed in a CERN clean room.  CERN’s vocation is to provide particle physicists with state-of-the-art technical facilities and the new CERN neutrino platform will be no exception. “The new platform will allow the large community of neutrino experts to develop their R&D programmes here at CERN, in preparation for their participation in the large neutrino experiments that will be carried out world-wide,” explains Sergio Bertolucci, CERN’s Director of Research and Computing. “CERN’s goal is to assist and fos...

  20. Numerical measures of the degree of non-proportionality of multiaxial fatigue loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bolchoun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the non-proportional loadings on the fatigue life depends on the material ductility. Ductile materials react with a shortening of lifetime compared to proportional loading conditions. For a semiductile material there is almost no difference between proportional and non-proportional loadings with respect to the fatigue life. Brittle materials show an increase of the lifetime under non-proportional loadings. If fatigue life assessment is performed using stress-based hypotheses, it is a rather difficult task to take into account material ductility correctly, especially the fatigue life reduction as displayed by ductile materials. Most stress-based hypotheses will compute a longer fatigue life under non-proportional loading conditions. There are also hypotheses, which already include quantitative evaluation of the non-proportionality (e.g. EESH, SSCH and MWCM. Anyway in order to improve assessment for ductile materials, some sort of numerical measure for the degree of non-proportionality of the fatigue loading is required. A number of measures of this kind (or non-proportionality factors were proposed in the literature and are discussed here: - the factor used in EESH is a quotient of stress amplitudes integrals, - the factor according to Gaier, which works with a discrete stress tensor values in a scaled stress space, - the factor according to Kanazawa, which makes use of plane-based stress values, - the factor used in MWCM, which exploits stress values in the plane with the highest shear stress amplitude, a new non-proportionality factor, which is based on the correlation between individual stress tensor components, is proposed. General requirements imposed on the non-proportionality factors are discussed and each of the factors is evaluated with respect to these requirements. Also application with the stress-based hypotheses is discussed and illustrated using the experimental data for aluminum and magnesium welded joints under

  1. A Biomechanical Comparison of Proportional Electromyography Control to Biological Torque Control Using a Powered Hip Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. Young

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDespite a large increase in robotic exoskeleton research, there are few studies that have examined human performance with different control strategies on the same exoskeleton device. Direct comparison studies are needed to determine how users respond to different types of control. The purpose of this study was to compare user performance using a robotic hip exoskeleton with two different controllers: a controller that targeted a biological hip torque profile and a proportional myoelectric controller.MethodsWe tested both control approaches on 10 able-bodied subjects using a pneumatically powered hip exoskeleton. The state machine controller targeted a biological hip torque profile. The myoelectric controller used electromyography (EMG of lower limb muscles to produce a proportional control signal for the hip exoskeleton. Each subject performed two 30-min exoskeleton walking trials (1.0 m/s using each controller and a 10-min trial with the exoskeleton unpowered. During each trial, we measured subjects’ metabolic cost of walking, lower limb EMG profiles, and joint kinematics and kinetics (torques and powers using a force treadmill and motion capture.ResultsCompared to unassisted walking in the exoskeleton, myoelectric control significantly reduced metabolic cost by 13% (p = 0.005 and biological hip torque control reduced metabolic cost by 7% (p = 0.261. Subjects reduced muscle activity relative to the unpowered condition for a greater number of lower limb muscles using myoelectric control compared to the biological hip torque control. More subjects subjectively preferred the myoelectric controller to the biological hip torque control.ConclusionMyoelectric control had more advantages (metabolic cost and muscle activity reduction compared to a controller that targeted a biological torque profile for walking with a robotic hip exoskeleton. However, these results were obtained with a single exoskeleton device with specific

  2. A Biomechanical Comparison of Proportional Electromyography Control to Biological Torque Control Using a Powered Hip Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Aaron J; Gannon, Hannah; Ferris, Daniel P

    2017-01-01

    Despite a large increase in robotic exoskeleton research, there are few studies that have examined human performance with different control strategies on the same exoskeleton device. Direct comparison studies are needed to determine how users respond to different types of control. The purpose of this study was to compare user performance using a robotic hip exoskeleton with two different controllers: a controller that targeted a biological hip torque profile and a proportional myoelectric controller. We tested both control approaches on 10 able-bodied subjects using a pneumatically powered hip exoskeleton. The state machine controller targeted a biological hip torque profile. The myoelectric controller used electromyography (EMG) of lower limb muscles to produce a proportional control signal for the hip exoskeleton. Each subject performed two 30-min exoskeleton walking trials (1.0 m/s) using each controller and a 10-min trial with the exoskeleton unpowered. During each trial, we measured subjects' metabolic cost of walking, lower limb EMG profiles, and joint kinematics and kinetics (torques and powers) using a force treadmill and motion capture. Compared to unassisted walking in the exoskeleton, myoelectric control significantly reduced metabolic cost by 13% ( p  = 0.005) and biological hip torque control reduced metabolic cost by 7% ( p  = 0.261). Subjects reduced muscle activity relative to the unpowered condition for a greater number of lower limb muscles using myoelectric control compared to the biological hip torque control. More subjects subjectively preferred the myoelectric controller to the biological hip torque control. Myoelectric control had more advantages (metabolic cost and muscle activity reduction) compared to a controller that targeted a biological torque profile for walking with a robotic hip exoskeleton. However, these results were obtained with a single exoskeleton device with specific control configurations while level walking at a

  3. Effect of Strategy Teaching for the Solution of Ratio Problems on Students' Proportional Reasoning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ceylan; Güler, Gürsel

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to reveal the effects of the instruction of different problem-solving strategies on the proportional reasoning skills of students in solving proportional problems in the 6th grade math's class. Quasi-experimental research model with pretest-posttest control group was employed in the study. For eight class hours, the…

  4. The Effect of the Proportion of Women on Salaries: The Case of College Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Davis-Blake, Alison

    1987-01-01

    Examines the effect of the proportion of women administrators on both men's and women's salaries in colleges and universities. Identifies four theoretical predictors: economic competition and crowding, demographic group power, group interaction, and institutionalization. Increasing the proportion of women actually decreases salaries for both…

  5. A Challenge to Classical Facial Proportionality Studies: Conventional Profile and 3d Photography Versus Silhouettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    possible that his theory of Divine Proportions apply to societies’ views of attractiveness thirty years later? Drs. Pancherz, Knapp, Erbe, and Heiss...Hreczko TA, Kolar JC, Munro IR. Vertical and Horizontal Proportions of the Face in Young Adult North American Caucasians: Revision of Neoclassical

  6. The Analysis of Proportional Reasoning Problem in the Indonesian Mathematics Textbook for the Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Rahmah; Yusniarti, Sri; Saminan

    2018-01-01

    The lack of Indonesian students achievement in the international assessment is due to several factors. Students are not familiar with the problems requiring reasoning, in particular the proportional reasoning. This research aims to identify the distribution and the Level of Cognitive Demands (LCD) of the proportional reasoning problems found in…

  7. Promoting Middle School Students' Proportional Reasoning Skills through an Ongoing Professional Development Programme for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley; Goos, Merrilyn

    2016-01-01

    Proportional reasoning, the ability to use ratios in situations involving comparison of quantities, is essential for mathematical competence, especially in the middle school years, and is an important determinant of success beyond school. Research shows students find proportional reasoning and its foundational concepts difficult. Proportional…

  8. Performance of microstrip proportional counters for x-ray astronomy on spectrum-roentgen-gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; BAHNSEN, A; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1991-01-01

    DSRI will provide a set of four imaging proportional counters for the Danish-Soviet X-ray telescopes XSPECT/SODART. The sensor principle is based on the novel micro-strip proportional counter (MSPC), where the strip electrodes are deposited by photolithography onto a rigid substrate. The MSPC off...

  9. Model of predicting proportion of diesel fuel and engine oil in diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viscosity of diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil at varying proportions of the mixture is presented. Regression, variation of intercept and the power parameters methods are used for developing polynomial and power law functions for predicting proportion of either diesel or engine oil in diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil ...

  10. Digital proportional multi-resonant current controller for improving grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, de P.M.; Barbosa, P.G.; Oliveira, J.G.; Duarte, J.L.; Ribeiro, P.F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the modelling and design steps of a digital proportional multi-resonant controller used in a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system. It is shown that the use of only one Proportional-Resonant (PR) compensator, tuned to the system fundamental frequency, may have its effectiveness

  11. The Interplay between Students' Understandings of Proportional and Functional Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Ana; Strachota, Susanne; Knuth, Eric; Blanton, Maria; Isler, Isil; Gardiner, Angela

    2017-01-01

    This research explores the interplay between students' understandings of proportional and functional relationships. Approximately 90 students participated in an early algebra intervention in Grades 3- 5. Before the intervention and after each year of the intervention, we evaluated their understandings of proportional and functional relationships.…

  12. Adjusted Wald Confidence Interval for a Difference of Binomial Proportions Based on Paired Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Douglas G.; Price, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Adjusted Wald intervals for binomial proportions in one-sample and two-sample designs have been shown to perform about as well as the best available methods. The adjusted Wald intervals are easy to compute and have been incorporated into introductory statistics courses. An adjusted Wald interval for paired binomial proportions is proposed here and…

  13. Proportion Congruency and Practice: A Contingency Learning Account of Asymmetric List Shifting Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Performance is impaired when a distracting stimulus is incongruent with the target stimulus (e.g., "green" printed in red). This congruency effect is decreased when the proportion of incongruent trials is increased, termed the proportion congruent effect. This effect is typically interpreted in terms of the adaptation of attention in…

  14. Attending to Relations: Proportional Reasoning in 3- to 6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle A.; Cordes, Sara

    2018-01-01

    When proportional information is pit against whole number numerical information, children often attend to the whole number information at the expense of proportional information (e.g., indicating 4/9 is greater than 3/5 because 4 > 3). In the current study, we presented younger (3- to 4-year-olds) and older (5- to 6-year-olds) children a task…

  15. The background of external γ radiation in the proportional counters in SAGE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Gorbachev, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of external γ radiation on the process of 71 Ge-decay counting in proportional counters in SAGE experiment of solar neutrino flux measurement is examined. One determines the systematic error of SAGE result, connected with radon decays inside the air volume surrounding the counters, and the background counting rate of proportional counters from γ radiation of passive and active shield [ru

  16. Nationally representative prevalence estimates of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men who have served in the U.S. military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Karen W; Tao, Kevin L; Peters, Philip J

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the number of men in the U.S. military who are gay, bisexual, or other men who have sex with men (MSM) to inform the development of military and other federal policies. We analyzed data from the National Surveys of Family Growth to estimate the number of U.S. men who were gay, bisexual, or MSM, and who had served in the military, compared to those who did not serve. We stratified using hierarchical categories of gay, bisexual, and other MSM to compare proportions in the military and general population. We found that 4.23% of men self-reported as gay, bisexual, or other MSM among men who served in the military, compared to 4.14% among men who had not served (p = 0.93). When stratified, we found that 0.78% self-reported as gay among men who served in the military, compared to 2.12% among men who had not served (pgay was lower in the military than in the general population. This finding might have been influenced by historical military policies related to sexual orientation.

  17. Impact of CD133 positive stem cell proportion on survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, Marju; Minajeva, Ave; Niinepuu, Kristi; Kase, Sandra; Vardja, Markus; Asser, Toomas; Jaal, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of CD133-positive (CD133+) cancer stem cell proportions on treatment results of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. Patients with GBM (n = 42) received postoperative radiotherapy (± chemotherapy). Surgically excised GBM tissue sections were immunohistochemically examined for CD133 expression. The proportions of CD133+ GBM cells were determined (%). The proportion of CD133+ GBM stem cells was established by 2 independent researchers whose results were in good accordance (R = 0.8, p < 0.01). Additionally, CD133 expression levels were correlated with patients overall survival. The proportion of CD133+ cells varied between patients, being from 0.5% to 82%. Mean and median proportions of CD133+ cells of the entire study group were 33% ± 24% (mean ± SD) and 28%, respectively. Clinical data do not support the association between higher proportion of stem cells and the aggressiveness of GBM. Median survival time of the study group was 10.0 months (95% CI 9.0–11.0). The survival time clearly depended on the proportion of CD133+ cells (log rank test, p = 0.02). Median survival times for patients with low (< median) and high (≥ median) proportion of CD133+ cells were 9.0 months (95% CI 7.6–10.5) and 12.0 months (95% CI 9.3–14.7), respectively. In multivariate analysis, the proportion of CD133+ cells emerged as a significant independent predictor for longer overall survival (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0–3.8, p = 0.04). In patients with higher stem cell proportion, significantly longer survival times after postoperative radiotherapy were achieved. Underlying reasons and possible higher sensitivity of GBM stem cells to fractionated radio-therapy should be clarified in further studies

  18. Attending to relations: Proportional reasoning in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle A; Cordes, Sara

    2018-03-01

    When proportional information is pit against whole number numerical information, children often attend to the whole number information at the expense of proportional information (e.g., indicating 4/9 is greater than 3/5 because 4 > 3). In the current study, we presented younger (3- to 4-year-olds) and older (5- to 6-year-olds) children a task in which the proportional information was presented either continuously (units cannot be counted) or discretely (countable units; numerical information available). In the discrete conditions, older children showed numerical interference-responding based on the number of pieces instead of the proportion of pieces. However, older children easily overcame this poor strategy selection on discrete trials if they first had some experience with continuous, proportional strategies, suggesting this prevalent reliance on numerical information may be malleable. Younger children, on the other hand, showed difficulty with the proportion task, but showed evidence of proportional reasoning in a simplified estimation-style task, suggesting that younger children may still be developing their proportional and numerical skills in task-dependent ways. Lastly, across both age groups, performance on the proportional reasoning task in continuous contexts, but not discrete contexts, was related to more general analogical reasoning skills. Findings suggest that children's proportional reasoning abilities are actively developing between the ages of 3 and 6 and may depend on domain general reasoning skills. We discuss the implications for this work for both cognitive development and education. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Querying and Serving N-gram Language Models with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Statistical n-gram language modeling is a very important technique in Natural Language Processing (NLP and Computational Linguistics used to assess the fluency of an utterance in any given language. It is widely employed in several important NLP applications such as Machine Translation and Automatic Speech Recognition. However, the most commonly used toolkit (SRILM to build such language models on a large scale is written entirely in C++ which presents a challenge to an NLP developer or researcher whose primary language of choice is Python. This article first provides a gentle introduction to statistical language modeling. It then describes how to build a native and efficient Python interface (using SWIG to the SRILM toolkit such that language models can be queried and used directly in Python code. Finally, it also demonstrates an effective use case of this interface by showing how to leverage it to build a Python language model server. Such a server can prove to be extremely useful when the language model needs to be queried by multiple clients over a network: the language model must only be loaded into memory once by the server and can then satisfy multiple requests. This article includes only those listings of source code that are most salient. To conserve space, some are only presented in excerpted form. The complete set of full source code listings may be found in Volume 1 of The Python Papers Source Codes Journal.

  20. Proportional Systems in the History of Architecture: A Conversation with James S. Ackerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Cohen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In November 2010, James S. Ackerman, today the only living participant of the conference ‘De divina proportione’, which was held in Milan in 1951, sat for a video interview that was later shown at the conference ‘Proportional Systems in the History of Architecture’ in Leiden in 2011 to mark the sixtieth anniversary of the Milan conference. In this interview, conducted by Matthew A. Cohen, Ackerman discusses how the study of proportional systems has changed over the past six decades, and thereby provides a unique link between the two conferences. The interview begins with Ackerman’s experiences in northern Italy at the close of World War II, and a few years later at the Milan conference. It considers prevailing twentieth-century attitudes toward proportion up to the time of the conference, and compares them with prevailing medieval and Renaissance attitudes. Ackerman then shares his thoughts on the works and legacies of Rudolf Wittkower, Le Corbusier and Colin Rowe, before exploring the influences of architectural proportional theory on architectural design, and possible relationships between proportional systems and architectural beauty. After exploring changes in the uses of proportional systems that accompanied the rise of Abstract Expressionism, the arc of the interview concludes with Ackerman’s thoughts about the future of proportional systems in light of the evolving role of the computer in architectural practice today.

  1. Exploring College Students' Identification with an Organizational Identity for Serving Latinx Students at a Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI) and an Emerging HSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gina A.; Dwyer, Brighid

    2018-01-01

    Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs; postsecondary institutions that enroll 25% or more Latinx students) are increasing in significance. But to what extent do students attending an HSI, or an emerging HSI (enrolls 15-24% Latinx students), identify with an organizational identity for serving Latinx students? There is a need to understand how…

  2. Process for the manufacture of a stabilized filament superconductor with a high proportion of stabilising material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both, R.; Hillmann, H.; Breuer, W.

    1987-01-01

    In order to manufacture superconductors with a high proportion of stabilising material, a compound body is first formed and is formed by extrusion and drawing to reduce its crossection. This compound body is then introduced into a sheath tube to increase the proportion of stabilising material and is formed to its final dimensions by further drawing processes. Tearing of the superconducting filaments is prevented by sufficient stabilising material (e.g. copper here) being introduced in the central area of the compound body. The filament superconductors can be manufactured at a reasonable price with a high proportion of stabilising material. (orig.) [de

  3. The Effect of IFRS Convergence and the Proportion of Woman in Audit Committee on Earning Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswanti Dwi Surti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find empirical evidence the effect of IFRS convergence and the proportion of woman in audit committee on earning management. Respondents used in this study were companies listed in Jakarta Stock Exchange for the year 2011 until 2013. Using moderated regression analysis this study supports the hypothesis that IFRS convergence and the proportion of woman in audit committee have negative effect on earning management. This finding implies that IFRS convergence and the proportion of woman in audit committee will increase the quality of financial reporting.

  4. Semi-parametric proportional intensity models robustness for right-censored recurrent failure data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, S.T. [College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, 202 West Boyd St., Room 107, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Landers, T.L. [College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, 202 West Boyd St., Room 107, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)]. E-mail: landers@ou.edu; Rhoads, T.R. [College of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, 202 West Boyd St., Room 107, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports the robustness of the four proportional intensity (PI) models: Prentice-Williams-Peterson-gap time (PWP-GT), PWP-total time (PWP-TT), Andersen-Gill (AG), and Wei-Lin-Weissfeld (WLW), for right-censored recurrent failure event data. The results are beneficial to practitioners in anticipating the more favorable engineering application domains and selecting appropriate PI models. The PWP-GT and AG prove to be models of choice over ranges of sample sizes, shape parameters, and censoring severity. At the smaller sample size (U=60), where there are 30 per class for a two-level covariate, the PWP-GT proves to perform well for moderate right-censoring (P {sub c}{<=}0.8), where 80% of the units have some censoring, and moderately decreasing, constant, and moderately increasing rates of occurrence of failures (power-law NHPP shape parameter in the range of 0.8{<=}{delta}{<=}1.8). For the large sample size (U=180), the PWP-GT performs well for severe right-censoring (0.8

  5. HIV-1 transmission between MSM and heterosexuals, and increasing proportions of circulating recombinant forms in the Nordic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Mild, Mattias; Audelin, Anne; Fonager, Jannik; Skar, Helena; Bruun Jørgensen, Louise; Liitsola, Kirsi; Björkman, Per; Bratt, Göran; Gisslén, Magnus; Sönnerborg, Anders; Nielsen, Claus; Medstrand, Patrik; Albert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Increased knowledge about HIV-1 transmission dynamics in different transmission groups and geographical regions is fundamental for assessing and designing prevention efforts against HIV-1 spread. Since the first reported cases of HIV infection during the early 1980s, the HIV-1 epidemic in the Nordic countries has been dominated by HIV-1 subtype B and MSM transmission. HIV-1 pol sequences and clinical data of 51 per cent of all newly diagnosed HIV-1 infections in Sweden, Denmark, and Finland in the period 2000–2012 (N = 3,802) were analysed together with a large reference sequence dataset (N = 4,537) by trend analysis and phylogenetics. Analysis of the eight dominating subtypes and CRFs in the Nordic countries (A, B, C, D, G, CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG, and CRF06_cpx) showed that the subtype B proportion decreased while the CRF proportion increased over the study period. A majority (57 per cent) of the Nordic sequences formed transmission clusters, with evidence of mixing both geographically and between transmission groups. Detailed analyses showed multiple occasions of transmissions from MSM to heterosexuals and that active transmission clusters more often involved single than multiple Nordic countries. The strongest geographical link was between Denmark and Sweden. Finally, Denmark had a larger proportion of heterosexual domestic spread of HIV-1 subtype B (75 per cent) compared with Sweden (49 per cent) and Finland (57 per cent). We describe different HIV-1 transmission patterns between countries and transmission groups in a large geographical region. Our results may have implications for public health interventions in targeting HIV-1 transmission networks and identifying where to introduce such interventions. PMID:27774303

  6. Hyporheic Interfaces Serve as Ecological Control Points for Mountainous Landscape Biological Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, M. E.; Dwivedi, D.; Raberg, J.; Fox, P. M.; Nico, P. S.; Wainwright, H. M.; Conrad, M. E.; Bill, M.; Bouskill, N.; Williams, K. H.; Hubbard, S.; Steefel, C. I.

    2017-12-01

    Riverine systems in snow-dominated mountainous regions often express complex biogeochemistry and river nutrient indicators as a function of hydrologic variability. In early spring, meltwater infiltration from a ripened snowpack creates a hydrological gradient through hillslopes, floodplains, and hyporheic zones. During this time, these systems are more-or-less a passive filter that allows the rising limb of the hydrograph to display chemo-dynamic relationships (inversely proportional) with solutes and nutrients. During the growing season, temperatures, plants, microbes, and hydrologic gradients shift dramatically and activate hyporheic-zone biogeochemistry as a major control on water nutrient degradation. Hyporheic biogeochemical reliance on the timing of meltwater infiltration and the possibility of a longer vernal window under future climate change indicates the importance of hyporheic cycling as the dominant ecological control point on carbon and nitrogen fluxes and transformations. The objective of our study is to develop a predictive understanding of the subsurface and surface controls on hyporheic biogeochemical behavior through data-model integration. Data from our 2017 field campaign in the East River, Colorado, a pristine, mountainous watershed, were taken at key times during the rising, peak, falling, and dry limb of the hydrograph. Throughout multiple locations across this spatial and temporal gradient, we measured surface and subsurface gases, geochemistry, isotopes, and hydrological flow conditions and used this data to constrain a numerical flow and reactive transport model of the hyporheic zone that included microbial and flow feedback dynamics. Our data coupled with the predictive power of our numerical model reveal that the hyporheic zone serves dual roles throughout the year—as a net source of nutrients and solutes during the early vernal phase, shifting to a net sink of nutrients during the summer dry season. The possibility of a future

  7. Nutrition Standards for Food Service Guidelines for Foods Served or Sold in Municipal Government Buildings or Worksites, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrak, Stephen J; Zaganjor, Hatidza; Moore, Latetia V; Carlson, Susan; Kimmons, Joel; Galuska, Deborah

    2016-12-22

    The Institute of Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that government agencies use nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold and provided at their facilities. In this study, we examine written nutrition standards for foods sold or served in local government buildings or worksites among US municipalities. We used data from a 2014 national survey of 1,945 municipal governments serving populations of 1,000 or more to assess the presence of written nutrition standards, the food groups or nutrients addressed by standards, and the populations served by facilities where standards are applied. The prevalence of standards was estimated by municipality population size, rural-urban status, census region, poverty prevalence, education level, and racial/ethnic composition. Overall, 3.2% of US municipalities reported nutrition standards with greater prevalence observed among large municipalities (12.8% of municipalities with ≥50,000 people vs 2.2% of municipalities with <2,500 people, P < .001). Prevalence differed by region, and standards were most common in the West (6.6%) and least common in the Midwest (2.0%, P = .003).The most common nutrition topics addressed in standards were offering low-calorie beverages, fruits and vegetables, and free drinking water. Most standards applied to facilities serving government employees (67%) or the general public (66%), with fewer serving institutionalized populations (23%). Few municipal governments reported having written nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold in their facilities in 2014. Implementing nutrition standards for foods sold or served by local governments is a strategy for increasing access to healthier foods and beverages among municipal employees and local residents.

  8. Large ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.

  9. Effect of Age Group on Technical-Tactical Performance Profile of the Serve in Men's Volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical-tactical performance profile of the serve for various age groups and categories of competition in men's volleyball. The sample comprised 13,262 serves performed by 986 players in 299 sets observed in various categories of competition (U-14, U-16, U-19, national senior, and international senior). An observational design was used. The variables studied were category of competition, type of execution, and serve performance. The results showed that for higher age groups (senior categories), there were significantly fewer jump serves and poorer serve performance, regardless of players' maturity and training development. The use of the jump serves increased the serve risk while attempting to hinder the organization of the opponent attack. This paper discusses the serve evolution and the implications on the training process at the different age groups in men's volleyball. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Preterm Cord Blood Contains a Higher Proportion of Immature Hematopoietic Progenitors Compared to Term Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podestà, Marina; Bruschettini, Matteo; Cossu, Claudia; Sabatini, Federica; Dagnino, Monica; Romantsik, Olga; Spaggiari, Grazia Maria; Ramenghi, Luca Antonio; Frassoni, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Cord blood contains high number of hematopoietic cells that after birth disappear. In this paper we have studied the functional properties of the umbilical cord blood progenitor cells collected from term and preterm neonates to establish whether quantitative and/or qualitative differences exist between the two groups. Our results indicate that the percentage of total CD34+ cells was significantly higher in preterm infants compared to full term: 0.61% (range 0.15-4.8) vs 0.3% (0.032-2.23) p = 0.0001 and in neonates <32 weeks of gestational age (GA) compared to those ≥32 wks GA: 0.95% (range 0.18-4.8) and 0.36% (0.15-3.2) respectively p = 0.0025. The majority of CD34+ cells co-expressed CD71 antigen (p<0.05 preterm vs term) and grew in vitro large BFU-E, mostly in the second generation. The subpopulations CD34+CD38- and CD34+CD45- resulted more represented in preterm samples compared to term, conversely, Side Population (SP) did not show any difference between the two group. The absolute number of preterm colonies (CFCs/10microL) resulted higher compared to term (p = 0.004) and these progenitors were able to grow until the third generation maintaining an higher proportion of CD34+ cells (p = 0.0017). The number of colony also inversely correlated with the gestational age (Pearson r = -0.3001 p<0.0168). We found no differences in the isolation and expansion capacity of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs) from cord blood of term and preterm neonates: both groups grew in vitro large number of endothelial cells until the third generation and showed a transitional phenotype between mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitors (CD73, CD31, CD34 and CD144)The presence, in the cord blood of preterm babies, of high number of immature hematopoietic progenitors and endothelial/mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative potential makes this tissue an important source of cells for developing new cells therapies.

  11. Preterm Cord Blood Contains a Higher Proportion of Immature Hematopoietic Progenitors Compared to Term Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Podestà

    Full Text Available Cord blood contains high number of hematopoietic cells that after birth disappear. In this paper we have studied the functional properties of the umbilical cord blood progenitor cells collected from term and preterm neonates to establish whether quantitative and/or qualitative differences exist between the two groups.Our results indicate that the percentage of total CD34+ cells was significantly higher in preterm infants compared to full term: 0.61% (range 0.15-4.8 vs 0.3% (0.032-2.23 p = 0.0001 and in neonates <32 weeks of gestational age (GA compared to those ≥32 wks GA: 0.95% (range 0.18-4.8 and 0.36% (0.15-3.2 respectively p = 0.0025. The majority of CD34+ cells co-expressed CD71 antigen (p<0.05 preterm vs term and grew in vitro large BFU-E, mostly in the second generation. The subpopulations CD34+CD38- and CD34+CD45- resulted more represented in preterm samples compared to term, conversely, Side Population (SP did not show any difference between the two group. The absolute number of preterm colonies (CFCs/10microL resulted higher compared to term (p = 0.004 and these progenitors were able to grow until the third generation maintaining an higher proportion of CD34+ cells (p = 0.0017. The number of colony also inversely correlated with the gestational age (Pearson r = -0.3001 p<0.0168.We found no differences in the isolation and expansion capacity of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs from cord blood of term and preterm neonates: both groups grew in vitro large number of endothelial cells until the third generation and showed a transitional phenotype between mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitors (CD73, CD31, CD34 and CD144The presence, in the cord blood of preterm babies, of high number of immature hematopoietic progenitors and endothelial/mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative potential makes this tissue an important source of cells for developing new cells therapies.

  12. Equality of Shapley value and fair proportion index in phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Michael; Jin, Emma Yu

    2015-11-01

    The Shapley value and the fair proportion index of phylogenetic trees have been introduced recently for the purpose of making conservation decisions in genetics. Moreover, also very recently, Hartmann (J Math Biol 67:1163-1170, 2013) has presented data which shows that there is a strong correlation between a slightly modified version of the Shapley value (which we call the modified Shapley value) and the fair proportion index. He gave an explanation of this correlation by showing that the contribution of both indices to an edge of the tree becomes identical as the number of taxa tends to infinity. In this note, we show that the Shapley value and the fair proportion index are in fact the same. Moreover, we also consider the modified Shapley value and show that its covariance with the fair proportion index in random phylogenetic trees under the Yule-Harding model and uniform model is indeed close to one.

  13. Printed low velocity delay lines for cathode readout of proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosshard, R.; Chase, R.L.; Fischer, J.; Radeka, V.

    1974-01-01

    A readout which simultaneously insures a correct electric field, a satisfactory induced signal, the delay function itself, and low particle scattering is described for multiwire proportional chambers. (U.S.)

  14. Opportunities and Challenges of AC/DC Transmission Network Planning Considering High Proportion Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan Habib

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The time and space distribution characteristics of future high proportion of renewable energy sources will bring unprecedented challenges to the electric power system’s processing and planning, the basic form of electric power system and operating characteristics will have fundamental changes. Based on the research status quo at home and abroad, this paper expounds the four scientific problems of the transmission network planning with high proportion of renewable energy. Respectively, from the network source collaborative planning, transmission network flexible planning. With the distribution network in conjunction with the transmission network planning, transmission planning program comprehensive evaluation and decision-making methods. This paper puts forward the research ideas and framework of transmission network planning considering the high proportion of renewable energy. At the end, the future high proportion of (renewable energy grid-connected transmission network’s opportunities and challenges are presented.

  15. Significance of the proportion of binucleate cells in the micronucleus assay; A methodological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Masahiro; Edgren, M.R. (Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics)

    1994-03-01

    Using treatment with cytochalasin-B (Cyt-B) for the induction of a cytokinetic block, the significance of the proportion of binucleate cells (BNC) in the micronucleus (MN) assay was investigated in a methodological study. A Chinese hamster cell line V79 was used in which MN were induced by radiation. In complementary tests the radiation effect in inducing MN was enhanced by depletion of the cellular glutathione content with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). The data indicated that the concentration of Cyt-B is the major factor which determines the proportion of BNC. This proportion was shown to be independent of radiation dose and of BSO. Furthermore, the MN frequency was not related to the percentage of BNC. Therefore, a high proportion of BNC may be practical for the MN assay, but may not make the technique more accurate. (author).

  16. Significance of the proportion of binucleate cells in the micronucleus assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Masahiro; Edgren, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Using treatment with cytochalasin-B (Cyt-B) for the induction of a cytokinetic block, the significance of the proportion of binucleate cells (BNC) in the micronucleus (MN) assay was investigated in a methodological study. A Chinese hamster cell line V79 was used in which MN were induced by radiation. In complementary tests the radiation effect in inducing MN was enhanced by depletion of the cellular glutathione content with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). The data indicated that the concentration of Cyt-B is the major factor which determines the proportion of BNC. This proportion was shown to be independent of radiation dose and of BSO. Furthermore, the MN frequency was not related to the percentage of BNC. Therefore, a high proportion of BNC may be practical for the MN assay, but may not make the technique more accurate. (author)

  17. Data readout system for proportional chambers; Sistema schityvaniya informatsii s proportsional`nykh kamer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravlev, N I; Sidorov, V T

    1996-12-31

    Paper studies data readout system designed for data output from proportional chambers with up to 1000 channel total number. Short descriptions of the above mentioned units made according to CAMAC standard and their main characteristics are presented here. 2 figs.

  18. Proportion of Uterine Malignant Tumors in Patients with Laparoscopic Myomectomy: A National Multicenter Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The proportion of malignancy is low after using morcellation in patients who undergo laparoscopic myomectomy. Patients with fast-growing uterine fibroids and abnormal ultrasonic tumor blood flow should be considered for malignant potential, and morcellation should be avoided.

  19. Using Photographic Images to Enhance Conceptual Development in Situations of Proportion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley; Goos, Merrilyn

    2015-01-01

    Find out how to use photographic images to support the conceptual development of proportional thinking. This paper provides insight into a sequenced activity that promotes student engagement and makes links to familiar and unfamiliar contexts.

  20. Improving the spatial resolution of the multiple multiwire proportional chamber gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.

    1978-03-01

    Results are presented showing how the spatial resolution of the multiple multiwire proportional chamber (MMPC) gamma camera may be improved. Under the best conditions 1.6 mm bars can be resolved. (author)