WorldWideScience

Sample records for serve additional functions

  1. Lodge Programs Serving Family Functions for People with Psychiatric Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaga, Esther E.; McKinney, Kathleen G.; Pfaff, Judy

    2000-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with people affiliated with lodges, a community program for people with psychiatric disabilities, about their perceptions of promising practices. Responses validated the notion that the lodge serves many of the functions of a family. Provides excerpts from interviews to supplement this theme. Discusses implications for…

  2. [SINEs in mammalian genomes can serve as additional signals in formation of facultative heterochromatin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanova, N M; Kazakov, V I; Tomilin, N V

    2008-01-01

    Using computer-based methods we determined the global distribution of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in the human and mouse X chromosomes. It has been shown that this distributions is similar to the distributions of CpG islands and genes but is different from the distribution of LINE1 elements. Since SINEs (human Alu and mouse B2) may have binding sites for Polycomb protein YY1, we suggest that these repeats can serve as additional signals ("boosters") in Polycomb-dependent silencing of gene rich segments during X inactivation.

  3. The Function to Serve: A Social-Justice-Oriented Investigation of Community College Mission Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luis M.; Lundberg, Carol A.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the ways that mission statements from 70 Hispanic-serving community colleges communicated their commitment to their Hispanic-serving function. Reference specifically to the Hispanic-serving function was absent, but references to culture and access were relatively common. Findings describe the ways culture and access were…

  4. Single proteins that serve linked functions in intracellular and extracellular microenvironments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisky, Derek C.; Stallings-Mann, Melody; Hirai, Yohei; Bissell, Mina J.

    2009-06-03

    protein secretion (as syntaxin-2), amphoterin/high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), which may link inflammation (as amphoterin) with regulation of gene expression (as HMGB1), and tissue transglutaminase, which affects delivery of and response to apoptotic signals by serving a related function on both sides of the plasma membrane. As it is notable that all three of these proteins have been reported to transit the plasma membrane through non-classical secretory mechanisms, we will also discuss why coordinated inside/outside functions may be found in some examples of proteins which transit the plasma membrane through non-classical mechanisms and how this relationship can be used to identify additional proteins that share these characteristics.

  5. Mass serving theory application to the analysis of maintenance system functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko Predrag Petrović

    2013-06-01

    intensity of the TE. Applied model of the mass serving system for the description of service for tehnical maintenance functioning The functioning of the technical workshop is analyzed in terms of serving combat vehicles (c/v which , in most cases, come at random periods of time. The time period of three years in the selected unit has been observed. The service for tehnical maintenance is considered as an MSS with queuing in which the client (TD  does not get cancellation when all channels are occupied, but it gets into a queue and waits for the channel release, i.e.the required queuing time is greater than the period of patience at the beginning of serving. The analysis of input streams, for tanks and transporters separately, should give the answer to the question whether the application of the MST is possible, i.e. whether the conditions of stochasticity and stationarity are primarily satisfied. The time interval of one day is considered as relevant because it is assumed that the largest number of TD are executed on the day of occurrence, following daily based planning activities. The obtained results show that, by applying the hypothesis of matching the empirical and theoretical distribution, the random variable Xi – the number of vehicles per day is subjected to Poisson's distribution in all cases. It was shown that, by applying the hypothesis about matching the theoretical and empirical distributions for different cases of c/v serving by electro-mechanics for c/v, the empirical distributions match with some of the given theoretical distributions. On the other hand, when the c/v were serviced by the mechanics for c/v, there is no matching between the empirical and the theoretical distribution for all considered cases, which leads to the conclusion that the application of this model is limited to certain cases. The optimization in the mass serving system The MSS optimization could be presented by the dependency of the system functioning performance and the parameters

  6. Spent yeast as natural source of functional food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Rita; Sadowska, Anna; Dybkowska, Ewa; Świderski, Franciszek

    Spent yeasts are by-products arising from beer and wine production which over many years have been chiefly used as feed additives for livestock. They contain many valuable and bioactive substances which has thereby generated much interest in their exploitation. Up till now, the main products obtained from beer-brewing yeasts are β-glucans and yeast extracts. Other like foodstuffs include dried brewer’s yeast, where this is dried and the bitterness removed to be fit for human consumption as well as mannan-oligosaccharides hitherto used in the feed industry. β-glucans constitute the building blocks of yeast cell walls and can thus be used in human nutrition as dietary supplements or serving as food additives in functional foods. β-glucans products obtained via post-fermentation of beer also exhibit a high and multi-faceted biological activity where they improve the blood’s lipid profile, enhance immunological status and have both prebiotic and anti-oxidant properties. Yeast extracts are currently being used more and more to enhance flavour in foodstuffs, particularly for meat and its products. Depending on how autolysis is carried out, it is possible to design extracts of various meat flavours characteristic of specific meats. Many different flavour profiles can be created which may be additionally increased in combination with vegetable extracts. Within the food market, yeast extracts can appear in various guises such as liquids, pastes or powders. They all contain significant amounts of glutamic acid, 5’-GMP and 5’-IMP nucleotides together with various amino acids and peptides that act synergistically for enhancing the flavour of foodstuff products. Recent studies have demonstrated additional benefits of yeast extracts as valuable sources of amino acids and peptides which can be used in functional foods and dietary supplements. These products possess GRAS status (Generally Recognised As Safe) which thereby also adds further as to why they should be used

  7. A qualitative examination of the relationships that serve a mentoring function for Mexican American older adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Bernadette; Reyes, Olga; Singh, Joshua

    2006-10-01

    This exploratory study was an in-depth examination of Mexican American adolescents' relationships with nonparental adults. Qualitative interviews with 10 Mexican American adolescents revealed 23 nonparental adults who served a mentoring function in their lives. Six of these nonparental adults were also interviewed. Data analyses were conducted using a grounded theory approach so that the relationships were described in participants' words and experiences. The nonparental adults identified by adolescents included siblings, extended family members, older peers, and institutional figures. The support provided took many different forms, from emotional to informational/experiential support, to modeling behavior, for example. Further, adolescents were supported in eight different areas of their lives. Participants also discussed the perceived benefits of these relationships for adolescents. Future research directions and implications for youth programming are discussed. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Prey capture in zebrafish larvae serves as a model to study cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eMuto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Prey capture in zebrafish larvae is an innate behavior which can be observed as early as 4 days post fertilization, the day when they start to swim. This simple behavior apparently involves several neural processes including visual perception, recognition, decision-making, and motor control, and, therefore, serves as a good model system to study cognitive functions underlying natural behaviors in vertebrates. Recent progresses in imaging techniques provided us with a unique opportunity to image neuronal activity in the brain of an intact fish in real-time while the fish perceives a natural prey, paramecium. By expanding this approach, it would be possible to image entire brain areas at a single cell resolution in real-time during prey capture, and identify neuronal circuits important for cognitive functions. Further, activation or inhibition of those neuronal circuits with recently developed optogenetic tools or neurotoxins should shed light on their roles. Thus, we will be able to explore the prey capture in zebrafish larvae more thoroughly at cellular levels, which should establish a basis of understanding of the cognitive function in vertebrates.

  9. Large and Small Dendritic Spines Serve Different Interacting Functions in Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. W. Paulin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The laying down of memory requires strong stimulation resulting in specific changes in synaptic strength and corresponding changes in size of dendritic spines. Strong stimuli can also be pathological, causing a homeostatic response, depressing and shrinking the synapse to prevent damage from too much Ca2+ influx. But do all types of dendritic spines serve both of these apparently opposite functions? Using confocal microscopy in organotypic slices from mice expressing green fluorescent protein in hippocampal neurones, the size of individual spines along sections of dendrite has been tracked in response to application of tetraethylammonium. This strong stimulus would be expected to cause both a protective homeostatic response and long-term potentiation. We report separation of these functions, with spines of different sizes reacting differently to the same strong stimulus. The immediate shrinkage of large spines suggests a homeostatic protective response during the period of potential danger. In CA1, long-lasting growth of small spines subsequently occurs consolidating long-term potentiation but only after the large spines return to their original size. In contrast, small spines do not change in dentate gyrus where potentiation does not occur. The separation in time of these changes allows clear functional differentiation of spines of different sizes.

  10. Additive Functional Inequalities in Banach Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An JongSu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the following functional inequality in Banach modules over a -algebra and prove the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of linear mappings in Banach modules over a -algebra in the spirit of the Th. M. Rassias stability approach. Moreover, these results are applied to investigate homomorphisms in complex Banach algebras and prove the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of homomorphisms in complex Banach algebras.

  11. Additive functionals and excursions of Kuznetsov processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacène Boutabia

    2005-01-01

    semigroup of transition. In this paper, we give the excursion laws of (Xtt∈ℝ+ conditioned on the strict past and future without duality hypothesis. We study excursions of a general regenerative system and of a regenerative system consisting of the closure of the set of times the regular points of B are visited. In both cases, those conditioned excursion laws depend only on two points Xg− and Xd, where ]g,d[ is an excursion interval of the regenerative set M. We use the (FDt-predictable exit system to bring together the isolated points of M and its perfect part and replace the classical optional exit system. This has been a subject in literature before (e.g., Kaspi (1988 under the classical duality hypothesis. We define an “additive functional” for (Ytt∈ℝ with B, we generalize the laws cited before to (Ytt∈ℝ, and we express laws of pairs of excursions.

  12. Policing in nonhuman primates: partial interventions serve a prosocial conflict management function in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Brianne A; McCowan, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Studies of prosocial policing in nonhuman societies traditionally focus on impartial interventions because of an underlying assumption that partial support implies a direct benefit to the intervener, thereby negating the potential for being prosocial in maintaining social stability for the benefit of the group. However, certain types of partial interventions have significant potential to be prosocial in controlling conflict, e.g. support of non-kin subordinates. Here, we propose a policing support hypothesis that some types of agonistic support serve a prosocial policing function that maintains group stability. Using seven large captive groups of rhesus macaques, we investigated the relationship between intervention type and group-level costs and benefits (rates of trauma, severe aggression, social relocation) and individual level costs and benefits (preferential sex-dyad targeting, dominance ambiguity reduction, access to mates, and return aggression). Our results show that impartial interventions and support of subordinate non-kin represent prosocial policing as both (1) were negatively associated with group-level rates of trauma and severe aggression, respectively, (2) showed no potential to confer individual dominance benefits, (3) when performed outside the mating season, they did not increase chances of mating with the beneficiary, and (4) were low-cost for the highest-ranking interveners. We recommend expanding the definition of 'policing' in nonhumans to include these 'policing support interventions'.

  13. Polysensory response characteristics of dorsal root ganglion neurones that may serve sensory functions during myocardial ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M H; Horackova, M; Negoescu, R M; Wolf, S; Armour, J A

    1996-09-01

    To determine the response characteristics of dorsal root ganglion neurones that may serve sensory functions during myocardial ischaemia. Extracellular recordings were made from 54 spontaneously active and 5 normally quiescent dorsal root ganglion neurones (T2-T5) in 22 anaesthetized open-chest dogs under control conditions and during epicardial mechanical or chemical stimulation and myocardial ischaemia. The activity of 78% of spontaneously active and all quiescent neurones with left ventricular sensory fields was modified by left ventricular ischaemia. Forty-six spontaneously active neurones (85%) were polysensory with respect to mechanical and chemical stimuli. The 5 quiescent neurones responded only to chemical stimuli. Spontaneously active neurones associated with left ventricular mechanosensory endings (37 neurones) generated four different activity patterns in response to similar mechanical stimuli (high or low pressure active, high-low pressure active, high-low pressure inactive). A fifth group generated activity which was not related to chamber dynamics. Adenosine, adenosine 5'-triphosphate, substance P and bradykinin modified 72, 61, 65 and 63% of the spontaneously active neurones, respectively. Maximum local mechanical or chemical stimuli enhanced activity to similar degrees, as did ischaemia. Each ischaemia-sensitive neurone displayed unique activity patterns in response to similar mechanical or chemical stimuli. Most myocardial ischemia-sensitive dorsal root ganglion neurones associated with epicardial neurites sense mechanical and multiple chemical stimuli, a small population sensing only mechanical or chemical stimuli. Activity patterns generated by these neurones depend on their primary sensory characteristics or those of other neurones that may converge on them, as well as the type and magnitude of the stimuli that impinge upon their sensory fields, both normally and during ischaemia.

  14. Functional trait composition of aquatic plants can serve to disentangle multiple interacting stressors in lowland streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette, E-mail: abp@bios.au.dk [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, P.O. Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Göthe, Emma [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, P.O. Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Riis, Tenna [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Ole Worms Allé 1, Building 1135, Room 217, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); O' Hare, Matthew T. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-01

    Historically, close attention has been paid to negative impacts associated with nutrient loads to streams and rivers, but today hydromorphological alterations are considered increasingly implicated when lowland streams do not achieve good ecological status. Here, we explore if trait-abundance patterns of aquatic plants change along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and eutrophication in lowland stream sites located in Denmark. Specifically, we hypothesised that: i) changes in trait-abundance patterns occur along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and ii) trait-abundance patterns can serve to disentangle effects of eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation in lowland streams reflecting that the mechanisms behind changes differ. We used monitoring data from a total of 147 stream reaches with combined data on aquatic plant species abundance, catchment land use, hydromorphological alterations (i.e. planform, cross section, weed cutting) and water chemistry parameters. Traits related to life form, dispersal, reproduction and survival together with ecological preference values for nutrients and light (Ellenberg N and L) were allocated to 41 species representing 79% of the total species pool. We found clear evidence that habitat degradation (hydromorphological alterations and eutrophication) mediated selective changes in the trait-abundance patterns of the plant community. Specific traits could distinguish hydromorphological degradation (free-floating, surface; anchored floating leaves; anchored heterophylly) from eutrophication (free-floating, submerged; leaf area). We provide a conceptual framework for interpretation of how eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation interact and how this is reflected in trait-abundance patterns in aquatic plant communities in lowland streams. Our findings support the merit of trait-based approaches in biomonitoring as they shed light on mechanisms controlling structural changes under environmental

  15. Functional trait composition of aquatic plants can serve to disentangle multiple interacting stressors in lowland streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Göthe, Emma; Riis, Tenna; O'Hare, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, close attention has been paid to negative impacts associated with nutrient loads to streams and rivers, but today hydromorphological alterations are considered increasingly implicated when lowland streams do not achieve good ecological status. Here, we explore if trait-abundance patterns of aquatic plants change along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and eutrophication in lowland stream sites located in Denmark. Specifically, we hypothesised that: i) changes in trait-abundance patterns occur along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and ii) trait-abundance patterns can serve to disentangle effects of eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation in lowland streams reflecting that the mechanisms behind changes differ. We used monitoring data from a total of 147 stream reaches with combined data on aquatic plant species abundance, catchment land use, hydromorphological alterations (i.e. planform, cross section, weed cutting) and water chemistry parameters. Traits related to life form, dispersal, reproduction and survival together with ecological preference values for nutrients and light (Ellenberg N and L) were allocated to 41 species representing 79% of the total species pool. We found clear evidence that habitat degradation (hydromorphological alterations and eutrophication) mediated selective changes in the trait-abundance patterns of the plant community. Specific traits could distinguish hydromorphological degradation (free-floating, surface; anchored floating leaves; anchored heterophylly) from eutrophication (free-floating, submerged; leaf area). We provide a conceptual framework for interpretation of how eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation interact and how this is reflected in trait-abundance patterns in aquatic plant communities in lowland streams. Our findings support the merit of trait-based approaches in biomonitoring as they shed light on mechanisms controlling structural changes under environmental

  16. Functional Foods Programs Serve as a Vehicle to Provide Nutrition Education to Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirignano, Sherri M.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the…

  17. The self-serving function of hypochondriacal complaints: physical symptoms as self-handicapping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T W; Snyder, C R; Perkins, S C

    1983-04-01

    The present experiment tested the hypothesis that hypochondriacal individuals commonly use reports of physical illness and symptoms as a strategy to control attributions made about their performances in evaluative settings (i.e., self-handicapping strategies). Specifically, it was predicted that hypochondriacal individuals would report more recent physical illness and complaints and more current physical symptoms in an evaluative setting in which poor health could serve as an alternative explanation for poor performance than would either individuals in an evaluative setting in which poor health was precluded as an excuse or individuals in a nonevaluative setting. As predicted, results supported this self-protective pattern of complaints in a hypochondriacal sample but not in a nonhypochondriacal group. The self-protective role of hypochondriacal behavior is discussed in relation to other theory and research on the nature and treatment of hypochondriasis.

  18. Memory functions and correlations in additive binary Markov chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnyk, S S; Usatenko, O V; Yampol'skii, V A; Apostolov, S S; Maiselis, Z A

    2006-01-01

    A theory of additive Markov chains with a long-range memory, proposed earlier in Usatenko et al (2003 Phys. Rev. E 68 061107), is developed and used to describe statistical properties of long-range correlated systems. The convenient characteristics of such systems, memory functions and their relation to the correlation properties of the systems are examined. Various methods for finding the memory function via the correlation function are proposed. The inverse problem (calculation of the correlation function by means of the prescribed memory function) is also solved. This is demonstrated for the analytically solvable model of the system with a step-wise memory function

  19. Memory functions and correlations in additive binary Markov chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnyk, S S [A Ya Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics, Ukrainian Academy of Science, 12 Proskura Street, 61085 Kharkov (Ukraine); Usatenko, O V [A Ya Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics, Ukrainian Academy of Science, 12 Proskura Street, 61085 Kharkov (Ukraine); Yampol' skii, V A [A Ya Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics, Ukrainian Academy of Science, 12 Proskura Street, 61085 Kharkov (Ukraine); Apostolov, S S [V N Karazin Kharkov National University, 4 Svoboda Sq., Kharkov 61077 (Ukraine); Maiselis, Z A [V N Karazin Kharkov National University, 4 Svoboda Sq., Kharkov 61077 (Ukraine)

    2006-11-17

    A theory of additive Markov chains with a long-range memory, proposed earlier in Usatenko et al (2003 Phys. Rev. E 68 061107), is developed and used to describe statistical properties of long-range correlated systems. The convenient characteristics of such systems, memory functions and their relation to the correlation properties of the systems are examined. Various methods for finding the memory function via the correlation function are proposed. The inverse problem (calculation of the correlation function by means of the prescribed memory function) is also solved. This is demonstrated for the analytically solvable model of the system with a step-wise memory function.

  20. Red trap colour of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, G; Rice, S P; Millett, J

    2014-01-01

    The traps of many carnivorous plants are red in colour. This has been widely hypothesized to serve a prey attraction function; colour has also been hypothesized to function as camouflage, preventing prey avoidance. We tested these two hypotheses in situ for the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia. We conducted three separate studies: (i) prey attraction to artificial traps to isolate the influence of colour; (ii) prey attraction to artificial traps on artificial backgrounds to control the degree of contrast and (iii) observation of prey capture by D. rotundifolia to determine the effects of colour on prey capture. Prey were not attracted to green traps and were deterred from red traps. There was no evidence that camouflaged traps caught more prey. For D. rotundifolia, there was a relationship between trap colour and prey capture. However, trap colour may be confounded with other leaf traits. Thus, we conclude that for D. rotundifolia, red trap colour does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function.

  1. On the self-serving function of social anxiety: shyness as a self-handicapping strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, C R; Smith, T W; Augelli, R W; Ingram, R E

    1985-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that socially anxious or shy individuals use their anxiety symptoms as a strategy to control attributions made about their performances in social-evaluative settings (i.e., self-handicapping strategies). Specifically, we predicted that trait-socially anxious or shy persons would report more symptoms of social anxiety in an evaluative setting in which anxiety or shyness could serve as an excuse for poor performance than would individuals in (a) an evaluative setting in which shyness was precluded as an excuse or (b) a nonevaluative setting. Furthermore, we predicted that this self-protective pattern of symptom reporting would not occur for individuals who were not trait-socially anxious because these persons would not commonly use such symptoms as a self-handicapping strategy. Results supported these predictions for male subjects, but not for female subjects. Sex differences in the strategic use of shyness are discussed in relation to other research on sex differences in the etiology and correlates of social anxiety.

  2. Functional Bell inequalities can serve as a stronger entanglement witness than conventional Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Zukowski, Marek

    2002-01-01

    We consider a Bell inequality for a continuous range of settings of the apparatus at each site. This 'functional' Bell inequality gives a better range of violation for generalized Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger states. Also a family of N-qubit bound entangled states violate this inequality for N>5

  3. Evidence that two ATP-dependent (Lon proteases in Borrelia burgdorferi serve different functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Coleman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The canonical ATP-dependent protease Lon participates in an assortment of biological processes in bacteria, including the catalysis of damaged or senescent proteins and short-lived regulatory proteins. Borrelia spirochetes are unusual in that they code for two putative ATP-dependent Lon homologs, Lon-1 and Lon-2. Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is transmitted through the blood feeding of Ixodes ticks. Previous work in our laboratory reported that B. burgdorferi lon-1 is upregulated transcriptionally by exposure to blood in vitro, while lon-2 is not. Because blood induction of Lon-1 may be of importance in the regulation of virulence factors critical for spirochete transmission, the clarification of functional roles for these two proteases in B. burgdorferi was the object of this study. On the chromosome, lon-2 is immediately downstream of ATP-dependent proteases clpP and clpX, an arrangement identical to that of lon of Escherichia coli. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Lon-1 and Lon-2 cluster separately due to differences in the NH(2-terminal substrate binding domains that may reflect differences in substrate specificity. Recombinant Lon-1 manifested properties of an ATP-dependent chaperone-protease in vitro but did not complement an E. coli Lon mutant, while Lon-2 corrected two characteristic Lon-mutant phenotypes. We conclude that B. burgdorferi Lons -1 and -2 have distinct functional roles. Lon-2 functions in a manner consistent with canonical Lon, engaged in cellular homeostasis. Lon-1, by virtue of its blood induction, and as a unique feature of the Borreliae, may be important in host adaptation from the arthropod to a warm-blooded host.

  4. Review on Advances of Functional Material for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Nur Amalina Binti; Akmal Johar, Muhammad; Faizan Marwah, Omar Mohd; Irwan Ibrahim, Mohd Halim

    2017-08-01

    The attempt of finding and making new materials in improving products that are already in the market are widely done by researchers nowadays. This project is focusing on making new materials for functional material through additive manufacturing application. The idea of this project came from the ability limitation of capacitor in market nowadays in storing higher charges but smaller in size. Powder glass is the new material that could to be used as a dielectric material for capacitor with the help of palm kernel oil as the binder. This paper reviews on applications done through additive manufacturing method and also types of functional materials used in this method previously. Structure of a capacitor, dielectric properties and measurement techniques that are trying to be carried out are also explains in this paper. Last part of this paper brief on the material proposal and reasons those materials are chosen. New dielectric material for capacitor which are able to store more charges but still small in size are expected to be produced as the outcome of this research.

  5. On the self-serving function of an academic wooden leg: test anxiety as a self-handicapping strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C W; Snyder, D R; Handelsman, M M

    1982-02-01

    The present study investigated the hypothesis that psychological symptoms may serve a self-protective function by providing an alternative explanation for potential failure in evaluating situations. It was hypothesized that highly test-anxious subjects would report anxiety symptoms in a pattern that reflected strategic presentation of symptoms; more specifically, it was predicted that greater reported anxiety should result when anxiety was a viable explanation for poor performance on an intelligence test and that lower reported anxiety should result when anxiety was not a viable explanation for poor performance. Analysis of state measures of self-reported anxiety supported these predictions. Further analysis indicated that when anxiety was not a viable explanation for poor test performance, high test-anxiety subjects reported reduced effort as an alternative self-protective strategy. These results are discussed in terms of traditional models of symptoms as self-protective strategies, current social psychological models of symptoms, and in reference to recent theory and research about the nature and treatment of test anxiety.

  6. Additional functions of remotely read kWh-meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Vehvilaeinen, S [Mittrix Oy (Finland); Rantanen, J [Helsinki Energy Board (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In this chapter the possibilities to include new applications into remotely read smart kWh-meters are considered. New electronic meters can measure various electric quantities and have some extra calculating capacity. So they can be used to provide functions that distribution automation and the customer need and thus share the costs. Some applications like monitoring the state of the distribution network or locating faults are only for the utility, but many applications also need an interface to the customers or their automation systems. Among those are monitoring the quality of electricity, estimating load curves, applying dynamic tariffs and selling electricity and accounting. As a special item, the continuous monitoring of the quality of electricity is discussed. This includes voltage levels, total distortion, asymmetry and so on. If such a kWh-meter indicates quality problems it is possible to go there with a portable quality meter that is suitable for the case and inspect the situation. The poor quality can be detected before it causes harm to equipment owned by the customers or the power distribution company. This article also presents a prototype of such a quality monitoring kWh-meter. Dynamic tariffs and free electricity markets require two way communication with the utility and the customer and measurement of the time variations of the energy consumption. The customers or their energy management system must receive the energy prices from the utility and calculate the energy costs and decide upon the energy consumption control actions. Some alternative ways to meet these customer interface requirements are compared. Remote reading of kWh-meters requires a certain investment in meters and their data communication with the utility. Because smart meters can have some additional memory and calculating capacity and are capable of measuring various electric quantities, it is possible to share the costs with other applications that use the same hardware and data

  7. ABOUT FOOD ADDITIVES AS IMPORTANT PART OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Umida Khodjaeva; Tatiana Bojňanská; Vladimír Vietoris; Oksana Sytar

    2013-01-01

    The main characteristics and classification of food additives, which are common in the food production, have been described in the present review. The ways of food additives classification, source of nature, main antioxidants, food colouring, flavours, flavor enhancers, bulking agents, stabilizers, sweeteners which were collected from literature based on structural and biochemical characteristics with description of source and possible effects on human, organisms and environment have been pre...

  8. ABOUT FOOD ADDITIVES AS IMPORTANT PART OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umida Khodjaeva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristics and classification of food additives, which are common in the food production, have been described in the present review. The ways of food additives classification, source of nature, main antioxidants, food colouring, flavours, flavor enhancers, bulking agents, stabilizers, sweeteners which were collected from literature based on structural and biochemical characteristics with description of source and possible effects on human, organisms and environment have been presented.

  9. A Serving of Vegetables in Pizza? Evaluating the Nutritional Value and Likeability of Pizza Crust with the Addition of Zucchini or Cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghighi, Amanda; Maioriello, Gina; Piper, Darlene; Waters, Betty; Vollmer, Rachel L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of the meaningful addition of vegetables, using cauliflower and zucchini, to a pizza crust on the likeability of taste, texture, appearance, and overall preference of the pizza. The likeability testing revealed that the cauliflower variation produced an unacceptable product in texture,…

  10. Toward engineering functional organ modules by additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marga, Francoise; Jakab, Karoly; Gabor, Forgacs; Khatiwala, Chirag; Shepherd, Benjamin; Dorfman, Scott; Hubbard, Bradley; Colbert, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering is emerging as a possible alternative to methods aimed at alleviating the growing demand for replacement tissues and organs. A major pillar of most tissue engineering approaches is the scaffold, a biocompatible network of synthetic or natural polymers, which serves as an extracellular matrix mimic for cells. When the scaffold is seeded with cells it is supposed to provide the appropriate biomechanical and biochemical conditions for cell proliferation and eventual tissue formation. Numerous approaches have been used to fabricate scaffolds with ever-growing complexity. Recently, novel approaches have been pursued that do not rely on artificial scaffolds. The most promising ones utilize matrices of decellularized organs or methods based on multicellular self-assembly, such as sheet-based and bioprinting-based technologies. We briefly overview some of the scaffold-free approaches and detail one that employs biological self-assembly and bioprinting. We describe the technology and its specific applications to engineer vascular and nerve grafts. (topical review)

  11. Additional functions of remotely read kWh-meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Vehvilaeinen, S. [Mittrix Oy (Finland); Rantanen, J. [Helsinki Energy Board, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this presentation the possibilities to include new applications into remotely read smart kWh-meters are considered. New electronic meters can measure various electric quantities and have some extra calculating capacity. So they can be used to provide functions that distribution automation and the customer need and thus share the costs. Some applications like monitoring the state of the distribution network or locating faults are only for the utility, but many applications also need an interface to the customer or his automation system. Among those are monitoring the quality of electricity, estimating load curves, applying dynamic tariffs and selling electricity and accounting. As a special item, the continuous monitoring of the quality of electricity is discussed. This includes voltage levels, total distortion, asymmetry and so on. If such a kWh-meter indicates quality problems the situation can be detected with a suitable portable quality meter. The poor quality can be detected before it causes harm to equipment owned by the customers or the power distribution company. This presentation also presents a prototype of such a quality monitoring kWh-meter

  12. Extracts of medicinal plants as functional beer additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Sofija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on determining the level of the antioxidant activity of beer, to which sensory acceptable amounts of selected extracts of medicinal plants were added, with the aim of obtaining a beer with increased functional and new sensory features. For purposes of this study a commercial lager beer type Pils and extracts of herbal drugs: Melissae folium, Thymi herba, Juniperi fructus, Urticae radix and Lupuli strobuli, were used. Total phenols were analyzed by the method of Folin-Ciocalteu, and the antioxidant activity of samples using FRAP and DPPH test. Sensory evaluation of beer was conducted on 80 subjects, using a nine levels hedonic scale. The results showed that the content of total phenols was the highest in the beer which thyme, juniper and lemon balm were added to (384.22, 365.38 and 363.08 mg GAE/L, respectively, representing the increase of 37.09, 30.36 and 29.55% (respectively compared to the commercial lager beer. Values of antioxidant activity were correlated with the content of total phenols. The extract of lemon balm blended in the best manner with the baseline, commercial lager beer in terms of sensory acceptability. New beer, enriched with lemon balm, had a pleasant, appealing and harmonious flavor and aroma.

  13. Additional functions of remotely read kWh-meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Vehvilaeinen, S [Mittrix Oy (Finland); Rantanen, J [Helsinki Energy Board, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In this presentation the possibilities to include new applications into remotely read smart kWh-meters are considered. New electronic meters can measure various electric quantities and have some extra calculating capacity. So they can be used to provide functions that distribution automation and the customer need and thus share the costs. Some applications like monitoring the state of the distribution network or locating faults are only for the utility, but many applications also need an interface to the customer or his automation system. Among those are monitoring the quality of electricity, estimating load curves, applying dynamic tariffs and selling electricity and accounting. As a special item, the continuous monitoring of the quality of electricity is discussed. This includes voltage levels, total distortion, asymmetry and so on. If such a kWh-meter indicates quality problems the situation can be detected with a suitable portable quality meter. The poor quality can be detected before it causes harm to equipment owned by the customers or the power distribution company. This presentation also presents a prototype of such a quality monitoring kWh-meter

  14. Dual functionalized graphene oxide serves as a carrier for delivering oligohistidine- and biotin-tagged biomolecules into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Batakrishna; Mondal, Goutam; Biswas, Atanu; Chakraborty, Indrani; Saha, Abhijit; Kurkute, Prashant; Ghosh, Surajit

    2013-11-01

    A versatile method of dual chemical functionalization of graphene oxide (GO) with Tris-[nitrilotris(acetic acid)] (Tris-NTA) and biotin for cellular delivery of oligohistidine- and biotin-tagged biomolecules is reported. Orthogonally functionalized GO surfaces with Tris-NTA and biotin to obtain a dual-functionalized GO (DFGO) are prepared and characterized by various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Fluorescence microscopic images reveal that DFGO surfaces are capable of binding oligohistidine-tagged biomolecules/proteins and avidin/biotin-tagged biomolecules/proteins orthogonally. The DFGO nanoparticles are non-cytotoxic in nature and can deliver oligohistidine- and biotin-tagged biomolecules simultaneously into the cell. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A Macrocyclic Peptide that Serves as a Cocrystallization Ligand and Inhibits the Function of a MATE Family Transporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Suga

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The random non-standard peptide integrated discovery (RaPID system has proven to be a powerful approach to discover de novo natural product-like macrocyclic peptides that inhibit protein functions. We have recently reported three macrocyclic peptides that bind to Pyrococcus furiosus multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (PfMATE transporter and inhibit the transport function. Moreover, these macrocyclic peptides were successfully employed as cocrystallization ligands of selenomethionine-labeled PfMATE. In this report, we disclose the details of the RaPID selection strategy that led to the identification of these three macrocyclic peptides as well as a fourth macrocyclic peptide, MaD8, which is exclusively discussed in this article. MaD8 was found to bind within the cleft of PfMATE’s extracellular side and blocked the path of organic small molecules being extruded. The results of an ethidium bromide efflux assay confirmed the efflux inhibitory activity of MaD8, whose behavior was similar to that of previously reported MaD5.

  16. MiR-148a functions to suppress metastasis and serves as a prognostic indicator in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Zhang, Yun; Jasper, Jeff; Lykken, Erik; Alexander, Peter B; Markowitz, Geoffrey J; McDonnell, Donald P; Li, Qi-Jing; Wang, Xiao-Fan

    2016-04-12

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) presents a major challenge in the clinic due to its lack of reliable prognostic markers and targeted therapies. Accumulating evidence strongly supports the notion that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in tumorigenesis and could serve as biomarkers for diagnostic purposes. To identify miRNAs that functionally suppress metastasis of TNBC, we employed a concerted approach with selecting miRNAs that display differential expression profiles from bioinformatic analyses of breast cancer patient databases and validating top candidates with functional assays using breast cancer cell lines and mouse models. We have found that miR-148a exhibits properties as a tumor suppressor as its expression is inversely correlated with the ability of both human and mouse breast cancer cells to colonize the lung in mouse xenograft tumor models. Mechanistically, miR-148a appears to suppress the extravasation process of cancer cells, likely by targeting two genes WNT1 and NRP1 in a cell non-autonomous manner. Importantly, lower expression of miR-148a is detected in higher-grade tumor samples and correlated with increased likelihood to develop metastases and poor prognosis in subsets of breast cancer patients, particularly those with TNBC. Thus, miR-148a is functionally defined as a suppressor of breast cancer metastasis and may serve as a prognostic biomarker for this disease.

  17. Libraries serving dialogue

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Odile

    2014-01-01

    This book based on experiences of libraries serving interreligious dialogue, presents themes like library tools serving dialogue between cultures, collections dialoguing, children and young adults dialoguing beyond borders, story telling as dialog, librarians serving interreligious dialogue.

  18. Technology of serving

    OpenAIRE

    Taskov, Nako

    2013-01-01

    The book “Technology of serving” was prepared according to the curriculum and it is intended for students at the faculty of tourism and business logistics in republic of Macedonia In its contents on the subject of Technology of serving it includes the following - the rooms for serving, the types of catering objects in which food and beverages are served, professional serving staff, equipment and inventory for serving, card selection services in serving .,getting to know drin...

  19. Extreme boundary of space semi-additive functionals on finite set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayratbay F. Djabbarov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is devoted to study of the extreme boundary of the convexcompact set of all semi-additive functionals on a finite-point compactum. We shall find some classes of extreme points of the space semi-additive functionals OS (n .

  20. Generalized neurofuzzy network modeling algorithms using Bézier-Bernstein polynomial functions and additive decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, X; Harris, C J

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces a new neurofuzzy model construction algorithm for nonlinear dynamic systems based upon basis functions that are Bézier-Bernstein polynomial functions. This paper is generalized in that it copes with n-dimensional inputs by utilising an additive decomposition construction to overcome the curse of dimensionality associated with high n. This new construction algorithm also introduces univariate Bézier-Bernstein polynomial functions for the completeness of the generalized procedure. Like the B-spline expansion based neurofuzzy systems, Bézier-Bernstein polynomial function based neurofuzzy networks hold desirable properties such as nonnegativity of the basis functions, unity of support, and interpretability of basis function as fuzzy membership functions, moreover with the additional advantages of structural parsimony and Delaunay input space partition, essentially overcoming the curse of dimensionality associated with conventional fuzzy and RBF networks. This new modeling network is based on additive decomposition approach together with two separate basis function formation approaches for both univariate and bivariate Bézier-Bernstein polynomial functions used in model construction. The overall network weights are then learnt using conventional least squares methods. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of this new data based modeling approach.

  1. Exopolysaccharide from Lactobacillus fermentum Lf2 and its functional characterization as a yogurt additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Elisa C; Perezlindo, Marcos J; Burns, Patricia; Tabacman, Eduardo; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Binetti, Ana G

    2016-11-01

    Lactobacillus fermentum Lf2 is a strain which is able to produce high levels (approximately 1 g/l) of crude exopolysaccharide (EPS) when it is grown in optimised conditions. The aim of this work was to characterize the functional aspects of this EPS extract, focusing on its application as a dairy food additive. Our findings are consistent with an EPS extract that acts as moderate immunomodulator, modifying s-IgA and IL-6 levels in the small intestine when added to yogurt and milk, respectively. Furthermore, this EPS extract, in a dose feasible to use as a food additive, provides protection against Salmonella infection in a murine model, thus representing a mode of action to elicit positive health benefits. Besides, it contributes to the rheological characteristics of yogurt, and could function as a food additive with both technological and functional roles, making possible the production of a new functional yogurt with improved texture.

  2. A simple relationship between the Voigt integral and the plasma dispersion function. Additional methods to estimate the Voigt integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Dominguez, H.; Flores-Llamas, H.; Cabral-Prieto, C.; Bravo-Ortega, A.

    1989-01-01

    A relationship is presented between the Lorentzian-Gaussian profile convolutions and the plasma dispersion function; thus, the methods available to calculate the latter serve also to calculate the Voigt profile. (orig.)

  3. Relationship among the Voigt integral and the dispersion function of plasma. Additional methods for estimating the Voigt integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez D, H.; Flores L, H.; Cabral P, A.; Bravo O, A.

    1990-05-01

    A relationship among the Lorentzian-Gaussian profile convolution and the Plasma Dispersion Function is presented; thus, the methods available to calculate the latter serve also to calculate the Voigt profile. (Author)

  4. The General Analytic Solution of a Functional Equation of Addition Type

    OpenAIRE

    Braden, H. W.; Buchstaber, V. M.

    1995-01-01

    The general analytic solution to the functional equation $$ \\phi_1(x+y)= { { \\biggl|\\matrix{\\phi_2(x)&\\phi_2(y)\\cr\\phi_3(x)&\\phi_3(y)\\cr}\\biggr|} \\over { \\biggl|\\matrix{\\phi_4(x)&\\phi_4(y)\\cr\\phi_5(x)&\\phi_5(y)\\cr}\\biggr|} } $$ is characterised. Up to the action of the symmetry group, this is described in terms of Weierstrass elliptic functions. We illustrate our theory by applying it to the classical addition theorems of the Jacobi elliptic functions and the functional equations $$ \\phi_1(x+...

  5. Functionality Selection Principle for High Voltage Lithium-ion Battery Electrolyte Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chi-Cheung; He, Meinan [Department; Peebles, Cameron; Zeng, Li; Tornheim, Adam; Liao, Chen; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jie; Wang, Yan [Department; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2017-08-30

    A new class of electrolyte additives based on cyclic fluorinated phosphate esters was rationally designed and identified as being able to stabilize the surface of a LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC532) cathode when cycled at potentials higher than 4.6 V vs Li+/Li. Cyclic fluorinated phosphates were designed to incorporate functionalities of various existing additives to maximize their utilization. The synthesis and characterization of these new additives are described and their electrochemical performance in a NMC532/graphite cell cycled between 4.6 and 3.0 V are investigated. With 1.0 wt % 2-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane 2-oxide (TFEOP) in the conventional electrolyte the NMC532/graphite cell exhibited much improved capacity retention compared to that without any additive. The additive is believed to form a passivation layer on the surface of the cathode via a sacrificial polymerization reaction as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonsance (NMR) analysis results. The rational pathway of a cathode-electrolyte-interface formation was proposed for this type of additive. Both experimental results and the mechanism hypothesis suggest the effectiveness of the additive stems from both the polymerizable cyclic ring and the electron-withdrawing fluorinated alkyl group in the phosphate molecular structure. The successful development of cyclic fluorinated phosphate additives demonstrated that this new functionality selection principle, by incorporating useful functionalities of various additives into one molecule, is an effective approach for the development of new additives.

  6. The Use of Additive Manufacturing for Fabrication of Multi-Function Small Satellite Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Horais, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Dehoff, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The use of small satellites in constellations is limited only by the growing functionality of smallsats themselves. Additive manufacturing provides exciting new design opportunities for development of multifunction CubeSat structures that integrate such functions as propulsion and thermal control into the satellite structures themselves. Manufacturing of these complex multifunction structures is now possible in lightweight, high strength, materials such as titanium by using existing electron ...

  7. A Helpful Serving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockower, David

    2006-01-01

    This article briefly describes how a fifth-grade class collaborated with a downtown diner for several months and then actually ran the restaurant for four hours. Through the Chatters Cafe, a local high school cafe that serves as a culinary arts training ground for high school students, fifth graders had the opportunity to prepare and serve dinner…

  8. Analysis of additive generators of fuzzy operations represented by rational functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeneva, T. M.

    2018-03-01

    This article presents an approach for determining additive generators of commutative and associative operations. Its applicability for finding generators of triangular norms and conorms is shown. Conditions for the parameters of increasing generators that generate triangular conorms in the class of rational functions are determined.

  9. Could music potentially serve as a functional alternative to alcohol consumption? The importance of music motives among drinking and non-drinking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Anna; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated whether adolescents who drink and those who are teetotal differ in the link between music motives and health-related outcomes (life satisfaction, self-rated health, school pressure, somatic complaints, depressed and aggressive mood, physical powerlessness, frequency of being bullied and bullying others and evenings spent out with friends). It also looked at whether associations between music motives and health-related outcomes remained significant when drinking motives were included among drinkers. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation models were estimated based on data from 4,481 adolescents from Switzerland (mean age 14.5, SD = 0.9). It was confirmed that the four music motives and the four drinking motives obtained by crossing the valence (positive–negative) and the source (internal–external) of expected change in affect form distinct dimensions (i.e. the 8-factor model best fitted the data). Drinkers and non-drinkers differed in the various links between music motives and health-related outcomes. For example, almost all the links between conformity music motives and the health-related outcomes were significant for non-drinkers but not for drinkers. Enhancement music motives, by contrast, were often significant for drinkers but not for non-drinkers. Coping music motives were significant among both drinkers and non-drinkers. These links were basically unchanged when drinking motives were taken into account. This study indicates that music serves important functions in the lives of adolescents, even among those who use alcohol for different motives. This makes listening to music a promising potential alternative to alcohol use.

  10. Terrestrial exposure of oilfield flowline additives diminish soil structural stability and remediative microbial function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, S.J.; Sherbone, J.; Hinz, C.; Tibbett, M.

    2011-01-01

    Onshore oil production pipelines are major installations in the petroleum industry, stretching many thousands of kilometres worldwide which also contain flowline additives. The current study focuses on the effect of the flowline additives on soil physico-chemical and biological properties and quantified the impact using resilience and resistance indices. Our findings are the first to highlight deleterious effect of flowline additives by altering some fundamental soil properties, including a complete loss of structural integrity of the impacted soil and a reduced capacity to degrade hydrocarbons mainly due to: (i) phosphonate salts (in scale inhibitor) prevented accumulation of scale in pipelines but also disrupted soil physical structure; (ii) glutaraldehyde (in biocides) which repressed microbial activity in the pipeline and reduced hydrocarbon degradation in soil upon environmental exposure; (iii) the combinatory effects of these two chemicals synergistically caused severe soil structural collapse and disruption of microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. - Highlights: → Effects of flowline additives on soil structure and microbial function highlighted. → Phosphonate salts (in scale inhibitor) were found to disrupt soil physical structure. → Glutaraldehyde (in biocides) caused significant reduction of hydrocarbon degradation in soil. → Flowline additive chemicals synergistically affects soil structure and remediative microbial function. - Scale inhibitor and biocide oilfield flowline additives interactively affect soil physical and microbial properties

  11. Exploration of the resilience construct in posttraumatic stress disorder severity and functional correlates in military combat veterans who have served since September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kimberly T; Calhoun, Patrick S; Dennis, Michelle F; Beckham, Jean C

    2010-07-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between resilience and psychological functioning in military veterans deployed to a region of military conflict in support of Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation Iraqi Freedom. 497 military veterans completed a structured psychiatric interview and questionnaires measuring psychological symptoms, resiliency, and trauma exposure. The study had 2 primary aims: (1) to examine whether the association between trauma exposure and PTSD was moderated by resilience and (2) to examine whether resilience was uniquely associated with functional outcomes after accounting for PTSD. Measures included the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (for PTSD diagnosis), the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire. Data were collected between June 2005 and February 2009. Evaluating the association of resilience and trauma exposure with PTSD revealed main effects for combat exposure, lifetime trauma exposure, and resilience. Additionally, there was a significant (P role in the occurrence of PTSD and severity of other functional correlates among deployed veterans. Future studies in this area would benefit from a prospective design, the evaluation of other possible protective processes (e.g., social support), and specific examination of particular aspects of resilience and how resilience may be increased. (c) Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. Mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome - additional functional evidence and expanding the clinical phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenighofer, M; Hung, C Y; McCauley, J L; Dallman, J; Back, E J; Mihalek, I; Gripp, K W; Sol-Church, K; Rusconi, P; Zhang, Z; Shi, G-X; Andres, D A; Bodamer, O A

    2016-03-01

    RASopathies are a clinically heterogeneous group of conditions caused by mutations in 1 of 16 proteins in the RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (RAS-MAPK) pathway. Recently, mutations in RIT1 were identified as a novel cause for Noonan syndrome. Here we provide additional functional evidence for a causal role of RIT1 mutations and expand the associated phenotypic spectrum. We identified two de novo missense variants p.Met90Ile and p.Ala57Gly. Both variants resulted in increased MEK-ERK signaling compared to wild-type, underscoring gain-of-function as the primary functional mechanism. Introduction of p.Met90Ile and p.Ala57Gly into zebrafish embryos reproduced not only aspects of the human phenotype but also revealed abnormalities of eye development, emphasizing the importance of RIT1 for spatial and temporal organization of the growing organism. In addition, we observed severe lymphedema of the lower extremity and genitalia in one patient. We provide additional evidence for a causal relationship between pathogenic mutations in RIT1, increased RAS-MAPK/MEK-ERK signaling and the clinical phenotype. The mutant RIT1 protein may possess reduced GTPase activity or a diminished ability to interact with cellular GTPase activating proteins; however the precise mechanism remains unknown. The phenotypic spectrum is likely to expand and includes lymphedema of the lower extremities in addition to nuchal hygroma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Common hydraulic fracturing fluid additives alter the structure and function of anaerobic microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Adam C.; Akob, Denise M.; Klinges, J. Grace; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2018-01-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources results in the production of large volumes of wastewater containing a complex mixture of hydraulic fracturing chemical additives and components from the formation. The release of these wastewaters into the environment poses potential risks that are poorly understood. Microbial communities in stream sediments form the base of the food chain and may serve as sentinels for changes in stream health. Iron-reducing organisms have been shown to play a role in the biodegradation of a wide range of organic compounds, and so to evaluate their response to UOG wastewater, we enriched anaerobic microbial communities from sediments collected upstream (background) and downstream (impacted) of an UOG wastewater injection disposal facility in the presence of hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) additives: guar gum, ethylene glycol, and two biocides, 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA) and bronopol (C3H6BrNO4). Iron reduction was significantly inhibited early in the incubations with the addition of biocides, whereas amendment with guar gum and ethylene glycol stimulated iron reduction relative to levels in the unamended controls. Changes in the microbial community structure were observed across all treatments, indicating the potential for even small amounts of UOG wastewater components to influence natural microbial processes. The microbial community structure differed between enrichments with background and impacted sediments, suggesting that impacted sediments may have been preconditioned by exposure to wastewater. These experiments demonstrated the potential for biocides to significantly decrease iron reduction rates immediately following a spill and demonstrated how microbial communities previously exposed to UOG wastewater may be more resilient to additional spills.

  14. Cathode solid electrolyte interface’s function originated from salt type additives in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yu; Park, Juyeon; Yokotsuji, Hokuto; Odawara, Makoto; Takase, Hironari; Ue, Makoto; Lee, Maeng-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Our chemical analysis determines the important functional groups of cathode’s solid electrolyte interface originated from salt type additives. • Our quantum chemical calculation reveals the redox character of the additives and their candidate chemical components of the solid electrolyte interface. • Our molecular dynamics simulation reproduces the selective lithium ion translocation and protective layer formation as the solid electrolyte interface function. - Abstract: This is the study about the cathode’s solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation mechanism of salt type additives (STAs) and its function. To address this issue, we performed several types of chemical analysis and computer simulation techniques. In order to reveal the redox nature and oxidative decomposition dynamics, the electrolyte (EL) solution dynamics by Quantum mechanics and Molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method was applied. The estimation of SEI chemical components agrees with our chemical analyses data and other group’s reports. The molecular dynamics simulation of sub micro second sampling indicates that the SEI phase induced from STAs functions as a lithium ion selective translocation media and protective coating layer against the degradation of the solvent molecules. The results give us an insight how to design additive’s chemical structure to improve longevity of the cell in the high voltage regime.

  15. FUNCTION FEED ADDITIVE OF CAROTE-NOID VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS FOR POULTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Koshchayev A. G.; Kalyuzhniy S. A.; Koshchaeva O. V.; Gavrilenko D. V.; Eliseev M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The article is concerned with the use of functional feed additives from pumpkin fruits and alfalfa juice for the poultry industry. In the study of laying hen it has been found that the use of a feed additive in-creased pumpkin paste content in serum and egg yolk carotenoids is more than two times, and the concentration of vitamin A in these tissues increased slightly, not exceeding 20%. Livability and productivity of poultry increased and average expendable fodder per head per day decreased. ...

  16. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. The present study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, CSM Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by platelet rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators, with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7, with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution, whereas platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that platelet viability and aggregation were best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.

  17. Increasing meat product functionality by the addition of milled flaxseed Linum usitatissimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Marzena; Kulawik, Piotr; Tkaczewska, Joanna; Migdał, Władysław; Pustkowiak, Henryk

    2017-07-01

    Functional meat products are still rare on the market because it is difficult to incorporate new ingredients and obtain both a healthy and acceptable product. Flaxseed is known for its beneficial properties and, in the present study, it was used as an ingredient in the production of homogenised and liver sausages (0%, 5% and 10% flaxseed addition). Homogenised and liver sausages with the addition of 5% flaxseed were given the highest scores by the consumers, although the colour changed with the addition of flaxseed. The spreadability and hardness of the liver sausages increased with the addition of flaxseed, whereas the texture of homogenised sausages did not change. Addition of flaxseed improved the fatty acids profile from a health point of view for both products, as a result of increasing n-3 fatty acids and overall polyunsaturated fatty acids content. Values for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were higher in products with flaxseed and were observed to increase during storage. The results of the present study indicate that it is possible to obtain products that are acceptable by consumers and, at the same time, are more healthy. A high level of α-linolenic acid in the sausages at a level of addition of 5% allows the product to be labelled with information regarding their high omega-3 fatty acid content. However, those products are more susceptible to oxidation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Differential activation of an identified motor neuron and neuromodulation provide Aplysia's retractor muscle an additional function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Jeffrey M; Lu, Hui; Cullins, Miranda J; Chiel, Hillel J

    2014-08-15

    To survive, animals must use the same peripheral structures to perform a variety of tasks. How does a nervous system employ one muscle to perform multiple functions? We addressed this question through work on the I3 jaw muscle of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica's feeding system. This muscle mediates retraction of Aplysia's food grasper in multiple feeding responses and is innervated by a pool of identified neurons that activate different muscle regions. One I3 motor neuron, B38, is active in the protraction phase, rather than the retraction phase, suggesting the muscle has an additional function. We used intracellular, extracellular, and muscle force recordings in several in vitro preparations as well as recordings of nerve and muscle activity from intact, behaving animals to characterize B38's activation of the muscle and its activity in different behavior types. We show that B38 specifically activates the anterior region of I3 and is specifically recruited during one behavior, swallowing. The function of this protraction-phase jaw muscle contraction is to hold food; thus the I3 muscle has an additional function beyond mediating retraction. We additionally show that B38's typical activity during in vivo swallowing is insufficient to generate force in an unmodulated muscle and that intrinsic and extrinsic modulation shift the force-frequency relationship to allow contraction. Using methods that traverse levels from individual neuron to muscle to intact animal, we show how regional muscle activation, differential motor neuron recruitment, and neuromodulation are key components in Aplysia's generation of multifunctionality. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Microplastic moves pollutants and additives to worms, reducing functions linked to health and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Niven, Stewart J; Galloway, Tamara S; Rowland, Steve J; Thompson, Richard C

    2013-12-02

    Inadequate products, waste management, and policy are struggling to prevent plastic waste from infiltrating ecosystems [1, 2]. Disintegration into smaller pieces means that the abundance of micrometer-sized plastic (microplastic) in habitats has increased [3] and outnumbers larger debris [2, 4]. When ingested by animals, plastic provides a feasible pathway to transfer attached pollutants and additive chemicals into their tissues [5-15]. Despite positive correlations between concentrations of ingested plastic and pollutants in tissues of animals, few, if any, controlled experiments have examined whether ingested plastic transfers pollutants and additives to animals. We exposed lugworms (Arenicola marina) to sand with 5% microplastic that was presorbed with pollutants (nonylphenol and phenanthrene) and additive chemicals (Triclosan and PBDE-47). Microplastic transferred pollutants and additive chemicals into gut tissues of lugworms, causing some biological effects, although clean sand transferred larger concentrations of pollutants into their tissues. Uptake of nonylphenol from PVC or sand reduced the ability of coelomocytes to remove pathogenic bacteria by >60%. Uptake of Triclosan from PVC diminished the ability of worms to engineer sediments and caused mortality, each by >55%, while PVC alone made worms >30% more susceptible to oxidative stress. As global microplastic contamination accelerates, our findings indicate that large concentrations of microplastic and additives can harm ecophysiological functions performed by organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Common Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Additives Alter the Structure and Function of Anaerobic Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Adam C; Akob, Denise M; Klinges, J Grace; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M

    2018-04-15

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources results in the production of large volumes of wastewater containing a complex mixture of hydraulic fracturing chemical additives and components from the formation. The release of these wastewaters into the environment poses potential risks that are poorly understood. Microbial communities in stream sediments form the base of the food chain and may serve as sentinels for changes in stream health. Iron-reducing organisms have been shown to play a role in the biodegradation of a wide range of organic compounds, and so to evaluate their response to UOG wastewater, we enriched anaerobic microbial communities from sediments collected upstream (background) and downstream (impacted) of an UOG wastewater injection disposal facility in the presence of hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) additives: guar gum, ethylene glycol, and two biocides, 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA) and bronopol (C 3 H 6 BrNO 4 ). Iron reduction was significantly inhibited early in the incubations with the addition of biocides, whereas amendment with guar gum and ethylene glycol stimulated iron reduction relative to levels in the unamended controls. Changes in the microbial community structure were observed across all treatments, indicating the potential for even small amounts of UOG wastewater components to influence natural microbial processes. The microbial community structure differed between enrichments with background and impacted sediments, suggesting that impacted sediments may have been preconditioned by exposure to wastewater. These experiments demonstrated the potential for biocides to significantly decrease iron reduction rates immediately following a spill and demonstrated how microbial communities previously exposed to UOG wastewater may be more resilient to additional spills. IMPORTANCE Organic components of UOG wastewater can alter microbial communities and biogeochemical processes, which could alter the rates of

  1. Changes in enzyme activity and functional diversity in soil induced by Cd and glucose addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmullina, A. R.; Galitskaya, P. Yu; Selivanovskaya, S. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Toxic heavy metal (HM) contamination is a major global issue as it may have an indirect effect on the health of soil, plants, animals and, consequently, on human health. Agricultural soils’ fertilization is one of the reported sources of HM pollution in the world. In this case simultaneous input of stimulating and inhibiting agents into soil takes place, and effects of the combined influence of these agents is hardly predictable. In this study, a simultaneous inhibiting and stimulating effect of Cd and glucose on soil microbes was studied in a model experiment. Enzyme activities (phosphatase, β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase) and functional diversity (BIOLOG®EcoPlates ™) were assessed as a test functions. Cd (300 μg Cd g-1 ) amendment had a negative effect only on phosphatase activity. Glucose (3 mg C g-1) addition inhibited β-glucosidase activity and stimulated functional diversity. In joint addition of Cd and Glucose the leading effect belonged to that agent which had the greatest effect in case when it was added separately.

  2. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. This study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, C S M Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by the platelet-rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7 with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution while platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that the platelet viability and aggregation were the best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.

  3. On Measurement of Efficiency of Cobb-Douglas Production Function with Additive and Multiplicative Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moyazzem Hossain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In developing counties, efficiency of economic development has determined by the analysis of industrial production. An examination of the characteristic of industrial sector is an essential aspect of growth studies. The most of the developed countries are highly industrialized as they brief “The more industrialization, the more development”. For proper industrialization and industrial development we have to study industrial input-output relationship that leads to production analysis. For a number of reasons econometrician’s belief that industrial production is the most important component of economic development because, if domestic industrial production increases, GDP will increase, if elasticity of labor is higher, implement rates will increase and investment will increase if elasticity of capital is higher. In this regard, this paper should be helpful in suggesting the most suitable Cobb-Douglas production function to forecast the production process for some selected manufacturing industries of developing countries like Bangladesh. This paper choose the appropriate Cobb-Douglas function which gives optimal combination of inputs, that is, the combination that enables it to produce the desired level of output with minimum cost and hence with maximum profitability for some selected manufacturing industries of Bangladesh over the period 1978-79 to 2011-2012. The estimated results shows that the estimates of both capital and labor elasticity of Cobb-Douglas production function with additive errors are more efficient than those estimates of Cobb-Douglas production function with multiplicative errors.

  4. Academic and social achievement goals: Their additive, interactive, and specialized effects on school functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D

    2016-03-01

    Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and social achievement goals in outcome variables relevant to academic (achievement, effort/persistence), social (peer relationship satisfaction, loneliness), and socio-academic (cooperative learning, competitive learning, socially regulated, and self-regulated learning) functioning. A total of 356 Indonesian high-school students (mean age = 16 years; 36% girls) participated in the study. A self-report survey comprising items drawn from pre-existing instruments was administered to measure distinct dimensions of achievement goals and outcomes under focus. Regression analysis was performed to examine additive, interactive, and specialized effects of achievement goals on outcomes. Aligned with the hierarchical model of goal relationships (Wentzel, 2000, Contemp. Educ. Psychol., 25, 105), academic and social achievement goals bore additive effects on most outcomes. Findings also revealed a specialized effect on academic achievement and notable interactive effects on cooperative learning. In general, mastery-approach and performance-approach goals were more adaptive than their avoidance counterparts. The effects of social development goals were positive, whereas those of social demonstration-approach goals were mixed. Contrary to prior findings, social demonstration-avoidance goals did not appear to be inimical for school functioning. Findings underscore the importance of both academic and social achievement goals in day-to-day school functioning and the need to consider the meaning of goals and the coordination of multiple goals from cultural lenses. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Angiography for renal artery stenosis: no additional impairment of renal function by angioplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lufft, Volkmar; Fels, Lueder M.; Egbeyong-Baiyee, Daniel; Olbricht, Christoph J. [Abteilung Nephrologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Hoogestraat-Lufft, Linda; Galanski, Michael [Abteilung Diagnostische Radiologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare renal function between patients with renal angiography and patients with renal angiography and angioplasty (AP) for renal artery stenosis (RAS). Forty-seven patients with suspected RAS were prospectively investigated by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) using non-ionic low osmolar contrast media (CM). In 22 patients RAS was detected and in 16 cases an angioplasty was performed in the same session. The following parameters were determined 1 day prior to and after the DSA, respectively: serum creatinine (S-Crea, {mu}mol/l) and single-shot inulin clearance (In-Cl, ml/min) for the evaluation of renal function; and urine alpha 1-microglobuline (AMG, {mu}g/g Crea) and beta-N-acetyl-glucoseaminidase (beta-NAG, U/g Crea) as markers of tubular toxicity. Serum creatinine was measured additionally 2 days after CM had been injected. In both groups with and without AP 174{+-}65 and 104{+-}56 ml of CM (p<0.0005) were used, respectively. There were no differences with regard to renal function or risk factors for CM nephrotoxicity between both groups. In the group with AP S-Crea and In-Cl (each: mean{+-}SD) did not change significantly (before DSA: 171{+-}158 and 61{+-}24, after DSA: 189{+-}177 and 61{+-}25, respectively), beta-NAG (median) rose from 4 to 14 (p<0.05) and AMG from 8 to 55 (n.s., because of high SD). In the group without AP S-Crea increased from 134{+-}109 to 141{+-}113 (p<0.01), In-Cl dropped from 65{+-}26 to 62{+-}26 (p<0,01), beta NAG (median) rose from 4 to 8 (p=0.01), and AMG from 7 to 10 (n.s.). A rise in baseline S-Crea by more than 25% or 44 {mu}mol/l occurred in 4 and 2 patients in the group with and without AP, respectively. Creatinine increase was reversible in all cases within 7 days. In this study using sensitive methods to detect changes of renal function and tubular toxicity no additional renal function impairment in DSA with angioplasty for RAS compared with DSA alone could be demonstrated. Our data suggest

  6. Angiography for renal artery stenosis: no additional impairment of renal function by angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lufft, Volkmar; Fels, Lueder M.; Egbeyong-Baiyee, Daniel; Olbricht, Christoph J.; Hoogestraat-Lufft, Linda; Galanski, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare renal function between patients with renal angiography and patients with renal angiography and angioplasty (AP) for renal artery stenosis (RAS). Forty-seven patients with suspected RAS were prospectively investigated by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) using non-ionic low osmolar contrast media (CM). In 22 patients RAS was detected and in 16 cases an angioplasty was performed in the same session. The following parameters were determined 1 day prior to and after the DSA, respectively: serum creatinine (S-Crea, μmol/l) and single-shot inulin clearance (In-Cl, ml/min) for the evaluation of renal function; and urine alpha 1-microglobuline (AMG, μg/g Crea) and beta-N-acetyl-glucoseaminidase (beta-NAG, U/g Crea) as markers of tubular toxicity. Serum creatinine was measured additionally 2 days after CM had been injected. In both groups with and without AP 174±65 and 104±56 ml of CM (p<0.0005) were used, respectively. There were no differences with regard to renal function or risk factors for CM nephrotoxicity between both groups. In the group with AP S-Crea and In-Cl (each: mean±SD) did not change significantly (before DSA: 171±158 and 61±24, after DSA: 189±177 and 61±25, respectively), beta-NAG (median) rose from 4 to 14 (p<0.05) and AMG from 8 to 55 (n.s., because of high SD). In the group without AP S-Crea increased from 134±109 to 141±113 (p<0.01), In-Cl dropped from 65±26 to 62±26 (p<0,01), beta NAG (median) rose from 4 to 8 (p=0.01), and AMG from 7 to 10 (n.s.). A rise in baseline S-Crea by more than 25% or 44 μmol/l occurred in 4 and 2 patients in the group with and without AP, respectively. Creatinine increase was reversible in all cases within 7 days. In this study using sensitive methods to detect changes of renal function and tubular toxicity no additional renal function impairment in DSA with angioplasty for RAS compared with DSA alone could be demonstrated. Our data suggest that AP performed for RAS has

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Nanocomposite Polymer Membranes Containing Functionalized SnO2 Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Scipioni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the research of new nanocomposite proton-conducting membranes, SnO2 ceramic powders with surface functionalization have been synthesized and adopted as additives in Nafion-based polymer systems. Different synthetic routes have been explored to obtain suitable, nanometer-sized sulphated tin oxide particles. Structural and morphological characteristics, as well as surface and bulk properties of the obtained oxide powders, have been determined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, N2 adsorption, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. In addition, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, atomic force microscopy (AFM, thermal investigations, water uptake (WU measurements, and ionic exchange capacity (IEC tests have been used as characterization tools for the nanocomposite membranes. The nature of the tin oxide precursor, as well as the synthesis procedure, were found to play an important role in determining the morphology and the particle size distribution of the ceramic powder, this affecting the effective functionalization of the oxides. The incorporation of such particles, having sulphate groups on their surface, altered some peculiar properties of the resulting composite membrane, such as water content, thermo-mechanical, and morphological characteristics.

  8. Testing of WS2 Nanoparticles Functionalized by a Humin-Like Shell as Lubricant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagit Sade

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC have been known to reduce friction and wear when added to oil-type liquid lubricants. Aggregation limits the ability of the nanoparticles to penetrate into the interface between the two rubbing surfaces—an important factor in friction reduction mechanisms. Doping has been successfully used to reduce agglomeration, but it must be done in the production process of the nanoparticles. The use of surface-functionalized nanoparticles is less common than doping. Nonetheless, it has the potential to reduce agglomeration and thereby improve the reduction of friction and wear. In this study, we present the results of preliminary tribological ball-on-flat tests performed with WS2 nanoparticles functionalized by a humin-like conformal shell, as additives to polyalphaolefin-4 (PAO-4 oil. We tested WS2 inorganic nanotubes (INTs and two grades of inorganic fullerene-like nanoparticles (IFs. The shell/coating was found to improve friction reduction for IFs but not for INTs through better dispersion in the oil. The thicker the coating on the IFs, the less agglomerated they were. Coated industrial-grade IFs were found, by far, to be the best additive for friction reduction. We suggest the combination between reduced agglomeration and poor crystallinity as the reason for this result.

  9. Separation of Trace Amount Zn (II Using Additional Carbonyl and Carboxyl Groups Functionalized-Nano Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moghimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel and selective method for the fast determination of trace amounts of Zn(IIions in water samples has been developed.  The first additional carbonyl and carboxyl functionalized-nano graphene (SPFNano graphene. The presence of additional carbonyl and carboxyl groups located at the edge of the sheets makes GO sheets strongly hydrophilic, allowing them to readily swell and disperse in water. Based on these oxygen functionalities, different model structures of GO were used as absorbent for extraction of Zn (II   ions by solid phase extraction method. The complexes were eluted with HNO3 (2M10% V.V-1 methanol in acetone and determined the analyte by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  The procedure is based on the selective formation of Zn (II at optimum pH by elution with organic eluents and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The method is based on complex formation on the surface of the ENVI-18 DISKTM disks modified carbonyl and carboxyl functionalized-nano graphene oxide molecules covalently bonded together followed by stripping of the retained species by minimum amounts of appropriate organic solvents. The elution is efficient and quantitative. The effect of potential interfering ions, pH, SPFNano graphene, amount, stripping solvent, and sample flow rate were also investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the break-through volume was found to about 1000mL providing a preconcentration factor of 500. The maximum capacity of the disks was found to be 456± 3 µg for Zn2+.The limit of detection of the proposed method is 5ng per 1000mL.The method was applied to the extraction and recovery of Zn in different water samples.

  10. Amaranth addition to enzymatically modified wheat flour improves dough functionality, bread immunoreactivity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Sandoval, N G; Calderón de la Barca, A M; Carvajal-Millán, E; Islas-Rubio, A R

    2018-01-24

    Consumers with gluten-related disorders require gluten-free (GF) foods to avoid an immune response. Alternative to the use of non-gluten containing grains to prepare GF bread, the gluten reactivity has been greatly reduced using a proline specific cleavage enzyme, however, the gluten functionality was lost. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding an amaranth flour blend (AFB) to enzymatically modified wheat-flour proteins on dough functionality and to evaluate the immunoreactivity and acceptability of the prepared bread. First, wheat flour (20% w/v, substrate) was hydrolyzed using 8.4 U mg -1 protein Aspergillus niger prolyl-endopeptidase (AnPEP) for 8 h at 40 °C under constant agitation. Four types of breads were prepared with the same formulation except for the type of flour (14% w.b.): wheat flour (WF), WF-AFB unmodified not incubated, WF-AFB unmodified incubated and WF-AFB modified. The protein composition and free thiols were analyzed before and after amaranth addition, and the flour and bread proteins were run using SDS-PAGE and immune-detected in blots with IgA from celiac disease patients. The immunoreactive gluten content, specific volume and bread acceptability were evaluated. The polymeric proteins and free thiol groups of WF decreased after AnPEP treatment. The electrophoretic patterns of the modified flour and bread proteins were different and the IgA-immunodetection in blots was highly reduced, particularly for the higher molecular weight subunits. The addition of AFB to the modified wheat flour prepared using AnPEP improved the dough functionality by increasing the thiol groups and allowed the preparation of a sensorially acceptable bread with only 60 mg kg -1 immunoreactive gluten.

  11. Hydrogen atom addition to the surface of graphene nanoflakes: A density functional theory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto, E-mail: hiroto@eng.hokudai.ac.jp

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The reaction pathway of the hydrogen addition to graphene surface was determined by the DFT method. • Binding energies of atomic hydrogen to graphene surface were determined. • Absorption spectrum of hydrogenated graphene was theoretically predicted. • Hyperfine coupling constant of hydrogenated graphene was theoretically predicted. - Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) provide a 2-dimensional (2D) reaction surface in 3-dimensional (3D) interstellar space and have been utilized as a model of graphene surfaces. In the present study, the reaction of PAHs with atomic hydrogen was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) to systematically elucidate the binding nature of atomic hydrogen to graphene nanoflakes. PAHs with n = 4–37 were chosen, where n indicates the number of benzene rings. Activation energies of hydrogen addition to the graphene surface were calculated to be 5.2–7.0 kcal/mol at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level, which is almost constant for all PAHs. The binding energies of hydrogen atom were slightly dependent on the size (n): 14.8–28.5 kcal/mol. The absorption spectra showed that a long tail is generated at the low-energy region after hydrogen addition to the graphene surface. The electronic states of hydrogenated graphenes were discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  12. Why do they serve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Stéphanie; Glad, Ane

    2016-01-01

    that after the mission, peace-keepers are generally more disappointed than peace-enforcers. Our results also show that self-benefit motives are important for younger soldiers with only a high school education, and that this group usually serves as peace-enforcers during their gap year....... the survey both before and after deployment. Soldiers are deployed to different missions under the same circumstances. To conceptualize motives among soldiers, we use factor analysis and find three factors: challenge, self-benefit, and fidelity. Challenge represents an occupational orientation; fidelity...

  13. Drama is Served

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svømmekjær, Heidi Frank

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on how the theme of food is used for making social, gender, and other distinctions in the weekly Danish radio series The Hansen Family (The Danish Broadcasting Corporation, 1929-49) and in relation to other radio programmes from the 1930s and 1940s. These distinctions serve t...... with the wife. To Mrs. Hansen, it is the fruit of hard labour rather than a meal to be enjoyed. On a more general level, food is a limited resource, which often causes social tensions to burst onto the surface of human interaction....

  14. Adding functionality with additive manufacturing: Fabrication of titanium-based antibiotic eluting implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sophie C; Jamshidi, Parastoo; Eisenstein, Neil M; Webber, Mark A; Hassanin, Hany; Attallah, Moataz M; Shepherd, Duncan E T; Addison, Owen; Grover, Liam M

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have been utilised in healthcare to create patient-specific implants. This study demonstrates the potential to add new implant functionality by further exploiting the design flexibility of these technologies. Selective laser melting was used to manufacture titanium-based (Ti-6Al-4V) implants containing a reservoir. Pore channels, connecting the implant surface to the reservoir, were incorporated to facilitate antibiotic delivery. An injectable brushite, calcium phosphate cement, was formulated as a carrier vehicle for gentamicin. Incorporation of the antibiotic significantly (p=0.01) improved the compressive strength (5.8±0.7MPa) of the cement compared to non-antibiotic samples. The controlled release of gentamicin sulphate from the calcium phosphate cement injected into the implant reservoir was demonstrated in short term elution studies using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Orientation of the implant pore channels were shown, using micro-computed tomography, to impact design reproducibility and the back-pressure generated during cement injection which ultimately altered porosity. The amount of antibiotic released from all implant designs over a 6hour period (additively manufacture a titanium-based antibiotic eluting implant, which is an attractive alternative to current treatment strategies of periprosthetic infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogen atom addition to the surface of graphene nanoflakes: A density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) provide a 2-dimensional (2D) reaction surface in 3-dimensional (3D) interstellar space and have been utilized as a model of graphene surfaces. In the present study, the reaction of PAHs with atomic hydrogen was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) to systematically elucidate the binding nature of atomic hydrogen to graphene nanoflakes. PAHs with n = 4-37 were chosen, where n indicates the number of benzene rings. Activation energies of hydrogen addition to the graphene surface were calculated to be 5.2-7.0 kcal/mol at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level, which is almost constant for all PAHs. The binding energies of hydrogen atom were slightly dependent on the size (n): 14.8-28.5 kcal/mol. The absorption spectra showed that a long tail is generated at the low-energy region after hydrogen addition to the graphene surface. The electronic states of hydrogenated graphenes were discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  16. Soft Functional Silicone Elastomers with High Dielectric Permittivty: Simple Additives vs. Cross-Linked Synthesized Copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Though dielectric elastomers (DEs) have many favorable properties, the issue of high driving voltages limits the commercial viability of the technology. Improved actuation at lower voltages can be obtained by decreasing the Young’s modulus and/or decreasing the dielectric permittivity of the elas......Though dielectric elastomers (DEs) have many favorable properties, the issue of high driving voltages limits the commercial viability of the technology. Improved actuation at lower voltages can be obtained by decreasing the Young’s modulus and/or decreasing the dielectric permittivity...... of the elastomer. A decrease in Young’s modulus, however, is often accompanied by the loss of mechanical stability and thereby the lifetime of the DE whereas addition of high permittivity fillers such as metal oxides often increases Young’s modulus such that improved actuation is not accomplished. New soft...... silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity were prepared through the use of chloropropyl-functional silicones. One method was through the synthesis of modular cross-linkable chloropropyl-functional copolymers that allow for a high degree of chemical freedom such that a tuneable silicone...

  17. Adding functionality with additive manufacturing: Fabrication of titanium-based antibiotic eluting implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Sophie C.; Jamshidi, Parastoo; Eisenstein, Neil M.; Webber, Mark A.; Hassanin, Hany; Attallah, Moataz M.; Shepherd, Duncan E.T.; Addison, Owen; Grover, Liam M.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have been utilised in healthcare to create patient-specific implants. This study demonstrates the potential to add new implant functionality by further exploiting the design flexibility of these technologies. Selective laser melting was used to manufacture titanium-based (Ti-6Al-4V) implants containing a reservoir. Pore channels, connecting the implant surface to the reservoir, were incorporated to facilitate antibiotic delivery. An injectable brushite, calcium phosphate cement, was formulated as a carrier vehicle for gentamicin. Incorporation of the antibiotic significantly (p = 0.01) improved the compressive strength (5.8 ± 0.7 MPa) of the cement compared to non-antibiotic samples. The controlled release of gentamicin sulphate from the calcium phosphate cement injected into the implant reservoir was demonstrated in short term elution studies using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Orientation of the implant pore channels were shown, using micro-computed tomography, to impact design reproducibility and the back-pressure generated during cement injection which ultimately altered porosity. The amount of antibiotic released from all implant designs over a 6 hour period (< 28% of the total amount) were found to exceed the minimum inhibitory concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus (16 μg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1 μg/mL); two bacterial species commonly associated with periprosthetic infections. Antibacterial efficacy was confirmed against both bacterial cultures using an agar diffusion assay. Interestingly, pore channel orientation was shown to influence the directionality of inhibition zones. Promisingly, this work demonstrates the potential to additively manufacture a titanium-based antibiotic eluting implant, which is an attractive alternative to current treatment strategies of periprosthetic infections. - Highlights: • Titanium implants were additively manufactured with surface connected reservoirs. • Implants

  18. Predicting Volleyball Serve-Reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T J M; Fonseca, Sofia; Araujo, Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four

  19. Native-plant amendments and topsoil addition enhance soil function in post-mining arid grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Tayla; Harris, Richard J; Bateman, Amber; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2018-04-15

    One of the most critical challenges faced in restoration of disturbed arid lands is the limited availability of topsoil. In post-mining restoration, alternative soil substrates such as mine waste could be an adequate growth media to alleviate the topsoil deficit, but these materials often lack appropriate soil characteristics to support the development and survival of seedlings. Thus, addition of exogenous organic matter may be essential to enhance plant survival and soil function. Here, we present a case study in the arid Pilbara region (north-west Western Australia), a resource-rich area subject to intensive mining activities. The main objective of our study was to assess the effects of different restoration techniques such as soil reconstruction by blending available soil materials, sowing different compositions of plant species, and addition of a locally abundant native soil organic amendment (Triodia pungens biomass) on: (i) seedling recruitment and growth of Triodia wiseana, a dominant grass in Australian arid ecosystems, and (ii) soil chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of reconstructed soils, including microbial activity, total organic C, total N, and C and N mineralisation. The study was conducted in a 12-month multifactorial microcosms setting in a controlled environment. Our results showed that the amendment increased C and N contents of re-made soils, but these values were still lower than those obtained in the topsoil. High microbial activity and C mineralisation rates were found in the amended waste that contrasted the low N mineralisation but this did not translate into improved emergence or survival of T. wiseana. These results suggest a short- or medium-term soil N immobilisation caused by negative priming effect of fresh un-composted amendment on microbial communities. We found similar growth and survival rates of T. wiseana in topsoil and a blend of topsoil and waste (50:50) which highlights the importance of topsoil, even in a

  20. Adding functionality with additive manufacturing: Fabrication of titanium-based antibiotic eluting implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sophie C. [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Jamshidi, Parastoo [School of Materials and Metallurgy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Eisenstein, Neil M. [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Royal Centre for Defence Medicine, Birmingham Research Park, Vincent Drive, Edgbaston B15 2SQ (United Kingdom); Webber, Mark A. [School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Hassanin, Hany [School of Materials and Metallurgy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kingston University, London SW15 3DW (United Kingdom); Attallah, Moataz M. [School of Materials and Metallurgy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Shepherd, Duncan E.T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Addison, Owen [School of Dentistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Grover, Liam M. [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have been utilised in healthcare to create patient-specific implants. This study demonstrates the potential to add new implant functionality by further exploiting the design flexibility of these technologies. Selective laser melting was used to manufacture titanium-based (Ti-6Al-4V) implants containing a reservoir. Pore channels, connecting the implant surface to the reservoir, were incorporated to facilitate antibiotic delivery. An injectable brushite, calcium phosphate cement, was formulated as a carrier vehicle for gentamicin. Incorporation of the antibiotic significantly (p = 0.01) improved the compressive strength (5.8 ± 0.7 MPa) of the cement compared to non-antibiotic samples. The controlled release of gentamicin sulphate from the calcium phosphate cement injected into the implant reservoir was demonstrated in short term elution studies using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Orientation of the implant pore channels were shown, using micro-computed tomography, to impact design reproducibility and the back-pressure generated during cement injection which ultimately altered porosity. The amount of antibiotic released from all implant designs over a 6 hour period (< 28% of the total amount) were found to exceed the minimum inhibitory concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus (16 μg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1 μg/mL); two bacterial species commonly associated with periprosthetic infections. Antibacterial efficacy was confirmed against both bacterial cultures using an agar diffusion assay. Interestingly, pore channel orientation was shown to influence the directionality of inhibition zones. Promisingly, this work demonstrates the potential to additively manufacture a titanium-based antibiotic eluting implant, which is an attractive alternative to current treatment strategies of periprosthetic infections. - Highlights: • Titanium implants were additively manufactured with surface connected reservoirs. • Implants

  1. Overlapping, Additive and Counterregulatory Effects of Type II and I Interferons on Myeloid Dendritic Cell Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Frasca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are central player in immunity by bridging the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system (IS. Interferons (IFNs are one of the most important factors that regulate both innate and adaptive immunity too. Thus, the understanding of how type II and I IFNs modulate the immune-regulatory properties of DCs is a central issue in immunology. In this paper, we will address this point in the light of the most recent literature, also highlighting the controversial data reported in the field. According to the wide literature available, type II as well as type I IFNs appear, at the same time, to collaborate, to induce additive effects or overlapping functions, as well as to counterregulate each one's effects on DC biology and, in general, the immune response. The knowledge of these effects has important therapeutic implications in the treatment of infectious/autoimmune diseases and cancer and indicates strategies for using IFNs as vaccine adjuvants and in DC-based immune therapeutic approaches.

  2. The effect of additional joint mobilization on neuromuscular performance in individuals with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Fen; Yu, Hsiang-Ting; Chen, Wen-Yin; Liao, Kwong-Kum; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Yang, Yea-Ru

    2018-03-01

    To examine the effects of joint mobilization and exercise training on neuromuscular performance in individuals with functional ankle instability (FAI). A cross-sectional study. Forty five subjects with FAI were randomized into three groups: control (CG, n = 15, 27.9 ± 6.6yr), training (TG, n = 15, 26.9 ± 5.8yr) and mobilization with training group (MTG, n = 15, 26.5 ± 4.8yr). Four weeks of neuromuscular training for TG; neuromuscular training and joint mobilization for MTG. Electromyography of the peroneus longus (PL), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus (SOL) and the reaching distance of the Y balance test (YBT), dorsiflexion range of motion (DFROM), Cumberland ankle instability tool (CAIT), and global rating scale (GRS). Two-way repeated measures MANOVA were used with the significance level p Joint mobilization resulted in additional benefits on self-reported ankle instability severity, dorsiflexion mobility, and posterolateral balance performance in individuals with FAI, but its effects on general improvement, muscle activation, and other balance tasks remained uncertain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Generalized theory of resonance scattering (GTRS) using the translational addition theorem for spherical wave functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Farid

    2014-11-01

    The generalized theory of resonance scattering (GTRS) by an elastic spherical target in acoustics is extended to describe the arbitrary scattering of a finite beam using the addition theorem for the spherical wave functions of the first kind under a translation of the coordinate origin. The advantage of the proposed method over the standard discrete spherical harmonics transform previously used in the GTRS formalism is the computation of the off-axial beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) stemming from a closed-form partial-wave series expansion representing the axial BSCs in spherical coordinates. With this general method, the arbitrary acoustical scattering can be evaluated for any particle shape and size, whether the particle is partially or completely illuminated by the incident beam. Numerical examples for the axial and off-axial resonance scattering from an elastic sphere placed arbitrarily in the field of a finite circular piston transducer with uniform vibration are provided. Moreover, the 3-D resonance directivity patterns illustrate the theory and reveal some properties of the scattering. Numerous applications involving the scattering phenomenon in imaging, particle manipulation, and the characterization of multiphase flows can benefit from the present analysis because all physically realizable beams radiate acoustical waves from finite transducers as opposed to waves of infinite extent.

  4. ASM-3 acid sphingomyelinase functions as a positive regulator of the DAF-2/AGE-1 signaling pathway and serves as a novel anti-aging target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongsoon; Sun, Hong

    2012-01-01

    In C. elegans, the highly conserved DAF-2/insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling (IIS) pathway regulates longevity, metabolism, reproduction and development. In mammals, acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes sphingomyelin to produce ceramide. ASM has been implicated in CD95 death receptor signaling under certain stress conditions. However, the involvement of ASM in growth factor receptor signaling under physiological conditions is not known. Here, we report that in vivo ASM functions as a positive regulator of the DAF-2/IIS pathway in C. elegans. We have shown that inactivation of asm-3 extends animal lifespan and promotes dauer arrest, an alternative developmental process. A significant cooperative effect on lifespan is observed between asm-3 deficiency and loss-of-function alleles of the age-1/PI 3-kinase, with the asm-3; age-1 double mutant animals having a mean lifespan 259% greater than that of the wild-type animals. The lifespan extension phenotypes caused by the loss of asm-3 are dependent on the functions of daf-16/FOXO and daf-18/PTEN. We have demonstrated that inactivation of asm-3 causes nuclear translocation of DAF-16::GFP protein, up-regulates endogenous DAF-16 protein levels and activates the downstream targeting genes of DAF-16. Together, our findings reveal a novel role of asm-3 in regulation of lifespan and diapause by modulating IIS pathway. Importantly, we have found that two drugs known to inhibit mammalian ASM activities, desipramine and clomipramine, markedly extend the lifespan of wild-type animals, in a manner similar to that achieved by genetic inactivation of the asm genes. Our studies illustrate a novel strategy of anti-aging by targeting ASM, which may potentially be extended to mammals.

  5. ASM-3 acid sphingomyelinase functions as a positive regulator of the DAF-2/AGE-1 signaling pathway and serves as a novel anti-aging target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsoon Kim

    Full Text Available In C. elegans, the highly conserved DAF-2/insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling (IIS pathway regulates longevity, metabolism, reproduction and development. In mammals, acid sphingomyelinase (ASM is an enzyme that hydrolyzes sphingomyelin to produce ceramide. ASM has been implicated in CD95 death receptor signaling under certain stress conditions. However, the involvement of ASM in growth factor receptor signaling under physiological conditions is not known. Here, we report that in vivo ASM functions as a positive regulator of the DAF-2/IIS pathway in C. elegans. We have shown that inactivation of asm-3 extends animal lifespan and promotes dauer arrest, an alternative developmental process. A significant cooperative effect on lifespan is observed between asm-3 deficiency and loss-of-function alleles of the age-1/PI 3-kinase, with the asm-3; age-1 double mutant animals having a mean lifespan 259% greater than that of the wild-type animals. The lifespan extension phenotypes caused by the loss of asm-3 are dependent on the functions of daf-16/FOXO and daf-18/PTEN. We have demonstrated that inactivation of asm-3 causes nuclear translocation of DAF-16::GFP protein, up-regulates endogenous DAF-16 protein levels and activates the downstream targeting genes of DAF-16. Together, our findings reveal a novel role of asm-3 in regulation of lifespan and diapause by modulating IIS pathway. Importantly, we have found that two drugs known to inhibit mammalian ASM activities, desipramine and clomipramine, markedly extend the lifespan of wild-type animals, in a manner similar to that achieved by genetic inactivation of the asm genes. Our studies illustrate a novel strategy of anti-aging by targeting ASM, which may potentially be extended to mammals.

  6. ASM-3 Acid Sphingomyelinase Functions as a Positive Regulator of the DAF-2/AGE-1 Signaling Pathway and Serves as a Novel Anti-Aging Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongsoon; Sun, Hong

    2012-01-01

    In C. elegans, the highly conserved DAF-2/insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling (IIS) pathway regulates longevity, metabolism, reproduction and development. In mammals, acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes sphingomyelin to produce ceramide. ASM has been implicated in CD95 death receptor signaling under certain stress conditions. However, the involvement of ASM in growth factor receptor signaling under physiological conditions is not known. Here, we report that in vivo ASM functions as a positive regulator of the DAF-2/IIS pathway in C. elegans. We have shown that inactivation of asm-3 extends animal lifespan and promotes dauer arrest, an alternative developmental process. A significant cooperative effect on lifespan is observed between asm-3 deficiency and loss-of-function alleles of the age-1/PI 3-kinase, with the asm-3; age-1 double mutant animals having a mean lifespan 259% greater than that of the wild-type animals. The lifespan extension phenotypes caused by the loss of asm-3 are dependent on the functions of daf-16/FOXO and daf-18/PTEN. We have demonstrated that inactivation of asm-3 causes nuclear translocation of DAF-16::GFP protein, up-regulates endogenous DAF-16 protein levels and activates the downstream targeting genes of DAF-16. Together, our findings reveal a novel role of asm-3 in regulation of lifespan and diapause by modulating IIS pathway. Importantly, we have found that two drugs known to inhibit mammalian ASM activities, desipramine and clomipramine, markedly extend the lifespan of wild-type animals, in a manner similar to that achieved by genetic inactivation of the asm genes. Our studies illustrate a novel strategy of anti-aging by targeting ASM, which may potentially be extended to mammals. PMID:23049887

  7. Switch of SpnR function from activating to inhibiting quorum sensing by its exogenous addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Yuriko [Department of Innovation Systems Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Kato, Norihiro, E-mail: katon@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Department of Material and Environmental Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan)

    2016-09-02

    The opportunistic human pathogen Serratia marcescens AS-1 produces the N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (C6HSL) receptor SpnR, a homologue of LuxR from Vibrio fischeri, which activates pig clusters to produce the antibacterial prodigiosin. In this study, we attempted to artificially regulate quorum sensing (QS) by changing the role of SpnR in N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated QS. SpnR was obtained as a fusion protein tagged with maltose-binding protein (MBP) from overexpression in Escherichia coli, and its specific affinity to C6HSL was demonstrated by quartz crystal microbalance analysis and AHL-bioassay with Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Prodigiosin production was effectively inhibited by externally added MBP-SpnR in both wild-type AS-1 and the AHL synthase-defective mutant AS-1(ΔspnI). For the mutant, the induced amount of prodigiosin was drastically reduced to approximately 4% with the addition of 18 μM MBP-SpnR to the liquid medium, indicating 81% trapping of C6HSL. A system for inhibiting QS can be constructed by adding exogenous AHL receptor to the culture broth to keep the concentration of free AHL low, whereas intracellular SpnR naturally functions as the activator in response to QS. - Highlights: • Quorum sensing (QS) regulates the expression of some bacterial genes. • We added an AHL receptor to culture media to inhibit QS in Serratia marcescens AS-1. • The exogenous receptor effectively bound C6HSL and inhibited QS. • This approach can be used to artificially regulate AHL-mediated QS.

  8. Switch of SpnR function from activating to inhibiting quorum sensing by its exogenous addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Yuriko; Kato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Serratia marcescens AS-1 produces the N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (C6HSL) receptor SpnR, a homologue of LuxR from Vibrio fischeri, which activates pig clusters to produce the antibacterial prodigiosin. In this study, we attempted to artificially regulate quorum sensing (QS) by changing the role of SpnR in N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated QS. SpnR was obtained as a fusion protein tagged with maltose-binding protein (MBP) from overexpression in Escherichia coli, and its specific affinity to C6HSL was demonstrated by quartz crystal microbalance analysis and AHL-bioassay with Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Prodigiosin production was effectively inhibited by externally added MBP-SpnR in both wild-type AS-1 and the AHL synthase-defective mutant AS-1(ΔspnI). For the mutant, the induced amount of prodigiosin was drastically reduced to approximately 4% with the addition of 18 μM MBP-SpnR to the liquid medium, indicating 81% trapping of C6HSL. A system for inhibiting QS can be constructed by adding exogenous AHL receptor to the culture broth to keep the concentration of free AHL low, whereas intracellular SpnR naturally functions as the activator in response to QS. - Highlights: • Quorum sensing (QS) regulates the expression of some bacterial genes. • We added an AHL receptor to culture media to inhibit QS in Serratia marcescens AS-1. • The exogenous receptor effectively bound C6HSL and inhibited QS. • This approach can be used to artificially regulate AHL-mediated QS.

  9. PxAPN5 serves as a functional receptor of Cry2Ab in Plutella xylostella (L.) and its binding domain analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Xu, Lian; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Chen, Qing-Xi; Zhu, Yu-Jing

    2017-12-01

    Lepidopteran midgut aminopeptidases N (APNs) are widely studied for their potential roles as one of the receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal toxins. In the present study, a loss of function analyses by RNAi (RNA interference) silencing of the Plutella xylostella APN5 (PxAPN5), a binding protein of Bt crystal toxin Cry2Ab, were performed. The knocking down of PxAPN5 in P. xylostella larvae greatly reduced their susceptibility to Cry2Ab and led to a decrease of Cry2Ab binding to P. xylostella midgut. Four truncated fragments of PxAPN5 were further constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli (E.coli) to find the binding region of PxAPN5 to Cry2Ab. The ligand blot result indicated that D1 domain (residues 1-262) and D3 domain (residues 510-620) of PxAPN5 could specially bind to Cry2Ab. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Does progressive resistance strength training as additional training have any measured effect on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Andersen, Christina W.; Pedersen, Sigrid F

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of progressive resistance strength training as additional training measured on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients. DESIGN: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Department of Geriatric Rehabilitation in university hospital...

  11. Functional response of osteoblasts in functionally gradient titanium alloy mesh arrays processed by 3D additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nune, K C; Kumar, A; Misra, R D K; Li, S J; Hao, Y L; Yang, R

    2017-02-01

    We elucidate here the osteoblasts functions and cellular activity in 3D printed interconnected porous architecture of functionally gradient Ti-6Al-4V alloy mesh structures in terms of cell proliferation and growth, distribution of cell nuclei, synthesis of proteins (actin, vinculin, and fibronectin), and calcium deposition. Cell culture studies with pre-osteoblasts indicated that the interconnected porous architecture of functionally gradient mesh arrays was conducive to osteoblast functions. However, there were statistically significant differences in the cellular response depending on the pore size in the functionally gradient structure. The interconnected porous architecture contributed to the distribution of cells from the large pore size (G1) to the small pore size (G3), with consequent synthesis of extracellular matrix and calcium precipitation. The gradient mesh structure significantly impacted cell adhesion and influenced the proliferation stage, such that there was high distribution of cells on struts of the gradient mesh structure. Actin and vinculin showed a significant difference in normalized expression level of protein per cell, which was absent in the case of fibronectin. Osteoblasts present on mesh struts formed a confluent sheet, bridging the pores through numerous cytoplasmic extensions. The gradient mesh structure fabricated by electron beam melting was explored to obtain fundamental insights on cellular activity with respect to osteoblast functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hemostatic function of buffy coat platelets in additive solution treated with pathogen reduction technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Bochsen, Louise; Windeløv, Nis Agerlin

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pathogen reduction technologies (PRTs) may influence the hemostatic potential of stored platelet (PLT) concentrates. To investigate this, buffy coat PLTs (BCPs) stored in PLT additive solution (SSP+) with or without Mirasol PRT treatment (CaridianBCT Biotechnologies) were compared...

  13. Additive Friction Stir Deposition of Aluminum Alloys and Functionally Graded Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — State-of-the-art additive manufacturing technologies for metal parts have evolved around powder metallurgy and fusion welding-based processes. Both of these...

  14. Additive Friction Stir Deposition of Aluminum Alloys and Functionally Graded Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — State-of-the-art additive manufacturing technologies for metal parts have evolved primarily around powder metallurgy and fusion welding-based processes. These...

  15. Chemical characteristic and functional properties of arenga starch-taro (Colocasia esculanta L.) flour noodle with turmeric extracts addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervika Rahayu N., H.; Ariani, Dini; Miftakhussolikhah, E., Maharani P.; Yudi, P.

    2017-01-01

    Arenga starch-taro (Colocasia esculanta L.) flour noodle is an alternative carbohydrate source made from 75% arenga starch and 25% taro flour, but it has a different color with commercial noodle product. The addition of natural color from turmeric may change the consumer preference and affect chemical characteristic and functional properties of noodle. This research aims to identify chemical characteristic and functional properties of arenga starch-taro flour noodle with turmeric extract addition. Extraction was performed using 5 variances of turmeric rhizome (0.06; 0.12; 0.18; 0.24; and 0.30 g (fresh weight/ml water). Then, noodle was made and chemical characteristic (proximate analysis) as well as functional properties (amylose, resistant starch, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity) were then evaluated. The result showed that addition of turmeric extract did not change protein, fat, carbohydrate, amylose, and resistant starch content significantly, while antioxidant activity was increased (23,41%) with addition of turmeric extract.

  16. The effect of additional equilibrium stress functions on the three-node hybrid-mixed curved beam element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Gon; Park, Yong Kuk

    2008-01-01

    To develop an effective hybrid-mixed element, it is extremely critical as to how to assume the stress field. This research article demonstrates the effect of additional equilibrium stress functions to enhance the numerical performance of the locking-free three-node hybrid-mixed curved beam element, proposed in Saleeb and Chang's previous work. It is exceedingly complicated or even infeasible to determine the stress functions to satisfy fully both the equilibrium conditions and suppression of kinematic deformation modes in the three-node hybrid-mixed formulation. Accordingly, the additional stress functions to satisfy partially or fully equilibrium conditions are incorporated in this study. Several numerical examples for static and dynamic problems confirm that the newly proposed element with these additional stress functions is highly effective regardless of the slenderness ratio and curvature of arches in static and dynamic analyses

  17. Inorganic pyrophosphatases: structural diversity serving the function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samygina, V. R.

    2016-05-01

    The review is devoted to ubiquitous enzymes, inorganic pyrophosphatases, which are essential in all living organisms. Despite the long history of investigations, these enzymes continue to attract interest. The review focuses on the three-dimensional structures of various representatives of this class of proteins. The structural diversity, the relationship between the structure and some properties of pyrophosphatases and various mechanisms of enzyme action related to the structural diversity of these enzymes are discussed. Interactions of pyrophosphatase with other proteins and possible practical applications are considered. The bibliography includes 56 references.

  18. Design and fabrication of integrated micro/macrostructure for 3D functional gradient systems based on additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming; Xie, Luofeng; Jiang, Weifeng; Yin, Guofu

    2018-05-01

    Functional gradient systems have important applications in many areas. Although a 2D dielectric structure that serves as the gradient index medium for controlling electromagnetic waves is well established, it may not be suitable for application in 3D case. In this paper, we present a method to realize functional gradient systems with 3D integrated micro/macrostructure. The homogenization of the structure is studied in detail by conducting band diagram analysis. The analysis shows that the effective medium approximation is valid even when periodicity is comparable to wavelength. The condition to ensure the polarization-invariant, isotropic, and frequency-independent property is investigated. The scheme for the design and fabrication of 3D systems requiring spatial material property distribution is presented. By using the vat photopolymerization process, a large overall size of macrostructure at the system level and precise fine features of microstructure at the unit cell level are realized, thus demonstrating considerable scalability of the system for wave manipulation.

  19. Addition of Aliskiren to Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Improves Ambulatory Blood Pressure Profile and Cardiorenal Function Better than Addition of Benazepril in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Umemura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An altered ambulatory blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR profile is related to chronic kidney disease (CKD and cardiorenal syndrome. In this study, we examined the effects of aliskiren, when added to angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, on ambulatory BP and cardiorenal function in CKD. Thirty-six hypertensive CKD patients were randomly assigned to the aliskiren add-on group (n = 18 or the benazepril add-on group (n = 18. Ambulatory BP and cardiorenal function parameters were measured at baseline and 24 weeks after treatment. Compared with the benazepril group, nighttime systolic BP variability in the aliskiren group was lower after treatment. Albuminuria was decreased in the aliskiren group, but not in the benazepril group. In addition, left ventricular mass index (LVMI was significantly lower in the aliskiren group than in the benazepril group after treatment. In the aliskiren group, multivariate linear regression analysis showed an association between changes in albuminuria and changes in nighttime systolic BP. Furthermore, there were associations between changes in LVMI and changes in daytime HR variability, as well as between changes in LVMI and changes in plasma aldosterone concentration. These results suggest that aliskiren add-on therapy may be beneficial for suppression of renal deterioration and pathological cardiac remodeling through an improvement that is effected in ambulatory BP and HR profiles.

  20. Addition of aliskiren to Angiotensin receptor blocker improves ambulatory blood pressure profile and cardiorenal function better than addition of benazepril in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Masato; Tamura, Kouichi; Kanaoka, Tomohiko; Wakui, Hiromichi; Maeda, Akinobu; Dejima, Toru; Azushima, Kengo; Uneda, Kazushi; Kobayashi, Ryu; Tsurumi-Ikeya, Yuko; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Fujikawa, Tetsuya; Umemura, Satoshi

    2013-07-24

    An altered ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) profile is related to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiorenal syndrome. In this study, we examined the effects of aliskiren, when added to angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, on ambulatory BP and cardiorenal function in CKD. Thirty-six hypertensive CKD patients were randomly assigned to the aliskiren add-on group (n = 18) or the benazepril add-on group (n = 18). Ambulatory BP and cardiorenal function parameters were measured at baseline and 24 weeks after treatment. Compared with the benazepril group, nighttime systolic BP variability in the aliskiren group was lower after treatment. Albuminuria was decreased in the aliskiren group, but not in the benazepril group. In addition, left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was significantly lower in the aliskiren group than in the benazepril group after treatment. In the aliskiren group, multivariate linear regression analysis showed an association between changes in albuminuria and changes in nighttime systolic BP. Furthermore, there were associations between changes in LVMI and changes in daytime HR variability, as well as between changes in LVMI and changes in plasma aldosterone concentration. These results suggest that aliskiren add-on therapy may be beneficial for suppression of renal deterioration and pathological cardiac remodeling through an improvement that is effected in ambulatory BP and HR profiles.

  1. Effects of the addition of functional electrical stimulation to ground level gait training with body weight support after chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Medeiros, Christiane L; Sousa, Catarina O; Souza, Andréa S; Soares, Márcio R; Barela, Ana M F; Salvini, Tania F

    2011-01-01

    The addition of functional electrical stimulation (FES) to treadmill gait training with partial body weight support (BWS) has been proposed as a strategy to facilitate gait training in people with hemiparesis. However, there is a lack of studies that evaluate the effectiveness of FES addition on ground level gait training with BWS, which is the most common locomotion surface. To investigate the additional effects of commum peroneal nerve FES combined with gait training and BWS on ground level, on spatial-temporal gait parameters, segmental angles, and motor function. Twelve people with chronic hemiparesis participated in the study. An A1-B-A2 design was applied. A1 and A2 corresponded to ground level gait training using BWS, and B corresponded to the same training with the addition of FES. The assessments were performed using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Functional Ambulation Category (FAC), Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA), and filming. The kinematics analyzed variables were mean walking speed of locomotion; step length; stride length, speed and duration; initial and final double support duration; single-limb support duration; swing period; range of motion (ROM), maximum and minimum angles of foot, leg, thigh, and trunk segments. There were not changes between phases for the functional assessment of RMA, for the spatial-temporal gait variables and segmental angles, no changes were observed after the addition of FES. The use of FES on ground level gait training with BWS did not provide additional benefits for all assessed parameters.

  2. Highly Functionalized Cyclopentane Derivatives by Tandem Michael Addition/Radical Cyclization/Oxygenation Reactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holan, Martin; Pohl, Radek; Císařová, I.; Klepetářová, Blanka; Jones, P. G.; Jahn, Ullrich

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 27 (2015), s. 9877-9888 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-40188S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cyclization * domino reactions * electron transfer * Michael addition * radical reactions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.771, year: 2015

  3. Meaning and Function of Dummy Auxiliaries in Adult Acquisition of Dutch as an Additional Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Manuela; van Hout, Roeland; van de Craats, Ineke

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of experimental data on language production and comprehension. These show that adult learners of Dutch as an additional language, with different language backgrounds, and a L2 proficiency below level A2 (Waystage) of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR; Council of Europe, 2001), use…

  4. Boundary lubrication of bearing steel in water-based lubricants with functional additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the effect of additives on boundary lubrication of bearing steel for water-based lubrication systems. The oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion and the water-glycol based liquid were selected as the base fluids for research. Sulfur compounds, nitrogen heterocycles and graphene

  5. Flame Retardancy of Chemically Modified Lignin as Functional Additive to Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Howarter; Gamini P. Mendis; Alex N. Bruce; Jeffrey P. Youngblood; Mark A. Dietenberger; Laura Hasburgh

    2015-01-01

    Epoxy printed circuit boards are used in a variety of electronics applications as rigid, thermally stable substrates. Due to the propensity of components on the boards, such as batteries and interconnects, to fail and ignite the epoxy, flame retardant additives are required to minimize fire risk. Currently, industry uses brominated flame retardants, such as TBBPA, to...

  6. Influence of composition of functional additives and deformation modes on flow behavior of polymer composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoprienko, N. N.; Rahimbaev, Sh M.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the results of the influence of composition of functional water-soluble polymers and viscosity of domestic and foreign one-percent water solution polymer on flow parameters of cement and polymer test. It also gives the results of rheogoniometry of Eunice Granit tile adhesive used for large-size plates from natural stone and ceramic granite.

  7. Conjugate Addition of Nucleophiles to the Vinyl Function of 2-Chloro-4-vinylpyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucjan Strekowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjugate addition reaction of various nucleophiles across the vinyl group of 2-chloro-4-vinylpyrimidine, 2-chloro-4-(1-phenylvinylpyrimidine and 2-chloro-4-vinylquinazoline provides the corresponding 2-chloro-4-(2-substituted ethylpyrimidines and 2-chloro-4-(2-substituted ethylquinazolines. Treatment of these products, without isolation, with N-methylpiperazine results in nucleophilic displacement of chloride and yields the corresponding 2,4-disubstituted pyrimidines and quinazolines.

  8. l-Theanine as a Functional Food Additive: Its Role in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Williams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tea has been consumed for thousands of years and is an integral part of people’s daily routine, as an everyday drink and a therapeutic aid for health promotion. Consumption of tea has been linked to a sense of relaxation commonly associated with the content of the non-proteinogenic amino acid theanine, which is found within the tea leaves. The aim of this review article is to outline the current methods for synthesis, extraction and purification of theanine, as well as to examine its potential benefits related to human health. These include improvements in cognitive and immune function, cancer prevention, reduced cardiovascular risk and its potential usefulness as a functional food product.

  9. Locating protein-coding sequences under selection for additional, overlapping functions in 29 mammalian genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Michael F; Kheradpour, Pouya; Washietl, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    conservation compared to typical protein-coding genes—especially at synonymous sites. In this study, we use genome alignments of 29 placental mammals to systematically locate short regions within human ORFs that show conspicuously low estimated rates of synonymous substitution across these species. The 29......-species alignment provides statistical power to locate more than 10,000 such regions with resolution down to nine-codon windows, which are found within more than a quarter of all human protein-coding genes and contain ~2% of their synonymous sites. We collect numerous lines of evidence that the observed...... synonymous constraint in these regions reflects selection on overlapping functional elements including splicing regulatory elements, dual-coding genes, RNA secondary structures, microRNA target sites, and developmental enhancers. Our results show that overlapping functional elements are common in mammalian...

  10. Covalent addition of chitosan to graphene sheets: Density functional theory explorations of quadrupole coupling constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Ali; Harismah, Kun; Mirzaei, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to detect the stabilities and properties of chitosan-functionalized graphene and graphene-oxide structures (G-Chit and GO-Chit). The model systems with two different sizes of sheets have been optimized and the molecular and atomic properties have been evaluated for them. The results indicated that investigated G-Chit and GO-Chit structures could be considered as stable structures but with different properties. The properties for GO and GO-Chit structures are almost similar; however, they are different from the original G and G-Chit structures. The results also indicated that the properties could be also size-dependent, in which different molecular and atomic properties have been observed for the investigate G sheets.

  11. Dual Function Additives: A Small Molecule Crosslinker for Enhanced Efficiency and Stability in Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rumer, Joseph W.; Ashraf, Raja S.; Eisenmenger, Nancy D.; Huang, Zhenggang; Meager, Iain; Nielsen, Christian B.; Schroeder, Bob C.; Chabinyc, Michael L.; McCulloch, Iain

    2015-01-01

    A bis-azide-based small molecule crosslinker is synthesized and evaluated as both a stabilizing and efficiency-boosting additive in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. Activated by a noninvasive and scalable solution processing technique, polymer:fullerene blends exhibit improved thermal stability with suppressed polymer skin formation at the cathode and frustrated fullerene aggregation on ageing, with initial efficiency increased from 6% to 7%. © 2015 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Dual Function Additives: A Small Molecule Crosslinker for Enhanced Efficiency and Stability in Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rumer, Joseph W.

    2015-02-01

    A bis-azide-based small molecule crosslinker is synthesized and evaluated as both a stabilizing and efficiency-boosting additive in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. Activated by a noninvasive and scalable solution processing technique, polymer:fullerene blends exhibit improved thermal stability with suppressed polymer skin formation at the cathode and frustrated fullerene aggregation on ageing, with initial efficiency increased from 6% to 7%. © 2015 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Evaluating the Addition of a Dinoflagellate Phytoplankton Functional Type Using Radiance Anomalies for Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houskeeper, H. F.; Kudela, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean color sensors have enabled daily, global monitoring of phytoplankton productivity in the world's oceans. However, to observe key structures such as food webs, or to identify regime shifts of dominant species, tools capable of distinguishing between phytoplankton functional types using satellite remote sensing reflectance are necessary. One such tool developed by Alvain et al. (2005), PHYSAT, successfully linked four phytoplankton functional types to chlorophyll-normalized remote sensing spectra, or radiance anomalies, in case-1 waters. Yet this tool was unable to characterize dinoflagellates because of their ubiquitous background presence in the open ocean. We employ a radiance anomaly technique based on PHYSAT to target phytoplankton functional types in Monterey Bay, a region where dinoflagellate populations are larger and more variable than in open ocean waters, and thus where they may be viable targets for satellite remote sensing characterization. We compare with an existing Santa Cruz Wharf photo-pigment time series spanning from 2006 to the present to regionally ground-truth the method's predictions, and we assess its accuracy in characterizing dinoflagellates, a phytoplankton group that impacts the region's fish stocks and water quality. For example, an increase in dinoflagellate abundance beginning in 2005 led to declines in commercially important fish stocks that persisted throughout the following year. Certain species of dinoflagellates in Monterey Bay are also responsible for some of the harmful algal bloom events that negatively impact the shellfish industry. Moving toward better tools to characterize phytoplankton blooms is important for understanding ecosystem shifts, as well as protecting human health in the surrounding areas.

  14. Unctuous ZrO2 nanoparticles with improved functional attributes as lubricant additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina Casado, Jorge; Fernández González, Alfonso; José del Reguero Huerga, Ángel; Rodríguez-Solla, Humberto; Díaz-García, Marta Elena; Badía-Laíño, Rosana

    2017-12-01

    One of the main drawbacks in the application of metal-oxide nanoparticles as lubricant additives is their poor stability in organic media, despite the good anti-wear, friction-reducing and high-load capacity properties described for these materials. In this work, we present a novel procedure to chemically cap the surface of ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZrO2NPs) with long hydrocarbon chains in order to obtain stable dispersions of ZrO2NPs in non-aqueous media without disrupting their attributes as lubricant additives. C-8, C-10 and C-16 saturated flexible chains were attached to the ZrO2NP surface and their physical and chemical characterization was performed by transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. The dispersion stability of the modified ZrO2NPs in non-aqueous media was studied using static multiple light scattering. Tribological tests demonstrated that dispersions of the long-chain capped ZrO2NPs in base lubricating oils exhibited low friction coefficients and improved the anti-wear properties of the base oil when compared with the raw lubricating oil.

  15. Titanium-Based Hip Stems with Drug Delivery Functionality through Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidenhout, Martin B; Dimitrov, Dimitar M; van Staden, Anton D; Oosthuizen, Gert A; Dicks, Leon M T

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative infections are a major concern in patients that receive implants. These infections generally occur in areas with poor blood flow and pathogens do not always respond to antibiotic treatment. With the latest developments in nanotechnology, the incorporation of antibiotics into prosthetic implants may soon become a standard procedure. The success will, however, depend on the ability to control the release of antibiotics at concentrations high enough to prevent the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. Through additive manufacturing, antibiotics can be incorporated into cementless femoral stems to produce prosthetic devices with antimicrobial properties. With the emerging increase in resistance to antibiotics, the incorporation of antimicrobial compounds other than antibiotics, preferably drugs with a broader spectrum of antimicrobial activity, will have to be explored. This review highlights the microorganisms associated with total hip arthroplasty (THA), discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the latest materials used in hip implants, compares different antimicrobial agents that could be incorporated, and addresses novel ideas for future research.

  16. Effect of carrageenan addition on the yield and functional properties of charqui (Jerked Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Rocha Garcia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the application of carrageenan (CAR to improve the functional properties of the jerked beef (JF and to increase its processing yield. JB produced from Vastus lateralis with CAR (1.0% at 25ºC and NaCl (15.0% had approximately 15.0% higher moisture and a 32.0% higher processing yield in comparison to the control samples.JB-CAR presented shear force approximately 5.0 and 20% lower in the samples uncooked salted and desalted cooked, respectively, and sensorial acceptance above 80%. The results demonstrated the possibility of applying carrageenan to jerked beef in order to obtain an increase in the processing yield and a tender product while maintaining the sensorial quality and its intermediate-moisture meat product nature.

  17. Effect of carbon addition on functional and mechnical properties of the Ni3Al phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Olejnik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Casting technology was applied and research was carried out on two alloys based on the Ni3Al phase with variable carbon content of 0,2 and 1,25 wt. % C, respectively. Resistance to abrasive wear, friction coefficient and Vickers microhardness were determined. Metallographic studies were conducted to examine the macrostructure and microstructure of the investigated alloys. An increase in resistance to abrasive wear and microhardness of alloy containing 1,25 wt. % C was observed. The coefficient of friction was determined, which for the alloy with increased carbon content was much lower than for the alloy containing 0,2 wt. % C. Structural changes were reported to have some effect on functional and mechanical properties of the examined alloys.

  18. Organic-inorganic hybrid foams with diatomite addition: Effect on functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdolotti, L.; D'Auria, M.; Lavorgna, M.; Vollaro, P.; Iannace, S.; Capasso, I.; Galzerano, B.; Caputo, D.; Liguori, B.

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams were prepared by using metakaolin, diatomite as a partial (or total) replacement of metakaolin, as matrix, silicon and whipped protein as pore forming. The foamed systems were hardened at defined temperature and time and then characterized by mechanical point of view through compression tests and by functional point of view through fire reaction and acoustic tests. The experimental findings highlighted that the replacement of diatomite in the formulation affected the morphological structure of the foams and consequently their mechanical properties. In particular, the consolidation mechanism in the diatomite based-hybrid foams changed from geopolymerization to a silicate polycondensation mechanism. Therefore, mechanical performances enhanced with increasing of the diatomite content. Fire reaction tests, such as non-combustibility and cone calorimeter tests, showed positive thermal inertia of samples regardless of the content of diatomite.

  19. Titanium-Based Hip Stems with Drug Delivery Functionality through Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin B. Bezuidenhout

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative infections are a major concern in patients that receive implants. These infections generally occur in areas with poor blood flow and pathogens do not always respond to antibiotic treatment. With the latest developments in nanotechnology, the incorporation of antibiotics into prosthetic implants may soon become a standard procedure. The success will, however, depend on the ability to control the release of antibiotics at concentrations high enough to prevent the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. Through additive manufacturing, antibiotics can be incorporated into cementless femoral stems to produce prosthetic devices with antimicrobial properties. With the emerging increase in resistance to antibiotics, the incorporation of antimicrobial compounds other than antibiotics, preferably drugs with a broader spectrum of antimicrobial activity, will have to be explored. This review highlights the microorganisms associated with total hip arthroplasty (THA, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the latest materials used in hip implants, compares different antimicrobial agents that could be incorporated, and addresses novel ideas for future research.

  20. Baroreflex deficiency induces additional impairment of vagal tone, diastolic function and calcium handling proteins after myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostarda, Cristiano; Rodrigues, Bruno; Medeiros, Alessandra; Moreira, Edson D; Moraes-Silva, Ivana C; Brum, Patricia C; Angelis, Katia De; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    Baroreflex dysfunction has been considered an important mortality predictor after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the impact of baroreflex deficiency prior to MI on tonic autonomic control and cardiac function, and on the profile of proteins associated with intracellular calcium handling has not yet been studied. The aim of the present study was to analyze how the impairment of baroreflex induced by sinoaortic denervation (SAD) prior to MI in rats affects the tonic autonomic control, ventricular function and cardiomyocyte calcium handling proteins. After 15 days of following or SAD surgery, rats underwent MI. Echocardiographic, hemodynamic, autonomic and molecular evaluations were performed 90 days after MI. Baroreflex impairment led to additional damage on: left ventricular remodeling, diastolic function, vagal tonus and intrinsic heart rate after MI. The loss of vagal component of the arterial baroreflex and vagal tonus were correlated with changes in the cardiac proteins involved in intracellular calcium homeostasis. Furthermore, additional increase in sodium calcium exchanger expression levels was associated with impaired diastolic function in experimental animals. Our findings strongly suggest that previous arterial baroreflex deficiency may induce additional impairment of vagal tonus, which was associated with calcium handling proteins abnormalities, probably triggering ventricular diastolic dysfunction after MI in rats. PMID:24936224

  1. NRPC ServCat priorities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This document lists the Natural Resource Program Center’s priority ServCat documents. It is recommended that these documents- which include annual narrative reports,...

  2. Benchmark calculations of excess electrons in water cluster cavities: balancing the addition of atom-centered diffuse functions versus floating diffuse functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changzhe; Bu, Yuxiang

    2016-09-14

    Diffuse functions have been proved to be especially crucial for the accurate characterization of excess electrons which are usually bound weakly in intermolecular zones far away from the nuclei. To examine the effects of diffuse functions on the nature of the cavity-shaped excess electrons in water cluster surroundings, both the HOMO and LUMO distributions, vertical detachment energies (VDEs) and visible absorption spectra of two selected (H2O)24(-) isomers are investigated in the present work. Two main types of diffuse functions are considered in calculations including the Pople-style atom-centered diffuse functions and the ghost-atom-based floating diffuse functions. It is found that augmentation of atom-centered diffuse functions contributes to a better description of the HOMO (corresponding to the VDE convergence), in agreement with previous studies, but also leads to unreasonable diffuse characters of the LUMO with significant red-shifts in the visible spectra, which is against the conventional point of view that the more the diffuse functions, the better the results. The issue of designing extra floating functions for excess electrons has also been systematically discussed, which indicates that the floating diffuse functions are necessary not only for reducing the computational cost but also for improving both the HOMO and LUMO accuracy. Thus, the basis sets with a combination of partial atom-centered diffuse functions and floating diffuse functions are recommended for a reliable description of the weakly bound electrons. This work presents an efficient way for characterizing the electronic properties of weakly bound electrons accurately by balancing the addition of atom-centered diffuse functions and floating diffuse functions and also by balancing the computational cost and accuracy of the calculated results, and thus is very useful in the relevant calculations of various solvated electron systems and weakly bound anionic systems.

  3. Right parietal cortex and calculation processing: intraoperative functional mapping of multiplication and addition in patients affected by a brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Puppa, Alessandro; De Pellegrin, Serena; d'Avella, Elena; Gioffrè, Giorgio; Munari, Marina; Saladini, Marina; Salillas, Elena; Scienza, Renato; Semenza, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    The role of parietal areas in number processing is well known. The significance of intraoperative functional mapping of these areas has been only partially explored, however, and only a few discordant data are available in the surgical literature with regard to the right parietal lobe. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical impact of simple calculation in cortical electrostimulation of right-handed patients affected by a right parietal brain tumor. Calculation mapping in awake surgery was performed in 3 right-handed patients affected by high-grade gliomas located in the right parietal lobe. Preoperatively, none of the patients presented with calculation deficits. In all 3 cases, after sensorimotor and language mapping, cortical and intraparietal sulcus areas involved in single-digit multiplication and addition calculations were mapped using bipolar electrostimulation. In all patients, different sites of the right parietal cortex, mainly in the inferior lobule, were detected as being specifically related to calculation (multiplication or addition). In 2 patients the intraparietal sulcus was functionally specific for multiplication. No functional sites for language were detected. All sites functional for calculation were spared during tumor resection, which was complete in all cases without postoperative neurological deficits. These findings provide intraoperative data in support of an anatomofunctional organization for multiplication and addition within the right parietal area. Furthermore, the study shows the potential clinical relevance of intraoperative mapping of calculation in patients undergoing surgery in the right parietal area. Further and larger studies are needed to confirm these data and assess whether mapped areas are effectively essential for function.

  4. Military Cultural Competency: Understanding How to Serve Those Who Serve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonura, Kimberlee Bethany; Lovald, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to define and describe the different constituents of the military population, and present the challenges this demographic faces when pursuing higher education. The essay also discusses key aspects higher education professionals must understand in order to better serve military populations, such as federal regulations and…

  5. Mitral Valve Structure in Addition to Myocardial Viability Determines the Outcome of Functional Mitral Regurgitation After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shohei; Fukushima, Satsuki; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Nakamura, Teruya; Yoshikawa, Yasushi; Hata, Hiroki; Saito, Shunsuke; Yoshioka, Daisuke; Domae, Keitaro; Kashiyama, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Kouji; Shintani, Ayumi; Nakatani, Satoshi; Toda, Koichi; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2017-10-25

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) reduces functional mitral regurgitation (MR) associated with ischemic heart disease, although the predictive factors or mechanisms of reversibility of functional MR after CABG are not fully understood.We investigated whether mitral valve structure is associated with the outcome of functional MR after CABG.Methods and Results:From a consecutive series of 98 patients with mild-moderate functional MR preoperatively who underwent isolated CABG, we enrolled 66 patients who were followed up for >1 year postoperatively using echocardiography. The degree of MR was reduced in 34 patients (52%) postoperatively, in association with a lower rate of in-hospital treatment for cardiac failure in the long term, compared with the 32 patients (48%) with residual MR postoperatively. The patients with reduced MR postoperatively had longer estimated coaptation length and more anteriorly or centrally directed MR jets than those without reduced MR. On statistical analysis, the addition of estimated coaptation length and jet direction to the reported predictors (ejection fraction, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, and tenting height) more accurately predicted changes in post-CABG MR than the reported 3 factors alone. Residual MR was associated with the emergence of congestive heart failure in the long term after CABG. A specific mitral valve structure, such as large mitral leaflet size or predominant tethering of the posterior leaflet, was a predictive factor for the reversibility of post-CABG functional MR.

  6. Clinical Evaluation of Functional Vision of +1.5 Diopters near Addition, Aspheric, Rotational Asymmetric Multifocal Intraocular Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretz, Florian Tobias Alwin; Khoramnia, Rahmin; Attia, Mary Safwat; Koss, Michael Janusz; Linz, Katharina; Auffarth, Gerd Uwe

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate postoperative outcomes and visual performance in intermediate distance after implantation of a +1.5 diopters (D) addition, aspheric, rotational asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL). Patients underwent bilateral cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, asymmetric MIOL with +1.5 D near addition. A complete ophthalmological examination was performed preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. The main outcome measures were monocular and binocular uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), uncorrected intermediate visual acuity (UIVA), distance corrected intermediate visual acuity (DCIVA), uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) and distance corrected keratometry, and manifest refraction. The Salzburg Reading Desk was used to analyze unilateral and bilateral functional vision with uncorrected and corrected reading acuity, reading distance, reading speed, and the smallest log-scaled print size that could be read effectively at near and intermediate distances. The study comprised 60 eyes of 30 patients (mean age, 68.30 ± 9.26 years; range, 34 to 80 years). There was significant improvement in UDVA and CDVA. Mean UIVA was 0.01 ± 0.09 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) and mean DCIVA was -0.02 ± 0.11 logMAR. In Salzburg Reading Desk analysis for UIVA, the mean subjective intermediate distance was 67.58 ± 8.59 cm with mean UIVA of -0.02 ± 0.09 logMAR and mean word count of 96.38 ± 28.32 words/min. The new aspheric, asymmetric, +1.5 D near addition MIOL offers good results for distance visual function in combination with good performance for intermediate distances and functional results for near distance.

  7. Retardation of the dewetting process due to the addition of functional copolymers at polymer-polymer interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wunnicke, O; Lorenz-Haas, C; Leiner, V

    2002-01-01

    We studied the retardation of the dewetting process due to the addition of a functional copolymer in a polymer bilayer film. The model system consists of fully deuterated polystyrene (PS-d) on top of an amorphous polyamide (PA) sublayer on silicon substrates. Bilayer films were prepared with different content (0, 5, 10 and 30 vol. %) of a statistical copolymer (protonated styrene maleic anhydride acid (SMA2) containing 2% MA groups along the chain) being capable of forming hydrogen bonds with PA. The as-prepared as well as the annealed samples were investigated by neutron-reflectivity (NR) experiments, scanning force microscopy and optical microscopy. A significant retardation of dewetting is observed with the addition of SMA2. From model fits of NR curves the scattering length density profiles perpendicular to the sample surface were determined and an enrichment layer of SMA2 is detected. Retardation is explained by the intermixing of SMA2 and PS-d at the interface. (orig.)

  8. Application of Moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) leaves addition as a functional component of nutritionally valuable corn snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Oniszczuk, Anna; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Kocira, Sławomir; Wojtunik, Karolina; Mitrus, Marcin; Kocira, Anna; Widelski, Jarosław; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna

    2017-09-01

    Application of Moldavian dragonhead ( Dracocephalum moldavica L.) leaves in extruded snacks was evaluated. Directly expanded corn snacks (crisps) were supplemented with 5-20% of dragonhead leaves. The supplemented snacks were characterized to have improved nutritional value and were a good source of dietary fibre. The presence of phenolic compounds, especially rosmarinic acid, showed a high antioxidant potential and a radical scavenging activity of tested snacks, especially if a high content of additive was used. The increasing amount of additive also had an impact on the physical properties of extrudates lowering the expansion ratio, water absorption and solubility, yet increasing bulk density, cutting force and the breaking index of the enriched snacks. The highest viscosity was observed at 5 and 10% addition level. The increasing amount of dragonhead leaves lowered the brightness of snacks and increased the greenness tint significantly. A sensory evaluation showed good acceptability of snacks enriched with up to 15% of dragonhead dried leaves. Dried leaves of the Moldavian dragonhead seem to be a prospective functional additive for extruded crisps with a high nutritional value, especially because of dietary fibre and rosmarinic acid content, a strong antioxidant potential and acceptable sensory properties.

  9. The effect of chronic heart failure and type 2 diabetes on insulin-stimulated endothelial function is similar and additive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falskov, Britt; Hermann, Thomas Steffen; Rask-Madsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Chronic heart failure is associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. The aim of this investigation was to study insulin-stimulated endothelial function and glucose uptake in skeletal muscles in patients with heart failure in comparison to patients with type 2 diabetes. ME...... in similar vascular insulin resistance and reduced muscular insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The effects of systolic heart failure and type 2 diabetes appear to be additive.......AIM: Chronic heart failure is associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. The aim of this investigation was to study insulin-stimulated endothelial function and glucose uptake in skeletal muscles in patients with heart failure in comparison to patients with type 2 diabetes...

  10. Quality of low-fat pork sausages with tomato powder as colour and functional additive during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Suk; Jin, Sang-Keun; Mandal, Prabhat Kumar; Kang, Suk-Nam

    2011-10-01

    Low fat pork sausages were formulated with tomato powder at 0% (C), 0.8% (T1), 1.2% (T2) and 1.5% (T3) levels in basic formula. With the increase in tomato powder concentration the lightness of the sausage decreased but the redness and yellowness increased significantly (p sausages with tomato powder were significantly (p sausage with tomato powder up to 1.5% was found to be well acceptable up to 30 days at refrigerated storage. This new product will have special value due to the functional additive lycopene in tomato powder.

  11. Monte Carlo Simulations of Electron Energy-Loss Spectra with the Addition of Fine Structure from Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarian Shandiz, Mohammad; Guinel, Maxime J-F; Ahmadi, Majid; Gauvin, Raynald

    2016-02-01

    A new approach is presented to introduce the fine structure of core-loss excitations into the electron energy-loss spectra of ionization edges by Monte Carlo simulations based on an optical oscillator model. The optical oscillator strength is refined using the calculated electron energy-loss near-edge structure by density functional theory calculations. This approach can predict the effects of multiple scattering and thickness on the fine structure of ionization edges. In addition, effects of the fitting range for background removal and the integration range under the ionization edge on signal-to-noise ratio are investigated.

  12. Response of Functional Structure of Soil Microbial Community to Multi-level Nitrogen Additions on the Central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Yuan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The use of fossil fuels and fertilizers has increased the amount of biologically reactive nitrogen in the atmosphere over the past century. Tibet is the one of the most threatened regions by nitrogen deposition, thus understanding how its microbial communities function maybe of high importance to predicting microbial responses to nitrogen deposition. Here we describe a short-time nitrogen addition conducted in an alpine steppe ecosystem to investigate the response of functional structure of soil microbial community to multi-level nitrogen addition. Using a GeoChip 4.0, we showed that functional diversities and richness of functional genes were unchanged at low level of nitrogen fertilizer inputs (=40 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Detrended correspondence analysis indicated that the functional structure of microbial communities was markedly different across the nitrogen gradients. Most C degradation genes whose abundances significantly increased under elevated N fertilizer were those involved in the degradation of relatively labile C (starch, hemicellulose, cellulose), whereas the abundance of certain genes involved in the degradation of recalcitrant C (i.e. lignin) was largely decreased (such as manganese peroxidase, mnp). The results suggest that the elevated N fertilization rates might significantly accelerate the labile C degradation, but might not spur recalcitrant C degradation. The combined effect of gdh and ureC genes involved in N cycling appeared to shift the balance between ammonia and organic N toward organic N ammonification and hence increased the N mineralization potential. Moreover, Urease directly involved in urea mineralization significantly increased. Lastly, Canonical correspondence analysis showed that soil (TOC+NH4++NO3-+NO2-+pH) and plant (Aboveground plant productivity + Shannon Diversity) variables could explain 38.9% of the variation of soil microbial community composition. On the basis of above observations, we predict that increasing of nitrogen

  13. Viability Study of a Safe Method for Health to Prepare Cement Pastes with Simultaneous Nanometric Functional Additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. de la Rubia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of a mixing method based on a novel dry dispersion procedure that enables a proper mixing of simultaneous nanometric functional additions while avoiding the health risks derived from the exposure to nanoparticles is reported and compared with a common manual mixing in this work. Such a dry dispersion method allows a greater workability by avoiding problems associated with the dispersion of the particles. The two mixing methods have been used to prepare Portland cement CEM I 52.5R pastes with additions of nano-ZnO with bactericide properties and micro- or nanopozzolanic SiO2. The hydration process performed by both mixing methods is compared in order to determine the efficiency of using the method. The hydration analysis of these cement pastes is carried out at different ages (from one to twenty-eight days by means of differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry (DTA-TG, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analyses. Regardless of composition, all the mixtures of cement pastes obtained by the novel dispersion method showed a higher retardation of cement hydration at intermediate ages which did not occur at higher ages. In agreement with the resulting hydration behaviour, the use of this new dispersion method makes it possible to prepare homogeneous cement pastes with simultaneous functional nanoparticles which are physically supported on the larger particles of cement, avoiding exposure to the nanoparticles and therefore minimizing health risks. Manual mixing of cement-based materials with simultaneous nanometric functional nanoparticles on a large scale would make it difficult to obtain a homogenous material together with the health risks derived from the handling of nanoparticles.

  14. Effect of huitlacoche (Ustilago maydis DC Corda paste addition on functional, chemical and textural properties of tortilla chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Yuritzi Amador-Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study analyzed the addition of huitlacoche paste (HP in baked tortilla chips (TC, evaluating its effects on functional, physicochemical and structural changes during processing. Two blue corn grains were nixtamalized, stone milled, air dried and milled to obtain flour; commercial blue corn flour (TM1 and commercial TC (TM2 were used as controls. Additions of 0, 3, 6 and 9% of HP were formulated; masas were prepared at 55% moisture content (MC, precooked and baked in an industrial machine. TC crispiness was influenced by grain characteristics and percentage of HP. Huitlacoche paste addition caused an increase in total dietary fiber (from 5.27 to 14.54%, total soluble phenolics content (from 17.52 to 37.60 mg GAE/100 g and antioxidant capacity (from 6.74 to 7.98 μmol TE/g in TC. Results suggest that tortilla chips added with huitlacoche can be an alternative to prepare this traditional edible fungus and produce healthier snacks, not fried and enriched with bioactive compounds.

  15. Additive manufacturing of a functionally graded material from Ti-6Al-4V to Invar: Experimental characterization and thermodynamic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobbio, Lourdes D.; Otis, Richard A.; Borgonia, John Paul; Dillon, R. Peter; Shapiro, Andrew A.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Beese, Allison M.

    2017-01-01

    In functionally graded materials (FGMs), the elemental composition, or structure, within a component varies gradually as a function of position, allowing for the gradual transition from one alloy to another, and the local tailoring of properties. One method for fabricating FGMs with varying elemental composition is through layer-by-layer directed energy deposition additive manufacturing. This work combines experimental characterization and computational analysis to investigate a material graded from Ti-6Al-4V to Invar 36 (64 wt% Fe, 36 wt% Ni). The microstructure, composition, phases, and microhardness were determined as a function of position within the FGM. During the fabrication process, detrimental phases associated with the compositional blending of the Ti-6Al-4V and Invar formed, leading to cracking in the final deposited part. Intermetallic phases (FeTi, Fe_2Ti, Ni_3Ti, and NiTi_2) were experimentally identified to occur throughout the gradient region, and were considered as the reason that the FGM cracked during fabrication. CALPHAD (CALculation of PHase Diagrams) thermodynamic calculations were used concurrently to predict phases that would form during the manufacturing process and were compared to the experimental results. The experimental-computational approach described herein for characterizing FGMs can be used to improve the understanding and design of other FGMs.

  16. Ionic Liquids as Multi-Functional Lubricant Additives to Enhance Engine Efficiency (final report NFE-12-03876)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [ORNL; Barnhill, William C [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Papke, Brian L [Shell Global Solutions (US); Gao, Hong [Shell Global Solutions (US); Kheireddin, Bassem [Shell Global Solutions (US); Chen, Cheng [Shell Global Solutions (US)

    2016-04-01

    This ORNL-Shell CRADA developed and investigated ionic liquids (ILs) as multifunctional additives for next-generation low-viscosity engine oils. Several groups of oil-miscible ILs were successfully designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Synergistic effects between the common anti-wear additive zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) and a particular group of ILs were discovered with > 30% friction reduction and 70% wear reduction compared with using ZDDP or IL alone. The IL+ZDDP tribofilm distinguishes itself from the IL or ZDDP tribofilms with substantially higher contents of metal phosphates but less metal oxides and sulfur compounds. Notably, it was revealed that the actual concentrations of functional elements on the droplet surface of the oil containing IL+ZDDP are one order magnitude higher than their nominal values. Such significantly increased concentrations of anti-wear agents are presumably expected for the oilsolid interface and believed to be responsible for the superior lubricating performance. A prototype SAE 0W-16 engine oil using a synergistic IL+ZDDP pair as the anti-wear additive has been formulated based on the compatibility between the IL and other additives. Sequence VIE full-scale engine dynamometer tests demonstrated fuel economy improvement (FEI) for this prototype oil and revealed the individual contributions from the lower oil viscosity and reduced boundary friction. The impact of IL and IL+ZDDP on exhaust emission catalyst was investigated using an accelerated small engine aging test and results were benchmarked against ZDDP.

  17. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with polystyrene via surface initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, Thomas; Gibson, Christopher T.; Constantopoulos, Kristina; Shapter, Joseph G. [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA, 5001 (Australia); Ellis, Amanda V., E-mail: amanda.ellis@flinders.edu.au [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA, 5001 (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    Here we demonstrate the covalent attachment of vertically aligned (VA) acid treated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) onto a silicon substrate via dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) coupling chemistry. Subsequently, the pendant carboxyl moieties on the sidewalls of the VA-SWCNTs were derivatized to acyl chlorides, and then finally to bis(dithioester) moieties using a magnesium chloride dithiobenzoate salt. The bis(dithioester) moieties were then successfully shown to act as a chain transfer agent (CTA) in the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of styrene in a surface initiated 'grafting-from' process from the VA-SWCNT surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) verified vertical alignment of the SWCNTs and the maintenance thereof throughout the synthesis process. Finally, Raman scattering spectroscopy and AFM confirmed polystyrene functionalization.

  18. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with polystyrene via surface initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Thomas; Gibson, Christopher T.; Constantopoulos, Kristina; Shapter, Joseph G.; Ellis, Amanda V.

    2012-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the covalent attachment of vertically aligned (VA) acid treated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) onto a silicon substrate via dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) coupling chemistry. Subsequently, the pendant carboxyl moieties on the sidewalls of the VA-SWCNTs were derivatized to acyl chlorides, and then finally to bis(dithioester) moieties using a magnesium chloride dithiobenzoate salt. The bis(dithioester) moieties were then successfully shown to act as a chain transfer agent (CTA) in the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of styrene in a surface initiated “grafting-from” process from the VA-SWCNT surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) verified vertical alignment of the SWCNTs and the maintenance thereof throughout the synthesis process. Finally, Raman scattering spectroscopy and AFM confirmed polystyrene functionalization.

  19. Composite scaffolds for osteochondral repair obtained by combination of additive manufacturing, leaching processes and hMSC-CM functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Lantada, Andrés; Alarcón Iniesta, Hernán; García-Ruíz, Josefa Predestinación

    2016-02-01

    Articular repair is a relevant and challenging area for the emerging fields of tissue engineering and biofabrication. The need of significant gradients of properties, for the promotion of osteochondral repair, has led to the development of several families of composite biomaterials and scaffolds, using different effective approaches, although a perfect solution has not yet been found. In this study we present the design, modeling, rapid manufacturing and in vitro testing of a composite scaffold aimed at osteochondral repair. The presented composite scaffold stands out for having a functional gradient of density and stiffness in the bony phase, obtained in titanium by means of computer-aided design combined with additive manufacture using selective laser sintering. The chondral phase is obtained by sugar leaching, using a PDMS matrix and sugar as porogen, and is joined to the bony phase during the polymerization of PDMS, therefore avoiding the use of supporting adhesives or additional intermediate layers. The mechanical performance of the construct is biomimetic and the stiffness values of the bony and chondral phases can be tuned to the desired applications, by means of controlled modifications of different parameters. A human mesenchymal stem cell (h-MSC) conditioned medium (CM) is used for improving scaffold response. Cell culture results provide relevant information regarding the viability of the composite scaffolds used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Food and drink serving contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and drink catering service is almost as old as the civilization itself. Even though this vocation is a part of the catering activity, Serbian law does not foresee this contract section as personalized. Key legal sources for this kind of contract are business customs. Food and drink serving contract is a mixed-type contract and its legal nature is very interesting due to its complexity. Specific for this contract is the fact that it is not an ordinary service, but also an activity which requires a degree of culinary skills, knowledge of customs of other nations, as well as other skills. The very category of a good professional in business economy / hospitality industry is very dynamic, as it needs to be evaluated according to all given circumstances, which may be rather unpredictable. By considering the legal nature, but also the rights and obligations of the contracting parties, we tried to point to the questions that require a special attention. Legal sources that indirectly refer to food and drink serving contracts were taken into account. Apart from the Law on Obligatory Relations, we also considered here the Law on Tourism also pointing to the comparative law and jurisprudence.

  1. Toxicological features of maleilated polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata (D. Don.) as potential functional additives for biomaterials design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Danny E; Medina, Paulina A; Zúñiga, Valentina I

    2017-11-01

    Polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata (D. Don.) are an abundant natural oligomers highly desirable as renewable chemicals. However, structural modification of polyflavonoids is a viable strategy in order to use such polyphenols as macrobuilding-blocks for biomaterial design. Polyflavonoids were esterified with three five-member cyclic anhydrides (maleic, itaconic, and citraconic) at 20 °C during 24 h in order to diversify physicochemical-, and biological-properties for agricultural, and food-packaging applications. In addition, the influence of the chemical modification, as well as the chemical structure of the grafting on toxicological features was evaluated. Structural features of derivatives were analyzed by spectroscopy (FT-IR and 1 H-NMR), and the degree of substitution was calculated. Toxicological profile was assessed by using three target species in a wide range of concentration (0.01-100 mgL - 1 ). Effect of polyflavonoids on the growth rate (Selenastrum capricornutum), mortality (Daphnia magna), and germination and radicle length (Lactuca sativa) was determined. Chemical modification affects the toxicological profile on the derivatives in a high extent. Results described remarkable differences in function of the target specie. The bioassays indicate differences of the polyflavonoids toxicological profile associated to the chemical structure of the grafting. Results allowed conclude that polyflavonoids from pine bark show slight toxic properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethoxy (pentafluoro) cyclotriphosphazene (PFPN) as a multi-functional flame retardant electrolyte additive for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Li, Weikang; Chen, Lai; Lu, Yun; Su, Yuefeng; Bao, Liying; Wang, Jing; Chen, Renjie; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng

    2018-02-01

    With the wide application of lithium-ion batteries (LiBs), safety performance is an important constraint on the commercialization of large-scale, high-capacity LIBs. The main reason for the safety problem is that the electrolyte of LiBs is highly flammable, especially under high temperature and high voltage. It is an effective method to improve the safety of cells by mixing flame retardant with conventional electrolyte comprising of LiPF6 and carbonates. Herein, ethoxy (pentafluoro) cyclotriphosphazene (PFPN) is studied as a high efficiency flame retardant. Adding 5 vol% of PFPN results in a non-flammable electrolyte with self-extinguishing time (SET) of 12.38 s g-1 and critical oxygen index (COI) of 22.9, without compromising the capacity of cathode material. The initial discharge capacity of the LiCoO2 electrode with 5% PFPN is 150.7 mAh g-1, with a capacity retention of 99.14% after 30 cycles at 0.1 C. The results show that 5 vol% is the best adding amount of PFPN for electrolyte, which can modify the solid electrolyte interface (SEI). Moreover, PFPN reduces charge transfer resistance of the cells, resulting decreased electrode polarization and enhanced electrochemistry performances at low temperature. These results have confirmed that PFPN has the potential to be a multi-function additive for commercial LIBs production.

  3. The Conjugate Addition- Elimination Reaction of Morita-Baylis-Hillman C- Adducts: A Density Functional Theory Study

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Davin

    2011-12-01

    The Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reaction is a very versatile synthetic protocol to synthesize various useful compounds containing several functional groups. MBH acetates and carbonates are highly valued compounds as they have good potential to be precursors for organic synthesis reactions due to their ease of modification and synthesis. This thesis utilizes Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations to understand the mechanism and selectivity of an unexpected tandem conjugate addition-elimination (CA-E) reaction of allylic alkylated Morita-Baylis-Hillman C- adducts. This synthetic protocol was developed by Prof. Zhi-Yong Jiang and co-workers from Henan University, China. The reaction required the use of sub-stoichiometric amounts of an organic or inorganic Brøndst base as a catalyst and was achieved with excellent yields (96%) in neat conditions. TBD gave the highest yield amongst the organocatalysts and Cs2CO3 gave the highest yield amongst all screened bases. A possible mechanistic pathway was proposed and three different energy profiles were modeled using 1,5,7-triaza-bicyclo-[4.4.0]-dec-5-ene (TBD), Cs2CO3 and CO32- as catalysts. All three models were able to explain the experimental observations, revealing both kinetic and thermodynamic factors influencing the selectivity of the CA-E reaction. CO32- model gave the most promising result, revealing a significant energy difference of 17.9 kcal/mol between the transition states of the two differing pathways and an energy difference of 20.9 kcal/mol between the two possible products. Although TBD modeling did not show significant difference in the transition states of the differing pathways, it revealed an unexpected secondary non-covalent electrostatic interaction, involving the electron deficient C atom of the triaza CN3 moiety of the TBD catalyst and the O atom of a neighboring NO2- group in the intermediate. Subsequent modeling using a similar substrate proved the possibility of this non

  4. Serving the world's poor, profitably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahalad, C K; Hammond, Allen

    2002-09-01

    By stimulating commerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid, multi-nationals could radically improve the lives of billions of people and help create a more stable, less dangerous world. Achieving this goal does not require MNCs to spearhead global social-development initiatives for charitable purposes. They need only act in their own self-interest. How? The authors lay out the business case for entering the world's poorest markets. Fully 65% of the world's population earns less than $2,000 per year--that's 4 billion people. But despite the vastness of this market, it remains largely untapped. The reluctance to invest is easy to understand, but it is, by and large, based on outdated assumptions of the developing world. While individual incomes may be low, the aggregate buying power of poor communities is actually quite large, representing a substantial market in many countries for what some might consider luxury goods like satellite television and phone services. Prices, and margins, are often much higher in poor neighborhoods than in their middle-class counterparts. And new technologies are already steadily reducing the effects of corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, and other such barriers. Because these markets are in the earliest stages of economic development, revenue growth for multi-nationals entering them can be extremely rapid. MNCs can also lower costs, not only through low-cost labor but by transferring operating efficiencies and innovations developed to serve their existing operations. Certainly, succeeding in such markets requires MNCs to think creatively. The biggest change, though, has to come from executives: Unless business leaders confront their own preconceptions--particularly about the value of high-volume, low-margin businesses--companies are unlikely to master the challenges or reap the rewards of these developing markets.

  5. Copper concentration of vineyard soils as a function of pH variation and addition of poultry litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Ribeiro Nachtigall

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu concentration was evaluated as a function of pH variation and addition of poultry litter to a Dystrophic Lithic Udorthent and a Humic Dystrudept from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, cultivated with vines treated with successive applications of Cu-based product. Samples were collected from the surface layer (0 to 10 cm. Soluble Cu concentration was determined using DTPA and Mehlich III as extractants, and exchangeable Cu was determined in CaCl2. The availability of Cu was mainly affected by the soil pH. CaCl2 extractant had the best correlation with Cu concentration in contaminated soils, according to treatments applied. The addition of poultry litter did not reduce Cu availability in these soils. Total soil Cu content varied between 1,300 and 1,400 mg kg-1 in both soils. Copper available fractions, extracted by DTPA, CaCl2 and Mehlich III, averaged 35, 0.2 and 63%, respectively, of the total Cu present in the soil.Avaliaram-se os teores de Cu em função da variação do pH e da adição de cama-de-frango de dois solos com elevados teores deste elemento. Foram coletadas amostras da camada superficial (0 a 10 cm de um typical dystrophic Lithic Udorthent - LU (Neossolo Litólico distrófico típico e de um Humic Dystrudept - HD (Cambissolo Húmico alumínico típico da região da Serra do RS, cultivados com parreirais que receberam aplicações sucessivas de produtos à base de Cu. Foram determinados os teores de Cu solúvel em DTPA e pelo método Mehlich III, além do Cu trocável em CaCl2. A disponibilidade de Cu foi afetada principalmente pelo pH do solo. O extrator CaCl2 foi o que melhor se correlacionou com os teores de Cu em solos contaminados em função dos tratamentos aplicados. A adição de cama-de-frango não diminuiu a disponibilidade de Cu destes solos. Os teores de Cu total variaram entre 1.300 e 1.400 mg kg-1 nos dois solos. Considerando os teores totais de Cu nos solos, as frações "disponíveis", extra

  6. Synthesis of purines bearing functionalized C-substituents by the conjugate addition of nucleophiles to 6-vinylpurines and 6-ethynylpurines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchař, Martin; Pohl, Radek; Votruba, Ivan; Hocek, Michal

    -, č. 22 (2006), s. 5083 -5098 ISSN 1434-193X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0508; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS400550501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : purines * Michael addition * conjugate additions * cross-coupling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.769, year: 2006

  7. Evaluation of a functional soy product with addition of soy fiber and fermented with probiotic kefir culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahis Regina Baú

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical, sensory properties and stability of a functional soy product with soy fiber and fermented with probiotic kefir culture. The product was characterized by the chemical composition, color and sensory analysis. The stability of the product was evaluated by pH, acidity, viscosity, firmness, syneresis measurements and cells counts. The functional soy product presented better chemical composition and difference in color compared to the fermented product without fiber. Sensory analysis showed that the functional soy product had good acceptance and had better firmness and reduced syneresis compared to fermented product without fiber. The lactic acid bacteria counts decreased slightly during 28 days at 4°C of the storage and the product showed good microbiological stability. The functional soy product due to high Lactococcus lactis counts could be considered as a probiotic for the entire storage period.

  8. The Conjugate Addition- Elimination Reaction of Morita-Baylis-Hillman C- Adducts: A Density Functional Theory Study

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Davin

    2011-01-01

    The Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reaction is a very versatile synthetic protocol to synthesize various useful compounds containing several functional groups. MBH acetates and carbonates are highly valued compounds as they have good potential

  9. Improvement in antioxidant functionality and shelf life of yukwa (fried rice snack) by turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) powder addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Taik; Han, Jung-Ah

    2016-05-15

    The physico-chemical, oxidative and sensory characteristics of fried rice snack, yukwa with different amounts of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) were investigated. The moisture content of the pallet ranged from 16.47% to 19.84%. After frying the pallet, a slight decrease in the degree of expansion was obtained with increasing turmeric powder content. The textural properties of yukwa were not changed until the turmeric powder content reached 5%; however, over 8% addition induced a decrease in the hardness and an increase in the crispiness. Oxidative deterioration was effectively inhibited by turmeric powder addition, and more turmeric powder in yukwa led to higher free radical scavenging activity. Based on the sensory characteristics, a 5% addition of turmeric powder was the most acceptable for the yukwa product. In the correlation results among variables, the moisture content of the pallet proved to be the most important factor for yukwa quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Is this a reflux patient or is it a patient with functional dyspepsia with additional reflux symptoms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch-Jensen, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Patients with pyrosis or regurgitation as the dominating symptoms have gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). However, patients with more atypical symptoms may also suffer from it. The disease is usually chronic and patients who have additional oesophagitis are at risk of developing complicati......Patients with pyrosis or regurgitation as the dominating symptoms have gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). However, patients with more atypical symptoms may also suffer from it. The disease is usually chronic and patients who have additional oesophagitis are at risk of developing...

  11. Microstructure, characterizations, functionality and compressive strength of cement-based materials using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nochaiya, Thanongsak [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); Sekine, Yoshika [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Choopun, Supab [Applied Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Chaipanich, Arnon, E-mail: arnon.chaipanich@cmu.ac.th [Advanced Cement-Based Materials Research Unit, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2015-05-05

    Highlights: • Nano zinc oxide was used as an additive material. • Microstructure and phase characterization of pastes were characterized using SEM and XRD. • TGA and FTIR were also used to determine the hydration reaction. • Compressive strength of ZnO mixes was found to increase at 28 days. - Abstract: Zinc oxide nanoparticles as a nanophotocatalyst has great potential for self-cleaning applications in concrete structures, its effects on the cement hydration, setting time and compressive strength are also important when using it in practice. This paper reports the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles, as an additive material, on properties of cement-based materials. Setting time, compressive strength and porosity of mortars were investigated. Microstructure and morphology of pastes were characterized using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Moreover, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) were also used to determine the hydration reaction. The results show that Portland cement paste with additional ZnO was found to slightly increase the water requirement while the setting time presented prolongation period than the control mix. However, compressive strength of ZnO mixes was found to be higher than that of PC mix up to 15% (at 28 days) via filler effect. Microstructure, XRD and TGA results of ZnO pastes show less hydration products before 28 days but similar at 28 days. In addition, FTIR results confirmed the retardation when ZnO was partially added in Portland cement pastes.

  12. Microstructure, characterizations, functionality and compressive strength of cement-based materials using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nochaiya, Thanongsak; Sekine, Yoshika; Choopun, Supab; Chaipanich, Arnon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano zinc oxide was used as an additive material. • Microstructure and phase characterization of pastes were characterized using SEM and XRD. • TGA and FTIR were also used to determine the hydration reaction. • Compressive strength of ZnO mixes was found to increase at 28 days. - Abstract: Zinc oxide nanoparticles as a nanophotocatalyst has great potential for self-cleaning applications in concrete structures, its effects on the cement hydration, setting time and compressive strength are also important when using it in practice. This paper reports the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles, as an additive material, on properties of cement-based materials. Setting time, compressive strength and porosity of mortars were investigated. Microstructure and morphology of pastes were characterized using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Moreover, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) were also used to determine the hydration reaction. The results show that Portland cement paste with additional ZnO was found to slightly increase the water requirement while the setting time presented prolongation period than the control mix. However, compressive strength of ZnO mixes was found to be higher than that of PC mix up to 15% (at 28 days) via filler effect. Microstructure, XRD and TGA results of ZnO pastes show less hydration products before 28 days but similar at 28 days. In addition, FTIR results confirmed the retardation when ZnO was partially added in Portland cement pastes

  13. Using Whole Stream {delta}{sup 15}N Additions to Understand the Effects of Land Use Change on Stream Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deegan, L. A.; Neill, C.; Thomas, S.; Haupert, C. [Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Victoria, R. L.; Krusche, A. V.; Ballester, M. V.R. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2013-05-15

    In this paper we introduce an emerging new technique; the use of {delta}{sup 15}N stable isotope tracers to understand both short term and long term alterations in stream ecosystem nitrogen biogeochemistry and food web dynamics. The use of {delta}{sup 15}N isotopes to determine stream nitrogen cycling was developed in small tundra streams in Alaska (USA), but a network of researchers using similar technique has rapidly grown to answer questions about nitrogen cycling and stream food webs in a variety of ecosystem types and subject to human modifications. Here we provide an overview of some of the information that can be provided using stable isotope additions and describe the general approach of an isotope addition experiment. To illustrate the scope of isotope applicability some examples are provided of work undertaken in the Brazilian Amazon. (author)

  14. Forest soil CO2 fluxes as a function of understory removal and N-fixing species addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haifang; Fu, Shenglei; Zhao, Hongting; Xia, Hanping

    2011-01-01

    We report on the effects of forest management practices of understory removal and N-fixing species (Cassia alata) addition on soil CO2 fluxes in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation (EUp), Acacia crassicarpa plantation (ACp), 10-species-mixed plantation (Tp), and 30-species-mixed plantation (THp) using the static chamber method in southern China. Four forest management treatments, including (1) understory removal (UR); (2) C. alata addition (CA); (3) understory removal and replacement with C. alata (UR+CA); and (4) control without any disturbances (CK), were applied in the above four forest plantations with three replications for each treatment. The results showed that soil CO2 fluxes rates remained at a high level during the rainy season (from April to September), followed by a rapid decrease after October reaching a minimum in February. Soil CO2 fluxes were significantly higher (P plantations under various management practices.

  15. Functional Resilience and Response to a Dietary Additive (Kefir) in Models of Foregut and Hindgut Microbial Fermentation In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Jones, Eleanor; Jones, Shann; Newbold, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Stability in gut ecosystems is an important area of study that impacts on the use of additives and is related with several pathologies. Kefir is a fermented milk drink made with a consortium of yeast and bacteria as a fermentation starter, of which the use as additive in companion and livestock animals has increased in the last few years. To investigate the effect of kefir milk on foregut and hindgut digestive systems, an in vitro approach was followed. Either rumen fluid or horse fecal contents were used as a microbial inoculate and the inclusion of kefir (fresh, autoclaved, or pasteurized) was tested. Gas production over 72 h of incubation was recorded and pH, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), lactate and ammonia concentration as well as lactic acid (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria, and yeast total numbers were also measured. Both direct and indirect (by subtracting their respective blanks) effects were analyzed and a multivariate analysis was performed to compare foregut and hindgut fermentation models. Addition of kefir boosted the fermentation by increasing molar concentration of VFAs and ammonia and shifting the Acetate to Propionate ratio in both models but heat processing techniques like pasteurization or autoclaving influenced the way the kefir is fermented and reacts with the present microbiota. In terms of comparison between both models, the foregut model seems to be less affected by the inclusion of Kefir than the hindgut model. In terms of variability in the response, the hindgut model appeared to be more variable than the foregut model in the way that it reacted indirectly to the addition of different types of kefir. PMID:28702019

  16. Functional Resilience and Response to a Dietary Additive (Kefir in Models of Foregut and Hindgut Microbial Fermentation In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel de la Fuente

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stability in gut ecosystems is an important area of study that impacts on the use of additives and is related with several pathologies. Kefir is a fermented milk drink made with a consortium of yeast and bacteria as a fermentation starter, of which the use as additive in companion and livestock animals has increased in the last few years. To investigate the effect of kefir milk on foregut and hindgut digestive systems, an in vitro approach was followed. Either rumen fluid or horse fecal contents were used as a microbial inoculate and the inclusion of kefir (fresh, autoclaved, or pasteurized was tested. Gas production over 72 h of incubation was recorded and pH, volatile fatty acids (VFAs, lactate and ammonia concentration as well as lactic acid (LAB and acetic acid bacteria, and yeast total numbers were also measured. Both direct and indirect (by subtracting their respective blanks effects were analyzed and a multivariate analysis was performed to compare foregut and hindgut fermentation models. Addition of kefir boosted the fermentation by increasing molar concentration of VFAs and ammonia and shifting the Acetate to Propionate ratio in both models but heat processing techniques like pasteurization or autoclaving influenced the way the kefir is fermented and reacts with the present microbiota. In terms of comparison between both models, the foregut model seems to be less affected by the inclusion of Kefir than the hindgut model. In terms of variability in the response, the hindgut model appeared to be more variable than the foregut model in the way that it reacted indirectly to the addition of different types of kefir.

  17. Functional Resilience and Response to a Dietary Additive (Kefir) in Models of Foregut and Hindgut Microbial Fermentation In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Jones, Eleanor; Jones, Shann; Newbold, Charles J

    2017-01-01

    Stability in gut ecosystems is an important area of study that impacts on the use of additives and is related with several pathologies. Kefir is a fermented milk drink made with a consortium of yeast and bacteria as a fermentation starter, of which the use as additive in companion and livestock animals has increased in the last few years. To investigate the effect of kefir milk on foregut and hindgut digestive systems, an in vitro approach was followed. Either rumen fluid or horse fecal contents were used as a microbial inoculate and the inclusion of kefir (fresh, autoclaved, or pasteurized) was tested. Gas production over 72 h of incubation was recorded and pH, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), lactate and ammonia concentration as well as lactic acid (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria, and yeast total numbers were also measured. Both direct and indirect (by subtracting their respective blanks) effects were analyzed and a multivariate analysis was performed to compare foregut and hindgut fermentation models. Addition of kefir boosted the fermentation by increasing molar concentration of VFAs and ammonia and shifting the Acetate to Propionate ratio in both models but heat processing techniques like pasteurization or autoclaving influenced the way the kefir is fermented and reacts with the present microbiota. In terms of comparison between both models, the foregut model seems to be less affected by the inclusion of Kefir than the hindgut model. In terms of variability in the response, the hindgut model appeared to be more variable than the foregut model in the way that it reacted indirectly to the addition of different types of kefir.

  18. Density functional theoretical study on the C-F and C-O oxidative addition reaction at an AI center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Seong [Dept. of Science Education, Kyungnam University, Masan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyun; Hwang, Sungu [Dept. of Nanomechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Miryang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    In this study, B3LYP/LACVP** level calculations were chosen because the level of theory was applied successfully to calculations of the thermodynamic and kinetic features of the oxidative addition reactions of alkyl and aryl halides to pincer-type complexes. This study examined the effects of the substituents on the phenyl rings of the Al(I) center. Isopropyl side chains in the phenyl rings attached to N atoms of the pincer ligand were replaced with a methyl (Me) (2) or tertiary butyl ( t Bu) group. The oxidative addition of C[BOND]F and C[BOND]O bonds to an Al (I) center was investigated computationally by DFT calculations. The geometries, thermodynamic, and kinetic features were in good agreement with the experimental data, as in previous studies on the transition metal complexes. The computational results showed that the DFT calculations could provide qualitative insight into the reactivity and thermodynamics of the oxidative addition reactions of C[BOND]F bonds.

  19. Functional and Transcriptomic Characterization of Peritoneal Immune-Modulation by Addition of Alanyl-Glutamine to Dialysis Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Rebecca; Kuster, Lilian; Becker, Julia; Gluexam, Tobias; Pils, Dietmar; Spittler, Andreas; Bhasin, Manoj K; Alper, Seth L; Vychytil, Andreas; Aufricht, Christoph; Kratochwill, Klaus

    2017-07-24

    Peritonitis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality during chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). Glucose-based PD fluids reduce immunological defenses in the peritoneal cavity. Low concentrations of peritoneal extracellular glutamine during PD may contribute to this immune deficit. For these reasons we have developed a clinical assay to measure the function of the immune-competent cells in PD effluent from PD patients. We then applied this assay to test the impact on peritoneal immune-competence of PD fluid supplementation with alanyl-glutamine (AlaGln) in 6 patients in an open-label, randomized, crossover pilot trial (EudraCT 2012-004004-36), and related the functional results to transcriptome changes in PD effluent cells. Ex-vivo stimulation of PD effluent peritoneal cells increased release of interleukin (IL) 6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α. Both IL-6 and TNF-α were lower at 1 h than at 4 h of the peritoneal equilibration test but the reductions in cytokine release were attenuated in AlaGln-supplemented samples. AlaGln-supplemented samples exhibited priming of IL-6-related pathways and downregulation of TNF-α upstream elements. Results from measurement of cytokine release and transcriptome analysis in this pilot clinical study support the conclusion that suppression of PD effluent cell immune function in human subjects by standard PD fluid is attenuated by AlaGln supplementation.

  20. Rheological, functional and thermo-physical properties of ultrasound treated whey proteins with addition of sucrose or milk powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anet Režek Jambrak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound represents a non-thermal food processing technique and has great potential to be used in the food industry. The objective of this research was to observe ultrasound impact on physical properties of model systems prepared with whey protein isolates (WPI or whey protein concentrates (WPC with or without sucrose or milk powder addition. This kind of systems is often used in milk beverages and milk based products. Model systems with protein and milk powder or sucrose addition were treated with high power ultrasound (HPU probe of 30 kHz frequency for 5 and 10 minutes. After sonication several properties were determined and examined: solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, rheological and thermophysical properties. Ultrasound treatment showed severe influence on all examined properties, caused by protein denaturation as a consequence of cavitation and microstreaming effects. Ultrasound treatment caused decrease in protein solubility for whey protein isolate and whey protein concentrates model systems, compared to untreated sample. There was statistically significant increase in foam volume of model systems, prepared with sucrose or milk powder and WPI after ultrasound treatment. Statistically significant decrease in emulsion activity and emulsion stability indices was observed for model systems prepared solely with isolates and concentrates. After treatment of whey protein model systems (with or without milk powder or sucrose with 30 kHz ultrasound, the changes in consistency coefficients (k were observed, but there were no significant changes in flow behaviour indices (n. After addition of milk powder or sucrose, statistically significant decrease in initial freezing and melting temperatures was observed due to the ultrasound treatment.

  1. The functional O-mannose glycan on α-dystroglycan contains a phospho-ribitol primed for matriglycan addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praissman, Jeremy L; Willer, Tobias; Sheikh, M Osman; Toi, Ants; Chitayat, David; Lin, Yung-Yao; Lee, Hane; Stalnaker, Stephanie H; Wang, Shuo; Prabhakar, Pradeep Kumar; Nelson, Stanley F; Stemple, Derek L; Moore, Steven A; Moremen, Kelley W; Campbell, Kevin P; Wells, Lance

    2016-01-01

    Multiple glycosyltransferases are essential for the proper modification of alpha-dystroglycan, as mutations in the encoding genes cause congenital/limb-girdle muscular dystrophies. Here we elucidate further the structure of an O-mannose-initiated glycan on alpha-dystroglycan that is required to generate its extracellular matrix-binding polysaccharide. This functional glycan contains a novel ribitol structure that links a phosphotrisaccharide to xylose. ISPD is a CDP-ribitol (ribose) pyrophosphorylase that generates the reduced sugar nucleotide for the insertion of ribitol in a phosphodiester linkage to the glycoprotein. TMEM5 is a UDP-xylosyl transferase that elaborates the structure. We demonstrate in a zebrafish model as well as in a human patient that defects in TMEM5 result in muscular dystrophy in combination with abnormal brain development. Thus, we propose a novel structure—a ribitol in a phosphodiester linkage—for the moiety on which TMEM5, B4GAT1, and LARGE act to generate the functional receptor for ECM proteins having LG domains. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14473.001 PMID:27130732

  2. A comparative study of functional properties of normal and wooden breast broiler chicken meat with NaCl addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Tong; Zhao, Xue; Han, Minyi; Cai, Linlin; Deng, Shaolin; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian

    2017-09-01

    The selection of broilers for augmented growth rate and breast has brought about wooden-breast (WB) muscle abnormalities, which caused substantial economic losses. The objective of this study was to compare water holding capacity, water mobility and distribution, salt-soluble protein (SSP) content, and protein profiles of normal and WB chicken meat with different additions of NaCl. Thirty WB and 30 normal chicken breasts were selected from a deboning line of a major Chinese processing plant at 2 to 3 h post mortem. Two different meat batters were formulated to 150 mg/g meat protein and different NaCl contents (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%). Results indicated that as NaCl contents increased, the cooking loss of meat batters decreased (P meat showed different protein profiles, with myosin heavy chain exhibiting a higher intensity at ≥3% salt level. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR)revealed an increased T22 and higher P22 in raw WB meat compared to normal meat (P meat batters, WB meat batters had reduced T21 and lower immobilized water proportions at low NaCl contents (meat gels. Meat gels prepared from WB had a lower proportion of water within the myofibrillar protein matrix and a greater proportion of exuded bulk water at NaCl contents meat, meat batters and gels, water distribution and mobility of WB exhibited significant differences compared to normal meat. The addition of NaCl affected water mobility and distributions in meat batters, with a level of 3% NaCl eliminating the differences between processed normal and WB meat products. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Casein addition to a whey-based formula has limited effects on gut function in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, T.; Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Bering, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    Preterm infants are susceptible to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Using preterm pigs, we determined whether a whey–casein-based formula would be superior to a formula based on whey protein alone. Twenty cesarean-derived preterm pigs (92% gestation) were given total parenteral nutrition for 36 h...... followed by 30 h of enteral feeding with whey [protein fraction of milk formula based on whey (WHEY); n = 11] or casein and/or whey [protein fraction of milk formula based on a combination of casein and whey (CASEIN); n = 9]-based formulas. Sugar absorptive function was investigated at 6 and 30 h after...... studied in gut contents. Severity of NEC lesions was similar between diet groups but galactose absorption was markedly higher in CASEIN than in WHEY (P

  4. Minority Serving Institutions Reporting System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The database will be used to track SSA's contributions to Minority Serving Institutions such as Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), Tribal Colleges...

  5. Natural cytolytic activity in mice with natural or induced cellular defects. I. Differential ability of in vitro interleukin-2 addition to augment natural cytolytic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, E.W.; Hinson, A.; Butler, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of in vitro addition of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) to differentially enhance natural cytotoxicity was assessed using cells from mice with natural and induced cellular defects. In vivo treatment with most immunosuppressive or cytoreductive agents, anti-asialo-GM1 antibody, or gamma irradiation dramatically reduced in vitro cytotoxicity against natural killer (NK) sensitive targets by direct reduction in either percentage specific lysis or lytic units per spleen. In most cases, in vitro addition of rIL-2 (at concentrations causing augmented NK function in cells from naive Balb/C mice) enhanced cytotoxic activity of cells from treatment groups to a normal value but not within the rIL-2-enhanced range of nontreated animals. Additionally, cytotoxic activity of cells from animals treated with certain drugs or gamma irradiation could be augmented by rIL-2 when measured by percentage lysis but not lytic units per spleen. In vivo treatment with cyclosporin A did not affect natural cytotoxic activity and addition of rIL-2 augmented the NK activity in a similar fashion to the profile of naive cells. In experiments using cells from beige (C57Bl/6-bg) mice which have a natural defect in NK activity against YAC-1 targets, addition of rIL-2 (at concentrations causing augmented natural cytotoxic function in cells from C57Bl/6 mice) could not effectively enhance in vitro natural cytotoxic function

  6. Natural cytolytic activity in mice with natural or induced cellular defects. I. Differential ability of in vitro interleukin-2 addition to augment natural cytolytic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ades, E.W.; Hinson, A.; Butler, L.D.

    1986-08-01

    The ability of in vitro addition of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) to differentially enhance natural cytotoxicity was assessed using cells from mice with natural and induced cellular defects. In vivo treatment with most immunosuppressive or cytoreductive agents, anti-asialo-GM1 antibody, or gamma irradiation dramatically reduced in vitro cytotoxicity against natural killer (NK) sensitive targets by direct reduction in either percentage specific lysis or lytic units per spleen. In most cases, in vitro addition of rIL-2 (at concentrations causing augmented NK function in cells from naive Balb/C mice) enhanced cytotoxic activity of cells from treatment groups to a normal value but not within the rIL-2-enhanced range of nontreated animals. Additionally, cytotoxic activity of cells from animals treated with certain drugs or gamma irradiation could be augmented by rIL-2 when measured by percentage lysis but not lytic units per spleen. In vivo treatment with cyclosporin A did not affect natural cytotoxic activity and addition of rIL-2 augmented the NK activity in a similar fashion to the profile of naive cells. In experiments using cells from beige (C57Bl/6-bg) mice which have a natural defect in NK activity against YAC-1 targets, addition of rIL-2 (at concentrations causing augmented natural cytotoxic function in cells from C57Bl/6 mice) could not effectively enhance in vitro natural cytotoxic function.

  7. Structural and surface functionality changes in reticulated vitreous carbon produced from poly(furfuryl alcohol) with sodium hydroxide additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, Silvia Sizuka, E-mail: silviaoishi@uol.com.br [LAS, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas 1758, São José dos Campos, SP 12227-010 (Brazil); Botelho, Edson Cocchieri [Departamento de Materiais e Tecnologia, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. Doutor Ariberto Pereira da Cunha 333, Guaratinguetá, SP 12516-410 (Brazil); Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira [Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Rua Talim 330, São José dos Campos, SP 12231-280 (Brazil); Ferreira, Neidenêi Gomes [LAS, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas 1758, São José dos Campos, SP 12227-010 (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) was processed from poly(furfuryl alcohol) with different amounts of NaOH. • A correlation between microstructure and surface functionalities was proposed. • The structural ordering was mainly influenced by the cured PFA polymerization degree and carboxylic acid content on RVC surface. - Abstract: The use of sodium hydroxide to neutralize the acid catalyst increases the storage life of poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) resin avoiding its continuous polymerization. In this work, a concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) was added directly to the PFA resin in order to minimize the production of wastes generated when PFA is washed with diluted basic solution. Thus, different amounts of this concentrated basic solution were added to the resin up to reaching pH values of around 3, 5, 7, and 9. From these four types of modified PFA two sample sets of reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) were processed and heat treated at two different temperatures (1000 and 1700 °C). A correlation among cross-link density of PFA and RVC morphology, structural ordering and surface functionalities was systematically studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The PFA neutralization (pH 7) led to its higher polymerization degree, promoting a crystallinity decrease on RVC treated at 1000 °C as well as its highest percentages of carboxylic groups on surface. A NaOH excess (pH 9) substantially increased the RVC oxygen content, but its crystallinity remained similar to those for samples from pH 3 and 5 treated at 1000 °C, probably due to the reduced presence of carboxylic group and the lower polymerization degree of its cured resin. Samples with pH 3 and 5 heat treated at 1000 and 1700 °C can be considered the most ordered which indicated that small quantities of NaOH may be advantageous to minimize continuous

  8. Design and analysis of a piezoelectric material based touch screen with additional pressure and its acceleration measurement functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Xiang-Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yi; Gao, Ren-Long; Chang, Jie; Li, Long-Tu

    2013-01-01

    Touch screens are becoming more and more prevalent in everyday environments due to their convenience and humanized operation. In this paper, a piezoelectric material based touch screen is developed and investigated. Piezoelectric ceramics arrayed under the touch panel at the edges or corners are used as tactile sensors to measure the touch positioning point similarly to conventional touch screens. However, additional touch pressure and its acceleration performance can also be obtained to obtain a higher-level human–machine interface. The piezoelectric ceramics can also be added to a traditional touch screen structure, or they can be used independently to construct a novel touch screen with a high light transmittance approach to a transparent glass. The piezoelectric ceramics were processed from PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder into a round or rectangular shape. According to the varied touch position and physical press strength of a finger, or even a gloved hand or fingernail, the piezoelectric tactile sensors will have different output voltage responses. By calculating the ratio of different piezoelectric tactile sensors’ responses and summing up all piezoelectric tactile sensors’ output voltages, the touch point position, touch pressure and touch force acceleration can be detected. A prototype of such a touch screen is manufactured and its position accuracy, touch pressure and response speed are measured in detail. The experimental results show that the prototype has many advantages such as high light transmittance, low energy cost and high durability. (paper)

  9. Functional and community-level soil microbial responses to zinc addition may depend on test system biocomplexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdrup, Line E; Linjordet, Roar; Strømman, Gjermund; Hagen, Snorre B; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Frostegård, Sa; Sørheim, Roald

    2006-12-01

    The effect of zinc on soil nitrification and composition of the microbial community in soil was investigated using a full factorial experiment with five zinc concentrations and four levels of biological complexity (microbes only, microbes and earthworms (Eisenia fetida), microbes and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum var. Macho), and microbes, ryegrass and earthworms). After 6 weeks of exposure, the activity of soil nitrifying bacteria was measured and the microbial community structure was characterized by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Soil nitrification and several PLFA markers were significantly influenced by either zinc addition and/or the presence of earthworms or ryegrass, and one of the most pronounced changes was the increase of fungi and decrease of bacteria with increasing concentrations of zinc. Of particular interest, however, was the potential interaction between the presence of plants and/or earthworms and the effect of zinc, which the factorial study design allowed us to explore. Such an effect was observed in two cases: Earthworms reduced the positive effect of zinc on the fungal biomass (ANOVA, p=0.03), and the effect of earthworms on the soil nitrification activity depended on zinc concentration (ANOVA, p<0.05). The effect of earthworm presence was not very large, but it does show that multispecies tests might give information about metal toxicity or bioavailability that cannot be predicted from single-species tests.

  10. An Alkaline Protease from Bacillus pumilus MP 27: Functional Analysis of its Binding Model towards its Applications as Detergent Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehak Baweja

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A proteolytic strain of Bacillus pumilus MP 27 was isolated from water samples of Southern ocean produced alkaline protease. Since protease production need expensive ingredients, an economically viable process was developed by using low cost carbon source, wheat straw, supplemented with peptone. This protease was active within temperature ranges 10˚C -70˚C at pH 9. This process was optimized by response surface methodology using a Box Bekhman design by Design Expert 7.0 software that increased the protease activity to 776.5 U/ml. Moreover, the enzyme was extremely stable at a broad range of temperature and pH retaining 69% of its activity at 50 ºC and 70% at pH 11. The enzyme exhibited excellent compatibility with surfactants and commercial detergents, showing 87% stability with triton X-100 and ̴ 100% stability with Tide commercial detergent. The results of the wash performance analysis demonstrated considerably good de-staining at 50ºC and 4ºC with low supplementation (109 U/ml. Molecular modeling of the protease revealed the presence of serine proteases, subtilase family and serine active site and further docking supported the association of catalytic site with the various substrates. Certainly, such protease can be considered as a good detergent additive in detergent industry with a possibility to remove the stains effectively even in a cold wash.

  11. An Alkaline Protease from Bacillus pumilus MP 27: Functional Analysis of Its Binding Model toward Its Applications As Detergent Additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baweja, Mehak; Tiwari, Rameshwar; Singh, Puneet K; Nain, Lata; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    A proteolytic strain of Bacillus pumilus MP 27 was isolated from water samples of Southern ocean produced alkaline protease. Since protease production need expensive ingredients, an economically viable process was developed by using low cost carbon source, wheat straw, supplemented with peptone. This protease was active within temperature ranges 10-70°C at pH 9. This process was optimized by response surface methodology using a Box Bekhman design by Design Expert 7.0 software that increased the protease activity to 776.5 U/ml. Moreover, the enzyme was extremely stable at a broad range of temperature and pH retaining 69% of its activity at 50°C and 70% at pH 11. The enzyme exhibited excellent compatibility with surfactants and commercial detergents, showing 87% stability with triton X-100 and 100% stability with Tide commercial detergent. The results of the wash performance analysis demonstrated considerably good de-staining at 50 and 4°C with low supplementation (109 U/ml). Molecular modeling of the protease revealed the presence of serine proteases, subtilase family and serine active site and further docking supported the association of catalytic site with the various substrates. Certainly, such protease can be considered as a good detergent additive in detergent industry with a possibility to remove the stains effectively even in a cold wash.

  12. A proposal: LEIR to serve biomedicine

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    LEIR is the CERN facility that produces high-density ion beams for the LHC and for the SPS fixed target experiments. Since its operational schedule is not fully booked, LEIR could, in principle, be exploited even further. A brainstorming meeting recently took place at CERN to evaluate the possibility of modifying LEIR to serve the biomedical community. Discussions are in progress.   The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR). LEIR is a small synchrotron with a circumference of about 78 m. It currently receives particles from Linac 3 and prepares beams for the SPS and the LHC. “In order for LEIR to be able to provide ion beams with appropriate energies for studies of interest for biomedical applications, a new ejection system with new beam lines needs to be designed,” explains Christian Carli, from the Beams Department. “In addition, Linac 3 could be upgraded to include a second ion source and a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) optimized for ions of interest for bi...

  13. Nutritional, Health, and Technological Functionality of Lupin Flour Addition to Bread and Other Baked Products: Benefits and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarino, C B J; Jayasena, V; Coorey, R; Chakrabarti-Bell, S; Johnson, S K

    2016-01-01

    Lupin is an undervalued legume despite its high protein and dietary fiber content and potential health benefits. This review focuses on the nutritional value, health benefits, and technological effects of incorporating lupin flour into wheat-based bread. Results of clinical studies suggest that consuming lupin compared to wheat bread and other baked products reduce chronic disease risk markers; possibly due to increased protein and dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. However, lupin protein allergy has also been recorded. Bread quality has been improved when 10% lupin flour is substituted for refined wheat flour; possibly due to lupin-wheat protein cross-linking assisting bread volume and the high water-binding capacity (WBC) of lupin fiber delaying staling. Above 10% substitution appears to reduce bread quality due to lupin proteins low elasticity and the high WBC of its dietary fiber interrupting gluten network development. Gaps in understanding of the role of lupin flour in bread quality include the optimal formulation and processing conditions to maximize lupin incorporation, role of protein cross-linking, antistaling functionality, and bioactivity of its γ-conglutin protein.

  14. Effect of COOH-functionalized SWCNT addition on the electrical and photovoltaic characteristics of Malachite Green dye based photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Manik, N. B.

    2014-01-01

    We report the effect of COOH-functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-SWCNT) on the electrical and photovoltaic characteristics of Malachite Green (MG) dye based photovoltaic cells. Two different types of photovoltaic cells were prepared, one with MG dye and another by incorporating COOH-SWCNT with this dye. Cells were characterized through different electrical and photovoltaic measurements including photocurrent measurements with pulsed radiation. From the dark current—voltage (I–V) characteristic results, we observed a certain transition voltage (V th ) for both the cells beyond which the conduction mechanism of the cells change sharply. For the MG dye, V th is 3.9 V whereas for COOH-SWCNT mixed with this dye, V th drops to 2.7 V. The device performance improves due to the incorporation of COOH-SWCNT. The open circuit voltage and short circuit current density change from 4.2 to 97 mV and from 108 to 965 μA/cm 2 respectively. Observations from photocurrent measurements show that the rate of growth and decay of the photocurrent are quite faster in the presence of COOH-SWCNT. This observation indicates a faster charge separation processes due to the incorporation of COOH-SWCNT in the MG dye cells. The high aspect ratio of COOH-SWCNT allows efficient conduction pathways for the generated charge carriers. (semiconductor devices)

  15. Oxytocin promotes group-serving dishonesty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalvi, Shaul; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2014-04-15

    To protect and promote the well-being of others, humans may bend the truth and behave unethically. Here we link such tendencies to oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to promote affiliation and cooperation with others. Using a simple coin-toss prediction task in which participants could dishonestly report their performance levels to benefit their group's outcome, we tested the prediction that oxytocin increases group-serving dishonesty. A double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment allowing individuals to lie privately and anonymously to benefit themselves and fellow group members showed that healthy males (n = 60) receiving intranasal oxytocin, rather than placebo, lied more to benefit their group, and did so faster, yet did not necessarily do so because they expected reciprocal dishonesty from fellow group members. Treatment effects emerged when lying had financial consequences and money could be gained; when losses were at stake, individuals in placebo and oxytocin conditions lied to similar degrees. In a control condition (n = 60) in which dishonesty only benefited participants themselves, but not fellow group members, oxytocin did not influence lying. Together, these findings fit a functional perspective on morality revealing dishonesty to be plastic and rooted in evolved neurobiological circuitries, and align with work showing that oxytocin shifts the decision-maker's focus from self to group interests. These findings highlight the role of bonding and cooperation in shaping dishonesty, providing insight into when and why collaboration turns into corruption.

  16. Improved Efficiency and Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells Induced by CO Functionalized Hydrophobic Ammonium-Based Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhifang; Raga, Sonia R; Juarez-Perez, Emilio J; Yao, Xuyang; Jiang, Yan; Ono, Luis K; Ning, Zhijun; Tian, He; Qi, Yabing

    2018-01-01

    Because of the rapid rise of the efficiency, perovskite solar cells are currently considered as the most promising next-generation photovoltaic technology. Much effort has been made to improve the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells. Here, it is demonstrated that the addition of a novel organic cation of 2-(6-bromo-1,3-dioxo-1H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2(3H)-yl)ethan-1-ammonium iodide (2-NAM), which has strong Lewis acid and base interaction (between CO and Pb) with perovskite, can effectively increase crystalline grain size and reduce charge carrier recombination of the double cation FA 0.83 MA 0.17 PbI 2.51 Br 0.49 perovskite film, thus boosting the efficiency from 17.1 ± 0.8% to 18.6 ± 0.9% for the 0.1 cm 2 cell and from 15.5 ± 0.5% to 16.5 ± 0.6% for the 1.0 cm 2 cell. The champion cell shows efficiencies of 20.0% and 17.6% with active areas of 0.1 and 1.0 cm 2 , respectively. Moreover, the hysteresis behavior is suppressed and the stability is improved. The result provides a promising route to further elevate efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells by the fine tuning of triple organic cations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Bipolar cell gap junctions serve major signaling pathways in the human retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kántor, Orsolya; Varga, Alexandra; Nitschke, Roland; Naumann, Angela; Énzsöly, Anna; Lukáts, Ákos; Szabó, Arnold; Németh, János; Völgyi, Béla

    2017-08-01

    Connexin36 (Cx36) constituent gap junctions (GJ) throughout the brain connect neurons into functional syncytia. In the retina they underlie the transmission, averaging and correlation of signals prior conveying visual information to the brain. This is the first study that describes retinal bipolar cell (BC) GJs in the human inner retina, whose function is enigmatic even in the examined animal models. Furthermore, a number of unique features (e.g. fovea, trichromacy, midget system) necessitate a reexamination of the animal model results in the human retina. Well-preserved postmortem human samples of this study are allowed to identify Cx36 expressing BCs neurochemically. Results reveal that both rod and cone pathway interneurons display strong Cx36 expression. Rod BC inputs to AII amacrine cells (AC) appear in juxtaposition to AII GJs, thus suggesting a strategic AII cell targeting by rod BCs. Cone BCs serving midget, parasol or koniocellular signaling pathways display a wealth of Cx36 expression to form homologously coupled arrays. In addition, they also establish heterologous GJ contacts to serve an exchange of information between parallel signaling streams. Interestingly, a prominent Cx36 expression was exhibited by midget system BCs that appear to maintain intimate contacts with bistratified BCs serving other pathways. These findings suggest that BC GJs in parallel signaling streams serve both an intra- and inter-pathway exchange of signals in the human retina.

  18. Functional separation of oxidation–reduction reactions and electron transport in PtRu/ND and conductive additive hybrid electrocatalysts during methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yanhui [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Bian, Linyan [College of Physics and Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan 454000 (China); Lu, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zang, Jianbing, E-mail: jbzang@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Functional separation of reactions and electron transport in PtRu/ND + AB (or CNT). • A conductive network was formed after the addition of AB or CNT. • PtRu/ND + AB (or CNT) exhibited enhanced activity and stability than PtRu/ND. - Abstract: Undoped nanodiamond (ND) supported PtRu (PtRu/ND) electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation reactions (MOR) in direct methanol fuel cells was prepared by a microwave-assisted polyol reduction method. Sp{sup 3}-bonded ND possesses high electrochemical stability but low conductivity, while sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon nanomaterials with high conductivity are prone to oxidation. Therefore, the functions of the supporting material were separated in this study. ND (sp{sup 3}), as a support, and AB or CNTs (sp{sup 2}), as a conductive additive, were combined to form the hybrid electrocatalysts PtRu/ND + AB and PtRu/ND + CNT for MOR. The morphology of the electrocatalysts was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical measurements were performed using an electrochemical workstation. The results indicated that the electrocatalytic activity of PtRu/ND for MOR was improved with the addition of AB or CNTs as a conductive additive. Moreover, adding CNTs to PtRu/ND as a conductive additive showed better electrocatalytic activities than adding AB, which can be ascribed to the better electron-transfer ability of CNTs.

  19. Responses of Woody Plant Functional Traits to Nitrogen Addition: A Meta-Analysis of Leaf Economics, Gas Exchange, and Hydraulic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Li, Weibin; Adams, Henry D; Wang, Anzhi; Wu, Jiabing; Jin, Changjie; Guan, Dexin; Yuan, Fenghui

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been found to significantly affect plant growth and physiological performance in terrestrial ecosystems. Many individual studies have investigated how N addition influences plant functional traits, however these investigations have usually been limited to a single species, and thereby do not allow derivation of general patterns or underlying mechanisms. We synthesized data from 56 papers and conducted a meta-analysis to assess the general responses of 15 variables related to leaf economics, gas exchange, and hydraulic traits to N addition among 61 woody plant species, primarily from temperate and subtropical regions. Results showed that under N addition, leaf area index (+10.3%), foliar N content (+7.3%), intrinsic water-use efficiency (+3.1%) and net photosynthetic rate (+16.1%) significantly increased, while specific leaf area, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate did not change. For plant hydraulics, N addition significantly increased vessel diameter (+7.0%), hydraulic conductance in stems/shoots (+6.7%), and water potential corresponding to 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity ( P 50 , +21.5%; i.e., P 50 became less negative), while water potential in leaves (-6.7%) decreased (became more negative). N addition had little effect on vessel density, hydraulic conductance in leaves and roots, or water potential in stems/shoots. N addition had greater effects on gymnosperms than angiosperms and ammonium nitrate fertilization had larger effects than fertilization with urea, and high levels of N addition affected more traits than low levels. Our results demonstrate that N addition has coupled effects on both carbon and water dynamics of woody plants. Increased leaf N, likely fixed in photosynthetic enzymes and pigments leads to higher photosynthesis and water use efficiency, which may increase leaf growth, as reflected in LAI results. These changes appear to have downstream effects on hydraulic function through increases

  20. Temporal Drivers of Liking Based on Functional Data Analysis and Non-Additive Models for Multi-Attribute Time-Intensity Data of Fruit Chews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuesten, Carla; Bi, Jian

    2018-06-03

    Conventional drivers of liking analysis was extended with a time dimension into temporal drivers of liking (TDOL) based on functional data analysis methodology and non-additive models for multiple-attribute time-intensity (MATI) data. The non-additive models, which consider both direct effects and interaction effects of attributes to consumer overall liking, include Choquet integral and fuzzy measure in the multi-criteria decision-making, and linear regression based on variance decomposition. Dynamics of TDOL, i.e., the derivatives of the relative importance functional curves were also explored. Well-established R packages 'fda', 'kappalab' and 'relaimpo' were used in the paper for developing TDOL. Applied use of these methods shows that the relative importance of MATI curves offers insights for understanding the temporal aspects of consumer liking for fruit chews.

  1. 77 FR 13173 - Best Equipped Best Served

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... on the best equipped, best performing, best served concept for implementation in the 2012-2014... Advisory Committee (NAC). FAA is seeking stakeholder input on the technical and operational feasibility of...

  2. Effect of Ginger or Oregano addition to diet of growing male Zraibi goats on growth rate and some physiological body functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was carried out at Experimental Farm Project (Goats Farm), Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, at Inshas during 2011 on twenty four male Zaraibi goats (zaraibi kids) after weaning. The animals were healthy and clinically free of external and internal parasites and divided to three equal groups. Animals in the 1st group were fed the basal ration without additives (Control), while those in the 2nd and 3rd groups were fed the same basal ration with additive 1 gram daily from Ginger (Zingiber officinal) or Oregano(Origanum vulgare) /10 kg live body weight / kid, respectively. Changes of live body weight and dry matter feed intake of each animal were recorded individually every month. Blood samples were withdrawn in the end of experiment to determine blood components as well as immunity, kidney and liver functions, energy metabolites, heart healthy factor and some minerals. The results showed that the addition of Ginger or Oregano to diet of Zaraibi goats improved significantly live body weight, daily body weight gain and dry matter intake. The improvement in Ginger was better than with Oregano. In addition, significant increase of Hg values, RBC'S count as well as total protein and globulin levels was recorded in animals treated with Ginger or Oregano. In the same time, liver and kidney functions were not affected by supplementation either with Ginger or Oregano. Moreover, supplementation decreased the factor related to heart disease (glucose, total cholesterol and total lipids) and improved the animal immunity, especially in Ginger supplement.

  3. Dosage and duration effects of nitrogen additions on ectomycorrhizal sporocarp production and functioning: an example from two N-limited boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselquist, Niles J; Högberg, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Although it is well known that nitrogen (N) additions strongly affect ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal community composition, less is known about how different N application rates and duration of N additions affect the functional role EM fungi play in the forest N cycle.We measured EM sporocarp abundance and species richness as well as determined the δ (15)N in EM sporocarps and tree foliage in two Pinus sylvestris forests characterized by short- and long-term N addition histories and multiple N addition treatments. After 20 and 39 years of N additions, two of the long-term N addition treatments were terminated, thereby providing a unique opportunity to examine the temporal recovery of EM sporocarps after cessation of high N loading.In general, increasing N availability significantly reduced EM sporocarp production, species richness, and the amount of N retained in EM sporocarps. However, these general responses were strongly dependent on the application rate and duration of N additions. The annual addition of 20 kg·N·ha(-1) for the past 6 years resulted in a slight increase in the production and retention of N in EM sporocarps, whereas the addition of 100 kg·N·ha(-1)·yr(-1) during the same period nearly eliminated EM sporocarps. In contrast, long-term additions of N at rates of ca. 35 or 70 kg·N·ha(-1)·yr(-1) for the past 40 years did not eliminate tree carbon allocation to EM sporocarps, although there was a decrease in the abundance and a shift in the dominant EM sporocarp taxa. Despite no immediate recovery, EM sporocarp abundance and species richness approached those of the control 20 years after terminating N additions in the most heavily fertilized treatment, suggesting a recovery of carbon allocation to EM sporocarps after cessation of high N loading.Our results provide evidence for a tight coupling between tree carbon allocation to and N retention in EM sporocarps and moreover highlight the potential use of δ (15)N in EM sporocarps as a

  4. ServAR: An augmented reality tool to guide the serving of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Megan E; Bucher, Tamara; Smith, Shamus P; Collins, Clare E

    2017-05-12

    Accurate estimation of food portion size is a difficult task. Visual cues are important mediators of portion size and therefore technology-based aids may assist consumers when serving and estimating food portions. The current study evaluated the usability and impact on estimation error of standard food servings of a novel augmented reality food serving aid, ServAR. Participants were randomised into one of three groups: 1) no information/aid (control); 2) verbal information on standard serving sizes; or 3) ServAR, an aid which overlayed virtual food servings over a plate using a tablet computer. Participants were asked to estimate the standard serving sizes of nine foods (broccoli, carrots, cauliflower, green beans, kidney beans, potato, pasta, rice, and sweetcorn) using validated food replicas. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared median served weights of each food to reference standard serving size weights. Percentage error was used to compare the estimation of serving size accuracy between the three groups. All participants also performed a usability test using the ServAR tool to guide the serving of one randomly selected food. Ninety adults (78.9% female; a mean (95%CI) age 25.8 (24.9-26.7) years; BMI 24.2 (23.2-25.2) kg/m 2 ) completed the study. The median servings were significantly different to the reference portions for five foods in the ServAR group, compared to eight foods in the information only group and seven foods for the control group. The cumulative proportion of total estimations per group within ±10%, ±25% and ±50% of the reference portion was greater for those using ServAR (30.7, 65.2 and 90.7%; respectively), compared to the information only group (19.6, 47.4 and 77.4%) and control group (10.0, 33.7 and 68.9%). Participants generally found the ServAR tool easy to use and agreed that it showed potential to support optimal portion size selection. However, some refinements to the ServAR tool are required to improve the user experience. Use of the

  5. Depicted serving size: cereal packaging pictures exaggerate serving sizes and promote overserving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Aner; Niemann, Stina; Wansink, Brian

    2017-02-06

    Extensive work has focused on the effects of nutrition label information on consumer behavior on the one hand, and on the effects of packaging graphics on the other hand. However, little work has examined how serving suggestion depictions - graphics relating to serving size - influence the quantity consumers serve themselves. The current work examines the prevalence of exaggerated serving size depictions on product packaging (study 1) and its effects on food serving in the context of cereal (study 2). Study 1 was an observational field survey of cereal packaging. Study 2 was a mixed experimental cross-sectional design conducted at a U.S. university, with 51 student participants. Study 1 coded 158 US breakfast cereals and compared the serving sizes depicted on the front of the box with the suggested serving size stated on the nutrition facts panel. Study 2 measured the amount of cereal poured from exaggerated or accurate serving size depictions. Study 1 compared average servings via t-tests. Study 2 used a mixed model with cereal type as the repeated measure and a compound symmetry covariance matrix. Study 1 demonstrated that portion size depictions on the front of 158 cereal boxes were 65.84% larger (221 vs. 134 calories) than the recommended portions on nutrition facts panels of those cereals. Study 2 showed that boxes that depicted exaggerated serving sizes led people to pour 20% more cereal compared to pouring from modified boxes that depicted a single-size portion of cereal matching suggested serving size. This was 45% over the suggested serving size. Biases in depicted serving size depicted on cereal packaging are prevalent in the marketplace. Such biases may lead to overserving, which may consequently lead to overeating. Companies should depict the recommended serving sizes, or otherwise indicate that the depicted portion represents an exaggerated serving size.

  6. Depicted serving size: cereal packaging pictures exaggerate serving sizes and promote overserving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aner Tal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive work has focused on the effects of nutrition label information on consumer behavior on the one hand, and on the effects of packaging graphics on the other hand. However, little work has examined how serving suggestion depictions - graphics relating to serving size - influence the quantity consumers serve themselves. The current work examines the prevalence of exaggerated serving size depictions on product packaging (study 1 and its effects on food serving in the context of cereal (study 2. Methods Study 1 was an observational field survey of cereal packaging. Study 2 was a mixed experimental cross-sectional design conducted at a U.S. university, with 51 student participants. Study 1 coded 158 US breakfast cereals and compared the serving sizes depicted on the front of the box with the suggested serving size stated on the nutrition facts panel. Study 2 measured the amount of cereal poured from exaggerated or accurate serving size depictions. Study 1 compared average servings via t-tests. Study 2 used a mixed model with cereal type as the repeated measure and a compound symmetry covariance matrix. Results Study 1 demonstrated that portion size depictions on the front of 158 cereal boxes were 64.7% larger (221 vs. 134 calories than the recommended portions on nutrition facts panels of those cereals. Study 2 showed that boxes that depicted exaggerated serving sizes led people to pour 17.8% more cereal compared to pouring from modified boxes that depicted a single-size portion of cereal matching suggested serving size. This was 42% over the suggested serving size. Conclusions Biases in depicted serving size depicted on cereal packaging are prevalent in the marketplace. Such biases may lead to overserving, which may consequently lead to overeating. Companies should depict the recommended serving sizes, or otherwise indicate that the depicted portion represents an exaggerated serving size.

  7. A notational analysis of elite tennis serve and serve-return strategies on slow surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Eric; Leroy, David; Thouvarecq, Régis; Stein, Jean-François

    2009-03-01

    A notational analysis of singles events at the French Open Grand Slam tournament was undertaken in 2005 and 2006 to characterize the game patterns and strategies of serve and serve-return and to determine their influence on the point issue on a clay court surface. One hundred sixteen men's singles matches were video analyzed. The flat serve (57.6%), particularly down the "T" location (50.3%), allowed servers to win significantly more points than the topspin (24.1%) and slice serves (18.3%). When the topspin was the first serve strategy, servers kept a high percentage of points won from the serve (52.4%). This strategy was essentially used on the second serve (91.6%) by playing the "T" location in the deuce court and the wide zone in the advantage court. Returns to the central zone allowed receivers to win more points (73.3% on first serve and 65.9% on second serve) than plays to external locations. The results highlight the high impact of the first shots of all opponents on the rally. Even on clay, the slowest court surface, serves and serve-returns remain the strokes that most influence the match results in modern tennis games.

  8. The Influence of Brewer’s Yeast Autolysate and Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Production of a Functional Food Additive Based on Beetroot Juice Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Baras

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of »functional foods« in the world is increasing, and the procedures for their production are under intense development. The goal of this paper is to optimise the production of a functional food additive based on beetroot juice (Beta vulgaris L. using brewer’s yeast autolysate. In order to improve the nutritive properties of the product and to preserve it, the possibility of beetroot juice fermentation using a Lactobacillus species has been investigated. Comparative investigations of three bacteria cultures (L. plantarum A112, L. acidophilus BGSJ15-3 and L. acidophilus NCDO1748 during fermentation in two media, beetroot juice and a mixture of beetroot juice with an autolysate of brewer´s yeast, have been performed. The poorest fermentative activity and growth in both substrates was observed using the L. acidophilus NCDO1748 culture. The two cultures demonstrated better fermentative activity in the mixture of tested substrates, while acidifying activity (production of lactic acid and a decrease in pH of the L. acidophilus BGSJ15-3 culture was considerably better than that of the L. plantarum A112 culture. L. plantarum A112 culture showed better growth than L. acidophilus BGSJ15-3. From the results obtained, it has been concluded that the L. plantarum A112 and L. acidophilus BGSJ15-3 can be successfully used for fermentation of the mixture of beetroot juice and brewer’s yeast autolysate in order to obtain a functional food additive.

  9. Unintended pregnancies among women serving in the Israeli military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenstreich, Misgav; Loitner, Limor; Dar, Shir; Kedem, Ron; Smorgick, Noam; Vaknin, Zvi

    2017-07-01

    The objective was to identify the prevalence of and variables associated with unintended pregnancy among young, unmarried women serving in the Israeli military. We performed a retrospective cohort study of unmarried women drafted by the Israeli military between 2013 and 2015 at the age of 18 years. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between unintended pregnancy and women's education, IQ, immigration status, country of origin, neighborhood socioeconomic status and history of psychiatric illness. Most women (n=127,262) did not become pregnant while serving in the Israeli military. Unintended pregnancy was reported by 2365, with an additional 6 women reporting pregnancy resulting from sexual assault and 5 an intended pregnancy. Annual rates of unintended pregnancy among young women serving in the Israeli military declined from 1.69% in 2013 to 1.56% in 2014 and 1.33% in 2015. In multivariable models, unintended pregnancy was more common among women soldiers who had not graduated from high school (adjusted relative risk [RR], 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.69-6.04) and those who were first-generation immigrants (adjusted RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.90-2.35). Unintended pregnancy is rare among women serving into the Israeli military. Increasing contraceptive use among women who have not graduated from high school may further reduce rates of unintended pregnancy among women serving in the Israeli military. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Blood glucose and liver function in dogs administered a xylitol drinking water additive at zero, one and five times dosage rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M.G. Anthony

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was designed to determine the safety of a drinking water additive that reduces plaque and calculus in dogs, and contains xylitol as an active ingredient. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in 15 crossbred dogs that were randomly divided into three groups and had their drinking water treated for 14 days with either: i a commercial health care product (BreathaLyser Plus at the recommended dosage, ii an experimental health care product (BreathaLyser Plus containing five times the amount of xylitol, or iii a placebo of purified water with a colour additive. Results demonstrated that the continuous administration of a commercial, drinking water, oral health product containing xylitol, at one and five times the normal inclusion rate, does not cause hypoglycemia or alter liver function in dogs.

  11. A polarization stabilizer up to 12.6 krad/s with an additional function of stable state of polarization transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Guang, Zhang; Guang-Qing, Fang; Xin-Yuan, Zhao; Wen-Bo, Zhang; Li-Xia, Xi; Qian-Jin, Xiong; Xi-Xiang, Li; Guang-Yong, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment about a novel method of polarization stabilization. The polarization stabilizer proposed here has an additional function of polarization transformation from any state of polarization into any others. The particle swarm optimization is introduced as a control algorithm in the process of either searching or endless tracking. The tracking speed of the stabilizer is obtained up to 12.6 krad/s by using hardware we have in the laboratory, which means that we can achieve a higher speed practical polarization stabilizer if we have faster hardware. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  12. Additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumith, A; Thomas, M; Shah, Z; Coathup, M; Blunn, G

    2018-04-01

    Increasing innovation in rapid prototyping (RP) and additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is bringing about major changes in translational surgical research. This review describes the current position in the use of additive manufacturing in orthopaedic surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:455-60.

  13. How Finland Serves Gifted and Talented Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…

  14. Ceramic-Based 4D Components: Additive Manufacturing (AM) of Ceramic-Based Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) by Thermoplastic 3D Printing (T3DP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, Uwe; Weingarten, Steven; Johne, Robert; Schwarzer, Eric; Abel, Johannes; Richter, Hans-Jürgen; Moritz, Tassilo; Michaelis, Alexander

    2017-11-28

    In our study, we investigated the additive manufacturing (AM) of ceramic-based functionally graded materials (FGM) by the direct AM technology thermoplastic 3D printing (T3DP). Zirconia components with varying microstructures were additively manufactured by using thermoplastic suspensions with different contents of pore-forming agents (PFA), which were co-sintered defect-free. Different materials were investigated concerning their suitability as PFA for the T3DP process. Diverse zirconia-based suspensions were prepared and used for the AM of single- and multi-material test components. All of the samples were sintered defect-free, and in the end, we could realize a brick wall-like component consisting of dense (<1% porosity) and porous (approx. 5% porosity) zirconia areas to combine different properties in one component. T3DP opens the door to the AM of further ceramic-based 4D components, such as multi-color, multi-material, or especially, multi-functional components.

  15. Structural-Geometric Functionalization of the Additively Manufactured Prototype of Biomimetic Multispiked Connecting Ti-Alloy Scaffold for Entirely Noncemented Resurfacing Arthroplasty Endoprostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Uklejewski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The multispiked connecting scaffold (MSC-Scaffold prototype, inspired by the biological system of anchorage of the articular cartilage in the periarticular trabecular bone by means of subchondral bone interdigitations, is the essential innovation in fixation of the bone in resurfacing arthroplasty (RA endoprostheses. The biomimetic MSC‐Scaffold, due to its complex geometric structure, can be manufactured only using additive technology, for example, selective laser melting (SLM. The major purpose of this work is determination of constructional possibilities for the structural-geometric functionalization of SLM‐manufactured MSC‐Scaffold prototype, compensating the reduced ability—due to the SLM technological limitations—to accommodate the ingrowing bone filling the interspike space of the prototype, which is important for the prototype bioengineering design. Confocal microscopy scanning of components of the SLM‐manufactured prototype of total hip resurfacing arthroplasty (THRA endoprosthesis with the MSC‐Scaffold was performed. It was followed by the geometric measurements of a variety of specimens designed as the fragments of the MSC-Scaffold of both THRA endoprosthesis components. The reduced ability to accommodate the ingrowing bone tissue in the SLM‐manufactured prototypes versus that in the corresponding CAD models has been quantitatively determined. Obtained results enabled to establish a way of compensatory structural‐geometric functionalization, allowing the MSC‐Scaffold adequate redesigning and manufacturing in additive SLM technology.

  16. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Food additives URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  17. Pomegranate extract and exercise provide additive benefits on improvement of immune function by inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress in high-fat-diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Pang, Wentao; Zhang, Ziyi; Zhao, Jialong; Wang, Xin; Liu, Ye; Wang, Xun; Feng, Zhihui; Zhang, Yong; Sun, Wenyan; Liu, Jiankang

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is reported to be associated with immune dysfunction and a state of low-grade, chronic inflammation. Either pomegranate extract (PomE) or exercise (Ex) has been shown to have antiobesity, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Nevertheless, no study has addressed the additive benefits of PomE and Ex on the restoration of obesity-induced immune defects. The present work aims to study the effect of PomE and Ex as a combined intervention on immune function and the underlying mechanism involved in inflammation and oxidative stress in rats with high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that the combination of PomE and Ex showed additive benefits on inhibition of HFD-induced body weight increase and improvement of HFD-induced immune dysfunction, including (a) attenuating the abnormality of histomorphology of the spleen, (b) increasing the ratio of the CD4+:CD8+ T cell subpopulations in splenocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), (c) inhibition of apoptosis in splenocytes and PBMC, (d) normalizing peritoneal macrophage phenotypes and (e) restoring immunomodulating factors in serum. We also find that immune dysfunction in HFD-fed rats was associated with increased inflammatory cytokine secretion and oxidative stress biomarkers, and that the combination of PomE and Ex effectively inhibited the inflammatory response and decreased oxidative damage. The effect of PomE and Ex as a combined intervention is greater than the effect of either PomE or Ex alone, showing that PomE and Ex may be additively effective in improving immune function in HFD-fed rats by inhibiting inflammation and decreasing oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of the addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy on cognitive function in patients with low-grade glioma: secondary analysis of RTOG 98-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Roshan S; Won, Minhee; Shaw, Edward G; Hu, Chen; Brachman, David G; Buckner, Jan C; Stelzer, Keith J; Barger, Geoffrey R; Brown, Paul D; Gilbert, Mark R; Mehta, Minesh P

    2014-02-20

    The addition of PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) chemotherapy to radiotherapy (RT) for patients with WHO grade 2 glioma improves progression-free survival (PFS). The effect of therapy intensification on cognitive function (CF) remains a concern in this population with substantial long-term survival. A total of 251 patients with WHO grade 2 glioma age ≥ 40 years with any extent of resection or age point. Both study arms experienced a significant gain in average MMSE score longitudinally over time, with no difference between arms. The MMSE is a relatively insensitive tool, and subtle changes in CF may have been missed. However, the addition of PCV to RT did not result in significantly higher rates of MMSE score decline than RT alone through 5 years of follow-up. Patients in both randomly assigned arms experienced a statistically significant average MMSE score increase over time, with no difference between arms. The addition of PCV chemotherapy to RT improves PFS without excessive CF detriment over RT alone for patients with low-grade glioma.

  19. Serving the fuel cycle: preparing tomorrow's packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.

    2001-01-01

    The main fleet of transport packagings serving today the fuel cycle was born more than 20 years ago. Or was it they? The present paper will show that serving the fuel cycle by preparing tomorrow's logistics is actually an on-going process, rather than a rupture. We shall review the great packagings of the fuel cycle: In the front end, the major actors are the UF 4 , UF 6 , enriched UF 6 , UO 2 powders, fresh fuel packagings. In the back end of the fuel cycle, we find the dry transport casks of the TN-12, TN-17, TN-13, family and also the Excellox wet flasks. In the waste management, a whole fleet of containers, culminating in the TN Gemini, are available or being created. (author)

  20. DO ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE TOOLS SERVE GOVERNANCE?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Ariff; J. Ratnatunga

    2008-01-01

    A brief review of recent literature on corporate governance is provided, which is then concluded with a proposed corporate governance framework as a starting point for further development. We propose that it is stakeholder concentration that determines the quality of corporate governance. Next objective of this paper is the more ambitious one of addressing the role of accounting and finance disciplines to serve corporate governance. We test empirically if the use of some accounting and financ...

  1. Serving Diverse Knowledge Systems in Academia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Birdsall

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Libraries and academic disciplines are experiencing a major transformation to the digital era. A challenge for libraries is to adapt and coordinate their transformation with differing rates and types of changes in teaching, research, and scholarly communication among the disciplines they serve. This paper argues libraries need to acknowledge the diversity of knowledge systems and adopt a strategy that requires collaboration between libraries and multiple communities of knowing in the development and provision of heterogeneous services.

  2. Research brief : Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Shimizu, M.; Wansink, B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a

  3. Toss differences between the slice serve and the kick serve in tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Carboch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pre-contact information of servers' motion is important for receiving players in tennis. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine whether serving players use the same ball toss for kick serve (KS and slice serve (SS at two different directions of serves, from the receiver's view. Methods: 10 male right-handed professional tennis players with an average ATP ranking of 533 were videotaped from the receiver's view using a high-speed video camera (200 Hz. Firstly, they served SS and then KS from deuce court. After reaching 3 successful SS and 3 KS to the correct location, the same procedure followed from the ad court. Kinematic analysis was used to obtain the point of ball release, vertical toss peak and racquet-ball contact. Results: Even though the release point was found nearly in the same location, the vertical toss peak of KS was horizontally to the right compared to SS and the point of racquet ball-contact of KS was even more to the right by approximately 30 cm from the receiver's view. Similar findings were obtained from deuce court and ad court. Conclusions: We found differences in the ball toss execution between KS and SS. The serve toss can provide useful information for receiving players. Serving players should use the same toss for each type of serve to hide their intention.

  4. Evaluation of the crude oil viscosity variation in function of the demulsifiers addition; Avaliacao da variacao da viscosidade de oleo cru em funcao da adicao de desemulsificante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Jansen M.; Lucas, Elisabete F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br; Neves, Guilherme B.M. [COMAB Especialidades Quimicas Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: tecnico@comabrio.com

    2003-07-01

    One way of improving well production is the addition of demulsifier already in the gas lift. This is due to the apparent viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions being higher than apparent viscosity of crude oil, which in turn is higher than the apparent viscosity of an water-in-oil dual phase admixture and is also higher than the apparent viscosity of an oil-in-water emulsion. However, there are some situations where, in order to obtain separate flows of oil and water phases, demulsifier should be added in specific amounts in order to promote the desired phase separation. In heavy oils water and oil phase separation may be hard to obtain, however, the right demulsifier amount may imply in a considerable decrease in petroleum viscosity even without the appearance of two phases, making the flow easier. This work has evaluated the viscosity of a heavy crude having API degree 14 and BSW 52%, as a function of the addition of different amounts of DEMTROL BR 67, manufactured by Dow Quimica/Comab, Brazil, as demulsifier. (author)

  5. Addition of interferon-alpha to a standard maturation cocktail induces CD38 up-regulation and increases dendritic cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trepiakas, Redas; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Met, Ozcan

    2009-01-01

    Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) are used as adjuvant cells in cancer immunotherapy and have shown promising results. In order to obtain full functional capacity, these DCs need to be maturated, and the current "gold standard" for this process is maturation with TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6...... a functional relationship between CD38, IFN-alpha and TLR3. Thus, CD38 appear to be a relevant marker for activation by TLR3 or IFN-alpha. Addition of IFN-alpha to the sDC cocktail results in up-regulation of both CD38 and CD83 and improved capacity for induction of autologous T-cell responses despite few...... other changes in DC phenotype and cytokine secretion. Our observations suggest that IFN-alpha could be included in maturation protocols for clinical grade DCs used for immunotherapy against cancer and should be included if DCs are used for CD8+ T-cell stimulation in vitro....

  6. The effects of exercise training in addition to energy restriction on functional capacities and body composition in obese adults during weight loss: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint T Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. RESULTS: Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. CONCLUSION: Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits.

  7. The Effects of Exercise Training in Addition to Energy Restriction on Functional Capacities and Body Composition in Obese Adults during Weight Loss: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E.; Dixon, John B.; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. Results Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. Conclusion Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits. PMID:24409219

  8. Acquaintance molestation and youth-serving organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Kenneth V; Dietz, Park

    2014-10-01

    This article is based not only on the research literature but also on the extensive field experience of the authors in consulting with investigators, attorneys, and organizations on the prevention, investigation, prosecution, and civil litigation of molestation of children within or in connection with youth-serving organizations. Acquaintance molesters have often pursued careers or sought out paid or volunteer work with organizations through which they can meet children. To address the problem of such offenders, it is necessary for youth-serving organizations to recognize the diversity of sexual activity, the phenomena of "nice-guy" offenders and compliant child victims, and the grooming/seduction process, each of which is reviewed here. The four most important protection practices for organizations are screening; management, and supervision; response to suspicions, allegations, and complaints; and prevention and awareness programs. The authors recommend general approaches to each of these and describe the reasons many organizations resist implementing available preventive measures. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Virtual Globes: Serving Science and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Qureshi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Globes reached the mass market in 2005. They created multi-million dollar businesses in a very short time by providing novel ways to explore data geographically. We use the term “Virtual Globes” as the common denominator for technologies offering capabilities to annotate, edit and publish geographic information to a world-wide audience and to visualize information provided by the public and private sectors, as well as by citizens who volunteer new data. Unfortunately, but not surprising for a new trend or paradigm, overlapping terms such as “Virtual Globes”, “Digital Earth”, “Geospatial Web”, “Geoportal” or software specific terms are used heterogeneously. We analyze the terminologies and trends in scientific publications and ask whether these developments serve science and society. While usage can be answered quantitatively, the authors reason from the literature studied that these developments serve to educate the masses and may help to democratize geographic information by extending the producer base. We believe that we can contribute to a better distinction between software centered terms and the generic concept as such. The power of the visual, coupled with the potential of spatial analysis and modeling for public and private purposes raises new issues of reliability, standards, privacy and best practice. This is increasingly addressed in scientific literature but the required body of knowledge is still in its infancy.

  10. Additive Manufacturing of Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division. Polymers and Coatings

    2016-08-30

    Additive manufacturing has become a tool of choice for the development of customizable components. Developments in this technology have led to a powerful array of printers that t serve a variety of needs. However, resin development plays a crucial role in leading the technology forward. This paper addresses the development and application of printing hierarchical porous structures. Beginning with the development of a porous scaffold, which can be functionalized with a variety of materials, and concluding with customized resins for metal, ceramic, and carbon structures.

  11. Position paper, need for additional waste storage capacity and recommended path forward for project W-236a, Multi-function Waste Tank Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadalla, N.G.

    1994-01-01

    Project W-236a, Multi-function waste Tank Facility (MWTF), was initiated to increase the safe waste storage capacity for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) by building two new one million gallon underground storage tanks in the 200 West Area and four tanks in the 200 East Area. Construction of the tanks was scheduled to begin in September 1994 with operations beginning in calendar year (CY) 1998. However, recent reviews have raised several issues regarding the mission, scope, and schedule of the MWTF. The decision to build new tanks must consider several elements, such as: Operational risk and needs -- Operational risk and flexibility must be managed such that any identified risk is reduced as soon as practicable; The amount of waste that will be generated in the future -- Additional needed tank capacity must be made available to support operations and maintain currently planned safety improvement activities; Safety issues -- The retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks (SSTs) and watch list tanks will add to the total amount of waste that must be stored in a double-shell tank (DST); Availability of existing DSTs -- The integrity of the 28 existing DSTs must be continuously managed; and Affect on other projects and programs -- Because MWTF systems have been integrated with other projects, a decision on one project will affect another. In addition the W-236a schedule is logically tied to support retrieval and safety program plans. Based on the above, two new tanks are needed for safe waste storage in the 200 West Area, and they need to be built as soon as practicable. Design should continue for the tanks in the 200 East Area with a decision made by September, on whether to construct them. Construction of the cross-site transfer line should proceed as scheduled. To implement this recommendation several actions need to be implemented

  12. Additive manufacturing technology (direct metal laser sintering) as a novel approach to fabricate functionally graded titanium implants: preliminary investigation of fabrication parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Shao; Starr, Thomas L; Harris, Bryan T; Zandinejad, Amirali; Morton, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the preliminary findings of the mechanical properties of functionally graded titanium with controlled distribution of porosity and a reduced Young's modulus on the basis of a computeraided design (CAD) file, using the rapid-prototyping, direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technique. Sixty specimens of Ti-6Al-4V were created using a DMLS machine (M270) following the standard for tensile testing of metals. One group was fabricated with only 170 W of laser energy to create fully dense specimens (control group). The remaining specimens all featured an outer fully dense "skin" layer and a partially sintered porous inner "core" region. The outer "skin" of each specimen was scanned at 170 W and set at a thickness of 0.35, 1.00, or 1.50 mm for different specimen groups. The inner "core" of each specimen was scanned at a lower laser power (43 or 85 W). The partially sintered core was clearly visible in all specimens, with somewhat greater porosity with the lower laser power. However, the amount of porosity in the core region was not related to the laser power alone; thinner skin layers resulted in higher porosity for the same power values in the core structure. The lowest Young's modulus achieved, 35 GPa, is close to that of bone and was achieved with a laser power of 43 W and a skin thickness of 0.35 mm, producing a core that comprised 74% of the total volume. Additive manufacturing technology may provide an efficient alternative way to fabricate customized dental implants based on a CAD file with a functionally graded structure that may minimize stress shielding and improve the long-term performance of dental implants.

  13. Utilities' ''obligation to serve'' under deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    The utility no longer has protected status, and the traditional franchise concept is under attack. Exclusive rights once conveyed to the utilities are being denied and not just in the area of gas sales. Exclusive rights once conveyed to utilities will be denied in more areas. State by state, the utilities' franchise is being examined to see which, if any, of its provisions are necessary in a deregulated environment. Can the free market provide everything that's been provided for many years under monopolistic arrangements? Some of the most critical and difficult of these provisions concern the obligation to serve, which utilities, in most states, have assumed as part of their franchise agreement. Regulators, courts, utilities, marketers and others are busy sorting through these issues, but resolution could take years. The paper discusses deregulation, universal service fee, representation without taxation, suppliers and marketer restrictions

  14. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Monteagudo

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors.The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%. The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69 and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals.The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations.

  15. Functional solid additive modified PEDOT:PSS as an anode buffer layer for enhanced photovoltaic performance and stability in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Binrui; Gopalan, Sai-Anand; Gopalan, Anantha-Iyengar; Muthuchamy, Nallal; Lee, Kwang-Pill; Lee, Jae-Sung; Jiang, Yu; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Sae-Wan; Kim, Ju-Seong; Jeong, Hyun-Min; Kwon, Jin-Beon; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Won

    2017-01-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is most commonly used as an anode buffer layer in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs). However, its hygroscopic and acidic nature contributes to the insufficient electrical conductivity, air stability and restricted photovoltaic (PV) performance for the fabricated PSCs. In this study, a new multifunctional additive, 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DOH), has been used in the PEDOT: PSS buffer layer to obtain modified properties for PEDOT: PSS@DOH and achieve high PV performances. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS@DOH films was markedly improved compared with that of PEDOT:PSS. The PEDOT:PSS@DOH film exhibited excellent optical characteristics, appropriate work function alignment, and good surface properties in BHJ-PSCs. When a poly(3-hexylthiohpene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend system was applied as the photoactive layer, the power conversion efficiency of the resulting PSCs with PEDOT:PSS@DOH(1.0%) reached 3.49%, outperforming pristine PEDOT:PSS, exhibiting a power conversion enhancement of 20%. The device fabricated using PEDOT:PSS@DOH (1.0 wt%) also exhibited improved thermal and air stability. Our results also confirm that DOH, a basic pyridine derivative, facilitates adequate hydrogen bonding interactions with the sulfonic acid groups of PSS, induces the conformational transformation of PEDOT chains and contributes to the phase separation between PEDOT and PSS chains. PMID:28338088

  16. Development and Quality Evaluation of Ready to Serve (RTS Beverage from Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hemalatha

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a process for the development of ready to serve (RTS beverages from enzyme liquefied (pectinase Cape gooseberry juice with additives and preservatives. Storage stability of the RTS beverage at both refrigerated temperature (LT: 4 ± 1 °C and room temperature (RT: 27 ± 2 °C were evaluated for 90 days for microbial, sensorial and physicochemical quality parameters. The stability of RTS beverage stored at LT (4 ± 1 °C was excellent with a retention of the primary quality attributes ascorbic acid (15.44 mg/100 mL, total phenolic content (15.50 mg GAE/100 mL, total carotene (1.07 mg/100 mL, β-carotene (0.78 mg/100 mL, high viscosity (30.29 cp, and with high sensory scores of the product (8.3 up to 90 days as compared to the overall acceptability (6.5 of RT stored RTS for 60 days. Additionally, both the LT and RT stored RTS beverages had microbial counts within the permissible limits. Therefore, both beverages were safe to consume at the end of storage duration. In conclusion, the RTS beverage developed from Cape gooseberry could be served as functional health drink alternative to synthetic soft drinks due to its unique features (high nutritive values, high organoleptic values and high stability of the product.

  17. Local Public Libraries Serve Important Functions as Meeting Places, but Demographic Variables Appear Significant, Suggesting a Need for Extensive Further Research. A Review of: Aabø, S., Audunson, R., & Vårheim, A. (2010. How do public libraries function as meeting places? Library & Information Science Research, 32(1, 16-26. doi: 10.1016/j.lisr.2009.07.008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Laval Hunsucker

    2012-03-01

    joint-activities” types of meetings is also considerably more common among those with a non-Norwegian cultural/linguistic background. Frequency of library use in general was not related to participation in either of these two types of meetings at the library, but it was related to library use for the more low-intensive meeting types (chance meetings and encounters, library as rendezvous point for joint activities elsewhere, as well as to what the investigators term using the library as a “metameeting place,” i.e., a place for finding “information about other arenas and activities” in the local community.Conclusion – The local public library seems to serve, for many of its patrons, an important function as venue for meetings of various kinds. In general, using it for meeting purposes appears to be something that appeals more to younger than to older adults, more to those in the lower than to those in the higher income categories, and more to those with an immigrant than to those with an indigenous background. The perhaps even less expected finding that use of the library for a relatively intensive, instrumental kind of meeting activity correlates significantly with a lower level of education would particularly suggest a need for further research. Noteworthy, as well, is the apparent fact that those who make use of the local public library as a venue for relatively intensive meeting activity, whether physical or virtual, tend to come to the library expressly for that purpose, and visit the library less often for other reasons than do other library users. The urban districts in which respondents resided were in fact not internally homogeneous enough, nor socio-economically distinct enough from one another, to yield correlations of practical evidentiary value.It was the researchers’ working assumption that their three independent variables of community engagement – i.e., level of participation in local activities, degree of involvement in community improvement activities, and

  18. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  19. Serving Data to the GLAST Users Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    The scientific community will access the public GLAST data through the website of the GLAST Science Support Center (GSSC). For most data products the GSSC website will link to the NASA High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center's (HEASARC) Browse interface, which will actually serve the data. For example, data from the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) from a given burst will be packaged together and accessible through Browse. However, the photon and event data produced by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), GLAST's primary instrument, will be distributed through a custom GSSC interface. These data will be collected over the LAT's large field-of-view, usually while the LAT is scanning the sky, and thus photons from a particular direction cannot be attributed to a single 'observation' in the traditional sense. Users will request all photons detected from a region on the sky over a specified time and energy range. Through its website the GSSC will also provide long and short term science timelines, spacecraft position and attitude histories, exposure maps and other scientific data products. The different data products provided by the GSSC will be described

  20. Preparation of Ready to Serve Grape Juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mya Mya Than, Daw; Molly Ahad, Daw; Khin Khin Lay, Daw

    1997-10-01

    Studies were carried out at the Food Technology Research Department of Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department to prepare ready to serve grape juice from ripe fruits of the red varieties of grapes. The sugar content of grapes varied from (10) to (14) % depending on the season. To get a maximum content of (16) % sugar in the juice, (2) to (6) % sugar was added. The yields of the seasonal grape juice varied from (62.5) to (72.2) % by weight. The tannin content was (0.36) % by volume in the fresh juice. It was decreased to (0.03) % by volume after the cold storage at (10)C for (10 to 15) days. The pH of the original fruit juice was (3.2). The best juice was obtain when the pH of the juice was(4.0). To obtain the higher yield of the juice, desirable bright colour and rapid clarification, (0.01) %. Pectinex enzyme was added. In this investigation grape juice was preserved with (0.1) % sodium benzoate. Storage studies, which also included microbiological aspects indicated that the pasteurized grape juice bottle can be stored at room temperature for minimum (6) months without any deterioration in quality

  1. Self-serving bias effects on job analysis ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucina, Jeffrey M; Martin, Nicholas R; Vasilopoulos, Nicholas L; Thibodeuax, Henry F

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether worker-oriented job analysis importance ratings were influenced by subject matter experts' (SME) standing (as measured by self-rated performance) on a competency. This type of relationship (whereby SMEs indicate that the traits they have are important for successful job performance) is an example of the self-serving bias (which is widely described in the social cognition literature and rarely described in the industrial/organizational psychology literature). An archival dataset covering 57 clerical and technical occupations with 26,682 participants was used. Support was found for the relationship between self-rated performance and importance ratings. Significant relationships (typically in the .30s) were observed for all 31 competencies that were studied. Controls were taken to account for common method bias and differences in the competencies required for each of the 57 occupations. Past research has demonstrated the effects of the self-serving bias on personality-based job analysis ratings. This study was the first to extend these findings to traditional job analysis, which covers other competencies in addition to personality. In addition, this study is the first to use operational field data instead of laboratory data.

  2. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A.; Maislin, Greg; Mullington, Janet M.; Dinges, David F.

    2003-01-01

    were near-linearly related to the cumulative duration of wakefulness in excess of 15.84 h (s.e. 0.73 h). CONCLUSIONS: Since chronic restriction of sleep to 6 h or less per night produced cognitive performance deficits equivalent to up to 2 nights of total sleep deprivation, it appears that even relatively moderate sleep restriction can seriously impair waking neurobehavioral functions in healthy adults. Sleepiness ratings suggest that subjects were largely unaware of these increasing cognitive deficits, which may explain why the impact of chronic sleep restriction on waking cognitive functions is often assumed to be benign. Physiological sleep responses to chronic restriction did not mirror waking neurobehavioral responses, but cumulative wakefulness in excess of a 15.84 h predicted performance lapses across all four experimental conditions. This suggests that sleep debt is perhaps best understood as resulting in additional wakefulness that has a neurobiological "cost" which accumulates over time.

  3. Examination of neural systems sub-serving facebook "addiction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-12-01

    Because addictive behaviors typically result from violated homeostasis of the impulsive (amygdala-striatal) and inhibitory (prefrontal cortex) brain systems, this study examined whether these systems sub-serve a specific case of technology-related addiction, namely Facebook "addiction." Using a go/no-go paradigm in functional MRI settings, the study examined how these brain systems in 20 Facebook users (M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 1.3, range = 18-23) who completed a Facebook addiction questionnaire, responded to Facebook and less potent (traffic sign) stimuli. The findings indicated that at least at the examined levels of addiction-like symptoms, technology-related "addictions" share some neural features with substance and gambling addictions, but more importantly they also differ from such addictions in their brain etiology and possibly pathogenesis, as related to abnormal functioning of the inhibitory-control brain system.

  4. Serving some and serving all: how providers navigate the challenges of providing racially targeted health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Amy

    2017-10-01

    Racially targeted healthcare provides racial minorities with culturally and linguistically appropriate health services. This mandate, however, can conflict with the professional obligation of healthcare providers to serve patients based on their health needs. The dilemma between serving a particular population and serving all is heightened when the patients seeking care are racially diverse. This study examines how providers in a multi-racial context decide whom to include or exclude from health programs. This study draws on 12 months of ethnographic fieldwork at an Asian-specific HIV organization. Fieldwork included participant observation of HIV support groups, community outreach programs, and substance abuse recovery groups, as well as interviews with providers and clients. Providers managed the dilemma in different ways. While some programs in the organization focused on an Asian clientele, others de-emphasized race and served a predominantly Latino and African American clientele. Organizational structures shaped whether services were delivered according to racial categories. When funders examined client documents, providers prioritized finding Asian clients so that their documents reflected program goals to serve the Asian population. In contrast, when funders used qualitative methods, providers could construct an image of a program that targets Asians during evaluations while they included other racial minorities in their everyday practice. Program services were organized more broadly by health needs. Even within racially targeted programs, the meaning of race fluctuates and is contested. Patients' health needs cross cut racial boundaries, and in some circumstances, the boundaries of inclusion can expand beyond specific racial categories to include racial minorities and underserved populations more generally.

  5. Hand-held ultrasound serving three EDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Having a portable ultrasound available to your ED will enable you to perform scans during the nighttime hours, instead of having patients wait for several hours until the radiology department opens. Additional time can be saved by having a technologist read the scans, which frees your ED physicians for other duties. Having ED docs contact the technologist directly, rather than going through a resident, also saves valuable time. Arriving at a diagnosis more quickly provides a boost to patient safety.

  6. Mechanical and functional properties of two-phase Ni53Mn22Co6Ga19 high-temperature shape memory alloy with the addition of Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S Y; Wang, C P; Liu, X J

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Dy addition on microstructure, martensitic transformation, mechanical and shape memory properties of the two-phase Ni 53 Mn 22 Co 6 Ga 19 high-temperature shape memory alloy were investigated. It is found that a small Dy addition results in the refinement of grain size, which can effectively improve the tensile ductility and strength of the two-phase Ni 53 Mn 22 Co 6 Ga 19 alloy. However, a Dy(Ni,Mn) 4 Ga precipitate forms in the alloys with the Dy addition, and its amount increases with an increase in the Dy addition. This change causes the ductility of the alloys to decrease when the Dy addition is further increased to 0.3 at.%. The results further show that the changes in the martensitic transformation temperature of the studied alloys can be attributed to the combined effects of the tetragonality (c/a) and electron concentration (e/a) of martensite. Additionally, the shape memory effects of the alloys are closely related to the refinement of grain size and the alloy strength. In this study, the (Ni 53 Mn 22 Co 6 Ga 19 ) 99.8 Dy 0.2 alloy exhibits a variety of good properties, including a high martensitic transformation starting temperature of 385.7 °C, a tensile ductility of 10.3% and a shape memory effect of 2.8%. (paper)

  7. Synthesis and Properties of Chiral Thioureas Bearing an Additional Function at a Remote Position Tethered by a 1,5-Disubstituted Triazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiji Takemoto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and properties of multifunctional thioureas bearing a variety of functional groups at a position remote from the thiourea moiety are described. A 1,5-disubstituted triazole tether connected with a thiourea and another functional group was synthesized via ruthenium catalyzed Huisgen cycloaddition. We demonstrate the utility of the synthetic thioureas as asymmetric catalysts and probes for the mechanistic elucidation of the course of the Michael reaction of an α,β-unsaturated imide

  8. Long-term addition of fertilizer, labile carbon, and fungicide alters the biomass of plant functional groups in a subarctic-alpine community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz-Hardenberg-Reventlow, M S; Michelsen, A.

    2011-01-01

    experiment on a subarctic-alpine fellfield dominated by woody evergreen shrubs, bryophytes, and lichens. To manipulate nutrient availability additions of NPK fertilizer, labile C, and fungicide (benomyl) were done in a fully factorial design, replicated in six blocks. The treatments were run for 10 years...... vascular plant groups. Also, limitation of soil nutrient availability caused by labile C addition decreased the relative proportion of green shoots in evergreen shrubs, although these were expected to cope better with the nutrient limitation than the opportunistic graminoids, which, by contrast, were...... unaffected. Reduced fungal biomass due to benomyl addition was accompanied by increased evergreen shrub and clubmoss biomass. Taken together, the effects of treatments were most pronounced 16 years after initiation of the experiment, but despite changes in biomass the overall plant community composition...

  9. Worsening diastolic function is associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose and increased left ventricular mass in a supra-additive fashion in an elderly, healthy, Swedish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Gerke, Oke

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether increasing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were associated with worsening left ventricular (LV) diastolic function, independently of LV mass index (LVMI) in elderly, otherwise healthy subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested cross-sectional associations between...... echocardiographically determined averaged E/é ratio/diastolic function, LVMI, cardiovascular risk factors, and FPG categorized as normal (NFG), impaired (IFG), and new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM), in 483 men and 208 women aged 56-79years without overt cardiovascular disease, who received no cardiovascular, anti...

  10. Effects of organic additives with oxygen- and nitrogen-containing functional groups on the negative electrolyte of vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jianlei; Liu, Suqin; He, Zhangxing; Han, Huiguo; Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    DL-malic acid and L-aspartic acid are investigated as additives for the negative electrolyte of vanadium redox flow battery (VFRB) to improve its stability and electrochemical performance. The stability experiments indicate that the addition of L-aspartic acid into the 2 M V(III) electrolyte can stabilize the electrolyte by delaying its precipitation. The results of cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show that the V(III) electrolyte with both additives demonstrates enhanced electrochemical activity and reversibility. The introduction of DL-malic acid and L-aspartic acid can increase the diffusion coefficient of V(III) species and facilitate the charge transfer of V(III)/V(II) redox reaction. Between the two additives, the effect of L-aspartic acid is more remarkable. Moreover, the VFRB cell employing negative electrolyte with L-aspartic acid exhibits excellent cycling stability and achieves higher average energy efficiency (76.4%) compared to the pristine cell (73.8%). The comparison results with the cell employing L-aspartic acid pre-treated electrode confirm that L-aspartic acid in the electrolyte can modify the electrode by constantly providing oxygen- and nitrogen-containing groups, leading to the enhancement of electrochemical performance

  11. 28 CFR 522.14 - Inmates serving civil contempt commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmates serving civil contempt... ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER ADMISSION TO INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.14 Inmates serving civil contempt commitments. We treat inmates serving civil contempt commitments in...

  12. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if no...

  13. Basic functions and bilateral estimatesin the stability problems of elastic non-uniformly compressed rods expressed in terms of bending moments with additional conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupavtsev Vladimir Vladimirovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The method of two-sided evaluations is extended to the problems of stability of an elastic non-uniformly compressed rod, the variation formulations of which may be presented in terms of internal bending moments with uniform integral conditions. The problems are considered, in which one rod end is fixed and the other rod end is either restraint or pivoted, or embedded into a support which may be shifted in a transversal direction.For the substantiation of the lower evaluations determination, a sequence of functionals is constructed, the minimum values of which are the lower evaluations for the minimum critical value of the loading parameter of the rod, and the calculation process is reduced to the determination of the maximum eigenvalues of modular matrices. The matrix elements are expressed in terms of integrals of basic functions depending on the type of fixation of the rod ends. The basic functions, with the accuracy up to a linear polynomial, are the same as the bending moments arising with the bifurcation of the equilibrium of a rod with a constant cross-section compressed by longitudinal forces at the rod ends. The calculation of the upper evaluation is reduced to the determination of the maximum eigenvalue of the matrix, which almost coincides with one of the elements of the modular matrices. It is noted that the obtained upper bound evaluation is not worse thanthe evaluation obtained by the Ritz method with the use of the same basic functions.

  14. Adrenomedullin and angiopoietin-1 additively restore erectile function in diabetic rats: comparison with the combination therapy of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Etsu; Nomiya, Akira; Niimi, Aya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Homma, Yukio

    2013-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a major health problem. We have shown that adrenomedullin (AM) restores erectile function in diabetic rats. The aim of this study is to explore a better treatment for ED, we examined whether combination of AM and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) was more effective to treat ED than treatment with AM alone or Ang-1 alone. We also compared the effect of the combination therapy with that of treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes. Adenoviruses expressing AM (AdAM), Ang-1 (AdAng-1), and VEGF-A (AdVEGF-A) were injected into the penis 6 weeks after STZ administration. Erectile function, penile histology, and protein expression were analyzed 4 weeks after the injection of the adenoviruses. Intracavernous pressure and mean arterial pressure were measured to evaluate erectile function. The morphology of the penis was analyzed by Elastica van Gieson stain and immunohistochemistry. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), VE-cadherin and type I collagen was assessed by Western blot analysis. Infection with AdAM plus AdAng-1 more effectively restored erectile function than infection with AdAM alone or AdAng-1 alone. This combination therapy restored erectile function to a level similar to that observed in the age-matched Wistar rats. Expression of SMA and VE-cadherin increased more significantly in the AdAM plus AdAng-1-treated group than in the AdAM- or AdAng-1-treated group. Although AdVEGF-A infection restored erectile function significantly, it also caused enlargement of the trabeculae of the cavernous body, aberrant angiogenesis, and overproduction of type I collagen. These results suggested that combination therapy with AM and Ang-1 potently restored erectile function and normal morphology of the cavernous body compared with VEGF-A administration. This combination therapy will be useful to treat ED patients with a severely damaged cavernous body.

  15. Unregulated serving sizes on the Canadian nutrition facts table – an invitation for manufacturer manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Yin Man Chan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serving sizes on the Nutrition Facts table (NFt on Canadian packaged foods have traditionally been unregulated and non-standardized. The federal government recently passed legislation to regulate the serving sizes listed on the NFt. The objective of this study was to compare the serving sizes on food product NFts to the recommendations in the 2003 Nutrition Labelling regulation (Schedule M reference amounts, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA ranges, and Canada’s Food Guide recommendations. An additional objective was to determine if food and beverage products that report smaller serving sizes have a higher calorie density, compared to similar products with a larger serving size. Methods Data for 10,487 products were retrieved from the 2010 Food Label Information Program (FLIP database and categorized according to Schedule M categories. Correlations between calorie density and manufacturer stated serving size were tested and the proportion of products meeting recommendations were tabulated. Results 35% of products had serving sizes on the NFt that were smaller than the Schedule M reference amount and 23% exceeded the reference amount. 86% of products fell within the CFIA’s recommended serving size ranges; however, 70% were within the lower-half of the range. Several bread and juice categories exceeded CFG’s recommendations, while several dairy product categories were smaller than the recommendations. Of the 50 Schedule M sub-categories analyzed, 31 (62% exhibited a negative correlation between serving size and calorie density. Conclusion While most products fell within the CFIA’s recommended serving size ranges, there was a tendency for products with a higher calorie density to list smaller serving sizes.

  16. Variations in serving sizes of Australian snack foods and confectionery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Wendy L; Kury, Alexandra; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Dunford, Elizabeth; Chapman, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the serving size and energy content per serving of Australian packaged snack foods and confectionery products. Nutrition Information Panel data for 23 sub-categories of packaged snack foods (n = 3481) were extracted from The George Institute for Global Health's 2013 branded food composition database. Variations in serving size and energy content per serving were examined. Energy contents per serving were compared to recommendations in the Australian Dietary Guidelines. Serving sizes varied within and between snack food categories. Mean energy content per serving varied from 320 kJ to 899 kJ. More energy per serving than the recommended 600 kJ was displayed by 22% (n = 539) of snack foods classified in the Australian Dietary Guidelines as discretionary foods. The recommendation for energy content per serving was exceeded in 60% (n = 635) of snack foods from the Five Food Groups. Only 37% (n = 377) of confectionery products displayed the industry-agreed serving size of 25 g. Energy content per serving of many packaged snack foods do not align with the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the industry agreed serving size has not been taken up widely within the confectionery category. Given the inconsistencies in serving sizes, featuring serving size in front-of-pack information may hinder the objective of a clear and simple nutrition message. Messaging to help consumers make healthier choices should consider the variation in serving sizes on packaged snack foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-Serving Bias or Simply Serving the Self? Evidence for a Dimensional Approach to Narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborski, Michael; Brown, Ryan P; Chowning, Karolyn

    2012-06-01

    Previous research has suggested that narcissism can be conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of the related, but unique, dimensions of grandiosity and entitlement. The current studies examined the divergent associations of grandiosity and entitlement with respect to different types of self-serving strategies. In Study 1, we found that narcissistic grandiosity, but not entitlement, was positively associated with a self-enhancing strategy of unrealistic optimism. This association was not mediated by self-esteem. In Study 2, narcissistic entitlement, but not grandiosity, was predictive of unethical decision-making, an interpersonal self-promotional strategy that advances the self at the expense of others. Together, both studies support a model of narcissism consisting of a relatively intrapersonal dimension of grandiosity and a relatively interpersonal dimension of entitlement.

  18. Poly(ethylene glycol)s as grinding additives in the mechanochemical preparation of highly functionalized 3,5-disubstituted hydantoins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascitti, Andrea; Lupacchini, Massimiliano; Guerra, Ruben; Taydakov, Ilya; Tonucci, Lucia; d'Alessandro, Nicola; Lamaty, Frederic; Martinez, Jean; Colacino, Evelina

    2017-01-01

    The mechanochemical preparation of highly functionalized 3,5-disubstituted hydantoins was investigated in the presence of various poly(ethylene) glycols (PEGs), as safe grinding assisting agents (liquid-assisted grinding, LAG). A comparative study under dry-grinding conditions was also performed. The results showed that the cyclization reaction was influenced by the amount of the PEG grinding agents. In general, cleaner reaction profiles were observed in the presence of PEGs, compared to dry-grinding procedures.

  19. Optimisation and Evaluation of the Effect of Bambara Groundnut Addition on the Nutritional Quality and Functional Properties of Amaranth Grain-Based Composite Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awolu Olugbenga Olufemi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional quality and functional properties of composite flour consisting amaranth grain, bambara groundnut, carrot and rice bran flours were evaluated. The dependent variables were optimized using optimal mixture model of response surface methodology. Amaranth grain flour (70 – 80.75%, bambara groundnut flour (15-25%, carrot flour (2-5% and rice bran (2-10% were the independent variables. From the results, very high protein content (about 40% was obtained when the bambara content inclusion was 25%. Bambara groundnut flour inclusion up to 15% also resulted in high protein contents (≤ 37%. Supplementation of the composite flour with high carrot flour content (up to 10% also enhanced the protein content when the bambara groundnut content was low. High carrot flour inclusion had the highest positive effect on the crude fibre content (3.7-3.9% followed by rice bran and bambara groundnut flours in that order. Bambara groundnut had highest positive effect on the ash content; followed by carrot and rice flours. While amaranth grain, carrot and rice bran significantly (p≤0.05 affect the proximate and functional compositions, bambara groundnut had the highest and best effect on the proximate, functional, mineral properties as well as the amino acid profile of the composite flour.

  20. Permafrost knowledge to serve as foundation for Inuit community planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibéryen, T.; Allard, M.

    2011-12-01

    With the recent announcement of Québec's provincial government's Plan Nord, Nunavik will see a 500 new houses sweep onto it's territory over the next 5 years. The local Inuit communities are confronted with the pressuring need to find suitable land to safely accommodate the new infrastructures in the long term. Additional to human and environmental constraints are those related to warming permafrost. Intensive studies on four Nunavik communities (Inukjuak, Puvirnituq, Akulivik, Kangirsuk) have allowed us to extensively consult local and regional authorities on their planning and management considerations. Recent and archived drilling data have been used to corroborate air photo interpretation, surficial geology and permafrost mapping. All collected information are integrated into aggregated maps that will eventually serve as community master plans. General recommendations on how to best manage and plan for community expansions on warming permafrost are made. Appropriate engineering techniques assuring long-term stable foundations are outlined and additionally mapped, taking into consideration the variable terrain conditions and simulated changes in permafrost temperature and active layer thickness according to climate change scenarios. The final purpose of our results is for them to support local and regional governments in their community planning process towards the best possible climate change adaptation strategies.

  1. Properties of Resistive Hydrogen Sensors as a Function of Additives of 3 D-Metals Introduced in the Volume of Thin Nanocrystalline SnO2 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevast'yanov, E. Yu.; Maksimova, N. K.; Potekaev, A. I.; Sergeichenko, N. V.; Chernikov, E. V.; Almaev, A. V.; Kushnarev, B. O.

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of the results of studying electrical and gas sensitive characteristics of the molecular hydrogen sensors based on thin nanocrystalline SnO2 films coated with dispersed Au layers and containing Au+Ni and Au+Co impurities in the bulk showed that the characteristics of these sensors are more stable under the prolonged exposure to hydrogen in comparison with Au/SnO2:Sb, Au films modified only with gold. It has been found that introduction of the nickel and cobalt additives increases the band bending at the grain boundaries of tin dioxide already in freshly prepared samples, which indicates an increase in the density Ni of the chemisorbed oxygen. It is important that during testing, the band bending eφs at the grain boundaries of tin dioxide additionally slightly increases. It can be assumed that during crystallization of films under thermal annealing, the 3d-metal atoms in the SnO2 volume partially segregate on the surface of microcrystals and form bonds with lattice oxygen, the superstoichiometric tin atoms are formed, and the density Ni increases. If the bonds of oxygen with nickel and cobalt are stronger than those with tin, then, under the prolonged tests, atomic hydrogen will be oxidized not by lattice oxygen, but mainly by the chemisorbed one. In this case, stability of the sensors' characteristics increases.

  2. Towards Additive Manufacture of Functional, Spline-Based Morphometric Models of Healthy and Diseased Coronary Arteries: In Vitro Proof-of-Concept Using a Porcine Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jewkes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the additive manufacture of morphometric models of healthy and diseased coronary arteries. Using a dissected porcine coronary artery, a model was developed with the use of computer aided engineering, with splines used to design arteries in health and disease. The model was altered to demonstrate four cases of stenosis displaying varying severity, based on published morphometric data available. Both an Objet Eden 250 printer and a Solidscape 3Z Pro printer were used in this analysis. A wax printed model was set into a flexible thermoplastic and was valuable for experimental testing with helical flow patterns observed in healthy models, dominating the distal LAD (left anterior descending and left circumflex arteries. Recirculation zones were detected in all models, but were visibly larger in the stenosed cases. Resin models provide useful analytical tools for understanding the spatial relationships of blood vessels, and could be applied to preoperative planning techniques, but were not suitable for physical testing. In conclusion, it is feasible to develop blood vessel models enabling experimental work; further, through additive manufacture of bio-compatible materials, there is the possibility of manufacturing customized replacement arteries.

  3. Towards Additive Manufacture of Functional, Spline-Based Morphometric Models of Healthy and Diseased Coronary Arteries: In Vitro Proof-of-Concept Using a Porcine Template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Burton, Hanna E; Espino, Daniel M

    2018-02-02

    The aim of this study is to assess the additive manufacture of morphometric models of healthy and diseased coronary arteries. Using a dissected porcine coronary artery, a model was developed with the use of computer aided engineering, with splines used to design arteries in health and disease. The model was altered to demonstrate four cases of stenosis displaying varying severity, based on published morphometric data available. Both an Objet Eden 250 printer and a Solidscape 3Z Pro printer were used in this analysis. A wax printed model was set into a flexible thermoplastic and was valuable for experimental testing with helical flow patterns observed in healthy models, dominating the distal LAD (left anterior descending) and left circumflex arteries. Recirculation zones were detected in all models, but were visibly larger in the stenosed cases. Resin models provide useful analytical tools for understanding the spatial relationships of blood vessels, and could be applied to preoperative planning techniques, but were not suitable for physical testing. In conclusion, it is feasible to develop blood vessel models enabling experimental work; further, through additive manufacture of bio-compatible materials, there is the possibility of manufacturing customized replacement arteries.

  4. Improvement of the MSG code for the MONJU evaporators. Additional function of reverse flow calculation on water/steam model and animation for post processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Shin-ichi; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Oketani, Kazuhiro

    2003-05-01

    The improved version of the MSG code (Multi-dimensional Thermal-hydraulic Analysis Code for Steam Generators) has been released. It has been carried out to improve based on the original version in order to calculate reverse flow on water/steam side, and to animate the post-processing data. To calculate reverse flow locally, modification to set pressure at each divided node point of water/steam region in the helical-coil heat transfer tubes has been carried out. And the matrix solver has been also improved to treat a problem within practical calculation time against increasing the pressure points. In this case pressure and enthalpy have to be calculated simultaneously, however, it was found out that using the block-Jacobean method make a diagonal-dominant matrix, and solve the matrix efficiently with a relaxation method. As the result of calculations of a steady-state condition and a transient of SG blow down with manual trip operation, the improvement on calculation function of the MSG code was confirmed. And an animation function of temperature contour in the sodium shell side as a post processing has been added. Since the animation is very effective to understand thermal-hydraulic behavior on the sodium shell side of the SG, especially in case of transient condition, the analysis and evaluation of the calculation results will be enabled to be more quickly and effectively. (author)

  5. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  6. Biphasic DC measurement approach for enhanced measurement stability and multi-channel sampling of self-sensing multi-functional structural materials doped with carbon-based additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Austin; D'Alessandro, Antonella; Ubertini, Filippo; Laflamme, Simon; Geiger, Randall

    2017-06-01

    Investigation of multi-functional carbon-based self-sensing structural materials for structural health monitoring applications is a topic of growing interest. These materials are self-sensing in the sense that they can provide measurable electrical outputs corresponding to physical changes such as strain or induced damage. Nevertheless, the development of an appropriate measurement technique for such materials is yet to be achieved, as many results in the literature suggest that these materials exhibit a drift in their output when measured with direct current (DC) methods. In most of the cases, the electrical output is a resistance and the reported drift is an increase in resistance from the time the measurement starts due to material polarization. Alternating current methods seem more appropriate at eliminating the time drift. However, published results show they are not immune to drift. Moreover, the use of multiple impedance measurement devices (LCR meters) does not allow for the simultaneous multi-channel sampling of multi-sectioned self-sensing materials due to signal crosstalk. The capability to simultaneously monitor multiple sections of self-sensing structural materials is needed to deploy these multi-functional materials for structural health monitoring. Here, a biphasic DC measurement approach with a periodic measure/discharge cycle in the form of a square wave sensing current is used to provide consistent, stable resistance measurements for self-sensing structural materials. DC measurements are made during the measurement region of the square wave while material depolarization is obtained during the discharge region of the periodic signal. The proposed technique is experimentally shown to remove the signal drift in a carbon-based self-sensing cementitious material while providing simultaneous multi-channel measurements of a multi-sectioned self-sensing material. The application of the proposed electrical measurement technique appears promising for real

  7. Characterisation of corn extrudates with the addition of brewers' spent grain as a raw material for the production of functional batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żelaziński, Tomasz; Ekielski, Adam; Siwek, Adam; Dardziński, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Novel food batters, recommended for various products, are at present manufactured by extru- sion. Thanks to this, it is possible to look for and process new raw materials, if their processing has so far been considered impossible or economically unviable. The purpose of the work was therefore to investigate the extrudates produced from the corn and brewers' spent grain compounds that are subsequently used as raw material for food batter production. The work presents the findings of research on extrusion of corn mixes with varying levels of brewers' spent grains, to the maximum amount of 30%. Tests were conducted using a co-rotating double screw extruder, equipped with a single-outlet matrix with a diameter of 2.5mm. The products obtained were subjected to analysis of their parameters (apparent density, strength parameters, abrasiveness index) and the granulation of a single fraction was checked. The sample for which the percentage content was the highest was subjected to a detailed analysis of particle shape using vision software. It was found that an increase in the content of brewers' spent grains resulted in increased hardness of the products obtained. During the tests it was observed that the increasing hardness of the measured sam- ples is opposite to their abrasion resistance. The maximum decrement of the brasion parameters was seen for extrudates with 30% spent grain addition and was 1.4%, while the minimum decrement values for extrudates with brewers' grain content (10%) amounted to 0.85%. It was noted that this may prove the high brittleness of such products, particularly on the outer surface. It was also observed that lower grindability was recorded for samples produced by extrusion at a temperature of 140°C. On the other hand, higher grindability obtained at a temperature of 120°C may facilitate the grinding of such products, which may be particularly important in the production of food batter. Brewers' spent grains used as an addition to corn groats

  8. Effect of Particle Size and Ligand on the Tribological Properties of Amino Functionalized Hairy Silica Nanoparticles as an Additive to Polyalphaolefin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, T.; Song, B.; Zhang, F.; Yang, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Hairy nanoparticles, which graft organic chains on nanoparticles, have led to a wide variety of advanced materials and have been applied in many fields over the past two decades. In this paper, effects of nanoparticle size and organic chain on the tribological properties of amino functionalized hairy silica nanoparticles (HSN_s) were investigated. Silica nanoparticles with different sizes and amino group organic chains were synthesized and dispersed into polyalphaolefin (PAO) via a modified process. The synthesized HSN_s were characterized by variety of methods. The tribology properties of those HSN_s were investigated using a four-ball tetrabromo. The coefficient of friction and wear scar diameter were measured and analyzed. It was found that the HSN_s could form a stable homogeneous solution with PAO. The tribological performance of the PAO 100 was enhanced dramatically by adding the HSN_s. The data suggested that HSN_s with larger size, longer organic chains, and more amino groups gave better anti wear and friction reduction properties than other nanoparticles

  9. Additive impairment of the barrier function and irritation by biogenic amines and sodium lauryl sulphate: a controlled in vivo tandem irritation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluhr, J W; Kelterer, D; Fuchs, S; Kaatz, M; Grieshaber, R; Kleesz, P; Elsner, P

    2005-01-01

    Biogenic amines are potential irritants e.g. in fish-, meat-, milk- and egg-processing professions like cooks, butchers and bakers. The aim of this study was to test the irritative and barrier-disrupting properties of the biogenic amines ammonium hydroxide (AM), dimethylamine (DMA) and trimethylamine (TMA). A repeated sequential irritation of 30 min twice per day was performed over a total of 4 days (tandem repeated irritation test) on the back of 20 healthy volunteers of both sexes with AM, DMA, TMA and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). The epidermal barrier function was assessed with a Tewameter TM 210, stratum corneum surface pH was measured with a Skin-pH-Meter 900, inflammation was assessed with a Chromameter CR-300 on the a* axis for redness and a visual score was recorded. All tested biogenic amines (AM, DMA and TMA) induced a barrier disruption and a pH increase paralleled with a 1-day-delayed onset of inflammatory signs. These effects were further enhanced and accelerated by a sequential application of SLS together with the biogenic amines, and inflammation occurred earlier than with the single compounds. Acetic acid (AA) in contrast did only show mild barrier disruption and no significant inflammatory signs. Our system allowed a ranking of the different compounds in their irritative potential in the tandem irritation with SLS: SLS > NaOH > TMA > AA > AM > DMA. The results are suggestive that in the food-processing industry the simultaneous contact with biogenic amines and harmful detergents like SLS should be minimized. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF DEFATTED OKRA SEED (Abelmoschus esculentus FLOUR ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND Zn BIOAVAILABILITY OF PLANTAIN (Musa paradisiacal Linn FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesleem Ibrahim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria it is advised that nursing mothers should give their baby plantain flour paste “amala ogede” with ‘ewedu’ Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning their baby. The over matured okra that cannot be cut with kitchen knife are thrown away in Nigeria, this lead to postharvest loss of okra. The seed in this okra could be utilised by processing into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. Since the okra seed flour is rich in oil and the oil contains cyclopropenoid fatty acids which cause some toxicity concerns therefore this work is to evaluate the chemical composition, the functional properties and Zn bioavailability of plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour. The nutrient content increased significantly (P≤0.05, protein; 3.88 – 11.38 %, fibre; 3.03 – 16.30 % and ash; 2.72 – 5.77 % while the fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (P≤0.05 as the percentage of defatted okra seed flour increased. The bulk density of the plantain flour decreased significantly (P≤0.05 from 0.795 g/cm3 to 0.769 g/cm3 as the percentage of okra seed flour increased while the least gelation concentration increased significantly (P≤0.05 (10 to 20. The calculated [Ca][Phytate]/[Zn] molar ratio for the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour (0.02 – 0.04 mol/kg were below the critical level. The increase in the least gelation concentration coupled with increase in the protein content of the resultant flour from the blend means more of the protein will be available in the food made from the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour.

  11. AMR: Serving the needs of distributors and customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simard, C. [Hydro-Quebec, Metering and Meter-Reading Division, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    To keep pace with emerging competition in the North-American energy industry, Hydro-Quebec restructured its activities into four separate divisions. Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie, established in 1977, is the division responsible for energy transmission, whereas Hydro-Quebec Distribution, established in 2001, looks after distribution services. They and the two sister divisions (Hydro-Quebec Production and Hydro-Quebec Equipement) serve 2.8 million residential, institutional and industrial customers, scattered across 587,500 square kilometres. The restructuring provided the opportunity to adapt to new market realities. Automated Meter Reading (AMR) ties in directly with the new business-oriented approach the utility has adopted in the late 1990s. In addition to solving meter accessibility problems and reducing operating costs, automated meter reading provides customers with the opportunity to benefit from new services designed to meet specific needs. To date new services made possible by automated meter reading include customized reading date selection, aggregated billing, consumption tracking and load management. AMR not only translates into greater flexibility and added value for the customer. It also provides greater reliability, accuracy and better system management. In short, AMR paves the way for the optimization of the power supply, new consumption management capabilities, rate options, real-time billing and enhanced fraud detection.

  12. Population Neuroscience: Dementia Epidemiology Serving Precision Medicine and Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Mary; Albanese, Emiliano; Seshadri, Sudha; Bennett, David A; Lyketsos, Constantine; Kukull, Walter A; Skoog, Ingmar; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2018-01-01

    Over recent decades, epidemiology has made significant contributions to our understanding of dementia, translating scientific discoveries into population health. Here, we propose reframing dementia epidemiology as "population neuroscience," blending techniques and models from contemporary neuroscience with those of epidemiology and biostatistics. On the basis of emerging evidence and newer paradigms and methods, population neuroscience will minimize the bias typical of traditional clinical research, identify the relatively homogenous subgroups that comprise the general population, and investigate broader and denser phenotypes of dementia and cognitive impairment. Long-term follow-up of sufficiently large study cohorts will allow the identification of cohort effects and critical windows of exposure. Molecular epidemiology and omics will allow us to unravel the key distinctions within and among subgroups and better understand individuals' risk profiles. Interventional epidemiology will allow us to identify the different subgroups that respond to different treatment/prevention strategies. These strategies will inform precision medicine. In addition, insights into interactions between disease biology, personal and environmental factors, and social determinants of health will allow us to measure and track disease in communities and improve population health. By placing neuroscience within a real-world context, population neuroscience can fulfill its potential to serve both precision medicine and population health.

  13. Developing a digital photography-based method for dietary analysis in self-serve dining settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Mary J; Loman, Brett R; Ellison, Brenna

    2017-07-01

    Current population-based methods for assessing dietary intake, including food frequency questionnaires, food diaries, and 24-h dietary recall, are limited in their ability to objectively measure food intake. Digital photography has been identified as a promising addition to these techniques but has rarely been assessed in self-serve settings. We utilized digital photography to examine university students' food choices and consumption in a self-serve dining hall setting. Research assistants took pre- and post-photos of students' plates during lunch and dinner to assess selection (presence), servings, and consumption of MyPlate food groups. Four coders rated the same set of approximately 180 meals for inter-rater reliability analyses; approximately 50 additional meals were coded twice by each coder to assess intra-rater agreement. Inter-rater agreement on the selection, servings, and consumption of food groups was high at 93.5%; intra-rater agreement was similarly high with an average of 95.6% agreement. Coders achieved the highest rates of agreement in assessing if a food group was present on the plate (95-99% inter-rater agreement, depending on food group) and estimating the servings of food selected (81-98% inter-rater agreement). Estimating consumption, particularly for items such as beans and cheese that were often in mixed dishes, was more challenging (77-94% inter-rater agreement). Results suggest that the digital photography method presented is feasible for large studies in real-world environments and can provide an objective measure of food selection, servings, and consumption with a high degree of agreement between coders; however, to make accurate claims about the state of dietary intake in all-you-can-eat, self-serve settings, researchers will need to account for the possibility of diners taking multiple trips through the serving line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting capacities of runways serving new large aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gopalakrishnan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simplified approach for predicting the allowable load repetitions of New Large Aircraft (NLA loading for airfield runways based on Non-Destructive Test (NDT data. Full-scale traffic test results from the Federal Aviation Administration’s National Airport Pavement Test Facility (NAPTF were used to develop the NDT-based evaluation methodology. Four flexible test pavement sections with variable (unbound layer thicknesses were trafficked using six-wheel and four-wheel NLA test gears until the test pavements were deemed failed. Non-destructive tests using a Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD were conducted prior to the initiation of traffic testing to measure the pavement surface deflections. In the past, pavement surface deflections have been successfully used as an indicator of airport pavement life. In this study, the HWD surface deflections and the derived Deflection Basin Parameters (DBPs were related to functional performance of NAPTF flexible pavements through simple regression analysis. The results demonstrated the usefulness of NDT data for predicting the performance of airport flexible pavements serving the next generation of aircrafts.

  15. Coordination and variability in the elite female tennis serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, David; Elliott, Bruce Clifford; Lay, Brendan; Reid, Machar

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the understanding of coordination and variability in the tennis serve may be of interest to coaches as they work with players to improve performance. The current study examined coordinated joint rotations and variability in the lower limbs, trunk, serving arm and ball location in the elite female tennis serve. Pre-pubescent, pubescent and adult players performed maximal effort flat serves while a 22-camera 500 Hz motion analysis system captured three-dimensional body kinematics. Coordinated joint rotations in the lower limbs and trunk appeared most consistent at the time players left the ground, suggesting that they coordinate the proximal elements of the kinematic chain to ensure that they leave the ground at a consistent time, in a consistent posture. Variability in the two degrees of freedom at the elbow became significantly greater closer to impact in adults, possibly illustrating the mechanical adjustments (compensation) these players employed to manage the changing impact location from serve to serve. Despite the variable ball toss, the temporal composition of the serve was highly consistent and supports previous assertions that players use the location of the ball to regulate their movement. Future work should consider these associations in other populations, while coaches may use the current findings to improve female serve performance.

  16. The National Insurance Academy: Serving India's Insurance Professionals and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Bhagyashree

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how a special library can meet the needs of a specific industry. The author focuses on India's National Insurance Academy (NIA) Library, which serves the insurance industry of India and some neighboring countries. It is where the author serves as the chief librarian.

  17. 75 FR 58283 - National Hispanic-Serving Institutions Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... National Hispanic-Serving Institutions Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... compete and thrive. Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) are key members of our higher education system... prosperous tomorrow for our Nation. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of...

  18. 45 CFR 2554.21 - How are papers served?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are papers served? 2554.21 Section 2554.21... SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 2554.21 How are papers served... pleading and paper filed in the proceeding shall contain a caption setting forth the title of the action...

  19. Assessing the Implications of Allowing Transgender Personnel to Serve Openly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Openly? There are 18 countries that allow transgender personnel to serve openly in their mili- taries: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia , Canada...clinical and cultural competence for the proper care of transgender patients. Surgical procedures quite similar to those used for gender transition...tries that allow transgender personnel to serve openly in their militaries: Austra- lia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia , Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark

  20. 20 CFR 639.8 - How is the notice served?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the notice served? 639.8 Section 639.8 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR WORKER ADJUSTMENT AND RETRAINING NOTIFICATION § 639.8 How is the notice served? Any reasonable method of delivery to the parties...

  1. Portion and Serving Sizes of Commonly Consumed Foods, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portion sizes were determined from weight equivalents of each food type consumed, average portion sizes for each food type were determined using the statistical ... Serving sizes determined: a serving of the various foods as expressed in household measures include; 1.3 slices of bread, 13.5 tablespoons of Ewedu soup, ...

  2. Leader self-definition and leader self-serving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rus, Diana; van Knippenberg, Daan; Wisse, Barbara

    The present research investigated the relationship between leader self-definition processes and leader self-serving behaviors. We hypothesized that self-definition as a leader interacts with social reference information (descriptive and injunctive) in predicting leader self-serving actions Six

  3. Reducing the standard serving size of alcoholic beverages prompts reductions in alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Inge; Oldham, Melissa; Jones, Andrew; Field, Matt; Angus, Colin; Robinson, Eric

    2018-05-14

    To test whether reducing the standard serving size of alcoholic beverages would reduce voluntary alcohol consumption in a laboratory (study 1) and a real-world drinking environment (study 2). Additionally, we modelled the potential public health benefit of reducing the standard serving size of on-trade alcoholic beverages in the United Kingdom. Studies 1 and 2 were cluster-randomized experiments. In the additional study, we used the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model to estimate the number of deaths and hospital admissions that would be averted per year in the United Kingdom if a policy that reduces alcohol serving sizes in the on-trade was introduced. A semi-naturalistic laboratory (study 1), a bar in Liverpool, UK (study 2). Students and university staff members (study 1: n = 114, mean age = 24.8 years, 74.6% female), residents from local community (study 2: n = 164, mean age = 34.9 years, 57.3% female). In study 1, participants were assigned randomly to receive standard or reduced serving sizes (by 25%) of alcohol during a laboratory drinking session. In study 2, customers at a bar were served alcohol in either standard or reduced serving sizes (by 28.6-33.3%). Outcome measures were units of alcohol consumed within 1 hour (study 1) and up to 3 hours (study 2). Serving size condition was the primary predictor. In study 1, a 25% reduction in alcohol serving size led to a 20.7-22.3% reduction in alcohol consumption. In study 2, a 28.6-33.3% reduction in alcohol serving size led to a 32.4-39.6% reduction in alcohol consumption. Modelling results indicated that decreasing the serving size of on-trade alcoholic beverages by 25% could reduce the number of alcohol-related hospital admissions and deaths per year in the United Kingdom by 4.4-10.5% and 5.6-13.2%, respectively. Reducing the serving size of alcoholic beverages in the United Kingdom appears to lead to a reduction in alcohol consumption within a single drinking occasion. © 2018 The Authors. Addiction

  4. Inflight Treadmill Exercise Can Serve as Multi-Disciplinary Countermeasure System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    support the notion that in-flight treadmill exercise, in addition to providing aerobic exercise and mechanical stimuli to the bone, also has a number of sensorimotor benefits by providing: 1) A balance challenge during locomotion requiring segmental coordination in response to a downward force. 2) Body-support loading during performance of a full-body active motor task. 3) Oscillatory stimulation of the otoliths and synchronized periodic foot impacts that facilitate the coordination of gait motions and tune the full-body gaze control system. 4) Appropriate sensory input (foot tactile input, muscle and tendon stretch input) to spinal locomotor central pattern generators required for the control of locomotion. Forward work will focus on a follow-up bed rest study that incorporates aerobic and resistance exercise with a treadmill balance and gait training system that can serve as an integrated interdisciplinary countermeasure system for future exploration class missions.

  5. 76 FR 78307 - Manufactured Housing Consensus Committee; Notice Inviting Nominations of Individuals To Serve on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... in person. Members of the MHCC undertake additional work commitments on subcommittees and task forces... significant relationship to any person engaged in the manufactured housing industry. (2) Each member serving... certifications regarding conflict-of- interest and eligibility for membership prior to finalizing an appointment...

  6. 20 CFR 662.210 - What other entities may serve as One-Stop partners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and the Responsibilities of Partners § 662.210 What other entities may serve as One-Stop partners? (a) WIA provides that other entities that carry out a human resource program, including Federal, State, or...) Additional partners may include: (1) TANF programs authorized under part A of title IV of the Social Security...

  7. Serving culturally diverse visitors to forests in California: a resource guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina S. Roberts; Deborah J. Chavez; Benjamin M. Lara; Emilyn A. Sheffield

    2009-01-01

    The national forests of California are experiencing an increase in new visitors yet, in some areas, a continued lack of ethnic diversity persists. In addition, changing demographics has led to a need for keeping up with trends while also being aware of constraints to visitor use. Knowing how to serve culturally diverse visitors in ways that are innovative and inclusive...

  8. The Purposes Outdoor Education Does, Could and Should Serve in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the purposes that outdoor education does, could and should serve in Singapore. Gert Biesta's conceptualisation of three functions of education is adapted to frame deliberations on the purposes of outdoor education in Singapore's socio-political and educational milieu. The author suggests that outdoor education in Singapore…

  9. Linear non-additive set-functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Mesiar, Radko; Ralescu, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 1 (2004), s. 89-98 ISSN 0308-1079 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/04/1026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : aumann integral * Choquet integral * fuzzy measure Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.509, year: 2004

  10. Additive Manufacturing: From Form to Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Failure Evaluation, and Reclamation facility.26 AM will be used to demon - strate repairs on Army aviation assets that cannot currently be restored...Institute in Los Angeles , California.37 Seven new institutes were proposed for 2016 (one for the DOD, two for the DOE, two for the DOC, and two for the...ranging from large companies offering high-throughput industrial printers to small start-ups demon - strating unique capabilities in niche applications

  11. Effect of dietary addition of nitrate on growth, salivary and gastric function, immune response, and excretion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, in weaning pigs challenged with this microbe strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazzoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two dietary additions of nitrate (15 mg/kg or 150 mg/kg, supplied by potassium salt were tested in a total 96 weaning pigs challenged or not with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (ST. The oral challenge was done on d 5 and pigs were sacrificed on d 7 or d 25. The effect of challenge never interacted significantly with the dietary treatment. Feed intake, growth, body temperature, salivary excretion, and faecal excretion of ST and gastric function were not affected by the nitrate supplementation. With nitrate additions, total IgA in blood serum tended to be higher before and after the challenge (P<0.10. Nitrite in saliva – but not nitrate – increased with the increasing supplementation at d 5, but not at d 19. The nitrate additions did not negatively affect the weaning performance, but also did not contrast the effect of ST infection.

  12. How mainstream economics serves the rich, obscures reality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    12Economics of the 1%: How mainstream economics serves the rich, ... revealing analysis of economic inequality contrasts with the silence of mainstream ... been the coordinating editor of the Journal of Australian Political Economy for the last ...

  13. Environmental Finance Center Serving EPA's Region 8 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Rural Water Association, headquartered in Duncan Oklahoma, has been selected through a competitive grants process to establish a regional Environmental Finance Center (EFC) serving EPA Region 8 states.

  14. From serving in the military to serving loved ones: unique experiences of older veteran caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monin, Joan K; Levy, Becca R; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2014-06-01

    We examined whether older caregiving veterans differ from noncaregiving veterans in terms of health and psychosocial factors and how these factors and caregiving aspects (i.e., hours, relationship type) relate to caregiving strain and reward. We also evaluated two hypotheses: (1) combat exposure provides protection from emotional caregiving strain, and (2) grandparenting is particularly rewarding. We used a cross-sectional web survey of a nationally representative sample of older veterans in the United States. Data were drawn from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study, and participants were 2,025 U.S. veterans aged 60 or older (mean: 71.0; SD: 7.1; range: 60-96). Participants completed measures of caregiving status, sociodemographic characteristics, combat exposure, physical and mental health, cognitive status, and psychosocial characteristics. Caregivers reported caregiving hours, caregiving type, emotional and physical strain, and reward. A total of 20.4% of U.S. older veterans are caregivers. As predicted, among the veteran caregivers, (1) combat exposure was associated with less emotional caregiving strain (odds ratio [OR]: 0.57), and (2) grandparenting was associated with increased perception of caregiving reward (OR: 5.28). Resilience was negatively associated with physical strain, whereas depressive symptoms were associated with greater emotional strain; gratitude, happiness, and social support were additionally associated with greater reward. Caregivers were more likely to be married and highly educated than noncaregivers but did not differ with respect to health or psychosocial characteristics. One in five older U.S. veterans is a caregiver. Older veterans' combat exposure may decrease the emotional demands of caregiving, and grandparenting is perceived as particularly rewarding. Results suggest that older veterans are an important caregiving resource that deserves tailored resources. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric

  15. 13 CFR 142.20 - How are papers served?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are papers served? 142.20... ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 142.20 How are papers served? Except for service of a complaint or a notice of hearing under §§ 142.11 and 142.14(b) respectively, service of papers must be made as...

  16. Economic importance and growth rate of broiler chickens served ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weight gain were N307.13 and N87.50 /kg for the birds served 120 ml FPLE/litre of water compared to control (N208.17 and N96.52/kg), respectively. An average NP of N273.56 was made for the broiler chickens served 30-120 ml FPLE/l of water with reference to control (N208.17), which was a difference of N64.39 per bird.

  17. HIGH SERVE - service for nuclear technology. Buyers' guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Deutsches Atomforum e.V. (German Atomic Forum) has organised a specialist conference with the title 'HIGH SERVE - service for nuclear technology' for October 1986. In parallel with the conference, an exhibition will make it possible for interested firms to present their service and product ranges. The experience gained in the preparation of this exhibition has been used to produce the 'HIGH SERVE - buyers guide'. The intention is to make the market more comprehensible. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Discovery of an O-mannosylation pathway selectively serving cadherins and protocadherins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ida Signe Bohse; Narimatsu, Yoshiki; Joshi, Hiren Jitendra; Siukstaite, Lina; Harrison, Oliver J; Brasch, Julia; Goodman, Kerry M; Hansen, Lars; Shapiro, Lawrence; Honig, Barry; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; Clausen, Henrik; Halim, Adnan

    2017-10-17

    The cadherin (cdh) superfamily of adhesion molecules carry O-linked mannose (O-Man) glycans at highly conserved sites localized to specific β-strands of their extracellular cdh (EC) domains. These O-Man glycans do not appear to be elongated like O-Man glycans found on α-dystroglycan (α-DG), and we recently demonstrated that initiation of cdh/protocadherin (pcdh) O-Man glycosylation is not dependent on the evolutionary conserved POMT1/POMT2 enzymes that initiate O-Man glycosylation on α-DG. Here, we used a CRISPR/Cas9 genetic dissection strategy combined with sensitive and quantitative O-Man glycoproteomics to identify a homologous family of four putative protein O-mannosyltransferases encoded by the TMTC1-4 genes, which were found to be imperative for cdh and pcdh O-Man glycosylation. KO of all four TMTC genes in HEK293 cells resulted in specific loss of cdh and pcdh O-Man glycosylation, whereas combined KO of TMTC1 and TMTC3 resulted in selective loss of O-Man glycans on specific β-strands of EC domains, suggesting that each isoenzyme serves a different function. In addition, O-Man glycosylation of IPT/TIG domains of plexins and hepatocyte growth factor receptor was not affected in TMTC KO cells, suggesting the existence of yet another O-Man glycosylation machinery. Our study demonstrates that regulation of O-mannosylation in higher eukaryotes is more complex than envisioned, and the discovery of the functions of TMTCs provide insight into cobblestone lissencephaly caused by deficiency in TMTC3.

  19. Influence of a Prolonged Tennis Match Play on Serve Biomechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Martin

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify kinematic, kinetic and performance changes that occur in the serve throughout a prolonged tennis match play. Serves of eight male advanced tennis players were recorded with a motion capture system before, at mid-match, and after a 3-hour tennis match. Before and after each match, electromyographic data of 8 upper limb muscles obtained during isometric maximal voluntary contraction were compared to determine the presence of muscular fatigue. Vertical ground reaction forces, rating of perceived exertion, ball speed, and ball impact height were measured. Kinematic and upper limb kinetic variables were computed. The results show decrease in mean power frequency values for several upper limb muscles that is an indicator of local muscular fatigue. Decreases in serve ball speed, ball impact height, maximal angular velocities and an increase in rating of perceived exertion were also observed between the beginning and the end of the match. With fatigue, the majority of the upper limb joint kinetics decreases at the end of the match. No change in timing of maximal angular velocities was observed between the beginning and the end of the match. A prolonged tennis match play may induce fatigue in upper limb muscles, which decrease performance and cause changes in serve maximal angular velocities and joint kinetics. The consistency in timing of maximal angular velocities suggests that advanced tennis players are able to maintain the temporal pattern of their serve technique, in spite of the muscular fatigue development.

  20. The Accounting Profession: Serving the Public Interest or Capital Interest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A Kaidonis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As an integral facet of society, the accounting profession has a role in the State and thecorporate sector, and is also expected to serve the public interest. The capacity for theAustralian accounting profession to serve the public interest is considered in the context oflegislation and the accounting standard setting process. Specific reference is made to theCLERP Act 1999 and ASIC Act 2001. It is argued that the combined effect of these Acts is tolegislate bias so that accounting standards privilege the specific needs of holders of capital,that is capital interest. The assumption that capital markets are surrogate for the publicinterest is contested. Accordingly, if the accounting profession follows national objectives tosupport capital markets, it may undermine its role in serving society.

  1. Improvement of dose evaluation system for employees at severe accident in a nuclear power plant. Introduction of the dose rate conversion coefficient and addition of the access route edit function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yasuhiro; Minami, Noritoshi; Yoshida, Yoshitaka

    2006-01-01

    Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc. had developed the dose evaluation system to evaluate the radiation dose of employees at severe accident in a nuclear power plant. This system has features, which are (1) the dose rate of any evaluation point can be evaluated, (2) the dose rate at any time can be evaluated in consideration of the change in the radioactive source, (3) the dose rate map in the plant can be displayed (4) the dose along the access route when moving can be evaluated, and it is possible to use it for examination of the accident management guideline on the dose side etc.. To upgrade the dose evaluation function of this system, the improvements had been done which were introduction of the dose rate conversion coefficient and addition of the access route edit function. By introducing the dose rate conversion coefficient, the calculation time of the dose rate map in the plant was shortened at about 20 seconds, and a new function to evaluate time-dependent dose rate of any evaluation point was added. By adding the access route edit function, it became possible to re-calculate the dose easily at the route change. (author)

  2. Uncapacitated facility location problem with self-serving demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Monabbati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In classical uncapacitated facility location problems (UFLP the goal is to satisfy requirements of some demand points by setting up some servers, among potential facility locations, such that the total cost including service costs and fixed costs are minimized. In this paper a generalization of UFLP is considered in which some demand points, called self-serving, could be served exclusively by a new server at that point. Numerical experiments show that near optimal solutions are achieved by the proposed method.

  3. Additive property of separative power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Ichiro; Kanagawa, Akira

    1980-01-01

    A separative power of a separating element, whose heads and tails separation factors are α and β, is expressed by phi sub(b)(α, β) = [α(β - 1)1n α - (α - 1)1n β]/(αβ - 1) for the unit flow of the desired material and phi sub(a)(α, β) (= phi sub(b)(β, α)) for that of undesired material. The additive properties of the functions phi sub(b) and phi sub(a) were demonstrated by calculations of various types of ideal cascades, but the origin of the property is not obvious. The present study has furnished the mathematical basis of the additivity based on the special functional equation. First, for symmetric processes (α = β), the functional equation which describes the function representing the quality of separation f(α, α) concerning the desired material was obtained and solved to give the functional form of f(α, α). The result was extented to the function f(α, β) representing the quality of asymmetric separation (α not equal β). The derived function f(α, β) was demonstrated to be equal to phi sub(b)(α, β), and it was verified that functions phi sub(b)(α, β) and phi sub(a)(α, β) have the additive property in themselves. (author)

  4. Structure, Function, and Training the Rehabilitation Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Robert B.; Crisler, Jack R.

    The traditional team concept in rehabilitation is a differentiated team in which each member performs a different function. In practice, such teams are rarely cooperative and their additive services are disjointed. Presented is the philosophic rationale for the revitalization of a large rehabilitation center serving mental patients. Reorganization…

  5. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion size served to Head Start children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to identify caregivers' attitudes regarding amounts and types of foods served to Head Start preschoolers using qualitative methods. Researchers conducted 8 focus groups (4 African American; 4 Hispanic) with 33 African American and 29 Hispanic Head Start caregivers. Mode...

  6. Serving online customers lessons for libraries from the business world

    CERN Document Server

    Barclay, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    To compete in the digital age, libraries must provide outstanding customer service to their virtual users. Serving Online Customers: Lessons for Libraries from the Business World is a practical guide to help libraries adopt and adapt the best practices of e-business for their own online operations.

  7. 32 CFR 516.13 - Assistance in serving process overseas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Assistance in serving process overseas. 516.13 Section 516.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL... to or accompanying U.S. Forces in Korea, contact Staff Judge Advocate, US Forces Korea (Seoul...

  8. UPPER EXTREMITY KINEMATICS OF FLAT SERVE IN TENNIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brian McAllister

    kinematics on the ball velocity at the impact phase of a tennis flat serve. 15 elite male tennis players were recruited to participate in this study (mean age 18.4±3.3 .... For field calibration, a Direct Linear Transformation technique, developed by ...

  9. Labor Market Returns for Graduates of Hispanic-Serving Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Toby J.; Flores, Stella M.; Ryan, Christopher J., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    Latinos have become the largest minority group in American postsecondary education, a majority of whom attend two- or four-year Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs). However, little is known about labor market outcomes as result of attending these institutions. Using a unique student-level administrative database in Texas, and accounting for…

  10. Autonomy and Accountability in Schools Serving Disadvantaged Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Esther Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increased school autonomy and accountability have been a common denominator of national reforms in otherwise heterogeneous governance systems in Europe and the USA. The paper argues that because schools serving disadvantaged communities (SSDCs) often have lower average performance, they are more often sanctioned or under closer scrutiny,…

  11. Competence in Serving Children: Credentials Protectionism and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    Professional competency in psychologists wishing to treat children and families is an area of considerable concern and disagreement. Three types of practitioners comprise the bulk of the problem: clinical psychologists, who lack specific child-oriented training; developmental psychologists, who wish to serve children but lack traditional clinical…

  12. Using Title XX to Serve Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiname, John D.; And Others

    With the passage in early 1975 of the social service amendments to the Social Security Act, referred to as Title XX, a major new opportunity to serve children and youth has emerged. Seizing the opportunity will be largely dependent on the well-prepared presentation of a case for the needs of young people by dedicated advocates in every state.…

  13. 34 CFR 686.42 - Discharge of agreement to serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge of agreement to serve. 686.42 Section 686.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH...

  14. 34 CFR 686.12 - Agreement to serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agreement to serve. 686.12 Section 686.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH) GRANT PROGRAM...

  15. Educators as Serving Leaders in the Classroom and on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Counterintuitively, the more one develops as a leader, the less of a leader one becomes. What do great leaders do? Great leaders are ambitious first and foremost for the cause, the mission, the work--not themselves. Educators as "serving leaders" sense that every action they take, together with every decision that they make, either…

  16. 7 CFR 1230.53 - Nominee's agreement to serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... any relationship with the Council or a State association or any organization that has a contract with the Board and thereafter disclose, at any time while serving on the Board, any relationship with any...

  17. 7 CFR 1150.134 - Nominee's agreement to serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... agreement to: (a) Serve on the Board if appointed; (b) Disclose any relationship with any organization that operates a qualified State or regional program or has a contractual relationship with the Board; and (c...

  18. Total Cost of Ownership and Cost-to-Serve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen reviewer den eksisterende litteratur vedrørende økonomistyringsværktøjerne Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) og Cost-to-Serve (CtS). Herefter kortlægges det, hvordan TCO og CtS bidrager til en identificering af direkte omkostninger såvel som indirekte omkostninger henholdsvis up-stream og down...

  19. 16 CFR 500.26 - Representations of servings, uses, applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... net quantity (in terms of weight or mass, measure, or numerical count) of each such serving, use, or application: Provided, that such statement may be expressed in terms that differ from terms used in the... applications, if such amount is expressed in terms of standard units of weight or mass, measure, size, or count...

  20. Serving remote users in selected public university libraries in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of information services to support teaching, learning and research has long been a major objective of libraries in higher education. The students being served by these libraries, specifically in Kenya, may consist of on-campus and remote user groups. This study set out to explore the library section heads' ...

  1. On the losses of dissolved CO(2) during champagne serving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Bourget, Marielle; Villaume, Sandra; Jeandet, Philippe; Pron, Hervé; Polidori, Guillaume

    2010-08-11

    Pouring champagne into a glass is far from being consequenceless with regard to its dissolved CO(2) concentration. Measurements of losses of dissolved CO(2) during champagne serving were done from a bottled Champagne wine initially holding 11.4 +/- 0.1 g L(-1) of dissolved CO(2). Measurements were done at three champagne temperatures (i.e., 4, 12, and 18 degrees C) and for two different ways of serving (i.e., a champagne-like and a beer-like way of serving). The beer-like way of serving champagne was found to impact its concentration of dissolved CO(2) significantly less. Moreover, the higher the champagne temperature is, the higher its loss of dissolved CO(2) during the pouring process, which finally constitutes the first analytical proof that low temperatures prolong the drink's chill and helps it to retain its effervescence during the pouring process. The diffusion coefficient of CO(2) molecules in champagne and champagne viscosity (both strongly temperature-dependent) are suspected to be the two main parameters responsible for such differences. Besides, a recently developed dynamic-tracking technique using IR thermography was also used in order to visualize the cloud of gaseous CO(2) which flows down from champagne during the pouring process, thus visually confirming the strong influence of champagne temperature on its loss of dissolved CO(2).

  2. Contextual Interference Effects in Learning Three Badminton Serves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Sinah; Magill, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    This study was made to validate results obtained in laboratory research. Thirty female students learned three badminton serves in either a low, mixed, or high interference practice schedule and were given a retention and transfer test. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  3. Does the addition of virtual reality training to a standard program of inpatient rehabilitation improve sitting balance ability and function after stroke? Protocol for a single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, L; Taillon-Hobson, A; Sveistrup, H; Bilodeau, M; Fergusson, D; Levac, D; Finestone, H

    2016-03-31

    Sitting ability and function are commonly impaired after stroke. Balance training has been shown to be helpful, but abundant repetitions are required for optimal recovery and patients must be motivated to perform rehabilitation exercises repeatedly to maximize treatment intensity. Virtual reality training (VRT), which allows patients to interact with a virtual environment using computer software and hardware, is enjoyable and may encourage greater repetition of therapeutic exercises. However, the potential for VRT to promote sitting balance has not yet been explored. The objective of this study is to determine if supplemental VRT-based sitting balance exercises improve sitting balance ability and function in stroke rehabilitation inpatients. This is a single-site, single-blind, parallel-group randomized control trial. Seventy six stroke rehabilitation inpatients who cannot stand independently for greater than one minute but can sit for at least 20 minutes (including at least one minute without support) are being recruited from a tertiary-care dedicated stroke rehabilitation unit. Participants are randomly allocated to experimental or control groups. Both participate in 10-12 sessions of 30-45 minutes of VRT performed in sitting administered by a single physiotherapist, in addition to their traditional therapy. The experimental group plays five games which challenge sitting balance while the control group plays five games which minimize trunk lean. Outcome measures of sitting balance ability (Function in Sitting Test, Ottawa Sitting Scale, quantitative measures of postural sway) and function (Reaching Performance Scale, Wolf Motor Function Test, quantitative measures of the limits of stability) are administered prior to, immediately following, and one month following the intervention by a second physiotherapist blind to the participant's group allocation. The treatment of sitting balance post-stroke with VRT has not yet been explored. Results from the current study

  4. The γ-Aminobutyrate Permease GabP Serves as the Third Proline Transporter of Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaprasis, Adrienne; Hoffmann, Tamara; Stannek, Lorena; Gunka, Katrin; Commichau, Fabian M.

    2014-01-01

    PutP and OpuE serve as proline transporters when this imino acid is used by Bacillus subtilis as a nutrient or as an osmostress protectant, respectively. The simultaneous inactivation of the PutP and OpuE systems still allows the utilization of proline as a nutrient. This growth phenotype pointed to the presence of a third proline transport system in B. subtilis. We took advantage of the sensitivity of a putP opuE double mutant to the toxic proline analog 3,4-dehydro-dl-proline (DHP) to identify this additional proline uptake system. DHP-resistant mutants were selected and found to be defective in the use of proline as a nutrient. Whole-genome resequencing of one of these strains provided the lead that the inactivation of the γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) transporter GabP was responsible for these phenotypes. DNA sequencing of the gabP gene in 14 additionally analyzed DHP-resistant strains confirmed this finding. Consistently, each of the DHP-resistant mutants was defective not only in the use of proline as a nutrient but also in the use of GABA as a nitrogen source. The same phenotype resulted from the targeted deletion of the gabP gene in a putP opuE mutant strain. Hence, the GabP carrier not only serves as an uptake system for GABA but also functions as the third proline transporter of B. subtilis. Uptake studies with radiolabeled GABA and proline confirmed this conclusion and provided information on the kinetic parameters of the GabP carrier for both of these substrates. PMID:24142252

  5. EMOTIONAL CONTAGION AND MOOD IN CROWD SERVING AS AUDIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beno Arnejcic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The global world is gradually becoming a world of separated crowds despite the artificial wire and wireless connection through television and the Internet. Crowds remain a prevailing subject of research in different social studies, and the research of changes in the psychological structure of crowds and their characteristics is still of primary interest. The main focus of the research is on the interpretation of the results of the research paper about a special separated crowd called audience. It was observed how students, constituting the crowd, perceive a crowd on video. The observation was focused on the research of emotional contagion and mood in the crowd serving as audience. While watching a mass event on a big screen, the crowd serving as audience emotionally converges with someone else, in our case with public speakers.

  6. Serving the Needs of the Latina Community for Health Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Yaros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Latinos remain the largest US population with limited health literacy (Andrulis D.P. & Brach, 2007. Concerned with how local media can meet the information needs of underserved audiences, we interviewed Latinas who were pregnant or mothers of young children living in a Spanish speaking community, and surveyed 33 local health professionals. Findings are that Latina women’s most common source of health information was family and friends. They said they tune to Spanish television and radio programs, but gave low grades to news media for health information. Medical professionals agreed that Latinas generally get their health information through friends and family, and rated the media poorly in terms of serving Latinas’ needs. Since the data indicate that the local news media are not serving Latinas’ health information needs as much as they could, we offer recommendations to potentially exploit new technological affordances and suggest expansion of conventional definitions of health literacy.

  7. The Myth That Insulating Boards Serves Long-Term Value

    OpenAIRE

    Bebchuk, Lucian Arye

    2013-01-01

    According to an influential view in corporate law writings and debates, pressure from shareholders leads companies to take myopic actions that are costly in the long term, and insulating boards from such pressure serves the long-term interests of companies as well as their shareholders. This board insulation claim has been regularly invoked in a wide range of contexts to support existing or tighter limits on shareholder rights and involvement. This paper subjects this view to a comprehensive ...

  8. Do Cooperative Banks Really Serve Agricultural Sector in Poland?

    OpenAIRE

    Zawojska, Aldona; Siudek, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the potential of cooperative banks for serving agricultural sector in Poland and to identify the areas with the most development potential. We discuss the transformation process in the cooperative banking system under market economy, and in particular investigate importance of cooperative banks for farms' financing on the basis of our survey of banks. Moreover, the role of cooperative banks in transmission of Government policy supporting farm sector in Poland...

  9. ServPPIN: a review of scientific findings

    OpenAIRE

    Rubalcaba , Luis; Di Meglio , Gisela; Gallouj , Faïz; Pyka , Andreas; Windrum , Paul; Green , Lawrence; Sundbo , Jon; Weber , Matthias; Dachs , Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    ServPPIN is a research project which focuses on the role of public and private services on growth and welfare and the particular role of public-private innovation networks (PPIN). Public-private innovation networks are considered to be an organisational platform in which public and private services can perform complementarities and synergies in many ways. The project analyses public and private services, and their impact on growth and welfare. In particular it focuses on service innovation an...

  10. Alyeska/SERVS technological innovations for oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S.O.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of technological innovations in spill response by Alyeska Pipeline Service Company/SERVS (ship escort response vessel system), was presented. The company has developed a number of spill response techniques which have needed new strategies and modified equipment for fulfillment of the Prince William Sound Tanker Oil Discharge Prevention and Contingency Plan. One of the strategies was the training of personnel to be ready to deploy massive quantities of equipment on short notice to potential spill sites over an 11,000 square mile water body with more than 3,200 miles of wilderness shoreline. Specific response equipment and decision-making tools have been developed in direct support of large scale programs. Along with oil slick tracking buoys and mini barges, SERVS has developed high capacity skimmers with recovery capacities approaching 2,000 to 3,000 barrels of liquid per hour and strategy boom-towing vessels which divert oil into a long U shaped containment boom. SERVS fishing vessel program, hatchery protection and remote response center equipment program, and wildlife treatment facilities were also described. 10 refs., 13 figs

  11. Motivations and Paths to Becoming Faculty at Minority Serving Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Blake

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon 15 qualitative interviews with early- to mid-career faculty (seven men and eight women at Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs, this study examines the diverse motivations and paths those faculty members have taken to becoming professors at their respective institutions. The faculty come from a range of MSIs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Hispanic Serving Institutions, Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander Serving Institutions, and Predominantly Black Institutions across the country and represent a broad spectrum of disciplines. This study sheds light on factors that guide their choices of discipline and entrance into the faculty ranks at MSIs. Social cognitive career theory (SCCT was used as a lens during qualitative coding and analysis in order to develop the findings, which reveal that (1 teaching, activism, and community uplift were primary motivators to enter the professoriate; (2 supportive environmental factors, including single individuals, proved pivotal in influencing faculty to take these roles; and (3 career transitions into the academy were spurred by learning experiences that revealed disciplinary and teaching interests. The findings suggest that MSIs attract community-oriented individuals to their faculty positions, and that colleges and universities interested in diversifying their faculties should craft such roles in ways that are appealing to the populations that they are trying to recruit and retain.

  12. Operating a production pilot factory serving several scientific domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfiligoi, I.; Würthwein, F.; Andrews, W.; Dost, J. M.; MacNeill, I.; McCrea, A.; Sheripon, E.; Murphy, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    Pilot infrastructures are becoming prominent players in the Grid environment. One of the major advantages is represented by the reduced effort required by the user communities (also known as Virtual Organizations or VOs) due to the outsourcing of the Grid interfacing services, i.e. the pilot factory, to Grid experts. One such pilot factory, based on the glideinWMS pilot infrastructure, is being operated by the Open Science Grid at University of California San Diego (UCSD). This pilot factory is serving multiple VOs from several scientific domains. Currently the three major clients are the analysis operations of the HEP experiment CMS, the community VO HCC, which serves mostly math, biology and computer science users, and the structural biology VO NEBioGrid. The UCSD glidein factory allows the served VOs to use Grid resources distributed over 150 sites in North and South America, in Europe, and in Asia. This paper presents the steps taken to create a production quality pilot factory, together with the challenges encountered along the road.

  13. Operating a production pilot factory serving several scientific domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sfiligoi, I; Würthwein, F; Andrews, W; Dost, J M; MacNeill, I; McCrea, A; Sheripon, E; Murphy, C W

    2011-01-01

    Pilot infrastructures are becoming prominent players in the Grid environment. One of the major advantages is represented by the reduced effort required by the user communities (also known as Virtual Organizations or VOs) due to the outsourcing of the Grid interfacing services, i.e. the pilot factory, to Grid experts. One such pilot factory, based on the glideinWMS pilot infrastructure, is being operated by the Open Science Grid at University of California San Diego (UCSD). This pilot factory is serving multiple VOs from several scientific domains. Currently the three major clients are the analysis operations of the HEP experiment CMS, the community VO HCC, which serves mostly math, biology and computer science users, and the structural biology VO NEBioGrid. The UCSD glidein factory allows the served VOs to use Grid resources distributed over 150 sites in North and South America, in Europe, and in Asia. This paper presents the steps taken to create a production quality pilot factory, together with the challenges encountered along the road.

  14. Empirical validation of the triple-code model of numerical processing for complex math operations using functional MRI and group Independent Component Analysis of the mental addition and subtraction of fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithorst, Vincent J; Brown, Rhonda Douglas

    2004-07-01

    The suitability of a previously hypothesized triple-code model of numerical processing, involving analog magnitude, auditory verbal, and visual Arabic codes of representation, was investigated for the complex mathematical task of the mental addition and subtraction of fractions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 15 normal adult subjects were processed using exploratory group Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Separate task-related components were found with activation in bilateral inferior parietal, left perisylvian, and ventral occipitotemporal areas. These results support the hypothesized triple-code model corresponding to the activated regions found in the individual components and indicate that the triple-code model may be a suitable framework for analyzing the neuropsychological bases of the performance of complex mathematical tasks. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Enhanced ex vivo inhibition of platelet function following addition of dipyridamole to aspirin after transient ischaemic attack or ischaemic stroke: first results from the TRinity AntiPlatelet responsiveness (TrAP) study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, William Oliver

    2012-02-01

    Ex vivo dipyridamole \\'non-responsiveness\\' has not been extensively studied in ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. Platelet surface marker expression, leucocyte-platelet complex formation and inhibition of platelet function at high shear stress as detected by the PFA-100(R) Collagen-Adenosine-diphosphate (C-ADP) and Collagen-Epinephrine cartridges was assessed in 52 patients within 4 weeks of transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or ischaemic stroke on aspirin, and then 14 d (14 d) and >90 d (90 d) after adding dipyridamole. A novel definition of \\'Dipyridamole non-responsiveness\\' was used. The median C-ADP closure time increased following addition of dipyridamole, remained elevated at 90 d (P <\\/= 0.03), and was unaffected by aspirin dose. 59% at 14 d and 56% at 90 d were \\'dipyridamole non-responders\\' on the PFA-100. The proportion of non-responders at 14 and 90 d was similar (P= 0.9). Compared with baseline (4.6%), median monocyte-platelet complexes increased at 14 d (5.0%, P= 0.03) and 90 d (4.9%, P= 0.04). Low C-ADP closure times were associated with increased monocyte-platelet complexes at 14 d (r= -0.32, P= 0.02) and 90 d (r= -0.33, P = 0.02). Monocyte-platelet complexes increased in the subgroup of dipyridamole non-responders on the PFA-100 (P<\\/= 0.045), but not in responders (P >\\/= 0.5), at 14 and 90 d versus baseline. Additional inhibition of platelet function has been detected with the PFA-100 when dipyridamole is added to aspirin. Elevated monocyte-platelet complexes may contribute to ex vivo dipyridamole non-responsiveness.

  16. Japan Flavour and Fragrance Materials Association's (JFFMA) safety assessment of food-flavouring substances uniquely used in Japan that belong to the class of aliphatic primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, acetals and esters containing additional oxygenated functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kenji; Hasegawa-Baba, Yasuko; Sekiya, Fumiko; Hayashi, Shim-Mo; Mirokuji, Yoshiharu; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Shinpei; Ono, Atsushi; Nakajima, Madoka; Degawa, Masakuni; Ozawa, Shogo; Shibutani, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio

    2017-09-01

    We performed a safety evaluation using the procedure devised by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) of the following four flavouring substances that belong to the class of 'aliphatic primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, acetals, and esters containing additional oxygenated functional groups' and are uniquely used in Japan: butyl butyrylacetate, ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate, 3-hydroxyhexanoic acid and methyl hydroxyacetate. Although no genotoxicity study data were found in the published literature, none of the four substances had chemical structural alerts predicting genotoxicity. All four substances were categorised as class I by using Cramer's classification. The estimated daily intake of each of the four substances was determined to be 0.007-2.9 μg/person/day by using the maximised survey-derived intake method and based on the annual production data in Japan in 2001, 2005 and 2010, and was determined to be 0.250-600.0 μg/person/day by using the single-portion exposure technique and based on average-use levels in standard portion sizes of flavoured foods. Both of these estimated daily intake ranges were below the threshold of toxicological concern for class I substances, which is 1800 μg/person/day. Although no information from in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies for the four substances was available, these substances were judged to raise no safety concerns at the current levels of intake.

  17. Effect of the addition of phytosterols and tocopherols on Streptococcus thermophilus robustness during industrial manufacture and ripening of a functional cheese as evaluated by qPCR and RT-qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pega, J; Rizzo, S; Pérez, C D; Rossetti, L; Díaz, G; Ruzal, S M; Nanni, M; Descalzo, A M

    2016-09-02

    the addition of phytosterols at functional concentrations, not only did not affect starter performance but also correlated with a significant increase in target DNA and cDNA levels in most of the time points evaluated throughout cheesemaking. Therefore, these findings suggest that the growth and metabolism of S. thermophilus may be enhanced by the incorporation of these biologically active molecules during cheese production, providing important information for the industrial design of novel fermented foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Copper (II) addition to accelerate lactic acid production from co-fermentation of food waste and waste activated sludge: Understanding of the corresponding metabolisms, microbial community and predictive functional profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tingting; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Ting; Su, Yinglong; Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Jun; Gan, Yanfei; Zhang, Ai; Liu, Yanan; Xue, Gang

    2018-03-20

    Bio-refinery of food waste and waste activated sludge to high value-added chemicals, such as lactic acid, has attracted particular interest in recent years. In this paper, the effect of copper (II) dosing to the organic waste fermentation system on lactic acid production was evaluated, which proved to be a promising method to stimulate high yield of lactic acid (77.0% higher than blank) at dosage of 15 μM-Cu 2+ /g VSS. As mechanism study suggested, copper addition enhanced the activity of α-glycosidase and glycolysis, which increased the substrate for subsequent acidification; whereas, the high dosage (70 μM-Cu 2+ /g VSS) inhibited the conversion of lactic acid to VFA, thus stabilized lactic acid concentration. Microbial community study revealed that small amount of copper (II) at 15 μM/g VSS resulted in the proliferation of Lactobacillus to 82.6%, which mainly produced lactic acid. Finally, the variation of functional capabilities implied that the proposed homeostatic system II was activated at relatively low concentration of copper. Meanwhile, membrane transport function and carbohydrate metabolism were also strengthened. This study provides insights into the effect of copper (II) on the enhancement of lactic acid production from co-fermentation of food waste and waste activated sludge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  20. Restaurant Policies and Practices for Serving Raw Fish in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedeen, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    The number of restaurants serving sushi within Minnesota is continuously increasing. The practices and protocols of serving raw fish are complex and require detailed planning to ensure that food served to patrons will not cause illness. Although the popularity of sushi is increasing, there is a lack of research on food safety issues pertaining to preparation of raw fish and sushi rice. To address this gap, the Minnesota Department of Health Environmental Health Specialists Network Food program collected descriptive data on restaurant practices and policies concerning the service of raw fish and sushi rice in 40 Minnesota restaurants. At each restaurant, a specialist interviewed a restaurant manager, conducted an observation of the sushi prep areas in the restaurant kitchen, and reviewed parasite destruction letters and invoices from fish supplier(s). Over half of the restaurants (59%) were missing one or more of the parasite destruction letters from their fish supplier(s) guaranteeing that fish had been properly frozen to the time and temperature requirements in the Minnesota Food Code. A total of 42 parasite destruction letters from suppliers were observed; 10% were considered "adequate" letters. The majority of the letters were missing details pertaining to the types of fish frozen, the length of time fish were frozen, or details on what temperatures fish were held frozen or a combination of all three. Most restaurants were using time as a public health control for their sushi rice. For those restaurants using time as a public health control, 26% had a written procedure on-site, and approximately 53% were keeping track of time. Bare hand contact during sushi prep was observed in 17% of restaurants, and in more than 40% of the restaurants, at least one fish was mislabeled on the menu. Findings from this study indicate that many Minnesota restaurants are not complying with the Food Code requirements pertaining to parasite destruction for the service of raw fish or

  1. Civilian social work: serving the military and veteran populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitsky, Laura; Illingworth, Maria; DuLaney, Megan

    2009-10-01

    This article discusses social work practice areas for civilian social workers who provide services to military service members,veterans, and their families. These practice areas include education, child welfare, domestic violence, mental health, health care, substance abuse, and criminal justice. The authors examine the impact of the contemporary military lifestyle and current military operations on service members and their families in the context of these practice areas, with the goal of compelling civilian social workers to acknowledge their responsibility to competently serve military and veteran clients.

  2. Minions: Empathetic Lessons From Small Yellow Creatures Serving the Despicable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerning, Halfdan; Vilsgaard, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Reviews the film Minions (2015) directed by Kyle Balda and Pierre Coffin (2015). Minions are fictional computer-animated yellow pill-shaped creatures who speak their own language. They live to serve the most despicable master they can find. The film tells the evolutionary story of the minions and......, their facial expressions, their display of character strengths, and their need for a purpose in life, we identify reasons why we are able to understand the minions as we understand ourselves. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)...

  3. What's for dinner? Types of food served at family dinner differ across parent and family characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; MacLehose, Rich; Loth, Katie; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Berge, Jerica

    2014-01-01

    To examine the types of food served at family dinner in the homes of adolescents and correlations with parent and family sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors and meal-specific variables. A cross-sectional population-based survey completed by mail or telephone by parents participating in Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) in 2009-2010. Homes of families with adolescents in Minneapolis/St. Paul urban area, MN, USA. Participants included 1923 parents/guardians (90·8% female; 68·5% from ethnic/racial minorities) of adolescents who participated in EAT 2010. Less than a third (28%) of parents reported serving a green salad at family dinner on a regular basis, but 70% reported regularly serving vegetables (other than potatoes). About one-fifth (21%) of families had fast food at family dinners two or more times per week. Variables from within the sociodemographic domain (low educational attainment) psychosocial domain (high work-life stress, depressive symptoms, low family functioning) and meal-specific domain (low value of family meals, low enjoyment of cooking, low meal planning, high food purchasing barriers and fewer hours in food preparation) were associated with lower healthfulness of foods served at family dinners, in analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. There is a need for interventions to improve the healthfulness of food served at family meals. Interventions need to be suitable for parents with low levels of education; take parent and family psychosocial factors into account; promote more positive attitudes toward family meals; and provide skills to make it easier to plan and prepare healthful family meals.

  4. [Food additives and healthiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  5. E-ServEval: a system for quality evaluation of the on-line public services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru BALOG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the objectives, the general architecture and the components of the web-based system for quality evaluation of the on-line public services developed using the framework of the complex research project “System for quality evaluation of the on-line public services for citizens and business environment (e-ServEval”. The paper also presents the technological options regarding the design and development of the system, the functions of the components and the aspects regarding the interface between user and e-ServEval system. Finally, the stage of the project and the conclusions are presented.

  6. How youth-serving organizations enable acquaintance molesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, some of the country's most prominent institutions have been ensnared in child sex abuse scandals. While each abuse incident features its own particular circumstances, institutions that have been the subject of these scandals have displayed similar patterns of organizational behavior that allowed molesting to occur and molesters to escape accountability. We can learn from those patterns to better understand and combat acquaintance molestation in youth-serving organizations. Although sex abuse is an inherent risk in youth work, American youth-serving organizations have responded to this risk largely on a case-by-case basis after abuse incidents have been revealed, rather than through proactive strategies to reduce the risk of abuse and to respond effectively to allegations. An examination of abuse scandals reveals common patterns of behavior among paid and volunteer staff in organizations that did not enact comprehensive, proactive strategies: Faith in the organiation blinded staff to the liklihood of abuse; organizations kept workers ignorant about the extent of the abuse problem; when abuse accusations arose, staff gave the benefit of the doubt to the adult; when abuse accusations were confirmed, staffers did not know how to respond; and not knowing how to resopnd, staff prioritized the protection of the organization. As a result, child molesters have been falsely exonerated or not held accountable, abused children have been disbelieved, and abuse has continued. These organizations inadvertently achieved the opposite of their missions: They enabled child molesters at the expense of children. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  8. Non-Stationary Single-Channel Queuing System Features Research in Context of Number of Served Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porshnev Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work devoted to researching of mathematical model of non-stationary queuing system (NQS. Arrival rate in studied NQS λ(t is similar to rate which observed in practice in a real access control system of objects of mass events. Dependence of number of serviced requests from time was calculated. It is proven that the ratio value of served requests at the beginning of event to all served requests described by a deterministic function, depending on the average service rate μ¯$\\bar \\mu $ and the maximum value of the arrival rate function λ(t.

  9. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  10. Renewable energy for federal facilities serving native Americans: preprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiffert, P.; Sprunt Crawley, A.; Bartow, K.

    2000-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is targeting Federal facilities serving Native American populations for cost-effective renewable energy projects. These projects not only save energy and money, they also provide economic opportunities for the Native Americans who assist in producing, installing, operating, or maintaining the renewable energy systems obtained for the facilities. The systems include solar heating, solar electric (photovoltaic or PV), wind, biomass, and geothermal energy systems. In fiscal years 1998 and 1999, FEMP co-funded seven such projects, working with the Indian Health Service in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Bureau of Indian Affairs in the U.S. Department of the Interior, and their project partners. The new renewable energy systems are helping to save money that would otherwise be spent on conventional energy and reduce the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels

  11. Can gene fusions serve for fingerprints of radiogenic cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that malignancies in blood cells often bear specific chromosome translocations or gene fusions. In recent years, the presence of fusion genes became to be known also among solid cancers as driver mutations. However, representative solid cancers bearing specific gene fusions are limited to cancers of thyroid, prostate, and sarcomas among which only thyroid cancer risk is known to be related to radiation exposures. On the other hand, it is extremely rare to find recurrent reciprocal translocations among common cancers such as in the lung, stomach, breast, and colon, which form a major component of radiation risks. It is therefore unlikely that radiation increases the risk of cancer by inducing specific translocations (gene fusions) but more likely through induction of mutations (including deletions). Although gene fusions could play a role in radiation carcinogenesis, it does not seem good enough to serve for a radiation fingerprint. (author)

  12. Unanswered prayers: religiosity and the god-serving bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Heidi R; Uhalt, Joshua; Matthies, Brigitte K

    2014-01-01

    Two self-report experiments examined how religiosity affects attributions made for a target person's death. Online adults (Study 1, N = 427) and undergraduate students (Study 2, N = 326) read about Chris who had a heart attack, used religious or health behaviors, and lived or died. Participants made attributions to Chris and God (both studies), and reported their emotions (Study 2). Participants made more attributions to Chris when he lived than when he died, but only when he used health behaviors. The highly religious made more attributions to God, but not when Chris used religious behaviors and died (the God-serving bias); they reported the most positive emotions when Chris lived after using religious behaviors (the Hallelujah effect). Directions for future research in terms of implicit religious beliefs and normative evaluations of religion are discussed.

  13. Forestry serving urban societies in the north atlantic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the North Atlantic Region, the social services provided by forests play a major role. With the high level of urbanisation in many of these countries, forests and other green areas are of great importance as recreational settings for urban dwellers. In order to ensure that forests cater...... of Ministers and was organised in collaboration with the Nordic-Baltic Centre of Advanced Research on Forestry Serving Urbanised Societies (CARe-FOR-US), the European Forest Network, Icelandic Forest Research and the Icelandic Forestry Association. Over 120 delegates represented researchers, planners...... and managers of forests and other green areas, policy makers and students. This issue of TemaNord presents a selection of papers presented at the conference, covering topics such as planning for environmental services, urban forest strategies, public involvement, and urban woodland management....

  14. Serve, Teach, and Lead: It’s All about Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Crippen, PhD

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Once a person assumes the mantle of teacher, one becomes a leader, first, in the classroom and then in the school (Crippen, 2005. With this position comes a delicate power and responsibility to the moral imperative. As such, this issue is critical as a component of teacher preparation programs. Goodlad (2004 sounds the alarm that our teacher preparation programs are remiss in responding to the need for moral literacy in our schools. The following paper will introduce the philosophy of servant-leadership, a moral way of serving, as defined by Robert K. Greenleaf (1970/1991 and will respond to Goodlad’s call with possibilities for preservice teachers that help them examine and define their role in contributing to the common good through servant-leadership.

  15. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing Teacher Capacity for Serving ELLs' Writing Instructional Needs: A Case for Systemic Functional Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Munoz, Zenaida; Park, Jae-Eun; Amabisca, Anastasia; Boscardin, Christy Kim

    2008-01-01

    Although explicit grammar instruction has been a source of considerable debate in second-language teaching, increasingly educational linguists assert instruction in academic language is critical, given the current assessment reform in K-12 contexts. Of particular concern is that contemporary English-Language-Learner (ELL) instruction focuses on…

  17. Higher Brain Functions Served by the Lowly Rodent Primary Visual Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavornik, Jeffrey P.; Bear, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    It has been more than 50 years since the first description of ocular dominance plasticity--the profound modification of primary visual cortex (V1) following temporary monocular deprivation. This discovery immediately attracted the intense interest of neurobiologists focused on the general question of how experience and deprivation modify the brain…

  18. Post-16 Curriculum Provision in England: The Emerging Functional "Triage" Serving Capital's Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Tristan

    2011-01-01

    The post-16 examination field in England has changed radically over the past decade. The previously hegemonic A-Level has been joined by the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme, Cambridge Pre-U, AQA Baccalaureate, and the Government's own Diploma's. This has been attacked as a "cluttered" field and an unnecessary duplication of…

  19. Over ten thousand cases and counting: acidbase.org is serving the critical care community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, Paul W G; Van Regenmortel, Niels; Gatz, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Acidbase.org has been serving the critical care community for over a decade. The backbone of this online resource consists of Peter Stewart's original text "How to understand Acid-Base" which is freely available to everyone. In addition, Stewart's Textbook of Acid Base, which puts the theory in today's clinical context is available for purchase from the website. However, many intensivists use acidbase.org on a daily basis for its educational content and in particular for its analysis module. This review provides an overview of the history of the website, a tutorial and descriptive statistics of over 10,000 queries submitted to the analysis module.

  20. 75 FR 49484 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions (AANAPISI), Native American-Serving Nontribal Institutions (NASNTI), Hispanic Serving Institutions-STEM and Articulation (HSI-STEM), and Predominantly Black Institutions (PBI...

  1. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  2. Groups – Additive Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  3. Groups – Additive Notation

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-01-01

    We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  4. Oscillations during observations: Dynamic oscillatory networks serving visuospatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesman, Alex I; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Proskovec, Amy L; McDermott, Timothy J; Wilson, Tony W

    2017-10-01

    The dynamic allocation of neural resources to discrete features within a visual scene enables us to react quickly and accurately to salient environmental circumstances. A network of bilateral cortical regions is known to subserve such visuospatial attention functions; however the oscillatory and functional connectivity dynamics of information coding within this network are not fully understood. Particularly, the coding of information within prototypical attention-network hubs and the subsecond functional connections formed between these hubs have not been adequately characterized. Herein, we use the precise temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to define spectrally specific functional nodes and connections that underlie the deployment of attention in visual space. Twenty-three healthy young adults completed a visuospatial discrimination task designed to elicit multispectral activity in visual cortex during MEG, and the resulting data were preprocessed and reconstructed in the time-frequency domain. Oscillatory responses were projected to the cortical surface using a beamformer, and time series were extracted from peak voxels to examine their temporal evolution. Dynamic functional connectivity was then computed between nodes within each frequency band of interest. We find that visual attention network nodes are defined functionally by oscillatory frequency, that the allocation of attention to the visual space dynamically modulates functional connectivity between these regions on a millisecond timescale, and that these modulations significantly correlate with performance on a spatial discrimination task. We conclude that functional hubs underlying visuospatial attention are segregated not only anatomically but also by oscillatory frequency, and importantly that these oscillatory signatures promote dynamic communication between these hubs. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5128-5140, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Food additives and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  6. Carrageenan as a dry strength additive for papermaking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Liu

    Full Text Available Carrageenans are commercially important sulfated gums found in various species of red seaweeds (Rhodophyta, wherein they serve a structural function similar to that of pectins in land plants. In this study, carrageenan was used independently or in combination with cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM and/or Al2(SO43 to explore its application as a dry strength additive in papermaking. Strength index determination, ash content detection, FTIR characterization and SEM observation were performed on prepared handsheets. The results showed that with 0.6% Al2(SO43 and 0.2% carrageenan as additives, the tensile index increased by 13.53% and precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC retention increased by 57.06%. With 0.6% Al2(SO43, 0.2% carrageenan and 0.03% CPAM as additives, PCC retention increased by 121% while the tensile index did not fall compared to handsheets without additives, indicating that carrageenan could enhance the strength of handsheets and be used as an anionic dry strength agent.

  7. Plasma microRNAs serve as biomarkers of therapeutic efficacy and disease progression in hypertension-induced heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, Brent A; Semus, Hillary M; Montgomery, Rusty L; Stack, Christianna; Latimer, Paul A; Lewton, Steven M; Lynch, Joshua M; Hullinger, Thomas G; Seto, Anita G; van Rooij, Eva

    AIMS: Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs), besides being potent regulators of gene expression, can additionally serve as circulating biomarkers of disease. The aim of this study is to determine if plasma miRNAs can be used as indicators of disease progression or therapeutic efficacy in

  8. Evaluation of diphtheria convalescent patients to serve as donors for the production of anti-diphtheria immunoglobulin preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissumbhar, B.; Rakhmanova, A.G.; Berbers, G.; Iakolev, A.; Nosikova, E.; Melnick, O.; Ovtcharenko, E.; Rümke, H. C.; Ruitenberg, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of selecting convalescent diphtheria patients to serve in emergency situations as donors for the production of anti-diphtheria immunoglobulin. To select suitable donors, the criterion of an antitoxin titer ≥3.0 IU/ml was used. In addition,

  9. Serving human needs. Nuclear technologies in the marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jihui; Burkart, Werner

    2001-01-01

    Many peaceful nuclear technologies today stand firmly established. They are being widely applied and accepted around the world in such fields as health care, food production, manufacturing, electricity generation, and environmental protection. Among the IAEA's 132 Member States, interest in constructively applying the tools of nuclear science and technology - especially outside the energy sector - remains high, although priorities, needs, and policies have changed over time. For the IAEA - whose specific mandate is to 'accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity' - the changing and challenging global picture has strengthened efforts to enhance the contribution of nuclear science and technologies in key fields of human development. A multi-faceted programme of technical cooperation serves as the main vehicle for the transfer of nuclear science and technology to developing countries. The programme's emphasis is on supporting projects that respond to the priority needs of each country, produce an economic or social impact, and reflect the distinct advantages of nuclear technology over other approaches

  10. Are men well served by family planning programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, Karen; Croce-Galis, Melanie; Gay, Jill

    2017-01-23

    Although the range of contraceptives includes methods for men, namely condoms, vasectomy and withdrawal that men use directly, and the Standard Days Method (SDM) that requires their participation, family planning programming has primarily focused on women. What is known about reaching men as contraceptive users? This paper draws from a review of 47 interventions that reached men and proposes 10 key considerations for strengthening programming for men as contraceptive users. A review of programming shows that men and boys are not particularly well served by programs. Most programs operate from the perspective that women are contraceptive users and that men should support their partners, with insufficient attention to reaching men as contraceptive users in their own right. The notion that family planning is women's business only is outdated. There is sufficient evidence demonstrating men's desire for information and services, as well as men's positive response to existing programming to warrant further programming for men as FP users. The key considerations focus on getting information and services where men and boys need it; addressing gender norms that affect men's attitudes and use while respecting women's autonomy; reaching adolescent boys; including men as users in policies and guidelines; scaling up successful programming; filling gaps with implementation research and monitoring & evaluation; and creating more contraceptive options for men.

  11. Investigating Methods for Serving Visualizations of Vertical Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. T.; Cechini, M. F.; Lanjewar, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Boller, R. A.; Baynes, K.

    2017-12-01

    Several geospatial web servers, web service standards, and mapping clients exist for the visualization of two-dimensional raster and vector-based Earth science data products. However, data products with a vertical component (i.e., vertical profiles) do not have the same mature set of technologies and pose a greater technical challenge when it comes to visualizations. There are a variety of tools and proposed standards, but no obvious solution that can handle the variety of visualizations found with vertical profiles. An effort is being led by members of the NASA Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) team to gather a list of technologies relevant to existing vertical profile data products and user stories. The goal is to find a subset of technologies, standards, and tools that can be used to build publicly accessible web services that can handle the greatest number of use cases for the widest audience possible. This presentation will describe results of the investigation and offer directions for moving forward with building a system that is capable of effectively and efficiently serving visualizations of vertical profiles.

  12. An empirical typology of private child and family serving agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Collins-Camargo, Crystal; McBeath, Bowen; Wells, Rebecca; Bunger, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    Differences in how services are organized and delivered can contribute significantly to variation in outcomes experienced by children and families. However, few comparative studies identify the strengths and limitations of alternative delivery system configurations. The current study provides the first empirical typology of private agencies involved with the formal child welfare system. Data collected in 2011 from a national sample of private agencies were used to classify agencies into five distinct groups based on internal management capacity, service diversification, integration, and policy advocacy. Findings reveal considerable heterogeneity in the population of private child and family serving agencies. Cross-group comparisons suggest that differences in agencies' strategic and structural characteristics correlated with agency directors' perceptions of different pressures in their external environment. Future research can use this typology to better understand local service systems and the extent to which different agency strategies affect performance and other outcomes. Such information has implications for public agency contracting decisions and could inform system-level assessment and planning of services for children and families.

  13. Assessing a Historically Hispanic Serving Institution Internationalization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Iuspa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a qualitative study conducted at a Historically Hispanic Serving Institution (HHSI to further the understanding of its internationalization decision-making process. The study uses the Internationalization Cube model to review the institution’s internal processes and policies toward internationalization and assess how its international activities align with its internationalization efforts. The Internationalization Cube, an eight-cell model, permits the positioning of Institutions of Higher Education (IHEs based on the analysis of its three dimensions and respective subcategories: policy, support, and implementation. The International Dimension Index (IDI and the Item Relevancy Index (IRI were also used to determine the level of alignment between the HHSI position on the Internationalization Cube and its international activities. The study finds that the HHSI is on Position 6 on the Internationalization Cube (priority policy, one-sided support, and systematic/structure implementation, and exhibits all the international activities considered indicators of internationalization but attention is needed to foreign language, international students, study abroad, faculty movement and involvement in international projects. The study concludes that an association exists between the institution’s position on the Internationalization Cube and its international activities, and adjustments in the institution’s policy, support, and implementation dimensions will be required to advance its position on the Internationalization Cube making its internationalization process more sustainable. This study makes a contribution to addressing the need to assess an IHE by presenting a holistic organizational framework instead of a fragmented international activities organizational analysis.

  14. Serving Canada's exporters and their customers abroad since 1946

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, T.

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Commercial Corporation (CCC) is a federal Crown corporation whose mandate is to facilitate trade between Canada and other nations, principally by partnering with Canadian suppliers in the sale of goods and services, and serving as a prime contractor and guarantor for sales by Canadian exporters to foreign buyers. CCC also acts as the purchasing agent contractor and manager for the U.S. Department of Defence of Canadian suppliers under a bilateral treaty. In essence, CCC participation constitutes a guarantee by the Canadian government that the Canadian supplier is capable, qualified, and that the contract terms will be met. The paper discusses the potential benefits of CCC participation in transactions for buyers, and for exporters, the intricacies of the progress payment program designed to provide working capital over and above normal cash flow, to share the risks amongst the parties to obtain pre-shipment financing for export sales, and to free up credit facilities. Eligibility criteria for the progress payment program, the process involved in becoming a participant, and associated costs to participants are also explained

  15. Smart hydrogel functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Liang-Yin; Ju, Xiao-Jie

    2014-01-01

    This book systematically introduces smart hydrogel functional materials with the configurations ranging from hydrogels to microgels. It serves as an excellent reference for designing and fabricating artificial smart hydrogel functional materials.

  16. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  17. A Case of Mixed Motives? : Formal and Informal Functions of Administrative Immigration Detention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Leerkes (Arjen); D.W.J. Broeders (Dennis)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn most EU countries and the United States, immigration detention is defined as an administrative, non-punitive measure to facilitate expulsion. This paper argues that immigration detention in the Netherlands serves three informal functions in addition to its formal function as an

  18. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  19. Peak Operation of Cascaded Hydropower Plants Serving Multiple Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjian Shen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The bulk hydropower transmission via trans-provincial and trans-regional power networks in China provides great operational flexibility to dispatch power resources between multiple power grids. This is very beneficial to alleviate the tremendous peak load pressure of most provincial power grids. This study places the focus on peak operations of cascaded hydropower plants serving multiple provinces under a regional connected AC/DC network. The objective is to respond to peak loads of multiple provincial power grids simultaneously. A two-stage search method is developed for this problem. In the first stage, a load reconstruction strategy is proposed to combine multiple load curves of power grids into a total load curve. The purpose is to deal with different load features in load magnitudes, peaks and valleys. A mutative-scale optimization method is then used to determine the generation schedules of hydropower plants. In the second stage, an exterior point search method is established to allocate the generation among multiple receiving power grids. This method produces an initial solution using the load shedding algorithm, and further improves it by iteratively coordinating the generation among different power grids. The proposed method was implemented to the operations of cascaded hydropower plants on Xin-Fu River and another on Hongshui River. The optimization results in two cases satisfied the peak demands of receiving provincial power grids. Moreover, the maximum load difference between peak and valley decreased 12.67% and 11.32% in Shanghai Power Grid (SHPG and Zhejiang Power Grid (ZJPG, exceeding by 4.85% and 6.72% those of the current operational method, respectively. The advantage of the proposed method in alleviating peak-shaving pressure is demonstrated.

  20. Can protein-fortified pasta serve as a meat substitute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, C J; Tsay, R; Babayan, V K; Blackburn, G L

    1982-01-01

    A seventeen-day metabolic balance study was conducted with 13 healthy adult subjects to test the protein utilization of a meat-based diet and a protein-fortified pasta diet in an isonitrogenous, isocaloric inpatient study (averaging 112 gm of protein, and 2,500 cal). Intakes of calories, protein, fat, and carbohydrates, as well as ratios of meat protein or protein-fortified pasta protein (PEP), were controlled throughout the diets. The study was comprised of three experimental periods: a seven-day meat-protein control period, representing the typical american diet (TAD), averaging 18% protein, 40% fat, and 42% carbohydrate, a seven-day protein-enriched pasta control period (PEP), averaging 18% protein, 29% fat, and 53% carbohydrates, and a three-day PEP period composed of varied recipes, averaging 18% protein, 29% fat, and 53% carbohydrates. The subjects who consumed both the TAD and PEP diets achieved nitrogen balance (2.5 gN +/- 0.7 on the TAD, 2 gN +/- 0 on PEP with the PEP diet resulting in a decrease in plasma cholesterol (32 mg/dl, P less than .005), and a decrease in systolic (5.25 mm/Hg P less than .025) and diastolic blood pressure (5 mm/Hg, P less than .05), which was associated with an increase in urinary sodium excretion (19 +/- 17 mEq/day, P less than .025). In this study, it was determined that protein-fortified pasta may serve as a meat alternative. The PEP diet, which includes a beneficial change in fat/carbohydrate ratio, can alter lipid profiles, blood pressure, and sodium excretion, thus leading to improved health status and a decrease in cardiac risk factors.

  1. Training in Geoethics: Shared Values in Serving Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppoloni, S.; Di Capua, G.

    2014-12-01

    Geosciences have evident repercussions on society. Geoscientists possess knowledge and skills to investigate, manage and intervene on the Geosphere, and this implies ethical obligations. So, the adoption of ethical principles and standards is crucial if geoscientists want to best serve the public. Their ethical responsibility requires a more active role in interacting with society, by giving people valuable contexts that inform the need for sustainable development, and perspectives that reveal essential and delicate balances of natural systems that impact humanity. Geoethics consists of research and reflection on those values upon which to base appropriate behaviour and practices where human activities intersect the Geosphere, and should become an essential point of reference in geoscientists' curricula. Acting in this direction implies the awareness by the geological community of its ethical commitments and the necessity to train new generations of geoscientists that in the future will be able to transfer to society not only practical aspects of geological knowledge, but also a new way to understand our planet. The IAPG - International Association for Promoting Geoethics (www.iapg.geoethics.org) was born to build a new awareness in the scientific community. It aims at joining forces of geoscientists all over the world, through creation of an international, multidisciplinary and scientific platform for discussing ethical problems and dilemmas in Earth Sciences, for strengthening the research base on Geoethics through scientific publications and conferences. Its main goal is to give a new cultural framework of reference, in which to develop effective training tools, in order to sensitize young geoscientists on ethical and social issues related to their future work, starting from the definition of shared values within the scientific community. This work provides an overview on the IAPG goals, activities and ongoing initiatives.

  2. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  3. Adaptive servo-ventilation for central sleep apnoea in systolic heart failure: results of the major substudy of SERVE-HF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Martin R; Woehrle, Holger; Wegscheider, Karl; Vettorazzi, Eik; Lezius, Susanne; Koenig, Wolfgang; Weidemann, Frank; Smith, Gillian; Angermann, Christiane; d'Ortho, Marie-Pia; Erdmann, Erland; Levy, Patrick; Simonds, Anita K; Somers, Virend K; Zannad, Faiez; Teschler, Helmut

    2018-03-01

    The SERVE-HF trial investigated the impact of treating central sleep apnoea (CSA) with adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) in patients with systolic heart failure. A preplanned substudy was conducted to provide insight into mechanistic changes underlying the observed effects of ASV, including assessment of changes in left ventricular function, ventricular remodelling, and cardiac, renal and inflammatory biomarkers. In a subset of the 1325 randomised patients, echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) and biomarker analysis were performed at baseline, and 3 and 12 months. In secondary analyses, data for patients with baseline and 12-month values were evaluated; 312 patients participated in the substudy. The primary endpoint, change in echocardiographically determined left ventricular ejection fraction from baseline to 12 months, did not differ significantly between the ASV and the control groups. There were also no significant between-group differences for changes in left ventricular dimensions, wall thickness, diastolic function or right ventricular dimensions and ejection fraction (echocardiography), and on cMRI (in small patient numbers). Plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide concentration decreased in both groups, and values were similar at 12 months. There were no significant between-group differences in changes in cardiac, renal and systemic inflammation biomarkers. In patients with systolic heart failure and CSA, addition of ASV to guideline-based medical management had no statistically significant effect on cardiac structure and function, or on cardiac biomarkers, renal function and systemic inflammation over 12 months. The increased cardiovascular mortality reported in SERVE-HF may not be related to adverse remodelling or worsening heart failure. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.

  4. 45 CFR 2551.81 - What type of clients are eligible to be served?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What type of clients are eligible to be served... FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SENIOR COMPANION PROGRAM Clients Served § 2551.81 What type of clients are eligible to be served? Senior Companions serve only adults, primarily older adults, who have...

  5. Pigeons learn stimulus identity and stimulus relations when both serve as redundant, relevant cues during same-different discrimination training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Brett M; Wasserman, Edward A

    2003-01-01

    The authors taught pigeons to discriminate displays of 16 identical items from displays of 16 nonidentical items. Unlike most same-different discrimination studies--where only stimulus relations could serve a discriminative function--both the identity of the items and the relations among the items were discriminative features of the displays. The pigeons learned about both stimulus identity and stimulus relations when these 2 sources of information served as redundant, relevant cues. In tests of associative competition, identity cues exerted greater stimulus control than relational cues. These results suggest that the pigeon can respond to both specific stimuli and general relations in the environment.

  6. Additive manufacturing of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, Dirk; Seyda, Vanessa; Wycisk, Eric; Emmelmann, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM), the layer-by layer build-up of parts, has lately become an option for serial production. Today, several metallic materials including the important engineering materials steel, aluminium and titanium may be processed to full dense parts with outstanding properties. In this context, the present overview article describes the complex relationship between AM processes, microstructure and resulting properties for metals. It explains the fundamentals of Laser Beam Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Laser Metal Deposition, and introduces the commercially available materials for the different processes. Thereafter, typical microstructures for additively manufactured steel, aluminium and titanium are presented. Special attention is paid to AM specific grain structures, resulting from the complex thermal cycle and high cooling rates. The properties evolving as a consequence of the microstructure are elaborated under static and dynamic loading. According to these properties, typical applications are presented for the materials and methods for conclusion.

  7. Additive manufactured serialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, III, John T.

    2017-04-18

    Methods for forming an identifying mark in a structure are described. The method is used in conjunction with an additive manufacturing method and includes the alteration of a process parameter during the manufacturing process. The method can form in a unique identifying mark within or on the surface of a structure that is virtually impossible to be replicated. Methods can provide a high level of confidence that the identifying mark will remain unaltered on the formed structure.

  8. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) capabilities for serving science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas R.

    1990-01-01

    Results of research on potential science applications of the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) are presented. Discussed here are: (1) general research on communications related issues; (2) a survey of science-related activities and programs in the local area; (3) interviews of selected scientists and associated telecommunications support personnel whose projects have communications requirements; (4) analysis of linkages between ACTS functionality and science user communications activities and modes of operation; and (5) an analysis of survey results and the projection of conclusions to a national scale.

  9. Comprehensive outsourcing biobanking facility to serve the international research community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaferia, Giuseppe R; Biunno, Ida; DeBlasio, Pasquale

    2011-06-01

    The validity of results from biomarker studies using archived specimens depends on the integrity of the specimens and the manner in which they are collected, processed, and stored. The management of a huge amount of biomaterial generated from research studies and clinical trials is becoming a very demanding task and many organizations are facing the choice between in-house storage and processing and outsourcing some activities. Storage and logistic functions are the prime targets for outsourcing, because to sustain these critical assets organizations must have the expertise, the dedicated qualified personnel, the proper quality control programs, and available resources to fulfill the mandatory requirements to maintain the integrity of the samples. External biobanks are dedicated and certified infrastructures (ISO, GMP, etc.) that apply efficient logistic and shipping activities, use validated standard operating procedures, install appropriate monitoring back-up systems, and, most of all, have room for expansion. Thus, the choice between in-house biobanking and outsourcing cannot be exclusively based on a financial decision; it must also consider (i) type of collection/project, (ii) logistic complexity (number and locations of collection sites), (iii) safety requirements, (iv) functional expertise, and (v) business priorities.

  10. A simple method for serving Web hypermaps with dynamic database drill-down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carson Ewart R

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HealthCyberMap http://healthcybermap.semanticweb.org aims at mapping parts of health information cyberspace in novel ways to deliver a semantically superior user experience. This is achieved through "intelligent" categorisation and interactive hypermedia visualisation of health resources using metadata, clinical codes and GIS. HealthCyberMap is an ArcView 3.1 project. WebView, the Internet extension to ArcView, publishes HealthCyberMap ArcView Views as Web client-side imagemaps. The basic WebView set-up does not support any GIS database connection, and published Web maps become disconnected from the original project. A dedicated Internet map server would be the best way to serve HealthCyberMap database-driven interactive Web maps, but is an expensive and complex solution to acquire, run and maintain. This paper describes HealthCyberMap simple, low-cost method for "patching" WebView to serve hypermaps with dynamic database drill-down functionality on the Web. Results The proposed solution is currently used for publishing HealthCyberMap GIS-generated navigational information maps on the Web while maintaining their links with the underlying resource metadata base. Conclusion The authors believe their map serving approach as adopted in HealthCyberMap has been very successful, especially in cases when only map attribute data change without a corresponding effect on map appearance. It should be also possible to use the same solution to publish other interactive GIS-driven maps on the Web, e.g., maps of real world health problems.

  11. Do painkillers serve as "hillbilly heroin" for rural adults with high levels of psychosocial stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Pamela; Hendy, Helen M

    2017-07-05

    Nonmedical use of painkillers has increased in recent years, with some authors suggesting that painkillers serve as "hillbilly heroin": a drug chosen by rural adults to cope with psychosocial stresses in their lives. The present study compared rural and urban adults for their reported use of 5 drugs during the past year (painkillers, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin) and for associations between these 5 drugs and their reported psychosocial stressors. This study conducted secondary analyses of anonymous survey data provided by the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health with responses from 8,699 rural and 18,481 urban adults. The survey included demographics (gender, age, race, education, marital status, family income), reports of whether participants had used each of 5 illicit drugs during the past year, and measures of psychological distress and social functioning problems. Controlling for demographics, rural adults showed no greater prevalence of painkiller use than urban adults, but rural adults were more likely than urban adults to use methamphetamine and less likely to use marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Controlling for demographics, rural adults showed no associations between psychological or social stressors and the use of painkillers, but such stressors were significantly associated with the use of marijuana, methamphetamine, and heroin. Urban adults showed significant associations of psychological and social stressors with the use of painkillers, as well as with the use of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Results suggest that painkillers are unlikely to serve as "hillbilly heroin" for rural adults, but they may serve as "big-city heroin" for urban adults.

  12. BWR zinc addition Sourcebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Giannelli, Joseph F.; Jarvis, Alfred J.

    2014-01-01

    Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have been injecting zinc into the primary coolant via the reactor feedwater system for over 25 years for the purpose of controlling primary system radiation fields. The BWR zinc injection process has evolved since the initial application at the Hope Creek Nuclear Station in 1986. Key transitions were from the original natural zinc oxide (NZO) to depleted zinc oxide (DZO), and from active zinc injection of a powdered zinc oxide slurry (pumped systems) to passive injection systems (zinc pellet beds). Zinc addition has continued through various chemistry regimes changes, from normal water chemistry (NWC) to hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and HWC with noble metals (NobleChem™) for mitigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of reactor internals and primary system piping. While past reports published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) document specific industry experience related to these topics, the Zinc Sourcebook was prepared to consolidate all of the experience gained over the past 25 years. The Zinc Sourcebook will benefit experienced BWR Chemistry, Operations, Radiation Protection and Engineering personnel as well as new people entering the nuclear power industry. While all North American BWRs implement feedwater zinc injection, a number of other BWRs do not inject zinc. This Sourcebook will also be a valuable resource to plants considering the benefits of zinc addition process implementation, and to gain insights on industry experience related to zinc process control and best practices. This paper presents some of the highlights from the Sourcebook. (author)

  13. KNMI DataLab experiences in serving data-driven innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noteboom, Jan Willem; Sluiter, Raymond

    2016-04-01

    Climate change research and innovations in weather forecasting rely more and more on (Big) data. Besides increasing data from traditional sources (such as observation networks, radars and satellites), the use of open data, crowd sourced data and the Internet of Things (IoT) is emerging. To deploy these sources of data optimally in our services and products, KNMI has established a DataLab to serve data-driven innovations in collaboration with public and private sector partners. Big data management, data integration, data analytics including machine learning and data visualization techniques are playing an important role in the DataLab. Cross-domain data-driven innovations that arise from public-private collaborative projects and research programmes can be explored, experimented and/or piloted by the KNMI DataLab. Furthermore, advice can be requested on (Big) data techniques and data sources. In support of collaborative (Big) data science activities, scalable environments are offered with facilities for data integration, data analysis and visualization. In addition, Data Science expertise is provided directly or from a pool of internal and external experts. At the EGU conference, gained experiences and best practices are presented in operating the KNMI DataLab to serve data-driven innovations for weather and climate applications optimally.

  14. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB

  15. Sewage sludge additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  16. Self-serving punishment of a common enemy creates a public good in reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bshary, Andrea; Bshary, Redouan

    2010-11-23

    A key challenge for evolutionary biologists is to determine conditions under which individuals benefit from a contribution to public goods [1, 2]. For humans, it has been observed that punishment of free riders may promote contributions [3, 4], but the conditions that lead to stable cooperation based on punishment remain hotly debated [5-8]. Here we present empirical evidence that public goods may emerge as a by-product of self-serving punishment in interactions between coral reef fishes and parasitic saber-tooth blennies that stealthily attack their fish victims from behind to take a bite [9]. We first show that chasing the blenny functions as punishment [10], because it decreases the probability of future attacks. We then provide evidence that in female scalefin anthias, a shoaling species, punishment creates a public good because it increases the probability that the parasite switches to another species for the next attack. A final experiment suggests that punishment is nevertheless self-serving because blennies appear to be able to discriminate between look-alike punishers and nonpunishers. Thus, individuals that do contribute to the public good may risk being identified by the parasite as easy targets for future attacks. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Septic tank additive impacts on microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S; Hoover, M T; Clark, G H; Gumpertz, M; Wollum, A G; Cobb, C; Strock, J

    2008-01-01

    Environmental health specialists, other onsite wastewater professionals, scientists, and homeowners have questioned the effectiveness of septic tank additives. This paper describes an independent, third-party, field scale, research study of the effects of three liquid bacterial septic tank additives and a control (no additive) on septic tank microbial populations. Microbial populations were measured quarterly in a field study for 12 months in 48 full-size, functioning septic tanks. Bacterial populations in the 48 septic tanks were statistically analyzed with a mixed linear model. Additive effects were assessed for three septic tank maintenance levels (low, intermediate, and high). Dunnett's t-test for tank bacteria (alpha = .05) indicated that none of the treatments were significantly different, overall, from the control at the statistical level tested. In addition, the additives had no significant effects on septic tank bacterial populations at any of the septic tank maintenance levels. Additional controlled, field-based research iswarranted, however, to address additional additives and experimental conditions.

  18. The Strategies of Academic Library to Serve Net-Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    candra pratama setiawan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast developments in information and communication technology have rapidly shaped and created enormous changes in the way people live and use libraries. The generation who grow in this era is called net generation. Academic libraries, where the majority of the users are the netgeneration, have started to implement the concept of hybrid library as a response of the technological advances. The trend of digital collections usage is getting increase, on the other hand, the number of library visitor is getting lower significantly. The condition make librarians afraid of being abandoned by its users, whereas libraries still have many physical collections. This paper is written as a result of simple observation in some libraries where the needs of netgeneration has accomodated. The concept of library as place, and library marketing offer the solutions to deal with the problem. Libraries can develop and provide some facilities that suitable with the net-generation characteristics. In addition, libraries can create some events to promote their services even the collections to attract the users to visit library.

  19. Ludic Function of Precedent-Related Phenomena in Media Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Velykoroda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the ludic function of precedent-related phenomena as a type of intertextuality. The analysis is done on the basis of relevance theoretic approach, through which we aim to show the additional cognitive effect which is created by precedent-related phenomena in media discourse, and this comic effect serves as a foundation for the ludic function of these units.

  20. Privatisation of Security: Private Military Contractors Serving Governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Piątek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Privatisation of security did not appear in the process of revolution. Under conditions of deepening international relations, as well as integration and globalisation processes, security of the state, as well as other entities, is subject to a number of dependencies. The article casts some doubt on how much states are prepared to take such actions, while not losing the attribute of monopoly on violence. Moreover, the article presents doubts about the ranks of modern armed forces. Private Military Firms (PMFs are new actors the actions of which affect the security. The contemporary image of the PMF functioning is a phenomenon on a global scale. In the twenty-first century, small businesses can have a huge impact on the reality and international affairs. Leaving military firms without state control proves that they do not understand the dynamics, range, risks and challenges posed by cooperation with entities that are allowed to use force. Furthermore, despite devastating consequences that occurred during the state stabilisation operations, these firms continued to outsource services to contractors, while not creating any legal control over them.

  1. Can music serve as a "cultural immunogen"? An explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, Even

    2013-08-07

    The aim of this study is to explore how people in contemporary society may apply music in their everyday life to improve their health and well-being. Through a series of qualitative interviews, informants gave their narratives about how music had become a part of their health practice. Six narratives concerning this type of everyday musical self-care are presented, and the following questions are sought to be answered: What kinds of musical practices do people apply in order to regulate their health and promote their sense of well-being? What kind of generative health mechanism can we observe or theorize when people use music to enhance their well-being? What kinds of rituals, contextual circumstances and personal health beliefs are operating in these situations? The findings suggests that some people may sing, participate in a choir, dance to music, compose songs, play precomposed music, or play in a band as part of a reflexive strategy to improve their health and well-being. Further analysis also identified six generative factors that may contribute to the immunogen functions of music: A pragmatic concept of music, music as a social and emotional resource, music as a supportive self object, musical competency, rituals, and locus of control. These findings may have implication for the field of music therapy as it will fill the gap between the clinical use of music done by professional music therapists and the everyday "musicking" performed by people outside the institutional practice.

  2. Stable self-serving personality traits in recreational and dependent cocaine users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris B Quednow

    Full Text Available Chronic cocaine use has been associated with impairments in social cognition, self-serving and antisocial behavior, and socially relevant personality disorders (PD. Despite the apparent relationship between Machiavellianism and stimulant use, no study has explicitly examined this personality concept in cocaine users so far. In the frame of the longitudinal Zurich Cocaine Cognition Study, the Machiavellianism Questionnaire (MACH-IV was assessed in 68 recreational and 30 dependent cocaine users as well as in 68 psychostimulant-naïve controls at baseline. Additionally, three closely related personality dimensions from the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-cooperativeness, (social reward dependence, and self-directedness-and the screening questionnaire of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II were acquired. At the one-year follow-up, 57 cocaine users and 48 controls were reassessed with the MACH-IV. Finally, MACH-IV scores were correlated with measures of social cognition and interaction (cognitive/emotional empathy, Theory-of-Mind, prosocial behavior and with SCID-II PD scores assessed at baseline. Both recreational and dependent cocaine users showed significantly higher Machiavellianism than controls, while dependent cocaine users additionally displayed significantly lower levels of TCI cooperativeness and self-directedness. During the one-year interval, MACH-IV scores showed high test-retest reliability and also the significant gap between cocaine users and controls remained. Moreover, in cocaine users, higher Machiavellianism correlated significantly with lower levels of cooperativeness and self-directedness, with less prosocial behavior, and with higher cluster B PD scores. However, Machiavellianism was not correlated with measures of cocaine use severity (r<-.15. Both recreational and dependent cocaine users display pronounced and stable Machiavellian personality traits. The lack of

  3. Additive lattice kirigami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  4. Additive Manufactured Superconducting Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Eric; Rosen, Yaniv; Woolleet, Nathan; Materise, Nicholas; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Morris; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Dubois, Jonathan

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities provide an ultra-low dissipative environment, which has enabled fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, materials properties, and the search for new particles in and beyond the standard model. However, resonator designs are constrained by limitations in conventional machining techniques. For example, current through a seam is a limiting factor in performance for many waveguide cavities. Development of highly reproducible methods for metallic parts through additive manufacturing, referred to colloquially as 3D printing\\x9D, opens the possibility for novel cavity designs which cannot be implemented through conventional methods. We present preliminary investigations of superconducting cavities made through a selective laser melting process, which compacts a granular powder via a high-power laser according to a digitally defined geometry. Initial work suggests that assuming a loss model and numerically optimizing a geometry to minimize dissipation results in modest improvements in device performance. Furthermore, a subset of titanium alloys, particularly, a titanium, aluminum, vanadium alloy (Ti - 6Al - 4V) exhibits properties indicative of a high kinetic inductance material. This work is supported by LDRD 16-SI-004.

  5. Exploring College Students' Identification with an Organizational Identity for Serving Latinx Students at a Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI) and an Emerging HSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gina A.; Dwyer, Brighid

    2018-01-01

    Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs; postsecondary institutions that enroll 25% or more Latinx students) are increasing in significance. But to what extent do students attending an HSI, or an emerging HSI (enrolls 15-24% Latinx students), identify with an organizational identity for serving Latinx students? There is a need to understand how…

  6. Functional Analysis of HIV/AIDS Stigma: Consensus or Divergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Hossain, Syeda Zakia

    2011-01-01

    Functional theory proposes that attitudes may serve a variety of purposes for individuals. This study aimed to determine whether stigmatized attitudes toward HIV/AIDS serve the same function for all (consensus function) or serve different functions for different individuals (divergence function) by assessing various aspects of HIV/AIDS stigma…

  7. Mechanistic Insight in the Function of Phosphite Additives for Protection of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 Cathode in High Voltage Li-Ion Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Peebles, Cameron; Feng, Zhenxing; Connell, Justin G; Liao, Chen; Wang, Yan; Shkrob, Ilya A; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-05-11

    Triethlylphosphite (TEP) and tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TTFP) have been evaluated as electrolyte additives for high-voltage Li-ion battery cells using a Ni-rich layered cathode material LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523) and the conventional carbonate electrolyte. The repeated charge/discharge cycling for cells containing 1 wt % of these additives was performed using an NCM523/graphite full cell operated at the voltage window from 3.0-4.6 V. During the initial charge process, these additives decompose on the cathode surface at a lower oxidation potential than the baseline electrolyte. Impedance spectroscopy and post-test analyses indicate the formation of protective coatings by both additives on the cathode surface that prevent oxidative breakdown of the electrolyte. However, only TTFP containing cells demonstrate the improved capacity retention and Coulombic efficiency. For TEP, the protective coating is also formed, but low Li(+) ion mobility through the interphase layer results in inferior performance. These observations are rationalized through the inhibition of electrocatalytic centers present on the cathode surface and the formation of organophosphate deposits isolating the cathode surface from the electrolyte. The difference between the two phosphites clearly originates in the different properties of the resulting phosphate coatings, which may be in Li(+) ion conductivity through such materials.

  8. Functional Dependence for Calculation of Additional Real-Power Losses in a Double-Wound Supply Transformer Caused by Unbalanced Active Inductive Load in a Star Connection with an Insulated Neutral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostinskiy, Sergey S.; Troitskiy, Anatoly I.

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with the problem of calculating the additional real-power losses in double-wound supply transformers with voltage class 6 (10)/0,4 kV, caused by unbalanced active inductive load connected in a star connection with an insulated neutral. When solving the problem, authors used the theory of electric circuits, method of balanced…

  9. The Strategies of Academic Library to Serve Net-Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Pratama Setiawan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The  fast  developments  in  information  and  communication  technology  have  rapidly  shaped  and created enormous changes in the way people live and use libraries. The generation who grow in this era is called net generation. Academic libraries, where the majority of the users are the net-generation,  have  started  to  implement  the  concept  of  hybrid  library  as  a  response  of  the technological  advances.  The  trend  of  digital  collections  usage  is  getting  increase,  on  the  other hand,  the  number  of  library  visitor  is  getting  lower  significantly.  The  condition  make  librarians afraid  of  being  abandoned  by  its  users,  whereas  libraries  still  have  many  physical  collections. This paper is written as a result of simple observation in some libraries where the needs of net-generation  has  accommodated.  The  concept  of library  as  place,  and  library  marketing  offer  the solutions to deal with the problem. Libraries can develop and provide some facilities that suitable with  the net-generation  characteristics.  In  addition,  libraries  can  create  some  events  to  promote their services even the collections to attract the users to visit library.

  10. Research reactors serving the radiotracer technique: An overlooked opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.

    2010-01-01

    The unique features of using radiotracers are not always fully explored at nuclear research reactor centers. The radiotracer method is a versatile and powerful tool in the study of a wide variety of applications in e.g. chemistry, biology, agriculture, medicine and (industrial) technology. The big advantage of radiotracers above e.g. stable isotope tracers, commonly applied in e.g. nutritional studies, is that radiotracers allow for non-invasive studies of both steady-state and dynamic systems, in equilibrium situations and for transport and exchange phenomena and thus provide information on the chemical and/or physical status of elements. The radiotracer method does not imply huge equipment investments but rather requires that the four interrelated aspects: experimental designs, data treatment including tracer kinetic analysis and data interpretation are careful considered. Radiotracer production with reactors often implies additional fundamental research to use smart nuclear reactions and chemical separations so as to obtain an almost no-carrier added tracer. Nuclear analytical groups, already equipped with gamma-ray spectrometers, can thus extend their research program. Using Ge-spectrometers, multi-labeling experiments are possible which allow for unique applications if different radionuclides exist for the same element, such as 65 Zn and 69m Zn or 64 Cu and 67 Cu. The developments in novel scintillation detectors, room-temperature semiconductor detectors (like CdZnTe) and position-sensitive detectors open the door for an entire new scope of radiotracer applications, such as SPECT. Once applied to in-vitro studies with cell cultures, the nuclear analytical group may position itself into the worlds of medical research, biochemistry and biotechnology. Radiotracers can be used to study the properties of drug-delivering compounds as used in e.g, cancer therapy. Radiotracers can be added as a label to solid particles, to liquids but may also be applied in the

  11. Effect of Age Group on Technical-Tactical Performance Profile of the Serve in Men's Volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical-tactical performance profile of the serve for various age groups and categories of competition in men's volleyball. The sample comprised 13,262 serves performed by 986 players in 299 sets observed in various categories of competition (U-14, U-16, U-19, national senior, and international senior). An observational design was used. The variables studied were category of competition, type of execution, and serve performance. The results showed that for higher age groups (senior categories), there were significantly fewer jump serves and poorer serve performance, regardless of players' maturity and training development. The use of the jump serves increased the serve risk while attempting to hinder the organization of the opponent attack. This paper discusses the serve evolution and the implications on the training process at the different age groups in men's volleyball. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Biomechanical analysis of three tennis serve types using a markerless system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Geoffrey D; Harris, Alex H S; Andriacchi, Thomas P; Safran, Marc R

    2014-02-01

    The tennis serve is commonly associated with musculoskeletal injury. Advanced players are able to hit multiple serve types with different types of spin. No investigation has characterised the kinematics of all three serve types for the upper extremity and back. Seven NCAA Division I male tennis players performed three successful flat, kick and slice serves. Serves were recorded using an eight camera markerless motion capture system. Laser scanning was utilised to accurately collect body dimensions and data were computed using inverse kinematic methods. There was no significant difference in maximum back extension angle for the flat, kick or slice serves. The kick serve had a higher force magnitude at the back than the flat and slice as well as larger posteriorly directed shoulder forces. The flat serve had significantly greater maximum shoulder internal rotation velocity versus the slice serve. Force and torque magnitudes at the elbow and wrist were not significantly different between the serves. The kick serve places higher physical demands on the back and shoulder while the slice serve demonstrated lower overall kinetic forces. This information may have injury prevention and rehabilitation implications.

  13. 7 CFR 1980.444 - Appraisal of property serving as collateral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Appraisal of property serving as collateral. 1980.444... Program § 1980.444 Appraisal of property serving as collateral. (a) Appraisal reports prepared by independent qualified fee appraisers will be required on all property that will serve as collateral. In the...

  14. 12 CFR 602.23 - Responses to demands served on FCA employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responses to demands served on FCA employees. 602.23 Section 602.23 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RELEASING....23 Responses to demands served on FCA employees. (a) An employee served with a demand or a subpoena...

  15. Salty or Sweet? Nutritional Quality, Consumption, and Cost of Snacks Served in Afterschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W.; Weaver, Robert G.; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S.; Freedman, Darcy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Snacks served in afterschool programs (ASPs, 3-6?pm) represent an important opportunity to promote healthy eating. ASP policies suggest a fruit/vegetable is served daily, while sugar-sweetened foods/beverages and artificially flavored snacks are eliminated. Limited information exists on the types of snacks served in ASPs, if snacks…

  16. Where Adults Go: A Multiple Case Study of Adult Serving Undergraduate Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Williams, Shelley B.

    2010-01-01

    This research is an exploratory multiple case study of adult serving undergraduate colleges and universities. Using the Council of Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL) Principles of Effective Practice for Serving Adult Learners, this study examines the differences of adult serving undergraduate colleges across the three sectors of higher…

  17. Salty or sweet? Nutritional quality, consumption, and cost of snacks served in afterschool programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Weaver, Robert G; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S; Freedman, Darcy A

    2015-02-01

    Snacks served in afterschool programs (ASPs, 3-6 pm) represent an important opportunity to promote healthy eating. ASP policies suggest a fruit/vegetable is served daily, while sugar-sweetened foods/beverages and artificially flavored snacks are eliminated. Limited information exists on the types of snacks served in ASPs, if snacks meet existing nutrition policies, whether children eat the snacks, and their cost. Direct observation of snacks served and consumed was collected in 20 ASPs serving over 1700 elementary age children. The number of days that snacks were served/week was evaluated for compliance with nutrition policies. Costs of snacks were collected via receipts. Programs served desserts and artificially flavored salty snacks on 2.7 and 2.1 days/week. Fruits and vegetables were served 0.6 and 0.1 days/week, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages were served 1.8 days/week. Of the children (N = 383) observed, 75% to 100% consumed the snack served, with 95% and 100% of served fruits/vegetables consumed. No ASP served fruit/vegetables daily, 18 served sugar-sweetened foods, 16 served artificially flavored snacks, and 14 served sugar-sweetened beverages. Desserts and salty snacks cost $0.27-$0.32/snack vs $0.38-$0.40/snack for vegetables/fruits. The quality of snacks failed to meet nutrition policies and consists of predominately high-sugar and artificially flavored options. Strategies to improve snack offerings in ASPs while addressing price barriers are required. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  18. Salty or Sweet? Nutritional quality, consumption, and cost of snacks served in afterschool programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W.; Weaver, R. Glenn; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Brie; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S.; Freedman, Darcy A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Snacks served in afterschool programs (ASPs, 3–6pm) represent an important opportunity to promote healthy eating. ASP policies suggest a fruit/vegetable is served daily, while sugar-sweetened foods/beverages and artificially-flavored snacks are eliminated. Limited information exists on the types of snacks served in ASPs, if snacks meet existing nutrition policies, whether children eat the snacks, and their cost. METHODS Direct observation of snacks served and consumed was collected in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The number of days snacks were served/week was evaluated for compliance with nutrition policies. Costs of snacks were collected via receipts. RESULTS Programs served desserts and artificially-flavored salty-snacks on 2.7 and 2.1 days/week. Fruits and vegetables were served 0.6 and 0.1 days/wk, respectively. Sugar-sweetened-beverages were served 1.8 days/wk. Of the children (N=383) observed, 75–100% consumed the snack served, with 95% and 100% of served fruits/vegetables consumed. No ASP served fruit/vegetables daily, 18 served sugar-sweetened foods, 16 served artificially-flavored snacks, and 14 served sugar-sweetened-beverages. Desserts and salty-snacks cost $0.27–$0.32/snack vs. $0.38–$0.40/snack for vegetables/fruits. CONCLUSIONS The quality of snacks failed to meet nutrition policies and consists of predominately high-sugar and artificially-flavored options. Strategies to improve snack offerings in ASPs while addressing price barriers are required. PMID:25564980

  19. Effects of the racket polar moment of inertia on dominant upper limb joint moments during tennis serve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Rogowski

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of the polar moment of inertia of a tennis racket on upper limb loading in the serve. Eight amateur competition tennis players performed two sets of 10 serves using two rackets identical in mass, position of center of mass and moments of inertia other than the polar moment of inertia (0.00152 vs 0.00197 kg.m2. An eight-camera motion analysis system collected the 3D trajectories of 16 markers, located on the thorax, upper limbs and racket, from which shoulder, elbow and wrist net joint moments and powers were computed using inverse dynamics. During the cocking phase, increased racket polar moment of inertia was associated with significant increases in the peak shoulder extension and abduction moments, as well the peak elbow extension, valgus and supination moments. During the forward swing phase, peak wrist extension and radial deviation moments significantly increased with polar moment of inertia. During the follow-through phase, the peak shoulder adduction, elbow pronation and wrist external rotation moments displayed a significant inverse relationship with polar moment of inertia. During the forward swing, the magnitudes of negative joint power at the elbow and wrist were significantly larger when players served using the racket with a higher polar moment of inertia. Although a larger polar of inertia allows players to better tolerate off-center impacts, it also appears to place additional loads on the upper extremity when serving and may therefore increase injury risk in tennis players.

  20. Effects of the racket polar moment of inertia on dominant upper limb joint moments during tennis serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, Isabelle; Creveaux, Thomas; Chèze, Laurence; Macé, Pierre; Dumas, Raphaël

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the polar moment of inertia of a tennis racket on upper limb loading in the serve. Eight amateur competition tennis players performed two sets of 10 serves using two rackets identical in mass, position of center of mass and moments of inertia other than the polar moment of inertia (0.00152 vs 0.00197 kg.m2). An eight-camera motion analysis system collected the 3D trajectories of 16 markers, located on the thorax, upper limbs and racket, from which shoulder, elbow and wrist net joint moments and powers were computed using inverse dynamics. During the cocking phase, increased racket polar moment of inertia was associated with significant increases in the peak shoulder extension and abduction moments, as well the peak elbow extension, valgus and supination moments. During the forward swing phase, peak wrist extension and radial deviation moments significantly increased with polar moment of inertia. During the follow-through phase, the peak shoulder adduction, elbow pronation and wrist external rotation moments displayed a significant inverse relationship with polar moment of inertia. During the forward swing, the magnitudes of negative joint power at the elbow and wrist were significantly larger when players served using the racket with a higher polar moment of inertia. Although a larger polar of inertia allows players to better tolerate off-center impacts, it also appears to place additional loads on the upper extremity when serving and may therefore increase injury risk in tennis players.

  1. The toss of the professional and the competitive tennis player: serving from the ad-court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Carboch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We compared the serve toss of different types of serve when tennis players served from the ad-court. They used different spin on the ball and various ball placements in the opponent’s service box. Our aim was to compare the toss in different types of serve between a competitive (local tournament player and a professional player, from the point of view of the receiving player, when they served from the ad-court. One professional and one competitive tennis player (both right handed were observed while serving different types of serve to various locations of the opponent’s service box. We used a high-speed camera, which was placed opposite to the server in the position of a receiving player. The results showed that the players do not use the same toss for each type of serve. The professional player had a bigger range of racket-ball contact point on horizontal axis (32 cm of the various types of first serves, compared to the competitive player (only 24 cm. The toss of the kick serve had similar characteristics between both players (the racket-ball contact point was observed to be mostly to the right, from the view of receiver. Neither the professional nor the competitive player showed a stable profile of toss. In some cases, the receiving players could anticipate the type of the serve from the server’s toss.

  2. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-01-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components. PMID:26553246

  3. Additive manufacturing technology in reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Scott C; Moore, Michael G

    2016-10-01

    Technological advances have been part and parcel of modern reconstructive surgery, in that practitioners of this discipline are continually looking for innovative ways to perfect their craft and improve patient outcomes. We are currently in a technological climate wherein advances in computers, imaging, and science have coalesced with resulting innovative breakthroughs that are not merely limited to improved outcomes and enhanced patient care, but may provide novel approaches to training the next generation of reconstructive surgeons. New developments in software and modeling platforms, imaging modalities, tissue engineering, additive manufacturing, and customization of implants are poised to revolutionize the field of reconstructive surgery. The interface between technological advances and reconstructive surgery continues to expand. Additive manufacturing techniques continue to evolve in an effort to improve patient outcomes, decrease operative time, and serve as instructional tools for the training of reconstructive surgeons.

  4. An exploration of the potential impact of the designated driver campaign on bartenders' willingness to over-serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiling, Denise M; Nusbaumer, Michael R

    2007-12-01

    Much has been written about the impact of the presence of a designated driver on patrons' consumption, but heretofore, its impact on the behaviour of the server has been virtually ignored. The goal of this paper, then, was to explore the potential impact of the presence of a designated driver on alcoholic beverage servers' self-reported willingness to knowingly serve an already intoxicated customer. chi(2) analysis of survey data collected from 938 licensed servers, in the state of Indiana, USA, was performed. Approximately 43% of the bartenders surveyed reported that they either would be or might be willing to over-serve an already intoxicated customer. Of those who answered the follow-up question as to under what conditions they would be willing to over-serve, almost 80% reported that they would do so if the patron were accompanied by a designated driver. The statistical significance of the relationship between these two variables (.000) raises the question of whether the Designated Driver Campaign has the latent function of enabling some servers to neutralize their responsibility for over-serving by disregarding other types of intoxication-related harm.

  5. Microbiological sampling plan based on risk classification to verify supplier selection and production of served meals in food service operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahou, Evy; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Landeghem, Filip; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-08-01

    Food service operations are confronted with a diverse range of raw materials and served meals. The implementation of a microbial sampling plan in the framework of verification of suppliers and their own production process (functionality of their prerequisite and HACCP program), demands selection of food products and sampling frequencies. However, these are often selected without a well described scientifically underpinned sampling plan. Therefore, an approach on how to set-up a focused sampling plan, enabled by a microbial risk categorization of food products, for both incoming raw materials and meals served to the consumers is presented. The sampling plan was implemented as a case study during a one-year period in an institutional food service operation to test the feasibility of the chosen approach. This resulted in 123 samples of raw materials and 87 samples of meal servings (focused on high risk categorized food products) which were analyzed for spoilage bacteria, hygiene indicators and food borne pathogens. Although sampling plans are intrinsically limited in assessing the quality and safety of sampled foods, it was shown to be useful to reveal major non-compliances and opportunities to improve the food safety management system in place. Points of attention deduced in the case study were control of Listeria monocytogenes in raw meat spread and raw fish as well as overall microbial quality of served sandwiches and salads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Increasing Scientific Literacy at Minority Serving Institutions Nationwide through AMS Professional Development Diversity Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Mills, E. W.; Nugnes, K. A.; Moses, M. N.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing students' earth science literacy, especially those at Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs), is a primary goal of the American Meteorological Society (AMS). Through the NSF-supported AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies Diversity workshops for Historically Black College and Universities, Hispanic Serving Institutions, Tribal Colleges and Universities, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Serving Institutions, AMS has brought meteorology and oceanography courses to more students. These workshops trained and mentored faculty implementing AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies. Of the 145 institutions that have participated in the AMS Weather Studies Diversity Project, reaching over 13,000 students, it was the first meteorology course offered for more than two-thirds of the institutions. As a result of the AMS Ocean Studies Diversity Project, 75 institutions have offered the course to more than 3000 students. About 50 MSIs implemented both the Weather and Ocean courses, improving the Earth Science curriculum on their campuses. With the support of NSF and NASA, and a partnership with Second Nature, the organizing entity behind the American College and University President's Climate Commitment (ACUPCC), the newest professional development workshop, AMS Climate Studies Diversity Project will recruit MSI faculty members through the vast network of Second Nature's more than 670 signatories. These workshops will begin in early summer 2012. An innovative approach to studying climate science, AMS Climate Studies explores the fundamental science of Earth's climate system and addresses the societal impacts relevant to today's students and teachers. The course utilizes resources from respected organizations, such as the IPCC, the US Global Change Research Program, NASA, and NOAA. In addition, faculty and students learn about basic climate modeling through the AMS Conceptual Energy Model. Following the flow of energy in a clear, simplified model from space to

  7. Serum MiRNA Biomarkers serve as a Fingerprint for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Qing

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a retinopathy resulting from diabetes mellitus (DM which was classified into non-proliferative DR (NPDR and proliferative DR (PDR. Without an early screening and effective diagnosis, patients with PDR will develop serious complications. Therefore, we sought to identify special serum microRNAs (miRNAs that can serve as a novel non-invasive screening signature of PDR and test its specificity and sensitivity in the early diagnosis of PDR. Methods: In total, we obtained serum samples from 90 PDR cases, 90 matched NPDR patients and 20 controls. An initial screening of miRNA expression was performed through TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA. The candidate miRNAs were validated by individual reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR arranged in an initial and a two-stage validation sets. Moreover, additional double-blind testing was performed in 20 patients clinically suspected of having DR to evaluate the diagnostic value and accuracy of the serum miRNA profiling system in predicting PDR. Results: Three miRNAs were significantly increased in patients with PDR compared with NPDR after the multiple stages. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves of the validated three-serum miRNAs signature were 0.830, 0.803 and 0.873 in the initial and two validation sets, respectively. Combination of miR-21, miR-181c, and miR-1179 possessed a moderate ability to discrimination between PDR and NPDR with an area under ROC value of 0.89. The accuracy rate of the three-miRNA profile as PDR signature was 82.6%. Conclusions: These data provide evidence that serum miRNAs have the potential to be sensitive, cost-effective biomarkers for the early detection of PDR. These biomarkers could serve as a dynamic monitoring factor for detecting the progression of PDR from NPDR.

  8. High variation in manufacturer-declared serving size of packaged discretionary foods in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskelberg, Hila; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Flood, Victoria; Rangan, Anna; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Trevena, Helen; Zheng, Jazzmin Miaobing; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Gill, Timothy; Wu, Jason H Y

    2016-05-28

    Despite the potential of declared serving size to encourage appropriate portion size consumption, most countries including Australia have not developed clear reference guidelines for serving size. The present study evaluated variability in manufacturer-declared serving size of discretionary food and beverage products in Australia, and how declared serving size compared with the 2013 Australian Dietary Guideline (ADG) standard serve (600 kJ). Serving sizes were obtained from the Nutrition Information Panel for 4466 packaged, discretionary products in 2013 at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia, and categorised into fifteen categories in line with the 2013 ADG. For unique products that were sold in multiple package sizes, the percentage difference between the minimum and the maximum serving size across different package sizes was calculated. A high variation in serving size was found within the majority of food and beverage categories - for example, among 347 non-alcoholic beverages (e.g. soft drinks), the median for serving size was 250 (interquartile range (IQR) 250, 355) ml (range 100-750 ml). Declared serving size for unique products that are available in multiple package sizes also showed high variation, particularly for chocolate-based confectionery, with median percentage difference between minimum and maximum serving size of 183 (IQR 150) %. Categories with a high proportion of products that exceeded the 600 kJ ADG standard serve included cakes and muffins, pastries and desserts (≥74 % for each). High variability in declared serving size may confound interpretation and understanding of consumers interested in standardising and controlling their portion selection. Future research is needed to assess if and how standardising declared serving size might affect consumer behaviour.

  9. Axon guidance pathways served as common targets for human speech/language evolution and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Huimeng; Yan, Zhangming; Sun, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Jianhong; Ma, Caihong; Xu, Qunyuan; Wang, Rui; Jarvis, Erich D; Sun, Zhirong

    2017-11-01

    Human and several nonhuman species share the rare ability of modifying acoustic and/or syntactic features of sounds produced, i.e. vocal learning, which is the important neurobiological and behavioral substrate of human speech/language. This convergent trait was suggested to be associated with significant genomic convergence and best manifested at the ROBO-SLIT axon guidance pathway. Here we verified the significance of such genomic convergence and assessed its functional relevance to human speech/language using human genetic variation data. In normal human populations, we found the affected amino acid sites were well fixed and accompanied with significantly more associated protein-coding SNPs in the same genes than the rest genes. Diseased individuals with speech/language disorders have significant more low frequency protein coding SNPs but they preferentially occurred outside the affected genes. Such patients' SNPs were enriched in several functional categories including two axon guidance pathways (mediated by netrin and semaphorin) that interact with ROBO-SLITs. Four of the six patients have homozygous missense SNPs on PRAME gene family, one youngest gene family in human lineage, which possibly acts upon retinoic acid receptor signaling, similarly as FOXP2, to modulate axon guidance. Taken together, we suggest the axon guidance pathways (e.g. ROBO-SLIT, PRAME gene family) served as common targets for human speech/language evolution and related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. to Aliphatic and Alicyclic Mono-, Di-, Tri-, and Polysulphides with or without Additional Oxygenated Functional Groups from Chemical Group 20 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.08Rev1 (2009)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs...... provided by the Industry. For the remaining 17 substances use levels must be provided. These are needed to calculate the mTAMDIs in order to identify those flavouring substances that need more refined exposure assessment and to finalise the evaluation. In order to determine whether the conclusion......, and/or information on specifications). For two substances [FL-no: 12.169 and 12.241] the Procedure should not be applied until adequate genotoxicity data become available and for eight substances [FL-no: 12.009, 12.013, 12.020, 12.023, 12.045, 12.074, 12.155 and 12.280] additional toxicity data...

  11. Variation in saltiness perception of soup with respect to soup serving temperature and consumer dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Weon; Samant, Shilpa S; Seo, Yoojin; Seo, Han-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of serving temperature on saltiness perception in food products such as soups that are typically consumed at high temperature. This study focused on determining whether serving temperature modulates saltiness perception in soup-base products. Eight trained panelists and 62 untrained consumers were asked to rate saltiness intensities in salt water, chicken broth, and miso soup, with serving temperatures of 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 °C. Neither trained nor untrained panelists were able to find significant difference in the saltiness intensity among salt water samples served at these five different temperatures. However, untrained consumers (but not trained panelists) rated chicken broth and miso soup to be significantly less salty when served at 70 and/or 80 °C compared to when served at 40 to 60 °C. There was an interaction between temperature-related perceived saltiness and preference; for example, consumers who preferred soups served at lower temperatures found soups served at higher temperatures to be less salty. Consumers who frequently consumed hot dishes rated soup samples served at 60 °C as saltier than consumers who consumed hot dishes less frequently. This study demonstrates that soup serving temperature and consumer dietary habits are influential factors affecting saltiness perception of soup. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Variables that Predict Serve Efficacy in Elite Men's Volleyball with Different Quality of Opposition Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, Álvaro; Fernández-Echeverría, Carmen; González-Silva, Jara; Claver, Fernando; Moreno, M Perla

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the variables that predicted serve efficacy in elite men's volleyball, in sets with different quality of opposition. 3292 serve actions were analysed, of which 2254 were carried out in high quality of opposition sets and 1038 actions were in low quality of opposition sets, corresponding to a total of 24 matches played during the Men's European Volleyball Championships held in 2011. The independent variables considered in this study were the serve zone, serve type, serving player, serve direction, reception zone, receiving player and reception type; the dependent variable was serve efficacy and the situational variable was quality of opposition sets. The variables that acted as predictors in both high and low quality of opposition sets were the serving player, reception zone and reception type. The serve type variable only acted as a predictor in high quality of opposition sets, while the serve zone variable only acted as a predictor in low quality of opposition sets. These results may provide important guidance in men's volleyball training processes.

  13. What’s for dinner? Types of food served at family dinner differ across parent and family characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; MacLehose, Rich; Loth, Katie; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Berge, Jerica

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the types of food served at family dinner in the homes of adolescents and correlations with parent and family sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and meal-specific variables. Design A cross-sectional population-based survey completed by mail or telephone by parents participating in Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) in 2009–2010. Setting Homes of families with adolescents in Minneapolis/St Paul urban area. Subjects Participants included 1,923 parents/guardians (90.8% female; 68.5% from ethnic/racial minorities) of adolescents who participated in EAT 2010. Results Less than a third (28%) of parents reported serving a green salad at family dinner on a regular basis, but 70% reported regularly serving vegetables (other than potatoes). About one-fifth (21%) of families had fast food at family dinners two or more times a week. Variables from within the sociodemographic domain (low educational attainment); psychosocial domain (high work-life stress, depressive symptoms, low family functioning); and meal-specific domain (low value of family meals, low enjoyment of cooking, low meal planning, high food purchasing barriers, and fewer hours in food preparation) were associated with lower healthfulness of foods served at family dinners, in analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions There is a need for interventions to improve the healthfulness of food served at family meals. Interventions need to be suitable for parents with low levels of education; take parent and family psychosocial factors into account; promote more positive attitudes toward family meals; and provide skills to make it easier to plan and prepare healthful family meals. PMID:23083836

  14. The +37 kb Cebpa Enhancer Is Critical for Cebpa Myeloid Gene Expression and Contains Functional Sites that Bind SCL, GATA2, C/EBPα, PU.1, and Additional Ets Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Stacy; Guo, Hong; Friedman, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    The murine Cebpa gene contains an evolutionarily conserved 453 bp enhancer located at +37 kb that, together with its promoter, directs expression to myeloid progenitors and to long-term hematopoietic stem cells in transgenic mice. In human acute myeloid leukemia cases, the enhancer lacks point mutations but binds the RUNX1-ETO oncoprotein. The enhancer contains the H3K4me1 and H3K27Ac histone modifications, denoting an active enhancer, at progressively increasing levels as long-term hematopoietic stem cells transition to granulocyte-monocyte progenitors. We previously identified four enhancer sites that bind RUNX1 and demonstrated that their integrity is required for maximal enhancer activity in 32Dcl3 myeloid cells. The +37 kb Cebpa enhancer also contains C/EBP, Ets factor, Myb, GATA, and E-box consensus sites conserved in the human +42 kb CEBPA enhancer. Mutation of the two C/EBP, seven Ets, one Myb, two GATA, or two E-box sites reduces activity of an enhancer-promoter reporter in 32Dcl3 cells. In 293T gel shift assays, exogenous C/EBPα binds both C/EBP sites, c-Myb binds the Myb site, PU.1 binds the second Ets site, PU.1, Fli-1, ERG, and Ets1 bind the sixth Ets site, GATA2 binds both GATA sites, and SCL binds the second E-box. Endogenous hematopoietic RUNX1, PU.1, Fli-1, ERG, C/EBPα, GATA2, and SCL were previously shown to bind the enhancer, and we find that endogenous PU.1 binds the second Ets site in 32Dcl3 cells. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we developed 32Dcl3 lines in which the wild-type enhancer alleles are replaced with a variant mutant in the seven Ets sites. These lines have 20-fold reduced Cebpa mRNA when cultured in IL-3 or G-CSF, demonstrating a critical requirement for enhancer integrity for optimal Cebpa expression. In addition, these results indicate that the +37 kb Cebpa enhancer is the focus of multiple regulatory transcriptional pathways that impact its expression during normal hematopoiesis and potentially during myeloid transformation. PMID:25938608

  15. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    234-8034714355. 8034714355. 1. EFFECTS OF SULPHUR ADDITION ON. ADDITION ON. 2. AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES O. 3. 4. C. W. Onyia. 5. 1DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS. 6. 2, 4DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL ...

  16. Platelet-rich Preparation may serve as a Powerful Tool for Therapeutic Dental Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Hua Sun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regeneration of dental pulp tissues presents one of the most challenging issues in regenerative dentistry due to their extremely poor intrinsic ability for self-healing and re-growth.The hypothesis: We hypothes-ize that patient-derived platelet-rich preparation can be used in clinical endodontic regenerative procedure, serving as a powerful tool for therapeutic dental pulp regeneration.Evaluation of the hypothesis: The cell transplantation does not always obtain the good result because of the low survival rate of transplanted cells. In addition, the use of ex vivo manipulated cell products faces many translational hurdles in treating non-vital disease. Recently, the body cells are focused as a potential source for therapeutics. Some researchers have demonstrated that endogenous stem cells may be recruited to a desired anatomic site pharma-cologically. This is spurring interest in developing new generation of biomaterials that incorporate and release selected powerful extracellular influences in a near-physiological fashion, and subsequently capture endogenous stem cells and influence their fates for regene-ration. The use of patient-derived products such as platelet-rich preparations that contain a multitude of endogenous growth factors and proteins is a clinically translatable biotechnology for this proposes. These simple and cost efficient procedures may have a potential impact in reducing the economic costs for standard medical treatments in regenerative endodontics.

  17. The significance of education and training of librarians to serve users with special needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrijana Biba Starman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article presents the importance of education and training of librarians to serve users with special needs as perceived by students of library and information science (LIS and by students and graduates with special needs in the role of library users.Methodology/approach: Surveys amongst the 3rd year students of Librarianship and Information Science (bachelor’s degree at the Faculty of Arts (University of Ljubljana as well as half structured interviews with 12 students and graduates with special needs as library users have been conducted. The acquired data were then analyzed and compared.Results: The results show a high level of motivation of LIS students for working with users with special needs as well as the desire for additional education and training.Comparisons of data indicate differences in understanding users with special needs,thus confirming the need for further education and training of librarians.Research limitation: Small sample size and inability to generalize the findings.Originality/practical implications: The first study in Slovenia dealing with the significance of education and training of librarians to work with users with special needs.

  18. Do children eat less at meals when allowed to serve themselves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jennifer S; Haisfield, Lisa; Fisher, Jennifer O; Marini, Michele; Birch, Leann L

    2012-07-01

    The effect of self-serving on young children's energy intake is not well understood. The objective was to examine individual differences in the effects of plated and self-served entrée portions on children's energy intake. Two within-subjects experiments were used to examine ad libitum intake at meals in 63 children aged 3-5 y when 400 g of a pasta entrée was either plated or available for children to self-serve. Child age, sex, BMI, and responsiveness to increasing portion size (defined as individual slope estimates relating ad libitum intake of the entrée across a range of entrée portions) were evaluated as predictors of self-served portions. Children's entrée and meal intakes did not differ between the self-served and plated conditions for the total sample or by child weight status. However, larger self-served entrée portions were associated with greater entrée and meal intakes. Children who served themselves larger entrée portions tended to be overweight and more responsive to portion size (ie, greater increases in entrée intake as plated portion size increased). Last, self-served portion predicted both entrée and meal intake over and above BMI z score and responsiveness to portion. Contrary to our hypothesis, relative to plated portions, allowing children to self-serve the entrée portion did not reduce energy intake. Children who were more responsive to portion-size effects were likely to self-serve and eat larger entrée portions. Self-serving is not a one-size-fits-all approach; some children may need guidance and rules to learn how to self-select appropriate portion sizes.

  19. Reference serving sizes for the Brazilian population: An analysis of processed food labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Kliemann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare serving sizes reported on processed food labels with reference serving sizes according to nutrition labeling legislation and the "Food Guide for the Brazilian Population". METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed the labels of 2,072 processed foods in a supermarket of Florianópolis, Santa Caratina, Brazil. The foods were classified according to the Brazilian food labeling legislation. Central tendency and variability values were calculated for the serving sizes and energy values reported on the labels, as well as the ratio between the reported and reference energy value. The Spearman correlation test was performed between the reference serving size and the reference energy density, and also between the reference serving size and energy density of each study food. RESULTS: Nutrition labeling and the Food Guide presented reference servings with different sizes and energy values. The serving sizes reported on the labels did not follow either of the references and presented heterogeneous values, with a maximum range of 55-240 g among ready and semi-ready pre-prepared dishes. The reported energy values were between 0.1 times smaller and 2.4 times larger than the reference values. The reference serving sizes presented a highly inverse correlation with the reference energy density (Spearman coefficient= 0.9 and a very low inverse correlation with the energy density of the foods analyzed (Spearman coefficient= 0.2. CONCLUSION: This study showed the need for standardizing reference serving size information for the Brazilian population as well as reviewing nutrition labeling legislation in order to standardize the serving sizes reported on labels and to update the reference energy density used to calculate serving sizes.

  20. Solitary chemoreceptor cells in the nasal cavity serve as sentinels of respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Thomas E; Böttger, Bärbel; Hansen, Anne; Anderson, Karl T; Alimohammadi, Hessamedin; Silver, Wayne L

    2003-07-22

    Inhalation of irritating substances leads to activation of the trigeminal nerve, triggering protective reflexes that include apnea or sneezing. Receptors for trigeminal irritants are generally assumed to be located exclusively on free nerve endings within the nasal epithelium, requiring that trigeminal irritants diffuse through the junctional barrier at the epithelial surface to activate receptors. We find, in both rats and mice, an extensive population of chemosensory cells that reach the surface of the nasal epithelium and form synaptic contacts with trigeminal afferent nerve fibers. These chemosensory cells express T2R "bitter-taste" receptors and alpha-gustducin, a G protein involved in chemosensory transduction. Functional studies indicate that bitter substances applied to the nasal epithelium activate the trigeminal nerve and evoke changes in respiratory rate. By extending to the surface of the nasal epithelium, these chemosensory cells serve to expand the repertoire of compounds that can activate trigeminal protective reflexes. The trigeminal chemoreceptor cells are likely to be remnants of the phylogenetically ancient population of solitary chemoreceptor cells found in the epithelium of all anamniote aquatic vertebrates.

  1. Association between Violent Crime and Psychosis in Men Serving Prison Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Javier; López, Marcelino; Trigo, M Eva

    2017-06-27

    Psychosis has been associated with committing violent crimes. However, it has been reported that the association is mediated by toxin consumption, personality disorders, and positive symptoms. This study will examine the relationship between different psychological disorders and sociodemographic variables, and violent crime perpetration in a sample of 472 men serving prison terms in Andalusia, Spain. A correlation-based, retrospective study was conducted and data were analyzed through logistic regression. The sample is representative of the Andalusian prison population, with a 95% level of confidence and .02% precision. Inmates were sampled and diagnosed by expert clinicians using the SCID-I and the IPDE-II. We computed bivariate correlations between the aforementioned variables and perpetration of violent crimes (murder, homicide, attempted murder, and injury) to later apply logistic regression and find adjusted odds ratios. We confirmed the association between diagnosis of functional psychoses and violent crime, with a significant adjusted odds ratio in the last model (OR = 3.71; p = .010). Other significant variables that acted like risk factors include suicide attempts (OR = 2.04; p = .046), having received care at a mental health facility in the year before imprisonment (OR = 3.83; p = .008), and more strongly than the psychosis diagnosis, low level of education (OR = 10.32; p = .029). Toxin consumption and personality disorders were not significant in the final model.

  2. Serve and Return: Communication Foundations for Early Childhood Music Policy Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Alison M.; Burton, Suzanne L.

    2017-01-01

    Serve-and-return interactions between a young child and caregiver are cited as integral to healthy child development and language development. In this article, the authors assert that serve-and-return interactions offer a relevant model for policy development in early childhood music education. They share contemporary evidence that music learning…

  3. Catering in a large hospital--does serving from a buffet system meet the patients' needs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.F.; Nielsen, M.A.; Biltz, C.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: It has been suggested that serving from a buffet system may increase food intake. This observational study estimates the energy intake in a representative group of patients admitted to a hospital, where the food is served from a buffet system. MATERIAL: One hundred and sixteen ...

  4. The Relationship Between Maximum Isometric Strength and Ball Velocity in the Tennis Serve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiget Ernest

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze the relationship between maximum isometric strength levels in different upper and lower limb joints and serve velocity in competitive tennis players as well as to develop a prediction model based on this information. Twelve male competitive tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 17.2 ± 1.0 years; body height: 180.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 71.9 ± 5.6 kg were tested using maximum isometric strength levels (i.e., wrist, elbow and shoulder flexion and extension; leg and back extension; shoulder external and internal rotation. Serve velocity was measured using a radar gun. Results showed a strong positive relationship between serve velocity and shoulder internal rotation (r = 0.67; p < 0.05. Low to moderate correlations were also found between serve velocity and wrist, elbow and shoulder flexion – extension, leg and back extension and shoulder external rotation (r = 0.36 – 0.53; p = 0.377 – 0.054. Bivariate and multivariate models for predicting serve velocity were developed, with shoulder flexion and internal rotation explaining 55% of the variance in serve velocity (r = 0.74; p < 0.001. The maximum isometric strength level in shoulder internal rotation was strongly related to serve velocity, and a large part of the variability in serve velocity was explained by the maximum isometric strength levels in shoulder internal rotation and shoulder flexion.

  5. How internal and external supervisors influence employees' self-serving decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Melanie; Rink, Floor; Stoker, Janka

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation examined the effects of internal and external supervisors (i.e., formally installed institutions that hold employees accountable for their actions) on employees’ self-serving decisions. In two studies, it was found that internal supervisors reduced self-serving decisions

  6. 2012 APPA Fellow Encourages Colleagues to Say Yes to Opportunities to Serve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler-Carter, Ruth E.

    2012-01-01

    It should be no surprise that the 2012 APPA Fellow is William (Bill) Elvey, P.E., FMP. He has served the association from the grassroots level up through its highest ranks and created a still-continuing legacy of excellence and engagement--his theme when serving as APPA President--that has led to new services, programs, and partnerships for the…

  7. Changes in Serving Size, Calories, and Sodium Content in Processed Foods From 2009 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Jenifer E; Niederman, Sarah A; Leonard, Elizabeth; Curtis, Christine J

    2018-03-15

    Approximately 60% of the American diet comes from processed foods, which makes improving their nutritional quality important for Americans' health. The objective of this study was to measure changes in serving sizes, calories, and sodium in top-selling processed foods that were on the market in 2009 and 2015. We analyzed products in the top 80% of sales in the 54 processed food categories with consistent serving sizes and sales metrics that were on the market in both 2009 and 2015. Mean serving size, calories (per serving and density), sodium (per serving and density), and sales were calculated for 2,979 branded processed food products. For each stratification of calorie density and sodium density (decreased, increased, or did not change), we calculated the mean serving size, calorie density, sodium density, and sales for each year. From 2009 to 2015, we found decreases in serving size (-2.3%, P calories per serving (-2.0%, P calorie density (-1.1%, P calorie density did not correspond to an increase in sodium density or vice versa. A decline in sales was observed regardless of whether calorie density or sodium density decreased, increased, or did not change. Reductions in calorie and sodium density occurred in tandem, suggesting that manufacturers reformulated for more than one health goal at the same time. Instead of unintended negative consequences of encouraging companies to reformulate for one nutrient, an overall net nutritional benefit occurred.

  8. 21 CFR 501.8 - Labeling of animal food with number of servings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of animal food with number of servings... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.8 Labeling of animal food with number of servings. (a) The label of any package of a food which...

  9. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label of...

  10. Transformative Hispanic-Serving Institutions: Realizing Equity Praxis through Community Connections and Local Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marisol; Valverde, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Schools serve as antidemocratic spaces where teacher, parent, community member, and student voices are typically disregarded. Instead, philanthropists and businesses are allowed to drive school and district agendas. An exploration of 3 local efforts that connect a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) with prekindergarten to Grade 12 students and…

  11. Defined by Outcomes or Culture? Constructing an Organizational Identity for Hispanic-Serving Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gina A.

    2017-01-01

    While Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) enroll at least 25% Latinx students, the perennial question facing HSIs is, "What does it mean for postsecondary institutions to be Latinx-serving"--essentially an organizational identity question. Guided by the extant literature on organizational identity, culture, and institutionalism and…

  12. Leader power and self-serving behavior : The moderating role of accountability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rus, Diana; van Knippenberg, Daan; Wisse, Barbara

    This study explored whether accountability influences the relationship between power and leader self-serving behavior. Across three studies, using both experimental manipulations and individual difference measures, we found that accountability mitigated the effects of power on leader self-serving

  13. The {open_quotes}obligation to serve{close_quotes} and a competitive electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colton, R.D. [Fisher, Sheehan and Colton (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents an assessment of what the ``obligation to serve`` might look like in a competitive electric industry. Broadly, this research has three objectives: to define the ``duty to serve`` of a competitive electric industry; to identify those companies to whom that duty applies; and to explain how that duty protects residual classes.

  14. Asian American and Pacific Islander Serving Institutions: The Motivations and Challenges behind Seeking a Federal Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie J.; Chang, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the development of legislation to create a Minority Serving Institution federal designation for Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) serving institutions. Specifically, the article draws from interviews with nineteen policy makers, congressional staffers, and community advocates in order to address their motivations for…

  15. 5 CFR 315.705 - Employees serving under transitional or veterans recruitment appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employees serving under transitional or veterans recruitment appointments. 315.705 Section 315.705 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.705 Employees serving under transitional or...

  16. Understanding the Prevalence of Geo-Like Degree Programs at Minority Serving Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Manduca, C. A.; Larsen, K.

    2014-12-01

    Over the decade 2002-12, the percentage of students from underrepresented minorities (URM) graduating with geoscience degrees has increased by 50%. In 2012, of the nearly 6,000 geoscience Bachelor's degrees, 8% were awarded to students from URM. But that same year across all of STEM, 18% of Bachelors went to these students, and URM made up 30% of the US population overall. Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) play an important role in increasing the diversity of geoscience graduates where there are appropriate degree programs or pathways to programs. To better understand opportunities at these institutions, the InTeGrate project collected information on degree programs at MSIs. A summer 2013 survey of websites for three types of MSIs confirmed that, while stand-alone Geology, Geoscience, or Environmental Science departments are present, there are a larger number of degree programs that include elements of geoscience or related disciplines (geography, GIS, etc.) offered in interdisciplinary departments (e.g. Natural Sciences and Math) or cognate science departments (Physics, Engineering, etc.). Approximately one-third of Hispanic Serving Institutions and Tribal Colleges and one-fifth of Historically Black Colleges and Universities offer at least one degree that includes elements of geoscience. The most common programs were Geology and Environmental Science (94 and 88 degrees respectively), but 21 other types of program were also found. To better profile the nature of these programs, 11 interviews were conducted focusing on strategies for attracting, supporting, and preparing minority students for the workforce. In conjunction with the February 2014 Broadening Access to the Earth and Environmental Sciences workshop, an additional 6 MSI profiles were obtained as well as 22 profiles from non-MSIs. Several common strategies emerge: Proactive marketing and outreach to local high schools and two-year colleges Community building, mentoring and advising, academic support

  17. The relationship between mother to child calories served and maternal perception of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, S E; Janicke, D M

    2016-06-01

    Research has examined self-serving portions in adults and children and has shown that larger portion size is related to more calories consumed. The present study examines factors that may influence the portion sizes a mother serves her child at a mealtime. The present observational study included a community-based sample of 29 mother-child dyads. Dyads attended a 1-h session in which they shared a meal together. A buffet of food was provided and the mother was asked to serve her child and herself. The amount of food served and consumed by the child was recorded. Main independent variables of interest included maternal body mass index (BMI), child BMI Z-score, and maternal perception of personal and child hunger. The primary dependent variable was the total calories the mother served her child. Regression models and a moderated mediation were used to examine the relation between variables. Calories served to the child was positively associated with calories consumed by the child. Maternal perception of her own hunger was related to her perception of her child's hunger. Furthermore, maternal perception of child hunger explained the relationship between maternal perception of personal hunger and total calories served to the child, although only for obese mothers. Mothers may be serving their children larger portion sizes based on their personal weight and their perception of their child's hunger. To help children obtain or maintain a healthy weight, obesity prevention and intervention programmes should help mothers serve more appropriate serving sizes to their children. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Characterizing dinner meals served and consumed by low-income preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A; O'Neil, Carol E; Stuff, Janice E; Hughes, Sheryl O; Liu, Yan

    2012-12-01

    A dinner meal is consumed by approximately 95% of preschool children, yet few studies have characterized the dinner meal within a broader environmental context. The primary goal of this study was to identify the average quantities of foods served and consumed at the dinner meal by preschool children. A secondary goal was to look at factors that influenced the total amounts of food and energy consumed among preschoolers at the dinner meal. Food intake at a family dinner meal was measured using digital photography in African-American and Hispanic-American preschool children (n = 231). Pictorial records were converted to gram and energy estimates of food served and consumed; grams were converted to kilocalories for each food using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) nutritional software. Foods were categorized by groups/subgroups. Comparison of means and coefficient of variation was examined overall and by food groups for food grams (and energy) served, consumed, and wasted. The relationship of mother/child characteristics to amounts served and consumed were analyzed by regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Plate waste was high; 30% of the foods served to the child at the dinner meal were not consumed. The amounts of food and beverage served and consumed varied within and among the food groups studied. The proportion of children served a major food group at the dinner meal varied considerably: 44% fruit/juice, 97% vegetables, 99% grains, 97% meats, 74% dairy, 66% sweetened beverages, 92% fat and oils, and 40% sweets and sugars. The amount of food served was positively associated with the amount consumed (p dinner meal was positively associated with energy intake consumed (p < 0.0001). Plate waste and variation in amounts served and consumed was substantial. The amount of food served was positively associated with the amount of food consumed by preschool children.

  19. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  20. Incorporating functional inter-relationships into protein function prediction algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vipin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional classification schemes (e.g. the Gene Ontology that serve as the basis for annotation efforts in several organisms are often the source of gold standard information for computational efforts at supervised protein function prediction. While successful function prediction algorithms have been developed, few previous efforts have utilized more than the protein-to-functional class label information provided by such knowledge bases. For instance, the Gene Ontology not only captures protein annotations to a set of functional classes, but it also arranges these classes in a DAG-based hierarchy that captures rich inter-relationships between different classes. These inter-relationships present both opportunities, such as the potential for additional training examples for small classes from larger related classes, and challenges, such as a harder to learn distinction between similar GO terms, for standard classification-based approaches. Results We propose a method to enhance the performance of classification-based protein function prediction algorithms by addressing the issue of using these interrelationships between functional classes constituting functional classification schemes. Using a standard measure for evaluating the semantic similarity between nodes in an ontology, we quantify and incorporate these inter-relationships into the k-nearest neighbor classifier. We present experiments on several large genomic data sets, each of which is used for the modeling and prediction of over hundred classes from the GO Biological Process ontology. The results show that this incorporation produces more accurate predictions for a large number of the functional classes considered, and also that the classes benefitted most by this approach are those containing the fewest members. In addition, we show how our proposed framework can be used for integrating information from the entire GO hierarchy for improving the accuracy of

  1. Inflammatory Mediators Drive Adverse Right Ventricular Remodeling and Dysfunction and Serve as Potential Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydykov, Akylbek; Mamazhakypov, Argen; Petrovic, Aleksandar; Kosanovic, Djuro; Sarybaev, Akpay S.; Weissmann, Norbert; Ghofrani, Hossein A.; Schermuly, Ralph T.

    2018-01-01

    Adverse right ventricular (RV) remodeling leads to ventricular dysfunction and failure that represents an important determinant of outcome in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Recent evidence indicates that inflammatory activation contributes to the pathogenesis of adverse RV remodeling and dysfunction. It has been shown that accumulation of inflammatory cells such as macrophages and mast cells in the right ventricle is associated with maladaptive RV remodeling. In addition, inhibition of inflammation in animal models of RV failure ameliorated RV structural and functional impairment. Furthermore, a number of circulating inflammatory mediators have been demonstrated to be associated with RV performance. This work reviews the role of inflammation in RV remodeling and dysfunction and discusses anti-inflammatory strategies that may attenuate adverse structural alterations while promoting improvement of RV function. PMID:29875701

  2. Assessment of state- and territorial-level preparedness capacity for serving deaf and hard-of-hearing populations in disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Susan L; Tseng, Winston; Dahrouge, Donna; Engelman, Alina; Neuhauser, Linda; Huang, Debbie; Gurung, Sidhanta

    2014-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists that emergency preparedness and response efforts are not effectively reaching populations with functional and access needs, especially barriers related to literacy, language, culture, or disabilities. More than 36 million Americans are Deaf or hard of hearing (Deaf/HH). These groups experienced higher risks of injury, death, and property loss in recent disasters than the general public. We conducted a participatory research study to examine national recommendations on preparedness communication for the Deaf/HH. We assessed whether previous recommendations regarding the Deaf/HH have been incorporated into state- and territorial-level emergency operations plans (EOPs), interviewed state- and territorial-level preparedness directors about capacity to serve the Deaf/HH, and proposed strategies to benefit Deaf/HH populations during emergencies. We analyzed 55 EOPs and 50 key informant (KI) interviews with state directors. Fifty-five percent of EOPs mentioned vulnerable populations; however, only 31% specifically mentioned Deaf/HH populations in their plan. Study findings indicated significant relationships among the following factors: a state-level KI's familiarity with communication issues for the Deaf/HH, making relay calls (i.e., calls to services to relay communication between Deaf and hearing people), and whether the KI's department provides trainings about serving Deaf/HH populations in emergencies. We found significant associations between a state's percentage of Deaf/HH individuals and a KI's familiarity with Deaf/HH communication issues and provision by government of any disability services to Deaf/HH populations in emergencies. Further, we found significant relationships between KIs attending training on serving the Deaf/HH and familiarity with Deaf/HH communication issues, including how to make relay calls. This study provides new knowledge that can help emergency agencies improve their preparedness training, planning, and capacity

  3. Functional Boxplots

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes an informative exploratory tool, the functional boxplot, for visualizing functional data, as well as its generalization, the enhanced functional boxplot. Based on the center outward ordering induced by band depth for functional data, the descriptive statistics of a functional boxplot are: the envelope of the 50% central region, the median curve, and the maximum non-outlying envelope. In addition, outliers can be detected in a functional boxplot by the 1.5 times the 50% central region empirical rule, analogous to the rule for classical boxplots. The construction of a functional boxplot is illustrated on a series of sea surface temperatures related to the El Niño phenomenon and its outlier detection performance is explored by simulations. As applications, the functional boxplot and enhanced functional boxplot are demonstrated on children growth data and spatio-temporal U.S. precipitation data for nine climatic regions, respectively. This article has supplementary material online. © 2011 American Statistical Association.

  4. Timeliness of abnormal screening and diagnostic mammography follow-up at facilities serving vulnerable women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, L Elizabeth; Walker, Rod; Hubbard, Rebecca; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2013-04-01

    Whether timeliness of follow-up after abnormal mammography differs at facilities serving vulnerable populations, such as women with limited education or income, in rural areas, and racial/ethnic minorities is unknown. We examined receipt of diagnostic evaluation after abnormal mammography using 1998-2006 Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium-linked Medicare claims. We compared whether time to recommended breast imaging or biopsy depended on whether women attended facilities serving vulnerable populations. We characterized a facility by the proportion of mammograms performed on women with limited education or income, in rural areas, or racial/ethnic minorities. We analyzed 30,874 abnormal screening examinations recommended for follow-up imaging across 142 facilities and 10,049 abnormal diagnostic examinations recommended for biopsy across 114 facilities. Women at facilities serving populations with less education or more racial/ethnic minorities had lower rates of follow-up imaging (4%-5% difference, Pfacilities serving more rural and low-income populations had lower rates of biopsy (4%-5% difference, Pfacilities serving vulnerable populations had longer times until biopsy than those at facilities serving nonvulnerable populations (21.6 vs. 15.6 d; 95% confidence interval for mean difference 4.1-7.7). The proportion of women receiving recommended imaging within 11 months and biopsy within 3 months varied across facilities (interquartile range, 85.5%-96.5% for imaging and 79.4%-87.3% for biopsy). Among Medicare recipients, follow-up rates were slightly lower at facilities serving vulnerable populations, and among those women who returned for diagnostic evaluation, time to follow-up was slightly longer at facilities that served vulnerable population. Interventions should target variability in follow-up rates across facilities, and evaluate effectiveness particularly at facilities serving vulnerable populations.

  5. Serpin functions in host-pathogen interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialing Bao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Serpins are a broadly distributed superfamily of protease inhibitors that are present in all kingdoms of life. The acronym, serpin, is derived from their function as potent serine proteases inhibitors. Early studies of serpins focused on their functions in haemostasis since modulating serine proteases activities are essential for coagulation. Additional research has revealed that serpins function in infection and inflammation, by modulating serine and cysteine proteases activities. The aim of this review is to summarize the accumulating findings and current understanding of the functions of serpins in host-pathogen interactions, serving as host defense proteins as well as pathogenic factors. We also discuss the potential crosstalk between host and pathogen serpins. We anticipate that future research will elucidate the therapeutic value of this novel target.

  6. Non-additive measure and integral

    CERN Document Server

    Denneberg, Dieter

    1994-01-01

    Non-Additive Measure and Integral is the first systematic approach to the subject. Much of the additive theory (convergence theorems, Lebesgue spaces, representation theorems) is generalized, at least for submodular measures which are characterized by having a subadditive integral. The theory is of interest for applications to economic decision theory (decisions under risk and uncertainty), to statistics (including belief functions, fuzzy measures) to cooperative game theory, artificial intelligence, insurance, etc. Non-Additive Measure and Integral collects the results of scattered and often isolated approaches to non-additive measures and their integrals which originate in pure mathematics, potential theory, statistics, game theory, economic decision theory and other fields of application. It unifies, simplifies and generalizes known results and supplements the theory with new results, thus providing a sound basis for applications and further research in this growing field of increasing interest. It also co...

  7. Foods Served in Child Care Facilities Participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program: Menu Match and Agreement with the New Meal Patterns and Best Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Jayna M; Cullen, Karen W

    2018-02-20

    To assess the agreement of posted menus with foods served to 3- to 5-year-old children attending federal Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)-enrolled facilities, and the degree to which the facilities met the new meal patterns and best practices. On-site observations and menu coding. Nine early care and education centers. Agreement of posted menus with foods served, and comparison of foods served and consumed with the new CACFP meal guidelines and best practices. Data were compiled for each meal (breakfast, lunch, and snacks). Frequencies and percentages of agreement with the posted menu (coded matches, substitutions, additions, and omissions) were calculated for each food component in the CACFP menu guidelines. Menu total match was created by summing the menu match plus acceptable substitutions. Menus were compared with the new CACFP meal guidelines and best practices. The match between the posted menus and foods actually served to children at breakfast, lunch, and snack was high when the acceptable menu substitutions were considered (approximately 94% to 100% total match). Comparing the menus with the new meal guidelines and best practices, the 1 guideline that was fully implemented was serving only unflavored, low-fat, or 1% milk; fruit and vegetable guidelines were partially met; fruit juice was not served often, nor were legumes; the guideline for 1 whole grain-rich serving/d was not met; and regular beef and full-fat cheese products were commonly served. Early care and education centers enrolled in CACFP provided meals that met the current CACFP guidelines. Some menu improvements are needed for the centers to meet the new guidelines and best practices. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Australian lobbyist registers are not serving the purposes they were designed for.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Narelle; Kypri, Kypros; Stafford, Julia; Daube, Mike; Avery, Michelle; Miller, Peter

    2017-07-11

    There is widespread concern about the nature, extent and impacts of lobbying by industries selling unhealthy commodities, which threatens public health and undermines important democratic processes. In the last decade, all Australian jurisdictions (except the Northern Territory) have established lobbyist registers with the stated objective of increasing the capacity of government and the public to scrutinise lobbying. Our aim was to assess whether the registers are fulfilling this objective. We conducted web searches of registers in Australian jurisdictions in 2014 and 2015 to determine what type of information they collected and whether data were accessible. We supplemented searches with e-mails and phone calls to registrars to clarify policies and seek additional information. We found that the data were lacking in critical details and historical information was difficult or impossible to obtain. None of the registers required in-house lobbyists to register or to be bound by the Lobbying Codes of Conduct. None required that informal lobbying (e.g. by government relations staff within a company) be recorded, and none provided detailed information about the nature and extent of lobbying activities. The registers do not meet the stated objective of making lobbying activity transparent to the Australian public. Timely access to comprehensive information is essential to help promote the rational development of policy concerning tobacco, alcohol and gambling problems. There is an urgent need to reform lobbyist registers to ensure that they are comprehensive and transparent. [Robertson N, Kypri K, Stafford J, Daube M, Avery M, Miller P. Australian lobbyist registers are not serving the purposes they were designed for. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. Functional Boxplots

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Genton, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    data, the descriptive statistics of a functional boxplot are: the envelope of the 50% central region, the median curve, and the maximum non-outlying envelope. In addition, outliers can be detected in a functional boxplot by the 1.5 times the 50% central

  10. Mathematical Approach For Serving Nutritious Menu For Secondary School Student Using “Delete-Reshuffle-Reoptimize Algorithm”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudin, Azila M.; Sufahani, Suliadi

    2018-04-01

    Secondary school student need to eat a well nutritious and healthy food that gives enough supplements for improvement, safeguarding and rebuilding the human body. In addition, with legitimate supplement, it can keep any undesirable diseases and infections. At this moment, medicinal disclosure demonstrates that by expending very much adjusted nutritious sustenance, it can anticipate and decrease the dangers of certain illness. Menu organizers, nutritionist and dietitians faced with mind boggling undertakings and inconveniences obstacles to grow human wellbeing. Serving more beneficial meal is a noteworthy step towards accomplishing one of the objectives for this study. However reorganizing a nutritious and well balanced menu by hand is difficult, insufficient and time consuming. The target of this study is to build up a mathematical technique for menu scheduling that fulfill the whole supplement prerequisite for secondary school student, reduce processing time, minimize the budget and furthermore serve assortment type of food consistently. It additionally gives the adaptability for the cook to change any favored menu even after the ideal arrangement and optimal solution has been acquired. A recalculation procedure will be performed in light of the ideal arrangement. The data was obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysian and school specialists. The model was solved by using Binary Programming and “Delete-Reshuffle-Reoptimize Algorithm”.

  11. Beyond Climate and Weather Science: Expanding the Forecasting Family to Serve Societal Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, E. J.

    2009-05-01

    The ability to "anticipate" the future is what makes information from the Earth sciences valuable to society - whether it is the prediction of severe weather or the future availability of water resources in response to climate change. An improved ability to anticipate or forecast has the potential to serve society by simultaneously improving our ability to (1) promote economic vitality, (2) enable environmental stewardship, (3) protect life and property, as well as (4) improve our fundamental knowledge of the earth system. The potential is enormous, yet many appear ready to move quickly toward specific mitigation and adaptation strategies assuming that the science is settled. Five important weakness must be addressed first: (1) the formation of a true "climate services" function and capability, (2) the deliberate investment in expanding the family of forecasting elements to incorporate a broader array of environmental factors and impacts, (3) the investment in the sciences that connect climate to society, (4) a deliberate focus on the problems associated with scale, in particular the difference between the scale of predictive models and the scale associated with societal decisions, and (5) the evolution from climate services and model predictions to the equivalent of "environmental intelligence centers." The objective is to bring the discipline of forecasting to a broader array of environmental challenges. Assessments of the potential impacts of global climate change on societal sectors such as water, human health, and agriculture provide good examples of this challenge. We have the potential to move from a largely reactive mode in addressing adverse health outcomes, for example, to one in which the ties between climate, land cover, infectious disease vectors, and human health are used to forecast and predict adverse human health conditions. The potential exists for a revolution in forecasting, that entrains a much broader set of societal needs and solutions. The

  12. Hyporheic Interfaces Serve as Ecological Control Points for Mountainous Landscape Biological Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, M. E.; Dwivedi, D.; Raberg, J.; Fox, P. M.; Nico, P. S.; Wainwright, H. M.; Conrad, M. E.; Bill, M.; Bouskill, N.; Williams, K. H.; Hubbard, S.; Steefel, C. I.

    2017-12-01

    Riverine systems in snow-dominated mountainous regions often express complex biogeochemistry and river nutrient indicators as a function of hydrologic variability. In early spring, meltwater infiltration from a ripened snowpack creates a hydrological gradient through hillslopes, floodplains, and hyporheic zones. During this time, these systems are more-or-less a passive filter that allows the rising limb of the hydrograph to display chemo-dynamic relationships (inversely proportional) with solutes and nutrients. During the growing season, temperatures, plants, microbes, and hydrologic gradients shift dramatically and activate hyporheic-zone biogeochemistry as a major control on water nutrient degradation. Hyporheic biogeochemical reliance on the timing of meltwater infiltration and the possibility of a longer vernal window under future climate change indicates the importance of hyporheic cycling as the dominant ecological control point on carbon and nitrogen fluxes and transformations. The objective of our study is to develop a predictive understanding of the subsurface and surface controls on hyporheic biogeochemical behavior through data-model integration. Data from our 2017 field campaign in the East River, Colorado, a pristine, mountainous watershed, were taken at key times during the rising, peak, falling, and dry limb of the hydrograph. Throughout multiple locations across this spatial and temporal gradient, we measured surface and subsurface gases, geochemistry, isotopes, and hydrological flow conditions and used this data to constrain a numerical flow and reactive transport model of the hyporheic zone that included microbial and flow feedback dynamics. Our data coupled with the predictive power of our numerical model reveal that the hyporheic zone serves dual roles throughout the year—as a net source of nutrients and solutes during the early vernal phase, shifting to a net sink of nutrients during the summer dry season. The possibility of a future

  13. Cryptographic Hash Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2010-01-01

    functions, also called message authentication codes (MACs) serve data integrity and data origin authentication in the secret key setting. The building blocks of hash functions can be designed using block ciphers, modular arithmetic or from scratch. The design principles of the popular Merkle...

  14. Redox active molecules cytochrome c and vitamin C enhance heme-enzyme peroxidations by serving as non-specific agents for redox relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gade, Sudeep Kumar; Bhattacharya, Subarna; Manoj, Kelath Murali

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► At low concentrations, cytochrome c/vitamin C do not catalyze peroxidations. ► But low levels of cytochrome c/vitamin C enhance diverse heme peroxidase activities. ► Enhancement positively correlates to the concentration of peroxide in reaction. ► Reducible additives serve as non-specific agents for redox relay in the system. ► Insight into electron transfer processes in routine and oxidative-stress states. -- Abstract: We report that incorporation of very low concentrations of redox protein cytochrome c and redox active small molecule vitamin C impacted the outcome of one-electron oxidations mediated by structurally distinct plant/fungal heme peroxidases. Evidence suggests that cytochrome c and vitamin C function as a redox relay for diffusible reduced oxygen species in the reaction system, without invoking specific or affinity-based molecular interactions for electron transfers. The findings provide novel perspectives to understanding – (1) the promiscuous role of cytochrome b 5 in the metabolism mediated by liver microsomal xenobiotic metabolizing systems and (2) the roles of antioxidant molecules in affording relief from oxidative stress.

  15. Redox active molecules cytochrome c and vitamin C enhance heme-enzyme peroxidations by serving as non-specific agents for redox relay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gade, Sudeep Kumar; Bhattacharya, Subarna [Heme and Flavo Proteins Laboratory, 204, Center for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632014 (India); Manoj, Kelath Murali, E-mail: satyamjayatu@yahoo.com [Heme and Flavo Proteins Laboratory, 204, Center for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632014 (India)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At low concentrations, cytochrome c/vitamin C do not catalyze peroxidations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer But low levels of cytochrome c/vitamin C enhance diverse heme peroxidase activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancement positively correlates to the concentration of peroxide in reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reducible additives serve as non-specific agents for redox relay in the system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insight into electron transfer processes in routine and oxidative-stress states. -- Abstract: We report that incorporation of very low concentrations of redox protein cytochrome c and redox active small molecule vitamin C impacted the outcome of one-electron oxidations mediated by structurally distinct plant/fungal heme peroxidases. Evidence suggests that cytochrome c and vitamin C function as a redox relay for diffusible reduced oxygen species in the reaction system, without invoking specific or affinity-based molecular interactions for electron transfers. The findings provide novel perspectives to understanding - (1) the promiscuous role of cytochrome b{sub 5} in the metabolism mediated by liver microsomal xenobiotic metabolizing systems and (2) the roles of antioxidant molecules in affording relief from oxidative stress.

  16. 5 CFR 1201.122 - Filing complaint; serving documents on parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Disciplinary Actions § 1201.122 Filing complaint; serving documents on parties. (a) Place of filing. A Special Counsel complaint seeking disciplinary action under 5 U.S.C. 1215(a)(1) (including a complaint alleging a...

  17. Les réserves extractivistes, état des lieux

    OpenAIRE

    Aubertin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    La lutte des seringueiros a popularisé la notion de réserves extractivistes. Au départ calquée sur le modèle de la réserve indigène, la réserve extractiviste devait apporter une solution foncière aux conflits avec les patrons en garantissant, grâce à des expropriations menées par l’État, un droit d’usage collectif aux seringueiros et le maintien de leur outil de production, la forêt. L’histoire des réserves extractivistes est significative des modifications politiques enregistrées ces dix der...

  18. Methods of measuring the level of logistics serving in international business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona BĂLĂŞESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper raise the issue of logistics service of customers in international markets. The study aims optimizing logistics serving using the case of a company in Romania which has several foreign customers. The main objectives of the investigation are related to the measurement of logistic service level for the company’s foreign clients and to an evaluation of the present potential of the logistic serving strategy of this company. The instruments used for the analysis are the economic outputs, information from foreign customers and the theory about the level of logistic serving. The results of the analysis are used for making a proposal of a set of projects aiming the improvement of the serving quality of foreign customers.

  19. Does It Matter Whom an Agent Serves? Evidence from Recent Changes in Real Estate Agency Law.

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Christopher; Schrag, Joel

    2000-01-01

    Recent changes in real estate law hastened the shift from a seller's agency regime, in which real estate agents serve the interests of sellers, to a buyer's agency regime, in which agents serve the interests of buyers. Using data from the Atlanta real estate market, we show that the shift to buyer's agency led to a significant decline in real estate prices in the market for relatively expensive houses, while real estate prices did not significantly change in the market for relatively inexpens...

  20. Long-term sustainability of a worksite canteen intervention of serving more fruit and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Tetens, Inge

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the 5-year sustainability of a worksite canteen intervention of serving more fruit and vegetables (F&V). Design: Average F&V consumption per customer per meal per day was assessed in five worksite canteens by weighing F&V served and subtracting waste. Data were collected by ...... where the participatory and empowering approach, self-monitoring, environmental change, dialogue with suppliers and networking among worksite canteens are applied....

  1. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  2. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Linkedin Pin it Email Print Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Color additives give the red tint to your fruit punch ... in Foods, Drugs, Cosmetics, and Medical Devices Color Additives: FDA's Regulatory Process and Historical Perspectives ... Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition ...

  3. Density measures and additive property

    OpenAIRE

    Kunisada, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    We deal with finitely additive measures defined on all subsets of natural numbers which extend the asymptotic density (density measures). We consider a class of density measures which are constructed from free ultrafilters on natural numbers and study a certain additivity property of such density measures.

  4. [Personality traits of drivers serving a custodial sentence for drink driving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska, Beata; Rzeszutko, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work was the analysis of personality traits of men serving a custodial sentence for driving under the influence of alcohol. The study included 44 males serving a custodial sentence for drink driving, 45 males serving a custodial sentence for assault and robbery as well as 32 men with no criminal record, who had never driven a motor vehicle under the influence of alcohol. The following research methods were used during the study: the Socio-demographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the KRS, the Cattell's IPAT, the NI, the ACL and the Life style Questionnaire. The obtained results indicate significant statistical differences between the men serving the custodial sentence for drink driving as regards stress coping, anxiety level, intensified need to look for new experiences as well as anti-social personality traits. The men serving a custodial sentence for drink driving show intensified traits of antisocial personality, higher level of anxiety, intensified impulsiveness irritability, distrust, aggression, egocentrism, eccentricity, intensified need for recognition, breaking social standards, experiencing various stimuli, new impressions, greater adaptation difficulties, less self-discipline, lower self-esteem as well as more frequently used destructive, escapist and emotional stress coping strategies as compared to the people with no criminal record, who never drove while under the influence of alcohol. As regards the intensity of personality disorders, stress coping strategies and self-image no significant differences were found between the men serving a custodial sentence for drink driving and those imprisoned for assault and robbery.

  5. WEAPONS COMPLEX OF RUSSIAN SERVING TATARS IN XV-XVII TH CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б А Илюшин

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issue of the offensive and defensive armament of the serving Tatars of the Moscow state in the XV-XVIIth centuries, its research degree in the national historiography, the opportunities and prospects of its enhanced studying. The serving Tatars were one of the categories of the Moscow state nobility, which is reflected, first of all, in written sources. The weapons complex of Russian serving Tatars included minimal armour. European sources do not mention armour and helms or shield. But noble Tatars could have costly armour of many types that were used in that epoch by peoples of Eastern Europe and Middle East - Russians, Persians, Turks. The basic weapons of the serving Tatars were bows and arrows. In the close combat they were using sabres, and (rarely spears. The fire weapon was not used by the serving Tatars (or they used it very rarely and it was not characteristic for their weapons complex, because it was ineffective in their tactics. The serving Tatars were light mobile horse archers that preferred battles of long-distance.

  6. Age differences in the use of serving size information on food labels: numeracy or attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Applegate, Elizabeth; Beckett, Laurel A; Wilson, Machelle D; Gibson, Tanja N

    2017-04-01

    The ability to use serving size information on food labels is important for managing age-related chronic conditions such as diabetes, obesity and cancer. Past research suggests that older adults are at risk for failing to accurately use this portion of the food label due to numeracy skills. However, the extent to which older adults pay attention to serving size information on packages is unclear. We compared the effects of numeracy and attention on age differences in accurate use of serving size information while individuals evaluated product healthfulness. Accuracy and attention were assessed across two tasks in which participants compared nutrition labels of two products to determine which was more healthful if they were to consume the entire package. Participants' eye movements were monitored as a measure of attention while they compared two products presented side-by-side on a computer screen. Numeracy as well as food label habits and nutrition knowledge were assessed using questionnaires. Sacramento area, California, USA, 2013-2014. Stratified sample of 358 adults, aged 20-78 years. Accuracy declined with age among those older adults who paid less attention to serving size information. Although numeracy, nutrition knowledge and self-reported food label use supported accuracy, these factors did not influence age differences in accuracy. The data suggest that older adults are less accurate than younger adults in their use of serving size information. Age differences appear to be more related to lack of attention to serving size information than to numeracy skills.

  7. Functionalized diamond nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Beaujuge, Pierre M.; El Tall, Omar; Raja, Inam U.

    2014-01-01

    A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.

  8. Functionalized diamond nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Beaujuge, Pierre M.

    2014-10-21

    A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.

  9. Magnesium absorption from mineral water decreases with increasing quantities of magnesium per serving in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Eri; Tai, Hideyuki; Uozumi, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Koji; Matsui, Tohru

    2012-01-01

    It is hypothesized that magnesium (Mg) absorption from mineral water is affected by the concentration of Mg in the water, the consumption pattern, and the volume consumed per serving. The present study examined the effect of serving volume and consumption pattern of artificial mineral water (AMW) and Mg concentration on Mg absorption in rats. Magnesium in AMW was labeled with magnesium-25 as a tracer. Each group consisted of 6 or 7 rats. In experiment 1, the rats received 1 mL of AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L at 4 times, 400 mg Mg/L twice, or 800 mg Mg/L at 1 time. In experiment 2, the rats received 1 mL of AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L or 0.25 mL of AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L at 4 times or 1 mL of AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L at 1 time. The absorption of Mg decreased with increasing Mg concentrations in the same serving volume of AMW with different serving frequencies. When the AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L was portioned into 4 servings, Mg absorption increased to the level of absorption in the group exposed to AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L served at the same frequency. These results suggest that the Mg concentration and the volume of AMW do not affect Mg absorption per se, but Mg absorption from AMW decreases when the amount of Mg in each serving is increased. Thus, frequent consumption is preferable for mineral water rich in Mg when the total consumption of mineral water is the same. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Medicare's Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program in Surgery May Disproportionately Affect Minority-serving Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Terry; Ryan, Andrew M; Gonzalez, Andrew A; Dimick, Justin B

    2015-06-01

    To project readmission penalties for hospitals performing cardiac surgery and examine how these penalties will affect minority-serving hospitals. The Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program will potentially expand penalties for higher-than-predicted readmission rates to cardiac procedures in the near future. The impact of these penalties on minority-serving hospitals is unknown. We examined national Medicare beneficiaries undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in 2008 to 2010 (N = 255,250 patients, 1186 hospitals). Using hierarchical logistic regression, we calculated hospital observed-to-expected readmission ratios. Hospital penalties were projected according to the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program formula using only coronary artery bypass grafting readmissions with a 3% maximum penalty of total Medicare revenue. Hospitals were classified into quintiles according to proportion of black patients treated. Minority-serving hospitals were defined as hospitals in the top quintile whereas non-minority-serving hospitals were those in the bottom quintile. Projected readmission penalties were compared across quintiles. Forty-seven percent of hospitals (559 of 1186) were projected to be assessed a penalty. Twenty-eight percent of hospitals (330 of 1186) would be penalized less than 1% of total Medicare revenue whereas 5% of hospitals (55 of 1186) would receive the maximum 3% penalty. Minority-serving hospitals were almost twice as likely to be penalized than non-minority-serving hospitals (61% vs 32%) and were projected almost triple the reductions in reimbursement ($112 million vs $41 million). Minority-serving hospitals would disproportionately bear the burden of readmission penalties if expanded to include cardiac surgery. Given these hospitals' narrow profit margins, readmission penalties may have a profound impact on these hospitals' ability to care for disadvantaged patients.

  11. MAFJ: some simple additions to MAFCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finan, C.H. III; McNamara, B.

    1976-01-01

    MAFJ is a revision of the MAFCO code which generates magnetic fields (B) resulting from collections of current elements. In addition to the original MAFCO's capabilities, MAFJ follows field lines through a region of interest and calculates integrals of functions along these lines. It can also generate three-dimensional grids of B. MAFJ runs from eight to 15 times faster than MAFCO, depending on the types of current elements chosen. 2 tables

  12. Prevalence of Food Additive Intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence estimates vary with a factor 100. As the results vary so do the study populations. 6 If the different study populations are accounted for, a common conclusion can be drawn: Food additive intolerance is found in adults with atopic symptoms from the respiratory tract and skin. The prevalence......1 The existing prevalence estimates of food additive intolerance(1-4) are being reviewed. 2 In the EEC report the estimated frequency of food additive intolerance is 0.03% to 0.15% based on data from patient groups. 3 The British population study results in a prevalence estimate of 0.......026%. The challenged population is 81 children and adults with a history of reproducible clinical symptoms after ingestion of food additives. 4 In the Danish population study a prevalence of 1-2% is found in children age 5-16. In this study a total of 606 children mainly with atopic disease have been challenged. 5...

  13. Topology Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders

    This PhD thesis deals with the combination of topology optimization and additive man-ufacturing (AM, also known as 3D-printing). In addition to my own works, the thesis contains a broader review and assessment of the literature within the field. The thesis first presents a classification...... of the various AM technologies, a review of relevant manufacturing materials, the properties of these materials in the additively manufactured part, as well as manufacturing constraints with a potential for design optimization. Subsequently, specific topology optimization formulations relevant for the most im...... for scalable manufacturing. In relation to interface problems it is shown how a flexible void area may be included into a standard minimum compliance problem by employing an additional design variable field and a sensitivity filter. Furthermore, it is shown how the design of coated structures may be modeled...

  14. (ICSID) ADDITIONAL FACILITY IN INTERNA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    ... which is adopted by Article 5 of the Additional Facility Rules to guide the ... B, Barrister at Law, e-mail: kcezeibe@yahoo.com; Phone 08033950631 and .... revision and annulment which are internally available under the Washington ...

  15. Food additives: an ethical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepham, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Food additives are an integral part of the modern food system, but opinion polls showing most Europeans have worries about them imply an urgent need for ethical analysis of their use. The existing literature on food ethics, safety assessment and animal testing. Food additives provide certain advantages in terms of many people's lifestyles. There are disagreements about the appropriate application of the precautionary principle and of the value and ethical validity of animal tests in assessing human safety. Most consumers have a poor understanding of the relative benefits and risks of additives, but concerns over food safety and animal testing remain high. Examining the impacts of food additives on consumer sovereignty, consumer health and on animals used in safety testing should allow a more informed debate about their appropriate uses.

  16. The Development of Korea Additional Protocol System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hye Won; Yeo, Jin Kyun

    2008-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (the Safeguards Agreement) entered into force on 14 November 1975. The Additional Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement (the Additional Protocol) was signed on 21 June 1999 and entered into force on 19 February 2004. ROK has been submitting annual updated reports of initial declaration on every May 15th since August 2004. Additional protocol reports were submitted through Protocol Reporter provided by IAEA. Annual declarations were simply uploaded and stored in the Accounting Information Treatment System of KINAC, which did not provide data analysis and management function. There have been demands for improvement to handle ever-increasing information. KAPS (Korea Additional Protocol System) has been developed to assist and administrate the additional protocol related works effectively. The new system enables integrated management including composition of additional protocol report and version control, periodical update of related information, results of IAEA complementary access to each facility

  17. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  18. Additive Manufacturing of Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Humbeeck, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing production process, also called 3D printing, in which functional, complex parts are produced by selectively melting patterns in consecutive layers of powder with a laser beam. The pattern the laser beam is following is controlled by software that calculates the pattern by slicing a 3D CAD model of the part to be constructed. Apart from SLM, also other additive manufacturing techniques such as EBM (Electron Beam Melting), FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling), WAAM (Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing), LENS (Laser Engineered Net Shaping such as Laser Cladding) and binder jetting allow to construct complete parts layer upon layer. But since more experience of AM of shape memory alloys is collected by SLM, this paper will overview the potentials, limits and problems of producing NiTi parts by SLM.

  19. The movements made by performers in a skilled quartet: a distinctive pattern, and the function that it serves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald eGlowinski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available When people perform a task as part of a joint action, their behavior is not the same as it would be if they were performing the same task alone, since it has to be adapted to facilitate shared understanding (or sometimes to prevent it. Joint performance of music offers a test bed for ecologically valid investigations of the way non-verbal behavior facilitates joint action. Here we compare the expressive movement of violinists when playing in solo and ensemble conditions. The first violinists of two string quartets, professional and student, were asked to play the same musical fragments in a solo condition and with the quartet. Synchronized multimodal recordings were created from the performances, using a specially developed software platform. Different patterns of head movement were observed. By quantifying them using an appropriate measure of entropy, we showed that head movements are more predictable in the quartet scenario. Rater evaluations showed that the change does not, as might be assumed, entail markedly reduced expression. They showed some ability to discriminate between solo and ensemble performances, but did not distinguish them in terms of emotional content or expressiveness. The data raise provocative questions about joint action in realistically complex scenarios.

  20. Conscious Thought Does Not Guide Moment-to-Moment Actions – It Serves Social and Cultural Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. eMasicampo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans enjoy a private, mental life that is richer and more vivid than that of any other animal. Yet as central as the conscious experience is to human life, numerous disciplines have long struggled to explain it. The present paper reviews the latest theories and evidence from psychology that addresses what conscious thought is and how it affects human behavior. We suggest that conscious thought adapts human behavior to life in complex society and culture. First, we review research challenging the common notion that conscious thought directly guides and controls action. Second, we present an alternative view—that conscious thought processes actions and events that are typically removed from the here and now, and that it indirectly shapes action to favor culturally adaptive responses. Third, we summarize recent empirical work on conscious thought, which generally supports this alternative view. We see conscious thought as the place where the unconscious mind assembles ideas so as to reach new conclusions about how best to behave, or what outcomes to pursue or avoid. Rather than directly controlling action, conscious thought provides the input from these kinds of mental simulations to the executive. Conscious thought offers insights about the past and future, socially shared information, and cultural rules. Without it, the complex forms of social and cultural coordination that define human life would not be possible.

  1. Biomechanical Analysis of Abdominal Injury in Tennis Serves. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Tubez, Bénédicte Forthomme, Jean-Louis Croisier, Caroline Cordonnier, Olivier Brüls, Vincent Denoël, Gilles Berwart, Maurice Joris, Stéphanie Grosdent, Cédric Schwartz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The serve is an important stroke in any high level tennis game. A well-mastered serve is a substantial advantage for players. However, because of its repeatability and its intensity, this stroke is potentially deleterious for upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk. The trunk is a vital link in the production and transfer of energy from the lower limbs to the upper limbs; therefore, kinematic disorder could be a potential source of risk for trunk injury in tennis. This research studies the case of a professional tennis player who has suffered from a medical tear on the left rectus abdominis muscle after tennis serve. The goal of the study is to understand whether the injury could be explained by an inappropriate technique. For this purpose, we analyzed in three dimensions the kinematic and kinetic aspects of the serve. We also performed isokinetic tests of the player’s knees. We then compared the player to five other professional players as reference. We observed a possible deficit of energy transfer because of an important anterior pelvis tilt. Some compensation made by the player during the serve could be a possible higher abdominal contraction and a larger shoulder external rotation. These particularities could induce an abdominal overwork that could explain the first injury and may provoke further injuries.

  2. The Relationship Between Maximum Isometric Strength and Ball Velocity in the Tennis Serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiget, Ernest; Corbi, Francisco; Fuentes, Juan Pedro; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the relationship between maximum isometric strength levels in different upper and lower limb joints and serve velocity in competitive tennis players as well as to develop a prediction model based on this information. Twelve male competitive tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 17.2 ± 1.0 years; body height: 180.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 71.9 ± 5.6 kg) were tested using maximum isometric strength levels (i.e., wrist, elbow and shoulder flexion and extension; leg and back extension; shoulder external and internal rotation). Serve velocity was measured using a radar gun. Results showed a strong positive relationship between serve velocity and shoulder internal rotation (r = 0.67; p isometric strength level in shoulder internal rotation was strongly related to serve velocity, and a large part of the variability in serve velocity was explained by the maximum isometric strength levels in shoulder internal rotation and shoulder flexion.

  3. The effects of carbohydrate ingestion on the badminton serve after fatiguing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Lindsay; Sinclair, Jonathan; Taylor, Katrina; Polman, Remco; Fewtrell, David

    2012-01-01

    The badminton serve requires great skill and may be affected by fatigue. The aim of the present study was to determine whether carbohydrate ingestion affects badminton performance. Nine male badminton players (age 25 ± 7 years, mass 80.6 ± 8.0 kg) attended the laboratory on three occasions. The first visit involved an incremental exercise test to exhaustion to determine peak heart rate. Participants were given 1 L of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink or a matched placebo during the experimental trials. The accuracy of 10 long and 10 short serves was determined before and after exercise. The fatiguing exercise was 33 min in duration (83 ± 10% and 84 ± 8% peak heart rate for the placebo and carbohydrate trial respectively). Capillary blood samples (20 μL) were taken before and after exercise for determination of blood glucose and lactate. There was deterioration in long serve accuracy with fatigue (P = 0.002), which carbohydrate ingestion had a tendency to prevent (P = 0.077). There was no effect of fatigue (P = 0.402) or carbohydrate ingestion (P = 0.109) on short serve accuracy. There was no difference in blood glucose concentration between trials (P = 0.851). Blood lactate concentration was higher during the placebo trial (P = 0.016). These results suggest that only the long serve is influenced by fatigue and carbohydrate had a tendency to prevent the deterioration in performance.

  4. Additive Cellular Automata and Volume Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B. Ward

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A class of dynamical systems associated to rings of S-integers in rational function fields is described. General results about these systems give a rather complete description of the well-known dynamics in one-dimensional additive cellular automata with prime alphabet, including simple formulæ for the topological entropy and the number of periodic configurations. For these systems the periodic points are uniformly distributed along some subsequence with respect to the maximal measure, and in particular are dense. Periodic points may be constructed arbitrarily close to a given configuration, and rationality of the dynamical zeta function is characterized. Throughout the emphasis is to place this particular family of cellular automata into the wider context of S-integer dynamical systems, and to show how the arithmetic of rational function fields determines their behaviour. Using a covering space the dynamics of additive cellular automata are related to a form of hyperbolicity in completions of rational function fields. This expresses the topological entropy of the automata directly in terms of volume growth in the covering space.

  5. Additive subgroups of topological vector spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Banaszczyk, Wojciech

    1991-01-01

    The Pontryagin-van Kampen duality theorem and the Bochner theorem on positive-definite functions are known to be true for certain abelian topological groups that are not locally compact. The book sets out to present in a systematic way the existing material. It is based on the original notion of a nuclear group, which includes LCA groups and nuclear locally convex spaces together with their additive subgroups, quotient groups and products. For (metrizable, complete) nuclear groups one obtains analogues of the Pontryagin duality theorem, of the Bochner theorem and of the Lévy-Steinitz theorem on rearrangement of series (an answer to an old question of S. Ulam). The book is written in the language of functional analysis. The methods used are taken mainly from geometry of numbers, geometry of Banach spaces and topological algebra. The reader is expected only to know the basics of functional analysis and abstract harmonic analysis.

  6. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    on the microstructure and mechanical properties of sand cast been investigated ... owed that the addition of sulphur to Al-12wt%Si alloy. 12wt%Si alloy .... 28 materials. 29. Element. Aluminum. Silicon. Al. Si. Ca. Fe. Cu. Zn. Mn. Mg. Cr. B. 99.71.

  7. Lower risk of incident dementia among Chinese older adults having three servings of vegetables and two servings of fruits a day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen T C; Richards, Marcus; Chan, Wai C; Chiu, Helen F K; Lee, Ruby S Y; Lam, Linda C W

    2017-09-01

    dietary modification can potentially reduce dementia risk, but the importance of fruits and the amount of vegetables and fruits required for cognitive maintenance are uncertain. We examined whether the minimal daily requirement of vegetables and fruits recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) would independently lower dementia risk. in this population-based observational study, we examined the diet of 17,700 community-living dementia-free Chinese older adults who attended the Elderly Health Centres in Hong Kong at baseline and followed their cognitive status for 6 years. In line with the WHO recommendation, we defined the cutoff for minimal intake of vegetables and fruits as at least three and two servings per day, respectively. The study outcome was incident dementia in 6 years. Dementia was defined by presence of clinical dementia in accordance with the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) or Clinical Dementia Rating of 1-3. multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the estimated odds ratios for incident dementia were 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.73-1.06; P = 0.17) for those consuming at least three servings of vegetables per day, 0.86 (0.74-0.99; P dementia in older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Calculus of bivariant function

    OpenAIRE

    PTÁČNÍK, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the introduction of function of two variables and differential calculus of this function. This work should serve as a textbook for students of elementary school's teacher. Each chapter contains a summary of basic concepts and explanations of relationships, then solved model exercises of the topic and finally the exercises, which should solve the student himself. Thesis have transmit to students basic knowledges of differential calculus of functions of two variables, inc...

  9. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee’s evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for 10 food additives (Allura Red AC; carob bean gum; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid (OSA)– modified gum arabic; pectin; Quinoline Yellow; rosemary extract; steviol glycosides; tartrazine; and xanthan gum) and five groups of flavouring agents (alicyclic, alicyclic-fused and aromatic-fused ring lactones; aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; cinnamyl alcohol and related substances; and tetrahydrofuran and furanone derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: aspartame; cassia gum; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol (CITREM); modified starches; octanoic acid; starch sodium octenyl succinate; and total colouring matters. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee’s recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives, including flavouring agents, considered at this meeting.

  10. Additive manufacturing of tunable lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Katja; Novak, Tobias; Heinrich, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Individual additive manufacturing of optical systems based on 3D Printing offers varied possibilities in design and usage. In addition to the additive manufacturing procedure, the usage of tunable lenses allows further advantages for intelligent optical systems. Our goal is to bring the advantages of additive manufacturing together with the huge potential of tunable lenses. We produced tunable lenses as a bundle without any further processing steps, like polishing. The lenses were designed and directly printed with a 3D Printer as a package. The design contains the membrane as an optical part as well as the mechanical parts of the lens, like the attachments for the sleeves which contain the oil. The dynamic optical lenses were filled with an oil. The focal length of the lenses changes due to a change of the radius of curvature. This change is caused by changing the pressure in the inside of the lens. In addition to that, we designed lenses with special structures to obtain different areas with an individual optical power. We want to discuss the huge potential of this technology for several applications. Further, an appropriate controlling system is needed. Wéll show the possibilities to control and regulate the optical power of the lenses. The lenses could be used for illumination tasks, and in the future, for individual measurement tasks. The main advantage is the individuality and the possibility to create an individual design which completely fulfills the requirements for any specific application.

  11. Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Weidian

    2013-09-27

    This project, “Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan” was carried out in two phases: (1) the 2009 – 2012 renovation of space in the new EMU Science Complex, which included the Surface Science Laboratory (SSL), a very vigorous research lab at EMU that carries on a variety of research projects to serve the auto and other industries in Michigan; and (2) the 2013 purchase of several pieces of equipment to further enhance the research capability of the SSL. The funding granted by the DoE was proposed to “renovate the space in the Science Complex to include SSL and purchase equipment for tribological and electrochemical impedance measurements in the lab, thus SSL will serve the auto and other industries in Michigan better.” We believe we have fully accomplished the mission.

  12. Nuclear Medical Science Officers: Army Health Physicists Serving and Defending Their Country Around the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Mark; Bosley, William; Santiago, Jodi; Hamilton, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Tracing their distinguished history back to the Manhattan Project that developed the world's first atomic bomb, the Nuclear Medical Science Officers are the Army's experts on radiation and its health effects. Serving around the globe, these commissioned Army officers serve as military health physicists that ensure the protection of Soldiers and those they defend against all sources of radiation, military and civilian. This poster will highlight the various roles and responsibilities that Nuclear Medical Science Officers fill in defense of the Nation. Areas where these officers serve include medical health physics, deployment health physics, homeland defense, emergency response, radiation dosimetry, radiation research and training, along with support to the Army's corporate radiation safety program and international collaborations. The poster will also share some of the unique military sources of radiation such as depleted uranium, which is used as an anti-armor munition and in armor plating because of its unique metallurgic properties. )

  13. [Intention to serve the same company for long years and job satisfaction in Japanese workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Shinichiro

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between intention to serve the same company for long years and job satisfaction in Japanese workers. Four hundred eighteen Japanese workers completed a questionnaire to assess intention to serve for long years and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was measured by two scales. One scale was consisted of the items which were deviced in the preliminary study concerning satisfaction with the company, and the other was consisted of the items based on the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. A factor analysis on the former scale yielded four factors: fosterage by company, order in company, company's name recognition, and expansibility of company. A factor analysis on the latter yielded four factors: contribution and activity, recognition and benefits, supervision, and discretion on job. The multiple regression analysis showed that "expansibility of company" was the most important predictor of intention to serve for long years.

  14. Thermoeconomic Optimization of a Renewable Polygeneration System Serving a Small Isolated Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Calise

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, special attention has been paid to renewable polygeneration technologies, able of simultaneously producing thermal, cooling, electrical energy and desalinated water from seawater. This paper focuses on an innovative polygeneration system driven by renewable energy sources, including the following technologies: hybrid photovoltaic/thermal collectors, concentrating parabolic trough (CPVT, a biomass heater, a single-stage absorption chiller and a multiple-effect distillation desalination system. The system is designed to cover the base load of an isolated small community. In previous papers, the dynamic simulation model about plant operation is discussed. In this paper, a detailed exergy, economic and environmental analysis of the plant is presented. In addition, the plant was optimized using different objective functions, applying the Design of Experiment (DoE methodology which evaluates the sensitivity of the different objective functions with respect to the selected design parameters. The results show that an increase of the storage volume is generally negative, whereas increasing the solar field area involves an increase of the exergy destruction rate, but also an improvement of the CPVT exergy output provided; the final result is an increase of both the exergy efficiency and the economic profitability of the polygeneration system.

  15. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  16. Additive interaction in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise

    2012-01-01

    It is a widely held belief in public health and clinical decision-making that interventions or preventive strategies should be aimed at patients or population subgroups where most cases could potentially be prevented. To identify such subgroups, deviation from additivity of absolute effects...... an empirical example of interaction between education and smoking on risk of lung cancer. We argue that deviations from additivity of effects are important for public health interventions and clinical decision-making, and such estimations should be encouraged in prospective studies on health. A detailed...... is the relevant measure of interest. Multiplicative survival models, such as the Cox proportional hazards model, are often used to estimate the association between exposure and risk of disease in prospective studies. In Cox models, deviations from additivity have usually been assessed by surrogate measures...

  17. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The structure of insulin, a glucose homeostasis-controlling hormone, is highly conserved in all vertebrates and stabilized by three disulfide bonds. Recently, we designed a novel insulin analogue containing a fourth disulfide bond located between positions A10-B4. The N-terminus of insulin's B......-chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar affinities. Thus...

  18. State operator, constants of the motion, and Wigner functions: The two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens Peder; Schleich, W. P.

    2009-01-01

    For a closed quantum system the state operator must be a function of the Hamiltonian. When the state is degenerate, additional constants of the motion enter the play. But although it is the Weyl transform of the state operator, the Wigner function is not necessarily a function of the Weyl...... transforms of the constants of the motion. We derive conditions for which this is actually the case. The Wigner functions of the energy eigenstates of a two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator serve as an important illustration....

  19. Use of the NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index as an Assessment Tool for Reptiles and Amphibians: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberville, Tracey D.; Andrews, Kimberly M.; Sperry, Jinelle H.; Grosse, Andrew M.

    2015-10-01

    Climate change threatens biodiversity globally, yet it can be challenging to predict which species may be most vulnerable. Given the scope of the problem, it is imperative to rapidly assess vulnerability and identify actions to decrease risk. Although a variety of tools have been developed to assess climate change vulnerability, few have been evaluated with regard to their suitability for certain taxonomic groups. Due to their ectothermic physiology, low vagility, and strong association with temporary wetlands, reptiles and amphibians may be particularly vulnerable relative to other groups. Here, we evaluate use of the NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) to assess a large suite of herpetofauna from the Sand Hills Ecoregion of the southeastern United States. Although data were frequently lacking for certain variables (e.g., phenological response to climate change, genetic variation), sufficient data were available to evaluate all 117 species. Sensitivity analyses indicated that results were highly dependent on size of assessment area and climate scenario selection. In addition, several ecological traits common in, but relatively unique to, herpetofauna are likely to contribute to their vulnerability and need special consideration during the scoring process. Despite some limitations, the NatureServe CCVI was a useful tool for screening large numbers of reptile and amphibian species. We provide general recommendations as to how the CCVI tool's application to herpetofauna can be improved through more specific guidance to the user regarding how to incorporate unique physiological and behavioral traits into scoring existing sensitivity factors and through modification to the assessment tool itself.

  20. Outlook for the power requirements by the northeast U.S. power pool: Who will serve this market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.P.

    1993-01-01

    The size of the potential natural gas market in the northeast U.S. and how it will be served are discussed. One of the most promising markets for natural gas in this area is for power generation, using combined-cycle generating units that are efficient and have low environmental impact. It is estimated that by 2002 natural gas requirements for electrical power generation in the northeast could reach 750 billion cubic feet per year. This market will be served through several new gas pipelines and through expansion of the existing pipeline capacity. Projections for electricity production for the northeast, including the New York Power pool, show an increase from 236,423 GWh in 1992 to 275,558 GWh in 2002, an increase of ca 17%. Non-utility generation will increase its share from 14% in 1992 to 26% in 2002. Utility switching to natural gas during summer months to control nitrogen oxide emissions will give natural gas more flexibility to compete with other options to reduce air pollution. Pipeline capacity additions planned for the northeast are reviewed, including the Liberty pipeline, Empire State pipeline, Portland gas transmission system, Minuteman delivery system and Mayflower gas transmission system. There will be more than adequate reliable and flexible pipeline capacity created to meet the future demand for natural gas in this region. 14 figs