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Sample records for serum-free light chains

  1. Serum Free Light Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV ... coverstory.aspx. Accessed August 2010. (© 1995–2010). Unit Code 84190: Immunoglobulin Free Light Chains, Serum. Mayo Clinic, ...

  2. Prognostic Value of Serum Free Light Chains Measurements in Multiple Myeloma Patients.

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    José Luis García de Veas Silva

    Full Text Available The outcome for patients with Multiple Myeloma (MM is highly variable, therefore, the existence of robust and easy to determine prognostic markers is extremely important for an efficient management of these patients. Presently, there is a debate about the role of the serum free light chains (sFLC in the prognosis of MM patients both at diagnosis and after treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate in a cohort of newly diagnosed MM patients from the Southern area of Spain, the prognostic value of sFLC both at baseline and after treatment.180 patients with a median age of 69 years were followed-up for a median time of 35 (18-61 months. The sFLC ratio (sFLCR was calculated using the monoclonal sFLC as numerator. Patients were divided in two groups according to a sFLCR cut-off based on ROC analysis. The primary endpoints were the Overall Survival (OS and the Progression-free Survival (PFS. Additionally, thirty-six MM patients treated with novel agents (Bortezomib/Dexamethasone that achieved Complete Response (CR or stringent CR (sCR before autologous stem cell transplantation were studied to assess the impact of sCR in Disease Free Survival (DFS and OS.During follow-up there were 72 disease-related deaths. The 5-years OS for the whole group was 51%. However, separate analysis of patients with sFLCR above (group "high" or below (groups "low" the cut-off value of 47 shows an OS of 23% and 73%, respectively (HR = 5.03, 95%CI 2.99-8.50, p3.5 mg/L provided a statistically more significant result for this cohort when compared with the conventional ISS system. The HR for the new model were 2.84 (95% CI, 1.39-5.79, p = 0.004 for patients in stage 2 and 15.39 (95% CI, 6.35-37.33, p<0.001 for those in stage 3. Finally, in the group of patients reaching CR (19/36 or sCR (17/36 after induction, the median DFS for CR patients was 29 months, and NR for sCR patients (HR = 3.73; 95% CI 1.15-12.13, p = 0.03. Importantly, achieving sCR also translated into a

  3. Performance goals for immunoglobulins and serum free light chain measurements in plasma cell dyscrasias can be based on biological variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Charlotte Toftmann

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of immunoglobulins and serum free light chains (sFLC) are frequently used in patients with monoclonal plasma cell dyscrasia (PCD). For optimum patient care, well-defined performance standards or goals for the measured concentrations of immunoglobulins and sFLC are required. Generally......, data based on biological variation is a good and reliable method for setting desirable performance standards; this also applies for the measurements of paraprotein and sFLC. The benefits of this approach are several. Among others, it is independent of the clinician, and it provides us with information...... about reference change value and index of individuality. Several studies on biological variation of both immunoglobulins and sFLC have been published, and mostly the studies are well performed. The studies normally show small within-subject biological variation resulting in strict analytical goals...

  4. N Latex FLC serum free light-chain assays in patients with renal impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Joannes F M; Hoedemakers, Rein M J; Teunissen, Elisa; Te Velthuis, Henk

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish ranges for N Latex free light-chain (FLC) monoclonal-based nephelometric assays in patients with renal impairment. In this retrospective study, serum samples from 284 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 1-5 were measured with N Latex and Freelite FLC reagents on the Siemens BNII system and compared with controls without renal impairment. Both κFLC and λFLC concentrations increased with the N Latex FLC and the Freelite assays with each increment in CKD stage. No difference was found in FLC κ concentrations between the two methods. In patients with renal failure, N Latex FLC detected higher concentrations of λFLC (CKD5 median, 128 mg/L; 95% range, 43-302) compared with Freelite (89.5 mg/L, 35-197) (pLatex reference limits for healthy controls (0.31-1.56). The N Latex FLC κ/λ ratio in the CKD5 group (0.69, 0.32-1.54) was significantly lower compared with the control group (pLatex FLC κ/λ ratio in patients with renal failure did not differ from the reference limits for healthy controls.

  5. Serum Free Light Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weeks to delivery) Prostate Cancer Protein in Urine (Proteinuria) Reactive Arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Sarcoidosis Scleroderma Sepsis Septic ... 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 150-151. Clarke, W., Editor (© 2011). Contemporary Practice in ...

  6. Clinical usefulness of serum free light chains measurement in patients with multiple myeloma: comparative analysis of two different tests

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    Tadeusz Kubicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are two commercially available tests for measurement of serum free light chains (sFLC in multiple myeloma (MM patients – Freelite and N Latex FLC. The aim of this study was to perform an assessment and direct comparison of the usefulness of the methods in routine clinical practice.Methods: 40 refractory/relapsed MM patients underwent routine disease activity assessment studies, along with sFLC analysis using both assays. Correlation and concordance between the tests and sensitivity of studied methods of sFLC assessment were established. Special attention was focused on sFLC results in patients finally evaluated after completing the treatment. Results: A weak correlation for the measurement of both κ [Passing–Bablok slope (PB = 0.7681] and λ chains [(PB = 1.542] was found. Using Bland–Altman plots, a bias of 0.0467 (κ and -0.2133 (λ between the measurements was documented. The concordance coefficient equaled 0.87 for κ, 0.62 for λ and 0.52 for κ/λ ratio. Ten patients had an abnormal Freelite assay κ/λ ratio and normal N Latex FLC κ/λ ratio. Three of these patients had negative serum protein electrophoresis results and fulfilled diagnostic criteria of stringent complete remission (sCR according to N Latex FLC (but not according to Freelite. When the κ/λ ratio obtained by both methods was compared to patients’ serum/urine protein electrophoresis and immunofixation results, sensitivity of Freelite and N Latex FLC was established to be 62.5% and 41%, respectively. Conclusions: There was no strong correlation or concordance between the two assays, and the sensitivity in terms of sFLC detection was different. This may cause problems when diagnosis of sCR is considered.

  7. Analytical Criticalities Associated to Different Immunological Methods for Serum Free Light Chain Detection in Plasma Cell Dyscrasias: A Description of Particular Clinical Cases

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    Rocco Sabatino

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Current criteria for differential diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM, Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS, and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM are included in the 2003 guidelines by the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG. An updated version was then published in 2014, highlighting the importance of serum free light chain (sFLC detection, as well as the κ/λ ratio as excellent indicators of clonality. At present, two commercial assays for sFLC quantification are available: the Freelite™ assay and the N-Latex assay. The first was developed by The Binding Site based on a mixture of polyclonal antibodies directed against a variety of FLC epitopes. It may be run on a wide range of nephelometers, as well as on turbidimeters. The second method was developed by Siemens and runs exclusively on Siemens instruments. It employs a probe mixture of mouse monoclonal antibodies. The aim of our study was to evaluate sFLC measurement and calculated κ/λ ratio in 85 patients with monoclonal gammopathies (MGs in order to compare methods. We demonstrated that there is only a moderate concordance between the two FLC assays. In particular, in one case, we observed no qualitative alterations of the serum protein pattern, and in the absence of a Freelite™ assay, sFLC measurement would not have been possible to highlight the increase of λ FLC.

  8. Comparison of the Freelite serum free light chain (SFLC) assay with serum and urine electrophoresis/immunofixation and the N Latex FLC assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, S C; McGill, K; Wienholt, L; Carr, A; Brown, D A; Kelleher, A D; Breit, S N; Sewell, W A

    2015-10-01

    Few reports have compared available serum free light chain (SFLC) assays. Here, a retrospective audit of the Freelite SFLC assay compared results to electrophoresis (EP)/immunofixation (IFX) and the N Latex FLC assay.A total of 244 samples collected over 3.5 months were studied using the Freelite and N Latex FLC nephelometry assays. Results were compared with serum and/or urine EP/IFX. The precision and linearity of the N Latex FLC assay was examined.Detectable paraprotein by serum or urine EP/IFX was present in 94% of samples with kappa and 100% with lambda FLC restriction. The correlation between the assays was higher for kappa (rho = 0.97) than lambda (rho = 0.89) especially when lambda results were above the upper limit of normal (rho = 0.62). Agreement in the categorical diagnosis as measured by the Cohen's kappa statistic was good (0.70). The N Latex FLC assay displayed good precision and linearity. In discordant samples the Freelite and N Latex FLC assays had equivalent agreement with IFX.Traditional methods of EP/IFX detected paraproteins in the majority of cases. Correlation between the Freelite and N Latex FLC assay is better for kappa than lambda FLC. The two assays are not entirely equivalent. Care should be taken by interpreting physicians and laboratories considering switching assays.

  9. Oligoclonal Pattern/Abnormal Protein Bands in Post-Treatment Plasma Cell Myeloma Patients: Implications for Protein Electrophoresis and Serum Free Light Chain Assay Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmukh

    2017-08-01

    The impact of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in plasma cell myeloma patients on the frequency, quality, and timing of oligoclonal pattern in serum protein electrophoresis/immunofixation electrophoresis (SPEP/SIFE) and serum free light chain assay (SFLCA) was evaluated. Laboratory results and clinical data for 251 patients with plasma cell myeloma, who had SPEP/SIFE and/or SFLCA performed between January 2010 and December 2016 were reviewed. The results for SPEP/SIFE and SFLCA were compared in patients with ASCT to those without ASCT. The implications of oligoclonal pattern in interpretation of SPEP/SIFE and SFLCA - κ/λ ratio were addressed. In 251 patients, a total of 3,134 observations, of either SPEP/SIFE and/or SFLCA, were reviewed. One hundred fifty-nine patients received ASCT. The incidence of oligoclonal patterns was significantly higher after ASCT. More than half of the oligoclonal patterns developed in the first year after transplantation. In 13 of the 84 patients with lambda chain restricted plasma cell myeloma, the κ/λ ratio was kappa dominant in the presence of oligoclonal pattern. There was no reversal of κ/λ ratio in patients with kappa chain restricted plasma cell myelomas. ASCT is associated with significantly higher incidence of oligoclonal patterns than with chemotherapy alone. The presence of oligoclonal patterns has the potential to interfere with the interpretation of SPEP/SIFE and ascertainment of complete remission. At a minimum, the oligoclonal pattern caused an incorrect kappa dominant κ/λ ratio in 15.5% of patients with lambda chain restricted plasma cell myeloma. If a similar rate were to be applied to the 167 kappa chain myeloma patients, about 26 of these would have displayed an erroneous kappa chain dominant κ/λ ratio. The presence of oligoclonal pattern further degrades the performance of already dubious SFLCA. The need for recording the location of monoclonal spike in SPEP/SIFE and higher resolution protein

  10. CD163 and c-Met expression in the lymph node and the correlations between elevated levels of serum free light chain and the different clinicopathological parameters of advanced classical Hodgkin's lymphoma.

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    Bedewy, Magdy; El-Maghraby, Shereen; Bedewy, Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    Advances in the understanding of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) show various functions of infiltrating immune cells and cytokines in relation to clinical outcomes. The expression of CD163 and c-Met has been suggested to have a role in lymphoid malignancy. Thus, we evaluated the expressions of CD163, c-Met, and serum free light chain (sFLC) in relation to the clinicopathological features of patients with advanced classical HL (cHL). We assessed the expression of CD163 and c-Met in 34 patients with cHL through immunohistochemistry on the lymph node biopsy sections and the levels of pretreatment sFLC were estimated using ELISA. High CD163 expression correlated with increased age, B symptoms, International Prognostic Score (IPS) ≥3, mixed cellularity subtype, and low response to treatment. Further, high c-Met expression correlated with increased age at diagnosis, leukocytosis, B symptoms, and lower chance to achieve complete remission. The sFLC levels correlated with increased age at diagnosis, lymphopenia, IPS ≥3, B symptoms, and lower complete remission rates. In advanced cHL, increased expression of CD163 and c-Met showed a significant association with adverse prognostic parameters and poor response to treatment. Pretreatment high sFLC level also correlated with poor risk factors, suggesting its use as a candidate prognostic marker. A comprehensive approach for prognostic markers might represent a step towards developing a tailored therapeutic approach for HL.

  11. Serum Immunoglobulin Free Light Chain Assessment in IgG4-Related Disease

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    Aurélie Grados

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin free light chains are produced in excess during normal antibody synthesis. Their evaluation is commonly used in case of a monoclonal gammopathy. In polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia related to the Sjögren syndrome or systemic lupus, erythematosus serum free light chain levels are increased and could correlate with disease activity. We show here that the κ ( and λ ( free light chains and the κ : λ ratio ( are increased in sixteen patients with IgG4-related disease when compared to healthy controls. The increase of κ and λ free light chains probably reflects the marked polyclonal B cell activation of the disease. We could not assess in this small cohort of patients a significative correlation of serum free light chain levels and disease activity or extension.

  12. Light Chain Escape in 3 Cases: Evidence of Intraclonal Heterogeneity in Multiple Myeloma from a Single Institution in Poland.

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    Kraj, Maria; Kruk, Barbara; Endean, Kelly; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Budziszewska, Katarzyna; Dąbrowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    We report three cases of light chain escape (LCE) at a single institution in Poland, including an interesting case of biclonal monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) that satisfied the criteria for progression to light chain multiple myeloma (LCMM) with a rapid rise in serum free light chain (FLC) levels, following steroidal treatment for simultaneous temporal artery inflammation and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). In the three cases discussed, progression of the disease by light chain escape was associated with rapid and severe renal impairment, highlighting the necessity for prompt detection of such free light chain-only producing clones in order to prevent the possible development of irreversible end-organ damage. Interestingly, monitoring of these three patients by serum free light chain assay (sFLC) and retrospective heavy/light chain analysis (HLC) detected this clonal evolution prior to clinical relapse and suggests that these assays represent important additional tools for more accurate monitoring of multiple myeloma patients.

  13. Localized Lymph Node Light Chain Amyloidosis

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    Binod Dhakal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin-derived light chain amyloidosis can occasionally be associated with localized disease. We present a patient with localized lymph node light chain amyloidosis without an underlying monoclonal protein or lymphoproliferative disorder and review the literature of lymph node amyloidosis discussing work-up and risk factors for systemic progression.

  14. Intratubular amyloid in light chain cast nephropathy is a risk factor for systemic light chain amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibier, Jean-Baptiste; Gnemmi, Viviane; Glowacki, François; Boyle, Eileen M; Lopez, Benjamin; MacNamara, Evelyne; Hoffmann, Maxime; Azar, Raymond; Guincestre, Thomas; Bourdon, Franck; Copin, Marie-Christine; Buob, David

    2017-10-20

    Light chain cast nephropathy is the most common form of kidney disease in patients with multiple myeloma. Light chain casts may occasionally show amyloid staining properties, that is, green birefringence after Congo red staining. The frequency and clinical significance of this intratubular amyloid are poorly understood. Here, we retrospectively assessed the clinicopathological features of 60 patients with histologically proven light chain cast nephropathy with a specific emphasis on intratubular amyloid, especially, its association with extrarenal systemic light chain amyloidosis. We found intratubular amyloid in 17 cases (17/60, 28%) and it was more frequent in patients with λ light chain gammopathy (13/17 in the 'intratubular amyloid' group vs 19/43 in the 'no intratubular amyloid' group, P=0.02). Pathological examination of extrarenal specimens showed that intratubular amyloid was significantly associated with the occurrence of systemic light chain amyloidosis (5/13 in the 'intratubular amyloid' group vs 0/30 in the 'no intratubular amyloid' group, P=0.001). Our results indicate that first, intratubular amyloid is not a rare finding in kidney biopsies of patients with light chain cast nephropathy, and, second, it reflects an amyloidogenic capacity of light chains that can manifest as systemic light chain amyloidosis. Thus, intratubular amyloid should be systematically screened for in kidney biopsies from patients with light chain cast nephropathy and, if detected, should prompt a work-up for associated systemic light chain amyloidosis.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 20 October 2017; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2017.124.

  15. Serum-free cell culture: the serum-free media interactive online database.

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    Brunner, Daniel; Frank, Jürgen; Appl, Helmut; Schöffl, Harald; Pfaller, Walter; Gstraunthaler, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is a ubiquitously used essential supplement in cell culture media. However, there are serious scientific and ethical concerns about the use of FBS regarding its harvest and production. During the last three decades, FBS could be substituted by other supplements or by the use of defined chemical components in serum-free cell culture. A number of serum-free medium formulations have been described for mammalian and insect cell lines as well as for primary cultures. However, the switch to serum-free media still demands a time-consuming literature survey and a manufacturer search for appropriate medium formulations, respectively. Here we present the second collection of commercially available serum-free media in an updated, freely accessible interactive online database. Searches for serum-free media and continuous cell lines already adapted to serum-free culture can be performed according to various criteria. These include the degree of chemical definition, e.g. serum-free (SF), animal-derived component free (ADCF) or chemically defined (CD), and the type of medium, e.g. basal media, medium supplements, or full replacement media. In order to specify the cell lines that are adapted to serum-free media, search terms like species, organ, tissue, cell type and disease can be used. All commercially available serum-free media and adapted cell lines currently available from major distributors (e.g. ATCC, ECACC and DMSZ) are included in the database. Despite an extensive search for serum-free media and adapted cell lines, detailed information from certain companies and suppliers is still lacking and is specifically highlighted. It is intended to create a platform for the interactive exchange of information and experience by experts in the field in order to continuously improve and extend the serum-free online database. The database is accessible at http://www.goodcellculture.com/

  16. Red light-controlled polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A; Schikora, Margot; Mokhir, A

    2015-09-04

    A 23-mer DNA "caged" at its 3'-terminus with a 9-anthracenyl moiety was prepared. It can be uncaged in the presence of photosensitizer (In(pyropheophorbide-a)chloride)-containing DNAs (9-12 mers) and upon irradiation with red light. This mixture of DNAs was used to design red-light controlled polymerase chain reaction.

  17. Structural repertoire of immunoglobulin λ light chains

    KAUST Repository

    Chailyan, Anna

    2011-03-01

    The immunoglobulin λ isotype is present in nearly all vertebrates and plays an important role in the human immune system. Despite its importance, few systematic studies have been performed to analyze the structural conformation of its variable regions, contrary to what is the case for κ and heavy chains. We show here that an analysis of the structures of λ chains allows the definition of a discrete set of recurring conformations (canonical structures) of their hypervariable loops and, most importantly, the identification of sequence constraints that can be used to predict their structure. We also show that the structural repertoire of λ chains is different and more varied than that of the κ chains, consistently with the current view of the involvement of the two major light-chain families in complementary strategies of the immune system to ensure a fine tuning between diversity and stability in antigen recognition. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Strengths and weaknesses of methods for identifying monoclonal free light chains of Ig: examples from two cases with renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Stanley S

    2016-06-01

    Serum free light chain (FLC) analysis with ratio and urine immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) are both available for routine use in helping to detect plasma cell dyscrasia and related diseases. Case reports showing one serum positive for serum FLC but that showed a hook effect and overestimated the amount of monoclonal FLC while urine IFE was negative for Bence Jones protein, and a second serum that showed elevated FLC κ and λ but a normal κ/λ ratio, while urine IFE was positive for Bence Jones protein. These two techniques complement one another. Neither of the techniques is truly quantitative, and both exhibit methodological defects.

  19. Systemic Light Chain Amyloidosis Mimicking Rheumatic Disorders

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    Rohit R. Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary amyloidosis can complicate chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases. However, the clinical findings of primary amyloidosis may mimic those of primary rheumatologic disorders. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman who presented with dystrophic nail changes, dry eyes, bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome, Raynaud’s phenomenon, and high titer positive nucleolar pattern antinuclear antibody. She was initially misdiagnosed as having Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD. On further workup, she was eventually diagnosed with lambda light chain systemic amyloidosis by abdominal fat pad biopsy. Her symptoms completely resolved after autologous stem cell transplantation. With this case, we would like to highlight the similarities in the clinical features between light chain amyloidosis and rheumatological disorders. We would also like to emphasize the importance of the prompt recognition of the clinical features of amyloidosis which are crucial to triggering appropriate diagnostic procedures, since early diagnosis is a key to improving outcomes in this disease with an otherwise poor prognosis.

  20. Treatment of Light Chain Deposition Disease Using Bortezomib-Based Regimen Followed by Thalidomide-Based Regimen in a Saudi Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bappa Adamu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Light chain deposition disease (LCDD is a rare illness with, as yet, no clear evidence-based guidelines for its treatment. To the best of our knowledge, LCDD has not been previously reported from Saudi Arabia. We present in this report, a 38-year-old Saudi male who presented with clinical features suggestive of hypertensive nephropathy but kidney biopsy later revealed the diagnosis of LCDD. His serum creatinine at presentation was 297 μmol/L which came down to 194 μmol/L on treatment with Bortezomib, Cyclophosphamide and Dexamethasone. His 24-hour protein excretion at presentation was 6 g/L which also came down to less than 1 g/day. He was later placed on Cyclophosphamide, Thalidomide, and Dexamethasone regimen because of persistent high titres of serum free light chains. He went into remission with undetectable serum free light chains and remained so for three years at the time of writing this report. We conclude that LCDD, though rare, does occur in Saudi population. The treatment of LCDD is challenging but the use of Bortezomib, a proteosome inhibitor, is promising. However, suboptimal response may require further treatment with other therapeutic options such as chemotherapy with alkylating agents or high-dose Melphalan with autologous stem cell transplant.

  1. Lung transplantation for advanced cystic lung disease due to nonamyloid kappa light chain deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, Sandrine; Colombat, Magali; Kessler, Romain; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Stern, Marc; Chenard, Marie Pierre; Métivier, Anne-Cécile; Jeung, Mi-Young; Mal, Hervé

    2014-09-01

    Cystic lung light chain deposition disease (LCDD) is a severe and rare form of nonamyloid kappa light chain deposits localized in the lung, potentially leading to end-stage respiratory insufficiency. To assess the outcome after lung transplantation (LT) in this setting with particular attention to disease recurrence. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study of seven patients who underwent LT for cystic lung LCDD in France between September 1992 and June 2012 in five centers. In total, five females and two males (mean age, 39.1 ± 5.3 yr) underwent one single LT or seven double LT (one retransplantation). Before LT, the patients showed a constant obstructive ventilatory pattern with low carbon monoxide diffusing capacity and resting hypoxemia. Lung computed tomography revealed widespread cysts with occasional micronodulations. No extrapulmonary disease or plasma cell neoplasm was detected. The serum-free kappa/lambda light chain ratio was increased in three cases. The median follow-up after LT was 56 months (range, 1-110 mo). Kaplan-Meier survival was 85.7, 85.7, and 64.3% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Three patients died from multiorgan failure (n = 1), chronic rejection (n = 1), and breast cancer (n = 1) at 23 days, 56 months, and 96 months, respectively. At the end of follow-up, no patients showed recurrence on imaging or histopathology. This small case series confirms that cystic lung LCDD is a severe disease limited to the lung, affecting mostly young females. LT appears to be a good therapeutic option allowing for satisfactory long-term survival. We found no evidence of recurrence of the disease after LT.

  2. Antibody elbow angles are influenced by their light chain class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanfield, R; Zemla, A; Wilson, I; Rupp, B

    2006-01-12

    We have examined the elbow angles for 365 different Fab fragments, and observe that Fabs with lambda light chains have adopted a wider range of elbow angles than their kappa-chain counterparts, and that the lambda light chain Fabs are frequently found with very large (>195{sup o}) elbow angles. This apparent hyperflexibility of lambda-chain Fabs may be due to an insertion in their switch region, which is one residue longer than in kappa chains, with glycine occurring most frequently at the insertion position. A new, web-based computer program that was used to calculate the Fab elbow angles is also described.

  3. Recurrence of light-chain deposition disease after renal transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Hammer, Anne; Jørgensen, Kaj Anker

    2008-01-01

    A 51-year-old male with a history of chronic renal disease received a renal allograft, in which disease recurred. Light-chain deposition disease was confirmed through biopsies of the native kidney and graft, and detection of free kappa light chains in serum. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep-6...

  4. Characterization of myosin light chain in shrimp hemocytic phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fang; Wang, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2010-11-01

    Myosin light chain, a well-known cytoskeleton gene, regulates multiple processes that are involved in material transport, muscle shrink and cell division. However, its function in phagocytosis against invading pathogens in crustacean remains unknown. In this investigation, a myosin light chain gene was obtained from Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp. The full-length cDNA of this gene was of 766 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 462 bp encoding a polypeptide of 153 amino acids. The myosin light chain protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Subsequently the specific antibody was raised using the purified GST fusion protein. As revealed by immuno-electron microscopy, the myosin light chain protein was only expressed in the dark bands of muscle. In the present study, the myosin light chain gene was up-regulated in the WSSV-resistant shrimp as revealed by real-time PCR and western blot. And the phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index using FITC-labeled Vibrio parahemolyticus were remarkably increased in the WSSV-resistant shrimp, suggesting that the myosin light chain protein was essential in hemocytic phagocytosis. On the other hand, RNAi assays indicated that the phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index were significantly decreased when the myosin light chain gene was silenced by sequence-specific siRNA. These findings suggested that myosin light chain protein was involved in the regulation of hemocytic phagocytosis of shrimp. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Formation of amyloid fibers by monomeric light chain variable domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumshtein, Boris; Esswein, Shannon R; Landau, Meytal; Ryan, Christopher M; Whitelegge, Julian P; Phillips, Martin L; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R; Eisenberg, David S

    2014-10-03

    Systemic light chain amyloidosis is a lethal disease characterized by excess immunoglobulin light chains and light chain fragments composed of variable domains, which aggregate into amyloid fibers. These fibers accumulate and damage organs. Some light chains induce formation of amyloid fibers, whereas others do not, making it unclear what distinguishes amyloid formers from non-formers. One mechanism by which sequence variation may reduce propensity to form amyloid fibers is by shifting the equilibrium toward an amyloid-resistant quaternary structure. Here we identify the monomeric form of the Mcg immunoglobulin light chain variable domain as the quaternary unit required for amyloid fiber assembly. Dimers of Mcg variable domains remain stable and soluble, yet become prone to assemble into amyloid fibers upon disassociation into monomers. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Light scattering of thin azobenzene side-chain polyester layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Á.; Lörincz, E.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    Light scattering properties of liquid crystalline and amorphous azobenzene side-chain polyester layers used for optical data storage were examined by means of transmissive scatterometry. Comparative experiments show that the amorphous polyester has significantly lower light scattering characteris...... for the domain size in thin liquid crystalline polyester layers being responsible for the dominant light scattering. The characteristic domain Sizes obtained from the Fourier transformation of polarization microscopic Pictures confirm these values.......Light scattering properties of liquid crystalline and amorphous azobenzene side-chain polyester layers used for optical data storage were examined by means of transmissive scatterometry. Comparative experiments show that the amorphous polyester has significantly lower light scattering...... characteristics than the liquid crystalline polyester. The amorphous samples have negligible polarization part orthogonal to the incident beam. the liquid crystalline samples have relative high orthogonal polarization part in light scattering, The light scattering results can be used to give a lower limit...

  7. Association between low serum free testosterone and adverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The association of serum free testosterone (FT) with prostate cancer is not fully understood. Studies on the results of the relationship between serum testosterone level and prostate cancer are conflicting. However, there is a reported association between lower serum testosterone levels and high-grade prostate ...

  8. Can serum free fatty acids assessment predict severe preeclampsia?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermeen Saad El Beltagy

    2011-10-20

    Oct 20, 2011 ... Abstract Objective: To estimate the relation between serum free fatty acids (FFAs) and severe preeclampsia in Egypt. Methods: Twenty cases with severe preeclampsia (blood pressure P 160/110 after 20th week of ges- tation and proteinuria P 2.5 gm/24 h urine) were matched with 20 normotensive ...

  9. [Research Advance in Light Chain Escape of Multiple Myeloma -Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian-Chuan; Ding, Jin-Ya

    2017-12-01

    More than 80% of patients with MM is present as intact monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig). Usually, the patients with intact immunoglobulin MM (IIMM) show parallel fluctuations of their intact Ig and FLCs or BJP. In the era of novel agents, including thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib, the natural disease development and classic relapse patterns have been changed, the relapse was characterized by an increase in sFLC or BJP without a corresponding increase in paraprotein level, a phenomenon termed "light chain escape", indicates a worse outcome in patients with MM. This review focuses on the mechanism, clinical significance and early diagnosis of light chain escape.

  10. [Serum-free culture of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Li, Dan; Chen, Guang-Hua; Wang, Yi

    2013-10-01

    This study was purposed to observe the culture of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSC) with serum-free medium, and compared it with the medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The normal umbilical cords were acquired during cesarean section, and then were cultured with MesenCult-XF serum-free medium or medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The morphology, immunophenotype, cell cycle, proliferation and differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells and the inhibition of mixed lymphocyte reaction were observed through different medium culture method. The results showed that the MSC cultured with serum-free MesenCult(-)XF medium could transfer and multiply for average of 6.57 ± 0.7 times, and the serum medium-cultured MSC could transfer and multiply for average of 4.59 ± 0.45 times (P cultured MSC all expressed CD44, CD90, CD73, CD105 antigen, but did not expressed CD31, CD45, HLA-DR and CD34 antigen, and their expression levels were not significantly different. The serum-free medium-cultured MSC (65 ± 5.2%) were all at Go/G1 phase, and the serum-contained medium-cultured MSC (62+3.1%) were at Go/G1 phase(P > 0.05); the 2 kinds of media-cultured MSC all could differentiate into fat and ossification; when serum-free medium cultured umbilical cord MSC were inoculated at the the density of 10(3), 5×10(3), 10(4), and 2×10(4) cells/well, then co-cultured with the reactant and stimulating cells, the CPM were (6.43 ± 0.47)×10(4), (4.30 ± 0.38)×10(4), (1.97 ± 0.13)×10(4) and (0.24 ± 0.03)×10(4), respectively, and the serum-containing medium-cultured MSC were incubated with different density of mixed lymphocyte, displaying CPM that were (7.85 ± 0.07)×10(4), (5.64 ± 0.12)×10(4), (3.09 ± 0.18)×10(4) and (1.73 ± 0.05)×10(4). It is concluded that the serum-free medium has been confirmed to culture MSC, which have potential of transfer and differentiation with count for clinical application, and can avoid foreign protein

  11. Immunoglobulin light chain allelic inclusion in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Louise D; Zhao, Yuan; Lutalo, Pamela M K; D'Cruz, David P; Cason, John; Silva, Joselli S; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K; Nayar, Saba; Cope, Andrew P; Spencer, Jo

    2015-08-01

    The principles of allelic exclusion state that each B cell expresses a single light and heavy chain pair. Here, we show that B cells with both kappa and lambda light chains (Igκ and Igλ) are enriched in some patients with the systemic autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but not in the systemic autoimmune disease control granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Detection of dual Igκ and Igλ expression by flow cytometry could not be abolished by acid washing or by DNAse treatment to remove any bound polyclonal antibody or complexes, and was retained after two days in culture. Both surface and intracytoplasmic dual light chain expression was evident by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. We observed reduced frequency of rearrangements of the kappa-deleting element (KDE) in SLE and an inverse correlation between the frequency of KDE rearrangement and the frequency of dual light chain expressing B cells. We propose that dual expression of Igκ and Igλ by a single B cell may occur in some patients with SLE when this may be a consequence of reduced activity of the KDE. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Differential recruitment efficacy of patient-derived amyloidogenic and myeloma light chain proteins by synthetic fibrils-A metric for predicting amyloid propensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B Martin

    Full Text Available Monoclonal free light chain (LC proteins are present in the circulation of patients with immunoproliferative disorders such as light chain (AL amyloidosis and multiple myeloma (MM. Light chain-associated amyloid is a complex pathology composed of proteinaceous fibrils and extracellular matrix proteins found in all patients with AL and in ~10-30% of patients who presented with MM. Amyloid deposits systemically in multiple organs and tissues leading to dysfunction and ultimately death. The overall survival of patients with amyloidosis is worse than for those with early stage MM.We have developed a sensitive binding assay quantifying the recruitment of full length, patient-derived LC proteins by synthetic amyloid fibrils, as a method for studying their amyloidogenic potential. In a survey of eight urinary LC, both AL and MM-associated proteins were recruited by synthetic amyloid fibrils; however, AL-associated LC bound significantly more efficiently (p < 0.05 than did MM LCs. The LC proteins used in this study were isolated from urine and presumed to represent a surrogate of serum free light chains.The binding of LC to synthetic fibrils in this assay accurately differentiated LC with amyloidogenic propensity from MM LC that were not associated with clinical amyloid disease. Notably, the LC from a MM patient who subsequently developed amyloid behaved as an AL-associated protein in the assay, indicating the possibility for identifying MM patients at risk for developing amyloidosis based on the light chain recruitment efficacy. With this information, at risk patients can be monitored more closely for the development of amyloidosis, allowing timely administration of novel, amyloid-directed immunotherapies-this approach may improve the prognosis for these patients.

  13. Intrathecal synthesis of free immunoglobulin light chains in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, M; Schaldemose Nielsen, H; Jensen, J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The detection of oligoclonal immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC) in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) was compared to IgG isoelectric focusing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from 69 patients with possible first attacks of MS, 50 patients...... detection proved as useful as IgG analysis for the laboratory diagnosis of MS whereas the presence of intrathecal lambda FLC synthesis was less specific....

  14. Light Chain Amyloid Fibrils Cause Metabolic Dysfunction in Human Cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen P McWilliams-Koeppen

    Full Text Available Light chain (AL amyloidosis is the most common form of systemic amyloid disease, and cardiomyopathy is a dire consequence, resulting in an extremely poor prognosis. AL is characterized by the production of monoclonal free light chains that deposit as amyloid fibrils principally in the heart, liver, and kidneys causing organ dysfunction. We have studied the effects of amyloid fibrils, produced from recombinant λ6 light chain variable domains, on metabolic activity of human cardiomyocytes. The data indicate that fibrils at 0.1 μM, but not monomer, significantly decrease the enzymatic activity of cellular NAD(PH-dependent oxidoreductase, without causing significant cell death. The presence of amyloid fibrils did not affect ATP levels; however, oxygen consumption was increased and reactive oxygen species were detected. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that fibrils bound to and remained at the cell surface with little fibril internalization. These data indicate that AL amyloid fibrils severely impair cardiomyocyte metabolism in a dose dependent manner. These data suggest that effective therapeutic intervention for these patients should include methods for removing potentially toxic amyloid fibrils.

  15. Light chain (AL amyloidosis: update on diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenzweig Michael

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Light chain (AL amyloidosis is a plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by the pathologic production of fibrillar proteins comprised of monoclonal light chains which deposit in tissues and cause organ dysfunction. The diagnosis can be challenging, requiring a biopsy and often specialized testing to confirm the subtype of systemic disease. The goal of treatment is eradication of the monoclonal plasma cell population and suppression of the pathologic light chains which can result in organ improvement and extend patient survival. Standard treatment approaches include high dose melphalan (HDM followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT or oral melphalan with dexamethasone (MDex. The use of novel agents (thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib alone and in combination with steroids and alkylating agents has shown efficacy and continues to be explored. A risk adapted approach to SCT followed by novel agents as consolidation reduces treatment related mortality with promising outcomes. Immunotherapeutic approaches targeting pathologic plasma cells and amyloid precursor proteins or fibrils are being developed. Referral of patients to specialized centers focusing on AL amyloidosis and conducting clinical trials is essential to improving patient outcomes.

  16. Serum-free hybridoma culture: ethical, scientific and safety considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Megha S; Sandusky, Chad B; Barnard, Neal D

    2006-03-01

    Despite considerable progress in the development of cell culture techniques, including the development of the serum- and protein-free media that now routinely support hybridoma and mammalian cell growth, fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplemented media are still commonly used: a practice that raises ethical, scientific and safety concerns. The use of FBS in hybridoma culture media is examined here, with regards to the development and production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and it is our recommendation that researchers adopt serum-free cell culture methods to reduce animal use in this area.

  17. Super-light Structures with Pearl-chain Reinforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Bagger, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Steel structures are considered to be light compared to concrete structures. This paper presents a newly invented type of structure which is often light compared to steel structures, and therefore it is called "Super-light Structures", or SLS. The basic idea of SLS is to build a skeleton...... of prefabricated segments of a strong material, assembled by one or more prestressing wires. By means of pearl-chain reinforcement, it becomes affordable to provide structures with a wide variety of shapes. This allows a more resource-economical design, because it removes practical hindrances for application...... and maintenance, and increased safety for fire, earthquake, and explosions. This moves the limits for resource economic buildings, and enables great architectural freedom. This paper presents the new patented technology and possible applications of it....

  18. Laser chain alignment with low power local light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, E.S.; Feldman, M.; Murray, J.E.; Vann, C.S.

    1995-07-07

    Timely and repeatable alignment of the 192 beam National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser will require an automatic system. Demanding accuracy requirements must be met with high reliability at low cost while minimizing the turnaround time between shots. We describe an approach for internally self-consistent alignment of the mirrors in the laser chains using a network of local light sources that serve as near field and far field alignment references. It incorporates a minimum number of alignment lasers, handles many beams in parallel, and utilizes simple control algorithms.

  19. Expression of heavy chain-only antibodies can support B-cell development in light chain knockout chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schusser, Benjamin; Collarini, Ellen J; Pedersen, Darlene; Yi, Henry; Ching, Kathryn; Izquierdo, Shelley; Thoma, Theresa; Lettmann, Sarah; Kaspers, Bernd; Etches, Robert J; van de Lavoir, Marie-Cecile; Harriman, William; Leighton, Philip A

    2016-09-01

    Since the discovery of antibody-producing B cells in chickens six decades ago, chickens have been a model for B-cell development in gut-associated lymphoid tissue species. Here we describe targeting of the immunoglobulin light chain locus by homologous recombination in chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) and generation of VJCL knockout chickens. In contrast to immunoglobulin heavy chain knockout chickens, which completely lack mature B cells, homozygous light chain knockout (IgL(-/-) ) chickens have a small population of B lineage cells that develop in the bursa and migrate to the periphery. This population of B cells expresses the immunoglobulin heavy chain molecule on the cell surface. Soluble heavy-chain-only IgM and IgY proteins of reduced molecular weight were detectable in plasma in 4-week-old IgL(-/-) chickens, and antigen-specific IgM and IgY heavy chain proteins were produced in response to immunization. Circulating heavy-chain-only IgM showed a deletion of the CH1 domain of the constant region enabling the immunoglobulin heavy chain to be secreted in the absence of the light chain. Our data suggest that the heavy chain by itself is enough to support all the important steps in B-cell development in a gut-associated lymphoid tissue species. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Serum free cortisol fraction in healthy and septic neonatal foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K A; Barton, M H; Ferguson, D C; Berghaus, R; Slovis, N M; Heusner, G L; Hurley, D J

    2011-01-01

    Relative cortisol insufficiency occurs in septic foals and impacts survival. Serum free (biologically available) cortisol concentration might be a better indicator of physiologic cortisol status than serum total cortisol concentration in foals. In septic foals, (1) low free cortisol concentration correlates with disease severity and survival and (2) predicts disease severity and outcome better than total cortisol concentration. Fifty-one septic foals; 11 healthy foals; 6 healthy horses. In this prospective clinical study, foals meeting criteria for sepsis at admission were enrolled. University-owned animals served as healthy controls. Basal and cosyntropin-stimulated total cortisol concentration and percent free cortisol (% free cortisol) were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay and ultrafiltration/ligand-binding methods, respectively. Group data were compared by ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U-tests, and receiver operator characteristic curves. Significance was set at P cortisol was highest in healthy foals at birth (58 ± 8% mean ± SD), and was higher (P ≤ .004) in healthy foals of all ages (33 ± 6 to 58 ± 8%) than in adult horses (7 ± 3%). Cosyntropin-stimulated total and free cortisol concentrations were lower (P ≤ .03) in foals with shock (total = 6.2 ± 8.1 μg/dL; free = 3.5 ± 4.8 μg/dL versus total = 10.8 ± 6.0 μg/dL; free = 6.9 ± 3.3 μg/dL in foals without shock) and in nonsurvivors (total = 3.8 ± 6.9 μg/dL; free = 1.9 ± 3.9 μg/dL versus total = 9.1 ± 7.7 μg/dL; free = 5.5 ± 4.4 μg/dL in survivors). Free cortisol was no better than total cortisol at predicting disease severity or outcome in septic foals. Serum free cortisol is impacted by age and illness in the horse. There is no advantage to measuring free over total cortisol in septic foals. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Enhancing lean supply chain through traffic light quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mazharul Islam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lean is a continuous journey to grow and excel the company. Any company want to develop and cope with the world pace must adopt lean. However, in most of the organizations the management culture or people’s mentality is not so good to embrace change. They have predestined mind set where no change is normally allowed. Lean is a cooperative way of working that involves all departments and all personnel to work together in a team for the betterment of the entire company. Without providing fixed solution of any problem it suggests the best way that people willingly accept to do. Lean normally deals with highest quality, shorter lead time and lowest cost. In Bangladesh, most of the garment manufacturing companies are experiencing a massive quality problem. We describe a case where traffic light, a tool of lean quality system was adopted to a garment manufacturing company in Bangladesh. We also provide the charts to contrast the before and after scenario in detail, in order to illustrate the company benefits. After the traffic light system being implemented, the quality status was improved, production capacity was increased; significant days were saved that enhanced the lead time and thus strengthen the supply chain.

  2. An enzyme immunoassay to quantify neurofilament light chain in cerebrospinal fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geel, W.J.A. van; Rosengren, L.E.; Verbeek, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Neurofilament light chain is a component of the axonal cytoskeleton. The concentration of the neurofilament light chain in cerebrospinal fluid may reflect axonal damage or the extent of white matter damage. In this study we describe a sensitive immunoassay for the detection of neurofilament light

  3. In vitro generation of monocyte-derived macrophages under serum-free conditions improves their tumor promoting functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Rey-Giraud

    Full Text Available The tumor promoting role of M2 macrophages has been described in in vivo models and the presence of macrophages in certain tumor types has been linked to a poor clinical outcome. In light of burgeoning activities to clinically develop new therapies targeting tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs, reliable in vitro models faithfully mimicking the tumor promoting functions of TAMs are required. Generation and activation of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM in vitro, described as M1 or M2 macrophages attributed with tumoricidal or tumor-promoting functions, respectively, has been widely reported using mainly serum containing culture methods. In this study, we compared the properties of macrophages originating from monocytes cultured either in media containing serum together with M-CSF for M2 and GM-CSF for M1 macrophages or in serum-free media supplemented with M-CSF or GM-CSF and cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10 to induce activated M2 or LPS together with IFN-γ to generate activated M1 phenotype. We observed differences in cell morphology as well as increased surface receptor expression levels in serum-containing culture whereas similar or higher cytokine production levels were detected under serum-free culture conditions. More importantly, MDM differentiated under serum-free conditions displayed enhanced tumoricidal activity for M1 and tumor promoting property for M2 macrophages in contrast to MDM differentiated in the presence of serum. Moreover, evaluation of MDM phagocytic activity in serum free condition resulted in greater phagocytic properties of M2 compared to M1. Our data therefore confirm the tumor promoting properties of M2 macrophages in vitro and encourage the targeting of TAMs for cancer therapy.

  4. Variable domain structure of {kappa}IV human light chain len : high homology to the murine light chain McPC603.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, D.-B.; Chang, C.-H.; Ainsworth, C.; Johnson, G.; Solomon, A.; Stevens, F. J.; Schiffer, M.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Tennessee Medical Center

    1997-12-01

    Antibody light chains of the {kappa} subgroup are the predominant light chain component in human immune responses and are used almost exclusively in the antibody repertoire of mice. Human {kappa} light chains comprise four subgroups. To date, all crystallographic studies of human {kappa} light chains were carried out on proteins of the {kappa}I subgroup. The light chain produced by multiple myeloma patient Len, was of the {kappa}IV subgroup, it differed by only one residue from the germ-line gene encoded protein. The variable domain fragment of the light chain was crystallized from ammonium sulfate in space group C222{sub 1}. The crystal structure was determined by molecular replacement and refined at 1.95 Angstrom resolution to an R-factor of 0.15. Protein Len has six additional residues in its CDR1 segment compared to the {kappa}I proteins previously characterized. The {kappa}IV variable domain. Len, differs in only 23 of 113 residues from murine {kappa} light chain McPC603. The RMS deviation upon superimposing their {alpha}-carbons was 0.69 Angstrom. The CDR1 segment of the human and murine variable domains have the same length and conformation although their amino acid sequences differ in 5 out of 17 residues. Structural features were identified that could account for the significantly higher stability of the human {kappa}IV protein relative to its murine counterpart. This human {kappa}IV light chain structure is the closest human homolog to a murine light chain and can be expected to facilitate detailed structural comparisons necessary for effective humanization of murine antibodies.

  5. Surface-mediated light transmission in metal nanoparticle chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compaijen, P. Jasper; Malyshev, Victor A.; Knoester, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    We study theoretically the efficiency of the transmission of optical signals through a linear chain consisting of identical and equidistantly spaced silver metal nanoparticles. Two situations are compared: the transmission efficiency through an isolated chain and through a chain in close proximity

  6. Light Chain (AL) Amyloidosis: The Journey to Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCausland, Kristen L; White, Michelle K; Guthrie, Spencer D; Quock, Tiffany; Finkel, Muriel; Lousada, Isabelle; Bayliss, Martha S

    2017-08-14

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare, complex disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Delays in diagnosis are common and may have detrimental consequences on patients' prognosis. Too little is known regarding the patient journey to diagnosis. The objective of this study was to describe the patient-reported journey to a correct diagnosis for AL amyloidosis. Using a mixed-methods approach, data were collected from clinician (n = 4) and patient (n = 10) interviews and a survey of community-based patients with AL amyloidosis (n = 341). Data were used to document the patient experience between the onset of symptoms and the receipt of a diagnosis. Delays in diagnosis were common. Qualitative and quantitative data indicated that initial symptoms were varied and similar to other more prevalent diseases. Two themes regarding the journey to diagnosis emerged: (1) barriers to an early diagnosis; and (2) the emotional toll of the journey. Time to diagnosis was heavily influenced by how patients interpreted their initial symptoms, whether they sought early medical help, and challenges associated with making differential diagnoses. Survey results indicate that patients with primary cardiac involvement were more likely to receive a delayed diagnosis than those with primary kidney involvement. Patients described mixed emotions associated with the eventual diagnosis of AL amyloidosis. These data support a need for better early identification and support for patients seeking a diagnosis. Increasing clinician awareness may reduce the time to diagnosis. Additional research is needed to identify optimal diagnostic testing to reduce delays in treatment initiation and subsequent severe impacts on health.

  7. Assessment of Intrathecal Free Light Chain Synthesis: Comparison of Different Quantitative Methods with the Detection of Oligoclonal Free Light Chains by Isoelectric Focusing and Affinity-Mediated Immunoblotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, David; Kušnierová, Pavlína; Švagera, Zdeněk; Všianský, František; Byrtusová, Monika; Hradílek, Pavel; Kurková, Barbora; Zapletalová, Olga; Bartoš, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare various methods for free light chain (fLC) quantitation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum and to determine whether quantitative CSF measurements could reliably predict intrathecal fLC synthesis. In addition, we wished to determine the relationship between free kappa and free lambda light chain concentrations in CSF and serum in various disease groups. We analysed 166 paired CSF and serum samples by at least one of the following methods: turbidimetry (Freelite™, SPAPLUS), nephelometry (N Latex FLC™, BN ProSpec), and two different (commercially available and in-house developed) sandwich ELISAs. The results were compared with oligoclonal fLC detected by affinity-mediated immunoblotting after isoelectric focusing. Although the correlations between quantitative methods were good, both proportional and systematic differences were discerned. However, no major differences were observed in the prediction of positive oligoclonal fLC test. Surprisingly, CSF free kappa/free lambda light chain ratios were lower than those in serum in about 75% of samples with negative oligoclonal fLC test. In about a half of patients with multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome, profoundly increased free kappa/free lambda light chain ratios were found in the CSF. Our results show that using appropriate method-specific cut-offs, different methods of CSF fLC quantitation can be used for the prediction of intrathecal fLC synthesis. The reason for unexpectedly low free kappa/free lambda light chain ratios in normal CSFs remains to be elucidated. Whereas CSF free kappa light chain concentration is increased in most patients with multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome, CSF free lambda light chain values show large interindividual variability in these patients and should be investigated further for possible immunopathological and prognostic significance.

  8. Increased neurofilament light chain blood levels in neurodegenerative neurological diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Gaiottino

    Full Text Available Neuronal damage is the morphological substrate of persisting neurological disability. Neurofilaments (Nf are cytoskeletal proteins of neurons and their release into cerebrospinal fluid has shown encouraging results as a biomarker for neurodegeneration. This study aimed to validate the quantification of the Nf light chain (NfL in blood samples, as a biofluid source easily accessible for longitudinal studies.We developed and applied a highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL based immunoassay for quantification of NfL in blood and CSF.Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD (30.8 pg/ml, n=20, Guillain-Barré-syndrome (GBS (79.4 pg/ml, n=19 or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS (95.4 pg/ml, n=46 had higher serum NfL values than a control group of neurological patients without evidence of structural CNS damage (control patients, CP (4.4 pg/ml, n=68, p<0.0001 for each comparison, p=0.002 for AD patients and healthy controls (HC (3.3 pg/ml, n=67, p<0.0001. Similar differences were seen in corresponding CSF samples. CSF and serum levels correlated in AD (r=0.48, p=0.033, GBS (r=0.79, p<0.0001 and ALS (r=0.70, p<0.0001, but not in CP (r=0.11, p=0.3739. The sensitivity and specificity of serum NfL for separating ALS from healthy controls was 91.3% and 91.0%.We developed and validated a novel ECL based sandwich immunoassay for the NfL protein in serum (NfL(Umea47:3; levels in ALS were more than 20-fold higher than in controls. Our data supports further longitudinal studies of serum NfL in neurodegenerative diseases as a potential biomarker of on-going disease progression, and as a potential surrogate to quantify effects of neuroprotective drugs in clinical trials.

  9. Spectroscopic properties of light-chain derivatives of murine MOPC-315 immunoglobulin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zidovetzki, R; Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1981-01-01

    Three light-chain derivatives of the homogeneous IgA, secreted by the mouse myeloma MOPC-315, were studied employing circular dichroism and thermal-perturbation spectroscopy: (a) the light-chain dimer with intact native inter-chain disulfide bond, L2,cov; (b) the light-chain dimer with this bond...... reduced and alkylated, L2,ncov; and (c) the dimer of only the variable regions of the light chains, (VL)2. Comparison of the well resolved circular dichroism spectra of these derivatives allowed the assignments of the bands above 290 nm to the following chromophores: Trp-35L and Trp-91L in the variable...... are found between these light-chain derivatives ant the light chain--heavy chain associates, namely the intact protein M-315 and FV fragment. The comparison between the CD spectra of the free and the hapten-bound L2,cov, L2,ncov and (VL)2 directly demonstrates the existence of the conformational transitions...

  10. Serum-free media formulations are cell line-specific and require optimization for microcarrier culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kah Yong; Teo, Kim Leng; Lim, Jessica F Y; Chen, Allen K L; Choolani, Mahesh; Reuveny, Shaul; Chan, Jerry; Oh, Steve Kw

    2015-08-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are being investigated as potential cell therapies for many different indications. Current methods of production rely on traditional monolayer culture on tissue-culture plastic, usually with the use of serum-supplemented growth media. However, the monolayer culturing system has scale-up limitations and may not meet the projected hundreds of billions to trillions batches of cells needed for therapy. Furthermore, serum-free medium offers several advantages over serum-supplemented medium, which may have supply and contaminant issues, leading to many serum-free medium formulations being developed. We cultured seven MSC lines in six different serum-free media and compared their growth between monolayer and microcarrier culture. We show that (i) expansion levels of MSCs in serum-free monolayer cultures may not correlate with expansion in serum-containing media; (ii) optimal culture conditions (serum-free media for monolayer or microcarrier culture) differ for each cell line; (iii) growth in static microcarrier culture does not correlate with growth in stirred spinner culture; (iv) and that early cell attachment and spreading onto microcarriers does not necessarily predict efficiency of cell expansion in agitated microcarrier culture. Current serum-free media developed for monolayer cultures of MSCs may not support MSC proliferation in microcarrier cultures. Further optimization in medium composition will be required for microcarrier suspension culture for each cell line. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fragments of the constant region of immunoglobulin light chains are constituents of AL-amyloid proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1998-01-01

    Immunoglobulin light chains are the precursor proteins of AL-amyloidosis. In the fibril formation process properties of the variable part of the immunoglobulin light chains are believed to be of major importance. In this work it is shown that fragments of the constant part of the immunoglobulin l...... light chain are a constituent of the AL-amyloid proteins of kappa type. A specific antiserum has identified these fragments in gel filtration fractions where the absorbance approached the base line after the main retarded peak. The fragments are small and have been overlooked previously...

  12. Hydrocortisone-induced cystic metanephric maldevelopment in serum-free organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avner, E D; Piesco, N P; Sweeney, W E; Studnicki, F M; Fetterman, G H; Ellis, D

    1984-02-01

    To investigate the basic pathophysiology of renal cystic maldevelopment, the production of renal cysts was studied in a newly developed murine metanephric organ culture system. In this isolated, nonvascularized system, the addition of hydrocortisone (1.4 X 10(-5) M) to completely characterized, serum-free growth medium produced striking tubular cystic abnormalities. As nephron obstruction did not occur in the nonperfused organ culture system in which neither glomerular filtration nor urine flow were present, the model experimentally isolated the roles of tubular cell metabolism and tubular wall extracellular matrix development in the production of cystic alterations. Analysis with the techniques of intact nephron microdissection and light and electron microscopy demonstrated that organ culture cysts developed in proximal tubules amid a normal background of organotypic tubular differentiation and glomerular epithelial development. Frank cystic development in the system was regularly preceded by ultrastructural alterations in and around the walls of differentiating proximal tubules. Such changes consisted of basolateral intercellular spreading which increased with progressive tubular dilation and irregular thickening and lamellation of tubular basal laminae. The ultrastructural features of the model suggest roles for hydrocortisone-induced alterations in both tubular transport processes and basal lamina structure in the experimental production of cysts. We conclude that the production of cystic changes in organ culture by hydrocortisone permits highly controlled study of the roles of altered tubular cell and basal lamina metabolism in the pathogenesis of cystic metanephric maldevelopment.

  13. DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF INTRATHECAL SYNTHESIS OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN FREE LIGHT CHAINS IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Nazarov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased intrathecal synthesis and oligoclonal banding of immunoglobulins (Ig in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are major immunological findings in multiple sclerosis. Free light chains are fragments of Ig molecules that are produced in parallel to oligoclonal Ig, and their production reflects total Ig synthesis within central nervous system. Assessment of intrathecal kappaand lambda free light chain production within CNS compartment will help to improve diagnosis and prediction of outcomes in multiple sclerosis. Concentrations of kappa and lambda free light chains and clonality of immunoglobulin pattern synthesis were studied in paired CSF and serum samples of 151 patients, including 92 patients with multiple sclerosis, and 33 patients with clinically isolated syndrome which later was transformed into the definite multiple sclerosis. A control group consisted of 26 patients with other inflammatory diseases of central nervous system. Several Ig parameters have been determined in the patients, i.e., Ig clonality in CSF; concentrations of free light chains (both kappaand lambda- in CSF; as well as their indexes and ratios. It was established that synthesis of kappa free light chains were significantly elevated in patients with multiple sclerosis. Moreover, the amounts of free light Ig chains in patients with positive oligoclonality test were significantly higher than in cases without intrathecal oligoclonal synthesis. With respect to diagnostic significance, the kappa quotient proved the best available option for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Its combination with Ig oligoclonality assays caused a decrease in false-negative diagnostics by 42%. Diagnostic benefit of the kappa quotient could be also confirmed by the data of ROC analysis. Also concentration of lambda free light chains in cerebrospinal fluid showed a negative correlation with conversion terms of clinically isolated syndrome to evident multiple sclerosis. Therefore, the indexes of free Ig

  14. Screening and differential diagnosis of renal light chain-associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerth, Jens; Sachse, Anja; Busch, Martin; Illner, Nico; Muegge, Lars-Olof; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Wolf, Gunter

    2012-01-01

    Renal involvement in the light chain-associated diseases multiple myeloma (MM), amyloidosis (AL) and monoclonal immune position disease (MIDD) is common and differential diagnosis usually requires renal biopsy. The aim of this study was to investigate if noninvasive methods are viable to identify and differentiate between the various types of kidney diseases. All patients with a light chain-associated disease admitted to our center from 1996 to 2008 were retrospectively evaluated. Renal biopsy data were correlated with proteinuria findings. Only the ratio of free κ/λ light chains showed a good sensitivity for myeloma cast nephropathy (MCN), AL and MIDD. The λ light chain was characteristic for AL, the κ light chain dominated in MIDD. Renal function at the time of diagnosis was worst in MIDD. MCN presented with a proteinuria of > 3.5 g/g creatinine. In contrast, a higher proteinuria was found in AL or MIDD. Whereas the κ/λ ratio in the urine was pathological for all three diseases, extremely high or low ratios indicated the presence of MCN. However, in AL or MIDD, the ratio was only moderately elevated. A noninvasive differentiation between MCN and other forms of renal light chain disease is possible. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Serum-Free Suspension Culture of MDCK Cells for Production of Influenza H1N1 Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding; Peng, Wen-Juan; Ye, Qian; Liu, Xu-Ping; Zhao, Liang; Fan, Li; Xia-Hou, Kang; Jia, Han-Jing; Luo, Jian; Zhou, Lin-Ting; Li, Bei-Bei; Wang, Shi-Lei; Xu, Wen-Ting; Chen, Ze; Tan, Wen-Song

    2015-01-01

    Development of serum-free suspension cell culture processes is very important for influenza vaccine production. Previously, we developed a MDCK suspension cell line in a serum-free medium. In the present study, the growth kinetics of suspension MDCK cells and influenza virus production in the serum-free medium were investigated, in comparison with those of adherent MDCK cells in both serum-containing and serum-free medium. It was found that the serum-free medium supported the stable subculture and growth of both adherent and suspension cells. In batch culture, for both cell lines, the growth kinetics in the serum-free medium was comparable with those in the serum-containing medium and a commercialized serum-free medium. In the serum-free medium, peak viable cell density (VCD), haemagglutinin (HA) and median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) titers of the two cell lines reached 4.51×106 cells/mL, 2.94Log10(HAU/50 μL) and 8.49Log10(virions/mL), and 5.97×106 cells/mL, 3.88Log10(HAU/50 μL), and 10.34Log10(virions/mL), respectively. While virus yield of adherent cells in the serum-free medium was similar to that in the serum-containing medium, suspension culture in the serum-free medium showed a higher virus yield than adherent cells in the serum-containing medium and suspension cells in the commercialized serum-free medium. However, the percentage of infectious viruses was lower for suspension culture in the serum-free medium. These results demonstrate the great potential of this suspension MDCK cell line in serum-free medium for influenza vaccine production and further improvements are warranted.

  16. The association of heavy and light chain variable domains in antibodies: implications for antigen specificity.

    KAUST Repository

    Chailyan, Anna

    2011-06-28

    The antigen-binding site of immunoglobulins is formed by six regions, three from the light and three from the heavy chain variable domains, which, on association of the two chains, form the conventional antigen-binding site of the antibody. The mode of interaction between the heavy and light chain variable domains affects the relative position of the antigen-binding loops and therefore has an effect on the overall conformation of the binding site. In this article, we analyze the structure of the interface between the heavy and light chain variable domains and show that there are essentially two different modes for their interaction that can be identified by the presence of key amino acids in specific positions of the antibody sequences. We also show that the different packing modes are related to the type of recognized antigen.

  17. Light-switching-light optical transistor based on metallic nanoparticle cross-chains geometry incorporating Kerr nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbdelMalek, Fathi; Aroua, Walid [National Institute of Applied Science and Technology, University of Carthage, Tunis (Tunisia); Haxha, Shyqyri [Computer Science and Technology Department, Bedfordshire University, Luton (United Kingdom); Flint, Ian [Selex ES Ltd, Luton, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    In this research work, we propose all-optical transistor based on metallic nanoparticle cross-chains geometry. The geometry of the proposed device consists of two silver nanoparticle chains arranged along the x- and z-axis. The x-chain contains a Kerr nonlinearity, the source beam is set at the left side of the later, while the control beam is located at the top side of the z-chain. The control beam can turn ON and OFF the light transmission of an incoming light. We report a theoretical model of a very small all-optical transistor proof-of-concept made of optical 'light switching light' concept. We show that the transmission efficiency strongly depends on the control beam and polarization of the incoming light. We investigate the influence of a perfect reflector and reflecting substrate on the transmission of the optical signal when the control beam is turned ON and OFF. These new findings make our unique design a potential candidate for future highly-integrated optical information processing chips. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Super-light pearl-chain arch vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Halding, Philip Skov

    2014-01-01

    are assembled on the erection site by means of post-tensioning and lifted in place in buildings and bridges. The super-light SL-deck element is developed by the company Abeo Ltd and The Technical University of Denmark for plane floor structures in buildings. However, this deck element is designed in such a way...

  19. Extracorporeal light chain elimination: high cut-off (HCO) hemodialysis parallel to chemotherapy allows for a high proportion of renal recovery in multiple myeloma patients with dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyne, Nils; Denecke, Barbara; Guthoff, Martina; Oehrlein, Katharina; Kanz, Lothar; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Weisel, Katja C

    2012-05-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent in multiple myeloma (MM) patients and strongly affects prognosis, with particularly poor outcomes in patients requiring hemodialysis. Introduction of the novel therapeutic agents to MM therapy has improved myeloma response and renal outcome. This case series reviews the efficacy of combined systemic and extracorporeal therapy to further optimize time to light chain (serum-free light chain (sFLC)) reduction and renal recovery in MM patients with dialysis-dependent AKI (n = 19). High cut-off (HCO) hemodialysis for extracorporeal sFLC removal was initiated in parallel to chemotherapy. Combined therapy resulted in early sFLC response after a median of 13 (range 4-48) days and 6 (3-22) HCO hemodialysis sessions. Time to sFLC response was shorter in patients recovering renal function. Median time to dialysis independence was 15 (4-64) days. By intent-to-treat analysis, sustained renal recovery was achieved in 73.7% (77.8% adjusted for death) of patients. In multivariate analysis, duration of AKI prior to initiation of therapy was an independent predictor of renal functional outcome. Combining HCO hemodialysis for extracorporeal sFLC elimination and effective chemotherapy is a novel treatment strategy allowing for early and sustained sFLC reduction and a high proportion of renal recovery in these patients. Timely diagnosis and onset of therapy is essential for improving renal outcome.

  20. Changes in Serum Free Amino Acids and Muscle Fatigue Experienced during a Half-Ironman Triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areces, Francisco; González-Millán, Cristina; Salinero, Juan José; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Lara, Beatriz; Gallo-Salazar, Cesar; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Del Coso, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between changes in serum free amino acids, muscle fatigue and exercise-induced muscle damage during a half-ironman triathlon. Twenty-six experienced triathletes (age = 37.0 ± 6.8 yr; experience = 7.4 ± 3.0 yr) competed in a real half-ironman triathlon in which sector times and total race time were measured by means of chip timing. Before and after the race, a countermovement jump and a maximal isometric force test were performed, and blood samples were withdrawn to measure serum free amino acids concentrations, and serum creatine kinase levels as a blood marker of muscle damage. Total race time was 320 ± 37 min and jump height (-16.3 ± 15.2%, P 20%. However, neither the changes in serum free amino acids nor the tryptophan/BCAA ratio were related muscle fatigue or muscle damage during the race.

  1. Serum-Free Cryopreservation of Five Mammalian Cell Lines in Either a Pelleted or Suspended State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corsini Joe

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we have explored two practical aspects of cryopreserving cultured mammalian cells during routine laboratory maintenance. First, we have examined the possibility of using a serum-free, hence more affordable, cryopreservative. Using five mammalian lines (Crandell Feline Kidney, MCF7, A72, WI 38 and NB324K, we found that the serum-free alternative preserves nearly as efficiently as the serum-containing preservatives. Second, we compared cryostorage of those cells in suspended versus a pellet form using both aforementioned cryopreservatives. Under our conditions, cells were in general recovered equally well in a suspended versus a pellet form.

  2. [An unusual cause of cystic lung disease: light chain deposition disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luraine, R; Sohier, L; Kerjouan, M; Desrues, B; Delaval, P; Jouneau, S

    2013-09-01

    Light chain deposition disease is a rare clinical entity characterized by deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains in organs. The kidneys are almost always affected, while the lung manifestations that have been reported, including nodular or diffuse disease, especially cystic lesions, are unusual. We report the case of a 60-year-old man with a diffuse infiltrative lung disease characterized by numerous apical cysts. The diagnosis of light chain deposition cystic lung disease was obtained by surgical lung biopsy. Light chain deposits in the salivary glands were the only extrapulmonary manifestation. Despite 12 chemotherapy cycles, the patient's lung function and radiological appearances worsened. This is the fourth case describing a cystic lung disease due to light chain deposition in the literature. It highlights the need for comprehensive investigations so as not to miss this rare cause of cystic lung disease, which appears to be related to a primary pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorder. The only treatment that appears to be effective is lung transplantation. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Gene duplication and conversion events shaped three homologous, differentially expressed myosin regulatory light chain (MLC2) genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, L.; Overheul, G.J.; Derks, R.C.; Wieringa, B.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Wansink, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    Myosin II is a hexameric protein complex consisting of two myosin heavy chains, two myosin essential light chains and two myosin regulatory light chains. Multiple subunit isoforms exist, allowing great diversity in myosin II composition which likely impacts on its contractile properties. Little is

  4. Higher Serum Levels of Free ĸ plus λ Immunoglobulin Light Chains Ameliorate Survival of Hemodialysis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Caspari, Christina; Scholze, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: Impaired immune function is common in patients with chronic renal failure. Now, we determined whether serum levels of free immunoglobulin light chains predict mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study...... of 160 hemodialysis patients with a median follow-up of 15 months (interquartile range, 3-44 months). Serum levels of free κ and λ immunoglobulin light chains were measured at the start of the study. The primary end point was mortality from any cause. Results: In survivors, median serum levels of free κ....../l (χ(2) = 5.91; p = 0.015 by log-rank, Mantel-Cox, test). We performed univariate and multivariate regression analysis showing that older age and lower serum levels of free κ plus λ immunoglobulin light chains predicted mortality in hemodialysis patients. Conclusion: Higher serum levels of free κ plus...

  5. Lipid-mediated Wnt protein stabilization enables serum-free culture of human organ stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tüysüz, Nesrin; van Bloois, Louis|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304839183; van den Brink, Stieneke; Begthel, Harry; Verstegen, Monique M A; Cruz, Luis J; Hui, Lijian; van der Laan, Luc J W; de Jonge, Jeroen; Vries, Robert; Braakman, Eric; Mastrobattista, Enrico|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/228061105; Cornelissen, Jan J; Clevers, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07164282X; Ten Berge, Derk

    2017-01-01

    Wnt signalling proteins are essential for culture of human organ stem cells in organoids, but most Wnt protein formulations are poorly active in serum-free media. Here we show that purified Wnt3a protein is ineffective because it rapidly loses activity in culture media due to its hydrophobic nature,

  6. Interactions between Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts and their Extracellular Matrix Revealed by a Serum Free Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Vishal; Dye, Danielle E; Kinnear, Beverley F; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Grounds, Miranda D; Coombe, Deirdre R

    2015-01-01

    Decellularisation of skeletal muscle provides a system to study the interactions of myoblasts with muscle extracellular matrix (ECM). This study describes the efficient decellularisation of quadriceps muscle with the retention of matrix components and the use of this matrix for myoblast proliferation and differentiation under serum free culture conditions. Three decellularisation approaches were examined; the most effective was phospholipase A2 treatment, which removed cellular material while maximizing the retention of ECM components. Decellularised muscle matrices were then solubilized and used as substrates for C2C12 mouse myoblast serum free cultures. The muscle matrix supported myoblast proliferation and differentiation equally as well as collagen and fibronectin. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that myoblasts seeded on muscle matrix and fibronectin differentiated to form long, well-aligned myotubes, while myoblasts seeded on collagen were less organized. qPCR analyses showed a time dependent increase in genes involved in skeletal muscle differentiation and suggested that muscle-derived matrix may stimulate an increased rate of differentiation compared to collagen and fibronectin. Decellularized whole muscle three-dimensional scaffolds also supported cell adhesion and spreading, with myoblasts aligning along specific tracts of matrix proteins within the scaffolds. Thus, under serum free conditions, intact acellular muscle matrices provided cues to direct myoblast adhesion and migration. In addition, myoblasts were shown to rapidly secrete and organise their own matrix glycoproteins to create a localized ECM microenvironment. This serum free culture system has revealed that the correct muscle ECM facilitates more rapid cell organisation and differentiation than single matrix glycoprotein substrates.

  7. Breast cancer proliferative activity: Is it the source of serum free DNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Neither Breast cancer mass nor proliferative activity is the source of serum free DNA. Serum TPS is superior to DNA and CEA as a diagnostic marker for breast cancer. Only preoperative serum CEA has a prognostic role in predicting relapse of breast cancer patients, but not serum TPS or DNA. Keywords: Breast ...

  8. Development of a serum-free defined system employing growth factors for preantral follicle culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Hyun; Gong, Seung Pyo; Kim, Hwa Young; Kim, Gil Ah; Choi, Jun Hee; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Lim, Jeong Mook

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate if mouse preantral follicles can yield developmentally competent oocytes following culture in serum-free, defined medium. Donor follicles were obtained from 14-day-old B6CBAF1 mice, and cultured in α-MEM-Glutamax medium. The replacement of fetal bovine serum with knockout serum replacement (KSR) did not significantly reduce follicle growth or oocyte maturation in vitro, although it significantly reduced the development of oocytes after activation. Regardless of the replacement medium, follicle growth was not influenced by the addition of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). The addition of 100 ng/ml stem cell factor (SCF) to the KSR-supplemented serum-free medium significantly stimulated follicle development, which further improved blastocyst formation after oocyte activation. On Day 3 of culture, a significant increase in Bmp7 expression was detected in the SCF-containing medium compared with the serum-containing medium, whereas Gdf9 and Amh were increased in the serum-containing medium. A significant increase in estradiol production was detected under serum-free conditions, but minimal progesterone secretion was detected throughout the culture period. In conclusion, serum-free media can be used to optimize ovarian follicle cultures, and the addition of SCF is beneficial for deriving developmentally competent oocytes through follicle culture. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Primary CNS Nonamyloidogenic Light Chain Deposition Disease: Case Report and Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Juan Jose; Markert, James M; Meador, William; Chapman, Philip; Perry, Arie; Hackney, James R

    2017-12-01

    The true incidence of light chain deposition disease (LCDD) restricted to the central nervous system (CNS) is unknown. To our knowledge only 7 cases of LCDD restricted to the brain have been previously reported. We herein describe an unusual example. A 44-year-old man presented with a history of ischemic retinopathy in 2004 and left lower extremity hypoesthesia in 2007 that progressed gradually to left-sided weakness and numbness in the 2 years prior to his hospitalization in 2015. A stereotactic brain biopsy was performed, displaying nonspecific hyaline deposits of amorphous "amyloid-like" material involving deep brain white matter and vessels. These were Congo red negative and were accompanied by a sparse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. Plasma cells demonstrated kappa light chain class restriction by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). There was patchy reactivity with kappa immunohistochemistry in the amorphous deposits. A diagnosis of light chain deposition disease was made. Subsequent systemic myeloma and lymphoma workups were negative. Previously reported cases have included men and women, spanning the ages of 19 and 72 years, often presenting with hemiparesis, hypoesthesia, or seizures. Deposits have been reported in the cerebrum and cerebellum. T2/FLAIR (fluid attenuation inversion recovery) changes are usual, but lesions may or may not produce contrast enhancement. The light chain deposition may be of kappa or lambda class. Most lesions have been accompanied by local lymphoid and/or plasma cell infiltrates exhibiting light chain restriction of the same class as the deposits. In summary, LCDD limited to the CNS is a rare lesion consisting of deposition of amyloid-like, but Congo red-negative monotypic light chain usually produced by local lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates.

  10. A prospective study of nutritional status in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattianayagam, Prayman T; Lane, Thirusha; Fox, Zoe

    2013-01-01

    -diagnosed, treatment-naïve patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis attending the UK National Amyloidosis Centre. At study entry, 72 of 110 (66%) patients had a PG-SGA score of 4 or over, indicating malnutrition requiring specialist nutritional intervention. Number of amyloidotic organs, elevated alkaline......Weight loss is common in systemic immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis but there are limited data on the impact of nutritional status on outcome. Using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) score, we prospectively examined nutritional status in 110 consecutive newly...... phosphatase, presence of autonomic neuropathy and advanced Mayo disease stage were independently associated with poor nutritional status (P...

  11. Neurofilament light chain and oligoclonal bands are prognostic biomarkers in radiologically isolated syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute-Blanch, Clara; Villar, Luisa M; Álvarez-Cermeño, José C; Rejdak, Konrad; Evdoshenko, Evgeniy; Makshakov, Gleb; Nazarov, Vladimir; Lapin, Sergey; Midaglia, Luciana; Vidal-Jordana, Angela; Drulovic, Jelena; García-Merino, Antonio; Sánchez-López, Antonio J; Havrdova, Eva; Saiz, Albert; Llufriu, Sara; Alvarez-Lafuente, Roberto; Schroeder, Ina; Zettl, Uwe K; Galimberti, Daniela; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Robles, René; Quintana, Ester; Hegen, Harald; Deisenhammer, Florian; Río, Jordi; Tintoré, Mar; Sánchez, Alex; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2018-02-14

    The prognostic role of cerebrospinal fluid molecular biomarkers determined in early pathogenic stages of multiple sclerosis has yet to be defined. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the prognostic value of chitinase 3 like 1 (CHI3L1), neurofilament light chain, and oligoclonal bands for conversion to clinically isolated syndrome and to multiple sclerosis in 75 patients with radiologically isolated syndrome. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of CHI3L1 and neurofilament light chain were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Uni- and multivariable Cox regression models including as covariates age at diagnosis of radiologically isolated syndrome, number of brain lesions, sex and treatment were used to investigate associations between cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 and neurofilament light chain levels and time to conversion to clinically isolated syndrome and multiple sclerosis. Neurofilament light chain levels and oligoclonal bands were independent risk factors for the development of clinically isolated syndrome (hazard ratio = 1.02, P = 0.019, and hazard ratio = 14.7, P = 0.012, respectively) and multiple sclerosis (hazard ratio = 1.03, P = 0.003, and hazard ratio = 8.9, P = 0.046, respectively). The best cut-off to classify cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain levels into high and low was 619 ng/l, and high neurofilament light chain levels were associated with a trend to shorter time to clinically isolated syndrome (P = 0.079) and significant shorter time to multiple sclerosis (P = 0.017). Similarly, patients with radiologically isolated syndrome presenting positive oligoclonal bands converted faster to clinically isolated syndrome and multiple sclerosis (P = 0.005 and P = 0.008, respectively). The effects of high neurofilament light chain levels shortening time to clinically isolated syndrome and multiple sclerosis were more pronounced in radiologically isolated syndrome patients with ≥37 years compared to younger patients. Cerebrospinal fluid

  12. Light induced kickoff of magnetic domain walls in Ising chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Lapo

    2012-02-01

    Controlling the speed at which systems evolve is a challenge shared by all disciplines, and otherwise unrelated areas use common theoretical frameworks towards this goal. A particularly widespread model is Glauber dynamics, which describes the time evolution of the Ising model and can be applied to any binary system. Here we show, using molecular nanowires under irradiation, that Glauber dynamics can be controlled by a novel domain-wall kickoff mechanism. Contrary to known processes, the kickoff has unambiguous fingerprints, slowing down the spin-flip attempt rate by several orders of magnitude, and following a scaling law. The required irradiation power is very low, a substantial improvement over present methods of magnetooptical switching: in our experimental demonstration we switched molecular nanowires with light, using powers thousands of times lower than in previous optical switching methods. This manipulation of stochastic dynamic processes is extremely clean, leading to fingerprint signatures and scaling laws. These observations can be used, in material science, to better study domain-wall displacements and solitons in discrete lattices. These results provide a new way to control and study stochastic dynamic processes. Being general for Glauber dynamics, they can be extended to different kinds of magnetic nanowires and to a myriad of fields, ranging from social evolution to neural networks and chemical reactivity. For nanoelectronics and molecular spintronics the kickoff affords external control of molecular spin-valves and a magnetic fingerprint in single molecule measurements. It can also be applied to the dynamics of mechanical switches and the related study of phasons and order-disorder transitions.

  13. Light, nutrients, and food-chain length constrain planktonic energy transfer efficiency across multiple trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Elizabeth M; Newell, Jennifer M; González, María J; Vanni, Michael J

    2008-11-25

    The efficiency of energy transfer through food chains [food chain efficiency (FCE)] is an important ecosystem function. It has been hypothesized that FCE across multiple trophic levels is constrained by the efficiency at which herbivores use plant energy, which depends on plant nutritional quality. Furthermore, the number of trophic levels may also constrain FCE, because herbivores are less efficient in using plant production when they are constrained by carnivores. These hypotheses have not been tested experimentally in food chains with 3 or more trophic levels. In a field experiment manipulating light, nutrients, and food-chain length, we show that FCE is constrained by algal food quality and food-chain length. FCE across 3 trophic levels (phytoplankton to carnivorous fish) was highest under low light and high nutrients, where algal quality was best as indicated by taxonomic composition and nutrient stoichiometry. In 3-level systems, FCE was constrained by the efficiency at which both herbivores and carnivores converted food into production; a strong nutrient effect on carnivore efficiency suggests a carryover effect of algal quality across 3 trophic levels. Energy transfer efficiency from algae to herbivores was also higher in 2-level systems (without carnivores) than in 3-level systems. Our results support the hypothesis that FCE is strongly constrained by light, nutrients, and food-chain length and suggest that carryover effects across multiple trophic levels are important. Because many environmental perturbations affect light, nutrients, and food-chain length, and many ecological services are mediated by FCE, it will be important to apply these findings to various ecosystem types.

  14. λ Light Chain Bias Associated With Enhanced Binding and Function of Anti-HIV Env Glycoprotein Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Mohammad M; Farshidpour, Maham; Brown, Eric P; Ouyang, Xin; Seaman, Michael S; Pazgier, Marzena; Ackerman, Margaret E; Robinson, Harriet; Tomaras, Georgia; Parsons, Matthew S; Charurat, Manhattan; DeVico, Anthony L; Redfield, Robert R; Lewis, George K

    2016-01-01

    The humoral response to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains incompletely understood. In this report, we describe biased λ light chain use during the HIV Env glycoprotein (Env) response in HIV infection and vaccination. We examined HIV Env binding (and neutralization) in the context of light chain use in subjects with acute HIV infection, chronic HIV infection, and among HIV vaccinees. In all populations tested, there was a λ chain bias for HIV Env binding antibodies, compared with other HIV antigens (such as p24) or tetanus toxoid. In subjects with chronic HIV infection, a λ bias was noted for neutralization, with λ antibodies accounting for up to 90% of all neutralization activity observed. This is the first report of antibody function in a human infection being tied to light chain use. In HIV infection, antibodies expressing λ light chains tended to have longer CDRL3s, increased light chain contact with HIV Env, and less hypermutation in the heavy chain, compared with antibodies using the κ light chain. These data also support an evolutionary model for the understanding the various κ to λ light chain ratios observed across species and suggest that the λ light chain bias against HIV provides the host an advantage in developing a more efficient humoral response. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Silencing megalin and cubilin genes inhibits myeloma light chain endocytosis and ameliorates toxicity in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Balamuthusamy, Saravanan; Simon, Eric E; Batuman, Vecihi

    2008-07-01

    Using target-specific short interfering (si) RNAs, we silenced the tandem endocytic receptors megalin and cubilin genes in cultured human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. Transfection by siRNA resulted in up to 90% suppression of both megalin and cubilin protein and mRNA expression. In HK-2 cells exposed to kappa-light chain for up to 24 h, light chain endocytosis was reduced in either megalin- or cubilin-silenced cells markedly but incompletely. Simultaneous silencing of both the cubilin and megalin genes, however, resulted in near-complete inhibition of light chain endocytosis, as determined by measuring kappa-light chain protein concentration in cell cytoplasm and by flow cytometry using FITC-labeled kappa-light chain. In these cells, light chain-induced cytokine responses (interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition as well as the associated cellular and morphological alterations were also markedly suppressed. The results demonstrate that light chain endocytosis is predominantly mediated by the megalin-cubilin tandem endocytic receptor and identify endocytosis as a key step in light chain cytotoxicity. Blocking light chain endocytosis prevents its nephrotoxic effects on human kidney proximal tubule cells.

  16. Light-induced circular birefringence in cyanoazobenzene side-chain liquid-crystalline polyester films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naydenova, I; Nikolova, L; Ramanujam, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    We report the inducement of large circular birefringence (optical activity) in films of a cyanoazobenzene side-chain liquid-crystalline polyester on illumination with circularly polarized light. The polyester has no chiral groups and is initially isotropic. The induced optical rotation is up to 5...

  17. Immunoglobulin free light chains in adult atopic dermatitis patients do not correlate with disease severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, J. L.; Knipping, K.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C. A F; Garssen, J.; De Bruin-Weller, M. S.; Hijnen, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although total IgE levels have been proposed as a biomarker for disease severity in atopic dermatitis (AD) and are increased in the majority of AD patients, they do not correlate with disease severity during short-term follow-up. During the synthesis of immunoglobulins, free light chains

  18. Immunoglobulin free light chains: new insights in mast cell activation and immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thio, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, several studies are described that elaborate on the biological properties of immunoglobulin free light chains (Ig-fLC) related to the activation of mast cells and effects on other cells. Mast cell degranulation through Ig-fLC requires two events. At first, mast cell-bound Ig-fLCs

  19. Differences in Protein Concentration Dependence for Nucleation and Elongation in Light Chain Amyloid Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancas-Mejía, Luis M; Misra, Pinaki; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina

    2017-02-07

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a lethal disease characterized by the deposition of the immunoglobulin light chain into amyloid fibrils, resulting in organ dysfunction and failure. Amyloid fibrils have the ability to self-propagate, recruiting soluble protein into the fibril by a nucleation-polymerization mechanism, characteristic of autocatalytic reactions. Experimental data suggest the existence of a critical concentration for initiation of fibril formation. As such, the initial concentration of soluble amyloidogenic protein is expected to have a profound effect on the rate of fibril formation. In this work, we present in vitro evidence that fibril formation rates for AL light chains are affected by the protein concentration in a differential manner. De novo reactions of the proteins with the fastest amyloid kinetics (AL-09, AL-T05, and AL-103) do not present protein concentration dependence. Seeded reactions, however, exhibited weak protein concentration dependence. For AL-12, seeded and protein concentration dependence data suggest a synergistic effect for recruitment and elongation at low protein concentrations, while reactions of κI exhibited poor efficiency in nucleating and elongating preformed fibrils. Additionally, co-aggregation and cross seeding of κI variable domain (VL) and the κI full length (FL) light chain indicate that the presence of the constant domain in κI FL modulates fibril formation, facilitating the recruitment of κI VL. Together, these results indicate that the dominant process in fibril formation varies among the AL proteins tested with a differential dependence of the protein concentration.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii antigens: recovery analysis of tachyzoites cultivated in Vero cell maintained in serum free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa-Silva, Thaís Alves; da Silva Meira, Cristina; Frazzatti-Gallina, Neuza; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2012-04-01

    Vero cells have been used successfully in Toxoplasma gondii maintenance. Medium supplementation for culture cells with fetal bovine serum is necessary for cellular growth. However, serum in these cultures presents disadvantages, such as the potential to induce hypersensitivity, variability of serum batches, possible presence of contaminants, and the high cost of good quality serum. Culture media formulated without any animal derived components, designed for serum-free growth of cell lines have been used successfully for different virus replication. The advantages of protozoan parasite growth in cell line cultures using serum-free medium remain poorly studied. Thus, this study was designed to determine whether T. gondii tachyzoites grown in Vero cell cultures in serum-free medium, after many passages, are able to maintain the same antigenic proprieties as those maintained in experimental mice. The standardization of Vero cell culture in serum-free medium for in vitro T. gondii tachyzoite production was performed establishing the optimal initial cell concentration for the confluent monolayer formation, which was 1×10(6) Vero cell culture as initial inoculum. The total confluent monolayer formatted after 96 h and the best amount of harvested tachyzoites was 2.1×10(7) using parasite inoculum of 1.5×10(6) after 7 days post-infection. The infectivity of tachyzoites released from Vero cells maintained in serum-free medium was evaluated using groups of Swiss mice infected with cell-culture tachyzoites. The parasite concentrations were similar to those for mice infected with tachyzoites collected from other infected mice. The data from both in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that in at least 30 culture cell passages, the parasites maintained the same infectivity as maintained in vivo. Another question was to know whether in the several continued passages, immunogenic progressive loss could occur. The nucleotide sequences studied were the same between the different

  1. Efficacy of Nigella sativa on serum free testosterone and metabolic disturbances in central obese male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datau, E A; Wardhana; Surachmanto, Eko E; Pandelaki, K; Langi, J A; Fias

    2010-07-01

    to study the efficacy of Nigella sativa in central obese men on serum free testosterone, body weight, waist circumference, blood sugar, lipid, uric acid, adiponectin, hs-CRP, and side effects in the treatment group compare to control. an experimental, clinical test, double blinded with placebo control, pre-test and post-test design. Subjects are 30-45 years old, divided into the treatment and control groups, and evaluated weekly for 3 months. Data obtained were subjective complaints, body weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure, serum free testosterone, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, HDL-Cholesterol, uric acid, creatinin, SGOT and SGPT, adiponectin, and hs-CRP. Data collected from March 2007 to June 2007 at Prof.Dr.RD Kandou General Hospital, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive for subjects characteristic and drug's side effect, t independent to compare between two parametric independent variables, Mann-Whitney U to compare between two non-parametric independent variables, and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test to compare between two non-parametric dependent variables. in the treatment group, complaints related to central obesity disappear in first week, very significant reduction of body weight, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure, insignificant reduction in serum free testosterone, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol-HDL, uric acid, hs-CRP, and insignificant increase of adiponectin. On comparison between both groups, we found a very significant reduction on body weight and waist circumference, but the insignificant reduction on serum free testosterone, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and the unsignificant increase of adiponectin, meanwhile the reduction of serum free testosterone in the treatment group was smaller than the control group, that means Nigella sativa could inhibit the decreasing of serum free testosterone. No side effects were detected

  2. Systemic and rapidly progressive light-chain deposition disease initially presenting as tubulointerstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Soma, Jun; Nakaya, Izaya; Yahata, Mayumi; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Yaegashi, Hiroshi; Sato, Akiyoshi; Wano, Masaharu; Sato, Hiroshi

    2012-11-01

    A 42-year-old woman was admitted to a hospital after first-time detection of proteinuria and hematuria during a routine medical check-up. Because her serum creatinine level had rapidly increased from 0.9 to 3.2 mg/dl since measurement 3 months earlier, she was referred to our hospital. Renal biopsy revealed extensive tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis with mild leukocyte infiltration. Glomeruli showed minimal changes, and no immunoglobulin or complement deposition was observed by immunofluorescence. Oral prednisolone was commenced under the diagnosis of chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, and she discharged once. However, its effects were transient; her renal function deteriorated rapidly and hemodialysis was initiated 5 months after her initial check-up. On readmission, urinary Bence-Jones protein κ-type was detected, and examination of bone marrow led to a diagnosis of Bence-Jones κ-type multiple myeloma. Light-chain staining using a renal biopsy specimen obtained 2 months earlier showed κ-light-chain deposition on tubular basement membranes but not glomeruli. Despite undergoing chemotherapy with vincristine, doxirubicin, and dexamethasone, the patient died suddenly from a cardiac arrhythmia. Autopsy showed κ-light-chain deposition in the heart, thyroid, liver, lungs, spleen, and ovaries. Congo red staining yielded negative results. Typical light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) characterized by nodular glomerulosclerosis was observed in the kidneys. This case demonstrates that tubulointerstitial nephritis can be an early pathological variant of LCDD, which may be followed by accelerated and massive light-chain deposition in glomeruli.

  3. Super-light and pearl-chain technology for support of ancient structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Goltermann, Per

    2014-01-01

    optimal and often curved paths of strong concrete assembled from smaller segments by prestressing wires, so that expensive curved moulds and supports can be avoided. Pearl-chains can provide a resistance to impact and earthquake of ancient structures. High-strength concrete and prestressed carbon fibre...... reinforcement may be applied, because the new technology solves the main problems for that, since the light aggregate concrete provides a fire protection needed for both materials and provides a stabilization of the slender cores in compression. The paper explains more about the new technology......The patented super-light technology is inspired by ancient Roman concrete structures with strong concrete placed, where the engineer would like the forces to be, and light concrete fills out the shape stabilizing the strong and protecting it. Pearl-chain technology is invented in order to create...

  4. Dengue virus replication in a polyploid mosquito cell culture grown in serum-free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, G

    1982-01-01

    A subline of a polyploid cell line (TRA-284) derived from a nonbiting mosquito, Toxorhynchites amboinensis, was adapted to a serum-free medium. The sensitivity of the subline (TRA-284-SF) to all serotypes of adapted dengue viruses was generally comparable to that of Aedes albopictus (C6/36), and DEN 3 viruses replicated to higher titers in TRA-28F-SF cells than in C6/36 cells. The subline was found to be useful for isolation of dengue viruses from human serum, since isolation rates were higher in TRA-284-SF cells than in C6/36 cells. The advantages of using a serum-free medium and mosquito cells for virus isolation are discussed. PMID:6130104

  5. SST broth, a new serum free germ tube induction medium for identification of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Pendru; Seshu Kumari, K; Subbannayya, K

    2014-07-01

    Three serum free media viz, sucrose solution, starch solution and SST broth have been formulated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate these three different serum free media for induction of germ tubes by Candida albicans and to compare their efficacy with the pooled human serum. Out of 50 C. albicans isolates 47 (94%) and 49 (98%) produced germ tubes in pooled human serum and SST broth, respectively. Germ tube production was positive in 40 (80%) and 36 (72%) isolates, respectively in sucrose solution and starch solution. This study reports SST broth as a new stable and less expensive germ tube induction medium, which requires less time for preparation and can be used without any safety concerns. SST broth is found to be more effective than pooled human serum for induction of germ tubes by C. albicans isolates.

  6. The Effect of a Three-Month Physical Fitness Program on Serum Free Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D. L.; Ismail, A. H.

    This study investigates the effect of a three-month physical fitness program on serum-free cholesterol concentration in four age and fitness adult groups. Twenty-four men were divided into the following groups: (a) young, low-fit; (b) old, low-fit; (c) young, high-fit; and (d) old, high-fit. All subjects had normal resting glucose and triglyceride…

  7. Novel CH1:CL interfaces that enhance correct light chain pairing in heterodimeric bispecific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönisch, Maximilian; Sellmann, Carolin; Maresch, Daniel; Halbig, Claudia; Becker, Stefan; Toleikis, Lars; Hock, Björn; Rüker, Florian

    2017-09-01

    Targeting two unique antigens with a single bispecific antibody is an attractive approach with potential broad therapeutic applicability. However, the production of heterodimeric bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) presents a challenge, requiring the co-expression and accurate pairing of two distinct heavy and light chain units. Several undesirable by-products can be formed in the production process, including heavy chain homodimers and non-cognate light chain pairings. Although additional downstream purification methods exist, they are often time consuming and restrict practical large-scale production. In this study, we identify and validate novel Fab interface mutations that increase cognate light chain pairing efficiencies within heterodimeric bsAbs. Importantly, the variable domains remain unaltered as interface mutations were restricted to the CH1 and CL domains. We performed several biochemical assays to demonstrate that the novel engineered interfaces do not adversely impact bispecific antibody expression, stability, affinity and biological function. The designs reported here can easily be applied in a generic manner to use existing antibodies as building blocks for bsAbs which will help to accelerate the identification and production of next generation bispecific antibody therapeutics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Generation of human bispecific common light chain antibodies by combining animal immunization and yeast display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krah, Simon; Schröter, Christian; Eller, Carla; Rhiel, Laura; Rasche, Nicolas; Beck, Jan; Sellmann, Carolin; Günther, Ralf; Toleikis, Lars; Hock, Björn; Kolmar, Harald; Becker, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) pave the way for novel therapeutic modes of action along with potential benefits in several clinical applications. However, their generation remains challenging due to the necessity of correct pairings of two different heavy and light chains and related manufacturability issues. We describe a generic approach for the generation of fully human IgG-like bsAbs. For this, heavy chain repertoires from immunized transgenic rats were combined with either a randomly chosen common light chain or a light chain of an existing therapeutic antibody and screened for binders against tumor-related targets CEACAM5 and CEACAM6 by yeast surface display. bsAbs with subnanomolar affinities were identified, wherein each separate binding arm mediated specific binding to the respective antigen. Altogether, the described strategy represents a combination of in vivo immunization with an in vitro selection method, which allows for the integration of existing therapeutic antibodies into a bispecific format. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Productive common light chain libraries yield diverse panels of high affinity bispecific antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blarcom, Thomas; Melton, Zea; Cheung, Wai Ling; Wagstrom, Chris; McDonough, Dan; Valle Oseguera, Cendy; Ding, Sheng; Rossi, Andrea; Potluri, Shobha; Sundar, Purnima; Sirota, Marina; Yan, Yu; Jones, Jeffrey; Roe-Zurz, Zygy; Srivatsa Srinivasan, Surabhi; Zhai, Wenwu; Pons, Jaume; Rajpal, Arvind; Chaparro-Riggers, Javier

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The commercial success of bispecific antibodies generally has been hindered by the complexities associated with generating appropriate molecules for both research scale and large scale manufacturing purposes. Bispecific IgG (BsIgG) based on two antibodies that use an identical common light chain can be combined with a minimal set of Fc mutations to drive heavy chain heterodimerization in order to address these challenges. However, the facile generation of common light chain antibodies with properties similar to traditional monoclonal antibodies has not been demonstrated and they have only been used sparingly. Here, we describe the design of a synthetic human antibody library based on common light chains to generate antibodies with biochemical and biophysical properties that are indistinguishable to traditional therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. We used this library to generate diverse panels of well-behaved, high affinity antibodies toward a variety of epitopes across multiple antigens, including mouse 4-1BB, a therapeutically important T cell costimulatory receptor. Over 200 BsIgG toward 4-1BB were generated using an automated purification method we developed that enables milligram-scale production of BsIgG. This approach allowed us to identify antibodies with a wide range of agonistic activity that are being used to further investigate the therapeutic potential of antibodies targeting one or more epitopes of 4-1BB. PMID:29227213

  10. Changes in Serum Free Amino Acids and Muscle Fatigue Experienced during a Half-Ironman Triathlon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Areces

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between changes in serum free amino acids, muscle fatigue and exercise-induced muscle damage during a half-ironman triathlon. Twenty-six experienced triathletes (age = 37.0 ± 6.8 yr; experience = 7.4 ± 3.0 yr competed in a real half-ironman triathlon in which sector times and total race time were measured by means of chip timing. Before and after the race, a countermovement jump and a maximal isometric force test were performed, and blood samples were withdrawn to measure serum free amino acids concentrations, and serum creatine kinase levels as a blood marker of muscle damage. Total race time was 320 ± 37 min and jump height (-16.3 ± 15.2%, P 20%. However, neither the changes in serum free amino acids nor the tryptophan/BCAA ratio were related muscle fatigue or muscle damage during the race.

  11. The development of a serum-free medium utilizing the interaction between growth factors and biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kumiko; Asawa, Yukiyo; Nishizawa, Satoru; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Nagata, Satoru; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Hoshi, Kazuto

    2012-01-01

    To promote clinical application of cartilage tissue engineering, we should establish a serum-free chondrocyte growth medium. The serum-free medium would increase the cell numbers by more than 20-fold within one week, which proliferation ability almost matches that of serum-based one. For that, we examined the combinations of growth factors and the methods to enhance their effects by making use of the interaction with biomaterials. From various growth factors that are contained within the serum, we made the cocktail of FGF-2 (100 ng/mL), insulin (5 μg/mL), EGF (10 pg/mL), PDGF (625 pg/mL) and TGF-β (5 pg/mL), which increased the chondrocyte numbers by approximately 3-fold for 7 days. Moreover, we used the biomaterials including albumin and hyaluronan as the carrier of those factors. By direct mixing of those factors with biomaterials before the administration to the medium, the medium containing those mixture showed the chondrocyte growth of approximately a 25-fold increase by day 10. In this medium, the FGF-2 or insulin concentration hardly decreased, and rather enhanced the activation of ERK. Due to the optimal usage of biomaterials, this serum-free medium will realize a constant harvest of chondrocytes and could contribute to the safety and quality in regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Combined proximal tubulopathy, crystal-storing histiocytosis, and cast nephropathy in a patient with light chain multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Kuan; Yang, An-Hang; Lai, Hung-Chih; Lin, Bing-Shi

    2017-05-25

    The diagnosis of myeloma, a plasma dyscrasia, often results from the workup of unexplained renal disease. Persistent renal failure in myeloma is commonly caused by tubular nephropathy due to circulating immunoglobulins and free light chains. Myeloma cast nephropathy is characterized by crystalline precipitates of monoclonal light chains within distal tubules. Immunoglobulin crystallization rarely occurs intracellularly, within proximal tubular cells (light chain proximal tubulopathy) and interstitial histiocytes (crystal-storing histiocytosis). We present a case report of a rare simultaneous occurrence of light chain proximal tubulopathy, crystal-storing histiocytosis, and myeloma cast nephropathy in a patient with κ light chain multiple myeloma. A 48-years-old man presented with uremia and anemia. Laboratory examination revealed low levels of serum IgG, IgA, and IgM. Serum and urine immunofixation electrophoresis showed a free κ monoclonal band. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy revealed hypercellularity with marked plasmacytosis. Light microscopy revealed eosinophilic cuboid- and rhomboid-shaped crystals in the cytoplasm of proximal tubular epithelial cells, diffuse large mononuclear and multinuclear cells in the interstitium, and obstructed distal tubules with cast and giant cell reaction. Immunohistochemical examination indicated intense staining for κ light chains within casts, histiocytes, and tubular epithelial cells. Electron microscopy revealed electro-dense cuboid-, rhomboid-, or needle-shaped crystalline inclusions in proximal tubular epithelial cells and interstitial histiocytes. According to these results, we confirmed that this patient with myeloma exhibited simultaneous light chain proximal tubulopathy, crystal-storing histiocytosis, and myeloma cast nephropathy, which were attributed to monoclonal κ light chains. In addition to dialysis, the patient received induction chemotherapy with a combination of bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and

  13. Synthesis of part of a mouse immunoglobulin light chain in a bacterial clone.

    OpenAIRE

    Amster, O; Salomon, D; Zemel, O; Zamir, A; Zeelon, E P; Kantor, F; Schechter, I

    1980-01-01

    We have cloned double stranded cDNA sequences encoding a mouse immunoglobulin light chain (L-321) into the PstI site of the beta-lactamase gene of plasmid pBR322 by the oligo (dG)-oligo (dC) tailing procedure. Escherichia coli X1776 transformed by the recombinant plasmids were screened for the expression of L-321 antigenic determinants by a newly developed in situ radio-immunoassay. One out of seven transformants screened was found to synthesize an L-chain like protein. Each bacterial cell pr...

  14. Optimization of heavy chain and light chain signal peptides for high level expression of therapeutic antibodies in CHO cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Haryadi

    Full Text Available Translocation of a nascent protein from the cytosol into the ER mediated by its signal peptide is a critical step in protein secretion. The aim of this work was to develop a platform technology to optimize the signal peptides for high level production of therapeutic antibodies in CHO cells. A database of signal peptides from a large number of human immunoglobulin (Ig heavy chain (HC and kappa light chain (LC was generated. Most of the HC signal peptides contain 19 amino acids which can be divided into three domains and the LC signal peptides contain 22 amino acids. The signal peptides were then clustered according to sequence similarity. Based on the clustering, 8 HC and 2 LC signal peptides were analyzed for their impacts on the production of 5-top selling antibody therapeutics, namely, Herceptin, Avastin, Remicade, Rituxan, and Humira. The best HC and LC signal peptides for producing these 5 antibodies were identified. The optimized signal peptides for Rituxan is 2-fold better compared to its native signal peptides which are available in the public database. Substitution of a single amino acid in the optimized HC signal peptide for Avastin reduced its production significantly. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed that all optimized signal peptides are accurately removed in the mature antibodies. The results presented in this report are particularly important for the production of these 5 antibodies as biosimilar drugs. They also have the potential to be the best signal peptides for the production of new antibodies in CHO cells.

  15. Cloning and characterization of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) gene from Culex pipiens pallens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mifang; Qian, Jin; Sun, Jing; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Donghui; Ma, Lei; Sun, Yan; Zhu, Changliang

    2008-10-01

    Myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) (GenBank accession no. DQ140391) was cloned from Culex pipiens pallens. An open reading frame (ORF) of 630 bps was found to encode a putative 210 amino acids protein which shows 73% similarity with myosin regulatory light chain of Gryllotalpa orientalis. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcription level of MRLC in deltamethrin-resistant strain (DR-strain) was 4.08-fold higher than in deltamethrin-susceptible strain (DS-strain) of C. pipiens pallens. Over-expression of MRLC in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells conferred protection against deltamethrin based on tritiated methyl tritiated thymidine ((3)H-TdR) incorporation assay. These results indicate that MRLC may be a potential cause of deltamethrin resistance in C. pipiens pallens.

  16. Light-chain deposition disease of the kidney: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darouich, Sihem; Goucha, Rym; Jaafoura, Mohamed Habib; Zekri, Semy; Kheder, Adel; Maiz, Hedi Ben

    2012-04-01

    A 41-year-old man was admitted for evaluation of nephrotic syndrome associated with microhematuria, hypertension, and moderate renal failure. In serum and urine samples, monoclonal IgG-lambda was detected. Bone marrow examination showed normal representation of all cell lines with normal range of plasma cells. Renal biopsy demonstrated diabetes-like nodular glomerulosclerosis. Immunofluorescence failed to demonstrate the presence of kappa or lambda light chains in the kidney. Electron microcopy showed granular electron-dense deposits along the glomerular basement membranes and in the mesangial nodules. The patient was diagnosed as having light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) without evidence of plasma cell dyscrasia. This report was designed to stress the significant challenges that remain in the diagnosis of LCDD-related glomerulopathy. The salient morphological features that help in making an accurate diagnosis are discussed.

  17. Myosin Light Chain Kinase: A Potential Target for Treatment of Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Xiong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK induces contraction of the perijunctional apical actomyosin ring in response to phosphorylation of the myosin light chain. Abnormal expression of MLCK has been observed in respiratory diseases, pancreatitis, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. The signaling pathways involved in MLCK activation and triggering of endothelial barrier dysfunction are discussed in this review. The pharmacological effects of regulating MLCK expression by inhibitors such as ML-9, ML-7, microbial products, naturally occurring products, and microRNAs are also discussed. The influence of MLCK in inflammatory diseases starts with endothelial barrier dysfunction. The effectiveness of anti-MLCK treatment may depend on alleviation of that primary pathological mechanism. This review summarizes evidence for the potential benefits of anti-MLCK agents in the treatment of inflammatory disease and the importance of avoiding treatment-related side effects, as MLCK is widely expressed in many different tissues.

  18. Light-chain cardiac amyloidosis with neuropathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu ZW

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhan-Wen Xu,1 Ya-Qin Li,1 Li-xia Liu,2 Bing-Juan Zhou3 1Department of Cardiology, 2Department of Ultrasound, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University, 3Department of Pathology, Baoding First Central Hospital, Baoding, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Light-chain amyloidosis is a relatively rare multisystem disorder. The disease often is normally difficult to diagnose due to its broad range of characters without specific symptoms. A 62-year-old male patient presented with heart failure after experiencing a long period of unexplained and untreated gastrointestinal symptoms. Clinical examination and laboratory findings indicated a systemic process with cardiac involvement. Echocardiography revealed concentric left ventricular hypertrophy with enhanced echogenicity and preserved ejection fraction. Rectum biopsy confirmed amyloid deposition. The side effect of delayed diagnosis on prognosis and the appropriate diagnostic strategy has been discussed. Keywords: light-chain amyloidosis, cardiac amyloidosis, echocardiography, autonomic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy

  19. Evolutionary redefinition of immunoglobulin light chain isotypes in tetrapods using molecular markers

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Sabyasachi; Nikolaidis, Nikolas; Klein, Jan; Nei, Masatoshi

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of Ig light chain (IGL) genes are difficult to resolve, because these genes are short and evolve relatively fast. Here, we classify the IGL sequences from 12 tetrapod species into three distinct groups (κ, λ, and σ isotypes) using conserved amino acid residues, recombination signal sequences, and genomic organization of IGL genes as cladistic markers. From the distribution of the markers we conclude that the earliest extant tetrapods, the amphibians, possess thr...

  20. Heavy and Light chain amyloidosois presenting as complete heart block: A rare presentation of a rare disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Priyamvada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis is an uncommon disease characterized by deposition of proteinaceous material in the extracellular matrix, which results from abnormal protein folding. Even though more than 25 precursor proteins are identified, majority of systemic amyloidosis results from deposition of abnormal immunoglobulin (Ig light chains. In heavy chain amyloidosis (AH, deposits are derived from both heavy chain alone, whereas in heavy and light chain amyloidosis (AHL, the deposits are derived from Ig heavy chains and light chains. Both AH and AHL are extremely rare diseases. Here, we report an unusual presentation of IgG (lambda AHL amyloidosis in the background of multiple myeloma, where the initial clinical presentation was complete heart block, which preceded the definitive diagnosis by 18 months.

  1. Heavy and Light chain amyloidosois presenting as complete heart block: A rare presentation of a rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyamvada, P S; Morkhandikar, S; Srinivas, B H; Parameswaran, S

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis is an uncommon disease characterized by deposition of proteinaceous material in the extracellular matrix, which results from abnormal protein folding. Even though more than 25 precursor proteins are identified, majority of systemic amyloidosis results from deposition of abnormal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains. In heavy chain amyloidosis (AH), deposits are derived from both heavy chain alone, whereas in heavy and light chain amyloidosis (AHL), the deposits are derived from Ig heavy chains and light chains. Both AH and AHL are extremely rare diseases. Here, we report an unusual presentation of IgG (lambda) AHL amyloidosis in the background of multiple myeloma, where the initial clinical presentation was complete heart block, which preceded the definitive diagnosis by 18 months.

  2. Synthesis of part of a mouse immunoglobulin light chain in a bacterial clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amster, O; Salomon, D; Zemel, O; Zamir, A; Zeelon, E P; Kantor, F; Schechter, I

    1980-05-10

    We have cloned double stranded cDNA sequences encoding a mouse immunoglobulin light chain (L-321) into the PstI site of the beta-lactamase gene of plasmid pBR322 by the oligo (dG)-oligo (dC) tailing procedure. Escherichia coli X1776 transformed by the recombinant plasmids were screened for the expression of L-321 antigenic determinants by a newly developed in situ radio-immunoassay. One out of seven transformants screened was found to synthesize an L-chain like protein. Each bacterial cell produces about 550 molecules of the L-chain sequence. Preferential segregation of the L-chain sequence to the periplasmic space suggest covalent attachment of the L-chain sequence to the N-terminal portion of beta-lactamase. Restriction mapping of the plasmid DNA isolated from the positive clone indicated the presence of a DNA sequence coding for the entire constant region and extending into the variable region for a length corresponding to about 40 amino acid residues. The orientation of the cloned cDNA with respect to the plasmid DNA is compatible with the formation of a fused beta-lactamase-L-321 peptide.

  3. Distribution of kappa and lambda light chain isotypes among human blood immunoglobulin-secreting cells after vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, C; Barington, T

    1989-01-01

    pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), IgM-, IgG- and IgA-secreting cells expressed the kappa light chain isotype in approximately 65% of the cells. IgM- and IgG-secreting cells induced by vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides had a similar percentage of kappa light chain......-containing cells. In contrast, IgA-secreting cells induced by vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides showed a different (bimodal) distribution as regards expression of kappa light chain. The majority (56%) of the investigated individuals expressed kappa light chain in approximately 50% of the cells...... chain pattern of IgA-secreting cells from individuals vaccinated with pneumococcal polysaccharides and from unvaccinated individuals probably indicates that these cells are being derived from B-cell clones with a limited idiotypic heterogeneity, which have been selected and clonally expanded...

  4. [Adherent and single-cell suspension culture of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in serum-free medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding; Zhao, Liang; Tan, Wensong

    2011-04-01

    In recent years, there are tremendous economic and social losses across the world because of virus-related diseases. It is well known that Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells are easily handled, quickly amplified and efficiently infected with influenza virus. Therefore, they are considered as one of the most important cell lines for the production of influenza vaccine. In this work, we first developed a serum-free adherent culture process for MDCK cells with an in-house prepared serum-free medium MDCK-SFM. Next, we derived a cell line named ssf-MDCK, which was amenable for single-cell suspension culture in the serum-free medium. We found that during serum-free batch culture of MDCK cells, the peak viable cell density and maximum specific growth rate were 3.81 x 10(6) cells/mL and 0.056 h(-1), respectively; 3.6- and 1.6-fold increase compared with those in serum-containing adherent batch culture. In addition, we compared growth and metabolic characteristics of MDCK cells in serum-containing adherent culture, serum-free adherent culture and serum-free single-cell suspension culture. We found that less metabolic by-products were produced in both serum-free cultures. In serum-free single-cell suspension batch culture, the viable cell density was highest. These results are critical for establishing large-scale suspension culture of MDCK cells as subsequent well as large-scale influenza vaccine production.

  5. What Kind of Signaling Maintains Pluripotency and Viability in Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Cultured on Laminin-511 with Serum-Free Medium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yoshiki; Omasa, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Xeno-free medium contains no animal-derived components, but is composed of minimal growth factors and is serum free; the medium may be supplemented with insulin, transferrin, and selenium (ITS medium). Serum-free and xeno-free culture of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) uses a variety of components based on ITS medium and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/Ham's nutrient mixture F12 (DMEM/F12) that contain high levels of iron salt and glucose. Culture of hiPSCs also requires scaffolding materials, such as extracellular matrix, collagen, fibronectin, laminin, proteoglycan, and vitronectin. The scaffolding component laminin-511, which is composed of α5, β1, and γ1 chains, binds to α3β1, α6β1, and α6β4 integrins on the cell membrane to induce activation of the PI3K/AKT- and Ras/MAPK-dependent signaling pathways. In hiPSCs, the interaction of laminin-511/α6β1 integrin with the cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin confers protection against apoptosis through the Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA)/Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway (the major pathways for cell death) and the proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn (Fyn)-RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway. The expression levels of α6β1 integrin and E-cadherin on cell membranes are controlled through the activation of insulin receptor/insulin, FGF receptor/FGF2, or activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5)-dependent TGF-β signaling. A combination of growth factors, medium constituents, cell membrane-located E-cadherin, and α6β1 integrin-induced signaling is required for pluripotent cell proliferation and for optimal cell survival on a laminin-511 scaffold. In this review, we discuss and explore the influence of growth factors on the cadherin and integrin signaling pathways in serum-free and xeno-free cultures of hiPSCs during the preparation of products for regenerative medicinal therapies. In addition, we suggest the optimum serum-free medium components for use with laminin-511, a new scaffold for hi

  6. Serum-free spheroid suspension culture maintains mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimperti, Stella; Lei, Pedro; Wen, Yuan; Tian, Jun; Campbell, Andrew M; Andreadis, Stelios T

    2014-01-01

    There have been many clinical trials recently using ex vivo-expanded human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat several disease states such as graft-versus-host disease, acute myocardial infarction, Crohn's disease, and multiple sclerosis. The use of MSCs for therapy is expected to become more prevalent as clinical progress is demonstrated. However, the conventional 2-dimensional (2D) culture of MSCs is laborious and limited in scale potential. The large dosage requirement for many of the MSC-based indications further exacerbates this manufacturing challenge. In contrast, expanding MSCs as spheroids does not require a cell attachment surface and is amenable to large-scale suspension cell culture techniques, such as stirred-tank bioreactors. In the present study, we developed and optimized serum-free media for culturing MSC spheroids. We used Design of Experiment (DoE)-based strategies to systematically evaluate media mixtures and a panel of different components for effects on cell proliferation. The optimization yielded two prototype serum-free media that enabled MSCs to form aggregates and proliferate in both static and dynamic cultures. MSCs from spheroid cultures exhibited the expected immunophenotype (CD73, CD90, and CD105) and demonstrated similar or enhanced differentiation potential toward all three lineages (osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic) as compared with serum-containing adherent MSC cultures. Our results suggest that serum-free media for MSC spheroids may pave the way for scale-up production of MSCs in clinically relevant manufacturing platforms such as stirred tank bioreactors. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Production of Lentiviral Vectors Encoding Recombinant Factor VIII Expression in Serum-Free Suspension Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Luis Caron

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer offers several advantages over other gene delivery vectors when considering gene and cell therapy applications. However, using these therapies in clinical applications involves large-scale vector production in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Here we describe a high yield production of a lentivirus encoding recombinant factor VIII in a scalable and GMP-compliant culture system, based on serum free suspension cultures and transient transfection with an inexpensive reagent, polyethylenimine (PEI, reaching a total viral yield of 2.48x108 particles.

  8. Serum-free culture of an embryonic cell line from Bombyx mori and reinforcement of susceptibility of a recombinant BmNPV by cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Jun; Sekine, Toshiaki

    2012-03-01

    We established the first continuous cell line that uses a serum-free culture from the embryo of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), designated as NIAS-Bm-Ke17. This cell line was serially subcultured in the SH-Ke-117 medium. The cells adhere weakly to the culture flask, and most cells have an oval shape. The cell line was subcultured 154 times, and the population doubling time is 83.67±5.22 h. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction with a tenmar single primer for discrimination of insect cell lines recognized the NIAS-Bm-Ke1 cell line as B. mori. This cell line does not support the growth of the B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) in the absence of the heat-inactivated hemolymph of B. mori. However, the heat-inactivated hemolymph in 1% volume of the medium supported a high level of susceptibility to BmNPV. In addition, the cooling treatment of the cells at 2.5°C also enhanced the susceptibility. We report a new serum-free culture system of the B. mori cell line for the baculovirus expression vector system.

  9. SV40-transformed human corneal keratocytes: optimisation of serum-free culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzer, Anna Katharina; Lombardi-Borgia, Simone; Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Seeber, Judith; Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Engelke, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the replacement of animal experiments in eye irritation testing, we have established a multilay ered cornea model comprising the co-culture of all three corneal cell types. It was the objective of this study to optimise serum-free culture conditions to preserve both growth and phenotype of an SV40-immortalised human corneal keratocyte cell line (HCK). Our results revealed that HCK continue to proliferate in both monolayer cultures as well as after seeding in a collagen matrix and resemble primary corneal keratocytes in morphology and functional characteristics under defined serum-free conditions. Furthermore, HCK were shown to transform into activated corneal fibroblast phenotypes in response to serum and TGF(beta)1. In summary, HCK cells mimic their in vivo (primary) precursors, both in sustaining the quiescent keratocyte phenotype (serum-starved conditions) and in responding to growth factor stimulation. Hence, this cell line may provide a useful tool to study the toxicity and wound healing response of corneal keratocytes in vitro.

  10. Effects of dutasteride on serum free-testosterone and clinical significance of testosterone changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enatsu, N; Miyake, H; Haraguchi, T; Chiba, K; Fujisawa, M

    2016-12-01

    Sixty-two patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) who were being treated with dutasteride participated in this study. Prostate volume, uroflowmetry, blood tests, the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) were determined before and 1, 3 and 12 months after the treatment with dutasteride. Patients were divided into two groups based on changes in serum testosterone after 1 month: Group A (>20% increase; n = 33) or Group B (free-testosterone levels were 20.4% higher after 1 month and remained constant thereafter. When Groups A and B were compared, baseline free-testosterone levels were significantly lower in Group A, IPSS QOL was significantly better in Group A at 3 and 12 months, and no significant differences were observed in uroflowmetry, prostate volume, IPSS or IIEF-5. A univariate analysis identified serum free-testosterone levels and the IPSS storage symptom subscore as significant factors influencing IPSS QOL at 12 months, and only the IPSS storage symptom subscore appeared to be independently related to IPSS QOL. These results indicate that dutasteride increases serum free-testosterone levels in BPH patients, particularly with low baseline free-testosterone levels, and the increase in free-testosterone may have further add-on impacts on their urinary tract symptoms. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Specific degradation of H. pylori urease by a catalytic antibody light chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hifumi, Emi; Hatiuchi, Kenji; Okuda, Takuro; Nishizono, Akira; Okamura, Yoshiko; Uda, Taizo

    2005-09-01

    Catalytic antibodies capable of digesting crucial proteins of pathogenic bacteria have long been sought for potential therapeutic use. Helicobacter pylori urease plays a crucial role for the survival of this bacterium in the highly acidic conditions of human stomach. The HpU-9 monoclonal antibody (mAb) raised against H. pylori urease recognized the alpha-subunit of the urease, but only slightly recognized the beta-subunit. However, when isolated both the light and the heavy chains of this antibody were mostly bound to the beta-subunit. The cleavage reaction catalyzed by HpU-9 light chain (HpU-9-L) followed the Michaelis-Menten equation with a K(m) of 1.6 x 10(-5) m and a k(cat) of 0.11 min(-1), suggesting that the cleavage reaction was enzymatic. In a cleavage test using H. pylori urease, HpU-9-L efficiently cleaved the beta-subunit but not the alpha-subunit, indicating that the degradation by HpU-9-L had a specificity. The cleaved peptide bonds in the beta-subunit were L121-A122, E124-G125, S229-A230, Y241-D242, and M262-A263. BSA was hardly cleaved by HpU-9-L, again indicating the digestion by HpU-9-L was specific. In summary, we succeeded in the preparation of a catalytic antibody light chain capable of specifically digesting the beta-subunit of H. pylori urease.

  12. Differential phosphorylation of myosin light chain (Thr)18 and (Ser)19 and functional implications in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, T M; Dangelmaier, C A; Jin, J; Daniel, J L; Kunapuli, S P

    2010-10-01

    Myosin IIA is an essential platelet contractile protein that is regulated by phosphorylation of its regulatory light chain (MLC) on residues (Thr)18 and (Ser)19 via the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). The present study was carried out to elucidate the mechanisms regulating MLC (Ser)19 and (Thr)18 phosphorylation and the functional consequence of each phosphorylation event in platelets. Induction of 2MeSADP-induced shape change occurs within 5s along with robust phosphorylation of MLC (Ser)19 with minimal phosphorylation of MLC (Thr)18. Selective activation of G(12/13) produces both slow shape change and comparably slow MLC (Thr)18 and (Ser)19 phosphorylation. Stimulation with agonists that trigger ATP secretion caused rapid MLC (Ser)19 phosphorylation while MLC (Thr)18 phosphorylation was coincident with secretion. Platelets treated with p160(ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 exhibited a partial inhibition in secretion and had a substantial inhibition in MLC (Thr)18 phosphorylation without effecting MLC (Ser)19 phosphorylation. These data suggest that phosphorylation of MLC (Ser)19 is downstream of Gq/Ca(2+) -dependent mechanisms and sufficient for shape change, whereas MLC (Thr)18 phosphorylation is substantially downstream of G(12/13) -regulated Rho kinase pathways and necessary, probably in concert with MLC (Ser)19 phosphorylation, for full contractile activity leading to dense granule secretion. Overall, we suggest that the amplitude of the platelet contractile response is differentially regulated by a least two different signaling pathways, which lead to different phosphorylation patterns of the myosin light chain, and this mechanism results in a graded response rather than a simple on/off switch. © 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  13. Immunoglobulin light and heavy chain amyloidosis AL/AH: renal pathology and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picken, Maria M

    2007-01-01

    Among the varied and biochemically diverse group of protein folding disorders that are collectively known as the amyloidoses, AL-amyloidosis where deposits are derived from the immunoglobulin light chain fragments, is the most prevalent systemic form of the disease found in the western world. In contrast, AH-amyloidosis, resulting from the deposition of immunoglobulin heavy chains, is a rare disease with very few cases thus far reported. Both diseases primarily affect older individuals and are always associated with some form of plasma cell/B cell lymphoproliferative process. The overwhelming majority of monoclonal light chains are nephrotoxic leading to frequent renal involvement, although a wide variety of other organ systems may be involved. The most common clinical presentation is proteinuria and the disease is often diagnosed by renal biopsy. The kidneys are the most frequent site of amyloid fibril deposition in AL and light microscopic examination of Congo red stained sections is the prime means of detection. Electron microscopy may be helpful in the detection of small deposits and in the differentiation of amyloid from other types of renal fibrillar deposits. Current treatment of systemic amyloidoses depends upon the type of amyloid deposits; thus, accurate typing, using a panel of antibodies, is of paramount importance. While the differential diagnosis of amyloidoses continues to expand with increased awareness of hereditary types, currently, the main challenge is diagnosis of AL/AH with confidence. Future goals include the development of more precise and sensitive diagnostic tools. This chapter presents the pathology of AL/AH, current standards of diagnosis and the differential diagnosis. Whenever possible, the most recent references, considered as being particularly useful to clinicians and pathologists serving patients with renal amyloidosis, have been selected.

  14. Myosin light chain kinase facilitates endocytosis of synaptic vesicles at hippocampal boutons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wu, Xiaomei; Yue, Hai-Yuan; Zhu, Yong-Chuan; Xu, Jianhua

    2016-07-01

    At nerve terminals, endocytosis efficiently recycles vesicle membrane to maintain synaptic transmission under different levels of neuronal activity. Ca(2+) and its downstream signal pathways are critical for the activity-dependent regulation of endocytosis. An activity- and Ca(2+) -dependent kinase, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has been reported to regulate vesicle mobilization, vesicle cycling, and motility in different synapses, but whether it has a general contribution to regulation of endocytosis at nerve terminals remains unknown. We investigated this issue at rat hippocampal boutons by imaging vesicle endocytosis as the real-time retrieval of vesicular synaptophysin tagged with a pH-sensitive green fluorescence protein. We found that endocytosis induced by 200 action potentials (5-40 Hz) was slowed by acute inhibition of MLCK and down-regulation of MLCK with RNA interference, while the total amount of vesicle exocytosis and somatic Ca(2+) channel current did not change with MLCK down-regulation. Acute inhibition of myosin II similarly impaired endocytosis. Furthermore, down-regulation of MLCK prevented depolarization-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain, an effect shared by blockers of Ca(2+) channels and calmodulin. These results suggest that MLCK facilitates vesicle endocytosis through activity-dependent phosphorylation of myosin downstream of Ca(2+) /calmodulin, probably as a widely existing mechanism among synapses. Our study suggests that MLCK is an important activity-dependent regulator of vesicle recycling in hippocampal neurons, which are critical for learning and memory. The kinetics of vesicle membrane endocytosis at nerve terminals has long been known to depend on activity and Ca(2+) . This study provides evidence suggesting that myosin light chain kinase increases endocytosis efficiency at hippocampal neurons by mediating Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of myosin. The authors propose that this signal cascade may serve as

  15. Ebolavirus VP35 interacts with the cytoplasmic dynein light chain 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Toru; Matsuoka, Mayumi; Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Bray, Mike; Jones, Steven; Tashiro, Masato; Kato, Atsushi; Ozato, Keiko

    2009-07-01

    The viral protein VP35 of ebolavirus (EBOV) is implicated to have diverse roles in the viral life cycle. We employed a yeast two-hybrid screen to search for VP35 binding partners and identified the cytoplasmic dynein light chain (DLC8) as a protein that interacts with VP35. Mapping analysis unraveled a consensus motif, SQTQT, within VP35 through which VP35 binds to DLC8. The disruption of DLC8 binding does not affect the ability of VP35 to inhibit type I IFN production. Given that VP35 from various EBOV species interacts with DLC8, this interaction may have a role in regulating the EBOV life cycle.

  16. Ebolavirus VP35 Interacts with the Cytoplasmic Dynein Light Chain 8§ ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, Toru; Matsuoka, Mayumi; Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Bray, Mike; Jones, Steven,; Tashiro, Masato; Kato, Atsushi; Ozato, Keiko

    2009-01-01

    The viral protein VP35 of ebolavirus (EBOV) is implicated to have diverse roles in the viral life cycle. We employed a yeast two-hybrid screen to search for VP35 binding partners and identified the cytoplasmic dynein light chain (DLC8) as a protein that interacts with VP35. Mapping analysis unraveled a consensus motif, SQTQT, within VP35 through which VP35 binds to DLC8. The disruption of DLC8 binding does not affect the ability of VP35 to inhibit type I IFN production. Given that VP35 from v...

  17. Characteristics and Long-Term Outcome of Patients with Systemic Immunoglobulin Light-Chain Amyloidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Lærke Marie; Gustafsson, Finn; Gimsing, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is a systemic disorder that causes progressive organ dysfunction. The optimal treatment strategy requires accurate patient stratification with an emphasis on the extent of cardiac involvement. Reports on its prognosis are sparse...... and predominantly originate from highly selected centers. We aimed to evaluate patient characteristics and outcomes in a cohort treated at a single center. Methods: This is a single-center retrospective study of 63 consecutive patients diagnosed with AL amyloidosis between January 2000 and December 2012. Patients...

  18. Nephrotic Syndrome Secondary to Proliferative Glomerulonephritis with Monoclonal Immunoglobulin Deposits of Lambda Light Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongseok Yun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rare case of a 46-year-old woman with history of refractory nephrotic syndrome and hypertension who presented with worsening proteinuria and kidney function. Work-up for both autoimmune and infectious diseases and hematologic malignancies including multiple myeloma were negative. Kidney biopsy demonstrated glomerular sclerotic change with lambda light chain deposits in the subendothelial space, which is consistent with proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposit (PGNMID. The patient was treated with bortezomib and dexamethasone without clinical improvement and eventually became hemodialysis dependent.

  19. Structural studies on the zinc-endopeptidase light chain of tetanus neurotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, V; Vangelista, L; Schiavo, G; Tonello, F; Montecucco, C

    1995-04-01

    Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) blocks neuroexocytosis via a zinc-endopeptidase activity highly specific for vescicle-associated membrane protein(VAMP)/synaptobrevin. TeNT is the prototype of clostridial neurotoxins, a new family of metalloproteinases. They consist of three domains and the proteolytic activity is displayed by the 50-kDa light chain (L chain). The L chain was isolated here in the native state from bacterial filtrates of Clostridium tetani and its structure was studied via circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The secondary structure content (27% alpha-helix and 43% beta-sheet), estimated by far-ultraviolet CD measurements, was in reasonable agreement with that obtained by standard predictive methods (25% alpha-helix and 49% beta-sheet). Moreover, the hypothetical zinc-binding motif, encompassing residues His-Glu-Leu-Ile-His, was correctly predicted to be in alpha-helical conformation, as also expected on the basis of the geometrical requirements for a correct coordination of the zinc ion. Both near-ultraviolet CD and fluorescence data strongly suggest that the single Trp43 residue is buried and constrained in a hydrophobic environment, likely distant from the zinc ion located in the active-site cleft. The contribution of the bound zinc ion to the overall conformation of TeNT L chain was investigated by different and complementary techniques, including spectroscopic (far- and near-ultraviolet CD, fluorescence, second derivative absorption spectroscopy) as well as proteolytic probes. The results indicate that the zinc ion plays little, if any, role in determining the structural properties of the L chain molecule. Similarly, the metal-free apo-enzyme and the holo-protein share common stability features evaluated in respect to different physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature and urea concentration). These results parallel those obtained on thermolysin, a zinc-dependent neutral endoprotease from Bacillus thermoproteolyticus, where both

  20. Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization of Acrylonitrile under Irradiation of Blue LED Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicheng Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to unhealthy UV or γ-ray and high-energy-consumption thermal external stimuli, the promising light emitting diode (LED external stimulus has some outstanding technological merits such as narrow wavelength distribution, low heat generation and energy consumption, and safety for human beings. In this work, a novel reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT polymerization system for acrylonitrile (AN was developed under the irradiation of blue LED light at room temperature, using 1,2,3,5-tetrakis(carbazol-9-yl-4,6-dicyanobenzene (4CzIPN as a novel radical initiator and 2-cyanoprop-2-yl-1-dithionaphthalate (CPDN as the typical chain transfer agent. Well-defined polyacrylonitrile (PAN with a controlled molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution was successfully synthesized. This strategy may provide another effective method for scientific researchers or the industrial community to synthesize a PAN-based precursor of carbon fibers.

  1. Bos taurus genome sequence reveals the assortment of immunoglobulin and surrogate light chain genes in domestic cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljavirta Jenni

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assortment of cattle immunoglobulin and surrogate light chain genes has been extracted from the version 3.1 of Bos taurus genome sequence as a part of an international effort to sequence and annotate the bovine genome. Results 63 variable lambda chain and 22 variable kappa chain genes were identified and phylogenetically assigned to 8 and 4 subgroups, respectively. The specified phylogenetic relationships are compatible with the established ruminant light chain variable gene families or subgroups. Because of gaps and uncertainties in the assembled genome sequence, the number of genes might change in the future versions of the genome sequence. In addition, three bovine surrogate light chain genes were identified. The corresponding cDNAs were cloned and the expression of the surrogate light chain genes was demonstrated from fetal material. Conclusion The bovine kappa gene locus is compact and simple which may reflect the preferential use of the lambda chain in cattle. The relative orientation of variable and joining genes in both loci are consistent with a deletion mechanism in VJ joining. The orientation of some variable genes cannot be determined from the data available. The number of functional variable genes is moderate when compared to man or mouse. Thus, post-recombinatorial mechanisms might contribute to the generation of the bovine pre-immune antibody repertoire. The heavy chains probably contribute more to recombinational immunoglobulin repertoire diversity than the light chains but the heavy chain locus could not be annotated from the version 3.1 of Bos taurus genome.

  2. Myosin light chain kinase mediates intestinal barrier dysfunction via occludin endocytosis during anoxia/reoxygenation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Younggeon; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2016-12-01

    Intestinal anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) injury induces loss of barrier function followed by epithelial repair. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has been shown to alter barrier function via regulation of interepithelial tight junctions, but has not been studied in intestinal A/R injury. We hypothesized that A/R injury would disrupt tight junction barrier function via MLCK activation and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation. Caco-2BBe1 monolayers were subjected to anoxia for 2 h followed by reoxygenation in 21% O 2 , after which barrier function was determined by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and FITC-dextran flux. Tight junction proteins and MLCK signaling were assessed by Western blotting, real-time PCR, or immunofluorescence microscopy. The role of MLCK was further investigated with select inhibitors (ML-7 and peptide 18) by using in vitro and ex vivo models. Following A/R injury, there was a significant increase in paracellular permeability compared with control cells, as determined by TER and dextran fluxes (P endocytosis caused by A/R injury. Application of MLCK inhibitors to ischemia-injured porcine ileal mucosa induced significant increases in TER and reduced mucosal-to-serosal fluxes of 3 H-labeled mannitol. These data suggest that MLCK-induced occludin endocytosis mediates intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction during A/R injury. Our results also indicate that MLCK-dependent occludin regulation may be a target for the therapeutic treatment of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Treatment of Coexisting Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia and Light Chain Multiple Myeloma with Hydroxyurea, Bortezomib, and Dexamethasone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Taiwo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old female was incidentally found to have leukocytosis and referred to the hematology service for evaluation. Complete blood count (CBC revealed neutrophilia with band predominance and mild thrombocytopenia. Peripheral blood flow cytometry was unremarkable without any evidence of lymphoproliferative disorder or myeloblasts. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy revealed a markedly hypercellular marrow with myeloid lineage predominance and approximately 10% plasma cells. The monoclonal gammopathy was determined as lambda light chain with a kappa/lambda ratio of 0.06. Cytogenetics revealed normal karyotype, JAK2 kinase was negative, and rearrangement of BCR-ABL1, PDGFRA, PDGFRB, and FGFR1 was negative. The patient was diagnosed with chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL associated with light chain multiple myeloma, complicated by a subdural hemorrhage. She was treated with hydroxyurea and bortezomib/dexamethasone and had complete response with normalization of CBC and kappa/lambda ratio. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of chronic neutrophilic leukemia and multiple myeloma treated with bortezomib/dexamethasone.

  4. Planarian myosin essential light chain is involved in the formation of brain lateral branches during regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuying; Chen, Xuhui; Yuan, Zuoqing; Zhou, Luming; Pang, Qiuxiang; Mao, Bingyu; Zhao, Bosheng

    2015-08-01

    The myosin essential light chain (ELC) is a structure component of the actomyosin cross-bridge, however, the functions in the central nervous system (CNS) development and regeneration remain poorly understood. Planarian Dugesia japonica has revealed fundamental mechanisms and unique aspects of neuroscience and neuroregeneration. In this study, the cDNA DjElc, encoding a planarian essential light chain of myosin, was identified from the planarian Dugesia japonica cDNA library. It encodes a deduced protein with highly conserved functionally domains EF-Hand and Ca(2+) binding sites that shares significant similarity with other members of ELC. Whole mount in situ hybridization studies show that DjElc expressed in CNS during embryonic development and regeneration of adult planarians. Loss of function of DjElc by RNA interference during planarian regeneration inhibits brain lateral branches regeneration completely. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that DjElc is required for maintenance of neurons and neurite outgrowth, particularly for involving the brain later branch regeneration.

  5. Light absorption coefficient of an ordered array of spherical quantum dot chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Boichuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We considered intersubband electron transitions in an array of one-dimensional chains of spherical quantum dots in the GaAs/Al_xGa_{1-x}As semiconductor system. The absorption coefficient caused by these transitions was calculated depending on frequency and polarization of incident light and on Fermi level position, and temperature. We established the existence of two maxima of the absorption coefficient at the edges of the absorption band. It is shown that the absorption coefficient reaches its maximal value at the center of the region between the s-, p-like subbands and slightly varies with temperature. The change of the direction of the linearly polarized light wave incident on the chains from perpendicular to parallel leads to a sharp narrowing of the absorption band. It is obtained that the absorption bandwidth increases with the reduction of the quantum dot radius. We also analyzed the dependence of the absorption coefficient of GaAs/Al_xGa_{1-x}As superlattice on concentration of aluminium in the matrix.

  6. Expression of heavy chain‐only antibodies can support B‐cell development in light chain knockout chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schusser, Benjamin; Collarini, Ellen J.; Pedersen, Darlene; Yi, Henry; Ching, Kathryn; Izquierdo, Shelley; Thoma, Theresa; Lettmann, Sarah; Kaspers, Bernd; Etches, Robert J.; van de Lavoir, Marie‐Cecile; Harriman, William

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of antibody‐producing B cells in chickens six decades ago, chickens have been a model for B‐cell development in gut‐associated lymphoid tissue species. Here we describe targeting of the immunoglobulin light chain locus by homologous recombination in chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) and generation of VJCL knockout chickens. In contrast to immunoglobulin heavy chain knockout chickens, which completely lack mature B cells, homozygous light chain knockout (IgL−/−) chickens have a small population of B lineage cells that develop in the bursa and migrate to the periphery. This population of B cells expresses the immunoglobulin heavy chain molecule on the cell surface. Soluble heavy‐chain‐only IgM and IgY proteins of reduced molecular weight were detectable in plasma in 4‐week‐old IgL−/− chickens, and antigen‐specific IgM and IgY heavy chain proteins were produced in response to immunization. Circulating heavy‐chain‐only IgM showed a deletion of the CH1 domain of the constant region enabling the immunoglobulin heavy chain to be secreted in the absence of the light chain. Our data suggest that the heavy chain by itself is enough to support all the important steps in B‐cell development in a gut‐associated lymphoid tissue species. PMID:27392810

  7. Tetanus toxin light chain expression in Sertoli cells of transgenic mice causes alterations of the actin cytoskeleton and disrupts spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisel, Ulrich; Reynolds, Kay; Riddick, Michelle; Zimmer, Anne; Niemann, Heiner; Zimmer, Andreas; Gruss, P.

    Tetanus toxin is a powerful neurotoxin known to inhibit neurotransmitter release. The tetanus toxin light chain is a metalloprotease that cleaves some members of the synaptobrevin gene family with high specificity. Here, we report the expression of a synthetic gene encoding the tetanus toxin light

  8. Gene expression changes during Giardia-host cell interactions in serum-free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferella, Marcela; Davids, Barbara J; Cipriano, Michael J; Birkeland, Shanda R; Palm, Daniel; Gillin, Frances D; McArthur, Andrew G; Svärd, Staffan

    2014-10-01

    Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) was used to quantify transcriptional changes in Giardia intestinalis during its interaction with human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs, HT-29) in serum free M199 medium. Transcriptional changes were compared to those in trophozoites alone in M199 and in TYI-S-33 Giardia growth medium. In total, 90 genes were differentially expressed, mainly those involved in cellular redox homeostasis, metabolism and small molecule transport but also cysteine proteases and structural proteins of the giardin family. Only 29 genes changed their expression due to IEC interaction and the rest were due to M199 medium. Although our findings generated a small dataset, it was consistent with our earlier microarray studies performed under different interaction conditions. This study has confined the number of genes in Giardia to a small subset that specifically change their expression due to interaction with IECs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fetal rat sympathetic neurons maintained in a serum-free medium retain induced cholinergic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, D; Iacovitti, L; Burton, H

    1984-05-01

    When maintained in some serum-containing media, fetal rat sympathetic neurons acquire substantial choline acetyltransferase activity and form cholinergic synapses in vitro. However, when they are maintained in a serum-free, defined culture medium, choline acetyltransferase activity is not detected and cholinergic synapses are not observed. In this study, we have examined the effects of various times of exposure to a medium inducing cholinergic function on the properties of neurons subsequently maintained in defined medium. We report that 2-day, but not 2-h, exposure to this inducing medium causes a long-lasting (greater than 6 weeks) increase (7-10-fold) in the activity of choline acetyltransferase and that, under these conditions, sympathetic neurons in vitro form cholinergic, electrical and mixed function cholinergic and electrical synapses. We conclude that a relatively brief exposure to media inducing cholinergic function can cause long-lasting changes in the functional properties of sympathetic neurons in vitro.

  10. Xenobiotic- and Serum-Free Culture of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells on Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkblom, Benny; Eidet, Jon R; Utheim, Tor P; Ulltveit-Moe, Harald F; Raeder, Sten

    2016-01-01

    Cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial cells (OMECs) have proven useful in the treatment of ocular surface disorders. This study is the first to investigate the potential of expanding OMEC in a xenobiotic- and serum-free medium using therapeutic contact lenses (CLs) as a substrate and carrier. Porcine OMEC were seeded on laminin-coated lotrafilcon A therapeutic CLs with the density of 8 × 10(4) cells/lens and cultured in a defined serum and xenobiotic-free medium. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy was used to analyze the following: (1) cellular morphology by using rhodamine-phalloidin staining of F-actin, (2) phenotype by applying antibodies against the progenitor cell marker p63 and the putative stem cell marker ABCG2 and (3) cell viability by using propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 dual staining. Porcine OMEC attached well to the CLs, and cell-to-cell contacts were evident. After three days in culture, the OMEC displayed a confluent monolayer with uniform cobblestone morphology, whereas stratified cultures with 2-3 layers were formed after six days. No significant difference in expression of p63 was observed after three-day culture (79.4 ± 14.8%) compared with six-day culture (60.3 ± 18.9%). ABCG2 expression in the basal cell layer was 6.3 ± 1.0% and 4.8 ± 1.8% after three- and six-day culture, respectively. The basal layer viability of cultured OMECs was 99.3 ± 0.2% and 82.8 ± 1.1% after three and six days culture, respectively. The use of therapeutic CLs has potential as a substrate and carrier for OMEC cultured in a xenobiotic- and serum-free culture system.

  11. Ebolavirus VP35 Interacts with the Cytoplasmic Dynein Light Chain 8§ ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Toru; Matsuoka, Mayumi; Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Bray, Mike; Jones, Steven; Tashiro, Masato; Kato, Atsushi; Ozato, Keiko

    2009-01-01

    The viral protein VP35 of ebolavirus (EBOV) is implicated to have diverse roles in the viral life cycle. We employed a yeast two-hybrid screen to search for VP35 binding partners and identified the cytoplasmic dynein light chain (DLC8) as a protein that interacts with VP35. Mapping analysis unraveled a consensus motif, SQTQT, within VP35 through which VP35 binds to DLC8. The disruption of DLC8 binding does not affect the ability of VP35 to inhibit type I IFN production. Given that VP35 from various EBOV species interacts with DLC8, this interaction may have a role in regulating the EBOV life cycle. PMID:19403681

  12. Atractylodin Induces Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation and Promotes Gastric Emptying through Ghrelin Receptor

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    Yu Bai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atractylodin is one of the main constituents in the rhizomes of Atractylodes lancea Thunb., being capable of treating cancer cachexia-anorexia and age-related diseases as an agonist of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR. GHSR was herein expressed in human gastric smooth muscle cells (HGSMCs and activated by ghrelin receptor agonist L-692,585. Like L-692,585, atractylodin also increased Ca2+ and enhanced the phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC through GHSR in HGSMCs. In addition, atractylodin promoted gastric emptying and MLC phosphorylation in the gastric antrum of mice also through GHSR. Collectively, atractylodin can activate GHSR in gastric smooth muscle, as a potential target in clinical practice.

  13. Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) Gene Influences Exercise Induced Muscle Damage during a Competitive Marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Valero, Marjorie; Lara, Beatriz; Salinero, Juan José; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates the regulatory light chain (RLC) of myosin producing increases in force development during skeletal muscle contraction. It has been suggested that MLCK gene polymorphisms might alter RLC phosphorylation thereby decreasing the ability to produce force and to resist strain during voluntary muscle contractions. Thus, the genetic variations in the MLCK gene might predispose some individuals to higher values of muscle damage during exercise, especially during endurance competitions. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of MLCK genetic variants on exercise-induced muscle damage produced during a marathon. Sixty-seven experienced runners competed in a marathon race. The MLCK genotype (C37885A) of these marathoners was determined. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to assess changes in serum myoglobin concentrations and leg muscle power changes were measured during a countermovement jump. Self-reported leg muscle pain and fatigue were determined by questionnaires. A total of 59 marathoners (88.1%) were CC homozygotes and 8 marathoners (11.9%) were CA heterozygotes. The two groups of participants completed the race with a similar time (228 ± 33 vs 234 ± 39 min; P = 0.30) and similar self-reported values for fatigue (15 ± 2 vs 16 ± 2 A.U.; P = 0.21) and lower-limb muscle pain (6.2 ± 1.7 vs 6.6 ± 1.8 cm; P = 0.29). However, CC marathoners presented higher serum myoglobin concentrations (739 ± 792 vs 348 ± 144 μg·mL-1; P = 0.03) and greater pre-to-post- race leg muscle power reduction (-32.7 ± 15.7 vs -21.2 ± 21.6%; P = 0.05) than CA marathoners. CA heterozygotes for MLCK C37885A might present higher exercise-induced muscle damage after a marathon competition than CC counterparts.

  14. Association between Free Light Chain Levels, and Disease Progression and Mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Lucie; Liabeuf, Sophie; Lenglet, Aurélie; Lemke, Horst-Dieter; Vanholder, Raymond; Choukroun, Gabriel; Massy, Ziad A.

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs) form part of the middle molecule group of uremic toxins. Accumulation of FLCs has been observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the present study was to measure FLC levels in patients at different CKD stages and to assess putative associations between FLC levels on one hand and biochemical/clinical parameters and mortality on the other. One hundred and forty patients at CKD stages 2-5D were included in the present study. Routine clinical biochemistry assays and assays for FLC kappa (κ) and lambda (λ) and other uremic toxins were performed. Vascular calcification was evaluated using radiological techniques. The enrolled patients were prospectively monitored for mortality. Free light chain κ and λ levels were found to be elevated in CKD patients (especially in those on hemodialysis). Furthermore, FLC κ and λ levels were positively correlated with inflammation, aortic calcification and the levels of various uremic toxins levels. A multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that FLC κ and λ levels were independently associated with CKD stages and β2 microglobulin levels. Elevated FLC κ and λ levels appeared to be associated with mortality. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for a propensity score including age, CKD stage and aortic calcification. In conclusion, our results indicate that FLC κ and λ levels are elevated in CKD patients and are associated with inflammation, vascular calcification and levels of other uremic toxins. The observed link between elevated FLC levels and mortality appears to depend on other well-known factors. PMID:24217396

  15. Human dental pulp stem cells cultured in serum-free supplemented medium

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    Virginie eBonnamain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence show that human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs could provide a source of adult stem cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative pathologies. In this study, DPSCs were expanded and cultured with a protocol generally used for the culture of neural stem/progenitor cells.Methodology: DPSC cultures were established from third molars. The pulp tissue was enzymatically digested and cultured in serum-supplemented basal medium for 12 hours. Adherent (ADH and non-adherent (non-ADH cell populations were separated according to their differential adhesion to plastic and then cultured in serum-free defined N2 medium with epidermal growth factor (EGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF. Both ADH and non-ADH populations were analyzed by FACS and/or PCR.Results: FACS analysis of ADH-DPSCs revealed the expression of the mesenchymal cell marker CD90, the neuronal marker CD56, the transferrin receptor CD71, and the chemokine receptor CXCR3, whereas hematopoietic stem cells markers CD45, CD133 and CD34 were not expressed. ADH-DPSCs expressed transcripts coding for the Nestin gene, whereas expression levels of genes coding for the neuronal markers β-III tubulin and NF-M, and the oligodendrocyte marker PLP-1 were donor dependent. ADH-DPSCs did not express the transcripts for GFAP, an astrocyte marker. Cells of the non-ADH population that grew as spheroids expressed Nestin, β-III tubulin, NF-M and PLP-1 transcripts. DPSCs migrated out of the spheroids exhibited an odontoblast-like morphology and expressed a higher level of DSPP and osteocalcin transcripts than ADH-DPSCs. Conclusion: Collectively, these data indicate that human DPSCs can be expended and cultured in serum-free supplemented medium with EGF and bFGF. ADH-DPSCs and non-ADH populations contained neuronal and/or oligodendrocyte precursors at different stages of commitment and interestingly, cells from spheroid structures seem to be more engaged into the odontoblastic lineage than the

  16. Influence of the germline sequence on the thermodynamic stability and fibrillogenicity of human lambda 6 light chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pozo Yauner, Luis; Ortiz, Ernesto; Sánchez, Rosalba; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Güereca, Leopoldo; Murphy, Charles L; Allen, Amy; Wall, Jonathan S; Fernández-Velasco, D Alejandro; Solomon, Alan; Becerril, Baltazar

    2008-08-01

    Light chain-associated amyloidosis is a fatal disease characterized by the aggregation and pathologic deposition of monoclonal light chain-related fragments as amyloid fibrils in organs or tissues throughout the body. Notably, it has been observed that proteins encoded by the lambda variable light chain (V(L)) gene segment 6a are invariably associated with amyloid deposition; however, the contribution of the gene to this phenomenon has not been established. In this regard, we have determined the thermodynamic stability and kinetics of in vitro fibrillogenesis of a recombinant (r) V(L) protein, designated 6aJL2, which contains the predicted sequences encoded by the 6a and JL2 germline genes. Additionally, we studied a 6a mutant (6aJL2-Arg25Gly), that is present in approximately 25% of all amyloid-associated lambda6 light chains. Remarkably, the wild-type 6aJL2 protein was more stable than were all known amyloidogenic kappa and lambda light chains for which stability parameters are available; more importantly, it was even more so (and less fibrillogenic) than the only clinically proven nonamyloidogenic lambda6 protein, Jto. Conversely, the mutated 6aJL2-R25G molecule was considerably less stable and more fibrillogenic than was the native 6aJL2. Our data indicate that the propensity of lambda6 light chains to form amyloid can not be attributed to thermodynamic instability of the germline-encoded Vlambda6 domain, but rather, is dependent on sequence alterations that render such proteins amyloidogenic. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. In vitro aggregation behavior of a non-amyloidogenic λ light chain dimer deriving from U266 multiple myeloma cells.

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    Paolo Arosio

    Full Text Available Excessive production of monoclonal light chains due to multiple myeloma can induce aggregation-related disorders, such as light chain amyloidosis (AL and light chain deposition diseases (LCDD. In this work, we produce a non-amyloidogenic IgE λ light chain dimer from human mammalian cells U266, which originated from a patient suffering from multiple myeloma, and we investigate the effect of several physicochemical parameters on the in vitro stability of this protein. The dimer is stable in physiological conditions and aggregation is observed only when strong denaturating conditions are applied (acidic pH with salt at large concentration or heating at melting temperature T(m at pH 7.4. The produced aggregates are spherical, amorphous oligomers. Despite the larger β-sheet content of such oligomers with respect to the native state, they do not bind Congo Red or ThT. The impossibility to obtain fibrils from the light chain dimer suggests that the occurrence of amyloidosis in patients requires the presence of the light chain fragment in the monomer form, while dimer can form only amorphous oligomers or amorphous deposits. No aggregation is observed after denaturant addition at pH 7.4 or at pH 2.0 with low salt concentration, indicating that not a generic unfolding but specific conformational changes are necessary to trigger aggregation. A specific anion effect in increasing the aggregation rate at pH 2.0 is observed according to the following order: SO(4(-≫Cl(->H(2PO(4(-, confirming the peculiar role of sulfate in promoting protein aggregation. It is found that, at least for the investigated case, the mechanism of the sulfate effect is related to protein secondary structure changes induced by anion binding.

  18. Genetically engineering cyanobacteria to convert CO₂, water, and light into the long-chain hydrocarbon farnesene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfmann, Charles; Gu, Liping; Gibbons, William; Zhou, Ruanbao

    2014-12-01

    Genetically engineered cyanobacteria offer a shortcut to convert CO2 and H2O directly into biofuels and high value chemicals for societal benefits. Farnesene, a long-chained hydrocarbon (C15H24), has many applications in lubricants, cosmetics, fragrances, and biofuels. However, a method for the sustainable, photosynthetic production of farnesene has been lacking. Here, we report the photosynthetic production of farnesene by the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 using only CO2, mineralized water, and light. A codon-optimized farnesene synthase gene was chemically synthesized and then expressed in the cyanobacterium, enabling it to synthesize farnesene through its endogenous non-mevalonate (MEP) pathway. Farnesene excreted from the engineered cyanobacterium volatilized into the flask head space and was recovered by adsorption in a resin column. The maximum photosynthetic productivity of farnesene was 69.1 ± 1.8 μg·L(-1)·O.D.(-1)·d(-1). Compared to the wild type, the farnesene-producing cyanobacterium also exhibited a 60 % higher PSII activity under high light, suggesting increased farnesene productivity in such conditions. We envision genetically engineered cyanobacteria as a bio-solar factory for photosynthetic production of a wide range of biofuels and commodity chemicals.

  19. Thermal Denaturation and Aggregation of Myosin Subfragment 1 Isoforms with Different Essential Light Chains

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    Markov, Denis I.; Zubov, Eugene O.; Nikolaeva, Olga P.; Kurganov, Boris I.; Levitsky, Dmitrii I.

    2010-01-01

    We compared thermally induced denaturation and aggregation of two isoforms of the isolated myosin head (myosin subfragment 1, S1) containing different “essential” (or “alkali”) light chains, A1 or A2. We applied differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to investigate the domain structure of these two S1 isoforms. For this purpose, a special calorimetric approach was developed to analyze the DSC profiles of irreversibly denaturing multidomain proteins. Using this approach, we revealed two calorimetric domains in the S1 molecule, the more thermostable domain denaturing in two steps. Comparing the DSC data with temperature dependences of intrinsic fluorescence parameters and S1 ATPase inactivation, we have identified these two calorimetric domains as motor domain and regulatory domain of the myosin head, the motor domain being more thermostable. Some difference between the two S1 isoforms was only revealed by DSC in thermal denaturation of the regulatory domain. We also applied dynamic light scattering (DLS) to analyze the aggregation of S1 isoforms induced by their thermal denaturation. We have found no appreciable difference between these S1 isoforms in their aggregation properties under ionic strength conditions close to those in the muscle fiber (in the presence of 100 mM KCl). Under these conditions kinetics of this process was independent of protein concentration, and the aggregation rate was limited by irreversible denaturation of the S1 motor domain. PMID:21151434

  20. Thermal Denaturation and Aggregation of Myosin Subfragment 1 Isoforms with Different Essential Light Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene O. Zubov

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared thermally induced denaturation and aggregation of two isoforms of the isolated myosin head (myosin subfragment 1, S1 containing different “essential” (or “alkali” light chains, A1 or A2. We applied differential scanning calorimetry (DSC to investigate the domain structure of these two S1 isoforms. For this purpose, a special calorimetric approach was developed to analyze the DSC profiles of irreversibly denaturing multidomain proteins. Using this approach, we revealed two calorimetric domains in  the S1 molecule, the more thermostable domain denaturing in two steps. Comparing the DSC data with temperature dependences of intrinsic fluorescence parameters and S1 ATPase inactivation, we have identified these two calorimetric domains as motor domain and regulatory domain of the myosin head, the motor domain being more thermostable. Some difference between the two S1 isoforms was only revealed by DSC in thermal denaturation of the regulatory domain. We also applied dynamic light scattering (DLS to analyze the aggregation of S1 isoforms induced by their thermal denaturation. We have found no appreciable difference between these S1 isoforms in their aggregation properties under ionic strength conditions close to those in the muscle fiber (in the presence of 100 mM KCl. Under these conditions kinetics of this process was independent of protein concentration, and the aggregation rate was limited by irreversible denaturation of the S1 motor domain.

  1. Myosin light chains are not a physiological substrate of AMPK in the control of cell structure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultot, Laurent; Horman, Sandrine; Neumann, Dietbert; Walsh, Michael P; Hue, Louis; Rider, Mark H

    2009-01-05

    The kinetics of myosin regulatory light chain (MLC) phosphorylation by recombinant AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were compared with commercial AMPK from rat liver and smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK). With identical amounts of activity units, initial rates of phosphorylation of MLC were at least 100-fold less with recombinant AMPK compared to smMLCK, whereas with rat liver AMPK significant phosphorylation was seen. In Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells, AMPK activation led to an increase in MLC phosphorylation, which was decreased by a Rho kinase inhibitor without affecting AMPK activation. Therefore, MLC phosphorylation during energy deprivation does not result from direct phosphorylation by AMPK.

  2. [Correlation analysis between serum free testosterone and total testosterone in Chengdu females].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Xu, Liangzhi; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiaofang; Kang, Deying; Qiu, Dongsheng; Han, Daiwen

    2013-04-01

    This paper is aimed to analyze the correlation between serum free testosterone (FT) and total testosterone (TT) to acquire a cutoff about using total testosterone to diagnose hyperandrogenism in Chengdu females. We investigated 1854 women by cluster sampling method, detected their serum FT levels and TT levels, scored relative items, analyzed the correlation and made the ROC curve to get a cutoff of TT levels. Serum FT had a linear correlation with serum TT (r = 0.597, r2 = 0.356, P < 0.001). The cutoff value was 0.635 ng/mL. The specificity and sensitivity were 76.3% and 77.24%, respectively. No correlation found between serum FT and Ferriman-Gallway Score (P = 0.392). Positive correlations were seen between serum FT and Plewig-Kligman Score (r = 0.137, P < 0.001), serum TT and Ferriman-Gallway Score (r = 0.069, P = 0.003) and serum TT and Plewig-Kligman Score (r = 0.092, P < 0.001). There is a linear correlation between serum FT and TT. We can diagnose hyperandrogenism according to the serum TT cutoff value (0.635 ng/mL). Its clinical symptoms are not paralleled with the biochemical test results.

  3. Serum-free culture alters the quantity and protein composition of neuroblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles

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    Jinghuan Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs play a significant role in cell–cell communication in numerous physiological processes and pathological conditions, and offer promise as novel biomarkers and therapeutic agents for genetic diseases. Many recent studies have described different molecular mechanisms that contribute to EV biogenesis and release from cells. However, little is known about how external stimuli such as cell culture conditions can affect the quantity and content of EVs. While N2a neuroblastoma cells cultured in serum-free (OptiMEM conditions did not result in EVs with significant biophysical or size differences compared with cells cultured in serum-containing (pre-spun conditions, the quantity of isolated EVs was greatly increased. Moreover, the expression levels of certain vesicular proteins (e.g. small GTPases, G-protein complexes, mRNA processing proteins and splicing factors, some of which were previously reported to be involved in EV biogenesis, were found to be differentially expressed in EVs under different culture conditions. These data, therefore, contribute to the understanding of how extracellular factors and intracellular molecular pathways affect the composition and release of EVs.

  4. N-terminal or signal peptide sequence engineering prevents truncation of human monoclonal antibody light chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, S J; Bond, N J; Milne, S; Lewis, A; Sheriff, A; Pettman, G; Pradhan, R; Higazi, D R; Hatton, D

    2017-09-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) contain short N-terminal signal peptides on each individual polypeptide that comprises the mature antibody, targeting them for export from the cell in which they are produced. The signal peptide is cleaved from each heavy chain (Hc) and light chain (Lc) polypeptide after translocation to the ER and prior to secretion. This process is generally highly efficient, producing a high proportion of correctly cleaved Hc and Lc polypeptides. However, mis-cleavage of the signal peptide can occur, resulting in truncation or elongation at the N-terminus of the Hc or Lc. This is undesirable for antibody manufacturing as it can impact efficacy and can result in product heterogeneity. Here, we describe a truncated variant of the Lc that was detected during a routine developability assessment of the recombinant human IgG1 MEDI8490 in Chinese hamster ovary cells. We found that the truncation of the Lc was caused due to the use of the murine Hc signal peptide together with a lambda Lc containing an SYE amino acid motif at the N-terminus. This truncation was not caused by mis-processing of the mRNA encoding the Lc and was not dependent on expression platform (transient or stable), the scale of the fed-batch culture or clonal lineage. We further show that using alternative signal peptides or engineering the Lc SYE N-terminal motif prevented the truncation and that this strategy will improve Lc homogeneity of other SYE lambda Lc-containing mAbs. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1970-1977. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Design of peptidase-resistant peptide inhibitors of myosin light chain kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khapchaev, Asker Y; Kazakova, Olga A; Samsonov, Mikhail V; Sidorova, Maria V; Bushuev, Valery N; Vilitkevich, Elena L; Az'muko, Andrey A; Molokoedov, Alexander S; Bespalova, Zhanna D; Shirinsky, Vladimir P

    2016-11-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is a key regulator of various forms of cell motility including smooth muscle contraction, cell migration, cytokinesis, receptor capping, secretion, etc. Inhibition of MLCK activity in endothelial and epithelial monolayers using cell-permeant peptide Arg-Lys-Lys-Tyr-Lys-Tyr-Arg-Arg-Lys (PIK, Peptide Inhibitor of Kinase) allows protecting the barrier capacity, suggesting a potential medical use of PIK. However, low stability of L-PIK in a biological milieu prompts for development of more stable L-PIK analogues for use as experimental tools in basic and drug-oriented biomedical research. Previously, we designed PIK1, H-(N(α) Me)Arg-Lys-Lys-Tyr-Lys-Tyr-Arg-Arg-Lys-NH2 , that was 2.5-fold more resistant to peptidases in human plasma in vitro than L-PIK and equal to it as MLCK inhibitor. In order to further enhance proteolytic stability of PIK inhibitor, we designed the set of six site-protected peptides based on L-PIK and PIK1 degradation patterns in human plasma as revealed by (1) H-NMR analysis. Implemented modifications increased half-live of the PIK-related peptides in plasma about 10-fold, and these compounds retained 25-100% of L-PIK inhibitory activity toward MLCK in vitro. Based on stability and functional activity ranking, PIK2, H-(N(α) Me)Arg-Lys-Lys-Tyr-Lys-Tyr-Arg-D-Arg-Lys-NH2 , was identified as the most stable and effective L-PIK analogue. PIK2 was able to decrease myosin light chain phosphorylation in endothelial cells stimulated with thrombin, and this effect correlated with the inhibition by PIK2 of thrombin-induced endothelial hyperpermeability in vitro. Therefore, PIK2 could be used as novel alternative to other cell-permeant inhibitors of MLCK in cell culture-based and in vivo studies where MLCK catalytic activity inhibition is required. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK Gene Influences Exercise Induced Muscle Damage during a Competitive Marathon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    Full Text Available Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK phosphorylates the regulatory light chain (RLC of myosin producing increases in force development during skeletal muscle contraction. It has been suggested that MLCK gene polymorphisms might alter RLC phosphorylation thereby decreasing the ability to produce force and to resist strain during voluntary muscle contractions. Thus, the genetic variations in the MLCK gene might predispose some individuals to higher values of muscle damage during exercise, especially during endurance competitions. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of MLCK genetic variants on exercise-induced muscle damage produced during a marathon. Sixty-seven experienced runners competed in a marathon race. The MLCK genotype (C37885A of these marathoners was determined. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to assess changes in serum myoglobin concentrations and leg muscle power changes were measured during a countermovement jump. Self-reported leg muscle pain and fatigue were determined by questionnaires. A total of 59 marathoners (88.1% were CC homozygotes and 8 marathoners (11.9% were CA heterozygotes. The two groups of participants completed the race with a similar time (228 ± 33 vs 234 ± 39 min; P = 0.30 and similar self-reported values for fatigue (15 ± 2 vs 16 ± 2 A.U.; P = 0.21 and lower-limb muscle pain (6.2 ± 1.7 vs 6.6 ± 1.8 cm; P = 0.29. However, CC marathoners presented higher serum myoglobin concentrations (739 ± 792 vs 348 ± 144 μg·mL-1; P = 0.03 and greater pre-to-post- race leg muscle power reduction (-32.7 ± 15.7 vs -21.2 ± 21.6%; P = 0.05 than CA marathoners. CA heterozygotes for MLCK C37885A might present higher exercise-induced muscle damage after a marathon competition than CC counterparts.

  7. Life-threatening hematuria in a hemodialysis patient with systemic light-chain amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Po-Jen; Chiang, Wen-Fang; Chao, Tai-Kuang; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2015-12-07

    Direct amyloid invasion of prostate tissue resulting in massive bleeding may be fatal, and rapid diagnosis is difficult. A 71-y-old male undergoing regular hemodialysis with primary light-chain (AL) amyloidosis was admitted due to gross hematuria for 2 days. Cystoscopy revealed oozing from the prostatic urethra. Therefore, electrocauterization was performed, and his symptoms resolved. Unfortunately, he experienced recurrent massive hematuria 3 months later. Tests for serum D-dimer and fibrin degradation products were both positive. Followed serum factor X level was low at 5.4%. Gross hematuria persisted despite of blood transfusions, desmopressin, and vitamin K therapy. Emergent cystoscopy revealed oozing from the prostatic urethra, as was found previously. Therefore, electrocauterization and transurethral resection of the prostate were performed. Analysis of a biopsy specimen of prostate demonstrated strong amyloid deposition in the vascular and perivascular regions. Electron microscopy showed relatively straight fibrils with diameters of 7-10nm in the perivascular region. Gross hematuria subsided then, and no recurrence was noted at a 6-month follow-up. Systemic AL amyloidosis can cause potentially life-threatening hemorrhage. Hemostatic defects and direct invasion with amyloid angiopathy are main pathogenic factors. Timely surgical intervention may be imperative. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The burden of amyloid light chain amyloidosis on health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Martha; McCausland, Kristen L; Guthrie, Spencer D; White, Michelle K

    2017-01-19

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare disease characterized by misfolded amyloid protein deposits in tissues and vital organs, and little is known about the burden of AL amyloidosis on health-related quality of life. This study aimed to quantify the burden of AL amyloidosis in terms of health-related quality of life in a diverse, community-based sample of AL amyloidosis patients. The SF-36v2® Health Survey (SF-36v2), a widely used generic measure of health-related quality of life (using physical and mental summary scales and subscales assessing eight aspects of functioning and well-being), was administered as an online survey of AL amyloidosis patients with AL amyloidosis (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02574676 ; n = 341). Compared with adjusted general population sample norms, health-related quality of life of AL amyloidosis patients was significantly worse across all SF-36v2 scales and summary measures based on analysis of variance (p quality of life. These findings also help to support the use of health-related quality of life end points as important outcome measures in current and future treatment studies. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02574676 . Registered October 5, 2015.

  9. Dynein light chain interaction with the peroxisomal import docking complex modulates peroxisome biogenesis in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinlan; Tower, Robert J; Lancaster, David L; Rachubinski, Richard A

    2013-10-15

    Dynein is a large macromolecular motor complex that moves cargo along microtubules. A motor-independent role for the light chain of dynein, Dyn2p, in peroxisome biology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was suggested from its interaction with Pex14p, a component of the peroxisomal matrix protein import docking complex. Here we show that cells of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica deleted for the gene encoding the homologue of Dyn2p are impaired in peroxisome function and biogenesis. These cells exhibit compromised growth on medium containing oleic acid as the carbon source, the metabolism of which requires functional peroxisomes. Their peroxisomes have abnormal morphology, atypical matrix protein localization, and an absence of proteolytic processing of the matrix enzyme thiolase, which normally occurs upon its import into the peroxisome. We also show physical and genetic interactions between Dyn2p and members of the docking complex, particularly Pex17p. Together, our results demonstrate a role for Dyn2p in the assembly of functional peroxisomes and provide evidence that Dyn2p acts in cooperation with the peroxisomal matrix protein import docking complex to effect optimal matrix protein import.

  10. Neutralization of botulinum neurotoxin by a human monoclonal antibody specific for the catalytic light chain.

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    Sharad P Adekar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT are a family of category A select bioterror agents and the most potent biological toxins known. Cloned antibody therapeutics hold considerable promise as BoNT therapeutics, but the therapeutic utility of antibodies that bind the BoNT light chain domain (LC, a metalloprotease that functions in the cytosol of cholinergic neurons, has not been thoroughly explored.We used an optimized hybridoma method to clone a fully human antibody specific for the LC of serotype A BoNT (BoNT/A. The 4LCA antibody demonstrated potent in vivo neutralization when administered alone and collaborated with an antibody specific for the HC. In Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells, the 4LCA antibody prevented the cleavage of the BoNT/A proteolytic target, SNAP-25. Unlike an antibody specific for the HC, the 4LCA antibody did not block entry of BoNT/A into cultured cells. Instead, it was taken up into synaptic vesicles along with BoNT/A. The 4LCA antibody also directly inhibited BoNT/A catalytic activity in vitro.An antibody specific for the BoNT/A LC can potently inhibit BoNT/A in vivo and in vitro, using mechanisms not previously associated with BoNT-neutralizing antibodies. Antibodies specific for BoNT LC may be valuable components of an antibody antidote for BoNT exposure.

  11. Free light chain content in culture media reflects recombinant monoclonal antibody productivity and quality.

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    Bhoskar, Prachi; Belongia, Brett; Smith, Robert; Yoon, Seongkyu; Carter, Tyler; Xu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently the dominant class of biopharmaceuticals. Due to the high dosage requirements of most mAb therapeutics, high productivity and low aggregation are prevailing criteria during cell line generation and process development. Given that light chains (LCs) play an important role in antibody folding and assembly, and that most mAb producing cell lines also manufacture free LCs, we sought to investigate whether there was a relationship between free LC levels in cell culture media and mAb productivity/quality. To this end, a series of analytical methods were developed in order to quantify free LC content in cell culture media and assess mAb productivity and aggregation levels. Afterwards, conditioned media samples from different cell lines at identical culturing conditions and a single clone under varying culturing conditions were analyzed. Higher LC expression was found to correlate with higher cell viability, higher mAb productivity, and lower aggregation. While LC expression cannot yet be definitively considered the root cause of these phenomena, these results are consistent with the role of LCs in mAb production, suggesting that free LC expression levels may potentially serve as a parameter for cell line generation and cell culture process optimization. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. Efficient Expression and Purification of Recombinant Human Enteropeptidase Light Chain in Esherichia coli

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    Li-Xi Niu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human enterokinase (synonym: enteropeptidase, EC 3.4.21.9 light chain (hEKL gene was designed and artificially synthesized with built-in codon blas towards Escherichia colicodon preference. The synthetic hEKL gene was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pMAL-s and transferred into the expression strain E. coli BL21 (DE3. Recombinant hEKL protein with a maltose binding protein (MBP tag was expressed at high levels in soluble form, which yielded about 42% of the total cellular protein. The target protein was then purified to the homogeneity (> 95% by affinity chromatography. The peptide substrate GST-Melittin with enterokinase recognition site was completely cleaved by the purified MBP-hEKL at the molar ratio of 1:5000 (enzyme:substrate. Tricine SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the activity of MBP-hEKL was approximately seven times that of bovine enterokinase catalytic subunit (EKMaxTM, Invitrogen. From 1 L flask culture, 206 mg pure active MBP-hEKL was with specific activity of 1.4×104U/mg.

  13. Dynein light intermediate chains maintain spindle bipolarity by functioning in centriole cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura A; Villemant, Cécile; Starborg, Toby; Salter, Anna; Goddard, Georgina; Ruane, Peter; Woodman, Philip G; Papalopulu, Nancy; Woolner, Sarah; Allan, Victoria J

    2014-11-24

    Cytoplasmic dynein 1 (dynein) is a minus end-directed microtubule motor protein with many cellular functions, including during cell division. The role of the light intermediate chains (LICs; DYNC1LI1 and 2) within the complex is poorly understood. In this paper, we have used small interfering RNAs or morpholino oligonucleotides to deplete the LICs in human cell lines and Xenopus laevis early embryos to dissect the LICs' role in cell division. We show that although dynein lacking LICs drives microtubule gliding at normal rates, the LICs are required for the formation and maintenance of a bipolar spindle. Multipolar spindles with poles that contain single centrioles were formed in cells lacking LICs, indicating that they are needed for maintaining centrosome integrity. The formation of multipolar spindles via centrosome splitting after LIC depletion could be rescued by inhibiting Eg5. This suggests a novel role for the dynein complex, counteracted by Eg5, in the maintenance of centriole cohesion during mitosis. © 2014 Jones et al.

  14. Evolutionary redefinition of immunoglobulin light chain isotypes in tetrapods using molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sabyasachi; Nikolaidis, Nikolas; Klein, Jan; Nei, Masatoshi

    2008-10-28

    The phylogenetic relationships of Ig light chain (IGL) genes are difficult to resolve, because these genes are short and evolve relatively fast. Here, we classify the IGL sequences from 12 tetrapod species into three distinct groups (kappa, lambda, and sigma isotypes) using conserved amino acid residues, recombination signal sequences, and genomic organization of IGL genes as cladistic markers. From the distribution of the markers we conclude that the earliest extant tetrapods, the amphibians, possess three IGL isotypes: kappa, lambda, and sigma. Of these, two (kappa and lambda) are also found in reptiles and some mammals. The lambda isotype is found in all tetrapods tested to date, whereas the kappa isotype seems to have been lost at least in some birds and in the microbat. Conservation of the cladistic molecular markers suggests that they are associated with functional specialization of the three IGL isotypes. The genomic maps of IGL loci reveal multiple gene rearrangements that occurred in the evolution of tetrapod species. These rearrangements have resulted in interspecific variation of the genomic lengths of the IGL loci and the number and order of IGL constituent genes, but the overall organization of the IGL loci has not changed.

  15. High-Throughput Multiplex Flow Cytometry Screening for Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Light Chain Protease Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Given their medical importance, proteases have been studied by diverse approaches and screened for small molecule protease inhibitors. Here, we present a multiplexed microsphere-based protease assay that uses high-throughput flow cytometry to screen for inhibitors of the light chain protease of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTALC). Our assay uses a full-length substrate and several deletion mutants screened in parallel to identify small molecule inhibitors. The use of multiplex flow cytometry has the advantage of using full-length substrates, which contain already identified distal-binding elements for the BoNTALC, and could lead to a new class of BoNTALC inhibitors. In this study, we have screened 880 off patent drugs and bioavailable compounds to identify ebselen as an in vitro inhibitor of BoNTALC. This discovery demonstrates the validity of our microsphere-based approach and illustrates its potential for high-throughput screening for inhibitors of proteases in general. PMID:20035615

  16. A serum-free and defined medium for the culture of mammalian postimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakou, Katerina; Georgiades, Pantelis

    2015-12-25

    Whole embryo culture (WEC) of postimplantation rodent embryos is widely used for the study of mammalian embryogenesis and developmental toxicity testing. Its major advantage is that it allows direct access to embryos for experimental manipulations and the monitoring of their consequences that would otherwise not be possible or technically difficult to perform in utero. However, a major drawback of mammalian WEC is that the culture media currently in use display batch variations and are undefined, as they contain serum or serum replacements of unknown composition. Moreover, these media possess cell-signalling activities important for embryogenesis. Therefore, reproducibility of mammalian postimplantation WEC results may be affected by batch variation and their interpretation is complicated because the experimenter is unsure whether the embryo response to experimental perturbations is solely due to their action, or modified as a result of influences from undefined substances/signaling activities present in culture media. To alleviate these problems we investigated whether N2B27, a serum-free and defined medium, can support the in vitro development of postimplantation mammalian embryos. We show that N2B27 allows pre-gastrulation mouse embryos isolated at embryonic day 5.5 to develop to advanced gastrulation, reaching the mid- and late primitive streak stages. This is the first demonstration that postimplantation mammalian embryos can develop in vitro in a defined medium in the absence of serum and provides a novel WEC system for studying developmental mechanisms and testing for developmental toxicity during the early postimplantation period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Shift of microRNA profile upon glioma cell migration using patient-derived spheroids and serum-free conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Sune; Halle, Bo; Boldt, Henning B

    2017-01-01

    cells using serum-free stem cell conditions. We used patient-derived GBM spheroid cultures for a novel serum-free migration assay. MiRNA expression of migrating tumor cells isolated at maximum migration speed was compared with corresponding spheroids using an OpenArray Real-Time PCR System. The mi......RNA profiling revealed 30 miRNAs to be differentially expressed. In total 13 miRNAs were upregulated and 17 downregulated in migrating cells compared to corresponding spheroids. The three most deregulated miRNAs, miR-1227 (up-regulated), miR-32 (down-regulated) and miR-222 (down-regulated), were experimentally...

  18. Rapid analysis of rearranged kappa light chain genes of circulating polysaccharide-specific B lymphocytes by means of immunomagnetic beads and the polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougs, L; Barington, T; Madsen, HO

    1993-01-01

    -secreting cells. Examples of rearranged kappa genes used by HibCP-specific antibody-secreting cells from 4 adult vaccinees are given, representing the 3 largest of the 4 kappa variable region families. This method is a new tool for the investigation of vaccine-induced antibody responses with special reference...... of the B lymphocytes activated in vivo. Here, we present a method for rapid analysis of the rearranged kappa light chain genes used by human circulating antigen-specific B lymphocytes. After vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) conjugated with protein, the Hib...

  19. Design of serum-free medium for suspension culture of CHO cells on the basis of general commercial media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Hideo; Takagi, Mutsumi

    2015-08-01

    The design of serum-free media for suspension culture of genetically engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using general commercial media as a basis was investigated. Subcultivation using a commercial serum-free medium containing insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 with or without FCS necessitated additives other than IGF-1 to compensate for the lack of FCS and improve cell growth. Suspension culture with media containing several combinations of growth factors suggested the effectiveness of addition of both IGF-1 and the lipid signaling molecule lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) for promoting cell growth. Subcultivation of CHO cells in suspension culture using the commercial serum-free medium EX-CELL™302, which contained an IGF-1 analog, supplemented with LPA resulted in gradually increasing specific growth rate comparable to the serum-containing medium and in almost the same high antibody production regardless of the number of generations. The culture with EX-CELL™302 supplemented with LPA in a jar fermentor with pH control at 6.9 showed an apparently higher cell growth rate than the cultures without pH control and with pH control at 6.8. The cell growth in the medium supplemented with aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), which was much cheaper than IGF-1, in combination with LPA was synergistically promoted similarly to that in the medium supplemented with IGF-1 and LPA. In conclusion, the serum-free medium designed on the basis of general commercial media could support the growth of CHO cells and antibody production comparable to serum-containing medium in suspension culture. Moreover, the possibility of cost reduction by the substitution of IGF-1 with ATA was also shown.

  20. Value of the free light chain analysis in the clinical evaluation of response in multiple myeloma patients receiving anti-myeloma therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftmann Hansen, Charlotte; Pedersen, Per T.; Jensen, Bo Amdi

    Value of the free light chain analysis in the clinical evaluation of response in multiple myeloma patients receiving anti-myeloma therapy.......Value of the free light chain analysis in the clinical evaluation of response in multiple myeloma patients receiving anti-myeloma therapy....

  1. Myosin light chain kinase mediates intestinal barrier disruption following burn injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanli Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe burn injury results in the loss of intestinal barrier function, however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Myosin light chain (MLC phosphorylation mediated by MLC kinase (MLCK is critical to the pathophysiological regulation of intestinal barrier function. We hypothesized that the MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation mediates the regulation of intestinal barrier function following burn injury, and that MLCK inhibition attenuates the burn-induced intestinal barrier disfunction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male balb/c mice were assigned randomly to either sham burn (control or 30% total body surface area (TBSA full thickness burn without or with intraperitoneal injection of ML-9 (2 mg/kg, an MLCK inhibitor. In vivo intestinal permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-dextran was measured. Intestinal mucosa injury was assessed histologically. Tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1 was analyzed by immunofluorescent assay. Expression of MLCK and phosphorylated MLC in ileal mucosa was assessed by Western blot. Intestinal permeability was increased significantly after burn injury, which was accompanied by mucosa injury, tight junction protein alterations, and increase of both MLCK and MLC phosphorylation. Treatment with ML-9 attenuated the burn-caused increase of intestinal permeability, mucosa injury, tight junction protein alterations, and decreased MLC phosphorylation, but not MLCK expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation mediates intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction after severe burn injury. It is suggested that MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation may be a critical target for the therapeutic treatment of intestinal epithelial barrier disruption after severe burn injury.

  2. Prognostic value of free light chains lambda and kappa in early multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voortman, Margarete M; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Pirpamer, Lukas; Jehna, Margit; Langkammer, Christian; Scharnagl, Hubert; Reindl, Markus; Ropele, Stefan; Seifert-Held, Thomas; Archelos, Juan-Jose; Fuchs, Siegrid; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Khalil, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC) have been suggested as quantitative alternative to oligoclonal bands (OCB) in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, little is known on their role in predicting clinical and paraclinical disease progression, particularly in early stages. To assess the prognostic value of FLC in OCB-positive patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of MS and early MS. We determined FLC kappa (KFLC) and lambda (LFLC) in CSF and serum by nephelometry in 61 patients (CIS ( n = 48), relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis ( n = 13)) and 60 non-inflammatory neurological controls. Median clinical follow-up time in CIS was 4.8 years (interquartile range (IQR), 1.5-6.5 years). Patients underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and follow-up (median time interval, 2.2 years; IQR, 1.0-3.7 years) to determine T2 lesion load (T2LL) and percent brain volume change (PBVC). CSF FLC were significantly increased in CIS/MS compared to controls (all p < 0.001). A lower KFLC/LFLC CSF ratio was associated with CIS-clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) conversion (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-7.14; p < 0.05). No correlations were found for FLC variables with T2LL or PBVC. Our study confirms increased intrathecal synthesis of FLC in CIS/MS which supports their diagnostic contribution. The KFLC/LFLC CSF ratio appears to have a prognostic value in CIS beyond OCB.

  3. T1 mapping and survival in systemic light-chain amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banypersad, Sanjay M; Fontana, Marianna; Maestrini, Viviana; Sado, Daniel M; Captur, Gabriella; Petrie, Aviva; Piechnik, Stefan K; Whelan, Carol J; Herrey, Anna S; Gillmore, Julian D; Lachmann, Helen J; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D; Hawkins, Philip N; Moon, James C

    2015-01-21

    To assess the prognostic value of myocardial pre-contrast T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) in systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 mapping. One hundred patients underwent CMR and T1 mapping pre- and post-contrast. Myocardial ECV was calculated at contrast equilibrium (ECV(i)) and 15 min post-bolus (ECVb). Fifty-four healthy volunteers served as controls. Patients were followed up for a median duration of 23 months and survival analyses were performed. Mean ECV(i) was raised in amyloid (0.44 ± 0.12) as was ECV(b) (mean 0.44 ± 0.12) compared with healthy volunteers (0.25 ± 0.02), P ECV(i) of >0.45 carried a hazard ratio (HR) for death of 3.84 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53-9.61], P = 0.004 and pre-contrast T1 of >1044 ms = HR 5.39 (95% CI: 1.24-23.4), P = 0.02. Extracellular volume after primed infusion and ECVb performed similarly. Isolated post-contrast T1 was non-predictive. In Cox regression models, ECV(i) was independently predictive of mortality (HR = 4.41, 95% CI: 1.35-14.4) after adjusting for E:E', ejection fraction, diastolic dysfunction grade, and NT-proBNP. Myocardial ECV (bolus or infusion technique) and pre-contrast T1 are biomarkers for cardiac AL amyloid and they predict mortality in systemic amyloidosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  4. CSF neurofilament light chain but not FLT3 ligand discriminates Parkinsonian disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Kristy Herbert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation between multiple system atrophy (MSA and Parkinson’s disease (PD is difficult, particularly in early disease stages. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of neurofilament light chain (NFL, fms-like tyrosine kinase ligand (FLT3L and total tau protein (t-tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as biomarkers to discriminate MSA from PD. Using commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs, we measured CSF levels of NFL, FLT3L and t-tau in a discovery cohort of 36 PD patients, 27 MSA patients and 57 non-neurological controls and in a validation cohort of 32 PD patients, 25 MSA patients, 15 PSP patients, 5 CBS patients, and 56 non-neurological controls. Cut-offs obtained from individual assays and binary logistic regression models developed from combinations of biomarkers were assessed. CSF levels of NFL were substantially increased in MSA and discriminated between MSA and PD with a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 92% (AUC = 0.85 in the discovery cohort and with 80% sensitivity and 97% specificity (AUC = 0.94 in the validation cohort. FLT3L levels in CSF were significantly lower in both PD and MSA compared to controls in the discovery cohort, but not in the validation cohort. T-tau levels were significantly higher in MSA than PD and controls. Addition of either FLT3L or t-tau to NFL did not improve discrimination of PD from MSA above NFL alone. Our findings show that increased levels of NFL in CSF offer clinically relevant, high accuracy discrimination between PD and MSA.

  5. Expression of calmodulin and myosin light chain kinase during larval settlement of the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Fan Chen

    Full Text Available Barnacles are one of the most common organisms in intertidal areas. Their life cycle includes seven free-swimming larval stages and sessile juvenile and adult stages. The transition from the swimming to the sessile stages, referred to as larval settlement, is crucial for their survivor success and subsequent population distribution. In this study, we focused on the involvement of calmodulin (CaM and its binding proteins in the larval settlement of the barnacle, Balanus ( = Amphibalanus amphitrite. The full length of CaM gene was cloned from stage II nauplii of B. amphitrite (referred to as Ba-CaM, encoding 149 amino acid residues that share a high similarity with published CaMs in other organisms. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that Ba-CaM was highly expressed in cyprids, the stage at which swimming larvae are competent to attach and undergo metamorphosis. In situ hybridization revealed that the expressed Ba-CaM gene was localized in compound eyes, posterior ganglion and cement glands, all of which may have essential functions during larval settlement. Larval settlement assays showed that both the CaM inhibitor compound 48/80 and the CaM-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK inhibitor ML-7 effectively blocked barnacle larval settlement, whereas Ca(2+/CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII inhibitors did not show any clear effects. The subsequent real-time PCR assay showed a higher expression level of Ba-MLCK gene in larval stages than in adults, suggesting an important role of Ba-MLCK gene in larval development and competency. Overall, the results suggest that CaM and CaM-dependent MLCK function during larval settlement of B. amphitrite.

  6. Predictors of early treatment failure following initial therapy for systemic immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Nidhi; Sidana, Surbhi; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Dispenzieri, Angela; Gertz, Morie A; Lacy, Martha Q; Kyle, Robert A; Buadi, Francis K; Dingli, David; Hayman, Suzanne R; Fonder, Amie L; Hobbs, Miriam A; Gonsalves, Wilson I; Kapoor, Prashant; Hwa, Yi Lisa; Leung, Nelson; Go, Ronald S; Lust, John A; Russell, Stephen J; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Kumar, Shaji K

    2017-09-01

    We analysed factors predicting early treatment failure (ETF), after first-line therapy for light-chain amyloidosis (AL). AL amyloidosis patients seen at Mayo Clinic within 90 days of diagnosis, from 2006 to 2015, excluding those who died within 3 months of initial therapy, were analysed retrospectively. ETF was defined as progression requiring treatment change or death within 12 (ETF12) or 24 (ETF24) months of first-line treatment. Non-ETF included those with a follow-up of more than 12 or 24 months who had progression beyond 12 or 24 months. A total of 724 patients met the study criteria; 244 (33.7%) had ETF12 and 388 (53.6%) had ETF24. Patients with ETF12 were older (64.1 vs. 62.2 years) with higher prevalence of cardiac (81 vs. 64.1%) and multi-organ involvement (67.2 vs. 45.4%) and higher proportion of patients with t(11; 14) (58.5 vs. 44.3%) or in higher Mayo 2012 stage (58.5 vs. 41.1%).The median follow-up was 5.4 years from start of initial therapy. In multivariate analysis, presence of t(11; 14) and non-incorporation of autologous transplant in initial therapy are significant predictors of ETF12 (p = .01and p = .003) and ETF24 (p = .0001 and p = .005) while Mayo stage is predictive of ETF24 (p = .002), but not ETF12.

  7. Structural and functional aspects of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthu, Priya; Wang, Li; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Huang, Wenrui; Hernandez, Olga M.; Kawai, Masataka; Irving, Thomas C.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta (IIT); (Iowa); (Miami-MED)

    2012-04-02

    The myosin essential light chain (ELC) is a structural component of the actomyosin cross-bridge, but its function is poorly understood, especially the role of the cardiac specific N-terminal extension in modulating actomyosin interaction. Here, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the A57G (alanine to glycine) mutation in the cardiac ELC known to cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC). The function of the ELC N-terminal extension was investigated with the Tg-{Delta}43 mouse model, whose myocardium expresses a truncated ELC. Low-angle X-ray diffraction studies on papillary muscle fibers in rigor revealed a decreased interfilament spacing ({approx} 1.5 nm) and no alterations in cross-bridge mass distribution in Tg-A57G mice compared to Tg-WT, expressing the full-length nonmutated ELC. The truncation mutation showed a 1.3-fold increase in I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}, indicating a shift of cross-bridge mass from the thick filament backbone toward the thin filaments. Mechanical studies demonstrated increased stiffness in Tg-A57G muscle fibers compared to Tg-WT or Tg-{Delta}43. The equilibrium constant for the cross-bridge force generation step was smallest in Tg-{Delta}43. These results support an important role for the N-terminal ELC extension in prepositioning the cross-bridge for optimal force production. Subtle changes in the ELC sequence were sufficient to alter cross-bridge properties and lead to pathological phenotypes.

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin kappa light chain in clinically isolated syndrome and multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbule Senel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oligoclonal bands (OCB are the most widely used CSF test to support the diagnosis of MS and to predict conversion of clinically isolated syndrome (CIS to multiple sclerosis (MS. Since OCB tests are based on non-quantitative and difficult to standardise techniques, measurement of immunoglobulin kappa free light chains (KFLC may represent an easier to use quantitative test. METHODS: KFLC were measured in CSF and serum of 211 patients using ELISA. These include patients without any inflammatory central nervous system reaction (NIND, n = 77, MS (n = 20, viral CNS infections (V-CNS-I, n = 10, neuroborreliosis (NB, n = 17 and other bacterial CNS infections (B-CNS-I, n = 10. Furthermore a cohort of 77 patients with CIS, including 39 patients that remained CIS over follow-up of two years (CIS-CIS and 38 patients that developed MS over the same follow-up time (CIS-MS. RESULTS: CSF-serum ratio of KFLC (Q KFLC was elevated in all patients with MS, 86.8% of patients with CIS-MS and 61.5% of patients with CIS-CIS. It was significantly elevated in CIS with presence of OCB (p<0.001. Q KFLC significantly correlated with other CSF variables such as CSF leukocyte count (p<0.001, R = 0.46, CSF CXCL13 levels (p<0.001, R = 0.64 and also intrathecal IgG synthesis (p<0.001, R = 0.74 as determined by nephelometry and quotient diagram. OCB were detected in 66.7% of CIS-CIS and in 92.1% of CIS-MS. CONCLUSIONS: Although the measurement of CSF KFLC is a rapid and quantitative easy to standardize tool, it is almost equal but not superior to OCB with regard to diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in patients with early MS.

  9. Increased Prognostic Value of Query Amyloid Late Enhancement Score in Light-Chain Cardiac Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ke; Sun, Jiayu; Han, Yuchi; Liu, Hong; Yang, Dan; Li, Weihao; Wang, Jie; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Zeng, Zhi; Chen, Yucheng

    2017-11-02

    Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) pattern is a powerful imaging biomarker for prognosis of cardiac amyloidosis. It is unknown if the query amyloid late enhancement (QALE) score in light-chain (AL) amyloidosis could provide increased prognostic value compared with LGE pattern.Methods and Results:Seventy-eight consecutive patients with AL amyloidosis underwent contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with cardiac involvement were grouped by LGE pattern and analyzed using QALE score. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to identify the optimal cut-off for QALE score in predicting all-cause mortality. Survival of these patients was analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression. During a median follow-up of 34 months, 53 of 78 patients died. The optimal cut-off for QALE score to predict mortality at 12-month follow-up was 9.0. On multivariate Cox analysis, QALE score ≥9 (HR, 5.997; 95% CI: 2.665-13.497; P<0.001) and log N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (HR, 1.525; 95% CI: 1.112-2.092; P=0.009) were the only 2 independent predictors of all-cause mortality. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with subendocardial LGE can be further risk stratified using QALE score ≥9. The QALE scoring system provides powerful independent prognostic value in AL cardiac amyloidosis. QALE score ≥9 has added value to differentiate prognosis in AL amyloidosis patients with a subendocardial LGE pattern.

  10. Expression of Calmodulin and Myosin Light Chain Kinase during Larval Settlement of the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhang-Fan

    2012-02-13

    Barnacles are one of the most common organisms in intertidal areas. Their life cycle includes seven free-swimming larval stages and sessile juvenile and adult stages. The transition from the swimming to the sessile stages, referred to as larval settlement, is crucial for their survivor success and subsequent population distribution. In this study, we focused on the involvement of calmodulin (CaM) and its binding proteins in the larval settlement of the barnacle, Balanus (= Amphibalanus) amphitrite. The full length of CaM gene was cloned from stage II nauplii of B. amphitrite (referred to as Ba-CaM), encoding 149 amino acid residues that share a high similarity with published CaMs in other organisms. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that Ba-CaM was highly expressed in cyprids, the stage at which swimming larvae are competent to attach and undergo metamorphosis. In situ hybridization revealed that the expressed Ba-CaM gene was localized in compound eyes, posterior ganglion and cement glands, all of which may have essential functions during larval settlement. Larval settlement assays showed that both the CaM inhibitor compound 48/80 and the CaM-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7 effectively blocked barnacle larval settlement, whereas Ca 2+/CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors did not show any clear effects. The subsequent real-time PCR assay showed a higher expression level of Ba-MLCK gene in larval stages than in adults, suggesting an important role of Ba-MLCK gene in larval development and competency. Overall, the results suggest that CaM and CaM-dependent MLCK function during larval settlement of B. amphitrite. © 2012 Chen et al.

  11. Phos-tag-based analysis of myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation in human uterine myocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector N Aguilar

    Full Text Available The 'phosphate-binding tag' (phos-tag reagent enables separation of phospho-proteins during SDS-PAGE by impeding migration proportional to their phosphorylation stoichiometry. Western blotting can then be used to detect and quantify the bands corresponding to the phospho-states of a target protein. We present a method for quantification of data regarding phospho-states derived from phos-tag SDS-PAGE. The method incorporates corrections for lane-to-lane loading variability and for the effects of drug vehicles thus enabling the comparison of multiple treatments by using the untreated cellular set-point as a reference. This method is exemplified by quantifying the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC in cultured human uterine myocytes.We have evaluated and validated the concept that, when using an antibody (Ab against the total-protein, the sum of all phosphorylation states in a single lane represents a 'closed system' since all possible phospho-states and phosphoisotypes are detected. Using this approach, we demonstrate that oxytocin (OT and calpeptin (Calp induce RLC kinase (MLCK- and rho-kinase (ROK-dependent enhancements in phosphorylation of RLC at T18 and S19. Treatment of myocytes with a phorbol ester (PMA induced phosphorylation of S1-RLC, which caused a mobility shift in the phos-tag matrices distinct from phosphorylation at S19.We have presented a method for analysis of phospho-state data that facilitates quantitative comparison to a reference control without the use of a traditional 'loading' or 'reference' standard. This analysis is useful for assessing effects of putative agonists and antagonists where all phospho-states are represented in control and experimental samples. We also demonstrated that phosphorylation of RLC at S1 is inducible in intact uterine myocytes, though the signal in the resting samples was not sufficiently abundant to allow quantification by the approach used here.

  12. Adaptation and cultivation of permanent fish cell line CCO in serum-free medium and influence of protein hydrolysates on growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radošević, Kristina; Dukić, Bogdanka; Andlar, Martina; Slivac, Igor; Gaurina Srček, Višnja

    2016-01-01

    In this work we describe the adaptation of channel catfish ovary (CCO) cell line to commercially available Ultra Culture serum-free medium by gradual reduction of serum concentration from 10 to 0 %. With this approach we obtained CCO cells fully adapted to serum-free conditions in 32 days. Growth, nutritional and morphological characteristics of these cells remained unchanged when compared to the control group kept in the presence of serum. Additionally, three commercially available protein hydrolysates were tested for the effects on growth performance of the newly serum-free adapted CCO cells. Supplementation with wheat gluten hydrolysate resulted in growth similar to serum free medium solely, while yeast and soy hydrolysates showed inhibitory effects on the cell growth. Taken together, the successful adaptation of CCO cells to serum-free conditions indicates their potential to be used in cytotoxicity assays when serum omission is demanded or for developing serum free bioprocesses using CCO cells. However, a more extended study on nutrient supplementation is still required to further boost the cell growth in a serum free culture.

  13. Adaptation of Cholesterol Requiring NS0 Cells to Serum Free Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Muneer Raja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. The answers to such life threatening diseases and cancers are monoclonal antibodies (MAb's which are widely used as therapeutic agents. World demand for currently approved MAb's is on the order of a few kilograms per year. However, new therapeutic MAb's are under development and require doses of several hundred milligrams to a gram over the course of therapy. Very often to cater for the special requirements for the growth of mammalian cells, serum is added to the cell culture medium. However, removal of serum from the cell culture medium is often carried out, especially if the end product is to be used for human consumption, in order to eliminate various disadvantages such as high physiological variability, high batch to batch variability, risk of contamination and high cost, and challenges posed in the downstream processing of the product. In this paper, the adaptation of cholesterol requiring NS0 cells to commercially available serum free media is presented. ABSTRAK: Kanser kolorektum merupakan kanser ketiga paling umum dan kini berada di tempat kedua penyebab kematian berkaitan kanser di negara Barat. Jawapan kepada penyakit yang mengancam nyawa dan penyakit kanser adalah antibodi monoklon (monoclonal antibodies ((MAb's yang digunakan sebagai agen terapeutik. Permintaan dunia terhadap MAb's yang diluluskan adalah dalam bilangan beberapa kilogram setahun. Namun, terapeutik MAb's yang baru adalah di bawah penyelidikan dan memerlukan beberapa ratus dos milligram hingga satu gram dalam satu peringkat terapi. Sering kali untuk memenuhi permintaan terhadap tumbesaran sel mamalia, serum dicampurkan dengan sel kultur perantara. Walaupun begitu, pemindahan serum dari sel kultur perantara sering dilakukan, terutamanya jika produk akhir digunakan untuk kegunaan manusia; untuk

  14. Practical methods for handling human periodontal ligament stem cells in serum-free and serum-containing culture conditions under hypoxia: implications for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murabayashi, Dai; Mochizuki, Mai; Tamaki, Yuichi; Nakahara, Taka

    2017-07-01

    Stem cell-based therapies depend on the reliable expansion of patient-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. The supplementation of cell culture media with serum is associated with several risks; accordingly, serum-free media are commercially available for cell culture. Furthermore, hypoxia is known to accelerate the expansion of MSCs. The present study aimed to characterize the properties of periodontal ligament-derived MSCs (PDLSCs) cultivated in serum-free and serum-containing media, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Cell growth, gene and protein expression, cytodifferentiation potential, genomic stability, cytotoxic response, and in vivo hard tissue generation of PDLSCs were examined. Our findings indicated that cultivation in serum-free medium does not affect the MSC phenotype or chromosomal stability of PDLSCs. PDLSCs expanded in serum-free medium exhibited more active growth than in fetal bovine serum-containing medium. We found that hypoxia does not alter the cell growth of PDLSCs under serum-free conditions, but inhibits their osteogenic and adipogenic cytodifferentiation while enabling maintenance of their multidifferentiation potential regardless of the presence of serum. PDLSCs expanded in serum-free medium were found to retain common MSC characteristics, including the capacity for hard tissue formation in vivo. However, PDLSCs cultured in serum-free culture conditions were more susceptible to damage following exposure to extrinsic cytotoxic stimuli than those cultured in medium supplemented with serum, suggesting that serum-free culture conditions do not exert protective effects against cytotoxicity on PDLSC cultures. The present work provides a comparative evaluation of cell culture in serum-free and serum-containing media, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, for applications in regenerative medicine.

  15. Serum-free human MSC medium supports consistency in human but not in equine adipose-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Susanna; Brehm, Walter; Hillmann, Aline; Burk, Janina

    2017-09-19

    For clinical applications of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), serum-free culture is preferable to standardize cell products and prevent contamination with pathogens. In contrast to human MSCs, knowledge on serum-free culture of large animal MSCs is limited, despite its relevance for preclinical studies and development of veterinary cellular therapeutics. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of a commercially available serum-free human MSC medium for culturing equine adipose-derived MSCs in comparison with human adipose MSCs. Enzyme-free isolation by explant technique and expansion of equine and human cells in the serum-free medium were feasible. However, serum-free culture altered the morphology and complicated handling of equine MSCs, with cell aggregation and spontaneous detachment of multilayers, compared to culture in standard medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, proliferation and the surface immunophenotype of equine cells were more variable compared to the controls and appeared to depend on the lot of the serum-free medium. Particularly the expression of CD90 was different between experimental groups (P cultured in serum-free medium (5.21-83.40%) compared to standard medium (86.20-99.50%). Additionally, small subpopulations expressing MSC exclusion markers such as CD14 (0.28-11.60%), CD34 (0.00-9.87%), CD45 (0.35-10.50%), or MHCII (0.00-3.67%) were found in equine samples after serum-free culture. In contrast, human samples displayed a more consistent morphology and a consistent CD29+ (98.60-99.90%), CD73+ (94.60-98.40%), CD90+ (99.60-99.90%), and CD105+ (97.40-99.80%) immunophenotype after culture in serum-free medium. The obtained data demonstrate that the serum-free medium was suitable for human MSC culture but did not lead to entirely satisfactory results in equine MSCs. This underlines that requirements regarding serum-free culture conditions are species-specific, indicating a need for serum-free media to be

  16. An infrequent relapse of multiple myeloma predominantly manifesting as light chain escape: clinical experience from two Chinese centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Li; Fu, Weijun; Zhang, Hui; Xiang, Xixi; Qiu, Lugui; Hou, Jian

    2010-10-01

    Patients with intact immunoglobulin (Ig) multiple myeloma (MM) usually show parallel fluctuations of their intact Ig and light chain (LC) concentrations. Herein we report 11 patients with relapsed, intact Ig MM with a marked increase in urinary LCs in the absence of a parallel rise in serum intact Ig, known as light chain escape (LCE). A major feature accompanying the presentation of LCE was conversion of plasma cell morphology. An important feature preceding the onset of LCE was the use of biological therapies. These patients were not associated with a highly aggressive course. Median overall survival times after the diagnosis of MM and after LCE were 48 months and 24 months, respectively. These cases represent a documented series of a rare but clinically important mode. More attention should be directed toward patients with intact Ig MM when the clinical course deteriorates despite a reduction of intact monoclonal immunoglobins.

  17. Heavy + light chain analysis to assign myeloma response is analogous to the IMWG response criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Guillemette; Snell, Kym Ie; Guidez, Stéphanie; Schraen, Susanna; Boyle, Eileen; Renaud, Loïc; Desmier, Déborah; Machet, Antoine; Moya, Niels; Systchenko, Thomas; Gruchet, Cécile; Decaux, Olivier; Arnulf, Bertrand; Fohrer, Cécile; Richez, Valentine; Kolb, Brigitte; Macro, Margaret; Karlin, Lionel; Royer, Bruno; Pegourie, Brigitte; Hebraud, Benjamin; Caillot, Denis; Perrot, Aurore; Moreau, Philippe; Facon, Thierry; Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Dejoie, Thomas; Hulin, Cyrille; Harding, Stephen; Leleu, Xavier

    2017-07-12

    Automated serum heavy + light chain (HLC) immunoassays can measure the intact immunoglobulins of each light chain type separately. We though to compare HLC assays with electrophoretic techniques in determining International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) response criteria. 114 myeloma patients from 2 trials were included. HLC measurements were made utilizing archived sera and response assessments compared with those based on electrophoretic analysis at the time of the trials. Assessments at ∼90 days and maximal response were compared as was the power of the 2 techniques for predicting later responses, overall survival, and progression. The kappa statistic indicated good agreement between the 2 methods for determining IMWG response criteria, although HLC measurements might give better predictions of subsequent responses and frequently gave an earlier indication of change. HLC measurements could represent an alternative to electrophoretic techniques in determining IMWG response. Validation with a greater range of patient responses is needed for confirmation.

  18. Bortezomib/dexamethasone followed by autologous stem cell transplantation as front line treatment for light-chain deposition disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Natalia; Cibeira, Ma Teresa; Rosiñol, Laura; Solé, Manel; de Larrea, Carlos Fernández; Escoda, Lourdes; Rovira, Montserrat; Bladé, Joan

    2012-10-01

    Limited data has been published on the treatment results in patients with light-chain deposition disease (LCDD). Whenever possible, high-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has been the first treatment option, achieving somehow better results than conventional therapy. However, and based on the promising results obtained by treating patients with light-chain amyloidosis with bortezomib/dexamethasone, new treatment options appear in LCDD. Herein, we describe three patients with LCDD treated with bortezomib/dexamethasone followed by high-dose melphalan and autologous transplantation. We believe that this new approach should be the treatment of choice in this disease. In addition, those patients achieving hematologic complete response after ASCT could benefit from a kidney transplant if the renal impairment requiring dialysis persists. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Partial characterization of immunoglobulin light chains of carcharhine sharks: evidence for phylogenetic conservation of variable region and divergence of constant region structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchalonis, J J; Schluter, S F; Rosenshein, I L; Wang, A C

    1988-01-01

    Isolated light chains of IgM-type immunoglobulins of carcharhine sharks were analyzed by serological and biochemical means. When analyzed by isoelectric focusing analysis, light chains of the tiger shark (Galecerdo cuvieri), the galapagos shark (Carcharhinus galapagensis) and the sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) showed a broad, but patterned, spectrum of bands ranging from pI 5.0 to 7.7 in which discrete families were observed. Serologically, light chains of the galapagos shark cross-reacted with rabbit antibodies against mouse immunoglobulin and a synthetic peptide corresponding to the J segment of T cell receptor beta chain. The latter cross-reaction is shared among light chains and T cell receptors. Although there was considerable heterogeneity in isoelectric focusing analysis, the light chains were homogeneous on the basis of apparent mass (23 kDa) and those of tiger shark and galapagos shark had relatively homogeneous dominant N-terminal sequences representing the first framework. The N-terminal sequences of these two shark light chains, were strongly homologous to one another and showed 75% identity to certain V kappa sequences of man and dog. Homology was also shown to V lambda sequences, but the degree of identity was approximately 50%. Following cleavage of the tiger shark light chain with o-iodosobenzoic acid which cleaves at tryptophanyl residues, a constant region peptide was isolated by gel filtration. It was possible to identify the homolog of this peptide within the constant regions of mammalian kappa and lambda chain, but the relationship to C kappa chain was stronger. The degree of identity among the corresponding C region peptides of mammalian, avian and elasmobranch species was much less than that observed for the framework 1 sequence of the light chain variable region. These data support the concept that variable and J region sequence have been conserved in the evolution of placoderm-derived vertebrates, but that constant regions show much

  20. Papaverine Prevents Vasospasm by Regulation of Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation and Actin Polymerization in Human Saphenous Vein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M Hocking

    Full Text Available Papaverine is used to prevent vasospasm in human saphenous veins (HSV during vein graft preparation prior to implantation as a bypass conduit. Papaverine is a nonspecific inhibitor of phosphodiesterases, leading to increases in both intracellular cGMP and cAMP. We hypothesized that papaverine reduces force by decreasing intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i and myosin light chain phosphorylation, and increasing actin depolymerization via regulation of actin regulatory protein phosphorylation.HSV was equilibrated in a muscle bath, pre-treated with 1 mM papaverine followed by 5 μM norepinephrine, and force along with [Ca2+]i levels were concurrently measured. Filamentous actin (F-actin level was measured by an in vitro actin assay. Tissue was snap frozen to measure myosin light chain and actin regulatory protein phosphorylation. Pre-treatment with papaverine completely inhibited norepinephrine-induced force generation, blocked increases in [Ca2+]i and led to a decrease in the phosphorylation of myosin light chain. Papaverine pre-treatment also led to increased phosphorylation of the heat shock-related protein 20 (HSPB6 and the vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP, as well as decreased filamentous actin (F-actin levels suggesting depolymerization of actin.These results suggest that papaverine-induced force inhibition of HSV involves [Ca2+]i-mediated inhibition of myosin light chain phosphorylation and actin regulatory protein phosphorylation-mediated actin depolymerization. Thus, papaverine induces sustained inhibition of contraction of HSV by the modulation of both myosin cross-bridge formation and actin cytoskeletal dynamics and is a pharmacological alternative to high pressure distention to prevent vasospasm.

  1. Systemic lupus erythematosus: molecular cloning of several recombinant DNase monoclonal kappa light chains with different catalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvinovskaya, Alina V; Kostrikina, Irina A; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2013-10-01

    An immunoglobulin light chain phagemid library derived from peripheral blood lymphocytes of three patients with systemic lupus erythematosus was used. Phage particles displaying DNA binding light chains were isolated by affinity chromatography on DNA-cellulose, and the fraction eluted by an acidic buffer (pH 2.6) was used for preparation of individual monoclonal light chains (MLChs, 28 kDa). Thirty three of 687 individual colonies obtained were randomly chosen for study of MLCh DNase activity. Nineteen of 33 clones contained MLChs with DNase activity. Four preparations of MLChs were expressed in Escherichia coli in soluble form, purified by metal chelating chromatography followed by gel filtration, and studied in detail. Detection of DNase activity after SDS-PAGE in a gel containing DNA demonstrated that the four MLChs are not contaminated by canonical DNases. The MLChs demonstrated one or two pH optima. They were inactive after the dialysis against ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid but could be activated by several externally added metal ions; the ratio of relative activity in the presence of Mg(2+) , Mn(2+) , Ni(2+) , Ca(2+) , Zn(2+) , and Co(2+) was individual for each MLCh preparation. K(+) and Na(+) inhibited the DNase activity of various MLChs at different concentrations. Hydrolysis of DNA by all four MLCh was saturable and consistent with Michaelis-Menten kinetics. These clones are the first examples of recombinant MLChs possessing high affinity for DNA (Km  = 3-9 nM) and demonstrating high kcat values (3.4-6.9 min(-1) ). These observations suggest that the systemic lupus erythematosus light chain repertoire can serve as a source of new types of DNases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Systemic lupus erythematosus: molecular cloning of fourteen recombinant DNase monoclonal kappa light chains with different catalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrikina, Irina A; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2014-06-01

    DNase antibodies can play an important role in the pathogenesis of different autoimmune pathologies. An immunoglobulin light chain phagemid library derived from peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was used. The small pools of phage particles displaying DNA binding light chains with different for DNA were isolated by affinity chromatography on DNA-cellulose and the fraction eluted with 0.5M NaCl was used for preparation of individual monoclonal light chains (MLChs, 28kDa). Forty-five of 451 individual colonies were randomly chosen for a study of MLChs with DNase activity. The clones were expressed in Escherichia coli in a soluble form, and MLChs were purified by metal chelating chromatography followed by gel filtration, and studied in detail. Fifteen of 45 MLChs efficiently hydrolyzed DNA, and fourteen of them demonstrated various optimal concentrations of KCl or NaCl in a 1-100mM range and showed one or two pH optima in a 4.8-9.1 range. All MLChs were dependent on divalent metal cations: the ratio of relative DNase activity in the presence of Mn(2+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Co(2+) was individual for each MLCh preparation. Fourteen MLChs demonstrated a comparable affinity for DNA (260-320nM), but different kcat values (0.02-0.7min(-1)). These observations suggest an extreme diversity of DNase abzymes from SLE patients. SLE light chain repertoire can serve as a source of new types of DNases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced paracellular transport of insulin can be achieved via transient induction of myosin light chain phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverner, Alistair; Dondi, Ruggero; Almansour, Khaled; Laurent, Floriane; Owens, Siân-Eleri; Eggleston, Ian M; Fotaki, Nikoletta; Mrsny, Randall J

    2015-07-28

    The intestinal epithelium functions to effectively restrict the causal uptake of luminal contents but has been demonstrated to transiently increase paracellular permeability properties to provide an additional entry route for dietary macromolecules. We have examined a method to emulate this endogenous mechanism as a means of enhancing the oral uptake of insulin. Two sets of stable Permeant Inhibitor of Phosphatase (PIP) peptides were rationally designed to stimulate phosphorylation of intracellular epithelial myosin light chain (MLC) and screened using Caco-2 monolayers in vitro. Apical application of PIP peptide 640, designed to disrupt protein-protein interactions between protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and its regulator CPI-17, resulted in a reversible and non-toxic transient reduction in Caco-2 monolayer trans-epithelial electric resistance (TEER) and opening of the paracellular route to 4kDa fluorescent dextran but not 70kDa dextran in vitro. Apical application of PIP peptide 250, designed to impede MYPT1-mediated regulation of PP1, also decreased TEER in a reversible and non-toxic manner but transiently opened the paracellular route to both 4 and 70kDa fluorescent dextrans. Direct injection of PIP peptides 640 or 250 with human insulin into the lumen of rat jejunum caused a decrease in blood glucose levels that was PIP peptide and insulin dose-dependent and correlated with increased pMLC levels. Systemic levels of insulin suggested approximately 3-4% of the dose injected into the intestinal lumen was absorbed, relative to a subcutaneous injection. Measurement of insulin levels in the portal vein showed a time window of absorption that was consistent with systemic concentration-time profiles and approximately 50% first-pass clearance by the liver. Monitoring the uptake of a fluorescent form of insulin suggested its uptake occurred via the paracellular route. Together, these studies add validation to the presence of an endogenous mechanism used by the intestinal

  4. Heart failure induced by perinatal ablation of cardiac myosin light chain kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin F. K. Islam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Germline knockout mice are invaluable in understanding the function of the targeted genes. Sometimes, however, unexpected phenotypes are encountered, due in part to the activation of compensatory mechanisms. Germline ablation of cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK causes mild cardiac dysfunction with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, whereas ablation in adult hearts results in acute heart failure with cardiomyocyte atrophy. We hypothesized that compensation after ablation of cMLCK is dependent on developmental staging and perinatal-onset of cMLCK ablation will result in more evident heart failure than germline ablation, but less profound when compared to adult-onset ablation.Methods and Results: The floxed-Mylk3 gene was ablated at the beginning of the perinatal stage using a single intra-peritoneal tamoxifen injection of 50 mg/kg into pregnant mice on the 19th day of gestation, this being the final day of gestation. The level of cMLCK protein level could no longer be detected 3 days after the injection, with these mice hereafter denoted as the perinatal Mylk3-KO. At postnatal day 19, shortly before weaning age, these mice showed reduced cardiac contractility with a fractional shortening 22.8 ± 1.0% (n = 7 as opposed to 31.4 ± 1.0% (n = 11 in controls. The ratio of the heart weight relative to body weight was significantly increased at 6.68 ± 0.28 mg/g (n = 12 relative to the two control groups, 5.90 ± 0.16 (flox/flox, n = 11 and 5.81 ± 0.33 (wild/wild/Cre, n = 5, accompanied by reduced body weight. Furthermore, their cardiomyocytes were elongated without thickening, with a long-axis of 101.8 ± 2.4 μm (n = 320 as opposed to 87.1 ± 1.6 μm (n = 360 in the controls. Conclusion: Perinatal ablation of cMLCK produces an increase of heart weight/body weight ratio, a reduction of contractility, and an increase in the expression of fetal genes. The perinatal Mylk3-KO cardiomyocytes were elongated in the absence of thickening, differing

  5. Immunohistochemical expression of stem cell, endothelial cell, and chemosensitivity markers in primary glioma spheroids cultured in serum-containing and serum-free medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karina; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Andersen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the influence of serum-free medium (SFM) supplemented with epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor compared with conventional serum-containing medium (SCM) on the phenotype of organotypic primary spheroids from seven gliomas.......To investigate the influence of serum-free medium (SFM) supplemented with epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor compared with conventional serum-containing medium (SCM) on the phenotype of organotypic primary spheroids from seven gliomas....

  6. Development of a serum-free system to expand dental-derived stem cells: PDLSCs and SHEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarle, S A; Shi, S; Kaigler, D

    2011-01-01

    Recently, extracted teeth have been identified as a viable source of stem cells for tissue regenerative approaches. Current expansion of these cells requires incorporation of animal sera; yet, a fundamental issue underlying cell cultivation methods for cell therapy regards concerns in using animal sera. In this study, we investigated the development of a chemically defined, serum-free media (K-M) for the expansion of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and human stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs). Proliferation assays were performed comparing cells in serum-containing media (FBS-M) with cells cultured in four different serum-free medium and these demonstrated that in these medium, the cell proliferation of both cell types was significantly less than the proliferation of cells in FBS-M. Additional proliferation assays were performed using pre-coated fibronectin (FN) tissue culture plates and of the four serum-free medium, only K-M enabled PDLSCs and SHEDs to proliferate at higher rates than cells cultured in FBS-M. Next, alkaline phosphatase activity showed that PDLSCs and SHEDs exhibited similar osteogenic potential whether cultured in K-M or FBS-M, and, additionally, cells retained their multipotency in K-M as seen by expression of chondrogenic and adipogenic genes, and positive Von Kossa, Alcian blue, and Oil Red O staining. Finally, differential expression of 84 stem cell associated genes revealed that for most genes, PDLSCs and SHEDs did not differ in their expression regardless of whether cultured in K-M or FBS-M. Taken together, the data suggest that K-M can support the expansion of PDLSCs and SHEDs and maintenance of their multipotency.

  7. Expression and Functional Properties of an Anti-Triazophos High-Affinity Single-Chain Variable Fragment Antibody with Specific Lambda Light Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Triazophos is a widely used organophosphorous insecticide that has potentially adverse effects to organisms. In the present study, a high-affinity single-chain variable fragment (scFv antibody with specific lambda light chain was developed for residue monitoring. First, the specific variable regions were correctly amplified from a hybridoma cell line 8C10 that secreted monoclonal antibody (mAb against triazophos. The regions were then assembled as scFv via splicing by overlap extension polymerase chain reaction. Subsequently, the recombinant anti-triazophos scFv-8C10 was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli strain HB2151 in soluble form, purified through immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, and verified via Western blot and peptide mass fingerprinting analyses. Afterward, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was established based on the purified anti-triazophos scFv-8C10 antibody. The assay exhibited properties similar to those based on the parent mAb, with a high sensitivity (IC50 of 1.73 ng/mL to triazophos and no cross reaction for other organophosphorus pesticides; it was reliable in detecting triazophos residues in spiked water samples. Moreover, kinetic measurement using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor indicated that the purified scFv-8C10 antibody had a high affinity of 1.8 × 10−10 M and exhibited good binding stability. Results indicated that the recombinant high-affinity scFv-8C10 antibody was an effective detection material that would be promising for monitoring triazophos residues in environment samples.

  8. Branched-chain in situ hybridization for κ and λ light chains: A powerful ancillary technique for determining B-cell clonality in cytology samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Kshitij; Chebib, Ivan; Zukerberg, Lawrence; Gandhi, Manoj; Rivera, Miguel; Ting, David; Deshpande, Vikram

    2016-03-01

    Current immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization (ISH) assays are generally inconclusive for clonality unless plasmacytic differentiation is present. This study examined a series of cytology specimens and explored the ability of a branched-chain RNA (bRNA) ISH assay for immunoglobulin κ constant (IGKC) and immunoglobulin λ constant (IGLC) to detect a clonal population of B lymphocytes. Pathology databases were used to identify fine-needle aspiration biopsies (n = 28) and exfoliative cytology samples (n = 20). Demographic, flow cytometry, and excision biopsy results were recorded. bRNA ISH was performed on the Leica Bond platform with the following probes: IGKC, IGLC, immunoglobulin λ-like polypeptide 5 (IGLL5), and a housekeeping gene (HKG). The bRNA ISH assay was validated with 30 surgical biopsies. On bRNA ISH, a clonal B-cell population (light-chain ratio > 10:1) was detected in 22 of 28 cases with a final diagnosis of lymphoma. In 2 cases, a κ predominance was present, although the ratio was cytology material. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  9. Characterization of a specific monoclonal antibody against immunoglobulin light kappa/L1 chain in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Young Kyu; Lee, Jung Seok; Jung, Jae Wook

    2017-01-01

    successfully to study immune responses in fish. There is therefore a need to produce Ig-specific cell markers for fish. Here, we attempted to identify the specific isotype detected by an Ig light chain-specific monoclonal antibody (anti-olive flounder IgL-mAb: M7C3-4) that we had previously produced [11......]. Three newly identified sequences of the Ig light chain from olive flounder were classified according to their isotypes. Subsequent analyses revealed that M7C3-4 was able to specifically detect lymphocytes expressing one of the κ chains (Igκ-a) in olive flounder. Interestingly, Igκ-a+ B cells were more...... abundant in spleen and trunk-kidney than in peripheral blood, indicating a distribution different from that of IgM+ B cells. Our work reveals interesting aspects of B cell distribution and differentiation, and may aid in the production of suitable and effective cell markers for olive flounder....

  10. Tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of myosin II essential light chains of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites regulates their motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Moreno, Raúl; Pérez-Yépez, Eloy-Andrés; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Morales, Fernando O; Meza, Isaura

    2016-08-01

    Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites dwell in the human intestine as comensals although under still unclear circumstances become invasive and destroy the host tissues. For these activities, trophozoites relay on remarkable motility provided by the cytoskeleton organization. Amebic actin and some of its actin-associated proteins are well known, while components of the myosin II molecule, although predicted from the E. histolytica genome, need biochemical and functional characterization. Recently, an amebic essential light myosin II chain, named EhMLCI, was identified and reported to be phosphorylated in tyrosines. The phosphorylated form of the protein was associated with the soluble assembly incompetent conformation of the heavy myosin chains, while the non-phosphorylated protein was identified with filamentous heavy chains, organized in an assembly competent conformation. It was postulated that EhMLCI tyrosine phosphorylation could act as a negative regulator of myosin II activity by its phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles. To test this hypothesis, we constructed an expression vector containing an EhMLCI DNA sequence where two tyrosine residues, with strong probability of phosphorylation and fall within the single EF-hand domain that interacts with the N-terminus of myosin II heavy chains, were replaced by phenylalanines. Transfected trophozoites, expressing the mutant MutEhMLCI protein cannot process it, thereby not incorporated into the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles required for myosin II activity, results in motility defective trophozoites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Revisiting Frank–Starling: regulatory light chain phosphorylation alters the rate of force redevelopment (ktr) in a length‐dependent fashion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toepfer, Christopher N; West, Timothy G; Ferenczi, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation has been shown to alter the ability of muscle to produce force and power during shortening and to alter the rate of force redevelopment ( k tr ) at submaximal [Ca 2...

  12. A Case Report of Acute Renal Failure as a Result of Light-Chain-Mediated Acute Tubular Interstitial Nephritis in a 30-Year-Old Combat Veteran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Benjamin M; Hinton, Adrian P; Thurlow, John S

    2017-11-01

    We present a 30-year-old combat veteran with an unclear exposure history, with multiple deployments who was later diagnosed with acute renal failure as a result of light-chain deposition disease. Despite a drastic decline in kappa light chains following chemotherapy; his renal function worsened, and he progressed to end-stage renal disease, requiring hemodialysis. Light-chain-mediated acute tubular interstitial nephritis is an uncommon type of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance presenting with acute renal failure without significant glomerular disease. Our case illustrates that light-chain-mediated acute tubular interstitial nephritis may present clinically like acute interstitial nephritis and that renal biopsy is critical for diagnosis. We also explore possible links between various environmental and occupational exposures that could have precipitated his disease process at such a young age. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Efficient iPS cell production with the MyoD transactivation domain in serum-free culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Hirai

    Full Text Available A major difficulty of producing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs has been the low efficiency of reprogramming differentiated cells into pluripotent cells. We previously showed that 5% of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs were reprogrammed into iPSCs when they were transduced with a fusion gene composed of Oct4 and the transactivation domain of MyoD (called M(3O, along with Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc (SKM. In addition, M(3O facilitated chromatin remodeling of pluripotency genes in the majority of transduced MEFs, including cells that did not become iPSCs. These observations suggested the possibility that more than 5% of cells had acquired the ability to become iPSCs given more favorable culture conditions. Here, we raised the efficiency of making mouse iPSCs with M(3O-SKM to 26% by culturing transduced cells at low density in serum-free culture medium. In contrast, the efficiency increased from 0.1% to only 2% with the combination of wild-type Oct4 and SKM (OSKM under the same culture condition. For human iPSCs, M(3O-SKM achieved 7% efficiency under a similar serum-free culture condition, in comparison to 1% efficiency with OSKM. This study highlights the power of combining the transactivation domain of MyoD with a favorable culture environment.

  14. Standardized, defined serum-free culture of a human skin equivalent on fibroblast-populated collagen scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, William; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2011-06-01

    The defined, serum-free media used in the cultivation of skin equivalents are liable to inter-laboratory variations, require the preparation of multiple additives, and are potentially difficult to replicate. In this study, we assessed the use of standardized, serum-free and bovine pituitary extract-free keratinocyte culture media in the development of a human skin equivalent. After culture at the air-liquid interface for 3 weeks on a fibroblast-populated collagen lattice, an orthokeratinized, pluristratified epithelium was produced which expressed cytokeratins, cornified cell envelope precursors (involucrin, transglutaminase 1, filaggrin) and desmosomal components (desmoglein and desmocollin 1 and 3, plakophilin 1) in a differentiation-specific manner. There was also evidence of basement membrane reconstitution with collagen IV/VII, laminin 5, α6 and β4 integrin subunit expression at the epithelial-matrix junction. Overall, our findings demonstrate that readily available, defined organotypic culture media can be used to generate a reproducible skin equivalent with hallmarks of epidermal differentiation.

  15. Exploring single chain amphiphile self-assembly and their possible roles in light transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2011-01-01

    source studied to date can supply one single type of amphiphile at concentrations conducive to self-assembly. Mixtures of single-chain amphiphiles were therefore proposed to better model primitive membranes and potentially enhance their structural integrity1-3. Recently, we have established that complex...

  16. Three-dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Light Chain Cardiac Amyloidosis: Examination of Left and Right Ventricular Myocardial Mechanics Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano-Moral, Jose Angel; Gangadharamurthy, Dakshin; Comenzo, Raymond L; Pandian, Natesa G; Patel, Ayan R

    2015-08-01

    The study of myocardial mechanics has a potential role in the detection of cardiac involvement in patients with amyloidosis. This study aimed to characterize 3-dimensional-speckle tracking echocardiography-derived left and right ventricular myocardial mechanics in light chain amyloidosis and examine their relationship with brain natriuretic peptide. In patients with light chain amyloidosis, left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential strain (n=40), and right ventricular longitudinal strain and radial displacement (n=26) were obtained by 3-dimensional-speckle tracking echocardiography. Brain natriuretic peptide levels were determined. All myocardial mechanics measurements showed differences when compared by brain natriuretic peptide level tertiles. Left and right ventricular longitudinal strain were highly correlated (r=0.95, P<.001). Left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential strain were reduced in patients with cardiac involvement (-9±4 vs -16±2; P<.001, and -24±6 vs -29±4; P=.01, respectively), with the most prominent impairment at the basal segments. Right ventricular longitudinal strain and radial displacement were diminished in patients with cardiac involvement (-9±3 vs -17±3; P<.001, and 2.7±0.8 vs 3.8±0.3; P=.002). On multivariate analysis, left ventricular longitudinal strain was associated with the presence of cardiac involvement (odds ratio = 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 2.37; P=.03) independent of the presence of brain natriuretic peptide and troponin I criteria for cardiac amyloidosis. Three-dimensional-speckle tracking echocardiography-derived left and right ventricular myocardial mechanics are increasingly altered as brain natriuretic peptide increases in light chain amyloidosis. There appears to be a strong association between left ventricular longitudinal strain and cardiac involvement, beyond biomarkers such as brain natriuretic peptide and troponin I. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by

  17. Angiotensin II Facilitates Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-Mediated Myosin Light Chain Kinase Degradation in Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Angiotensin II (Ang II has been shown to promote cardiac remodeling during the process of hypertrophy. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK, a specific kinase for the phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2 (MLC2, plays an important role in regulating cardiac muscle contraction and hypertrophy. However, whether Ang II could facilitate cardiac hypertrophy by altering the expression of MLCK remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate this effect and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Cardiac hypertrophy was induced via pressure overload in rats, which were then evaluated via histological and biochemical measurements and echocardiography. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI was used to inhibit Ang II. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were stimulated with Ang II to induce hypertrophy and were treated with a matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 inhibitor. Myocyte hypertrophy was evaluated using immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR. Degradation of recombinant human MLCK by recombinant human MMP9 was tested using a cleavage assay. The expression levels of MLCK, MLC2, phospho-myosin light chain 2 (p-MLC2, myosin phosphatase 2 (MYPT2, and calmodulin (CaM were measured using western blotting. Results: ACEI improved cardiac function and remodeling and increased the levels of MLCK and p-MLC2 as well as reduced the expression of MMP9 in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Moreover, the MMP9 inhibitor alleviated myocyte hypertrophy and upregulated the levels of MLCK and p-MLC2 in Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Recombinant human MLCK was concentration- and time-dependently degraded by recombinant human MMP9 in vitro, and this process was prevented by the MMP9 inhibitor. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Ang II is involved in the degradation of MLCK in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and that this process was mediated by MMP9.

  18. β-Arrestin regulation of myosin light chain phosphorylation promotes AT1aR-mediated cell contraction and migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Simard

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, it has been established that G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs signal not only through canonical G-protein-mediated mechanisms, but also through the ubiquitous cellular scaffolds β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2. Previous studies have implicated β-arrestins as regulators of actin reorganization in response to GPCR stimulation while also being required for membrane protrusion events that accompany cellular motility. One of the most critical events in the active movement of cells is the cyclic phosphorylation and activation of myosin light chain (MLC, which is required for cellular contraction and movement. We have identified the myosin light chain phosphatase Targeting Subunit (MYPT-1 as a binding partner of the β-arrestins and found that β-arrestins play a role in regulating the turnover of phosphorylated myosin light chain. In response to stimulation of the angiotensin Type 1a Receptor (AT1aR, MLC phosphorylation is induced quickly and potently. We have found that β-arrestin-2 facilitates dephosphorylation of MLC, while, in a reciprocal fashion, β-arrestin 1 limits dephosphorylation of MLC. Intriguingly, loss of either β-arrestin-1 or 2 blocks phospho-MLC turnover and causes a decrease in the contraction of cells as monitored by atomic force microscopy (AFM. Furthermore, by employing the β-arrestin biased ligand [Sar(1,Ile(4,Ile(8]-Ang, we demonstrate that AT1aR-mediated cellular motility involves a β-arrestin dependent component. This suggests that the reciprocal regulation of MLC phosphorylation status by β-arrestins-1 and 2 causes turnover in the phosphorylation status of MLC that is required for cell contractility and subsequent chemotaxic motility.

  19. Ig light chain variability in DNP494-KLH immunised sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) : evidence for intra-molecular induced suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, dos N.M.S.; Hermsen, T.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Pilström, L.; Stet, R.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The coding sequence of the sea bass light chain was obtained by sequential anchored PCR on a head kidney cDNA library of a DNP494-KLH immunised sea bass. The cDNA sequence obtained codes for a leader peptide of 21 aa and a mature IgL chain of 223 aa. Both the amino acid sequence comparisons and

  20. Production of anti TNF-α antibodies in eukaryotic cells using different combinations of vectors carrying heavy and light chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabashin, Dmitriy; Kovalenko, Elena; Toporova, Viktoria; Aliev, Teimur; Panina, Anna; Svirshchevskaya, Elena; Dolgikh, Dmitry; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a key role in rheumatoid arthritis and some other autoimmune diseases. Therapy with anti-TNF-α recombinant antibodies (Ab) appears to be highly effective. Production of new hyper-producing eukaryotic cell lines can decrease the treatment cost, which currently is very high. However, due to the complexity of protein transcription, translation, processing, and secretion in mammalian cells, the stages at which antibody expression is affected are still poorly determined. The aim of this work was to compare the productivity of two cell lines developed in CHO DG44 cells, deficient in dihydrofolate reductase, transfected with vectors carrying either heavy (H) or light (L) chains of chimeric antibody under different combinations of selective elements. Both H and L chains were cloned either in pOptiVEC or pcDNA3.3 vectors and different combinations were used to produce HL and LH cell lines. We have shown that Ab production has been low and comparable between HL and LH cells until selection on methotrexate (MTX) when LH but not HL cells have responded with 3.5 times increased productivity. Flow cytometry analysis has demonstrated that intracellular concentration of full size Abs in LH cells was 5.6 times higher than in HL ones due to higher amount of H chain synthesis. No differences in viability between HL and LH cells have been found. We have concluded that the expression of H chain in the pOptiVEC vector, which is responsible for MTX resistance, has led to the suppression of H chain synthesis and limitation in full Ab assembly.

  1. Serum-free microcarrier based production of replication deficient Influenza vaccine candidate virus lacking NS1 using Vero cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Mylene L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza virus is a major health concern that has huge impacts on the human society, and vaccination remains as one of the most effective ways to mitigate this disease. Comparing the two types of commercially available Influenza vaccine, the live attenuated virus vaccine is more cross-reactive and easier to administer than the traditional inactivated vaccines. One promising live attenuated Influenza vaccine that has completed Phase I clinical trial is deltaFLU, a deletion mutant lacking the viral Nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1 gene. As a consequence of this gene deletion, this mutant virus can only propagate effectively in cells with a deficient interferon-mediated antiviral response. To demonstrate the manufacturability of this vaccine candidate, a batch bioreactor production process using adherent Vero cells on microcarriers in commercially available animal-component free, serum-free media is described. Results Five commercially available animal-component free, serum-free media (SFM were evaluated for growth of Vero cells in agitated Cytodex 1 spinner flask microcarrier cultures. EX-CELL Vero SFM achieved the highest cell concentration of 2.6 × 10^6 cells/ml, whereas other SFM achieved about 1.2 × 10^6 cells/ml. Time points for infection between the late exponential and stationary phases of cell growth had no significant effect in the final virus titres. A virus yield of 7.6 Log10 TCID50/ml was achieved using trypsin concentration of 10 μg/ml and MOI of 0.001. The Influenza vaccine production process was scaled up to a 3 liter controlled stirred tank bioreactor to achieve a cell density of 2.7 × 10^6 cells/ml and virus titre of 8.3 Log10 TCID50/ml. Finally, the bioreactor system was tested for the production of the corresponding wild type H1N1 Influenza virus, which is conventionally used in the production of inactivated vaccine. High virus titres of up to 10 Log10 TCID50/ml were achieved. Conclusions We describe for the

  2. Serum-free microcarrier based production of replication deficient influenza vaccine candidate virus lacking NS1 using Vero cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Allen; Poh, Swan Li; Dietzsch, Christian; Roethl, Elisabeth; Yan, Mylene L; Ng, Say Kong

    2011-08-11

    Influenza virus is a major health concern that has huge impacts on the human society, and vaccination remains as one of the most effective ways to mitigate this disease. Comparing the two types of commercially available Influenza vaccine, the live attenuated virus vaccine is more cross-reactive and easier to administer than the traditional inactivated vaccines. One promising live attenuated Influenza vaccine that has completed Phase I clinical trial is deltaFLU, a deletion mutant lacking the viral Nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1) gene. As a consequence of this gene deletion, this mutant virus can only propagate effectively in cells with a deficient interferon-mediated antiviral response. To demonstrate the manufacturability of this vaccine candidate, a batch bioreactor production process using adherent Vero cells on microcarriers in commercially available animal-component free, serum-free media is described. Five commercially available animal-component free, serum-free media (SFM) were evaluated for growth of Vero cells in agitated Cytodex 1 spinner flask microcarrier cultures. EX-CELL Vero SFM achieved the highest cell concentration of 2.6 × 10^6 cells/ml, whereas other SFM achieved about 1.2 × 10^6 cells/ml. Time points for infection between the late exponential and stationary phases of cell growth had no significant effect in the final virus titres. A virus yield of 7.6 Log10 TCID50/ml was achieved using trypsin concentration of 10 μg/ml and MOI of 0.001. The Influenza vaccine production process was scaled up to a 3 liter controlled stirred tank bioreactor to achieve a cell density of 2.7 × 10^6 cells/ml and virus titre of 8.3 Log10 TCID50/ml. Finally, the bioreactor system was tested for the production of the corresponding wild type H1N1 Influenza virus, which is conventionally used in the production of inactivated vaccine. High virus titres of up to 10 Log10 TCID50/ml were achieved. We describe for the first time the production of Influenza viruses using Vero

  3. Platelet-rich concentrate in serum free medium enhances osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shani Samuel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that platelet concentrates used in conjunction with appropriate growth media enhance osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs. However, their potential in inducing osteogenesis of hMSCs when cultured in serum free medium has not been explored. Furthermore, the resulting osteogenic molecular signatures of the hMSCs have not been compared to standard osteogenic medium. We studied the effect of infrequent supplementation (8-day interval of 15% non-activated platelet-rich concentrate (PRC in serum free medium on hMSCs proliferation and differentiation throughout a course of 24 days, and compared the effect with those cultured in a standard osteogenic medium (OM. Cell proliferation was analyzed by alamar blue assay. Gene expression of osteogenic markers (Runx2, Collagen1, Alkaline Phosphatase, Bone morphogenetic protein 2, Osteopontin, Osteocalcin, Osteonectin were analyzed using Q-PCR. Immunocytochemical staining for osteocalcin, osteopontin and transcription factor Runx2 were done at 8, 16 and 24 days. Biochemical assays for the expression of ALP and osteocalcin were also performed at these time-points. Osteogenic differentiation was further confirmed qualitatively by Alizarin Red S staining that was quantified using cetylpyridinium chloride. Results showed that PRC supplemented in serum free medium enhanced hMSC proliferation, which peaked at day 16. The temporal pattern of gene expression of hMSCs under the influence of PRC was comparable to that of the osteogenic media, but at a greater extent at specific time points. Immunocytochemical staining revealed stronger staining for Runx2 in the PRC-treated group compared to OM, while the staining for Osteocalcin and Osteopontin were comparable in both groups. ALP activity and Osteocalcin/DNA level were higher in the PRC group. Cells in the PRC group had similar level of bone mineralization as those cultured in OM, as reflected by the intensity of

  4. Effective market influence. An effect chain analysis of NUTEK`s high-frequency lighting campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeransson, C.; Faugert, S. [SIPU Utvaerdering, Stockholm (Sweden); Baeckman, B.; Arndt, J. [B2B AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    This report is an evaluation of NUTEK`s `Better lighting and more energy-efficient high-frequency fluorescent tube luminaries` campaign. It is concerned with the ways in which NUTEK can influence the spread and use of high-frequency (HF) lighting devices. It also shows that NUTEK actually has affected (contributed to) development in the area. The report analyses and quantifies (as far as possible) how much NUTEK has influenced the various parties concerned in the sector, their attitudes and their actions. 14 figs, 5 tabs

  5. A Single-Chain Photoswitchable CRISPR-Cas9 Architecture for Light-Inducible Gene Editing and Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin X; Zou, Xinzhi; Chung, Hokyung K; Gao, Yuchen; Liu, Yanxia; Qi, Lei S; Lin, Michael Z

    2018-02-16

    Optical control of CRISPR-Cas9-derived proteins would be useful for restricting gene editing or transcriptional regulation to desired times and places. Optical control of Cas9 functions has been achieved with photouncageable unnatural amino acids or by using light-induced protein interactions to reconstitute Cas9-mediated functions from two polypeptides. However, these methods have only been applied to one Cas9 species and have not been used for optical control of different perturbations at two genes. Here, we use photodissociable dimeric fluorescent protein domains to engineer single-chain photoswitchable Cas9 (ps-Cas9) proteins in which the DNA-binding cleft is occluded at baseline and opened upon illumination. This design successfully controlled different species and functional variants of Cas9, mediated transcriptional activation more robustly than previous optogenetic methods, and enabled light-induced transcription of one gene and editing of another in the same cells. Thus, a single-chain photoswitchable architecture provides a general method to control a variety of Cas9-mediated functions.

  6. Myosin light chain phosphorylation is required for peak power output of mouse fast skeletal muscle in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowslaugh, Joshua; Gittings, William; Vandenboom, Rene

    2016-11-01

    The skeletal myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK) catalyzed phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) is associated with potentiation of force, work, and power in rodent fast twitch muscle. The purpose of this study was to compare concentric responses of EDL from wild-type (WT) and skMLCK devoid (skMLCK(-/-)) muscles at a range of shortening speeds (0.05 to 0.70 V max) around that expected to produce maximal power (in vitro, 25 °C) both before (unpotentiated) and after (potentiated) a potentiating stimulus (PS). When collapsed across all speeds tested, neither unpotentiated force, work, or power differed between genotypes (all data n = 10, P muscles. For example, when collapsed across the six fastest speeds we tested, both concentric force and power were increased 30-34 % in WT but only 15-17 % in skMLCK(-/-) muscles. In contrast, at the two slowest speeds, these parameters were increased in WT but decreased in skMLCK(-/-) muscles (8-10 and 7-9 %, respectively). Intriguingly, potentiation of concentric force and power was optimal near speeds producing maximal power in both genotypes. Because the PS elevated RLC phosphorylation above resting levels in WT but not in skMLCK(-/-) muscles, our data suggest that skMLCK-catalyzed phosphorylation of the RLC is required for maximal concentric power output of mouse EDL muscle stimulated at high frequency in vitro.

  7. European trial of free light chain removal by extended haemodialysis in cast nephropathy (EuLITE: A randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billingham Lucinda

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal failure is a frequent complication of multiple myeloma and when severe is associated with a greatly increased morbidity and mortality. The principal cause of severe renal failure is cast nephropathy, a direct consequence of high concentrations of monoclonal free light chains (FLCs in patients' sera. FLC removal by extended haemodialysis, using a high cut-off dialyser, has recently been described as a novel therapeutic option. Methods The EUropean trial of free LIght chain removal by exTEnded haemodialysis in cast nephropathy (EuLITE trial is a prospective, randomised, multicentre, open label clinical trial to investigate the clinical benefits of FLC removal haemodialysis in patients with cast nephropathy, dialysis dependent acute renal failure and de novo multiple myeloma. Recruitment commenced in May 2008. In total, 90 patients will be recruited. Participants will be randomised, centrally, upon enrolment, to either trial chemotherapy and FLC removal haemodialysis or trial chemotherapy and standard high flux haemodialysis. Trial chemotherapy consists of bortezomib, doxorubicin and dexamethasone. FLC removal haemodialysis is undertaken with two Gambro HCO 1100 dialysers in series using an intensive treatment schedule. The primary outcome for the study is independence of dialysis at 3 months. Secondary outcomes are: duration of dialysis, reduction in serum FLC concentrations; myeloma response and survival. Hypothesis FLC removal haemodialysis will increase the rate of renal recovery in patients with severe renal failure secondary to cast nephropathy in de novo multiple myeloma. Trial registration ISRCTN45967602

  8. Crystal structure of human dynein light chain Dnlc2A: structural insights into the interaction with IC74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Feng; Wang, Zhan-Xin; Wang, Xin-Quan; Tang, Qun; An, Xiao-Min; Gui, Lu-Lu; Liang, Dong-Cai

    2006-10-27

    The human light chain of the motor protein dynein, Dnlc2A, is also a novel TGF-beta-signaling component, which is altered with high frequency in epithelial ovarian cancer. It is an important mediator of dynein and the development of cancer, owing to its ability to bind to the dynein intermediate light chain (DIC) IC74 and to regulate TGF-beta-dependent transcriptional events. Here we report the 2.1-A crystal structure of Dnlc2A using single anomalous diffraction. The proteins form a homodimer in solution and interact mainly through the helix alpha(2), strand beta(3), and the loop following this strand in each protein to generate a 10-stranded beta-sheet core. The surface of the beta-sheet core is mainly positively charged and predicted (by software PPI-Pred) to be the site that interacts with other partners. At the same time, the residues 79-82, 88, and 90 of each molecule formed two holes in the core. Residue 89 of each molecule, which is crucial for the DIC binding function of Dnlc2A, is within the holes. On the basis of these observations, we propose that the homodimer is the structural and functional unit maintained by hydrogen bonding interactions and hydrophobic packing, and that the patch of the surface of the beta-sheet core is the main area of interaction with other partners. Furthermore, the two holes would be the key sites to interact with IC74.

  9. Local light-induced spin manipulation in two magnetic centre metallic chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartenstein, T; Li, C; Lefkidis, G; Huebner, W [Department of Physics and Research Center OPTIMAS, Kaiserslautern University of Technology, PO Box 3049, 67653, Kaiserslautern (Germany)], E-mail: chun@physik.uni-kl.de

    2008-08-21

    In this paper localized optically induced spin dynamics is presented, based on highly correlational ab initio calculations. Two-magnetic-centre metallic chains are chosen as a material on which the total spin is always found to lie on one of the magnetic centres only. Switching is achieved through a {lambda}-process driven by a laser pulse whose parameters are optimized with a genetic algorithm. Locally switching the spin on the iron side of a Co-Na-Fe cluster is given as an example of local spin manipulation.

  10. Intrinsic bias and public rearrangements in the human immunoglobulin Vλ light chain repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi, K H; Ippolito, G C

    2013-06-01

    The immunoglobulin lambda (IGL) repertoires from two unrelated human blood samples, three NOD-scid-IL2Rγ(null) mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells and two pairs of monozygotic twin blood samples were determined by Roche 454 sequencing to generate a total of about 700 000 IGL sequences. We applied bioinformatic analysis to examine IGL repertoires wherein, surprisingly, 20% of CDR-L3 peptide sequences were 'public' (shared across individuals); moreover, full-length IGL protein sequences (VJ recombinants) were also present in the public domain. Subtle yet significant differences in CDR-L3 nontemplated nucleotide addition, IGL V-gene family usage, and amino-acid composition distinguished the public CDR-L3 groups from the private groups. These data suggest that public CDR-L3 intervals can arise by intrinsic genetic mechanisms irrespective of different B-cell developmental milieu (human versus humanized mouse). Furthermore, the occurrence of identical public IGL protein sequences indirectly suggest the positive selection (evolutionary, somatic or both) of particular IGL chains independent of the immunoglobulin heavy chain.

  11. The B-domain of factor VIII reduces cell membrane attachement to host cells in serum free conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Mille Petersen; Nørby, Peder Lisby; Flintegaard, Thomas Veje

    2010-01-01

    % of rFVIII is attached to the cell membrane of the producing cell when the rFVIII variant contains a short B-domain (21 aa). By increasing the length of the B-domain the membrane attached fraction can be reduced to 50% of the total expressed rFVIII. Further, our studies show that the N-linked......Factor VIII (FVIII) is an important protein in the blood coagulation cascade and dysfunction or deficiency of FVIII causes haemophilia A. Replacement therapy with exogenous recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) works as a substitute for the missing or non-functioning FVIII. The rFVIII protein has been...... engineered extensively throughout the years to increase the low production yields that initially were obtained from mammalian cell cultures. The scope of this work was to investigate the interaction of rFVIII with the cell membrane surface of the producing cells in serum free medium. We wondered whether...

  12. A novel serum-free monolayer culture for orderly hematopoietic differentiation of human pluripotent cells via mesodermal progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Niwa

    Full Text Available Elucidating the in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem (ES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells is important for understanding both normal and pathological hematopoietic development in vivo. For this purpose, a robust and simple hematopoietic differentiation system that can faithfully trace in vivo hematopoiesis is necessary. In this study, we established a novel serum-free monolayer culture that can trace the in vivo hematopoietic pathway from ES/iPS cells to functional definitive blood cells via mesodermal progenitors. Stepwise tuning of exogenous cytokine cocktails induced the hematopoietic mesodermal progenitors via primitive streak cells. These progenitors were then differentiated into various cell lineages depending on the hematopoietic cytokines present. Moreover, single cell deposition assay revealed that common bipotential hemoangiogenic progenitors were induced in our culture. Our system provides a new, robust, and simple method for investigating the mechanisms of mesodermal and hematopoietic differentiation.

  13. Immunoglobulin analysis tool: a novel tool for the analysis of human and mouse heavy and light chain transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogosch, Tobias; Kerzel, Sebastian; Hoi, Kam Hon; Zhang, Zhixin; Maier, Rolf F; Ippolito, Gregory C; Zemlin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Sequence analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy and light chain transcripts can refine categorization of B cell subpopulations and can shed light on the selective forces that act during immune responses or immune dysregulation, such as autoimmunity, allergy, and B cell malignancy. High-throughput sequencing yields Ig transcript collections of unprecedented size. The authoritative web-based IMGT/HighV-QUEST program is capable of analyzing large collections of transcripts and provides annotated output files to describe many key properties of Ig transcripts. However, additional processing of these flat files is required to create figures, or to facilitate analysis of additional features and comparisons between sequence sets. We present an easy-to-use Microsoft(®) Excel(®) based software, named Immunoglobulin Analysis Tool (IgAT), for the summary, interrogation, and further processing of IMGT/HighV-QUEST output files. IgAT generates descriptive statistics and high-quality figures for collections of murine or human Ig heavy or light chain transcripts ranging from 1 to 150,000 sequences. In addition to traditionally studied properties of Ig transcripts - such as the usage of germline gene segments, or the length and composition of the CDR-3 region - IgAT also uses published algorithms to calculate the probability of antigen selection based on somatic mutational patterns, the average hydrophobicity of the antigen-binding sites, and predictable structural properties of the CDR-H3 loop according to Shirai's H3-rules. These refined analyses provide in-depth information about the selective forces acting upon Ig repertoires and allow the statistical and graphical comparison of two or more sequence sets. IgAT is easy to use on any computer running Excel(®) 2003 or higher. Thus, IgAT is a useful tool to gain insights into the selective forces and functional properties of small to extremely large collections of Ig transcripts, thereby assisting a researcher to mine a data set

  14. Immobilization of sericin molecules via amorphous carbon plasma modified-polystyrene dish for serum-free culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunma, Somruthai [The Graduate School, Chiang Mai University, 239 Huay Kaew Road, Muang District, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics (ThEP), 239 Huay Kaew Road, Muang District, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Song, Doo-Hoon [Research Center for Orofacial Hard Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Si-Eun; Kim, Kyoung-Nam [Research Center for Orofacial Hard Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jeon-Geon [Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Boonyawan, Dheerawan, E-mail: dheerawan.b@cmu.ac.th [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics (ThEP), 239 Huay Kaew Road, Muang District, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, 239 Huay Kaew Road, Muang District, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, we focused on sericin hydrolysates, originating from silkworm used in serum-free human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) culture. We reported the effect of a covalent linkage between a bioactive protein molecule and polystyrene dish surface via a carbon intermediate layer which can slow down the release rate of protein compounds into the phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution. Films of amorphous carbon (a-C) and functionalized-carbon were deposited on PS culture dish surfaces by using a DC magnetron sputtering system and RF PECVD system. We found that a-C based-films can increase the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of polystyrene (PS) dishes, especially a-C films and a-C:N{sub 2} films showed good attachment of hBM-MSCs at 24 h. However, in the case of silica surface (a-C:SiO{sub x} films), the cells showed a ragged and unattached boundary resulting from the presence of surface silanol groups. For the UV–vis absorbance, all carbon modified-PS dishes showed a lower release rate of sericin molecules into PBS solution than PS control. This revealed that the functionalized carbon could be enhanced by specific binding properties with given molecules. The carbon-coated PS dishes grafting with sericin protein were used in a serum-free condition. We also found that hBM-MSCs have higher percentage of proliferated cells at day 7 for the modified dishes with carbon films and coated with sericin than the PS control coated with sericin. The physical film properties were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and contact angle measurement. The presence of -NH{sub 2} groups of sericin compounds on the PS dish was revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The stability of covalent bonds of sericin molecules after washing out ungrafted sericin was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  15. Norepinephrine stimulates progesterone production in highly estrogenic bovine granulosa cells cultured under serum-free, chemically defined conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccinato Carla A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since noradrenergic innervation was described in the ovarian follicle, the actions of the intraovarian catecholaminergic system have been the focus of a variety of studies. We aimed to determine the gonadotropin-independent effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE in the steroid hormone profile of a serum-free granulosa cell (GC culture system in the context of follicular development and dominance. Methods Primary bovine GCs were cultivated in a serum-free, chemically defined culture system supplemented with 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol. The culture features were assessed by hormone measurements and ultrastructural characteristics of GCs. Results GCs produced increasing amounts of estradiol and pregnenolone for 144h and maintained ultrastructural features of healthy steroidogenic cells. Progesterone production was also detected, although it significantly increased only after 96h of culture. There was a highly significant positive correlation between estradiol and pregnenolone production in high E2-producing cultures. The effects of NE were further evaluated in a dose–response study. The highest tested concentration of NE (10 (−7 M resulted in a significant increase in progesterone production, but not in estradiol or pregnenolone production. The specificity of NE effects on progesterone productio n was further investigated by incubating GCs with propranolol (10 (−8 M, a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Conclusions The present culture system represents a robust model to study the impact of intrafollicular factors, such as catecholamines, in ovarian steroidogenesis and follicular development. The results of noradrenergic effects in the steroidogenesis of GC have implications on physiological follicular fate and on certain pathological ovarian conditions such as cyst formation and anovulation.

  16. Shift of microRNA profile upon glioma cell migration using patient-derived spheroids and serum-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Sune; Halle, Bo; Boldt, Henning B; Christiansen, Helle; Schmidt, Steffen; Kaimal, Vivek; Xu, Jessica; Zabludoff, Sonya; Mollenhauer, Jan; Poulsen, Frantz R; Kristensen, Bjarne W

    2017-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent malignant primary brain tumor. A major reason for the overall median survival being only 14.6 months is migrating tumor cells left behind after surgery. Another major reason is tumor cells having a so-called cancer stem cell phenotype being therefore resistant towards traditional chemo- and radiotherapy. A group of novel molecular targets are microRNAs (miRNAs). MiRNAs are small non-coding RNAs exerting post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in migrating GBM cells using serum-free stem cell conditions. We used patient-derived GBM spheroid cultures for a novel serum-free migration assay. MiRNA expression of migrating tumor cells isolated at maximum migration speed was compared with corresponding spheroids using an OpenArray Real-Time PCR System. The miRNA profiling revealed 30 miRNAs to be differentially expressed. In total 13 miRNAs were upregulated and 17 downregulated in migrating cells compared to corresponding spheroids. The three most deregulated miRNAs, miR-1227 (up-regulated), miR-32 (down-regulated) and miR-222 (down-regulated), were experimentally overexpressed. A non-significantly increased migration rate was observed after miR-1227 overexpression. A significantly reduced migration rate was observed after miR-32 and miR-222 overexpression. In conclusion a shift in microRNA profile upon glioma cell migration was identified using an assay avoiding serum-induced migration. Both the miRNA profiling and the functional validation suggested that miR-1227 may be associated with increased migration and miR-32 and miR-222 with decreased migration. These miRNAs may represent potential novel targets in migrating glioma cells.

  17. Catalytic Features of the Botulinum Neurotoxin A Light Chain Revealed by High Resolution Structure of an Inhibitory Peptide Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvaggi,N.; Wilson, D.; Tzipori, S.; Allen, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A light chain (BoNT/A-LC) is a Zn(II)-dependent metalloprotease that blocks the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction by cleaving SNAP-25, one of the SNARE proteins required for exocytosis. Because of the potential for use of the toxin in bioterrorism and the increasingly widespread application of the toxin in the medical field, there is significant interest in the development of small-molecule inhibitors of the metalloprotease. Efforts to design such inhibitors have not benefited from knowledge of how peptides bind to the active site since the enzyme-peptide structures available previously either were not occupied in the vicinity of the catalytic Zn(II) ion or did not represent the product of SNAP-25 substrate cleavage. Herein we report the 1.4 Angstroms-resolution X-ray crystal structure of a complex between the BoNT/A-LC and the inhibitory peptide N-Ac-CRATKML, the first structure of the light chain with an inhibitory peptide bound at the catalytic Zn(II) ion. The peptide is bound with the Cys S? atom coordinating the metal ion. Surprisingly, the cysteine sulfur is oxidized to the sulfenic acid form. Given the unstable nature of this species in solution, is it likely that oxidation occurs on the enzyme. In addition to the peptide-bound structure, we report two structures of the unliganded light chain with and without the Zn(II) cofactor bound at 1.25 and 1.20 Angstroms resolution, respectively. The two structures are nearly identical, confirming that the Zn(II) ion plays a purely catalytic role. Additionally, the structure of the Zn(II)-bound uncomplexed enzyme allows identification of the catalytic water molecule and a second water molecule that occupies the same position as the peptidic oxygen in the tetrahedral intermediate. This observation suggests that the enzyme active site is prearranged to stabilize the tetrahedral intermediate of the protease reaction.

  18. Leptomeningeal myelomatosis in previously treated high-risk kappa light chain multiple myeloma: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohanian M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Maro Ohanian1, James Alaly2, Stephen Samuel3, Christian Cable1, Kathleen Halka11Department of Hematology/Oncology, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Hematopathology, Scott and White Healthcare, The Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, Texas, USAObjective: To describe leptomeningeal myelomatosis (LM in previously treated high-risk kappa light chain multiple myeloma (MM and to review the literature.Case report: A 71-year-old female with previously treated kappa light chain myeloma presented with right lumbosacral discomfort. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of spine revealed multiple intradural masses involving the cauda equina, with mass effect on adjacent nerve roots. Brain MRI was unremarkable. Cerebrospinal fluid flow cytometry confirmed an abnormal population of plasma cells with kappa restriction; CD38, CD138, and CD56 were positive. She was originally diagnosed with kappa light chain myeloma 10 months earlier while hospitalized for anemia, thrombocytopenia, renal failure, and hypercalcemia. Bone marrow revealed plasma cell myeloma approaching 100% cellularity, with 92% plasma cells, atypical plasmacytoid cells with prominent nucleoli, and significant cytogenetic abnormalities: deleted 13, c-myc rearrangements, -X, +1. Treatments consisted of seven cycles of bortezomib with weekly dexamethasone. Her last dose had been 4 months earlier. After treatment, bone marrow demonstrated a complete remission with normal cytogenetics. Her clinical course had otherwise been indolent with a good hematologic response. After diagnosis of LM, therapy included focal external beam radiation to the cauda equina, weekly bortezomib and dexamethasone, intrathecal (IT cytarabine liposomal every 2 weeks for five doses, and monthly IT cytarabine liposomal thereafter. The cerebrospinal fluid gradually cleared on serial lumbar punctures and follow-up MRI demonstrated near complete resolution of the intradural masses. Five months after

  19. Vascular O-GlcNAcylation augments reactivity to constrictor stimuli by prolonging phosphorylated levels of the myosin light chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, V.V. [Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, MT (Brazil); Lobato, N.S.; Filgueira, F.P. [Curso de Medicina, Setor de Fisiologia Humana, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Jataí, GO (Brazil); Webb, R.C. [Department of Physiology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA (United States); Tostes, R.C. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Giachini, F.R. [Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, MT (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    O-GlcNAcylation is a modification that alters the function of numerous proteins. We hypothesized that augmented O-GlcNAcylation levels enhance myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and reduce myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity, leading to increased vascular contractile responsiveness. The vascular responses were measured by isometric force displacement. Thoracic aorta and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from rats were incubated with vehicle or with PugNAc, which increases O-GlcNAcylation. In addition, we determined whether proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation. PugNAc enhanced phenylephrine (PE) responses in rat aortas (maximal effect, 14.2±2 vs 7.9±1 mN for vehicle, n=7). Treatment with an MLCP inhibitor (calyculin A) augmented vascular responses to PE (13.4±2 mN) and abolished the differences in PE-response between the groups. The effect of PugNAc was not observed when vessels were preincubated with ML-9, an MLCK inhibitor (7.3±2 vs 7.5±2 mN for vehicle, n=5). Furthermore, our data showed that differences in the PE-induced contractile response between the groups were abolished by the activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AICAR; 6.1±2 vs 7.4±2 mN for vehicle, n=5). PugNAc increased phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT-1) and protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor protein of 17 kDa (CPI-17), which are involved in RhoA/Rho-kinase-mediated inhibition of myosin phosphatase activity. PugNAc incubation produced a time-dependent increase in vascular phosphorylation of myosin light chain and decreased phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase, which decreased the affinity of MLCK for Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin. Our data suggest that proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation, favoring vascular contraction.

  20. Production and characterization of high-titer serum-free cell culture grown hepatitis C virus particles of genotype 1-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Christian K; Jensen, Tanja B; Prentoe, Jannick

    2014-01-01

    Recently, cell culture systems producing hepatitis C virus particles (HCVcc) were developed. Establishment of serum-free culture conditions is expected to facilitate development of a whole-virus inactivated HCV vaccine. We describe generation of genotype 1-6 serum-free HCVcc (sf-HCVcc) from Huh7...... systems producing high-titer single-density sf-HCVcc, showing similar biological properties as HCVcc. This methodology has the potential to advance HCV vaccine development and to facilitate biophysical studies of HCV....

  1. Surface IgM λ light chain is involved in the binding and infection of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) to DT40 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jiaqi; You, Leiming; Li, Peipei; Teng, Man; Zhang, Gaiping; Luo, Jun; Wang, Aiping

    2018-01-25

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an important immunosuppressive virus in chickens. Surface immunoglobulin M (sIgM)-bearing B lymphocytes act as the major targets of IBDV in the bursa of Fabricius, and sIgM may function as one of the membrane binding sites responsible for IBDV infection. Recently, using the virus overlay protein binding assay, the chicken λ light chain of sIgM was identified to specifically interact with IBDV in a virulence-independent manner in vitro. To further investigate sIgM λ light chain-mediated IBDV binding and infection in pre-B cells, the cell line DT40, which is susceptible to both pathogenic and attenuated IBDV, was used. Based on the RNA interference strategy, the DT40 cell line whose λ light chain of sIgM was stably knocked down, herein termed DT40LKD, was generated by the genomic integration of a specific small hairpin RNA and a green fluorescence protein co-expression construct. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the binding of IBDV to DT40LKD cells was significantly reduced due to the loss of sIgM λ light chain. In particular, reduced viral replication was observed in IBDV-incubated DT40LKD cells, and no viral release into cell culture medium was detected by the IBDV rapid diagnostic strips. In addition, the rescue of sIgM λ light chain expression restored viral binding and replication in DT40LKD cells. These results show that sIgM λ light chain appears to be beneficial for IBDV attachment and infection, suggesting that sIgM acts as a binding site involved in IBDV infection.

  2. Study of autophagy-related protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II expression levels in thyroid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Li, Lechen; Wang, Jun; Cao, Mingming; Liu, Guodong; Xie, Guangying; Yang, Zhenyu; Li, Yanbo

    2015-02-01

    Thyroid cancers are the most common malignant tumors of the endocrine system. The survival-promoting role of autophagy in tumor cells has been received universally. This study aimed to explore autophagy-related protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II expression levels in thyroid diseases including papillary thyroid cancer. A total of 45 thyroid samples, including 19 samples of papillary thyroid cancer, 7 samples of nodular goiter, 8 samples of Hashimoto thyroiditis and 11 samples of normal thyroid tissue resected during surgery, were selected and divided into pathological groups using light microscope. Levels of autophagy-related protein LC3-II in four different types of thyroid tissue were tested through Western blot. SPSS19 software was utilized to analyze the research data statistically. LC3-II protein levels in papillary thyroid cancer tissues were lower than that in normal thyroid tissues significantly (Pthyroid tissue, expression levels of LC3-II protein were higher in samples of Hashimoto thyroiditis and nodular goiter (Pthyroid cancer, while there was significant variation between patients with and without lymph node metastasis. Compared with patients of thyroid cancer without lymph node metastasis, the level of LC3-II protein was lower in patients of thyroid cancer with lymph node metastasis (Pthyroid diseases may contribute to the clinical diagnosis and provide theoretic basis for the therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Light scattering and absorption by fractal-like carbonaceous chain aggregates: comparison of theories and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Rajan K; Moosmüller, Hans; Arnott, W Patrick; Garro, Mark A; Slowik, Jay G; Cross, Eben S; Han, Jeong-Ho; Davidovits, Paul; Onasch, Timothy B; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2007-10-01

    This study compares the optical coefficients of size-selected soot particles measured at a wavelength of 870 nm with those predicted by three theories, namely, Rayleigh-Debye-Gans (RDG) approximation, volume-equivalent Mie theory, and integral equation formulation for scattering (IEFS). Soot particles, produced by a premixed ethene flame, were size-selected using two differential mobility analyzers in series, and their scattering and absorption coefficients were measured with nephelometry and photoacoustic spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy and image processing techniques were used for the parameterization of the structural properties of the fractal-like soot aggregates. The aggregate structural parameters were used to evaluate the predictions of the optical coefficients based on the three light-scattering and absorption theories. Our results show that the RDG approximation agrees within 10% with the experimental results and the exact electromagnetic calculations of the IEFS theory. Volume-equivalent Mie theory overpredicts the experimental scattering coefficient by a factor of approximately 3.2. The optical coefficients predicted by the RDG approximation showed pronounced sensitivity to changes in monomer mean diameter, the count median diameter of the aggregates, and the geometric standard deviation of the aggregate number size distribution.

  4. Native extracellular matrix preserves mesenchymal stem cell "stemness" and differentiation potential under serum-free culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakian, Rubie; Block, Travis J; Johnson, Shannan M; Marinkovic, Milos; Wu, Junjie; Dai, Qiuxia; Dean, David D; Chen, Xiao-Dong

    2015-12-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) for clinical use should not be grown in media containing fetal bovine serum (FBS), because of serum-related concerns over biosafety and batch-to-batch variability. Previously, we described the preparation and use of a cell-free native extracellular matrix (ECM) made by bone marrow cells (BM-ECM) which preserves stem cell properties and enhances proliferation. Here, we compare colony-forming ability and differentiation of MSCs cultured on BM-ECM with a commercially available matrix (CELLstart™) and tissue culture plastic (TCP) under serum-free conditions. Primary MSCs from freshly isolated bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells or passaged MSCs (P1) were grown in serum-containing (SCM) or serum-free (SFM) media on BM-ECM, CELLstart™, or TCP substrates. Proliferation, cell composition (phenotype), colony-forming unit replication, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) responsiveness were compared among cells maintained on the three substrates. Proliferation of primary BM-MSCs was significantly higher in SCM than SFM, irrespectively of culture substrate, suggesting that the expansion of these cells requires SCM. In contrast, passaged cells cultured on BM-ECM or CELLstart™ in SFM proliferated to nearly the same extent as cells in SCM. However, morphologically, those on BM-ECM were smaller and more aligned, slender, and long. Cells grown for 7 days on BM-ECM in SFM were 20-40 % more positive for MSC surface markers than cells cultured on CELLstart™. Cells cultured on TCP contained the smallest number of cells positive for MSC markers. MSC colony-forming ability in SFM, as measured by CFU-fibroblasts, was increased 10-, 9-, and 2-fold when P1 cells were cultured on BM-ECM, CELLstart™, and TCP, respectively. Significantly, CFU-adipocyte and -osteoblast replication of cells grown on BM-ECM was dramatically increased over those on CELLstart™ (2X) and TCP (4-7X). BM-MSCs, cultured in SFM and treated with BMP-2

  5. Effect of IL-6 on proliferation and IG production of human EBV-transformed cell lines in serum free culture media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochems, G. J.; Jordens, R.; van Lier, R. A.; Zeijlemaker, W. P.

    1990-01-01

    To optimalize growth and Ig production of EBV transformed B cells for large scale tissue culture, we analyzed five stable monoclonal EBV-B cell lines for their responsiveness to interleukin (IL)-6 in standard medium with 5% FCS and in several serum-free media. As we previously demonstrated these

  6. Use of synthetic serum-free medium for culture of human dermal fibroblasts to establish an experimental system similar to living dermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, Hirotaka; Nomura, Tadashi; Hasegawa, Masumi; Tatsumi, Chiaki; Imai, Midori; Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Terashi, Hiroto

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we sought to establish a defined experimental system for fibroblast growth similar to that of the living dermis. To this end, we evaluated the growth and biochemical characteristics of fibroblasts cultured with serum-free HFDM-1, a finely tuned synthetic medium for human fibroblast culture. Three culture conditions were used to grow fibroblasts obtained from primary culture: (1) culture with Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) plus 10 % fetal bovine serum (serum-supplemented DMEM), (2) culture with DMEM (serum-free DMEM), and (3) culture with HFDM-1 (HFDM-1), and fibroblast morphology, growth, collagen type I production, and lipid composition were analyzed. Fibroblasts grown in HFDM-1 maintained cell numbers at nearly 100 % from days 14 to 21 and produced more collagen type I than cells grown in serum-supplemented and serum-free DMEM. Arachidonic acid (20:4) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids were lower in cells grown in serum-free DMEM and HFDM-1 than in serum-supplemented DMEM. These results suggested that HFDM-1 recapitulated growth conditions in the dermis better than traditional, serum-supplemented DMEM. In addition, the controlled chemical composition of HFDM-1 eliminated a potential source of variability in cell culture conditions.

  7. Serum-free isolation and culture system to enhance the proliferation and bone regeneration of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Takehiro; Kato, Toshiki; Kitamura, Yukiko; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Sato, Fujio; Ohneda, Osamu

    2015-05-01

    Cell therapy using human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is an attractive approach for many refractory diseases. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) are considered as a favorable tool due to its abundance in the body, easy proliferation, and high cytokine production potency. In order to avoid the risks associated with the use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in culture that includes batch variations and contamination with pathogens, development of serum-free culture system has been initiated. We have formulated a completely serum-free culture medium (SFM) that could be used not only for the expansion of AT-MSCs but also for initial isolation. We demonstrate that the AT-MSCs isolated and cultured in serum-free medium (AT-MSCs/SFM) possess high proliferation capacity and differentiation potency to osteoblast, adipocyte, and chondrocyte lineages in vitro. In in vivo bone fraction model analysis, AT-MSCs/SFM showed higher bone repair potency and quality of the regenerated bone than the cells cultured in serum-containing medium (AT-MSCs/SCM). This was attributed to the (i) presence of translated cells in the bone, as evidenced by in vivo imaging of the illuminated translated cells and (ii) high level of expression and induction capacity of AT-MSCs/SFM for cytokine BMP2, CCL2, and CCL5. Taken together, we report a new serum-free culture system for AT-MSCs that is suitable for cell therapy.

  8. Epidermal growth factor can optimize a serum-free culture system for bone marrow stem cell proliferation in a miniature pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Zheng, Feng; Liu, Ousheng; Zheng, Shutao; Liu, Yishan; Wang, Yuehong; Tang, Zhangui; Zhong, Liangjun

    2013-12-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have become an attractive cell source for periodontal ligament regeneration treatment because of their potential to engraft to several tissue types after injury. Most researchers have focused on the transplantation process, but few have paid attention to cell safety concerns and rapid proliferation before transplantation. Using serum-free medium to culture stem cells may be an effective method to avoid problems associated with exogenous serum and the addition of growth factors to promote cell proliferation. Here, we randomly divided our serum-free cultures and treated them with different levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF). We then evaluated changes in rates of cell adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle ratio as well as their differentiation potential. The data showed that all of these parameters were significantly different when comparing serum-free cultures with and without 10 nM/L EGF (p 0.05). In summary, our results demonstrate that 10 nM/L EGF was the optimal dose for serum-free culture, which can replace traditional standard serum medium for in vitro expansion of miniature pig bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

  9. Keratinocytes propagated in serum-free, feeder-free culture conditions fail to form stratified epidermis in a reconstituted skin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Rebecca; Ambler, Carrie A

    2013-01-01

    Primary human epidermal stem cells isolated from skin tissues and subsequently expanded in tissue culture are used for human therapeutic use to reconstitute skin on patients and to generate artificial skin in culture for academic and commercial research. Classically, epidermal cells, known as keratinocytes, required fibroblast feeder support and serum-containing media for serial propagation. In alignment with global efforts to remove potential animal contaminants, many serum-free, feeder-free culture methods have been developed that support derivation and growth of these cells in 2-dimensional culture. Here we show that keratinocytes grown continually in serum-free and feeder-free conditions were unable to form into a stratified, mature epidermis in a skin equivalent model. This is not due to loss of cell potential as keratinocytes propagated in serum-free, feeder-free conditions retain their ability to form stratified epidermis when re-introduced to classic serum-containing media. Extracellular calcium supplementation failed to improve epidermis development. In contrast, the addition of serum to commercial, growth media developed for serum-free expansion of keratinocytes facilitated 3-dimensional stratification in our skin equivalent model. Moreover, the addition of heat-inactivated serum improved the epidermis structure and thickness, suggesting that serum contains factors that both aid and inhibit stratification.

  10. Gender-specific relationship between serum free and total IGF-I and bone mineral density in elderly men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, JAMJL; Burger, H; Stolk, RP; Grobbee, DE; de Jong, FH; Lamberts, SWJ; Pols, HAP

    Objective: Little is known about the association between free IGF-I levels and bone mineral density (BMD). Design: A cross-sectional study of 218 healthy subjects (103 men, 115 women, age 55-80 years) was carried out. Methods: Fasting serum free IGF-I, total IGF-I, estradiol and sex hormone-binding

  11. Liver Transplantation Is a Potential Treatment Option for Systemic Light Chain Amyloidosis Patients with Dominant Hepatic Involvement: A Case Report and Analytical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Akihiro; Katoh, Nagaaki; Aramaki, Osamu; Makuuchi, Masatoshi; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Systemic light chain (AL) amyloidosis is caused by abnormal plasma cell clones producing amyloidogenic light chains. The standard treatment is therefore chemotherapy targeting these clones, however, some patients are ineligible due to liver dysfunction. For these patients, preceding liver transplantation (LT) and following chemotherapy is a possible treatment option. We herein report a 58-year-old man with advanced hepatic AL amyloidosis who was successfully treated using this strategy. Previously reported cases treated with LT for this condition were reviewed, however, the outcomes were not favorable. We additionally investigated potential prognostic factors of this treatment approach to improve the outcome of these patients.

  12. Aberrant Expression of Dynein light chain 1 (DYNLT1) is Associated with Human Male Factor Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indu, Sivankutty; Sekhar, Sreeja C; Sengottaiyan, Jeeva; Kumar, Anil; Pillai, Sathy M; Laloraya, Malini; Kumar, Pradeep G

    2015-12-01

    DYNLT1 is a member of a gene family identified within the t-complex of the mouse, which has been linked with male germ cell development and function in the mouse and the fly. Though defects in the expression of this gene are associated with male sterility in both these models, there has been no study examining its association with spermatogenic defects in human males. In this study, we evaluated the levels of DYNLT1 and its expression product in the germ cells of fertile human males and males suffering from spermatogenic defects. We screened fertile (n = 14), asthenozoospermic (n = 15), oligozoospermic (n = 20) and teratozoospermic (n = 23) males using PCR and Western blot analysis. Semiquantitative PCR indicated either undetectable or significantly lower levels of expression of DYNLT1 in the germ cells from several patients from across the three infertility syndrome groups, when compared with that of fertile controls. DYNLT1 was localized on head, mid-piece, and tail segments of spermatozoa from fertile males. Spermatozoa from infertile males presented either a total absence of DYNLT1 or its absence in the tail region. Majority of the infertile individuals showed negligible levels of localization of DYNLT1 on the spermatozoa. Overexpression of DYNLT1 in GC1-spg cell line resulted in the up-regulation of several cytoskeletal proteins and molecular chaperones involved in cell cycle regulation. Defective expression of DYNLT1 was associated with male factor infertility syndromes in our study population. Proteome level changes in GC1-spg cells overexpressing DYNLT1 were suggestive of its possible function in germ cell development. We have discussed the implications of these observations in the light of the known functions of DYNLT1, which included protein trafficking, membrane vesiculation, cell cycle regulation, and stem cell differentiation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Human marrow mesenchymal stem cell culture: serum-free medium allows better expansion than classical alpha-MEM medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleman, Nathalie; Tondreau, Tatiana; Delforge, Alain; Dejeneffe, Marielle; Massy, Martine; Libertalis, Mark; Bron, Dominique; Lagneaux, Laurence

    2006-04-01

    The expansion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) strongly depends on the culture conditions and requires medium supplemented with 10-20% fetal calf serum (FCS) to generate relevant numbers of cells. However, the presence of FCS is a major obstacle for their clinical use. Therefore, we have evaluated the capacity of expansion of MSC in a commercial serum-free medium (UC) supplemented with a serum substitute (ULTROSER) in comparison with a classical medium alpha-MEM containing 15% FBS. Bone marrow-mononuclear cells collected from 12 volunteer healthy donors were expanded in two different culture media. MSCs isolated in the both media were morphologically similar and expressed identical phenotypic markers. After the primoculture (P0) and one passage, we obtained significantly more MSC and CFU-F progenitors in UC medium than in alphaMEM. Their multipotentiality was preserved during culture, as well as their capacity to support haematopoiesis. In conclusion, our observations strongly suggest that UC is an optimal medium for ex vivo expansion of MSC: it allows a better cell expansion, preserves cell multipotentiality, reduces the culture period and contains low concentration of serum substitute. This medium seems suitable for clinical scale expansion of MSC.

  14. Contribution of factor VIII light-chain residues 2007-2016 to an activated protein C-interactive site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyama, Masahiro; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Fay, Philip J

    2013-02-01

    Although factor (F) VIIIa is inactivated by activated protein C (APC) through cleavages in the FVIII heavy chain-derived A1 (Arg(336)) and A2 subunits (Arg(562), the FVIII light chain (LC) contributes to catalysis by binding the enzyme. ELISA-based binding assays showed that FVIII and FVIII LC bound to immobilised active site-modified APC (DEGR-APC) (apparent K(d) ~270 nM and 1.0 μM, respectively). Fluid-phase binding studies using fluorescence indicated an estimated K(d) of ~590 nM for acrylodan-labelled LC binding to DEGR-APC. Furthermore, FVIII LC effectively competed with FVIIIa in blocking APC-catalysed cleavage at Arg(336) (K(i) = 709 nM). A binding site previously identified near the C-terminal end of the A3 domain (residues 2007-2016) of FVIII LC was subjected to Ala-scanning mutagenesis. FXa generation assays and western and dot blotting were employed to assess the contribution of these residues to FVIIIa interactions with APC. Virtually all variants tested showed reductions in the rates of APC-catalysed inactivation of the cofactor and cleavage at the primary inactivation site (Arg(336)), with maximal reductions in inactivation rates (~3-fold relative to WT) and cleavage rates (~3 to ~9-fold relative to WT) observed for the Met2010Ala, Ser2011Ala, and Leu2013Ala variants. Titration of FVIIIa substrate concentration monitoring cleavage by a dot blot assay indicated that these variants also showed ~3-fold increases relative to WT while a double mutant (Met2010Ala/Ser2011Ala) showed a >4-fold increase in K(m). These results show a contribution of a number of residues within the 2007-2016 sequence, and in particular residues Met2010, Ser2011, and Leu2013 to an APC-interactive site.

  15. Trends in Survival and Renal Recovery in Patients with Multiple Myeloma or Light-Chain Amyloidosis on Chronic Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decourt, Alexandre; Gondouin, Bertrand; Delaroziere, Jean Christophe; Brunet, Philippe; Sallée, Marion; Burtey, Stephane; Dussol, Bertrand; Ivanov, Vadim; Costello, Regis; Couchoud, Cecile; Jourde-Chiche, Noemie

    2016-03-07

    Monoclonal gammopathies (MGs) with renal involvement can lead to ESRD caused by myeloma cast nephropathy (MCN), immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (ALA), or light-chain deposition disease (LCDD). Few studies have focused on the prognosis of patients with MG on chronic dialysis. We evaluated the outcomes of patients with MG incident on chronic dialysis in France. All incident patients registered in the Renal Epidemiology and Information Network Registry between 2002 and 2011 with ESRD caused by ALA, LCDD, or MCN were included. Patient's survival, censored for renal transplantation, renal recovery, and loss to follow-up, as well as renal outcomes were analyzed and compared with a control group. Risk factors and causes of death were analyzed. We included 1459 patients, comprising 265 (18%) patients with ALA, 334 (23%) patients with LCDD, and 861 (59%) patients with MCN. Median age was 72 years, and 56% were men. Median follow-up was 13.1 months. Renal recovery was observed in 9.1% of patients and more frequent after 2006. Kidney transplantation was rare in this population (2.3%). Among 1272 patients who remained on dialysis, 67% died. Median survival on dialysis was 18.3 months. Main causes of death were malignancies (34.4%), cardiovascular diseases (18%), infections (13.3%), and cachexia (5.2%). Independent risk factors of death were age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.03 per year increase; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.02 to 1.03), frailty (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.58 to 2.36), congestive heart failure (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.93), and dialysis initiation on a central catheter (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.75). Factors associated with a lower risk of death were year of dialysis initiation (HR, 0.95 per year increase; 95% CI, 0.91 to 0.99) and high BP (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.97). Survival of patients with ALA, LCDD, or MCN on chronic dialysis is poor but has improved over time. Progressive malignancy is the main cause of death in this population. Renal recovery

  16. Regulation of myosin light chain kinase during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Shelly; Stall, Richard; Ramos, Joseph; Patel, Yashomati M

    2013-01-01

    Myosin II (MyoII) is required for insulin-responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4)-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our previous studies have shown that insulin signaling stimulates phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) of MyoIIA via myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). The experiments described here delineate upstream regulators of MLCK during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Since 3T3-L1 adipocytes express two MyoII isoforms, we wanted to determine which isoform was required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Using a siRNA approach, we demonstrate that a 60% decrease in MyoIIA protein expression resulted in a 40% inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. We also show that insulin signaling stimulates the phosphorylation of MLCK. We further show that MLCK can be activated by calcium as well as signaling pathways. We demonstrate that adipocytes treated with the calcium chelating agent, 1,2-b (iso-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid, (BAPTA) (in the presence of insulin) impaired the insulin-induced phosphorylation of MLCK by 52% and the RLC of MyoIIA by 45% as well as impairing the recruitment of MyoIIA to the plasma membrane when compared to cells treated with insulin alone. We further show that the calcium ionophore, A23187 alone stimulated the phosphorylation of MLCK and the RLC associated with MyoIIA to the same extent as insulin. To identify signaling pathways that might regulate MLCK, we examined ERK and CaMKII. Inhibition of ERK2 impaired phosphorylation of MLCK and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In contrast, while inhibition of CaMKII did inhibit phosphorylation of the RLC associated with MyoIIA, inhibition of CAMKIIδ did not impair MLCK phosphorylation or translocation to the plasma membrane or glucose uptake. Collectively, our results are the first to delineate a role for calcium and ERK in the activation of MLCK and thus MyoIIA during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  17. Differential roles of regulatory light chain and myosin binding protein-C phosphorylations in the modulation of cardiac force development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colson, Brett A.; Locher, Matthew R.; Bekyarova, Tanya; Patel, Jitandrakumar R.; Fitzsimons, Daniel P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Moss, Richard L. (IIT); (UW-MED)

    2010-05-25

    Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) by protein kinase A (PKA) independently accelerate the kinetics of force development in ventricular myocardium. However, while MLCK treatment has been shown to increase the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of force (pCa{sub 50}), PKA treatment has been shown to decrease pCa{sub 50}, presumably due to cardiac troponin I phosphorylation. Further, MLCK treatment increases Ca{sup 2+}-independent force and maximum Ca{sup 2+}-activated force, whereas PKA treatment has no effect on either force. To investigate the structural basis underlying the kinase-specific differential effects on steady-state force, we used synchrotron low-angle X-ray diffraction to compare equatorial intensity ratios (I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}) to assess the proximity of myosin cross-bridge mass relative to actin and to compare lattice spacings (d{sub 1,0}) to assess the inter-thick filament spacing in skinned myocardium following treatment with either MLCK or PKA. As we showed previously, PKA phosphorylation of cMyBP-C increases I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0} and, as hypothesized, treatment with MLCK also increased I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}, which can explain the accelerated rates of force development during activation. Importantly, interfilament spacing was reduced by {approx}2 nm ({Delta} 3.5%) with MLCK treatment, but did not change with PKA treatment. Thus, RLC or cMyBP-C phosphorylation increases the proximity of cross-bridges to actin, but only RLC phosphorylation affects lattice spacing, which suggests that RLC and cMyBP-C modulate the kinetics of force development by similar structural mechanisms; however, the effect of RLC phosphorylation to increase the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of force is mediated by a distinct mechanism, most probably involving changes in interfilament spacing.

  18. Regulation of myosin light chain kinase during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Woody

    Full Text Available Myosin II (MyoII is required for insulin-responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our previous studies have shown that insulin signaling stimulates phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC of MyoIIA via myosin light chain kinase (MLCK. The experiments described here delineate upstream regulators of MLCK during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Since 3T3-L1 adipocytes express two MyoII isoforms, we wanted to determine which isoform was required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Using a siRNA approach, we demonstrate that a 60% decrease in MyoIIA protein expression resulted in a 40% inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. We also show that insulin signaling stimulates the phosphorylation of MLCK. We further show that MLCK can be activated by calcium as well as signaling pathways. We demonstrate that adipocytes treated with the calcium chelating agent, 1,2-b (iso-aminophenoxy ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid, (BAPTA (in the presence of insulin impaired the insulin-induced phosphorylation of MLCK by 52% and the RLC of MyoIIA by 45% as well as impairing the recruitment of MyoIIA to the plasma membrane when compared to cells treated with insulin alone. We further show that the calcium ionophore, A23187 alone stimulated the phosphorylation of MLCK and the RLC associated with MyoIIA to the same extent as insulin. To identify signaling pathways that might regulate MLCK, we examined ERK and CaMKII. Inhibition of ERK2 impaired phosphorylation of MLCK and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In contrast, while inhibition of CaMKII did inhibit phosphorylation of the RLC associated with MyoIIA, inhibition of CAMKIIδ did not impair MLCK phosphorylation or translocation to the plasma membrane or glucose uptake. Collectively, our results are the first to delineate a role for calcium and ERK in the activation of MLCK and thus MyoIIA during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  19. Modular Construction of Large Non-Immune Human Antibody Phage-Display Libraries from Variable Heavy and Light Chain Gene Cassettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Kyung; Bidlingmaier, Scott; Su, Yang; Liu, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies and antibody-derived therapeutics have emerged as a rapidly growing class of biological drugs for the treatment of cancer, autoimmunity, infection, and neurological diseases. To support the development of human antibodies, various display techniques based on antibody gene repertoires have been constructed over the last two decades. In particular, scFv-antibody phage display has been extensively utilized to select lead antibodies against a variety of target antigens. To construct a scFv phage display that enables efficient antibody discovery, and optimization, it is desirable to develop a system that allows modular assembly of highly diverse variable heavy chain and light chain (Vκ and Vλ) repertoires. Here, we describe modular construction of large non-immune human antibody phage-display libraries built on variable gene cassettes from heavy chain and light chain repertoires (Vκ- and Vλ-light can be made into independent cassettes). We describe utility of such libraries in antibody discovery and optimization through chain shuffling.

  20. Angiotensin II induces reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and myosin light-chain phosphorylation in podocytes through rho/ROCK-signaling pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Siyuan; Chen, Cheng; Su, Ke; Zha, Dongqing; Liang, Wei; Hillebrands, J L; van Goor, Harry; Ding, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Aims In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on actin cytoskeleton reorganization and myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation in podocytes to demonstrate whether the Rho/Rho-associated coiled kinase (ROCK) pathway is involved podocyte injury. Methods Eighteen

  1. ASSESSMENT OF THE RESIDUAL TUMOR IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE MYELOMA BASED ON THE ANALYSIS OF THE FREE LIGHT CHAINS OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS IN BLOOD SERUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Мitina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the multiple myeloma treatment with chemotherapy including bortezomib was assessed based on determination of the level of immunoglobulin free light chains in blood serum. The method enables estimation of changes in kinetic parameters of the residual tumor, detection of the disease course prognosis, and the choice of the optimal approach to the disease therapy.

  2. A Toxoplasma gondii Class XIV Myosin, Expressed in Sf9 Cells with a Parasite Co-chaperone, Requires Two Light Chains for Fast Motility*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookwalter, Carol S.; Kelsen, Anne; Leung, Jacqueline M.; Ward, Gary E.; Trybus, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Many diverse myosin classes can be expressed using the baculovirus/Sf9 insect cell expression system, whereas others have been recalcitrant. We hypothesized that most myosins utilize Sf9 cell chaperones, but others require an organism-specific co-chaperone. TgMyoA, a class XIVa myosin from the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is required for the parasite to efficiently move and invade host cells. The T. gondii genome contains one UCS family myosin co-chaperone (TgUNC). TgMyoA expressed in Sf9 cells was soluble and functional only if the heavy and light chain(s) were co-expressed with TgUNC. The tetratricopeptide repeat domain of TgUNC was not essential to obtain functional myosin, implying that there are other mechanisms to recruit Hsp90. Purified TgMyoA heavy chain complexed with its regulatory light chain (TgMLC1) moved actin in a motility assay at a speed of ∼1.5 μm/s. When a putative essential light chain (TgELC1) was also bound, TgMyoA moved actin at more than twice that speed (∼3.4 μm/s). This result implies that two light chains bind to and stabilize the lever arm, the domain that amplifies small motions at the active site into the larger motions that propel actin at fast speeds. Our results show that the TgMyoA domain structure is more similar to other myosins than previously appreciated and provide a molecular explanation for how it moves actin at fast speeds. The ability to express milligram quantities of a class XIV myosin in a heterologous system paves the way for detailed structure-function analysis of TgMyoA and identification of small molecule inhibitors. PMID:25231988

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of CSF neurofilament light chain protein in the biomarker-guided classification system for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, Simone; Toschi, Nicola; Baldacci, Filippo; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Kilimann, Ingo; Teipel, Stefan J; Cavedo, Enrica; Dos Santos, Antonio Melo; Epelbaum, Stéphane; Lamari, Foudil; Dubois, Bruno; Floris, Roberto; Garaci, Francesco; Hampel, Harald

    2017-09-01

    We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light chain (NFL) protein in the classification of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitively healthy control individuals (HCs) and patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) as comparisons. Particularly, we tested the performance of CSF NFL concentration in differentiating patient groups stratified by fluid biomarker profiles, independently of the severity of cognitive impairment (mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD dementia individuals), using a biomarker-guided descriptive classification system for AD. CSF NFL concentrations were examined in a multicenter cross-sectional study of 108 participants stratified in AD pathophysiology-negative (both CSF tau and the 42-amino acid-long amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide (Aβ1-42)) (n = 15), tau pathology-positive only (n = 15), Aβ pathology-positive only (n = 13), AD pathophysiology-positive (n = 33), FTD (n = 9) patients, and HCs (n = 23), according to the biomarker-based classification system. The performance of CSF NFL in discriminating AD pathophysiology-positive patients from HCs is fair, whereas the ability in differentiating tau-positive patients from HCs is poor. The classificatory performance in distinguishing AD pathophysiology-positive patients from FTD is unsatisfactory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Giardia duodenalis Surface Cysteine Proteases Induce Cleavage of the Intestinal Epithelial Cytoskeletal Protein Villin via Myosin Light Chain Kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Bhargava

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis infections are among the most common causes of waterborne diarrhoeal disease worldwide. At the height of infection, G. duodenalis trophozoites induce multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells that contribute to the development of diarrhoeal disease. To date, our understanding of pathophysiological processes in giardiasis remains incompletely understood. The present study reveals a previously unappreciated role for G. duodenalis cathepsin cysteine proteases in intestinal epithelial pathophysiological processes that occur during giardiasis. Experiments first established that Giardia trophozoites indeed produce cathepsin B and L in strain-dependent fashion. Co-incubation of G. duodenalis with human enterocytes enhanced cathepsin production by Assemblage A (NF and S2 isolates trophozoites, but not when epithelial cells were exposed to Assemblage B (GSM isolate trophozoites. Direct contact between G. duodenalis parasites and human intestinal epithelial monolayers resulted in the degradation and redistribution of the intestinal epithelial cytoskeletal protein villin; these effects were abolished when parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases were inhibited. Interestingly, inhibition of parasite proteases did not prevent degradation of the intestinal tight junction-associated protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1, suggesting that G. duodenalis induces multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, this study demonstrates that G. duodenalis-mediated disruption of villin is, at least, in part dependent on activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK. Taken together, this study indicates a novel role for parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases in the pathophysiology of G. duodenalis infections.

  5. Top-Down Targeted Proteomics Reveals Decrease in Myosin Regulatory Light-Chain Phosphorylation That Contributes to Sarcopenic Muscle Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorich, Zachery R; Peng, Ying; Cai, Wenxuan; Jin, Yutong; Wei, Liming; Chen, Albert J; McKiernan, Susan H; Aiken, Judd M; Moss, Richard L; Diffee, Gary M; Ge, Ying

    2016-08-05

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with advancing age, is a significant cause of disability and loss of independence in the elderly and thus, represents a formidable challenge for the aging population. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying sarcopenia-associated muscle dysfunction remain poorly understood. In this study, we employed an integrated approach combining top-down targeted proteomics with mechanical measurements to dissect the molecular mechanism(s) in age-related muscle dysfunction. Top-down targeted proteomic analysis uncovered a progressive age-related decline in the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), a critical protein involved in the modulation of muscle contractility, in the skeletal muscle of aging rats. Top-down tandem mass spectrometry analysis identified a previously unreported bis-phosphorylated proteoform of fast skeletal RLC and localized the sites of decreasing phosphorylation to Ser14/15. Of these sites, Ser14 phosphorylation represents a previously unidentified site of phosphorylation in RLC from fast-twitch skeletal muscle. Subsequent mechanical analysis of single fast-twitch fibers isolated from the muscles of rats of different ages revealed that the observed decline in RLC phosphorylation can account for age-related decreases in the contractile properties of sarcopenic fast-twitch muscles. These results strongly support a role for decreasing RLC phosphorylation in sarcopenia-associated muscle dysfunction and suggest that therapeutic modulation of RLC phosphorylation may represent a new avenue for the treatment of sarcopenia.

  6. Measurement of liver and spleen interstitial volume in patients with systemic amyloid light-chain amyloidosis using equilibrium contrast CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Jason; Sivarajan, S; Treibel, T A; Rosmini, S; Fontana, M; Gillmore, J D; Hawkins, P N; Punwani, S; Moon, J C; Taylor, S A; Bandula, S

    2017-11-01

    To investigate equilibrium contrast-enhanced CT (EQ-CT) measurement of extracellular volume fraction (ECV) in patients with systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, testing the hypothesis that ECV becomes elevated in the liver and spleen and ECV correlates with other estimates of organ amyloid burden. 26 patients with AL amyloidosis underwent EQ-CT, and ECV was measured in the liver and spleen. Patients also underwent serum amyloid P (SAP) component scintigraphy with grading of liver and spleen involvement. Mann-Whitney U test was used to test for a difference between patients with amyloid deposition (SAP grade 1-3) and those without (SAP grade 0). Variation in ECV across SAP grades was assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and association between ECV and SAP grades with Spearman correlation. Mean ECV in the spleen and liver was significantly greater (p ECV increased with increasing amyloid burden, showing positive correlation with SAP grade in both the liver (r = 0.758) and spleen (r = 0.867). In patients with systemic AL amyloidosis, EQ-CT can demonstrate increased spleen and liver ECV, which is associated with amyloid disease burden.

  7. Auto-SCT improves survival in systemic light chain amyloidosis: a retrospective analysis with 14-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, S; Kongtim, P; Champlin, R; Dinh, Y; Elgharably, Y; Wang, M; Bashir, Q; Shah, J J; Shah, N; Popat, U; Giralt, S A; Orlowski, R Z; Qazilbash, M H

    2014-08-01

    Optimal treatment approach continues to remain a challenge for systemic light chain amyloidosis (AL). So far, Auto-SCT is the only modality associated with long-term survival. However, failure to show survival benefit in randomized study raises questions regarding its efficacy. We present a comparative outcome analysis of Auto-SCT to conventional therapies (CTR) in AL patients treated over a 14-year period at our institution. Out of the 145 AL amyloidosis patients, Auto-SCT was performed in 80 patients with 1-year non-relapse mortality rate of 12.5%. Novel agents were used as part of induction therapy in 56% of transplant recipients vs 46% of CTR patients. Hematological and organ responses were seen in 74.6% and 39% in the Auto-SCT arm vs 53% and 12% in the CTR arm, respectively. The projected 5-year survival for Auto-SCT vs CTR was 63% vs 38%, respectively. Landmark analysis of patients alive at 1-year after diagnosis showed improved 5-year OS of 72% with Auto-SCT vs 65% in the CTR arm. In the multivariate analysis, age Auto-SCT were associated with improved survival. In conclusion, Auto-SCT is associated with long-term survival for patients with AL amyloidosis.

  8. Perfluorooctanoic acid affects endocytosis involving clathrin light chain A and microRNA-133b-3p in mouse testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yin; Wang, Jianshe; Guo, Xuejiang; Yan, Shengmin; Dai, Jiayin

    2017-03-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an abundant perfluoroalkyl substance widely applied in industrial and consumer products. Among its potential health hazards, testicular toxicity is of major concern. To explore the potential effect of miRNA on post-translational regulation after PFOA exposure, changes in miRNAs were detected via miRNA array. Seventeen miRNAs were differentially expressed (eight upregulated, nine downregulated) in male mouse testes after exposure to 5mg/kg/d of PFOA for 28d (>1.5-fold and Pendocytosis and blood-testis barrier (BTB) processes. These changes were further verified by immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Endocytosis-related genes were selected for qPCR analysis, with many found to be significantly changed after PFOA treatment, including epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8), Eps15, cortactin, cofilin, espin, vinculin, and zyxin. We further predicted the potential interaction between changed miRNAs and proteins, which indicated that miRNAs might play a role in the post-translational regulation of gene expression after PFOA treatment in mouse testes. Among them, miR-133b-3p/clathrin light chain A (CLTA) was selected and verified in vitro by transfection and luciferase activity assay. Results showed that PFOA exposure affects endocytosis in mouse testes and that CLTA is a potential target of miR-133b-3p. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynein Light Intermediate Chain 2 Facilitates the Metaphase to Anaphase Transition by Inactivating the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar P Mahale

    Full Text Available The multi-functional molecular motor cytoplasmic dynein performs diverse essential roles during mitosis. The mechanistic importance of the dynein Light Intermediate Chain homologs, LIC1 and LIC2 is unappreciated, especially in the context of mitosis. LIC1 and LIC2 are believed to exist in distinct cytoplasmic dynein complexes as obligate subunits. LIC1 had earlier been reported to be required for metaphase to anaphase progression by inactivating the kinetochore-microtubule attachment-sensing arm of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC. However, the functional importance of LIC2 during mitosis remains elusive. Here we report prominent novel roles for the LIC2 subunit of cytoplasmic dynein in regulating the spindle assembly checkpoint. LIC2 depletion in mammalian cells led to prolonged metaphase arrest in the presence of an active SAC and also to stretched kinetochores, thus implicating it in SAC inactivation. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy of SAC components revealed accumulation of both attachment- and tension-sensing checkpoint proteins at metaphase kinetochores upon LIC2 depletion. These observations support a stronger and more diverse role in checkpoint inactivation for LIC2 in comparison to its close homolog LIC1. Our study uncovers a novel functional hierarchy during mitotic checkpoint inactivation between the closely related but homologous LIC subunits of cytoplasmic dynein. These subtle functional distinctions between dynein subpopulations could be exploited to study specific aspects of the spindle assembly checkpoint, which is a key mediator of fidelity in eukaryotic cell division.

  10. Lemur tyrosine kinase-2 signalling regulates kinesin-1 light chain-2 phosphorylation and binding of Smad2 cargo.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manser, C

    2012-05-31

    A recent genome-wide association study identified the gene encoding lemur tyrosine kinase-2 (LMTK2) as a susceptibility gene for prostate cancer. The identified genetic alteration is within intron 9, but the mechanisms by which LMTK2 may impact upon prostate cancer are not clear because the functions of LMTK2 are poorly understood. Here, we show that LMTK2 regulates a known pathway that controls phosphorylation of kinesin-1 light chain-2 (KLC2) by glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). KLC2 phosphorylation by GSK3β induces the release of cargo from KLC2. LMTK2 signals via protein phosphatase-1C (PP1C) to increase inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3β on serine-9 that reduces KLC2 phosphorylation and promotes binding of the known KLC2 cargo Smad2. Smad2 signals to the nucleus in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) receptor stimulation and transport of Smad2 by kinesin-1 is required for this signalling. We show that small interfering RNA loss of LMTK2 not only reduces binding of Smad2 to KLC2, but also inhibits TGFβ-induced Smad2 signalling. Thus, LMTK2 may regulate the activity of kinesin-1 motor function and Smad2 signalling.

  11. The comparison of free androgen index and serum free testosterone levels in women with hirsutism or polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Metin Yıldırımkaya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In many laboratories free testosterone can not be measured, so that free androgen index is suggested instead. The aim of this study was to compare free androgen index and serum free testosterone levels measured by radioimmunoassay in women with hirsutism or polycystic ovary syndrome.Materials and methods: Totally 94 women referred to the polyclinics of Ankara Numune Hospital were retrospectively included. Three patient groups were composed; 55 of hirsutism, 20 of polycystic ovary syndrome and 19 of both hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome. Total testosterone and sex hormone binding globuline levels were measured by chemiluminescence method and free testosterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Free androgen index was calculated from total testosterone and sex hormone binding globuline.Results: There was a significant positive correlation between free testosterone and free androgen index in patients with hirsutism, in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, in patients with hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome, and in total patient group [r(hirsutism=0,597, r(PCOS=0,617, r(hirsutism and PCOS=0,779, r(total patient group=0,649, P<0,01].Receiver operating characteristics curves were drawn to assess the diagnostic power of parameters for all patient groups [For hirsutism (n=55 auROC (FT=0,431 auROC (FAI=0,485] [For PCOS (n=20 auROC (FT=0,431 auROC (FAI=0,359] [For hirsutism and PCOS (n=19 auROC (FT=0,676 auROC (FAI=0,669]. In our study, free testosterone and free androgen index were found useful to diagnose ‘hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome’ but not others.Conclusion: Free androgen index can be used instead of free testosterone in hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome for diagnosis. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:152-6

  12. Developement of serum-free media in CHO-DG44 cells using a central composite statistical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parampalli, Ananth; Eskridge, Kent; Smith, Leonard; Meagher, Michael M; Mowry, Mark C; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2007-05-01

    A serum free medium was developed for the production of recombinant antibody against Botulinum A (BoNTA) using dihydrofolate reductase deficient Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (CHO-DG44) in suspension culture. An initial control basal medium was prepared, which was similar in composition to HAM's F12: IMDM (1:1) supplemented with insulin, transeferrin, selenium and a lipid mixture. The vitamin concentration of the basal medium was twice that of HAM's F12: IMDM (1:1). CHO-DG44 cells expressing S25 antibody grew from 2 x 10(5) cells to maximum cell density of 1.04 x 10(6) cells/ml after 5 days in this control medium. A central composite design was used to identify optimal levels and interaction among five groups of medium components. These five groups were glutamine, Essential Amino Acids (EAA), Non Essential Amino Acids (NEAA), Insulin, Transferrin, Selenium (ITS), and lipids. Fifty experiments were carried out in four batches, with two controls in each batch. There was little effect of ITS and Lipid concentrations over the range studied, and glutamine concentration showed a strong interaction with EAA. The optimal concentrations of the variables studied were 2.5 mM Glutamine, 7.4 mM (2x) EAA, 1.4 mM (0.5x) NEAA, 1x ITS supplement, 0.7x Lipids supplement. The maximum viable cell density attained in the optimized medium was 1.4 x 10(6) cells/ml, a 35% improvement over the control culture, while the final antibody titer attained was 22 +/- 3.4 mug/mL, a 50% improvement.

  13. Long-term reversibility of renal dysfunction associated to light chain deposition disease with bortezomib and dexamethasone and high dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás J. González-López

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old woman presented with progressive renal insufficiency, until a glomerular filtration rate (GFR of 12 mL/min. A renal biopsy demonstrated glomerular deposition of immunoglobulin k light chain. The presence of a small population of monoclonal plasmacytes producing an only light k monoclonal component was demonstrated and Bortezomib and Dexamethasone (BD was provided as initial therapy. After seven courses of therapy, renal function improved without dialysis requirements up to a GFR 31 mL/min. Under hematological complete response (HCR the patient underwent high dose of melphalan (HDM and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant. Fifty-four months later the patient remains in HCR and the GFR has progressively improved up to 48 mL/min. This report describes a notably renal function improvement in a patient with Light Chain Deposition Disease after therapy with BD followed by HDM, which can support this treatment as a future option for these patients.

  14. Structural basis of light chain amyloidogenicity: comparison of the thermodynamic properties, fibrillogenic potential and tertiary structural features of four vλ6 proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, J.S.; Gupta, V.; Wilkerson, M.; Schell, M.; Loris, R.; Adams, P.; Solomon, A.; Stevens, F.; Dealwis, C.

    2004-04-01

    Primary (AL) amyloidosis results from the pathologic deposition of monoclonal light chains as amyloid fibrils. Studies of recombinant-derived variable region (V{sub L}) fragments of these proteins have shown an inverse relationship between thermodynamic stability and fibrillogenic potential. Further, ionic interactions within the V{sub L} domain were predicted to influence the kinetics of light chain fibrillogenicity, as evidenced from our analyses of a relatively stable V{sub {lambda}}6 protein (Jto) with a long range electrostatic interaction between Asp and Arg side chains at position 29 and 68, respectively, and an unstable, highly fibrillogenic V{sub {lambda}}6 protein (Wil) that had neutral amino acids at these locations. To test this hypothesis, we have generated two Jto-related mutants designed to disrupt the interaction between Asp 29 and Arg 68 (JtoD29A and JtoR68S). Although the thermodynamic stabilities of unfolding for these two molecules were identical, they exhibited very different kinetics of fibril formation: the rate of JtoD29A fibrillogenesis was slow and comparable to the parent molecule, whereas that of JtoR68S was significantly faster. High-resolution X-ray diffraction analyses of crystals prepared from the two mutants having the same space group and unit cell dimensions revealed no significant main-chain conformational changes. However, several notable side-chain alterations were observed in JtoR68S, as compared with JtoD29A, that resulted in the solvent exposure of a greater hydrophobic surface and modifications in the electrostatic potential surface. We posit that these differences contributed to the enhanced fibrillogenic potential of the Arg 68 mutant, since both Jto mutants lacked the intrachain ionic interaction and were equivalently unstable. The information gleaned from our studies has provided insight into structural parameters that in addition to overall thermodynamic stability, contribute to the fibril forming propensity of

  15. Use of synthetic serum-free medium for culture of human dermal fibroblasts to establish an experimental system similar to living dermis

    OpenAIRE

    Ejiri, Hirotaka; Nomura, Tadashi; Hasegawa, Masumi; Tatsumi, Chiaki; Imai, Midori; Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Terashi, Hiroto

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we sought to establish a defined experimental system for fibroblast growth similar to that of the living dermis. To this end, we evaluated the growth and biochemical characteristics of fibroblasts cultured with serum-free HFDM-1, a finely tuned synthetic medium for human fibroblast culture. Three culture conditions were used to grow fibroblasts obtained from primary culture: (1) culture with Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM) plus 10 % fetal bovine serum (serum-supplemente...

  16. Serum-free culture of primary human hepatocytes in a miniaturized hollow-fibre membrane bioreactor for pharmacological in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübberstedt, Marc; Müller-Vieira, Ursula; Biemel, Klaus M; Darnell, Malin; Hoffmann, Stefan A; Knöspel, Fanny; Wönne, Eva C; Knobeloch, Daniel; Nüssler, Andreas K; Gerlach, Jörg C; Andersson, Tommy B; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2015-09-01

    Primary human hepatocytes represent an important cell source for in vitro investigation of hepatic drug metabolism and disposition. In this study, a multi-compartment capillary membrane-based bioreactor technology for three-dimensional (3D) perfusion culture was further developed and miniaturized to a volume of less than 0.5 ml to reduce demand for cells. The miniaturized bioreactor was composed of two capillary layers, each made of alternately arranged oxygen and medium capillaries serving as a 3D culture for the cells. Metabolic activity and stability of primary human hepatocytes was studied in this bioreactor in the presence of 2.5% fetal calf serum (FCS) under serum-free conditions over a culture period of 10 days. The miniaturized bioreactor showed functions comparable to previously reported data for larger variants. Glucose and lactate metabolism, urea production, albumin synthesis and release of intracellular enzymes (AST, ALT, GLDH) showed no significant differences between serum-free and serum-supplemented bioreactors. Activities of human-relevant cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4/5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2B6) analyzed by determination of product formation rates from selective probe substrates were also comparable in both groups. Gene expression analysis showed moderately higher expression in the majority of CYP enzymes, transport proteins and enzymes of Phase II metabolism in the serum-free bioreactors compared to those maintained with FCS. In conclusion, the miniaturized bioreactor maintained stable function over the investigated period and thus provides a suitable system for pharmacological studies on primary human hepatocytes under defined serum-free conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Advances and drawbacks of the adaptation to serum-free culture of CHO-K1 cells for monoclonal antibody production

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, E.; Costa, A. R. [UNESP; Henriques, Mariana; Cunnah, Philip; Melton, David; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2013-01-01

    Currently, mammalian cell technology has become the focus of biopharmaceutical production, with strict regulatory scrutiny of the techniques employed. Major concerns about the presence of animal-derived components in the culture media led to the development of serum-free (SF) culture processes. However, cell adaptation to SF conditions is still a major challenge and limiting step of process development. Thus, this study aims to assess the impact of SF adaptation on monoclonal antibody product...

  18. Optical anisotropy of polyimide and polymethacrylate containing photocrosslinkable chalcone group in the side chain under irradiation of a linearly polarized UV light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Dong Hoon; Cha, Young Kwan [Kyunghee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-01

    Photocrosslinkable soluble polyimide and polymethacrylate compound were synthesized for studying the optically induced anisotropy of the thin films. Chalcone group was introduced into the side chain unit of two polymers. We observed a photodimerization behavior between the double bonds in the chalcone group and an optical anisotropy of these materials by irradiation of a linearly polarized UV light (LPL). Optical anisotropy of the thin film was also investigated by using polarized UV absorption spectroscopy.The dynamic property of optical anisotropy in photoreactive polyimide was compared to that in polymethacrylate containing chalcone group in the side chain.

  19. Optical anisotropy of polyimide and polymethacrylate containing photocrosslinkable chalcone group in the side chain under irradiation of a linearly polarized UV light

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, D H

    2002-01-01

    Photocrosslinkable soluble polyimide and polymethacrylate compound were synthesized for studying the optically induced anisotropy of the thin films. Chalcone group was introduced into the side chain unit of two polymers. We observed a photodimerization behavior between the double bonds in the chalcone group and an optical anisotropy of these materials by irradiation of a linearly polarized UV light (LPL). Optical anisotropy of the thin film was also investigated by using polarized UV absorption spectroscopy.The dynamic property of optical anisotropy in photoreactive polyimide was compared to that in polymethacrylate containing chalcone group in the side chain.

  20. Production and characterization of high-titer serum-free cell culture grown hepatitis C virus particles of genotype 1-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, Christian K; Jensen, Tanja B; Prentoe, Jannick; Krarup, Henrik; Nicosia, Alfredo; Law, Mansun; Bukh, Jens; Gottwein, Judith M

    2014-06-01

    Recently, cell culture systems producing hepatitis C virus particles (HCVcc) were developed. Establishment of serum-free culture conditions is expected to facilitate development of a whole-virus inactivated HCV vaccine. We describe generation of genotype 1-6 serum-free HCVcc (sf-HCVcc) from Huh7.5 hepatoma cells cultured in adenovirus expression medium. Compared to HCVcc, sf-HCVcc showed 0.6-2.1 log10 higher infectivity titers (4.7-6.2 log10 Focus Forming Units/mL), possibly due to increased release and specific infectivity of sf-HCVcc. In contrast to HCVcc, sf-HCVcc had a homogeneous single-peak density profile. Entry of sf-HCVcc depended on HCV co-receptors CD81, LDLr, and SR-BI, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. HCVcc and sf-HCVcc were neutralized similarly by chronic-phase patient sera and by human monoclonal antibodies targeting conformational epitopes. Thus, we developed serum-free culture systems producing high-titer single-density sf-HCVcc, showing similar biological properties as HCVcc. This methodology has the potential to advance HCV vaccine development and to facilitate biophysical studies of HCV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. New surface-modified zinc oxide nanoparticles with aminotriethylene oxide chains linked by 1,2,3-triazole ring: Preparation, and visible light-emitting and noncytotoxic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Moriyuki, E-mail: msato@riko.shimane-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue, Shimane 690 8504 (Japan); Shimatani, Kanako; Iwasaki, Yuko; Morito, Shigekazu; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Fujita, Yasuhisa [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue, Shimane 690 8504 (Japan); Nakamura, Morihiko [Department of Cooperative Medical Research, Collaboration Center, Shimane University, 891 Enya, Izumo, Shimane 693 8501 (Japan)

    2011-11-01

    Novel surface-modified, visible light-emitting and noncytotoxic ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) (ZPAZ) having aminotriethylene oxide chains linked by 1,4- and/or 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole rings were prepared from ZnO NPs (ZPA) with ethynyl groups on the surfaces and an azide derivative of triethylene oxide chain linking terminal amino group (ATA) via 1,3-dipolar azide/alkyne click reaction by heating without Cu(I) catalyst. FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, XRD analysis and TEM observation suggested that the resulting ZPA and ZPAZ NPs have the particle sizes below 10 nm in diameters, triethylene oxide chains linking the terminal amino groups and wurtzite crystal structure. UV-vis absorption spectrum of the ZPAZ NPs in methanol showed maximum absorption band at 346.5 nm, supporting the TEM observation. PL spectra depicted that the ZPA and ZPAZ NPs display broad light green and lightly greenish yellow visible light emitting bands in methanol. Zeta potentials measured in distilled water suggested that the ZPAZ NPs have a low tendency to aggregate and possess better stability than the ZPA NPs. Cytotoxicity assay revealed that the ZPAZ NPs, having water-dispersion properties, are noncytotoxic at low concentrations and almost all RAW264.7 cells are alive after 24 h of treatment.

  2. Regulation of MDCK cell-substratum adhesion by RhoA and myosin light chain kinase after ATP depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahalad, Priya; Calvo, Ignacio; Waechter, Holly; Matthews, Jeffrey B; Zuk, Anna; Matlin, Karl S

    2004-03-01

    The attachment of epithelial cells to the extracellular matrix substratum is essential for their differentiation and polarization. Despite this, the precise adhesion mechanism and its regulation are poorly understood. In the kidney, an ischemic insult causes renal tubular epithelial cells to detach from the basement membrane, even though they remain viable. To understand this phenomenon, and to probe the regulation of epithelial cell attachment, we used a model system consisting of newly adherent Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells subjected to ATP depletion to mimic ischemic injury. We found that MDCK cells detach from collagen I after 60 min of ATP depletion but reattach when resupplied with glucose. Detachment is not caused by degradation or endocytosis of beta(1)-integrins, which mediate attachment to collagen I. Basal actin filaments and paxillin-containing adhesion complexes are disrupted by ATP depletion and quickly reform on glucose repletion. However, partial preservation of basal actin by overexpression of constitutively active RhoA does not significantly affect cell detachment. Furthermore, Y-27632, an inhibitor of the RhoA effector Rho-kinase, does not prevent reattachment of cells on glucose addition, even though reformation of central stress fibers and large adhesion complexes is blocked. In contrast, reattachment of ATP-depleted cells and detachment of cells not previously subjected to ATP depletion are prevented by ML-7, an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). We conclude that initial adherence of MDCK cells to a collagen I substratum is mediated by peripheral actin filaments and adhesion complexes regulated by MLCK but not by stress fibers and adhesion complexes controlled by RhoA.

  3. Adverse Prognostic Factors for Morbidity and Mortality During Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Mobilization in Patients with Light Chain Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jason C; Shank, Brandon R; Milton, Denái R; Qazilbash, Muzaffar H

    2017-12-06

    Patients with immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis undergoing peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell (PBSC) mobilization for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) can experience significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to characterize the adverse events and identify prognostic factors associated with the development of morbidity and mortality in patients with AL amyloidosis who had begun PBSC mobilization for auto-HCT. A retrospective study was performed in 101 consecutive patients with AL amyloidosis who underwent PBSC mobilization for auto-HCT between January 2006 and December 2013. A composite primary endpoint of morbidity and mortality during PBSC mobilization was used. Forty-one patients (41%) experienced at least 1 adverse event, including 4 deaths during PBSC mobilization. Adverse events included in this composite endpoint were cardiac events, thromboembolic events, bleeding events, unplanned hospitalization, weight gain >2% necessitating diuretic intervention, and death. Low serum albumin levels, elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and increased interventricular septal thickness were significantly associated with the composite primary endpoint (P = .024, .001, and .006, respectively). The median progression-free survival from the start of PBSC mobilization was 4.7 years, and the median overall survival was 6.5 years. In general, PBSC mobilization is associated with minimal complications, but patients with AL amyloidosis can experience more frequent and severe complications, such as volume overload and weight gain. Careful patient selection is warranted in patients with AL amyloidosis before proceeding to PBSC mobilization and auto-HCT. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural And Biochemical Studies of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype C1 Light Chain Protease: Implications for Dual Substrate Specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, R.; Sikorra, S.; Stegmann, C.M.; Pich, A.; Binz, T.; Brunger, A.T.

    2009-06-01

    Clostridial neurotoxins are the causative agents of the neuroparalytic disease botulism and tetanus. They block neurotransmitter release through specific proteolysis of one of the three soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) SNAP-25, syntaxin, and synaptobrevin, which constitute part of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery. The catalytic component of the clostridial neurotoxins is their light chain (LC), a Zn2+ endopeptidase. There are seven structurally and functionally related botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), termed serotype A to G, and tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT). Each of them exhibits unique specificity for their target SNAREs and peptide bond(s) they cleave. The mechanisms of action for substrate recognition and target cleavage are largely unknown. Here, we report structural and biochemical studies of BoNT/C1-LC, which is unique among BoNTs in that it exhibits dual specificity toward both syntaxin and SNAP-25. A distinct pocket (S1') near the active site likely achieves the correct register for the cleavage site by only allowing Ala as the P1' residue for both SNAP-25 and syntaxin. Mutations of this SNAP-25 residue dramatically reduce enzymatic activity. The remote a-exosite that was previously identified in the complex of BoNT/A-LC and SNAP-25 is structurally conserved in BoNT/C1. However, mutagenesis experiments show that the a-exosite of BoNT/C1 plays a less stringent role in substrate discrimination in comparison to that of BoNT/A, which could account for its dual substrate specificity.

  5. Light chain separated from the rest of the type a botulinum neurotoxin molecule is the most catalytically active form.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamettin Gul

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT are the most potent of all toxins. The 50 kDa N-terminal endopeptidase catalytic light chain (LC of BoNT is located next to its central, putative translocation domain. After binding to the peripheral neurons, the central domain of BoNT helps the LC translocate into cytosol where its proteolytic action on SNARE (soluble NSF attachment protein receptor proteins blocks exocytosis of acetyl choline leading to muscle paralysis and eventual death. The translocation domain also contains 105 Å -long stretch of ∼100 residues, known as "belt," that crosses over and wraps around the LC to shield the active site from solvent. It is not known if the LC gets dissociated from the rest of the molecule in the cytosol before catalysis. To investigate the structural identity of the protease, we prepared four variants of type A BoNT (BoNT/A LC, and compared their catalytic parameters with those of BoNT/A whole toxin. The four variants were LC + translocation domain, a trypsin-nicked LC + translocation domain, LC + belt, and a free LC. Our results showed that K(m for a 17-residue SNAP-25 (synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa peptide for these constructs was not very different, but the turnover number (k(cat for the free LC was 6-100-fold higher than those of its four variants. Moreover, none of the four variants of the LC was prone to autocatalysis. Our results clearly demonstrated that in vitro, the LC minus the rest of the molecule is the most catalytically active form. The results may have implication as to the identity of the active, toxic moiety of BoNT/A in vivo.

  6. Differentiation of light-chain cardiac amyloidosis from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using myocardial mechanical parameters by velocity vector imaging echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Xiao; Wang, Jing; Mu, Yang; Liu, Bohan; Lv, Wenqing; Wang, Ye; Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Hongbin; Zhi, Guang

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of layered velocity vector imaging (VVI)-derived left ventricular (LV) mechanical parameters in the differential diagnosis of primary light-chain cardiac amyloidosis (AL-CA) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We recruited 35 subjects with histologically-diagnosed AL-CA, 35 subjects with HCM, and 30 age-matched healthy controls. We used conventional echocardiography and electrocardiogram to evaluate general heart function and electrophysiology properties. Furthermore, we applied two-dimensional VVI echocardiography to assess the layered mechanical parameters during systole, including endocardial and epicardial longitudinal strain (ENDO and EPI LSsys), circumferential strain (CSsys), radial strain (RSsys), rotation (ROT) and twist (TWI), in different LV walls and levels. Two groups of patients had similarly elevated LV wall thickness and mild diastolic dysfunction, but normal ejection fraction. ENDO LSsys of three circular LV levels and six LV walls was markedly decreased in AL-CA patients, with the most prominent reduction in the basal level. The reduction of ENDO and EPI LSsys in HCM subjects was less profound, and was restricted to certain LV wall and levels. AL-CA patients had significantly reduced RSsys in the LV basal level compared with control or HCM patients. Two groups of patients exhibited similar reduction in layered regional CSsys, ROT and TWI. ROC analysis revealed that the sensitivity and specificity of basal ENDO LSsys for predicting AL-CA was 86 and 89%. Assessment of layered LSsys of LV walls and levels by VVI appeared to provide a more sensitive and specific diagnostic index for the differential diagnosis of AL-CA from HCM than conventional echocardiography. Future studies are warranted to evaluate its diagnostic efficacy for AL-CA diagnosis in the large population.

  7. The Value of Serum Immunoglobulin Free Light Chain Assessment in Patients with Monoclonal Gammopathies and Acute Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Cirit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Immunoglobulin free light chain (FLC abnormalities are frequent in patients with monoclonal gammopathies and kidneys are the most affected organs in these patients. Immunoassays which provide quantitative measurement of FLC in serum, indicate monoclonal FLC production by the presence of an abnormal κ to λ FLC ratio. The aim of this study was to assess the serum FLC measurement as a diagnostic tool for detecting plasma cell dyscrasias to compared with standart assays and ascertain its sensitivity and specificity in patients with acute renal failure (ARF. METHODS: Sera from 82 patients with ARF were assessed by serum protein electrophoresis (SPE, serum immunofixation electrophoresis (SIFE and FLC measurements. The sensitivity and specificity of the FLC ratio for identifying patients with multiple myeloma (MM and ARF was compared with SPE and SIFE results. RESULTS: Of 82 patients who were presented with ARF, seven diagnosed multiple myeloma by using serum protein electrophoresis, immunofixation electrophoresis, and bone marrow biopsy tecniques. Of cases 8 patients had not have κ/λ ratio within the published reference range (0.26-1.65; κ/λ ratio based on FLC measurements had 96 % specificity, 71% sensitivity and 62.9 % positive predictive and 97.3% negative predictive value for myeloma diagnoses. CONCLUSION: Patients with MM who were presented with acute renal failure had low sensitivity and specificity for к/λ FLC ratio compared to SPE and SIFE. As a consequence of making a more accurate comment about this method, prospective, well-designed and more patient population studies are needed.

  8. Slit and Netrin-1 guide cranial motor axon pathfinding via Rho-kinase, myosin light chain kinase and myosin II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drescher Uwe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developing hindbrain, cranial motor axon guidance depends on diffusible repellent factors produced by the floor plate. Our previous studies have suggested that candidate molecules for mediating this effect are Slits, Netrin-1 and Semaphorin3A (Sema3A. It is unknown to what extent these factors contribute to floor plate-derived chemorepulsion of motor axons, and the downstream signalling pathways are largely unclear. Results In this study, we have used a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches to identify the components of floor plate chemorepulsion and their downstream signalling pathways. Using in vitro motor axon deflection assays, we demonstrate that Slits and Netrin-1, but not Sema3A, contribute to floor plate repulsion. We also find that the axon pathways of dorsally projecting branchiomotor neurons are disrupted in Netrin-1 mutant mice and in chick embryos expressing dominant-negative Unc5a receptors, indicating an in vivo role for Netrin-1. We further demonstrate that Slit and Netrin-1 signalling are mediated by Rho-kinase (ROCK and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK, which regulate myosin II activity, controlling actin retrograde flow in the growth cone. We show that MLCK, ROCK and myosin II are required for Slit and Netrin-1-mediated growth cone collapse of cranial motor axons. Inhibition of these molecules in explant cultures, or genetic manipulation of RhoA or myosin II function in vivo causes characteristic cranial motor axon pathfinding errors, including the inability to exit the midline, and loss of turning towards exit points. Conclusions Our findings suggest that both Slits and Netrin-1 contribute to floor plate-derived chemorepulsion of cranial motor axons. They further indicate that RhoA/ROCK, MLCK and myosin II are components of Slit and Netrin-1 signalling pathways, and suggest that these pathways are of key importance in cranial motor axon navigation.

  9. Urinary free light chains may help to identify infection in patients with elevated systemic inflammation due to rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramlage, Carsten P; Froelich, Britta; Wallbach, Manuel; Minguet, Joan; Grupp, Clemens; Deutsch, Cornelia; Bramlage, Peter; Müller, Gerhard A; Koziolek, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The risk of infection in patients with rheumatic diseases is elevated, but a clear marker to differentiate the cause of the systemic inflammation is missing. We assessed the ability urinary immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs) to indicate the presence of infection in patients with rheumatic disease. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with rheumatic disease attending the Georg-August University Hospital in Goettingen, Germany, from January 2011 to December 2013. Subjects were included if they had urine levels of κ and λ FLCs available. A reference group of patients without autoimmune disease, but with documented infection, was constructed. A total of 1500 patients had their urinary FLCs quantified during the study period. Of the 382 patients with rheumatic disease, 172 (45%) displayed no systemic inflammation, 162 (42%) had inflammation due to the underlying disease activity, and 48 (13%) had inflammation due to a confirmed infection. Urinary FLC concentrations were much higher in patients with rheumatic diseases and infection (κ 68.8 ± 81.8 mg/L, λ 31.4 ± 53.5 mg/L) compared to those with inflammation due to rheumatic disease activity (κ 22.7 ± 26.3 mg/L, λ 8.1 ± 9.1 mg/L, κ p inflammation due to rheumatic disease activity from that due to the additional presence of infection. The ability to quantify these proteins in urine provides a simple alternative to the use of blood.

  10. Variants of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide alter lipidation of autophagic protein, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, LC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, I; Korostoff, J; Dhingra, A; Reyes-Reveles, J; Shenker, B J; Shahabuddin, N; Alexander, D; Lally, E T; Bragin, A; Boesze-Battaglia, K

    2016-12-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis often subverts host cell autophagic processes for its own survival. Our previous studies document the association of the cargo sorting protein, melanoregulin (MREG), with its binding partner, the autophagic protein, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in macrophages incubated with P. gingivalis (strain 33277). Differences in the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affect the virulence of P. gingivalis; penta-acylated LPS1690 is a weak Toll-like receptor 4 agonist compared with Escherichia coli LPS, whereas tetra-acylated LPS1435/1449 acts as an LPS1690 antagonist. To determine how P. gingivalis LPS1690 affects autophagy we assessed LC3-dependent and MREG-dependent processes in green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3-expressing Saos-2 cells. LPS1690 stimulated the formation of very large LC3-positive vacuoles and MREG puncta. This LPS1690 -mediated LC3 lipidation decreased in the presence of LPS1435/1449 . When Saos-2 cells were incubated with P. gingivalis the bacteria internalized but did not traffic to GFP-LC3-positive structures. Nevertheless, increases in LC3 lipidation and MREG puncta were observed. Collectively, these results suggest that P. gingivalis internalization is not necessary for LC3 lipidation. Primary human gingival epithelial cells isolated from patients with periodontitis showed both LC3II and MREG puncta whereas cells from disease-free individuals exhibited little co-localization of these two proteins. These results suggest that the prevalence of a particular LPS moiety may modulate the degradative capacity of host cells, so influencing bacterial survival. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Genes influenced by the non-muscle isoform of Myosin light chain kinase impact human cancer prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhou

    Full Text Available The multifunctional non-muscle isoform of myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK is critical to the rapid dynamic coordination of the cytoskeleton involved in cancer cell proliferation and migration. We identified 45 nmMLCK-influenced genes by bioinformatic filtering of genome-wide expression in wild type and nmMLCK knockout (KO mice exposed to preclinical models of murine acute inflammatory lung injury, pathologies that are well established to include nmMLCK as an essential participant. To determine whether these nmMLCK-influenced genes were relevant to human cancers, the 45 mouse genes were matched to 38 distinct human orthologs (M38 signature (GeneCards definition and underwent Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in training and validation cohorts. These studies revealed that in training cohorts, the M38 signature successfully identified cancer patients with poor overall survival in breast cancer (P<0.001, colon cancer (P<0.001, glioma (P<0.001, and lung cancer (P<0.001. In validation cohorts, the M38 signature demonstrated significantly reduced overall survival for high-score patients of breast cancer (P = 0.002, colon cancer (P = 0.035, glioma (P = 0.023, and lung cancer (P = 0.023. The association between M38 risk score and overall survival was confirmed by univariate Cox proportional hazard analysis of overall survival in the both training and validation cohorts. This study, providing a novel prognostic cancer gene signature derived from a murine model of nmMLCK-associated lung inflammation, strongly supports nmMLCK-involved pathways in tumor growth and progression in human cancers and nmMLCK as an attractive candidate molecular target in both inflammatory and neoplastic processes.

  12. Receptor-associated protein blocks internalization and cytotoxicity of myeloma light chain in cultured human proximal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Sule; Erturk, Sehsuvar; Khan, Altaf M; Batuman, Vecihi

    2013-01-01

    Free light chains (LCs) are among the many ligands that bind to cubilin/megalin for endocytosis via the clathrin-dependent endosomal/lysosomal pathway. Receptor associated protein (RAP), is a 39 kDA high-affinity, chaperone-like ligand for megalin that assists in the proper folding and functioning of megalin/cubilin. Although RAP is known to inhibit ligand binding to megalin/cubilin, its effect on LC endocytosis has not been shown directly. We investigated whether RAP can block the endocytosis of LC in cultured human proximal tubule cells and whether this can prevent LC cytotoxicity. Immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry showed that fluorescently labeled LC endocytosis was markedly inhibited in HK-2 cells pretreated with human RAP. The effect of RAP was dose-dependent, and was predominantly on endocytosis as it had no effect on the small acid-washable fraction of LC bound to cell membrane. RAP significantly inhibited LC induced cytokine production and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Prolonged exposure to LC for 48 h resulted in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation in HK-2 cells as evidenced by marked reduction in the expression of the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin, and increased the expression of the mesenchymal marker α-SMA, which was also prevented by RAP in the endocytosis medium. RAP inhibited LC endocytosis by ∼88% and ameliorated LC-induced cytokine responses and EMT in human PTCs. The results not only provide additional evidence that LCs endocytosis occurs via the megalin/cubilin endocytic receptor system, but also show that blocking LC endocytosis by RAP can protect proximal tubule cells from LC cytotoxicity.

  13. A shrimp pacifastin light chain-like inhibitor: molecular identification and role in the control of the prophenoloxidase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Chomwong, Sudarat; Senapin, Saengchan; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Amparyup, Piti

    2016-01-01

    Pacifastin is a recently classified family of serine proteinase inhibitors that play essential roles in various biological processes, including in the regulation of the melanization cascade. Here, a novel pacifastin-related gene, termed PmPacifastin-like, was identified from a reverse suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library created from hemocytes of the prophenoloxidase PmproPO1/2 co-silenced black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. The full-length sequences of PmPacifastin-like and its homologue LvPacifastin-like from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were determined. Sequence analysis revealed that both sequences contained thirteen conserved pacifastin light chain domains (PLDs), followed by two putative kunitz domains. Expression analysis demonstrated that the PmPacifastin-like transcript was expressed in all tested shrimp tissues and larval developmental stages, and its expression responded to Vibrio harveyi challenge. To gain insight into the functional roles of PmPacifastin-like protein, the in vivo RNA interference experiment was employed; the results showed that PmPacifastin-like depletion strongly increased PO activity. Interestingly, suppression of PmPacifastin-like also down-regulated the expression of the proPO-activating enzyme PmPPAE2 transcript; the PmPacifastin-like transcript was down-regulated after the PmproPO1/2 transcripts were silenced. Taken together, these results suggest that PmPacifastin-like is important in the shrimp proPO system and may play an essential role in shrimp immune defense against bacterial infection. These results also expand the knowledge of how pacifastin-related protein participates in the negative regulation of the proPO system in shrimp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  15. Production of inactivated influenza H5N1 vaccines from MDCK cells in serum-free medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Yung-Chih Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Highly pathogenic influenza viruses pose a constant threat which could lead to a global pandemic. Vaccination remains the principal measure to reduce morbidity and mortality from such pandemics. The availability and surging demand for pandemic vaccines needs to be addressed in the preparedness plans. This study presents an improved high-yield manufacturing process for the inactivated influenza H5N1 vaccines using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells grown in a serum-free (SF medium microcarrier cell culture system. PRINCIPAL FINDING: The current study has evaluated the performance of cell adaptation switched from serum-containing (SC medium to several commercial SF media. The selected SF medium was further evaluated in various bioreactor culture systems for process scale-up evaluation. No significant difference was found in the cell growth in different sizes of bioreactors studied. In the 7.5 L bioreactor runs, the cell concentration reached to 2.3 × 10(6 cells/mL after 5 days. The maximum virus titers of 1024 Hemagglutinin (HA units/50 µL and 7.1 ± 0.3 × 10(8 pfu/mL were obtained after 3 days infection. The concentration of HA antigen as determined by SRID was found to be 14.1 µg/mL which was higher than those obtained from the SC medium. A mouse immunogenicity study showed that the formalin-inactivated purified SF vaccine candidate formulated with alum adjuvant could induce protective level of virus neutralization titers similar to those obtained from the SC medium. In addition, the H5N1 viruses produced from either SC or SF media showed the same antigenic reactivity with the NIBRG14 standard antisera. CONCLUSIONS: The advantages of this SF cell-based manufacturing process could reduce the animal serum contamination, the cost and lot-to-lot variation of SC medium production. This study provides useful information to manufacturers that are planning to use SF medium for cell-based influenza vaccine production.

  16. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  17. Distinct sequences and post-translational modifications in cardiac atrial and ventricular myosin light chains revealed by top-down mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorich, Zachery R; Cai, Wenxuan; Lin, Ziqing; Chen, Albert J; Peng, Ying; Kohmoto, Takushi; Ge, Ying

    2017-06-01

    Myosin is the principal component of the thick filaments that, through interactions with the actin thin filaments, mediates force production during muscle contraction. Myosin is a hexamer, consisting of two heavy chains, each associated with an essential (ELC) and a regulatory (RLC) light chain, which bind the lever-arm of the heavy chain and play important modulatory roles in striated muscle contraction. Nevertheless, a comprehensive assessment of the sequences of the ELC and RLC isoforms, as well as their post-translational modifications, in the heart remains lacking. Herein, utilizing top-down high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS), we have comprehensively characterized the sequences and N-terminal modifications of the atrial and ventricular isoforms of the myosin light chains from human and swine hearts, as well as the sites of phosphorylation in the swine proteins. In addition to the correction of disparities in the database sequences of the swine proteins, we show for the first time that, whereas the ventricular isoforms of the ELC and RLC are methylated at their N-termini, which is consistent with previous studies, the atrial isoforms of the ELC and RLC from both human and swine are N(α)-methylated and N(α)-acetylated, respectively. Furthermore, top-down MS with electron capture dissociation enabled localization of the sites of phosphorylation in swine RLC isoforms from the ventricles and atria to Ser14 and Ser22, respectively. Collectively, these results provide new insights into the sequences and modifications of myosin light chain isoforms in the human and swine hearts, which will pave the way for a better understanding of their functional roles in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Early alterations of bile canaliculi dynamics and the rho kinase/myosin light chain kinase pathway are characteristics of drug-induced intrahepatic cholestasis

    OpenAIRE

    Burbank, M.G.; Burban, Audrey; Sharanek, Ahmad; Weaver, R J; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Guillouzo, André

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Intrahepatic cholestasis represents 20%-40%of drug-induced injuries from which a large proportion remains unpredictable. We aimed to investigate mechanisms underlying drug-induced cholestasis and improve its early detection using human HepaRG cells and a set of 12 cholestatic drugs and six noncholestatic drugs. In this study, we analyzed bile canaliculi dynamics, Rho kinase (ROCK)/myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) pathway implication, efflux inhibition of taurocholate [...

  19. The novel zinc finger protein dASCIZ regulates mitosis in Drosophila via an essential role in dynein light-chain expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytseva, Olga; Tenis, Nora; Mitchell, Naomi; Kanno, Shin-ichiro; Yasui, Akira; Heierhorst, Jörg; Quinn, Leonie M

    2014-02-01

    The essential zinc finger protein ASCIZ (also known as ATMIN, ZNF822) plays critical roles during lung organogenesis and B cell development in mice, where it regulates the expression of dynein light chain (DYNLL1/LC8), but its functions in other species including invertebrates are largely unknown. Here we report the identification of the Drosophila ortholog of ASCIZ (dASCIZ) and show that loss of dASCIZ function leads to pronounced mitotic delays with centrosome and spindle positioning defects during development, reminiscent of impaired dynein motor functions. Interestingly, similar mitotic and developmental defects were observed upon knockdown of the DYNLL/LC8-type dynein light chain Cutup (Ctp), and dASCIZ loss-of-function phenotypes could be suppressed by ectopic Ctp expression. Consistent with a genetic function of dASCIZ upstream of Ctp, we show that loss of dASCIZ led to reduced endogenous Ctp mRNA and protein levels and dramatically reduced Ctp-LacZ reporter gene activity in vivo, indicating that dASCIZ regulates development and mitosis as a Ctp transcription factor. We speculate that the more severe mitotic defects in the absence of ASCIZ in flies compared to mice may be due to redundancy with a second, ASCIZ-independent, Dynll2 gene in mammals in contrast to a single Ctp gene in Drosophila. Altogether, our data demonstrate that ASCIZ is an evolutionary highly conserved transcriptional regulator of dynein light-chain levels and a novel regulator of mitosis in flies.

  20. Plasma vitamin D-binding protein (GC) factors, immunoglobulin G heavy chain (GM) allotypes and immunoglobulin kappa light chain (KM1) allotype in patients with sarcoidosis and in healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Thymann, Mariann; Graudal, Niels

    2002-01-01

    and immunoglobulin kappa light chain (KM) allotype differed significantly from the distribution in healthy subjects. METHODS: GC 1S, 1F, 2 allotypes, GM 1, 2, 5 allotypes, and KM1 allotype were assessed in 44 patients with sarcoidosis and in healthy control subjects. RESULTS: There were no significant differences...... between the frequencies of the GC, GM and KM allotypes in sarcoidosis patients and in control subjects. Furthermore, there was no relationship between the presentation or course of the sarcoid disease and GC, GM or KM allotypes. CONCLUSIONS: GC, GM and KMI allotypes do not appear to play any major role...

  1. Establishment of xenogeneic serum-free culture methods for handling human dental pulp stem cells using clinically oriented in-vitro and in-vivo conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Mai; Nakahara, Taka

    2018-02-03

    Currently, ex-vivo handling of stem cells, including transport after harvest and therapeutic preparation, is generally done in culture media containing fetal bovine serum (FBS), which promotes cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. However, because of safety concerns associated with the use of FBS, including potential transmission of zoonotic agents and transplant rejection because of the incorporation of foreign proteins into the stem cells, there is a need for xenogeneic serum-free culture media for clinical handling of stem cells. Dental pulp stem cells were derived from wisdom teeth donated by eight healthy volunteers and cultured in xenogeneic serum-free culture medium (XFM) or xenogeneic serum-containing culture medium (SCM). Cells were subjected to morphological, proliferation, karyotype, differentiation, marker expression, cryopreservation, and cytotoxic susceptibility analyses in vitro, as well as transplantation in vivo. In primary culture, XFM cells showed lower adhesion and slightly different morphology, although the single-cell size was similar to that of SCM cells. XFM cells exhibited typical mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics in vitro and in vivo, including marker gene/protein expression, trilineage differentiation potential, and hard, osteo-dentin tissue formation. Additionally, XFM cells maintained a normal karyotype in vitro and nontumorigenic potential in vivo; however, XFM cells were more susceptible to H 2 O 2 and ultraviolet cytotoxic stimuli. XFM cells formed a multilayered structure showing excessive cell death/division in contrast to the monolayered structure of SCM cells when reaching overconfluence. Proliferation was disrupted in overconfluent XFM cells, and these cells could not be subcultured. Dimethyl sulfoxide-free cryopreserved XFM cells yielded similar results in all of the experiments. This study is the first reporting successful isolation and expansion of an MSC population from donor-derived tissue (dental

  2. Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of benzo(a)pyrene-transformed 16HBE cells serum-free culture supernatant and xenografted nude mice sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Fu, Juanling; Yao, Biyun; Jia, Yongrui; Zhang, Hongtao; Li, Xuehui; Dong, Lisha; Gao, Ya; Liu, Wenli; Chen, Wen; Zhou, Zongcan

    2016-02-05

    To screen potential biomarkers of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-induced lung cancer, the proteomic profiles of BaP-transformed 16HBE cell line T-16HBE-C1 cells serum-free culture supernatant and xenografted nude mice sera were compared with those of 16HBE group by utilizing label-free quantitative proteomic strategy. By employing nano-LC-MS/MS technology followed by MaxQuant and Perseus processing, 489 differentially expressed proteins were identified between T-16HBE-C1 and 16HBE cells serum-free culture supernatant, and 49 significantly up-regulated proteins were identified in T-16HBE-C1 xenografted nude mice sera. Three proteins neuropilin-2 (NRP2), clusterin (CLU) and A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) were up-regulated in the serum-free culture supernatant of T-16HBE-C1 cells. These 3 human proteins were present in the sera of nude mice xenografted with T-16HBE-C1 cells, but were undetectable in mice xenografted with 16HBE cells. The proteomic results of NRP2 and AKAP12 were confirmed by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. Moreover, the serum NRP2 levels were significantly elevated at the 4th day after tumor cell implantation and showed good positive correlation with tumor growth characterized by tumor volume. In conclusion, serum NRP2, CLU and AKAP12 could be potential biomarkers of BaP-induced lung cancer. The proteomic results will gain deeper insights into the mechanisms of BaP-induced carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduction of the infectivity of baculovirus stocks frozen at ultra-low temperature in serum-free media: The role of lipid emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Ignacio; Gioria, Verónica Viviana; Micheloud, Gabriela Analía; Claus, Juan Daniel

    2016-11-01

    The infectivity of stocks of baculoviruses produced in serum-free media is sensitive to freezing at ultra-low temperatures. The objective of this work was to elucidate the causes of such sensitivity, using as a model the freezing of stocks of Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV), a baculovirus widely employed as biological insecticide. Titers of supernatants of cell cultures infected with AgMNPV in four different serum-free media supplemented with lipid emulsions were reduced by 50 to 90% after six months freezing. By using a full factorial experiment, freezing and lipid emulsion, as well as the interaction between them, were identified as the main factors reducing the viral titer. The virucidal effect of the lipid emulsion was reproduced by one of their components, the surfactant Polysorbate 80. Damaged viral envelopes were observed by transmission electron microscopy in most particles frozen in a medium supplemented with lipid emulsion or Polysorbate 80. Additionally, Polysorbate 80 also affected the infectivity of AgMNPV stocks that were incubated at 27°C. The identification of the roles played by the lipid emulsion and Polysorbate 80 is not only a contribution to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the inactivation of baculovirus stocks produced in serum-free media during storage at ultra-low temperature, but is also an input for the rational development of new procedures aimed at improving both the preservation of baculovirus stocks and the composition of culture media for the production of baculovirus-based bioproducts in insect cells. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1559-1569, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. Development of serum-free media for the cultivation and recovery of Acholeplasma laidlawii used for challenge testing sterilizing-grade filters in biopharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Shawn; Nguyen, Nhung; Lentine, Kerry Roche

    2008-01-01

    A serum-free cultivation broth and recovery agar for use in 0.1 micron-rated filter characterization and validation studies for biopharmaceutical applications were developed using Acholeplasma laidlawii as the test microorganism. Selection criteria were (A) a single-stage, serum-free broth medium to support high-titer cell growth and yield a cellular morphology suitable for bacterial challenge testing within 24 h and (B) a serum-free agar growth medium that can recover cells using conventional enumeration techniques. Different formulation components at various concentrations were screened for their effects on growth, cell size, and recovery on membrane filters. An optimized broth, Glucose Hydrolysate Broth, containing glucose, polypeptone, bovine serum albumin, 2-Amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (Tris base), oleic acid, and palmitic acid produced small 370 X 406 nanometer monodisperse cells at titers in excess of 1 x 10(9) colony-forming units per milliliter (cfu mL(-1)) within 20-24 h of incubation. Glucose Mycoplasma Agar, containing glucose, mycoplasma broth base, bovine serum albumin, Tris base, oleic acid, and palmitic acid, produced colonies approximately 1 mm in size and facilitated recovery on 0.2-microm polyvinylidene fluoride membrane filters. A comparison of recovery of A. laidlawii on Glucose Mycoplasma Agar pour-plate versus membrane filters resulted in an 89 +/- 4% recovery. Linearity across the target recovery range was 0.9992 (r2). Presence/absence tests of filtrate from each 0.2-microm assay membrane resulted in absence of growth as compared to controls, thus demonstrating the suitability of using 0.2-microm membrane filters for recovery of A. laidlawii.

  5. Use of real-time cellular analysis and Plackett-Burman design to develop the serum-free media for PC-3 prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ai; Chen, Fahai; Ning, Chunhong; Wu, Haiming; Song, Huanfang; Wu, Yanqing; Chen, Rong; Zhou, Kaihua; Xu, Xiaoling; Lu, Yinxiang; Gao, Jimin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we developed a rapid strategy to screen a serum-free medium for culturing the anchorage-dependent PC-3 prostate cancer cells, which was going to be prepared in large scale to generate GM-CSF/TNFα-surface-modified whole cell prostate cancer vaccine. Automated real-time cellular analysis as a rapid and non-invasive technology was used to monitor the growth of PC-3 cells in 16-well plates. At the same time, Plackett-Burman design was employed to identify the most influential formulation by integrating relevant information statistically. The effects of the 16 selected factors were evaluated during exponential cell growth and three medium constituents (EGF, FGF and linoleic acid) were identified to have significant effects on the cell growth. Subsequently, the response surface methodology with central composite design was applied to determine the interactions among the three factors so that these factors were optimized to improve cell growth. Finally, the prediction of the best combination was made under the maximal response to optimize cell growth by Design-Expert software 7.0. A total of 20 experiments were conducted to construct a quadratic model and a second-order polynomial equation. With the optimized combination validated by the stability test of serial passaging PC-3 cells, the serum-free medium had similar cell density and cell viability to the original serum medium. In summary, this high-throughput scheme minimized the screening time and may thus provide a new platform to efficiently develop the serum-free media for adherent cells.

  6. Yeast extract from Express Five serum-free medium contains factors at about 35 kDa, essential for growth of Trichoplusia ni insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Ulrika; Häggström, Lena

    2005-10-01

    The yeast extract (of unknown origin) present in the commercially available serum-free medium 'Express Five' contains factors ('yeast extract factors') up to 35 kDa which are essential for growth of Trichoplusia ni insect cells. A yeast extract brand lacking these components could not support growth of T. ni cells. However, cell proliferation was restored by adding chromatographic fractions containing the yeast extract factors. The yeast extract factors were not solely responsible for the growth enhancing effect of yeast extract but some other components, which seem to be generally present in yeast extracts, are also required for T. ni proliferation.

  7. Are serum-free and xeno-free culture conditions ideal for large scale clinical grade expansion of Wharton's jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells? A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamynathan, Priyanka; Venugopal, Parvathy; Kannan, Suresh; Thej, Charan; Kolkundar, Udaykumar; Bhagwat, Swaroop; Ta, Malancha; Majumdar, Anish Sen; Balasubramanian, Sudha

    2014-07-28

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) for clinical use have largely been isolated from the bone marrow, although isolation of these cells from many different adult and fetal tissues has been reported as well. One such source of MSCs is the Whartons Jelly (WJ) of the umbilical cord, as it provides an inexhaustible source of stem cells for potential therapeutic use. Isolation of MSCs from the umbilical cord also presents little, if any, ethical concerns, and the process of obtaining the cord tissue is relatively simple with appropriate consent from the donor. However, a great majority of studies rely on the use of bovine serum containing medium for isolation and expansion of these cells, and porcine derived trypsin for dissociating the cells during passages, which may pose potential risks for using these cells in clinical applications. It is therefore of high priority to develop a robust production process by optimizing culture variables to efficiently and consistently generate MSCs that retain desired regenerative and differentiation properties while minimizing risk of disease transmission. We have established a complete xeno-free, serum-free culture condition for isolation, expansion and characterization of WJ-MSCs, to eliminate the use of animal components right from initiation of explant culture to clinical scale expansion and cryopreservation. Growth kinetics, in vitro differentiation capacities, immunosuppressive potential and immunophenotypic characterization of the cells expanded in serum-free media have been compared against those cultured under standard fetal bovine serum (FBS) containing medium. We have also compared the colony-forming frequency and genomic stability of the large scale expanded cells. Secretome analysis was performed to compare the angiogenic cytokines and functional angiogenic potency was proved by Matrigel assays. Results presented in this report identify one such serum-free, xeno-free medium for WJ expansion. Cells cultured in serum-free

  8. The 4C5 cell-impermeable anti-HSP90 antibody with anti-cancer activity, is composed of a single light chain dimer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Sidera

    Full Text Available MAb 4C5 is a cell impermeable, anti-HSP90 murine monoclonal antibody, originally produced using hybridoma technology. We have previously shown that mAb 4C5 specifically recognizes both the α- and to a lesser extent the β-isoform of HSP90. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that by selectively inhibiting the function of cell-surface HSP90, mAb 4C5 significantly impairs cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Here we describe the reconstitution of mAb 4C5 into a mouse-human chimera. More importantly we report that mAb 4C5 and consequently its chimeric counterpart are completely devoid of heavy chain and consist only of a functional kappa light chain dimer. The chimeric antibody is shown to retain the original antibody's specificity and functional properties. Thus it is capable of inhibiting the function of surface HSP90, leading to reduced cancer cell invasion in vitro. Finally, we present in vivo evidence showing that the chimeric 4C5 significantly inhibits the metastatic deposit formation of MDA-MB-453 cells into the lungs of SCID mice. These data suggest that a chimeric kappa light chain antibody could be potentially used as an anti-cancer agent, thereby introducing a novel type of antibody fragment, with reduced possible adverse immunogenic effects, into cancer therapeutics.

  9. On the role of long-chain aldehydes in the light reaction in Photobacterium phosphoreum enzyme preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Willemke

    1960-01-01

    1. (1) Active luciferase-DPNH-oxidase preparations from Photobacterium phosphoreum generally contain some aldehyde-attacking enzyme, probably ADH. Under the experimental conditions applied this enzyme appears to attack decanal, but not palmital. 2. (2) The presence of long-chain aldehydes in the

  10. Vernier zone residue of 4 mouse subgroup II kappa light chains is a critical determinant for antigen recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haard, de H.; Kazemier, B.; Bent, van der A.; Oudshoorn, P.; Boender, P.; Arends, J.W.; Gemen, van B.

    1999-01-01

    Background: During the conversion of murine monoclonal antibodies directed against the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) into bacterially expressed single chain fragments (scFv), we found a major reduction of binding activity upon introduction of a primer encoded mutation. Objectives: In this study

  11. Measuring clinically relevant endpoints in a serum-free, three-dimensional, primary cell culture system of human osteoarthritic articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundens, Grace; Buckley, Andrea; Milton, LaBraya; Behling, Kathryn; Chmielewski, Sarah; Cho, Ellen; Lozano-Torres, Xiomara; Selim, Abdulhafez; Lackman, Richard; George-Weinstein, Mindy; Miller, Lawrence; D'Angelo, Marina

    2017-08-15

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage within the joint, inflammation and pain. The purpose of this study was to develop a primary, serum free cell culture system of human osteoarthritic articular chondrocytes (HOACs) with which to study manifestations of the disease process. Joint tissues were obtained from OA patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). HOACs isolated from the femoral condyles and tibial plateau of the same side were combined, plated in three-dimensional, alginate beads and cultured for five days in serum, hormone and protein free medium. More living cells were obtained from the femoral condyles than the tibial plateau. The optimal plating density was 2.5 × 106 cells/ml of alginate. The amounts of DNA, RNA, proteoglycans and total collagen were similar in cultures prepared from the sides of least and greatest pathology. More type 1 than type 2 collagen was detected in the medium on days 2 and 5. A greater percentage of type 1 than type 2 collagen was degraded. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta was present in the medium and alginate associated matrix. Although variation in the metabolic profiles between subjects was observed, HOACs from all patients continued to reflect the OA phenotype for five days in culture. This serum free, three-dimensional primary culture system of HOACs provides a platform with which to measure clinically relevant endpoints of OA and screen potential disease modifying OA therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Generation of hematopoietic stem cells from human embryonic stem cells using a defined, stepwise, serum-free, and serum replacement-free monolayer culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Jung; Jung, Ji-Won; Ha, Hye-Yeong; Koo, Soo Kyung; Kim, Eung-Gook; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be expanded infinitely in vitro and have the potential to differentiate into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); thus, they are considered a useful source of cells for HSC production. Although several technical in vitro methods for engineering HSCs from pluripotent stem cells have been developed, clinical application of HSCs engineered from pluripotent stem cells is restricted because of the possibility of xenogeneic contamination resulting from the use of murine materials. Human ESCs (CHA-hES15) were cultured on growth factor-reduced Matrigel-coated dishes in the mTeSR1 serum-free medium. When the cells were 70% confluent, we initiated HSC differentiation by three methods involving (1) knockout serum replacement (KSR), cytokines, TGFb1, EPO, and FLT3L; (2) KSR, cytokines, and bFGF; or (3) cytokines and bFGF. Among the three differentiation methods, the minimal number of cytokines without KSR resulted in the greatest production of HSCs. The optimized method resulted in a higher proportion of CD34+CD43+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and CD34+CD45+ HPCs compared to the other methods. In addition, the HSCs showed the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages of hematopoietic cells in vitro. In this study, we optimized a two-step, serum-free, animal protein-free, KSR-free, feeder-free, chemically defined monolayer culture method for generation of HSCs and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from human ESCs.

  13. Mechanisms underlying a decrease in KCl-induced contraction after long-term serum-free organ culture of rat isolated mesenteric artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomoka; Okada, Muneyoshi; Yamawaki, Hideyuki

    2014-07-01

    Organ culture of blood vessel is a better technique to investigate the long-term effects of drugs. However, some functional changes may occur from freshly isolated vessel (Fresh). Mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates smooth muscle differentiation and Ca(2+) mobilization. We thus investigated mechanisms of alteration in smooth muscle contractility after serum-free organ culture focusing on mTOR. Rat isolated mesenteric arteries were cultured for 5 days without (0% serum) or with rapamycin. In 0% serum, absolute contraction by KCl significantly decreased from Fresh, which was significantly rescued by rapamycin. In 0% serum, mTOR expression significantly increased from Fresh, which was significantly rescued by rapamycin. In 0% serum, expression of myocardin, a key regulator of smooth muscle differentiation markers, significantly decreased from Fresh, which was significantly rescued by rapamycin. However, the decrease in expression of contractile proteins, including SM22α and calponin, was not changed by rapamycin. Basal phosphorylation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II significantly increased in 0% serum, which was significantly rescued by rapamycin. In 0% serum, absolute contraction by caffeine significantly decreased from Fresh, which was significantly rescued by rapamycin. In conclusion, expression of mTOR increased during serum-free organ culture of rat isolated mesenteric artery for 5 days, which may be at least partly responsible for the decreased smooth muscle contractility perhaps due to the decrease in the stored Ca(2+) in smooth muscle.

  14. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  15. Identification of a single base-pair mutation of TAA (Stop codon) → GAA (Glu) that causes light chain extension in a CHO cell derived IgG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Taylor; Huang, Yungfu; Chamberlain, Scott; Romeo, Tony; Zhu-Shimoni, Judith; Hewitt, Daniel; Zhu, Mary; Katta, Viswanatham; Mauger, Brad; Kao, Yung-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    We describe here the identification of a stop codon TAA (Stop) → GAA (Glu) = Stop221E mutation on the light chain of a recombinant IgG1 antibody expressed in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. The extended light chain variants, which were caused by translation beyond the mutated stop codon to the next alternative in-frame stop codon, were observed by mass spectra analysis. The abnormal peptide peaks present in tryptic and chymotryptic LC-MS peptide mapping were confirmed by N-terminal sequencing as C-terminal light chain extension peptides. Furthermore, LC-MS/MS of Glu-C peptide mapping confirmed the stop221E mutation, which is consistent with a single base-pair mutation in TAA (stop codon) to GAA (Glu). The light chain variants were approximately 13.6% of wild type light chain as estimated by RP-HPLC analysis. DNA sequencing techniques determined a single base pair stop codon mutation, instead of a stop codon read-through, as the cause of this light chain extension. To our knowledge, the stop codon mutation has not been reported for IgGs expressed in CHO cells. These results demonstrate orthogonal techniques should be implemented to characterize recombinant proteins and select appropriate cell lines for production of therapeutic proteins because modifications could occur at unexpected locations.

  16. Effects of alkalinity and salinity at low and high light intensity on hydrogen isotope fractionation of long-chain alkenones produced by Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Gabriella M.; Pfannerstill, Eva Y.; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decade, hydrogen isotopes of long-chain alkenones have been shown to be a promising proxy for reconstructing paleo sea surface salinity due to a strong hydrogen isotope fractionation response to salinity across different environmental conditions. However, to date, the decoupling of the effects of alkalinity and salinity, parameters that co-vary in the surface ocean, on hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones has not been assessed. Furthermore, as the alkenone-producing haptophyte, Emiliania huxleyi, is known to grow in large blooms under high light intensities, the effect of salinity on hydrogen isotope fractionation under these high irradiances is important to constrain before using δDC37 to reconstruct paleosalinity. Batch cultures of the marine haptophyte E. huxleyi strain CCMP 1516 were grown to investigate the hydrogen isotope fractionation response to salinity at high light intensity and independently assess the effects of salinity and alkalinity under low-light conditions. Our results suggest that alkalinity does not significantly influence hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones, but salinity does have a strong effect. Additionally, no significant difference was observed between the fractionation responses to salinity recorded in alkenones grown under both high- and low-light conditions. Comparison with previous studies suggests that the fractionation response to salinity in culture is similar under different environmental conditions, strengthening the use of hydrogen isotope fractionation as a paleosalinity proxy.

  17. Two Distantly Spaced Basic Patches in the Flexible Domain of Huntingtin-Interacting Protein 1 (HIP1 Are Essential for the Binding of Clathrin Light Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel A. Ybe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between HIP family proteins (HIP1 and HIP12/1R and clathrin is fundamental to endocytosis. We used circular dichroism (CD to study the stability of an HIP1 subfragment (aa468-530 that is splayed open. CD thermal melts show HIP1 468-530 is only stable at low temperatures, but this HIP1 fragment contains a structural unit that does not melt out even at 83C∘. We then created HIP1 mutants to probe our hypothesis that a short hydrophobic path in the opened region is the binding site for clathrin light chain. We found that the binding of hub/LCb was sensitive to mutating two distantly separated basic residues (K474 and K494. The basic patches marked by K474 and K494 are conserved in HIP12/1R. The lack of conservation in sla2p (S. cerevisiae, HIP1 from D. melanogaster, and HIP1 homolog ZK370.3 from C. elegans implies the binding of HIP1 and HIP1 homologs to clathrin light chain may be different in these organisms.

  18. Carbachol ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal epithelial tight junction damage by down-regulating NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying [Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine Center, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Li, Jianguo, E-mail: 2010lijianguo@sina.cn [Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine Center, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol ameliorated the lipopolysaccharide-induced ileal tight junction damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol prevented the LPS-induced NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol exerted its beneficial effects in an {alpha}7 nicotinic receptor-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist that protects the intestines after trauma or burn injury. The present study determines the beneficial effects of carbachol and the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 10 mg/kg LPS. Results showed that the gut barrier permeability was reduced, the ultrastructural disruption of tight junctions (TJs) was prevented, the redistribution of zonula occludens-1 and claudin-2 proteins was partially reversed, and the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-{kappa}{beta}) and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) activation in the intestinal epithelium were suppressed after carbachol administration in LPS-exposed rats. Pretreatment with the {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7nAchR) antagonist {alpha}-bungarotoxin blocked the protective action of carbachol. These results suggested that carbachol treatment can protect LPS-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Carbachol exerts its beneficial effect on the amelioration of the TJ damage by inhibiting the NF-{kappa}{beta} and MLCK pathways in an {alpha}7nAchR-dependent manner.

  19. Circulating free light chain measurement in the diagnosis, prognostic assessment and evaluation of response of AL amyloidosis: comparison of Freelite and N latex FLC assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladini, Giovanni; Jaccard, Arnaud; Milani, Paolo; Lavergne, David; Foli, Andrea; Bender, Sebastien; Lavatelli, Francesca; Bosoni, Tiziana; Valentini, Veronica; Pirolini, Laura; Ferraro, Giovanni; Basset, Marco; Russo, Francesca; Nuvolone, Mario; Albertini, Riccardo; Cogne, Michel; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2017-10-26

    The measurement of circulating free light chain (FLC) is essential in the diagnosis, prognostic stratification and evaluation of response to therapy in light chain (AL) amyloidosis. For more than 10 years, this has been done with an immunonephelometric assay based on polyclonal antibodies (Freelite), and cutoffs for staging and response assessment have been validated with this method. Recently, a new assay based on monoclonal antibodies (N latex FLC) has been marketed in Europe. We evaluated and compared the clinical performance of the two assays in 426 patients with newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis. We found suboptimal agreement between the two methods, with differences between values obtained with the Freelite and N latex FLC assays increasing with the concentration of clonal FLC. The diagnostic sensitivity of the Freelite (82%) and N latex FLC (84%) assays was similar, and both improved to 98% in combination with serum and urine immunofixation. The concentration of FLC measured with both methods had prognostic significance. Less pronounced decreases in FLC best predicted improved survival with the N latex FLC assay (33% vs. 50%), and there was poor concordance (84%) in discrimination of responders. The two assays have similar diagnostic and prognostic performance. However, they are not interchangeable, and follow-up should be done with either one. New response criteria are needed for the N latex FLC assay.

  20. The normally expressed kappa immunoglobulin light chain gene repertoire and somatic mutations studied by single-sided specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR); frequent occurrence of features often assigned to autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, L; Hougs, L; Andersen, V

    1997-01-01

    The expressed human kappa light chain gene repertoire utilized by healthy individuals was studied by two different single-sided specific PCR techniques to avoid bias for certain V genes. A total of 103 rearranged kappa sequences from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals were...... cloned from cDNA and assigned to the Vkappa and Jkappa germ-line genes with the closest overall homology. The use of cDNA rather than genomic DNA focused the analysis on activated B cells rich in mRNA. Accordingly, the sequences represented the applied repertoire and almost all were somatically mutated......% and 21% of the sequences, respectively. Extended CDR3s more than nine residues in length were found in 18% of the sequences, and in 71% of cases this was due to insertion of an extra proline residue. This proline was usually explained from the germ-line sequences involved. These results are in good...

  1. Immunogenicity of an adeno-vector vaccine expressing the F protein of a respiratory syncytial virus manufactured from serum-free suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hsiao-Yun; Hsu, Huai-Sheng; Yu, Shu-Ling; Wu, Shang-Rung; Hu, Kai-Chieh; Chang, Ching-Kun; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chow, Yen-Hung

    2016-06-01

    We have developed an efficient cell culture process to scale up the production of a recombinant adenovirus that expresses the membrane-trunked fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; Ad-F0ΔTM). Adherent cells of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293-derived cell, 293A, which supports the production of E1/E3-deleted Ad-F0ΔTM when cultured in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS), were adapted to suspension growth under serum-free medium. In doing so, we studied the immunogenicity of Ad-F0ΔTMsus, which propagated in a bioreactor that was cultured with serum-free suspension of 293A, in comparison with Ad-F0ΔTMadh, which was produced from parental 293A cells that were adherently cultured in medium containing FBS. The size and morphology of Ad-F0ΔTMsus and Ad-F0ΔTMadh virions were identical upon inspection with electron microscopy. The results showed that anti-F IgG and RSV-neutralizing titer were raised in the serum of both mice that were intranasally immunized twice with Ad-F0ΔTMsus or Ad-F0ΔTMadh at two-week injection intervals. Furthermore, the immune responses persisted for six months after vaccination. Activation of F protein-specific CD8(+) T cell's epitope associated IFN-ɣ and IL-4 was induced in both Ad-F0ΔTMsus- and Ad-F0ΔTMadh, but not in Ad-LacZsus, -immunized mouse splenocytes. No vaccine-enhanced lung inflammation, airway mucus occlusion or eosinophils infiltration were observed in Ad-immunized mice followed by RSV challenge; however, these symptoms were observed following immunization with formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine. These results indicate that the safety and potency of Ad-F0ΔTM produced from either adherent cells or suspension and serum-free cells are the same. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Urine of patients with early prostate cancer contains lower levels of light chain fragments of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor and saposin B but increased expression of an inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayapalan, Jaime J; Ng, Keng L; Shuib, Adawiyah S; Razack, Azad H A; Hashim, Onn H

    2013-06-01

    The present study was aimed at the identification of proteins that are differentially expressed in the urine of patients with prostate cancer (PCa), those with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and age-matched healthy male control subjects. Using a combination of 2DE and MS/MS, significantly lower expression of urinary saposin B and two different fragments of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor light chain (ITIL) was demonstrated in the PCa patients compared to the controls. However, only one of the ITIL fragments was significantly different between the PCa and BPH patients. When image analysis was performed on urinary proteins that were transferred onto NC membranes and detected using a lectin that binds to O-glycans, a truncated fragment of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 was the sole protein found to be significantly enhanced in the PCa patients compared to the controls. Together, these urinary peptide fragments might be useful complementary biomarkers to indicate PCa as well as to distinguish it from BPH, although further epidemiological evidence on the specificity and sensitivity of the protein candidates is required. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Role of κ→λ light-chain constant-domain switch in the structure and functionality of A17 reactibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarenko, Natalia [Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Miklukho-Maklaya 16/10, Moscow 117871 (Russian Federation); Chatziefthimiou, Spyros D. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg Unit, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Kurkova, Inna; Mokrushina, Yuliana; Mokrushina, Yuliana; Stepanova, Anastasiya; Smirnov, Ivan; Avakyan, Marat; Bobik, Tatyana; Mamedov, Azad [Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Miklukho-Maklaya 16/10, Moscow 117871 (Russian Federation); Mitkevich, Vladimir [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Belogurov, Alexey Jr [Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Miklukho-Maklaya 16/10, Moscow 117871 (Russian Federation); Institute of Gene Biology, Moscow 117334 (Russian Federation); Fedorova, Olga S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Dubina, Michael [St Petersburg Academic University, St Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Golovin, Andrey [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Lamzin, Victor [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg Unit, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Friboulet, Alain [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 60205 Compiègne (France); Makarov, Alexander A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Wilmanns, Matthias [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg Unit, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Gabibov, Alexander, E-mail: gabibov@mx.ibch.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Miklukho-Maklaya 16/10, Moscow 117871 (Russian Federation); Institute of Gene Biology, Moscow 117334 (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-01

    Catalytic antibody variants with κ and λ light-chain constant domains show differences in their crystal structures which lead to subtle changes in catalytic efficiency and thermodynamic parameters as well as in their affinity for peptide substrates. The engineering of catalytic function in antibodies requires precise information on their structure. Here, results are presented that show how the antibody domain structure affects its functionality. The previously designed organophosphate-metabolizing reactibody A17 has been re-engineered by replacing its constant κ light chain by the λ chain (A17λ), and the X-ray structure of A17λ has been determined at 1.95 Å resolution. It was found that compared with A17κ the active centre of A17λ is displaced, stabilized and made more rigid owing to interdomain interactions involving the CDR loops from the V{sub L} and V{sub H} domains. These V{sub L}/V{sub H} domains also have lower mobility, as deduced from the atomic displacement parameters of the crystal structure. The antibody elbow angle is decreased to 126° compared with 138° in A17κ. These structural differences account for the subtle changes in catalytic efficiency and thermodynamic parameters determined with two organophosphate ligands, as well as in the affinity for peptide substrates selected from a combinatorial cyclic peptide library, between the A17κ and A17λ variants. The data presented will be of interest and relevance to researchers dealing with the design of antibodies with tailor-made functions.

  4. Internal Light Source-Driven Photoelectrochemical 3D-rGO/Cellulose Device Based on Cascade DNA Amplification Strategy Integrating Target Analog Chain and DNA Mimic Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Feifei; Liang, Linlin; Zhang, Yan; Li, Li; Ren, Na; Yan, Mei; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a chemiluminescence-driven collapsible greeting card-like photoelectrochemical lab-on-paper device (GPECD) with hollow channel was demonstrated, in which target-triggering cascade DNA amplification strategy was ingeniously introduced. The GPECD had the functions of reagents storage and signal collection, and the change of configuration could control fluidic path, reaction time and alterations in electrical connectivity. In addition, three-dimentional reduced graphene oxide affixed Au flower was in situ grown on paper cellulose fiber for achieving excellent conductivity and biocompatibility. The cascade DNA amplification strategy referred to the cyclic formation of target analog chain and its trigger action to hybridization chain reaction (HCR), leading to the formation of numerous hemin/G-quadruplex DNA mimic enzyme with the presence of hemin. Subjected to the catalysis of hemin/G-quadruplex, the strong chemiluminiscence of luminol-H2O2 system was obtained, which then was used as internal light source to excite photoactive materials realizing the simplification of instrument. In this analyzing process, thrombin served as proof-of-concept, and the concentration of target was converted into the DNA signal output by the specific recognition of aptamer-protein and target analog chain recycling. The target analog chain was produced in quantity with the presence of target, which further triggered abundant HCR and introduced hemin/G-quadruplex into the system. The photocurrent signal was obtained after the nitrogen-doped carbon dots sensitized ZnO was stimulated by chemiluminescence. The proposed GPECD exhibited excellent specificity and sensitivity toward thrombin with a detection limit of 16.7 fM. This judiciously engineered GPECD paved a luciferous way for detecting other protein with trace amounts in bioanalysis and clinical biomedicine.

  5. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    1963-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  6. Human fibroblasts treated with hydrogen peroxide stimulate human melanoblast proliferation and melanocyte differentiation, but inhibit melanocyte proliferation in serum-free co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirobe, Tomohisa; Shibata, Tatako; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2016-12-01

    Oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) elicits harmful effects on human melanocytes such as DNA damage and cell death. On the contrary, H2O2 is known to possess beneficial effects on melanocytes. However, mechanisms of the beneficial effects of H2O2 on melanocytes have not been fully understood, especially the indirect effects on melanocyte proliferation and differentiation from cells constituting surrounding tissue environment such as fibroblasts. The aim of this study was to clarify whether H2O2-treated human fibroblasts affect the proliferation and differentiation of human melanocytes using serum-free co-culture system. Epidermal melanoblasts and melanocytes were co-cultured with H2O2-treated or control fibroblasts in serum-free culture media. The effects of H2O2-treated fibroblasts were detected by changes in the proliferation and differentiation of melanoblasts/melanocytes. H2O2-treated fibroblasts stimulated the proliferation of melanoblasts and the differentiation, melanogenesis, and dendritogenesis of melanocytes, but inhibited the proliferation of melanocytes. In the melanocytes co-cultured with H2O2-treated fibroblasts, the expression of tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), and KIT was increased, whereas TYRP2 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor showed no change. These results suggest that H2O2-treated fibroblasts can produce and release some mitogenic and melanogenic factors toward melanoblasts in addition to some proliferation-inhibiting factors toward melanocytes. The stimulation of melanocyte differentiation seems to be performed through the upregulation of TYR, TYRP1, and KIT. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Monitoring the biology stability of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells during long-term culture in serum-free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gecai; Yue, Aihuan; Ruan, Zhongbao; Yin, Yigang; Wang, Ruzhu; Ren, Yin; Zhu, Li

    2014-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells that have an immunosuppressive effect. The biological stability of MSCs in serum-free medium during long-term culture in vitro has not been elucidated clearly. The morphology, immunophenotype and multi-lineage potential were analyzed at passages 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 (P3, P5, P10, P15, P20, and P25, respectively). The cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and karyotype of human umbilical cord-derived (hUC)-MSCs were analyzed at P3, P5, P10, P15, P20, and P25. From P3 to P25, the three defining biological properties of hUC-MSCs [adherence to plastic, specific surface antigen expression, multipotent differentiation potential] met the standards proposed by the International Society for Cellular Therapy for definition of MSCs. The cell cycle distribution analysis at the P25 showed that the percentage of cells at G0/G1 was increased, compared with the cells at P3 (P Cells at P25 displayed an increase in the apoptosis rate (to 183 %), compared to those at P3 (P cell apoptotic rates were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). There were no detectable chromosome eliminations, displacements, or chromosomal imbalances, as assessed by the karyotyping guidelines of the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN, 2009). Long-term culture affects the biological stability of MSCs in serum-free MesenCult-XF medium. MSCs can be expanded up to the 25th passage without chromosomal changes by G-band. The best biological activity period and stability appeared between the third to 20th generations.

  8. LC8 dynein light chain (DYNLL1) binds to the C-terminal domain of ATM-interacting protein (ATMIN/ASCIZ) and regulates its subcellular localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapali, Peter [Dept. Biochemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Garcia-Mayoral, Maria Flor [Dept. Biological Physical Chemistry, IQFR, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Moreno, Monica [Dept. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Tarnok, Krisztian; Schlett, Katalin [Dept. Physiology and Neurobiology, Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Albar, Juan Pablo [Proteomics Facility, CNB, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Bruix, Marta [Dept. Biological Physical Chemistry, IQFR, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Nyitray, Laszlo, E-mail: nyitray@elte.hu [Dept. Biochemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Rodriguez-Crespo, Ignacio, E-mail: nacho@bbm1.ucm.es [Dept. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have screened a human library with dynein light chain DYNLL1 (DLC8) as bait. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynein light chain DYNLL1 binds to ATM-kinase interacting protein (ATMIN). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATMIN has 17 SQ/TQ motifs, a motif frequently found in DYNLL1-binding partners. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two proteins interact in vitro, with ATMIN displaying at least five binding sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interaction of ATMIN and DYNNL1 in transfected cells can also be observed. -- Abstract: LC8 dynein light chain (now termed DYNLL1 and DYNLL2 in mammals), a dimeric 89 amino acid protein, is a component of the dynein multi-protein complex. However a substantial amount of DYNLL1 is not associated to microtubules and it can thus interact with dozens of cellular and viral proteins that display well-defined, short linear motifs. Using DYNLL1 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human heart library we identified ATMIN, an ATM kinase-interacting protein, as a DYNLL1-binding partner. Interestingly, ATMIN displays at least 18 SQ/TQ motifs in its sequence and DYNLL1 is known to bind to proteins with KXTQT motifs. Using pepscan and yeast two-hybrid techniques we show that DYNLL1 binds to multiple SQ/TQ motifs present in the carboxy-terminal domain of ATMIN. Recombinant expression and purification of the DYNLL1-binding region of ATMIN allowed us to obtain a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass in gel filtration close to 400 kDa that could bind to DYNLL1 in vitro. The NMR data-driven modelled complexes of DYNLL1 with two selected ATMIN peptides revealed a similar mode of binding to that observed between DYNLL1 and other peptide targets. Remarkably, co-expression of mCherry-DYNLL1 and GFP-ATMIN mutually affected intracellular protein localization. In GFP-ATMIN expressing-cells DNA damage induced efficiently nuclear foci formation, which was partly impeded by the presence of mCherry-DYNLL1

  9. Kidney failure as an unusual initial presentation of biclonal gammopathy (IgD multiple myeloma associated with light chain disease: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabrenović Violeta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Immunoglobulin D (IgD myeloma is a rare disease, about 2% of all myelomas, even rarer when accompanied with another multiple myeloma in biclonal gammopathy. We presented a case of biclonal gammopathy - associated manifestation of IgD myeloma and light chain disease in a patient who initially had renal failure. Case report. 37-year-old male approximately one month before hospitalization began to feel malaise and fatigue along with decreased urination. Laboratory analysis revealed azotemia. A dialysis catheter was placed and hemodialysis started. The patient was then admitted to our hospital for further tests and during admission, objective examination revealed pronounced paleness with hepatosplenomegaly and hypertension (170/95 mmHg. Laboratory analysis showed erythrocyte sedimentation rate 122 mm/h, expressed anemic syndrome (Hb 71 g/L and renal failure dialysis rank: creatinine 1,408 μmol/L, urea31.7 mmol/L. There was two M components in serum protein electrophoresis: IgD lambda and free light chain lambda. Proteinuria was nephrotic rank (5.4 g/24 h, whose electrophoresis revealed 2 M components - massive in α 2 fraction of 71%; 7% in the discrete β fraction, beta 2M /serum 110 mg/L, in urine 1.8 mg/L - extremely high; IgL kappa / lambda index 1 : 13 (reference value ratio 2 : 1. The findings pointed to double myeloma disease: IgD myeloma and Bence Jones lambda myeloma. Bone biopsy confirmed IgD myeloma lambda 100% infiltration medulla predominantly plasmablasts. The treatment continued with hemodialysis 3 times per week with chemotherapy protocol bortezomib, doxorubicin, dexamethasone. After 4 cycles of chemotherapy, there was a decrease of IgD, λ - light chains, reduction in proteinuria (1.03 g/24 h, so hemodialysis was reduced to once per week. Six months after treatment initiation the patient underwent autologous bone marrow transplantation. In a 2-year follow-up period double myeloma disease showed complete remission

  10. Light Chain Separated from the Rest of the Type A Botulinum Neurotoxin Molecule is the Most Catalytically Active Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    of expressed LC in inhibiting exocytosis in sea urchin eggs [12]. There is however, no experimental evidence available in the literature if the LC...using A0.1% (1 cm light path) value of 1.0 at 278 nm [8] or by BCA assay (Pierce) with bovine serum albumin as standard. Circular dichroism spectra of...neurotoxin: substrate requirements and activation by serum albumin . J Protein Chem 16: 19–26. 38. Chen S, Barbieri JT (2006) Unique substrate recognition by

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain as a biomarker of neurodegeneration in the Tg4510 and MitoPark mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Amalie; Mitchelmore, Cathy; Andersson, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and tauopathies. We hypothesized that CSF neurofilament light (NF-L) can be used to track progression of neurodegeneration and potentially monitor the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents in preclinical development. To substantiate this, we......A challenge in working with preclinical models of neurodegeneration has been how to non-invasively monitor disease progression. Neurofilament proteins are established axonal damage markers and have been found to be elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood from patients with neurodegenerative...

  12. Identification of binding domains in the sodium channel Na(V)1.8 intracellular N-terminal region and annexin II light chain p11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, W-Y Louisa; Malik-Hall, Misbah; Wood, John N; Okuse, Kenji

    2004-01-30

    The interaction of p11 (annexin II light chain) with the N-terminal domain of Na(V)1.8, a tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel, is essential for the functional expression of the channel. Here we show that p11 binds to Na(V)1.8 but not to sodium channel isoforms Na(V)1.2, 1.5, 1.7 or Na(V)1.9. The binding of amino acids 74-103 of Na(V)1.8 to p11 residues 33-78 occurs in a random coiled region flanked by two EF hand motifs whose crystal structure has been established. As Na(V)1.8 channel expression is associated with pain pathways, drugs that disrupt the Na(V)1.8-p11 interaction and down-regulate channel expression may have analgesic activity.

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of chitinase 3-like 1 and neurofilament light chain predict multiple sclerosis development and disability after optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modvig, S; Degn, M; Roed, H

    2015-01-01

    predicted CDMS best. Neurofilament light-chain predicted long-term disability by the multiple sclerosis severity scale (p=0.0111) and nine-hole-peg-test (p=0.0202). Chitinase-3-like-1 predicted long-term cognitive impairment by the paced auditory serial addition test (p=0.0150). CONCLUSION: Neurofilament......BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers have been suggested to predict multiple sclerosis (MS) after clinically isolated syndromes, but studies investigating long-term prognosis are needed. OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive ability of CSF biomarkers with regard to MS development and long......-term disability after optic neuritis (ON). METHODS: Eighty-six patients with ON as a first demyelinating event were included retrospectively. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CSF leukocytes, immunoglobulin G index and oligoclonal bands were registered. CSF levels of chitinase-3-like-1, osteopontin, neurofilament...

  14. New patterns of relapse in multiple myeloma: a case of "light chain escape" in which FLC predicted relapse earlier than urine and serum immunofixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldini, Anna; Nozzoli, Chiara; Terreni, Alessandro; Staderini, Michela; Berardi, Margherita; Biagioli, Tiziana; Brogi, Marco; Bosi, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized, in about 80% of cases, by the production of monoclonal intact immunoglobulin and more than 95% of them have elevated concentrations of involved (i.e. of the same class of intact immunoglobulin) free light chain (FLC). The introduction of novel therapeutic strategies has changed the natural history of the disease, leading to new manifestations of relapse. Light chain escape (LCE) is a pattern of relapse in which the FLC increase is not accompanied by a concomitant raise of the original monoclonal component (MC). Here we present a case of a 55-year-old man with an IgG kappa MM stage III diagnosed in September 2007. At presentation an IgG kappa MC and urine Bence Jones protein (BJP) kappa were present. Bone marrow biopsy (BMB) showed the presence of 80% monotypic kappa plasma cells (PCs). The patient received bortezomib, thalidomide, dexamethasone before undergoing a double autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in October 2008 and April 2009. In May 2011 he relapsed showing the same pattern of presentation and treatment with lenalidomide and dexamethasone was started. ln May 2013 serum and urine immunofixation and FLC became negative. In September 2014, an increase of kappa FLC was observed, while serum and urine immunofixations remained negative until January 2015, when urine immunofixation became positive. Eventually, in February 2015, serum immunofixation revealed the presence of a free kappa MC. After a new BMB showing 80% of monotypic kappa PCs, a LCE relapse was diagnosed and the patient started the treatment with bendamustine, bortezomib and dexamethasone. In the present case, the increase of kappa FLC has indicated relapse 4 and 5 months earlier than urine and serum IFE, respectively. Our observation confirms that it is advisable to routinely perform FLC or BJP during follow up of MM patients undergoing ASCT and/or treatment with biological drugs to ensure that LCE is not missed.

  15. 'Light-chain escape-multiple myeloma'-an escape phenomenon from plateau phase: report of the largest patient series using LC-monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnemund, A; Liebisch, P; Bauchmüller, K; zur Hausen, A; Veelken, H; Wäsch, R; Engelhardt, M

    2009-03-01

    More intensive and novel therapy options in multiple myeloma (MM) hold the promise to improve treatment outcome. However, disease evolution, induced with long disease duration and extensive pretreatment, has resulted in changes in the biological behaviour of MM and unusual relapse emergence, such as of extramedullary (EM) disease or a shift in secretion from intact immunoglobulin (Ig) to free-light chains (FLCs) only. We studied ten patients since 2004, thoroughly assessed relevant patient characteristics, prominent similarities, SFLC-changes, therapy response, mode and speed of progression, and the incidence of light-chain escape (LCE)-MM within our entire myeloma patient cohort. Serum FLCs (SFLCs) were determined via Freelite-assay (Dade-Behringer Nephelometer). This report summarizes the to date largest series of ten patients, whose MM appeared stable, as judged by conventional monitoring of intact Ig levels, but developed severe organ dysfunction as a consequence of initially undetected LC-progression. Median number of anti-MM cycles before LCE occurrence was six, including autologous and/or allogeneic stem cell transplants and novel drugs, predominantly thalidomide, in 4/10. Classic diagnostics, such as electrophoresis and quantitative Ig measurement proved futile to detect LC-progression, whereas SFLCs were reliable markers. The LCE-MM prevalence within 407 MM patients treated in our institution between 2004 and 2007 was 2.46%. Our report suggests that early detection of LCE-MM by means of serial SFLC measurements may prevent unnecessary complications, allows to detect unusual relapse manifestations in the era of intensive and biological therapy options and possibly also permits to improve treatment results in LCE-MM.

  16. A Comprehensive Analysis of the Phylogeny, Genomic Organization and Expression of Immunoglobulin Light Chain Genes in Alligator sinensis, an Endangered Reptile Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xifeng Wang

    Full Text Available Crocodilians are evolutionarily distinct reptiles that are distantly related to lizards and are thought to be the closest relatives of birds. Compared with birds and mammals, few studies have investigated the Ig light chain of crocodilians. Here, employing an Alligator sinensis genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library and available genome data, we characterized the genomic organization of the Alligator sinensis IgL gene loci. The Alligator sinensis has two IgL isotypes, λ and κ, the same as Anolis carolinensis. The Igλ locus contains 6 Cλ genes, each preceded by a Jλ gene, and 86 potentially functional Vλ genes upstream of (Jλ-Cλn. The Igκ locus contains a single Cκ gene, 6 Jκs and 62 functional Vκs. All VL genes are classified into a total of 31 families: 19 Vλ families and 12 Vκ families. Based on an analysis of the chromosomal location of the light chain genes among mammals, birds, lizards and frogs, the data further confirm that there are two IgL isotypes in the Alligator sinensis: Igλ and Igκ. By analyzing the cloned Igλ/κ cDNA, we identified a biased usage pattern of V families in the expressed Vλ and Vκ. An analysis of the junctions of the recombined VJ revealed the presence of N and P nucleotides in both expressed λ and κ sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the V genes revealed V families shared by mammals, birds, reptiles and Xenopus, suggesting that these conserved V families are orthologous and have been retained during the evolution of IgL. Our data suggest that the Alligator sinensis IgL gene repertoire is highly diverse and complex and provide insight into immunoglobulin gene evolution in vertebrates.

  17. IgAT (Immunoglobulin Analysis Tool: A novel tool for the analysis of human and mouse heavy and light chain transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eRogosch

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequence analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig heavy and light chain transcripts can refine categorization of B cell subpopulations and can shed light on the selective forces that act during immune responses or immune dysregulation, such as autoimmunity, allergy, and B cell malignancy. High-throughput sequencing yields Ig transcript collections of unprecedented size. The authoritative web-based IMGT/HighV-QUEST program is capable of analyzing large collections of transcripts and provides annotated output files to describe many key properties of Ig transcripts. However, additional processing of these flat files is required to create figures, or to facilitate analysis of additional features and comparisons between sequence sets. We present an easy-to-use Microsoft® Excel® based software, named Immunoglobulin Analysis Tool (IgAT, for the summary, interrogation, and further processing of IMGT/HighV-QUEST output files. IgAT generates descriptive statistics and high-quality figures for collections of murine or human Ig heavy or light chain transcripts ranging from 1 to 150,000 sequences. In addition to traditionally studied properties of Ig transcripts—such as the usage of germline gene segments, or the length and composition of the CDR-3 region—IgAT also uses published algorithms to calculate the probability of antigen selection based on somatic mutational patterns, the average hydrophobicity of the antigen-binding sites, and predictable structural properties of the CDR-H3 loop according to Shirai’s H3-rules. These refined analyses provide in-depth information about the selective forces acting upon Ig repertoires and allow the statistical and graphical comparison of two or more sequence sets. IgAT is easy to use on any computer running Excel® 2003 or higher. Thus, IgAT is a useful tool to gain insights into the selective forces and functional properties of small to extremely large collections of Ig transcripts, thereby assisting a researcher to

  18. A stromal-free, serum-free system to expand ex vivo hematopoietic stem cells from mobilized peripheral blood of patients with hematologic malignancies and healthy donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chao-Ling; Hsu, Shu-Ching; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Lee, Wei-Chi; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye

    2013-09-01

    The number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is critical for transplantation. The ex vivo expansion of mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) HSCs is of clinical value for reconstitution to meet clinical need. This study proposed a simple, defined, stromal-free and serum-free culture system (SF-HSC medium) for clinical use, which is composed of Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium, cytokine cocktails and serum substitutes. This study also characterized the cellular properties of expanded MPB CD133(+) HSCs from patients with hematologic malignancies and healthy donors by surface antigen, colony-forming cell, long-term culture-initiating cell, gene expression and in vivo engraftment assays. The expanded fold values of CD45(+) white blood cells and CD34(+), CD133(+), CD34(+)CD38(-), CD133(+)CD38(-), CD34(+)CD133(+), colony-forming and long-term culture-initiating cells at the end of 7-day culture from CD133(+) MPB of hematologic malignancies were 9.4-fold, 5.9-fold, 4.0-fold, 35.8-fold, 21.9-fold, 3.8-fold, 11.8-fold and 6.7-fold, and values from healthy donor CD133(+) MPB were 20.7-fold, 14.5-fold, 8.5-fold, 83.8-fold, 37.3-fold, 6.2-fold, 19.1-fold and 14.6-fold. The high enrichment of CD38(-) cells, which were either CD34(+) or CD133(+), sustained the proliferation of early uncommitted HSCs. The expanded cells showed high levels of messenger RNA expression of HOBX4, ABCG2 and HTERT and had the in vivo ability to re-populate NOD/SCID mice. Our results demonstrated that an initial, limited number of MPB CD133(+) HSCs could be expanded functionally in SF-HSC medium. We believe that this serum-free expansion technique can be employed in both basic research and clinical transplantation. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of excess dietary L-valine on laying hen performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Dai, L; Zou, X T

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of laying hens for an excessive L-valine (L-val) supply on laying performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 720 HyLine Brown hens were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 24 hens, from 40 to 47 weeks of age. Graded amounts of L-val were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg, respectively, in the experimental diets. 3. Supplementing the diet with L-val did not affect egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR) or egg quality. The average daily feed intake response to supplemental L-val was quadratic and was maximised at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. No differences were observed for total protein, total amino acids, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), Ca and P concentrations among the treatments. 4. Serum albumin concentration increased significantly in response to supplemental L-val and was also maximised at 2.0 g/kg. In addition, serum glucose increased quadratically to peak at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. Serum free valine increased as L-val concentration increased to 2.0 g/kg diet and then decreased linearly. 5. Supplementation of L-val did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). L-val supplementation did not affect the concentrations of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and complements (C3 and C4). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) increased significantly at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. 6. It is concluded that high concentrations of L-val are tolerated and can be successfully supplemented into diets without detrimental effects on laying performance or immune function of laying hens.

  20. Effects of Macromolecular Crowding on Human Adipose Stem Cell Culture in Fetal Bovine Serum, Human Serum, and Defined Xeno-Free/Serum-Free Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle Hui Ching; Mäkinen, Laura; Ang, Xiu Min; Mannerström, Bettina; Raghunath, Michael; Miettinen, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Microenvironment plays an important role for stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Macromolecular crowding (MMC) was recently shown to assist stem cells in forming their own matrix microenvironment in vitro. The ability of MMC to support adipose stem cell (ASC) proliferation, metabolism, and multilineage differentiation was studied under different conditions: fetal bovine serum- (FBS-) and human serum- (HS-) based media and xeno- and serum-free (XF/SF) media. Furthermore, the immunophenotype of ASCs under MMC was evaluated. The proliferative capacity of ASCs under MMC was attenuated in each condition. However, osteogenic differentiation was enhanced under MMC, shown by increased deposition of mineralized matrix in FBS and HS cultures. Likewise, significantly greater lipid droplet accumulation and increased collagen IV deposition indicated enhanced adipogenesis under MMC in FBS and HS cultures. In contrast, chondrogenic differentiation was attenuated in ASCs expanded under MMC. The ASC immunophenotype was maintained under MMC with significantly higher expression of CD54. However, MMC impaired metabolic activity and differentiation capacity of ASCs in XF/SF conditions. Both the supportive and inhibitory effects of MMC on ASC are culture condition dependent. In the presence of serum, MMC maintains ASC immunophenotype and enhances adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation at the cost of reduced proliferation. PMID:28465691

  1. Effects of Macromolecular Crowding on Human Adipose Stem Cell Culture in Fetal Bovine Serum, Human Serum, and Defined Xeno-Free/Serum-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimmi Patrikoski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microenvironment plays an important role for stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Macromolecular crowding (MMC was recently shown to assist stem cells in forming their own matrix microenvironment in vitro. The ability of MMC to support adipose stem cell (ASC proliferation, metabolism, and multilineage differentiation was studied under different conditions: fetal bovine serum- (FBS- and human serum- (HS- based media and xeno- and serum-free (XF/SF media. Furthermore, the immunophenotype of ASCs under MMC was evaluated. The proliferative capacity of ASCs under MMC was attenuated in each condition. However, osteogenic differentiation was enhanced under MMC, shown by increased deposition of mineralized matrix in FBS and HS cultures. Likewise, significantly greater lipid droplet accumulation and increased collagen IV deposition indicated enhanced adipogenesis under MMC in FBS and HS cultures. In contrast, chondrogenic differentiation was attenuated in ASCs expanded under MMC. The ASC immunophenotype was maintained under MMC with significantly higher expression of CD54. However, MMC impaired metabolic activity and differentiation capacity of ASCs in XF/SF conditions. Both the supportive and inhibitory effects of MMC on ASC are culture condition dependent. In the presence of serum, MMC maintains ASC immunophenotype and enhances adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation at the cost of reduced proliferation.

  2. Wnt3a protein reduces growth factor-driven expansion of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in serum-free cultures.

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    Lucia E Duinhouwer

    Full Text Available Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC is a promising approach to improve insufficient engraftment after umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation (UCB-SCT. Although culturing HSPC with hematopoietic cytokines results in robust proliferation, it is accompanied with extensive differentiation and loss of self-renewal capacity. Wnt signaling has been implicated in regulating HSPC fate decisions in vivo and in promoting HSPC self-renewal by inhibition of differentiation, but the effects of Wnt on the ex vivo expansion of HSPC are controversial. Here, we demonstrate that exogenous Wnt3a protein suppresses rather than promotes the expansion of UCB-derived CD34+ cells in serum free expansion cultures. The reduced expansion was also observed in cultures initiated with Lin-CD34+CD38lowCD45RA-CD90+ cells which are highly enriched in HSC and was also observed in response to activation of beta-catenin signaling by GSK3 inhibition. The presence of Wnt3a protein during the culture reduced the frequency of multilineage CFU-GEMM and the long-term repopulation ability of the expanded HSPC. These data suggest that Wnt signaling reduces expansion of human HSPC in growth factor-driven expansion cultures by promoting differentiation of HSPC.

  3. Sub-micron and nanoscale feature depth modulates alignment of stromal fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells in serum-rich and serum-free media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah A; Ting, Yuk-Hong; Mallon, Kelly S; Wendt, Amy E; Murphy, Christopher J; Nealey, Paul F

    2008-09-01

    Topographic features are generally accepted as being capable of modulating cell alignment. Of particular interest is the potential that topographic feature geometry induces cell alignment indirectly through impacting adsorbed proteins from the cell culture medium on the surface of the substrate. However, it has also been reported that micron-scale feature depth significantly impacts the level of alignment of cellular populations on topography, despite being orders of magnitude larger than the average adsorbed protein layer (nm). In order to better determine the impact of biomimetic length scale topography and adsorbed protein interaction on cellular morphology we have systematically investigated the effect of combinations of sub-micron to nanoscale feature depth and lateral pitch on corneal epithelial cell alignment. In addition we have used the unique properties of a serum-free media alternative in direct comparison to serum-rich medium to investigate the role of culture medium protein composition on cellular alignment to topographically patterned surfaces. Our observation that increasing groove depth elicited larger populations of corneal epithelial cells to align regardless of culture medium composition and of cell orientation with respect to the topography, suggests that these cells can sense changes in topographic feature depths independent of adsorbed proteins localized along ridge edges and tops. However, our data also suggests a strong combinatory effect of topography with culture medium composition, and also a cell type dependency in determining the level of cell elongation and alignment to nanoscale topographic features.

  4. Sub-micron and nanoscale feature depth modulates alignment of stromal fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells in serum-rich and serum-free media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah A.; Ting, Yuk-Hong; Mallon, Kelly S.; Wendt, Amy E.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Nealey, Paul F.

    2011-01-01

    Topographic features are generally accepted as being capable of modulating cell alignment. Of particular interest is the potential that topographic feature geometry induces cell alignment indirectly through impacting adsorbed proteins from the cell culture medium on the surface of the substrate. However, it has also been reported that micron-scale feature depth significantly impacts the level of alignment of cellular populations on topography, despite being orders of magnitude larger than the average adsorbed protein layer (nm). In order to better determine the impact of biomimetic length scale topography and adsorbed protein interaction on cellular morphology we have systematically investigated the effect of combinations of sub-micron to nanoscale feature depth and lateral pitch on corneal epithelial cell alignment. In addition we have used the unique properties of a serum-free media alternative in direct comparison to serum-rich medium to investigate the role of culture medium protein composition on cellular alignment to topographically patterned surfaces. Our observation that increasing groove depth elicited larger populations of corneal epithelial cells to align regardless of culture medium composition and of cell orientation with respect to the topography, suggests that these cells can sense changes in topographic feature depths independent of adsorbed proteins localized along ridge edges and tops. However, our data also suggests a strong combinatory effect of topography with culture medium composition, and also a cell type dependency in determining the level of cell elongation and alignment to nanoscale topographic features. PMID:18041718

  5. Stepwise Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells into Osteoblasts Using Four Small Molecules under Serum-free and Feeder-free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Kanke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells are a promising tool for mechanistic studies of tissue development, drug screening, and cell-based therapies. Here, we report an effective and mass-producing strategy for the stepwise differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs and mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs and hiPSCs, respectively into osteoblasts using four small molecules (CHIR99021 [CHIR], cyclopamine [Cyc], smoothened agonist [SAG], and a helioxanthin-derivative 4-(4-methoxyphenylpyrido[4′,3′:4,5]thieno[2,3-b]pyridine-2-carboxamide [TH] under serum-free and feeder-free conditions. The strategy, which consists of mesoderm induction, osteoblast induction, and osteoblast maturation phases, significantly induced expressions of osteoblast-related genes and proteins in mESCs, miPSCs, and hiPSCs. In addition, when mESCs defective in runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2, a master regulator of osteogenesis, were cultured by the strategy, they molecularly recapitulated osteoblast phenotypes of Runx2 null mice. The present strategy will be a platform for biological and pathological studies of osteoblast development, screening of bone-augmentation drugs, and skeletal regeneration.

  6. The hollow fiber bioreactor as a stroma-supported, serum-free ex vivo expansion platform for human umbilical cord blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Cao; Kwek, Kenneth Y C; Chan, Jerry K Y; Chen, Qingfeng; Lim, Mayasari

    2014-07-01

    The bone marrow microenvironment plays an integral role in the regulation of hematopoiesis. Residing stromal cells and the extracellular matrix in the bone marrow microenvironment provide biological signals that control hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function. In this study, we developed a bio-mimetic co-culture platform using the hollow fiber bioreactor (HFBR) for ex vivo expansion of HSCs. We evaluated the efficacy of such a platform in comparison to standard cultures performed on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP), using a human stromal cell line (HS-5) as stromal support, co-cultured with lineage-depleted human cord blood cells in serum-free medium supplemented with a cytokine cocktail. Our results showed that the performance of the HFBR in supporting total cell and CD34(+) progenitor cell expansion was comparable to that of cultures on TCP. Cells harvested from the HFBR had a higher clonogenic ability. The performance of ex vivo-expanded cells from the HFBR in hematopoietic reconstitution in humanized mice was comparable to that of the TCP control. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that stroma cell growth inside the HFBR created a three-dimensional cell matrix architecture. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing the HFBR for creating a complex cell matrix architecture, which may provide good in vitro mimicry of the bone marrow, supporting large-scale expansion of HSCs. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Drastic increase of myosin light chain MLC-2 in senescent skeletal muscle indicates fast-to-slow fibre transition in sarcopenia of old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Joan; Doran, Philip; Kirwan, Anne; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2009-11-01

    The age-dependent decline in skeletal muscle mass and function is believed to be due to a multi-factorial pathology and represents a major factor that blocks healthy aging by increasing physical disability, frailty and loss of independence in the elderly. This study has focused on the comparative proteomic analysis of contractile elements and revealed that the most striking age-related changes seem to occur in the protein family representing myosin light chains (MLCs). Comparative screening of total muscle extracts suggests a fast-to-slow transition in the aged MLC population. The mass spectrometric analysis of the myofibril-enriched fraction identified the MLC2 isoform of the slow-type MLC as the contractile protein with the most drastically changed expression during aging. Immunoblotting confirmed an increased abundance of slow MLC2, concomitant with a switch in fast versus slow myosin heavy chains. Staining of two-dimensional gels of crude extracts with the phospho-specific fluorescent dye ProQ-Diamond identified the increased MLC2 spot as a muscle protein with a drastically enhanced phosphorylation level in aged fibres. Comparative immunofluorescence microscopy, using antibodies to fast and slow myosin isoforms, confirmed a fast-to-slow transformation process during muscle aging. Interestingly, the dramatic increase in slow MLC2 expression was restricted to individual senescent fibres. These findings agree with the idea that aged skeletal muscles undergo a shift to more aerobic-oxidative metabolism in a slower-twitching fibre population and suggest the slow MLC2 isoform as a potential biomarker for fibre type shifting in sarcopenia of old age.

  8. Prognostic Impact of Serum Heavy/Light Chain Pairs in Patients With Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance and Smoldering Myeloma: Long-Term Results From a Single Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnano, Laura; Fernández de Larrea, Carlos; Elena, Montserrat; Cibeira, María Teresa; Tovar, Natalia; Aróstegui, Juan I; Pedrosa, Fabiola; Rosiñol, Laura; Filella, Xavier; Yagüe, Jordi; Bladé, Joan

    2016-06-01

    Asymptomatic monoclonal gammopathies, such as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering myeloma (SMM), are clinical conditions that usually precede symptomatic multiple myeloma. Therefore, risk stratification is crucial owing to the heterogeneous progression rate among these patients. In previous years, suppression of the uninvolved chain of specific heavy/light chain (HLC) pairs in serum has been identified as a new risk factor in MGUS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic effect of involved and uninvolved HLC pairs and HLC ratios on progression in a series of patients with MGUS and SMM. All specific serum HLC pairs were measured in 114 patients diagnosed with SMM (n = 27) and MGUS (n = 87) from 1983 to 2003. Also, the HLC ratios were calculated. Progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma was observed in 13 patients (8 with SMM and 5 with MGUS). The risk of progression was 6 times greater in those with SMM (P = .001) and 4 times greater for those with the IgA isotype (P = .01). The suppression of any IgM isotypes (IgMκ or IgMλ) in patients with IgA or IgG gammopathy or any IgA isotypes (IgAκ or IgAλ) in patients with IgG or IgM gammopathy was associated with a shorter time to progression to symptomatic gammopathy (P = .001 and P = .03, respectively). On multivariate analysis, the evolving pattern and suppression of any IgM HLC pair remained significant. HLC ratios could be a valuable tool in the risk stratification of patients with SMM and MGUS, especially patients with IgG isotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of Haemodiafiltration with Heat Sterilized High-Flux Polyphenylene HF Dialyzer in Reducing Free Light Chains in Patients with Myeloma Cast Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau-Gagnon, Mathieu; Agharazii, Mohsen; De Serres, Sacha A; Desmeules, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In cases of myeloma cast nephropathy in need of haemodialysis (HD), reduction of free light chains using HD with High-Cut-Off filters (HCO-HD), in combination with chemotherapy, may be associated with better renal recovery. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of haemodiafiltration (HDF) in reducing free light chain levels using a less expensive heat sterilized high-flux polyphenylene HF dialyzer (HF-HDF). In a single-centre prospective cohort study, 327 dialysis sessions were performed using a 2.2 m2 heat sterilized high-flux polyphenylene HF dialyzer (Phylther HF22SD), a small (1.1m2) or large (2.1 m2) high-cut-off (HCO) dialyzer (HCOS and HCOL) in a cohort of 16 patients presenting with dialysis-dependent acute cast nephropathy and elevated free light chains (10 kappa, 6 lambda). The outcomes of the study were the mean reduction ratio (RR) of kappa and lambda, the proportion of treatments with an RR of at least 0.65, albumin loss and the description of patient outcomes. Statistical analysis was performed using linear and logistic regression through generalized estimating equation analysis so as to take into account repeated observation within subjects and adjust for session duration. There were no significant differences in the estimated marginal mean of kappa RR, which were respectively 0.67, 0.69 and 0.70 with HCOL-HD, HCOS-HDF and HF-HDF (P = 0.950). The estimated marginal mean of the proportions of treatments with a kappa RR ≥0.65 were 68%, 63% and 71% with HCOL-HD, HCOS-HDF and HF-HDF, respectively (P = 0.913). The estimated marginal mean of lambda RR were higher with HCOL-HDF (0.78), compared to HCOL-HD and HF-HDF (0.62, and 0.61 respectively). The estimated marginal mean proportion of treatments with a lambda RR ≥0.65 were higher with HCOL-HDF (81%), compared to 57% in HF-HDF (P = 0.042). The median albumin loss were 7, 21 and 63 g/session with HF-HDF, HCOL-HD and HCOL-HDF respectively (P = 0.044). Among survivors, 9 out of 10

  10. The Regions on the Light Chain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Recognized by T Cells from Toxin-Treated Cervical Dystonia Patients. The Complete Human T-Cell Recognition Map of the Toxin Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Minako; Deitiker, Philip; Jankovic, Joseph; Atassi, M Zouhair

    2018-01-01

    We have recently mapped the in vitro proliferative responses of T cells from botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A)-treated cervical dystonia (CD) patients with overlapping peptides encompassing BoNT/A heavy chain (residues 449-1296). In the present study, we determined the recognition profiles, by peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from the same set of patients, of BoNT/A light (L) chain (residues 1-453) by using 32 synthetic overlapping peptides that encompassed the entire L chain. Profiles of the T-cell responses (expressed in stimulation index, SI; Z score based on transformed SI) to the peptides varied among the patients. Samples from 14 patients treated solely with BoNT/A recognized 3-13 (average 7.2) peptides/sample at Z > 3.0 level. Two peptide regions representing residues 113-131 and 225-243 were recognized by around 40% of these patients. Regarding treatment parameters, treatment history with current BOTOX ® only group produced significantly lower average T-cell responses to the 32 L-chain peptides compared to treatments with mix of type A including original and current BOTOX ® . Influence of other treatment parameters on T-cell recognition of the L-chain peptides was also observed. Results of the submolecular T-cell recognition of the L chain are compared to those of the H chain and the T-cell recognition profile of the entire BoNT/A molecule is discussed. Abbreviations used: BoNT/A, botulinum neurotoxin type A; BoNT/A i , inactivated BoNT/A; BoNT/B, botulinum neurotoxin type B; CD, cervical dystonia; L chain, the light chain (residues 1-448) of BoNT/A; LNC, lymph node cells; H chain, the heavy chain (residues 449-1296) of BoNT/A; H C , C-terminal domain (residues 855-1296) of H chain; H N , N-terminal domain (residues 449-859) of H chain; MPA, mouse protection assay; SI, stimulation index (SI = cpm of 3 H-thymidine incorporated by antigen-stimulated T cells/cpm incorporated by unstimulated cells); TeNT, tetanus neurotoxin; TeNT i , inactivated TeNT.

  11. Anemia crônica e glomerulopatia secundárias à Doença de Depósito das Cadeias Leves Chronic anemia and glomerulopathy secondary to Light-chain Deposition Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítala P. Silveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, 65 anos de idade, internada com anemia de longa evolução que se associou posteriormente a uma glomerulopatia manifestada por proteinúria, cilindrúria e perda de função renal. As cadeias leves no plasma e na urina estavam elevadas, sobretudo a fração kappa e uma biópsia renal estudada por imunofluorescência e microscopia eletrônica confirmou o diagnóstico de Doença de Depósito das Cadeias Leves. A nefropatia de cadeia leve ocorre pela superprodução de cadeia leve de imunoglobulina produzida por linfócitos B com deposição nas membranas tubulares e no glomérulo.The authors present a case of a 65-year-old female patient, with chronic anemia associated with glomerulopathy manifested as proteinuria, cylindruria and renal failure. There were high serum and urinary levels of light chains and the diagnosis was performed by renal biopsy, examined using immunofluorescence and by electron microscopy that showed light chain paraproteins. Nephropathy of light-chain deposition disease occurs due to an over-production of light chains from immunoglobulins produced by B lymphocytes with a deposit in tubular and glomerular membranes.

  12. Myosin light chain isoforms retain their species-specific electrophoretic mobility after processing, which enables differentiation between six species: 2DE analysis of minced meat and meat products made from beef, pork and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montowska, Magdalena; Pospiech, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Investigation of protein changes as well as authentication of meat is particularly difficult in processed meat products due to their different composition, complexity and very often inhomogeneity. The aim of this study was to check if the inter-species differences in the expression of myosin light chain (MLC) isoforms observed in raw meat were retained in meat products. MLCs from mixtures of minced meat (16 variants), frankfurters and sausages (15 products) made from cattle, pig, chicken, turkey, duck and goose were analysed by 2DE. Species-specific patterns of MLC isoforms were observed in all the mixtures and processed meat products. Relatively small degradation was observed in the MLCs after processing. Image analysis enabled species identification of the meat in all samples when the content of meat of one species was not lower than 10%. However, it was impossible to differentiate between all the six species under investigation on the basis of individual isoform. It was possible when the combination of all the three isoforms (myosin light chain 1 fast, myosin light chain 2 fast and myosin light chain 3 fast) was analysed. The results evidenced that MLCs have potential to be used as markers in authentication of meat products made from the analysed six species. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Incidence and outcome of patients starting renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease due to multiple myeloma or light-chain deposit disease: an ERA-EDTA Registry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsakiris, Dimitrios J.; Stel, Vianda S.; Finne, Patrik; Fraser, Emily; Heaf, James; de Meester, Johan; Schmaldienst, Sabine; Dekker, Friedo; Verrina, Enrico; Jager, Kitty J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Information on demographics and survival of patients starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to multiple myeloma (MM) or light-chain deposit disease (LCDD) is scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, characteristics, causes of

  14. Blocking synaptic transmission with tetanus toxin light chain reveals modes of neurotransmission in the PDF-positive circadian clock neurons of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezaki, Yujiro; Yasuyama, Kouji; Nakagoshi, Hideki; Tomioka, Kenji

    2011-09-01

    Circadian locomotor rhythms of Drosophila melanogaster are controlled by a neuronal circuit composed of approximately 150 clock neurons that are roughly classified into seven groups. In the circuit, a group of neurons expressing pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) play an important role in organizing the pacemaking system. Recent studies imply that unknown chemical neurotransmitter(s) (UNT) other than PDF is also expressed in the PDF-positive neurons. To explore its role in the circadian pacemaker, we examined the circadian locomotor rhythms of pdf-Gal4/UAS-TNT transgenic flies in which chemical synaptic transmission in PDF-positive neurons was blocked by expressed tetanus toxin light chain (TNT). In constant darkness (DD), the flies showed a free-running rhythm, which was similar to that of wild-type flies but significantly different from pdf null mutants. Under constant light conditions (LL), however, they often showed complex rhythms with a short period and a long period component. The UNT is thus likely involved in the synaptic transmission in the clock network and its release caused by LL leads to arrhythmicity. Immunocytochemistry revealed that LL induced phase separation in TIMELESS (TIM) cycling among some of the PDF-positive and PDF-negative clock neurons in the transgenic flies. These results suggest that both PDF and UNT play important roles in the Drosophila circadian clock, and activation of PDF pathway alone by LL leads to the complex locomotor rhythm through desynchronized oscillation among some of the clock neurons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Rho-GTPase effector ROCK regulates meiotic maturation of the bovine oocyte via myosin light chain phosphorylation and cofilin phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Rim; Xu, Yong-Nan; Jo, Yu-Jin; Namgoong, Suk; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2015-11-01

    Oocyte meiosis involves a unique asymmetric division involving spindle movement from the central cytoplasm to the cortex, followed by polar body extrusion. ROCK is a Rho-GTPase effector involved in various cellular functions in somatic cells as well as oocyte meiosis. ROCK was previously shown to promote actin organization by phosphorylating several downstream targets, including LIM domain kinase (LIMK), phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin), and myosin light chain (MLC). In this study, we investigated the roles of ROCK and MLC during bovine oocyte meiosis. We found that ROCK was localized around the nucleus at the oocyte's germinal-vesicle (GV) stage, but spreads to the rest of the cytoplasm in later developmental stages. On the other hand, phosphorylated MLC (p-MLC) localized at the cortex, and its abundance decreased by the metaphase-II stage. Disrupting ROCK activity, via RNAi or the chemical inhibitor Y-27632, blocked both cell cycle progression and polar body extrusion. ROCK inhibition also resulted in decreased cortical actin, p-cofilin, and p-MLC levels. Similar to the phenotype associated with inhibition of ROCK activity, inhibition of MLC kinase by the chemical inhibitor ML-7 caused defects in polar body extrusion. Collectively, our results suggest that the ROCK/MLC/actomyosin as well as ROCK/LIMK/cofilin pathways regulate meiotic spindle migration and cytokinesis during bovine oocyte maturation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Vaccinia protein F12 has structural similarity to kinesin light chain and contains a motor binding motif required for virion export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth W; Hollinshead, Michael; Ferguson, Brian J; Murphy, Brendan J; Carpentier, David C J; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2010-02-26

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) uses microtubules for export of virions to the cell surface and this process requires the viral protein F12. Here we show that F12 has structural similarity to kinesin light chain (KLC), a subunit of the kinesin-1 motor that binds cargo. F12 and KLC share similar size, pI, hydropathy and cargo-binding tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs). Moreover, molecular modeling of F12 TPRs upon the crystal structure of KLC2 TPRs showed a striking conservation of structure. We also identified multiple TPRs in VACV proteins E2 and A36. Data presented demonstrate that F12 is critical for recruitment of kinesin-1 to virions and that a conserved tryptophan and aspartic acid (WD) motif, which is conserved in the kinesin-1-binding sequence (KBS) of the neuronal protein calsyntenin/alcadein and several other cellular kinesin-1 binding proteins, is essential for kinesin-1 recruitment and virion transport. In contrast, mutation of WD motifs in protein A36 revealed they were not required for kinesin-1 recruitment or IEV transport. This report of a viral KLC-like protein containing a KBS that is conserved in several cellular proteins advances our understanding of how VACV recruits the kinesin motor to virions, and exemplifies how viruses use molecular mimicry of cellular components to their advantage.

  17. Vaccinia protein F12 has structural similarity to kinesin light chain and contains a motor binding motif required for virion export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth W Morgan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV uses microtubules for export of virions to the cell surface and this process requires the viral protein F12. Here we show that F12 has structural similarity to kinesin light chain (KLC, a subunit of the kinesin-1 motor that binds cargo. F12 and KLC share similar size, pI, hydropathy and cargo-binding tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs. Moreover, molecular modeling of F12 TPRs upon the crystal structure of KLC2 TPRs showed a striking conservation of structure. We also identified multiple TPRs in VACV proteins E2 and A36. Data presented demonstrate that F12 is critical for recruitment of kinesin-1 to virions and that a conserved tryptophan and aspartic acid (WD motif, which is conserved in the kinesin-1-binding sequence (KBS of the neuronal protein calsyntenin/alcadein and several other cellular kinesin-1 binding proteins, is essential for kinesin-1 recruitment and virion transport. In contrast, mutation of WD motifs in protein A36 revealed they were not required for kinesin-1 recruitment or IEV transport. This report of a viral KLC-like protein containing a KBS that is conserved in several cellular proteins advances our understanding of how VACV recruits the kinesin motor to virions, and exemplifies how viruses use molecular mimicry of cellular components to their advantage.

  18. Activation of endothelial pro-resolving anti-inflammatory pathways by circulating microvesicles from non-muscular myosin light chain kinase-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderahim Gaceb

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microvesicles, small membrane vesicles released from cells, have beneficial and/or deleterious effects in sepsis. We previously reported that non-muscle myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK deletion protects mice against endotoxic shock by reducing inflammation. Here, we have evaluated the consequences of nmMLCK deletion on microvesicles phenotypes and their effects on mouse aortic endothelial cells in association with vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction during endotoxic shock induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide induced an increase in levels of circulating microvesicles in wild type but not in nmMLCK-deficient mice. Microvesicles from nmMLCK-deficient mice (MVsnmMLCK-/- prevented the inflammatory effects of lipopolysaccharide with concomitant increase of anti- inflammatory and reduction of pro-inflammatory secretome in mouse aortic endothelial cells. In addition, MVsnmMLCK-/- reduced the efficacy of lipopolysaccharide to increase aortic oxidative and nitrosative stresses as well as macrophage infiltration in the aorta. Moreover, MVsnmMLCK-/- prevented ex vivo endothelial dysfunction, vascular hyporeactivity and in vivo overproduction of nitric oxide in heart and liver in response to lipopolysaccharide. Altogether, these findings provide evidence that nmMLCK deletion generates circulating microvesicles displaying protective effects by activating endothelial pro-resolving anti-inflammatory pathways allowing the effective down-regulation of oxidative and nitrative stresses associated with endotoxic shock. Thus, nmMLCK plays a pivotal role in susceptibility to sepsis via the control of cellular activation and release of circulating microvesicles.

  19. Combination of lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone therapy promotes the anticoagulant activity of warfarin in patients with immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Fumiaki; Fuchida, Shin-Ichi; Ise, Fumitaka; Kado, Yoko; Ueda, Kumi; Kokufu, Takatoshi; Okano, Akira; Hatsuse, Mayumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Nakayama, Yuko; Takara, Kohji; Shimazaki, Chihiro

    2017-07-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the drug interactions between warfarin and combination chemotherapy with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone in immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis patients with unstable international normalized ratios (INR). The changes to INR values over time in 3 AL amyloidosis patients treated with warfarin and a combination of lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone between March 2011 and February 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. The mean INR value was 1.52 prior to the combination chemotherapy, and the value increased 1.7-fold during treatment. The median time to reach maximum values was 17 days. Horn's drug Interaction Probability Scale indicated a possible interaction between lenalidomide and warfarin. These patients exhibited no marked alterations in hepatic function or serum albumin concentrations prior to and following combination chemotherapy and no additional administration of CYP2C9 inhibitors or vitamin K supplements was conducted. In addition, no patient experienced chemotherapy-induced nausea or appetite loss. These findings suggest that the total clearance or protein binding of warfarin remained unchanged. Therefore, the combination of warfarin and lenalidomide may cause a pharmacodynamic interaction, more likely by inhibiting the production of interleukin-6. In conclusion, clinically important interactions between warfarin and lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone therapy were observed in AL amyloidosis patients, where INR values signi ficantly increased. Therefore, close and regular monitoring of patients during the course of treatment is important, and the dose of warfarin should be reduced if required.

  20. Vasoactivity of rucaparib, a PARP-1 inhibitor, is a complex process that involves myosin light chain kinase, P2 receptors, and PARP itself.

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    Cian M McCrudden

    Full Text Available Therapeutic inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, as monotherapy or to supplement the potencies of other agents, is a promising strategy in cancer treatment. We previously reported that the first PARP inhibitor to enter clinical trial, rucaparib (AG014699, induced vasodilation in vivo in xenografts, potentiating response to temozolomide. We now report that rucaparib inhibits the activity of the muscle contraction mediator myosin light chain kinase (MLCK 10-fold more potently than its commercially available inhibitor ML-9. Moreover, rucaparib produces additive relaxation above the maximal degree achievable with ML-9, suggesting that MLCK inhibition is not solely responsible for dilation. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis using L-NMMA also failed to impact rucaparib's activity. Rucaparib contains the nicotinamide pharmacophore, suggesting it may inhibit other NAD+-dependent processes. NAD+ exerts P2 purinergic receptor-dependent inhibition of smooth muscle contraction. Indiscriminate blockade of the P2 purinergic receptors with suramin abrogated rucaparib-induced vasodilation in rat arterial tissue without affecting ML-9-evoked dilation, although the specific receptor subtypes responsible have not been unequivocally identified. Furthermore, dorsal window chamber and real time tumor vessel perfusion analyses in PARP-1-/- mice indicate a potential role for PARP in dilation of tumor-recruited vessels. Finally, rucaparib provoked relaxation in 70% of patient-derived tumor-associated vessels. These data provide tantalising evidence of the complexity of the mechanism underlying rucaparib-mediated vasodilation.

  1. Critical Role of Non-Muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase in Thrombin-Induced Endothelial Cell Inflammation and Lung PMN Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Fabeha; Bijli, Kaiser M.; Murrill, Matthew; Leonard, Antony; Minhajuddin, Mohammad; Anwar, Khandaker N.; Finkelstein, Jacob N.; Watterson, D. Martin; Rahman, Arshad

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) involves bidirectional cooperation and close interaction between inflammatory and coagulation pathways. A key molecule linking coagulation and inflammation is the procoagulant thrombin, a serine protease whose concentration is elevated in plasma and lavage fluids of patients with ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, little is known about the mechanism by which thrombin contributes to lung inflammatory response. In this study, we developed a new mouse model that permits investigation of lung inflammation associated with intravascular coagulation. Using this mouse model and in vitro approaches, we addressed the role of non-muscle myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK) in thrombin-induced endothelial cell (EC) inflammation and lung neutrophil (PMN) infiltration. Our in vitro experiments revealed a key role of nmMLCK in ICAM-1 expression by its ability to control nuclear translocation and transcriptional capacity of RelA/p65 in EC. When subjected to intraperitoneal thrombin challenge, wild type mice showed a marked increase in lung PMN infiltration via expression of ICAM-1. However, these responses were markedly attenuated in mice deficient in nmMLCK. These results provide mechanistic insight into lung inflammatory response associated with intravascular coagulation and identify nmMLCK as a critical target for modulation of lung inflammation. PMID:23555849

  2. Combined use of Kappa Free Light Chain Index and Isoelectrofocusing of Cerebro-Spinal Fluid in Diagnosing Multiple Sclerosis: Performances and Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Ilaria; Sulas, Maria Giovanna; Mora, Riccardo; Naldi, Paola; Vecchio, Domizia; Comi, Cristoforo; Cantello, Roberto; Bellomo, Giorgio

    2017-03-01

    Isoelectrofocusing (IEF) to detect oligoclonal bands (OBCs) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the gold standard approach for evaluating intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) but the kappa free light chain index (KFLCi) is emerging as an alternative marker, and the combined/sequential uses of IEF and KFLCi have never been challenged. CSF and serum albumin, IgG, kFLC and lFLC were measured by nephelometry; albumin, IgG and kFLC quotients as well as Link and kFLC indexes were calculated; OCBs were evaluated by immunofixation. A total of 150 consecutive patients: 48 with MS, 32 with other neurological inflammatory diseases (NID), 62 with neurological non-inflammatory diseases (NNID), and 8 without any detectable neurological disease (NND) were investigated. Both IEF and KFLCi showed a similar accuracy as diagnostic tests for multiple sclerosis. The high sensitivity and specificity associated with the lower cost of KFLCi suggested to use this test first, followed by IEF as a confirmative procedure. The sequential use of IEF and KFLCi showed high diagnostic efficiency with cost reduction of 43 and 21%, if compared to the contemporary use of both tests, or the unique use of IEF in all patients. The "sequential testing" using KFLCi followed by IEF in MS represents an optimal procedure with accurate performance and lower costs.

  3. Mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase MITOL blocks S-nitrosylated MAP1B-light chain 1-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonashiro, Ryo; Kimijima, Yuya; Shimura, Takuya; Kawaguchi, Kohei; Fukuda, Toshifumi; Inatome, Ryoko; Yanagi, Shigeru

    2012-02-14

    Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated in neuronal cell survival. However, excessive NO production mediates neuronal cell death, in part via mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we report that the mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase, MITOL, protects neuronal cells from mitochondrial damage caused by accumulation of S-nitrosylated microtubule-associated protein 1B-light chain 1 (LC1). S-nitrosylation of LC1 induces a conformational change that serves both to activate LC1 and to promote its ubiquination by MITOL, indicating that microtubule stabilization by LC1 is regulated through its interaction with MITOL. Excessive NO production can inhibit MITOL, and MITOL inhibition resulted in accumulation of S-nitrosylated LC1 following stimulation of NO production by calcimycin and N-methyl-D-aspartate. LC1 accumulation under these conditions resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal cell death. Thus, the balance between LC1 activation by S-nitrosylation and down-regulation by MITOL is critical for neuronal cell survival. Our findings may contribute significantly to an understanding of the mechanisms of neurological diseases caused by nitrosative stress-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction.

  4. Quantitation of branched-chain amino acids in ascites by capillary electrophoresis with light-emitting diode-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Ling; Chiu, Tai-Chia; Wang, Tsang-En; Hu, Kuang-Chun; Tsai, Yu-Hsien; Hu, Cho-Chun; Bair, Ming-Jong; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2011-04-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are one of the important biomarkers for monitoring liver disease such as hepatitis or hepatoma. In this communication, we present the determination of the concentrations of BCAA in ascites by CE light-emitted diode-induced fluorescence (LEDIF) using 1.5% m/v poly(ethylene oxide) (average M(v) : ~8 000 000 g/mol) that was prepared in 10 mM sodium tetraborate solution (pH 9.3). Naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde was used to derivatize 15 amino acids (AAs) to form naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA)-AA derivatives prior to CE analysis. The separation of 15 NDA-AA derivatives was accomplished within 15 min, with RSD values of gold standard method using an AA analyzer. We have found that the concentrations of the three BCAAs in ascites obtained from patients suffering from liver diseases were lower than those from healthy individuals. Our approach is highly efficient, sensitive, and cost-effective, which holds great potential for the diagnosis of liver diseases. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Accelerated Systemic Autoimmunity in the Absence of Somatic Hypermutation in 564Igi: A Mouse Model of Systemic Lupus with Knocked-In Heavy and Light Chain Genes

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    Gabrielle McDonald

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available 564Igi mice have knocked-in immunoglobulin (Ig heavy (H and light (L chain genes that encode an autoantibody recognizing RNA. Previously, we showed that these mice produce pathogenic IgG autoantibodies when activation-induced deaminase (AID is expressed in pre-B and immature B cells but not when it is expressed only in mature B cells. AID has two functions; it is necessary for somatic hypermutation (SHM and class switch recombination (CSR. To determine the role of each of these functions in the generation of pathogenic autoantibodies, we generated 564Igi mice that carry a mutant AID-encoding gene, Aicda (AicdaG23S, which is capable of promoting CSR but not SHM. We found that 564Igi AicdaG23S mice secreted class-switched antibodies (Abs at levels approximately equal to 564Igi mice. However, compared to 564Igi mice, 564Igi AicdaG23S mice had increased pathogenic IgG Abs and severe systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease, including, glomerulonephritis, and early death. We suggest that in 564Igi mice SHM by AID changes Ig receptors away from self reactivity, thereby mitigating the production of autoantibody, providing a novel mechanism of tolerance.

  6. Isolation and expansion of human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatic progenitor cells by growth factor defined serum-free culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takayuki; Takayama, Kazuo; Hirata, Mitsuhi; Liu, Yu-Jung; Yanagihara, Kana; Suga, Mika; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Furue, Miho K

    2017-03-15

    Limited growth potential, narrow ranges of sources, and difference in variability and functions from batch to batch of primary hepatocytes cause a problem for predicting drug-induced hepatotoxicity during drug development. Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived hepatocyte-like cells in vitro are expected as a tool for predicting drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Several studies have already reported efficient methods for differentiating hPSCs into hepatocyte-like cells, however its differentiation process is time-consuming, labor-intensive, cost-intensive, and unstable. In order to solve this problem, expansion culture for hPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells, including hepatic stem cells and hepatoblasts which can self-renewal and differentiate into hepatocytes should be valuable as a source of hepatocytes. However, the mechanisms of the expansion of hPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells are not yet fully understood. In this study, to isolate hPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells, we tried to develop serum-free growth factor defined culture conditions using defined components. Our culture conditions were able to isolate and grow hPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells which could differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells through hepatoblast-like cells. We have confirmed that the hepatocyte-like cells prepared by our methods were able to increase gene expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes upon encountering rifampicin, phenobarbital, or omeprazole. The isolation and expansion of hPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells in defined culture conditions should have advantages in terms of detecting accurate effects of exogenous factors on hepatic lineage differentiation, understanding mechanisms underlying self-renewal ability of hepatic progenitor cells, and stably supplying functional hepatic cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnostic Role of Serum Free-to-Total Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Ratio in Prostate Cancer with Serum Total Concentration of PSA below 4 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Chun; Lee, Yi-Chen; Tsai, Huang-Wen; Yii, Shyi-Chun; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Chu, Fang-Yeh

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of serum free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio (%fPSA) for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in men with different serum total PSA (tPSA) categories. From January 2010 to December 2013, a total of 225 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) underwent tPSA and %fPSA measurements. Histological examination with calculation of Gleason score and whole body bone scans were performed in identified cases of PCa. PCa was diagnosed in 44 (19.6%) patients and the remaining 181 patients had benign prostate disease. PCa was detected in 5 (23.8%), 13 (8.7%) and 26 (47.3%) cases with tPSA level ranges≤4 ng/ml, 4 to 10 ng/ml and >10 ng/ml, respectively. The average Gleason score was 7.2±0.2. Some 6 (13.6%) out of 44 PCa patients had bone metastases. The sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 81.3% at the cut-off %fPSA of 15% in PCa patients with a tPSA level below 4 ng/ mL. A lower %fPSA was associated with PCa patients with Gleason score≥7 than those with Gleason score≤6 (11.7±0.98 vs. 16.5±2.25%, P=0.029). No obvious relation of %fPSA to the incidence of bone metastasis was apparent in this study. The clinical application of %fPSA could help to discriminate PCa from benign prostate disease in men with a tPSA concentration below 4 ng/mL.

  8. In vitro culture of Babesia bovis in a bovine serum-free culture medium supplemented with insulin, transferrin, and selenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Martínez, C; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Figueroa Millán, J V; Acosta Viana, K Y; Gutiérrez Ruiz, E J; Álvarez Martínez, J A

    2016-11-01

    Bovine serum is an important factor for the optimal growth of Babesia bovis in vitro. This protozoan can be cultured in M-199 with Earle's salts medium (M-199) supplemented with 40% bovine serum (BS). In the present study, four media were assessed along with the control medium M-199. The effect on the proliferation of B. bovis in vitro was tested when these media were combined with insulin (Ins), transferrin (Trans) and selenite (Sel) in the absence of bovine serum. Treatment with Advanced DMEM/F12 medium (A-DMEM/F12) achieved the highest percentage of parasitized erythrocytes (PPE), reaching a maximum value of 9.59%. A-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with a mixture of Ins (2000 mg/L), Trans (1100 mg/L), and Sel (1.34 mg/L) allowed for the adaptation and proliferation of B. bovis without bovine serum, showed a constant increase in PPE, and reached a maximum value of 9.7% during seven cycles of in vitro culture. It was concluded that continuous proliferation of B. bovis in vitro could be achieved using A-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with Ins-Trans-Sel, without bovine serum. After adaptation for proliferation in serum-free medium, the B. bovis strain of parasites could have future use in the study of this economically important protozoan species that affects cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A robust and reproducible animal serum-free culture method for clinical-grade bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Anita; Oja, Sofia; Kilpinen, Lotta; Kaartinen, Tanja; Möller, Johanna; Laitinen, Saara; Korhonen, Matti; Nystedt, Johanna

    2016-08-01

    Efficient xenofree expansion methods to replace fetal bovine serum (FBS)-based culture methods are strongly encouraged by the regulators and are needed to facilitate the adoption of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapies. In the current study we established a clinically-compliant and reproducible animal serum-free culture protocol for bone marrow-(BM-) MSCs based on an optimized platelet-derived supplement. Our study compared two different platelet-derived supplements, platelet lysate PL1 versus PL2, produced by two different methods and lysed with different amounts of freeze-thaw cycles. Our study also explored the effect of a low oxygen concentration on BM-MSCs. FBS-supplemented BM-MSC culture served as control. Growth kinetics, differentiation and immunomodulatory potential, morphology, karyotype and immunophenotype was analysed. Growth kinetics in long-term culture was also studied. Based on the initial results, we chose to further process develop the PL1-supplemented culture protocol at 20 % oxygen. The results from 11 individual BM-MSC batches expanded in the chosen condition were consistent, yielding 6.60 × 10(9) ± 4.74 × 10(9) cells from only 20 ml of bone marrow. The cells suppressed T-cell proliferation, displayed normal karyotype and typical MSC differentiation potential and phenotype. The BM-MSCs were, however, consistently HLA-DR positive when cultured in platelet lysate (7.5-66.1 %). We additionally show that culture media antibiotics and sterile filtration of the platelet lysate can be successfully omitted. We present a robust and reproducible clinically-compliant culture method for BM-MSCs based on platelet lysate, which enables high quantities of HLA-DR positive MSCs at a low passage number (p2) and suitable for clinical use.

  10. Serum-free culture success of glial tumors is related to specific molecular profiles and expression of extracellular matrix-associated gene modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balvers, Rutger K; Kleijn, Anne; Kloezeman, Jenneke J; French, Pim J; Kremer, Andreas; van den Bent, Martin J; Dirven, Clemens M F; Leenstra, Sieger; Lamfers, Martine L M

    2013-12-01

    Recent molecular characterization studies have identified clinically relevant molecular subtypes to coexist within the same histological entities of glioma. Comparative studies between serum-supplemented and serum-free (SF) culture conditions have demonstrated that SF conditions select for glioma stem-like cells, which superiorly conserve genomic alterations. However, neither the representation of molecular subtypes within SF culture assays nor the molecular distinctions between successful and nonsuccessful attempts have been elucidated. A cohort of 261 glioma samples from varying histological grades was documented for SF culture success and clinical outcome. Gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphism arrays were interrogated on a panel of tumors for comparative analysis of SF+ (successful cultures) and SF- (unsuccessful cultures). SF culture outcome was correlated with tumor grade, while no relation was found between SF+ and patient overall survival. Copy number-based hierarchical clustering revealed an absolute separation between SF+ and SF- parental tumors. All SF+ cultures are derived from tumors that are isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) wild type, chromosome 7 amplified, and chromosome 10q deleted. SF- cultures derived from IDH1 mutant tumors demonstrated a fade-out of mutated cells during the first passages. SF+ tumors were enriched for The Cancer Genome Atlas Classical subtype and intrinsic glioma subtype-18. Comparative gene ontology analysis between SF+ and SF- tumors demonstrated enrichment for modules associated with extracellular matrix composition, Hox-gene signaling, and inflammation. SF cultures are derived from a subset of parental tumors with a shared molecular background including enrichment for extracellular matrix-associated gene modules. These results provide leads to develop enhanced culture protocols for glioma samples not propagatable under current SF conditions.

  11. A defined synthetic substrate for serum-free culture of human stem cell derived cardiomyocytes with improved functional maturity identified using combinatorial materials microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Asha K; Celiz, Adam D; Rajamohan, Divya; Anderson, Daniel G; Langer, Robert; Davies, Martyn C; Alexander, Morgan R; Denning, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Cardiomyocytes from human stem cells have applications in regenerative medicine and can provide models for heart disease and toxicity screening. Soluble components of the culture system such as growth factors within serum and insoluble components such as the substrate on which cells adhere to are important variables controlling the biological activity of cells. Using a combinatorial materials approach we develop a synthetic, chemically defined cellular niche for the support of functional cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC-CMs) in a serum-free fully defined culture system. Almost 700 polymers were synthesized and evaluated for their utility as growth substrates. From this group, 20 polymers were identified that supported cardiomyocyte adhesion and spreading. The most promising 3 polymers were scaled up for extended culture of hESC-CMs for 15 days and were characterized using patch clamp electrophysiology and myofibril analysis to find that functional and structural phenotype was maintained on these synthetic substrates without the need for coating with extracellular matrix protein. In addition, we found that hESC-CMs cultured on a co-polymer of isobornyl methacrylate and tert-butylamino-ethyl methacrylate exhibited significantly longer sarcomeres relative to gelatin control. The potential utility of increased structural integrity was demonstrated in an in vitro toxicity assay that found an increase in detection sensitivity of myofibril disruption by the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin at a concentration of 0.05 μM in cardiomyocytes cultured on the co-polymer compared to 0.5 μM on gelatin. The chemical moieties identified in this large-scale screen provide chemically defined conditions for the culture and manipulation of hESC-CMs, as well as a framework for the rational design of superior biomaterials. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Establishment and validation of new complementing cells for production of E1-deleted adenovirus vectors in serum-free suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Rénald; Guilbault, Claire; Gagnon, David; Bernier, Alice; Bourget, Lucie; Elahi, Seyyed Mehdy; Kamen, Amine; Massie, Bernard

    2014-11-01

    E1-deleted adenovirus vectors (AdV) are important gene transfer vehicles for gene therapy and vaccination. Amplification of AdV must take place in cells that express the adenovirus E1A and E1B genes. Sequence homology between AdV and the E1 genes integrated within the complementing cells should be minimal to reduce the odds of generating replication-competent adenovirus (RCA). The present study describes the establishment of AdV complementing cells constructed by stable transfection of the minimal E1A and E1B genes into human lung carcinoma (A549). Because some transgene products can be cytotoxic, the cells were engineered to stably express the repressor of the cumate-switch (CymR) to silence transgene transcription during vector growth. For regulatory compliance and to facilitate the scale-up, the resulting complementing cells (SF-BMAdR) were adapted to serum-free suspension culture. The best clone of SF-BMAdR produced AdV carrying an innocuous transgene to the same level as 293 cells, but titers were better for AdV carrying transgene for a cytotoxic product. Elevated titers were maintained for at least two months in suspension culture in the absence of selective agent and the cells did not produce RCA. Because of their advantageous properties, SF-BMAdR cells should become an important tool for developing large-scale production processes of AdV for research and clinical applications. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Enrichment of prostate cancer stem-like cells from human prostate cancer cell lines by culture in serum-free medium and chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Xing; Zheng, Xinmin; Wang, Xinghuan; Li, Shiwen; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Zhonghua; Xia, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of rare subpopulations of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has created a new focus in cancer research. As CSCs demonstrate resistance to chemoradiation therapy relative to other cancer cells, this allows the enrichment of CSC populations by killing apoptosis-susceptible cancer cells. In this study, three commonly used human prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines (DU145, PC-3 and LNCaP) were examined for their expression of the putative stem cell markers CD133 and CD44 via flow cytometric analysis. Under normal culture conditions, CD133(+)/CD44(+) cells were only present in the DU145 cell line, and comprised only a minor percentage (0.1% ± 0.01%) of the total population. However, the proportion of these CD133(+)/CD44(+) prostate CSCs could be increased in these cell lines via culture in serum-free medium (SFM), or through chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Indeed, after culture in SFM, the proportion of CD133(+)/CD44(+) cells in DU145 and PC-3 had increased to 10.3% and 3.0%, respectively. Moreover, the proportion had increased to 9.8% enriched by chemotherapy and 3.5% by radiotherapy in DU145. Colony-formation tests, cell invasion assays, and tumor xenografts in BALB/c nude mice were used to evaluate the stem cell properties of CD133(+)/CD44(+) PCa cells that were isolated via fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). CD133(+)/CD44(+) cells had an enhanced colony-formation capability and invasive ability in vitro, and displayed greater tumorigenic properties in vivo. These results demonstrate the presence of CD133(+)/CD44(+) prostate CSCs in established PCa cell lines and that populations of these cells can be enriched by culture in SFM or chemoradiotherapy. Finding novel therapies to override chemoradiation resistance in the prostate CSCs is the key to improve long-term results in PCa management.

  14. Serum-free corneal organ culture medium (SFM) but not conventional minimal essential organ culture medium (MEM) protects human corneal endothelial cells from apoptotic and necrotic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckel, Thekla; Knels, Lilla; Valtink, Monika; Funk, Richard H W; Engelmann, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of organ culture media on corneal endothelial cell survival. The human corneal endothelial cell line HCEC-12 was cultured in five different media: human corneal endothelial cell (HCEC) growth medium (F99(HCEC)), standard minimal essential corneal organ culture medium (MEM)+2% fetal calf serum (FCS), MEM+5% FCS, and humanised, endothelial serum-free medium (SFM) (with and without antibiotics). A portion of the cells was treated with 0.5 μmol/l staurosporine and examined for signs of apoptosis by assessing mitochondrial membrane polarisation state (intravital JC-1 staining), by YO-PRO-1 and propidium iodide staining, by determining fragmentation of nuclei by sub-G1 DNA content, by immunocytochemistry for cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, Bcl2-associated X protein (Bax) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and by western blotting for cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). The number of apoptotic cells in untreated control cultures was significantly higher in MEM compared with F99(HCEC) and SFM. Staurosporine treatment induced apoptosis in all tested cultures to varying degrees. Cells cultured in MEM showed stronger staining for cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved PARP, increased sub-G1 DNA content, more propidium iodide- and YO-PRO-1-positive cells, and more mitochondria with depolarised membranes. All parameters were significantly higher in MEM compared with F99(HCEC) and SFM. SFM cultures were significantly less susceptible to cell stress. SFM is superior to MEM in promoting HCEC survival.

  15. Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Produced by 200-L Scale Serum-Free Microcarrier Bioreactor System Provides Cross-Protective Efficacy in Human SCARB2 Transgenic Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ying Wu

    Full Text Available Epidemics and outbreaks caused by infections of several subgenotypes of EV71 and other serotypes of coxsackie A viruses have raised serious public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. These concerns highlight the urgent need to develop a scalable manufacturing platform for producing an effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines against deadly enteroviruses. In this report, we present a platform for the large-scale production of a vaccine based on the inactivated EV71(E59-B4 virus. The viruses were produced in Vero cells in a 200 L bioreactor with serum-free medium, and the viral titer reached 10(7 TCID50/mL 10 days after infection when using an MOI of 10(-4. The EV71 virus particles were harvested and purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Fractions containing viral particles were pooled based on ELISA and SDS-PAGE. TEM was used to characterize the morphologies of the viral particles. To evaluate the cross-protective efficacy of the EV71 vaccine, the pooled antigens were combined with squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVAX or aluminum phosphate (AlPO4 and tested in human SCARB2 transgenic (Tg mice. The Tg mice immunized with either the AddaVAX- or AlPO4-adjuvanted EV71 vaccine were fully protected from challenges by the subgenotype C2 and C4 viruses, and surviving animals did not show any degree of neurological paralysis symptoms or muscle damage. Vaccine treatments significantly reduced virus antigen presented in the central nervous system of Tg mice and alleviated the virus-associated inflammatory response. These results strongly suggest that this preparation results in an efficacious vaccine and that the microcarrier/bioreactor platform offers a superior alternative to the previously described roller-bottle system.

  16. Purification and characterization of enterovirus 71 viral particles produced from vero cells grown in a serum-free microcarrier bioreactor system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chyi Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 infections manifest most commonly as a childhood exanthema known as hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD and can cause neurological disease during acute infection. PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this study, we describe the production, purification and characterization of EV71 virus produced from Vero cells grown in a five-liter serum-free bioreactor system containing 5 g/L Cytodex 1 microcarrier. The viral titer was >10(6 TCID(50/mL by 6 days post infection when a MOI of 10(-5 was used at the initial infection. Two EV71 virus fractions were separated and detected when the harvested EV71 virus concentrate was purified by sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation. The EV71 viral particles detected in the 24-28% sucrose fractions had an icosahedral structure 30-31 nm in diameter and had low viral infectivity and RNA content. Three major viral proteins (VP0, VP1 and VP3 were observed by SDS-PAGE. The EV71 viral particles detected in the fractions containing 35-38% sucrose were 33-35 nm in size, had high viral infectivity and RNA content, and were composed of four viral proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4, as shown by SDS-PAGE analyses. The two virus fractions were formalin-inactivated and induced high virus neutralizing antibody responses in mouse immunogenicity studies. Both mouse antisera recognized the immunodominant linear neutralization epitope of VP1 (residues 211-225. CONCLUSION: These results provide important information for cell-based EV71 vaccine development, particularly for the preparation of working standards for viral antigen quantification.

  17. Revisiting Frank-Starling: regulatory light chain phosphorylation alters the rate of force redevelopment (ktr ) in a length-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepfer, Christopher N; West, Timothy G; Ferenczi, Michael A

    2016-09-15

    Regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation has been shown to alter the ability of muscle to produce force and power during shortening and to alter the rate of force redevelopment (ktr ) at submaximal [Ca(2+) ]. Increasing RLC phosphorylation ∼50% from the in vivo level in maximally [Ca(2+) ]-activated cardiac trabecula accelerates ktr . Decreasing RLC phosphorylation to ∼70% of the in vivo control level slows ktr and reduces force generation. ktr is dependent on sarcomere length in the physiological range 1.85-1.94 μm and RLC phosphorylation modulates this response. We demonstrate that Frank-Starling is evident at maximal [Ca(2+) ] activation and therefore does not necessarily require length-dependent change in [Ca(2+) ]-sensitivity of thin filament activation. The stretch response is modulated by changes in RLC phosphorylation, pinpointing RLC phosphorylation as a modulator of the Frank-Starling law in the heart. These data provide an explanation for slowed systolic function in the intact heart in response to RLC phosphorylation reduction. Force and power in cardiac muscle have a known dependence on phosphorylation of the myosin-associated regulatory light chain (RLC). We explore the effect of RLC phosphorylation on the ability of cardiac preparations to redevelop force (ktr ) in maximally activating [Ca(2+) ]. Activation was achieved by rapidly increasing the temperature (temperature-jump of 0.5-20ºC) of permeabilized trabeculae over a physiological range of sarcomere lengths (1.85-1.94 μm). The trabeculae were subjected to shortening ramps over a range of velocities and the extent of RLC phosphorylation was varied. The latter was achieved using an RLC-exchange technique, which avoids changes in the phosphorylation level of other proteins. The results show that increasing RLC phosphorylation by 50% accelerates ktr by ∼50%, irrespective of the sarcomere length, whereas decreasing phosphorylation by 30% slows ktr by ∼50%, relative to the ktr obtained

  18. Culturing in serum-free culture medium on collagen type-I-coated plate increases expression of CD133 and retains original phenotype of HT-29 cancer stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab-Bafrani, Zahra; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Abbasian, Mehdi; Saberi, Alihossein; Fesharaki, Mehrafarin; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Manshaee, Samira

    2016-01-01

    A sub-population of tumor cells termed cancer stem cells (CSCs) has an important role in tumor initiation, progression, and recurrence. Selecting a suitable procedure for isolation and enrichment of CSCs is the biggest challenge in the study of CSCs. In the present study, the role of the combination of stem cell culture medium and collagen type-I was evaluated for successful isolation and enrichment of HT-29 CSCs. HT-29 cells were cultured in serum-containing medium (parental culture medium: Medium + 10% fetal bovine serum) and serum-free medium (stem cell culture medium); both on collagen-coated plates. Spheres forming ability and CD133 expression, as a potential marker of colorectal CSCs, were evaluated in two culture mediums. The results show spheroids usually give rise completely within 15 days in the stem cell culture medium on the collagen-coated plate. CD133 expression in spheroid cells (84%) is extensively higher than in parental cells (25%). Moreover, relative to parental cells, spheroid cells were more radioresistance. Finding of this study suggested that CSCs derived from colon cancer cell line (HT-29) can be propagated and form colonospheres in serum-free culture medium on collagen type-I. According to maintenance of their original phenotype in these conditions, it seems serum-free culture medium on collagen type-I is a suitable way to drug screening of HT-29 CSCs.

  19. Quantification of rapid Myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation using high-throughput in-cell Western assays: comparison to Western immunoblots.

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    Hector N Aguilar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of phospho-proteins (PPs is crucial when studying cellular signaling pathways. Western immunoblotting (WB is commonly used for the measurement of relative levels of signaling intermediates in experimental samples. However, WB is in general a labour-intensive and low-throughput technique. Because of variability in protein yield and phospho-signal preservation during protein harvesting, and potential loss of antigen during protein transfer, WB provides only semi-quantitative data. By comparison, the "in-cell western" (ICW technique has high-throughput capacity and requires less extensive sample preparation. Thus, we compared the ICW technique to WB for measuring phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain (PMLC(20 in primary cultures of uterine myocytes to assess their relative specificity, sensitivity, precision, and quantification of biologically relevant responses.ICWs are cell-based microplate assays for quantification of protein targets in their cellular context. ICWs utilize a two-channel infrared (IR scanner (Odyssey(R to quantify signals arising from near-infrared (NIR fluorophores conjugated to secondary antibodies. One channel is dedicated to measuring the protein of interest and the second is used for data normalization of the signal in each well of the microplate. Using uterine myocytes, we assessed oxytocin (OT-stimulated MLC(20 phosphorylation measured by ICW and WB, both using NIR fluorescence. ICW and WB data were comparable regarding signal linearity, signal specificity, and time course of phosphorylation response to OT.ICW and WB yield comparable biological data. The advantages of ICW over WB are its high-throughput capacity, improved precision, and reduced sample preparation requirements. ICW might provide better sensitivity and precision with low-quantity samples or for protocols requiring large numbers of samples. These features make the ICW technique an excellent tool for the study of phosphorylation endpoints

  20. Vaccinia virus protein complex F12/E2 interacts with kinesin light chain isoform 2 to engage the kinesin-1 motor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, David C J; Gao, William N D; Ewles, Helen; Morgan, Gareth W; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2015-03-01

    During vaccinia virus morphogenesis, intracellular mature virus (IMV) particles are wrapped by a double lipid bilayer to form triple enveloped virions called intracellular enveloped virus (IEV). IEV are then transported to the cell surface where the outer IEV membrane fuses with the cell membrane to expose a double enveloped virion outside the cell. The F12, E2 and A36 proteins are involved in transport of IEVs to the cell surface. Deletion of the F12L or E2L genes causes a severe inhibition of IEV transport and a tiny plaque size. Deletion of the A36R gene leads to a smaller reduction in plaque size and less severe inhibition of IEV egress. The A36 protein is present in the outer membrane of IEVs, and over-expressed fragments of this protein interact with kinesin light chain (KLC). However, no interaction of F12 or E2 with the kinesin complex has been reported hitherto. Here the F12/E2 complex is shown to associate with kinesin-1 through an interaction of E2 with the C-terminal tail of KLC isoform 2, which varies considerably between different KLC isoforms. siRNA-mediated knockdown of KLC isoform 1 increased IEV transport to the cell surface and virus plaque size, suggesting interaction with KLC isoform 1 is somehow inhibitory of IEV transport. In contrast, knockdown of KLC isoform 2 did not affect IEV egress or plaque formation, indicating redundancy in virion egress pathways. Lastly, the enhancement of plaque size resulting from loss of KLC isoform 1 was abrogated by removal of KLC isoforms 1 and 2 simultaneously. These observations suggest redundancy in the mechanisms used for IEV egress, with involvement of KLC isoforms 1 and 2, and provide evidence of interaction of F12/E2 complex with the kinesin-1 complex.

  1. Vaccinia virus protein complex F12/E2 interacts with kinesin light chain isoform 2 to engage the kinesin-1 motor complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C J Carpentier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During vaccinia virus morphogenesis, intracellular mature virus (IMV particles are wrapped by a double lipid bilayer to form triple enveloped virions called intracellular enveloped virus (IEV. IEV are then transported to the cell surface where the outer IEV membrane fuses with the cell membrane to expose a double enveloped virion outside the cell. The F12, E2 and A36 proteins are involved in transport of IEVs to the cell surface. Deletion of the F12L or E2L genes causes a severe inhibition of IEV transport and a tiny plaque size. Deletion of the A36R gene leads to a smaller reduction in plaque size and less severe inhibition of IEV egress. The A36 protein is present in the outer membrane of IEVs, and over-expressed fragments of this protein interact with kinesin light chain (KLC. However, no interaction of F12 or E2 with the kinesin complex has been reported hitherto. Here the F12/E2 complex is shown to associate with kinesin-1 through an interaction of E2 with the C-terminal tail of KLC isoform 2, which varies considerably between different KLC isoforms. siRNA-mediated knockdown of KLC isoform 1 increased IEV transport to the cell surface and virus plaque size, suggesting interaction with KLC isoform 1 is somehow inhibitory of IEV transport. In contrast, knockdown of KLC isoform 2 did not affect IEV egress or plaque formation, indicating redundancy in virion egress pathways. Lastly, the enhancement of plaque size resulting from loss of KLC isoform 1 was abrogated by removal of KLC isoforms 1 and 2 simultaneously. These observations suggest redundancy in the mechanisms used for IEV egress, with involvement of KLC isoforms 1 and 2, and provide evidence of interaction of F12/E2 complex with the kinesin-1 complex.

  2. Comparative molecular docking analysis of cytoplasmic dynein light chain DYNLL1 with pilin to explore the molecular mechanism of pathogenesis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO.

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    Samina Kausar

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic dynein light chain 1 (DYNLL1 is a component of large protein complex, which is implicated in cargo transport processes, and is known to interact with many cellular and viral proteins through its short consensus motif (K/RXTQT. Still, it remains to be explored that bacterial proteins also exhibit similar recognition sequences to make them vulnerable to host defense mechanism. We employed multiple docking protocols including AUTODOCK, PatchDock, ZDOCK, DOCK/PIERR and CLUSPRO to explore the DYNLL1 and Pilin interaction followed by molecular dynamics simulation assays. Subsequent structural comparison of the predicted binding site for DYNLL1-Pilin complex against the experimentally verified DYNLL1 binding partners was performed to cross check the residual contributions and to determine the binding mode. On the basis of in silico analysis, here we describe a novel interaction of DYNLL1 and receptor binding domain of Pilin (the main protein constituent of bacterial type IV Pili of gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO, which is the third most common nosocomial pathogen associated with the life-threatening infections. Evidently, our results underscore that Pilin specific motif (KSTQD exhibits a close structural similarity to that of Vaccinia virus polymerase, P protein Rabies and P protein Mokola viruses. We speculate that binding of DYNLL1 to Pilin may trigger an uncontrolled inflammatory response of the host immune system during P. aeruginosa chronic infections thereby opening a new pioneering area to investigate the role of DYNLL1 in gram negative bacterial infections other than viral infections. Moreover, by manifesting a strict correspondence between sequence and function, our study anticipates a novel drug target site to control the complications caused by P. aeruginosa infections.

  3. Compressive stress induces dephosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain via RhoA phosphorylation by the adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A signaling pathway.

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    Kenji Takemoto

    Full Text Available Mechanical stress that arises due to deformation of the extracellular matrix (ECM either stretches or compresses cells. The cellular response to stretching has been actively studied. For example, stretching induces phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC via the RhoA/RhoA-associated protein kinase (ROCK pathway, resulting in increased cellular tension. In contrast, the effects of compressive stress on cellular functions are not fully resolved. The mechanisms for sensing and differentially responding to stretching and compressive stress are not known. To address these questions, we investigated whether phosphorylation levels of MRLC were affected by compressive stress. Contrary to the response in stretching cells, MRLC was dephosphorylated 5 min after cells were subjected to compressive stress. Compressive loading induced activation of myosin phosphatase mediated via the dephosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (Thr853. Because myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (Thr853 is phosphorylated only by ROCK, compressive loading may have induced inactivation of ROCK. However, GTP-bound RhoA (active form increased in response to compressive stress. The compression-induced activation of RhoA and inactivation of its effector ROCK are contradictory. This inconsistency was due to phosphorylation of RhoA (Ser188 that reduced affinity of RhoA to ROCK. Treatment with the inhibitor of protein kinase A that phosphorylates RhoA (Ser188 induced suppression of compression-stimulated MRLC dephosphorylation. Incidentally, stretching induced phosphorylation of MRLC, but did not affect phosphorylation levels of RhoA (Ser188. Together, our results suggest that RhoA phosphorylation is an important process for MRLC dephosphorylation by compressive loading, and for distinguishing between stretching and compressing cells.

  4. Phosphorylation and the N-terminal extension of the regulatory light chain help orient and align the myosin heads in Drosophila flight muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farman, Gerrie P.; Miller, Mark S.; Reedy, Mary C.; Soto-Adames, Felipe N.; Vigoreaux, Jim O.; Maughan, David W.; Irving, Thomas C.; (IIT); (Vermont); (Duke)

    2010-02-02

    X-ray diffraction of the indirect flight muscle (IFM) in living Drosophila at rest and electron microscopy of intact and glycerinated IFM was used to compare the effects of mutations in the regulatory light chain (RLC) on sarcomeric structure. Truncation of the RLC N-terminal extension (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46}) or disruption of the phosphorylation sites by substituting alanines (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}) decreased the equatorial intensity ratio (I{sub 20}/I{sub 10}), indicating decreased myosin mass associated with the thin filaments. Phosphorylation site disruption (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}), but not N-terminal extension truncation (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46}), decreased the 14.5 nm reflection intensity, indicating a spread of the axial distribution of the myosin heads. The arrangement of thick filaments and myosin heads in electron micrographs of the phosphorylation mutant (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}) appeared normal in the relaxed and rigor states, but when calcium activated, fewer myosin heads formed cross-bridges. In transgenic flies with both alterations to the RLC (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46; S66A, S67A}), the effects of the dual mutation were additive. The results suggest that the RLC N-terminal extension serves as a 'tether' to help pre-position the myosin heads for attachment to actin, while phosphorylation of the RLC promotes head orientations that allow optimal interactions with the thin filament.

  5. Incomplete Refolding of Antibody Light Chains to Non-Native, Protease-Sensitive Conformations Leads to Aggregation: A Mechanism of Amyloidogenesis in Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth J; Usher, Grace A; Kelly, Jeffery W

    2017-12-19

    Genetic, biochemical, and pharmacologic evidence supports the hypothesis that conformationally altered or misfolded protein states enable aggregation and cytotoxicity in the systemic amyloid diseases. Reversible structural fluctuations of natively folded proteins are involved in the aggregation of many degenerative disease associated proteins. Herein, we use antibody light chains (LCs) that form amyloid fibrils in AL amyloidosis to consider an alternative hypothesis of amyloidogenesis: that transient unfolding and incomplete extracellular refolding of secreted proteins can lead to metastable, alternatively folded states that are more susceptible to aggregation or to endoproteolysis that can release aggregation-prone fragments. Refolding of full-length λ6a LC dimers comprising an interchain disulfide bond from heat- or chaotrope-denatured ensembles in buffers yields the native dimeric state as well as alternatively folded dimers and aggregates. LC variants lacking an interchain disulfide bond appear to refold fully reversibly to the native state. The conformation of a backbone peptidyl-proline amide in the LC constant domain, which is cis in the native state, may determine whether the LC refolds back to the native state. A proline to alanine (P147A) LC variant, which cannot form the native cis-amide conformation, forms amyloid fibrils from the alternatively folded ensemble, whereas all the full-length λ6a LCs we have studied to date do not form amyloid under analogous conditions. P147A LC variants are susceptible to endoproteolysis by thrombin, enabling amyloidogenesis of the fragments released. Thus, non-native LC structural ensembles containing a tyrosine 146-proline 147 trans-amide bond can initiate and propagate amyloid formation, either directly or after aberrant endoproteolysis.

  6. Precursor B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma with L3 Morphology, Philadelphia Chromosome, MYC Gene Translocation, and Coexpression of TdT and Surface Light Chains: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Hirzel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is predominantly found in children. It is a neoplasm of precursor cells or lymphoblasts committed to either a B- or T-cell lineage. The immature cells in B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma can be small or medium sized with scant or moderate cytoplasm and typically express B-cell markers such as CD19, cytoplasmic CD79a, and TdT without surface light chains. These markers, along with cytogenetic studies, are vital to the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of these neoplasms. We present an unusual case of a precursor B-cell ALL, in an 82-year-old woman, who presented with pancytopenia and widespread lymphadenopathy. The cells show L3 morphology (Burkitt-like lymphoma with coexpression of TdT and surface light chains in addition to an MYC gene translocation and Philadelphia chromosome.

  7. Myosin light chain kinase is necessary for post-shock mesenteric lymph drainage enhancement of vascular reactivity and calcium sensitivity in hemorrhagic-shocked rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.P.; Niu, C.Y.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhang, L.M.; Si, Y.H. [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Hebei (China)

    2013-08-10

    Vascular hyporeactivity is an important factor in irreversible shock, and post-shock mesenteric lymph (PSML) blockade improves vascular reactivity after hemorrhagic shock. This study explored the possible involvement of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in PSML-mediated vascular hyporeactivity and calcium desensitization. Rats were divided into sham (n=12), shock (n=18), and shock+drainage (n=18) groups. A hemorrhagic shock model (40±2 mmHg, 3 h) was established in the shock and shock+drainage groups. PSML drainage was performed from 1 to 3 h from start of hypotension in shock+drainage rats. Levels of phospho-MLCK (p-MLCK) were determined in superior mesenteric artery (SMA) tissue, and the vascular reactivity to norepinephrine (NE) and sensitivity to Ca{sup 2+} were observed in SMA rings in an isolated organ perfusion system. p-MLCK was significantly decreased in the shock group compared with the sham group, but increased in the shock+drainage group compared with the shock group. Substance P (1 nM), an agonist of MLCK, significantly elevated the decreased contractile response of SMA rings to both NE and Ca{sup 2+} at various concentrations. Maximum contractility (E{sub max}) in the shock group increased with NE (from 0.179±0.038 to 0.440±0.177 g/mg, P<0.05) and Ca{sup 2+} (from 0.515±0.043 to 0.646±0.096 g/mg, P<0.05). ML-7 (0.1 nM), an inhibitor of MLCK, reduced the increased vascular response to NE and Ca{sup 2+} at various concentrations in the shock+drainage group (from 0.744±0.187 to 0.570±0.143 g/mg in E{sub max} for NE and from 0.729±0.037 to 0.645±0.056 g/mg in E{sub max} for Ca{sup 2+}, P<0.05). We conclude that MLCK is an important contributor to PSML drainage, enhancing vascular reactivity and calcium sensitivity in rats with hemorrhagic shock.

  8. Hematopoietic stem cell cytokines and fibroblast growth factor-2 stimulate human endothelial cell-pericyte tube co-assembly in 3D fibrin matrices under serum-free defined conditions.

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    Annie O Smith

    Full Text Available We describe a novel 3D fibrin matrix model using recombinant hematopoietic stem cell cytokines under serum-free defined conditions which promotes the assembly of human endothelial cell (EC tubes with co-associated pericytes. Individual ECs and pericytes are randomly mixed together and EC tubes form that is accompanied by pericyte recruitment to the EC tube abluminal surface over a 3-5 day period. These morphogenic processes are stimulated by a combination of the hematopoietic stem cell cytokines, stem cell factor, interleukin-3, stromal derived factor-1α, and Flt-3 ligand which are added in conjunction with fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 into the fibrin matrix. In contrast, this tube morphogenic response does not occur under serum-free defined conditions when VEGF and FGF-2 are added together in the fibrin matrices. We recently demonstrated that VEGF and FGF-2 are able to prime EC tube morphogenic responses (i.e. added overnight prior to the morphogenic assay to hematopoietic stem cell cytokines in collagen matrices and, interestingly, they also prime EC tube morphogenesis in 3D fibrin matrices. EC-pericyte interactions in 3D fibrin matrices leads to marked vascular basement membrane assembly as demonstrated using immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, we show that hematopoietic stem cell cytokines and pericytes stimulate EC sprouting in fibrin matrices in a manner dependent on the α5β1 integrin. This novel co-culture system, under serum-free defined conditions, allows for a molecular analysis of EC tube assembly, pericyte recruitment and maturation events in a critical ECM environment (i.e. fibrin matrices that regulates angiogenic events in postnatal life.

  9. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Cytokines and Fibroblast Growth factor-2 Stimulate Human Endothelial Cell-Pericyte Tube Co-Assembly in 3D Fibrin Matrices under Serum-Free Defined Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Annie O.; Bowers, Stephanie L. K.; Stratman, Amber N.; Davis, George E.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel 3D fibrin matrix model using recombinant hematopoietic stem cell cytokines under serum-free defined conditions which promotes the assembly of human endothelial cell (EC) tubes with co-associated pericytes. Individual ECs and pericytes are randomly mixed together and EC tubes form that is accompanied by pericyte recruitment to the EC tube abluminal surface over a 3-5 day period. These morphogenic processes are stimulated by a combination of the hematopoietic stem cell cytokines, stem cell factor, interleukin-3, stromal derived factor-1α, and Flt-3 ligand which are added in conjunction with fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 into the fibrin matrix. In contrast, this tube morphogenic response does not occur under serum-free defined conditions when VEGF and FGF-2 are added together in the fibrin matrices. We recently demonstrated that VEGF and FGF-2 are able to prime EC tube morphogenic responses (i.e. added overnight prior to the morphogenic assay) to hematopoietic stem cell cytokines in collagen matrices and, interestingly, they also prime EC tube morphogenesis in 3D fibrin matrices. EC-pericyte interactions in 3D fibrin matrices leads to marked vascular basement membrane assembly as demonstrated using immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, we show that hematopoietic stem cell cytokines and pericytes stimulate EC sprouting in fibrin matrices in a manner dependent on the α5β1 integrin. This novel co-culture system, under serum-free defined conditions, allows for a molecular analysis of EC tube assembly, pericyte recruitment and maturation events in a critical ECM environment (i.e. fibrin matrices) that regulates angiogenic events in postnatal life. PMID:24391990

  10. Fetal bovine serum and human constitutive androstane receptor: Evidence for activation of the SV23 splice variant by artemisinin, artemether, and arteether in a serum-free cell culture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Aik Jiang; Chang, Thomas K.H., E-mail: thomas.chang@ubc.ca

    2014-06-01

    The naturally occurring SV23 splice variant of human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR-SV23) is activated by di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), which is detected as a contaminant in fetal bovine serum (FBS). In our initial experiment, we compared the effect of dialyzed FBS, charcoal-stripped, dextran-treated FBS (CS-FBS), and regular FBS on the basal activity and ligand-activation of hCAR-SV23 in a cell-based reporter gene assay. In transfected HepG2 cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% FBS, basal hCAR-SV23 activity varied with the type of FBS (regular > dialyzed > CS). DEHP increased hCAR-SV23 activity when 10% CS-FBS, but not regular FBS or dialyzed FBS, was used. With increasing concentrations (1–10%) of regular FBS or CS-FBS, hCAR-SV23 basal activity increased, whereas in DEHP-treated cells, hCAR-SV23 activity remained similar (regular FBS) or slightly increased (CS-FBS). Subsequent experiments identified a serum-free culture condition to detect DEHP activation of hCAR-SV23. Under this condition, artemisinin, artemether, and arteether increased hCAR-SV23 activity, whereas they decreased it in cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% regular FBS. By comparison, FBS increased the basal activity of the wild-type isoform of hCAR (hCAR-WT), whereas it did not affect the basal activity of the SV24 splice variant (hCAR-SV24) or ligand activation of hCAR-SV24 and hCAR-WT by 6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime (CITCO). The use of serum-free culture condition was suitable for detecting CITCO activation of hCAR-WT and hCAR-SV24. In conclusion, FBS leads to erroneous classification of pharmacological ligands of hCAR-SV23 in cell-based assays, but investigations on functional ligands of hCAR isoforms can be conducted in serum-free culture condition. - Highlights: • FBS leads to erroneous pharmacological classification of hCAR-SV23 ligands. • Artemisinin, artemether, and arteether activate h

  11. Evolutionary analysis of the kinesin light chain genes in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti: gene duplication as a source for novel early zygotic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Zhijian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maternal zygotic transition marks the time at which transcription from the zygotic genome is initiated and a subset of maternal RNAs are progressively degraded in the developing embryo. A number of early zygotic genes have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster and comparisons to sequenced mosquito genomes suggest that some of these early zygotic genes such as bottleneck are fast-evolving or subject to turnover in dipteran insects. One objective of this study is to identify early zygotic genes from the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti to study their evolution. We are also interested in obtaining early zygotic promoters that will direct transgene expression in the early embryo as part of a Medea gene drive system. Results Two novel early zygotic kinesin light chain genes we call AaKLC2.1 and AaKLC2.2 were identified by transcriptome sequencing of Aedes aegypti embryos at various time points. These two genes have 98% nucleotide and amino acid identity in their coding regions and show transcription confined to the early zygotic stage according to gene-specific RT-PCR analysis. These AaKLC2 genes have a paralogous gene (AaKLC1 in Ae. aegypti. Phylogenetic inference shows that an ortholog to the AaKLC2 genes is only found in the sequenced genome of Culex quinquefasciatus. In contrast, AaKLC1 gene orthologs are found in all three sequenced mosquito species including Anopheles gambiae. There is only one KLC gene in D. melanogaster and other sequenced holometabolous insects that appears to be similar to AaKLC1. Unlike AaKLC2, AaKLC1 is expressed in all life stages and tissues tested, which is consistent with the expression pattern of the An. gambiae and D. melanogaster KLC genes. Phylogenetic inference also suggests that AaKLC2 genes and their likely C. quinquefasciatus ortholog are fast-evolving genes relative to the highly conserved AaKLC1-like paralogs. Embryonic injection of a luciferase reporter under the control of a

  12. Evolutionary analysis of the kinesin light chain genes in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti: gene duplication as a source for novel early zygotic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedler, James K; Tu, Zhijian

    2010-07-08

    The maternal zygotic transition marks the time at which transcription from the zygotic genome is initiated and a subset of maternal RNAs are progressively degraded in the developing embryo. A number of early zygotic genes have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster and comparisons to sequenced mosquito genomes suggest that some of these early zygotic genes such as bottleneck are fast-evolving or subject to turnover in dipteran insects. One objective of this study is to identify early zygotic genes from the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti to study their evolution. We are also interested in obtaining early zygotic promoters that will direct transgene expression in the early embryo as part of a Medea gene drive system. Two novel early zygotic kinesin light chain genes we call AaKLC2.1 and AaKLC2.2 were identified by transcriptome sequencing of Aedes aegypti embryos at various time points. These two genes have 98% nucleotide and amino acid identity in their coding regions and show transcription confined to the early zygotic stage according to gene-specific RT-PCR analysis. These AaKLC2 genes have a paralogous gene (AaKLC1) in Ae. aegypti. Phylogenetic inference shows that an ortholog to the AaKLC2 genes is only found in the sequenced genome of Culex quinquefasciatus. In contrast, AaKLC1 gene orthologs are found in all three sequenced mosquito species including Anopheles gambiae. There is only one KLC gene in D. melanogaster and other sequenced holometabolous insects that appears to be similar to AaKLC1. Unlike AaKLC2, AaKLC1 is expressed in all life stages and tissues tested, which is consistent with the expression pattern of the An. gambiae and D. melanogaster KLC genes. Phylogenetic inference also suggests that AaKLC2 genes and their likely C. quinquefasciatus ortholog are fast-evolving genes relative to the highly conserved AaKLC1-like paralogs. Embryonic injection of a luciferase reporter under the control of a 1 kb fragment upstream of the AaKLC2.1 start

  13. The interaction of luciferase, flavin mono-nucleotide and long-chain aldehydes in the light reaction catalyzed by preparations of luminous bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Willeke

    1958-01-01

    The light reaction catalyzed by a luciferase preparation of a dark strain of Photobacterium splendidum, probably containing a slightly altered luciferase molecule, was compared with the light reaction catalyzed by a similar preparation of a brightly luminescent strain of Photobacterium phosphoreum.

  14. Heavy Chain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heavy chain produced: Alpha Gamma Mu Alpha Heavy Chain Disease Alpha heavy chain disease (IgA heavy chain ... disease or lead to a remission. Gamma Heavy Chain Disease Gamma heavy chain disease (IgG heavy chain ...

  15. Establishing elements of a synthetic biology platform for Vaccinia virus production: BioBrick™ design, serum-free virus production and microcarrier-based cultivation of CV-1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchang Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV is an established vector for vaccination and is beginning to prove effective as an oncolytic agent. Industrial production of VACV stands to benefit in future from advances made by synthetic biology in genome engineering and standardisation. The CV-1 cell line can be used for VACV propagation and has been used extensively with the CRISPR/Cas9 system for making precise edits of the VACV genome. Here we take first steps toward establishing a scalable synthetic biology platform for VACV production with CV-1 cells featuring standardised biological tools and serum free cell cultivation. We propose a new BioBrick™ plasmid backbone format for inserting transgenes into VACV. We then test the performance of CV-1 cells in propagation of a conventional recombinant Lister strain VACV, VACVL-15 RFP, in a serum-free process. CV-1 cells grown in 5% foetal bovine serum (FBS Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM were adapted to growth in OptiPRO and VP-SFM brands of serum-free media. Specific growth rates of 0.047 h−1 and 0.044 h−1 were observed for cells adapted to OptiPRO and VP-SFM respectively, compared to 0.035 h−1 in 5% FBS DMEM. Cells adapted to OptiPRO and to 5% FBS DMEM achieved recovery ratios of over 96%, an indication of their robustness to cryopreservation. Cells adapted to VP-SFM showed a recovery ratio of 82%. Virus productivity in static culture, measured as plaque forming units (PFU per propagator cell, was 75 PFU/cell for cells in 5% FBS DMEM. VP-SFM and OptiPRO adaptation increased VACV production to 150 PFU/cell and 350 PFU/cell respectively. Boosted PFU/cell from OptiPRO-adapted cells persisted when 5% FBS DMEM or OptiPRO medium was observed during the infection step and when titre was measured using cells adapted to 5% FBS DMEM or OptiPRO medium. Finally, OptiPRO-adapted CV-1 cells were successfully cultivated using Cytodex-1 microcarriers to inform future scale up studies.

  16. Long-term culture of rat hippocampal neurons at low density in serum-free medium: combination of the sandwich culture technique with the three-dimensional nanofibrous hydrogel PuraMatrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Ai; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    The primary culture of neuronal cells plays an important role in neuroscience. There has long been a need for methods enabling the long-term culture of primary neurons at low density, in defined serum-free medium. However, the lower the cell density, the more difficult it is to maintain the cells in culture. Therefore, we aimed to develop a method for long-term culture of neurons at low density, in serum-free medium, without the need for a glial feeder layer. Here, we describe the work leading to our determination of a protocol for long-term (>2 months) primary culture of rat hippocampal neurons in serum-free medium at the low density of 3×10(4) cells/mL (8.9×10(3) cells/cm2) without a glial feeder layer. Neurons were cultured on a three-dimensional nanofibrous hydrogel, PuraMatrix, and sandwiched under a coverslip to reproduce the in vivo environment, including the three-dimensional extracellular matrix, low-oxygen conditions, and exposure to concentrated paracrine factors. We examined the effects of varying PuraMatrix concentrations, the timing and presence or absence of a coverslip, the timing of neuronal isolation from embryos, cell density at plating, medium components, and changing the medium or not on parameters such as developmental pattern, cell viability, neuronal ratio, and neurite length. Using our method of combining the sandwich culture technique with PuraMatrix in Neurobasal medium/B27/L-glutamine for primary neuron culture, we achieved longer neurites (≥3,000 µm), greater cell viability (≥30%) for 2 months, and uniform culture across the wells. We also achieved an average neuronal ratio of 97%, showing a nearly pure culture of neurons without astrocytes. Our method is considerably better than techniques for the primary culture of neurons, and eliminates the need for a glial feeder layer. It also exhibits continued support for axonal elongation and synaptic activity for long periods (>6 weeks).

  17. Establishing elements of a synthetic biology platform for Vaccinia virus production: BioBrick™ design, serum-free virus production and microcarrier-based cultivation of CV-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuchang; Ruban, Ludmila; Wang, Yaohe; Zhou, Yuhong; Nesbeth, Darren N

    2017-02-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is an established vector for vaccination and is beginning to prove effective as an oncolytic agent. Industrial production of VACV stands to benefit in future from advances made by synthetic biology in genome engineering and standardisation. The CV-1 cell line can be used for VACV propagation and has been used extensively with the CRISPR/Cas9 system for making precise edits of the VACV genome. Here we take first steps toward establishing a scalable synthetic biology platform for VACV production with CV-1 cells featuring standardised biological tools and serum free cell cultivation. We propose a new BioBrick™ plasmid backbone format for inserting transgenes into VACV. We then test the performance of CV-1 cells in propagation of a conventional recombinant Lister strain VACV, VACVL-15 RFP, in a serum-free process. CV-1 cells grown in 5% foetal bovine serum (FBS) Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) were adapted to growth in OptiPRO and VP-SFM brands of serum-free media. Specific growth rates of 0.047 h-1 and 0.044 h-1 were observed for cells adapted to OptiPRO and VP-SFM respectively, compared to 0.035 h-1 in 5% FBS DMEM. Cells adapted to OptiPRO and to 5% FBS DMEM achieved recovery ratios of over 96%, an indication of their robustness to cryopreservation. Cells adapted to VP-SFM showed a recovery ratio of 82%. Virus productivity in static culture, measured as plaque forming units (PFU) per propagator cell, was 75 PFU/cell for cells in 5% FBS DMEM. VP-SFM and OptiPRO adaptation increased VACV production to 150 PFU/cell and 350 PFU/cell respectively. Boosted PFU/cell from OptiPRO-adapted cells persisted when 5% FBS DMEM or OptiPRO medium was observed during the infection step and when titre was measured using cells adapted to 5% FBS DMEM or OptiPRO medium. Finally, OptiPRO-adapted CV-1 cells were successfully cultivated using Cytodex-1 microcarriers to inform future scale up studies.

  18. Markov chains

    CERN Document Server

    Revuz, D

    1984-01-01

    This is the revised and augmented edition of a now classic book which is an introduction to sub-Markovian kernels on general measurable spaces and their associated homogeneous Markov chains. The first part, an expository text on the foundations of the subject, is intended for post-graduate students. A study of potential theory, the basic classification of chains according to their asymptotic behaviour and the celebrated Chacon-Ornstein theorem are examined in detail. The second part of the book is at a more advanced level and includes a treatment of random walks on general locally compact abelian groups. Further chapters develop renewal theory, an introduction to Martin boundary and the study of chains recurrent in the Harris sense. Finally, the last chapter deals with the construction of chains starting from a kernel satisfying some kind of maximum principle.

  19. A Conjugated Polyelectrolyte with Pendant High Dense Short-Alkyl-Chain-Bridged Cationic Ions: Analyte-Induced Light-Up and Label-Free Fluorescent Sensing of Tumor Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Fu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel cationic water-soluble conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE of polyfluorene that contains 15% fraction of 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BT units (PFC3NBT has been obtained. PFC3NBT demonstrates intramolecular energy transfer from the fluorene segments to BT sites when negatively charged species (SDS or DNAs are added, following by a shift in emission color from blue to green, has been developed. The high density of positive charges and pendent short alkyl chains of N-propyltrimethylammoniums endow PFC3NBT with high solubility and high fluorescence quantum efficiency of 33.6% in water. The fluorescence emission properties were investigated in the presence of adverse buffer solutions, different surfactants and DNA strands. Interesting fluorescence emission quenching at short wavelength and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET induced light-on at BT sites were observed and discussed in detail. Very different from previous reports, the fluorescence emission spectra transition happens with an enhancement of integrated fluorescent intensity. The analytes induced a light-up sensing system was studied with a PFC3NBT/SDS complex mode and confirmed with DNA/DNA-FAM sensing systems. More exciting preliminary results on label-free sensing of tumor markers were also reported by investigating the unique fluorescence response to 11 kinds of proteins. These results provide a new insight view for designing CPEs with light-up and label-free features for biomolecular sensing.

  20. Ultrasensitive automated RNA in situ hybridization for kappa and lambda light chain mRNA detects B-cell clonality in tissue biopsies with performance comparable or superior to flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; Wang, Zhen; Anderson, Courtney M; Doolittle, Emerald; Kernag, Siobhan; Cotta, Claudiu V; Ondrejka, Sarah L; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Cook, James R

    2017-10-20

    The assessment of B-cell clonality is a critical component of the evaluation of suspected lymphoproliferative disorders, but analysis from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues can be challenging if fresh tissue is not available for flow cytometry. Immunohistochemical and conventional bright field in situ hybridization stains for kappa and lambda are effective for evaluation of plasma cells but are often insufficiently sensitive to detect the much lower abundance of light chains present in B-cells. We describe an ultrasensitive RNA in situ hybridization assay that has been adapted for use on an automated immunohistochemistry platform and compare results with flow cytometry in 203 consecutive tissues and 104 consecutive bone marrows. Overall, in 203 tissue biopsies, RNA in situ hybridization identified light chain-restricted B-cells in 85 (42%) vs 58 (29%) by flow cytometry. Within 83 B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, RNA in situ hybridization identified restricted B-cells in 74 (89%) vs 56 (67%) by flow cytometry. B-cell clonality could be evaluated in only 23/104 (22%) bone marrow cases owing to poor RNA preservation, but evaluable cases showed 91% concordance with flow cytometry. RNA in situ hybridization allowed for recognition of biclonal/composite lymphomas not identified by flow cytometry and highlighted unexpected findings, such as coexpression of kappa and lambda RNA in 2 cases and the presence of lambda light chain RNA in a T lymphoblastic lymphoma. Automated RNA in situ hybridization showed excellent interobserver reproducibility for manual evaluation (average K=0.92), and an automated image analysis system showed high concordance (97%) with manual evaluation. Automated RNA in situ hybridization staining, which can be adopted on commonly utilized immunohistochemistry instruments, allows for the interpretation of clonality in the context of the morphological features in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues with a clinical sensitivity similar or

  1. Continuous monitoring of restriction endonuclease cleavage activity by universal molecular beacon light quenching coupled with real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Song, Chen; Zhao, Meiping; Li, Yuanzong

    2008-10-01

    We describe a method for sensitive monitoring of restriction endonuclease kinetics and activity by use of a universal molecular beacon (U-MB) coupled with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The method is used to monitor the progress of DNA cleavage in a sealed reaction tube and offers more accurate and high-throughput detection. The template has a universal tail hybridized with the U-MB and the remaining sequence is complementary to one of the restriction endonuclease digestion products. The U-MB is replaced by the extension of digested product and the fluorescence quenches. With this concept, one universal fluorescence probe can be used in different enzyme analytical systems. In the work described here, homogenous assays were performed with the restriction endonucleases AluI, EcoRI, XhoI, and SacI at smoothly controlled temperature. Cleavage efficiencies were determined, and the potential applications of this method were discussed. Furthermore, the AluI and EcoRI cleavage reactions were monitored online at varying substrate concentrations at the molecular level, and K(m), V(max), and K(cat) values were calculated. The results suggest that U-MB monitoring of restriction endonuclease assays based on real-time PCR will be very useful for high-throughput, sensitive, and precise assays for enzyme activity screening and evolutionary biotechnology analysis.

  2. Sulfonate groups grafted on Ti6Al4V favor MC3T3-E1 cell performance in serum free medium conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgueiras, Helena; Migonney, Véronique

    2014-06-01

    Ten years ago, we synthesized "bioactive model polymers" bearing sulfonate groups and proposed a mechanism of their modulation effect at different steps of the cell response. Then, we set up the grafting of polymers bearing sulfonate on Ti6Al4V surfaces by a grafting "from" technique making sure of the creation of covalent bonds between the grafted polymer and the Ti6Al4V surface. We have checked and confirmed the positive effect of grafted sulfonate groups on the osteoblastic cell response in vivo and in vitro but we did not elucidate the mechanism. The aim of this basic work consists first in investigating the role of sulfonate groups in the presence and in the absence of proteins at early stages of the osteointegration process on poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) poly(NaSS) grafted and ungrafted Ti6Al4V surfaces, in vitro. To understand the role of poly(NaSS) grafted chains on osteoblast-like cell response and to confirm/elucidate the importance of fetal bovine serum (FBS) proteins in the culture medium, MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded onto poly(NaSS) grafted and non-grafted Ti6Al4V surfaces. Cultures were carried out in a complete (10% FBS) and in a non-complete medium (without FBS). Cell viability assay, cell attachment number and cell adhesion strength were followed up to 3days of culture. The presence of proteins enhanced cell growth and development whatever the surface and the presence of sulfonate groups enhanced the cell attachment even in the absence of proteins, which suggests and confirms that the sulfonate groups can modify the activity of cells such as the secretion of binding proteins. Statistical differences were found in the attachment strength tests on poly(NaSS) grafted and ungrafted surfaces and showed that the sulfonate groups play an important role in the cell resistance to shear stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of a xeno-free and serum-free culture system for human embryonic stem cells with conventional culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Mai, Qingyun; Li, Tao; Huang, Jia; Ding, Chenhui; Jia, Mengxi; Zhou, Canquan; Xu, Yanwen

    2016-07-30

    Elimination of all animal components during derivation and long-term culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is necessary for future applications of hESCs in clinical cell therapy. In this study, we established the culture system of xeno-free human foreskin fibroblast feeders (XF-HFF) in combination with chemically defined medium (CDM). XF-HFF/CDM was compared with several conventional culture systems. The hESCs cultured in different media were further characterized through karyotype analysis, pluripotency gene expression, and cell differentiation ability. The hESCs in the XF-HFF/CDM maintained their characteristics including typical morphology and stable karyotype. In addition, hESCs were characterized by fluorescent immunostaining of pluripotent markers and teratoma formation in vivo. RT-PCR analysis shown that the stem cell markers OCT3/4, hTERT, SOX2, and Nanog were present in the cell line hESC-1 grown on XF-HFF/CDM. Furthermore, the results of cell growth and expression of bFGF, Oct-4, and hTERT indicated that XF-HFF/CDM had better performance than human serum-matrix/CDM and XF-HFF/human serum. The comparison of different xeno-free culture conditions will facilitate clarifying the key features of self-renewal, pluripotency, and derivation and will shed light on clinic applications of hESCs.

  4. Mobility chains analysis of technologies for passenger cars and light duty vehicles fueled with biofuels : application of the Greet model to project the role of biomass in America's energy future (RBAEF) project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wu, Y.; Wang, M; Energy Systems

    2008-01-31

    The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future (RBAEF) is a multi-institution, multiple-sponsor research project. The primary focus of the project is to analyze and assess the potential of transportation fuels derived from cellulosic biomass in the years 2015 to 2030. For this project, researchers at Dartmouth College and Princeton University designed and simulated an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity using the ASPEN Plus{trademark} model. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted, for the RBAEF project, a mobility chains or well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at ANL. The mobility chains analysis was intended to estimate the energy consumption and emissions associated with the use of different production biofuels in light-duty vehicle technologies.

  5. A study of the chain stiffness and extension of alginates, in vitro epimerized alginates, and periodate-oxidized alginates using size-exclusion chromatography combined with light scattering and viscosity detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vold, Inger Mari Nygård; Kristiansen, Kåre A; Christensen, Bjørn E

    2006-07-01

    A series of alginates isolated from the stem and leaf of a brown algae (Laminaria hyperborea), bacterial mannuronan, in vitro epimerized mannuronans, and periodate oxidized alginates were analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) combined with online multiangle laser light scattering (MALS) and viscometry (collectively abbreviated SMV). Selected samples were also analyzed off-line using low-angle laser light scattering and capillary viscometry. Excellent agreement between the two methods was obtained for properly purified samples. In contrast, abnormal results were obtained for some industrial samples due to the presence of particulate material. Naturally occurring alginates and in vitro epimerized mannuronans were found to obey essentially the same RG-M and [eta]-M relations, and hence, the same Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS) equations (valid for I = 0.10 M): 20 000 g/mol < M < 100 000 g/mol, [eta] = 0.0054 .M(1.00); 100 000 g/mol < M < 1 000 000 g/mol, [eta] = 0.071 .M(0.89). Application of the wormlike chain model to the [eta]-M data obtained by SMV yielded persistence lengths (q) of 15 nm for all alginates at an ionic strength of 0.17 M. Intrinsic viscosities corresponding to infinite ionic strength were estimated on the basis of Smidsrød's B-parameter, and the wormlike chain model then yielded q = 12 nm. Periodate oxidized alginates showed, in contrast, a pronounced decrease in persistence length with increasing degree of oxidation, reaching values below 4 nm at 44% oxidation. Periodate oxidation also resulted in some depolymerization, even in the presence of a free-radical scavenger.

  6. Isolation and characterization of Wharton’s jelly-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells obtained from bovine umbilical cord and maintained in a defined serum-free three-dimensional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Tereza C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The possibility for isolating bovine mesenchymal multipotent cells (MSCs from fetal adnexa is an interesting prospect because of the potential for these cells to be used for biotechnological applications. Bone marrow and adipose tissue are the most common sources of MSCs derived from adult animals. However, little knowledge exists about the characteristics of these progenitors cells in the bovine species. Traditionally most cell cultures are developed in two dimensional (2D environments. In mammalian tissue, cells connect not only to each other, but also support structures called the extracellular matrix (ECM. The three-dimensional (3D cultures may play a potential role in cell biotechnology, especially in tissue therapy. In this study, bovine-derived umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly (UC-WJ cells were isolated, characterized and maintained under 3D-free serum condition as an alternative of stem cell source for future cell banking. Results Bovine-derived UC-WJ cells, collected individually from 5 different umbilical cords sources, were successfully cultured under serum-free conditions and were capable to support 60 consecutive passages using commercial Stemline® mesenchymal stem cells expansion medium. Moreover, the UC-WJ cells were differentiated into osteocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes and neural-like cells and cultured separately. Additionally, the genes that are considered important embryonic, POU5F1 and ITSN1, and mesenchymal cell markers, CD105+, CD29+, CD73+ and CD90+ in MSCs were also expressed in five bovine-derived UC-WJ cultures. Morphology of proliferating cells typically appeared fibroblast-like spindle shape presenting the same viability and number. These characteristics were not affected during passages. There were 60 chromosomes at the metaphase, with acrocentric morphology and intense telomerase activity. Moreover, the proliferative capacity of T cells in response to a mitogen stimulus was suppressed when

  7. Two Cases of Heavy Chain MGUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Van Keer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy chain diseases are rare variants of B-cell lymphomas that produce one of three classes of immunoglobulin heavy chains, without corresponding light chains. We describe two patients with asymptomatic heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy. The first patient is a 51-year-old woman with alpha paraprotein on serum immunofixation. The second case is a 46-year-old woman with gamma paraprotein on urine immunofixation. Neither patient had corresponding monoclonal light chains. Workup for multiple myeloma and lymphoma was negative in both patients. These two cases illustrate that heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy can exist in the absence of clinically apparent malignancy. Only a few reports of “heavy chain MGUS” have been described before. In the absence of specialized guidelines, we suggest a similar follow-up as for MGUS, while taking into account the higher probability of progression to lymphoma than to myeloma.

  8. An XBP-1 dependent bottle-neck in production of IgG subtype antibodies in chemically defined serum-free Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fed-batch processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Eric; Florin, Lore; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Kaufmann, Hitto

    2008-06-01

    The optimization of production processes for therapeutic antibodies is a continuing challenge in pharmaceutical biotechnology. Although it could be demonstrated that vector design and host cell engineering can improve transcriptional and translational efficiency and thereby result in generation of high producer cell lines, it is not clear whether introduction of transgenes that regulate protein transport or affect post-translational modifications could further improve such industrial processes. Here, we show that heterologous expression of the transcription factor X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1) can lead to an increase in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) content and specific therapeutic antibody productivity of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-DG44 cells in inoculum suspension cultures. This effect translates into 40% increased overall antibody titers in a fed-batch format where cells are grown in chemically defined serum-free media. Protein-A purified antibody products from mock-transfected cells and XBP-1 transfected cells were found to be of comparable quality with regard to glycosylation pattern and physicochemical characteristics. The data demonstrate the potential of XBP-1 engineering to improve mammalian cell culture production processes to yield high amounts of a therapeutic protein product of desired quality.

  9. [Analysis of Relationship between Serum Total Light Chain κ/λ Ratio and Proportion of Bone Marrow Plasma Cells in Patients with IgG type and IgA type Multiple Myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, An-You; Zhu, Fang-Bing; Wang, Feng-Chao; Zhang, Lun-Jun; Ma, Yue; Hu, Jian-Guo

    2017-10-01

    To explore the relationship between serum total light chain κ/λ ratio (sTLC-κ/λ) and proportion of bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC) in patients with IgG type and IgA type multiple myeloma (MM) and its clinical significance. The levels of serum IgG, IgA, κ type and λ type total light chain were detected in 79 newly diagnosed patients with IgG type (n=52) and IgA type (n=27) MM by immuno-nephelometric assay and the sTLC-κ/λ ratio was calculated. The proportion of BMPC was determined by bone marrow smears in the corresponding period, and the changes in sTLC-κ/λ ratio and the proportion of BMPC were observed in 19 patients with IgG type(n=16) and IgA type (n=3) MM undergoing treatment, 26 cases of non-phasmocytic proliferative diseases were enrolled in control group. In MM patients with IgGκ type and IgAκ type, the sTLC-κ/λ ratio was significantly higher than that in the control group (PIgG (r=0.778,P=0.000) and IgA (r=0.601,P=0.039), while the sTLC-κ/λ ratios of patients with IgGλ and IgAλ were negativily correlated with the IgG(r=-0.586,P=0.01) and IgA level(r=-0.718,P=0.003). In addition, a correlation between each type MM was not found except the IgGκ type MM which had a positive correlation between the sTLC-κ/λ ratio and proportion of BMPC (r=0.579,P=0.002). Nonetheless, 18 of 19 patients with IgG type and IgA type MM undergoing treatment showed concordance between the sTLC-κ/λ ratio and proportion of BMPC change. There is a lower correlation between the sTLC-κ/λ ratio and the proportion of BMPC in MM patients with IgG type and IgA type, but there is a high concordance between the sTLC-κ/λ ratio and the proportion of BMPC change in the same patient and it suggests that the sTLC-κ/λ ratio plays an important role in the diagnosis and monitoring of IgG type and IgA type MM.

  10. On involvement of transcription factors nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, activator protein-1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 in photodynamic therapy-induced death of crayfish neurons and satellite glial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhnaya, Elena; Neginskaya, Marya; Kovaleva, Vera; Sharifulina, Svetlana; Ischenko, Irina; Komandirov, Maxim; Rudkovskii, Mikhail; Uzdensky, Anatoly B.

    2015-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is currently used in the treatment of brain tumors. However, not only malignant cells but also neighboring normal neurons and glial cells are damaged during PDT. In order to study the potential role of transcription factors-nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), activator protein (AP-1), and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3)-in photodynamic injury of normal neurons and glia, we photosensitized the isolated crayfish mechanoreceptor consisting of a single sensory neuron enveloped by glial cells. Application of different inhibitors and activators showed that transcription factors NF-κB (inhibitors caffeic acid phenethyl ester and parthenolide, activator betulinic acid), AP-1 (inhibitor SR11302), and STAT-3 (inhibitors stattic and cucurbitacine) influenced PDT-induced death and survival of neurons and glial cells in different ways. These experiments indicated involvement of NF-κB in PDT-induced necrosis of neurons and apoptosis of glial cells. However, in glial cells, it played the antinecrotic role. AP-1 was not involved in PDT-induced necrosis of neurons and glia, but mediated glial apoptosis. STAT-3 was involved in PDT-induced apoptosis of glial cells and necrosis of neurons and glia. Therefore, signaling pathways that regulate cell death and survival in neurons and glial cells are different. Using various inhibitors or activators of transcription factors, one can differently influence the sensitivity and resistance of neurons and glial cells to PDT.

  11. ATM substrate Chk2-interacting Zn2+ finger (ASCIZ) Is a bi-functional transcriptional activator and feedback sensor in the regulation of dynein light chain (DYNLL1) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Sabine; Conlan, Lindus A; Baker, Emma K; Ng, Jane-Lee; Tenis, Nora; Hoch, Nicolas C; Gleeson, Kimberly; Smeets, Monique; Izon, David; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2012-01-27

    The highly conserved DYNLL1 (LC8) protein was originally discovered as a light chain of the dynein motor complex, but is increasingly emerging as a sequence-specific regulator of protein dimerization with hundreds of targets and wide-ranging cellular functions. Despite its important roles, DYNLL1's own regulation remains poorly understood. Here we identify ASCIZ (ATMIN/ZNF822), an essential Zn(2+) finger protein with dual roles in the DNA base damage response and as a developmental transcription factor, as a conserved regulator of Dynll1 gene expression. DYNLL1 levels are reduced by ∼10-fold in the absence of ASCIZ in human, mouse and chicken cells. ASCIZ binds directly to the Dynll1 promoter and regulates its activity in a Zn(2+) finger-dependent manner. DYNLL1 protein in turn interacts with ten binding sites in the ASCIZ transcription activation domain, and high DYNLL1 levels inhibit the transcriptional activity of ASCIZ. In addition, DYNLL1 was also required for DNA damage-induced ASCIZ focus formation. The dual ability of ASCIZ to activate Dynll1 gene expression and to sense free DYNLL1 protein levels enables a simple dynamic feedback loop to adjust DYNLL1 levels to cellular needs. The ASCIZ-DYNLL1 feedback loop represents a novel mechanism for auto-regulation of gene expression, where the gene product directly inhibits the transcriptional activator while bound at its own promoter.

  12. ATM Substrate Chk2-interacting Zn2+ Finger (ASCIZ) Is a Bi-functional Transcriptional Activator and Feedback Sensor in the Regulation of Dynein Light Chain (DYNLL1) Expression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Sabine; Conlan, Lindus A.; Baker, Emma K.; Ng, Jane-Lee; Tenis, Nora; Hoch, Nicolas C.; Gleeson, Kimberly; Smeets, Monique; Izon, David; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The highly conserved DYNLL1 (LC8) protein was originally discovered as a light chain of the dynein motor complex, but is increasingly emerging as a sequence-specific regulator of protein dimerization with hundreds of targets and wide-ranging cellular functions. Despite its important roles, DYNLL1's own regulation remains poorly understood. Here we identify ASCIZ (ATMIN/ZNF822), an essential Zn2+ finger protein with dual roles in the DNA base damage response and as a developmental transcription factor, as a conserved regulator of Dynll1 gene expression. DYNLL1 levels are reduced by ∼10-fold in the absence of ASCIZ in human, mouse and chicken cells. ASCIZ binds directly to the Dynll1 promoter and regulates its activity in a Zn2+ finger-dependent manner. DYNLL1 protein in turn interacts with ten binding sites in the ASCIZ transcription activation domain, and high DYNLL1 levels inhibit the transcriptional activity of ASCIZ. In addition, DYNLL1 was also required for DNA damage-induced ASCIZ focus formation. The dual ability of ASCIZ to activate Dynll1 gene expression and to sense free DYNLL1 protein levels enables a simple dynamic feedback loop to adjust DYNLL1 levels to cellular needs. The ASCIZ-DYNLL1 feedback loop represents a novel mechanism for auto-regulation of gene expression, where the gene product directly inhibits the transcriptional activator while bound at its own promoter. PMID:22167198

  13. A rapid method for simultaneous evaluation of free light chain content and aggregate content in culture media of Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing monoclonal antibodies for cell line screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yoichi; Tsukahara, Masayoshi; Wakamatsu, Kaori

    2016-04-01

    The goal of developing a monoclonal antibody (mAb) production process is high productivity and high quality. Because the productivity and quality of mAbs depend on cell line properties, the selection of cell lines suitable for large-scale production is an important stage in process development for mAb production. The light chain (LC) is important for antibody folding and assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum; cell lines that secrete a large amount of LCs in the medium secrete high-quality antibodies with high productivity. LC contents in culture media have been estimated by western blotting, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. However, these analyses require fine tuning of experimental conditions for each antibody analyzed. Here we report a rapid and simple high-sensitivity size-exclusion chromatography (HS-SEC) method to evaluate the contents of low-molecular weight species (LMWS, mainly consisting of LC monomers and dimers) and high-molecular weight species (HMWS, aggregates) in the media for cell line screening. Because LMWS and HMWS are important indicators of productivity and quality, respectively, for cell line screening, HS-SEC will be useful in the first step of cell line selection needed for large-scale production. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Incidence and outcome of patients starting renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease due to multiple myeloma or light-chain deposit disease: an ERA-EDTA Registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakiris, D.J.; Stel, V.S.; Finne, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Information on demographics and survival of patients starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to multiple myeloma (MM) or light-chain deposit disease (LCDD) is scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, characteristics, causes...... of death and survival rates of RRT for ESRD due to MM or LCDD in the ERA-EDTA Registry. Methods. Thirteen national registries providing data on patients who started RRT from 1986-2005 to the ERA-EDTA Registry participated. Incidence per million population (pmp) of RRT for ESRD due to MM or LCDD and other...... causes (non-MM) was observed overtime. Patient survival on RRT was examined, unadjusted and adjusted for age and gender. Results. Of the 159 637 patients on RRT, 2453 (1.54%) had MM or LCDD. The incidence of RRT for ESRD due to MM or LCDD, adjusted for age and gender, increased from 0.70 pmp in 1986...

  15. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of neurofilament light chain NF-L, but not progranulin and S100B, in the course of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Data from the German MND-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinacker, Petra; Huss, André; Mayer, Benjamin; Grehl, Torsten; Grosskreutz, Julian; Borck, Guntram; Kuhle, Jens; Lulé, Dorothée; Meyer, Thomas; Oeckl, Patrick; Petri, Susanne; Weishaupt, Jochen; Ludolph, Albert C; Otto, Markus

    2017-02-01

    There is a need for diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring blood biomarkers for ALS. We aimed to analyse and compare proposed candidate markers for disease progression in the course of ALS. Blood samples were taken from 125 ALS patients, including nine patients with C9orf72 or SOD1 mutation, at regular intervals of six months. ALS patients were characterized by the ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R) and the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS). We quantified neurofilament light chain (NF-L), S100B, and progranulin (PGRN) and analysed it in relation to disease progression. Results showed that, at baseline, serum concentrations of NF-L but not PGRN or S100B discriminated significantly between ALS and controls. Within 24 months follow-up the marker concentrations remained stable. Baseline serum NF-L levels correlated with survival time, which was confirmed in subgroups with fast, intermediate, and slow disease progression and there was a weak association with disease duration. For S100B and PGRN we found an association with ALSFRS-R score changes and a trend for decreased levels in the fast progressor subgroup. In conclusion, serum NF-L in any ALS disease stage is a promising marker to support diagnosis and predict outcome, while serum PGRN and S100B are only of minor prognostic value.

  16. Maternal magnesium sulfate fetal neuroprotective effects to the fetus: inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells activation in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloosesky, Ron; Khatib, Nizar; Ginsberg, Yuval; Anabosy, Saja; Shalom-Paz, Einat; Dahis, Masha; Ross, Michael G; Weiner, Zeev

    2016-09-01

    Maternal magnesium administration has been shown to protect the preterm fetus from white- and gray-matter injury, although the mechanism is unknown. The purpose of the study is to test the following hypotheses: (1) maternal infections/inflammation activate fetal neuronal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors that up-regulate neuronal nitric oxide synthase and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathways; and (2) maternal magnesium sulfate attenuates fetal brain neuronal nitric oxide synthase and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells activation through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Pregnant rats at embryonic day 16 and embryonic day 18 (n = 6, 48 total) received injections of intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide 500 μg/kg or saline at time 0. Dams were randomized for treatment with subcutaneous magnesium sulfate (270 mg/kg) or saline for 2 hours prior to and following lipopolysaccharide/saline injections. At 4 hours after lipopolysaccharide administration, fetal brains were collected from the 4 treatment groups (lipopolysaccharide/saline, lipopolysaccharide/magnesium sulfate, saline/magnesium sulfate, saline/saline), and phosphoneuronal nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells p65, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 protein levels were determined by Western blot. An additional group of pregnant rats (n = 5) received N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor antagonist following the lipopolysaccharide injection to study magnesium sulfate protective mechanism. Lipopolysaccharide (lipopolysaccharide/saline) significantly increased fetal brain phosphoneuronal nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells p65, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 protein levels compared to the saline/saline group at both embryonic day 16 (phosphoneuronal nitric oxide synthase 0.23 ± 0.01 vs 0.11 ± 0.01 U; nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells

  17. Light Chain Myeloma induced Severe Hypertriglyceridemia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Shafeeque; Kumar, Prabhat; Mahto, Subodh Kumar; Tonk, Rajinder Singh; Taneja, Rajesh S

    2017-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is very common in general population and incidence has further increased in recent years. Evaluation of patient presenting with lipid disorders is essential to obtain a definite diagnosis to prevent complications, and apply the most appropriate treatment. An isolated elevation in triglyceride levels may be caused by a primary disorder of lipid metabolism like familial hypertriglyceridemia. It may also arise secondary to a number of conditions like diabetes mellitus, alcohol int...

  18. The application of normal, SV40 T-antigen-immortalised and tumour-derived oral keratinocytes, under serum-free conditions, to the study of the probability of cancer progression as a result of environmental exposure to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceder, Rebecca; Merne, Marina; Staab, Claudia A; Nilsson, Jan Anders; Höög, Jan-Olov; Dressler, Dirk; Engelhart, Karin; Grafström, Roland C

    2007-12-01

    In vitro models are currently not considered to be suitable replacements for animals in experiments to assess the multiple factors that underlie the development of cancer as a result of environmental exposure to chemicals. An evaluation was conducted on the potential use of normal keratinocytes, the SV40 T-antigen-immortalised keratinocyte cell line, SVpgC2a, and the carcinoma cell line, SqCC/Y1, alone and in combination, and under standardised serum-free culture conditions, to study oral cancer progression. In addition, features considered to be central to cancer development as a result of environmental exposure to chemicals, were analysed. Genomic expression, and enzymatic and functional data from the cell lines reflected many aspects of the transition of normal tissue epithelium, via dysplasia, to full malignancy. The composite cell line model develops aberrances in proliferation, terminal differentiation and apoptosis, in a similar manner to oral cancer progression in vivo. Transcript and protein profiling links aberrations in multiple gene ontologies, molecular networks and tumour biomarker genes (some proposed previously, and some new) in oral carcinoma development. Typical specific changes include the loss of tumour-suppressor p53 function and of sensitivity to retinoids. Environmental agents associated with the aetiology of oral cancer differ in their requirements for metabolic activation, and cause toxic effects to cells in both the normal and the transformed states. The results suggest that the model might be useful for studies on the sensitivity of cells to chemicals at different stages of cancer progression, including many aspects of the integrated roles of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Overall, the properties of the SVpgC2a and SqCC/Y1 cell lines, relative to normal epithelial cells in monolayer or organotypic culture, support their potential applicability to mechanistic studies on cancer risk factors, including, in particular, the definition of

  19. Fast-to-Slow Transition of Skeletal Muscle Contractile Function and Corresponding Changes in Myosin Heavy and Light Chain Formation in the R6/2 Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Tanja; Braubach, Peter; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard; Lindenberg, Katrin S; Melzer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Huntington´s disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease resulting from an expanded polyglutamine sequence (poly-Q) in the protein huntingtin (HTT). Various studies report atrophy and metabolic pathology of skeletal muscle in HD and suggest as part of the process a fast-to-slow fiber type transition that may be caused by the pathological changes in central motor control or/and by mutant HTT in the muscle tissue itself. To investigate muscle pathology in HD, we used R6/2 mice, a common animal model for a rapidly progressing variant of the disease expressing exon 1 of the mutant human gene. We investigated alterations in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL), a typical fast-twitch muscle, and the soleus (SOL), a slow-twitch muscle. We focussed on mechanographic measurements of excised muscles using single and repetitive electrical stimulation and on the expression of the various myosin isoforms (heavy and light chains) using dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of whole muscle and single fiber preparations. In EDL of R6/2, the functional tests showed a left shift of the force-frequency relation and decrease in specific force. Moreover, the estimated relative contribution of the fastest myosin isoform MyHC IIb decreased, whereas the contribution of the slower MyHC IIx isoform increased. An additional change occurred in the alkali MyLC forms showing a decrease in 3f and an increase in 1f level. In SOL, a shift from fast MyHC IIa to the slow isoform I was detectable in male R6/2 mice only, and there was no evidence of isoform interconversion in the MyLC pattern. These alterations point to a partial remodeling of the contractile apparatus of R6/2 mice towards a slower contractile phenotype, predominantly in fast glycolytic fibers.

  20. The defective protein level of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) in the isolated saphenous vein, as a vascular conduit in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), harvested from patients with diabetes mellitus (DM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yasuko; Kuwabara, Masachika; Tanaka-Totoribe, Naoko; Kanai, Tasuku; Nakamura, Eisaku; Gamoh, Shuji; Suzuki, Akito; Asada, Yujiro; Hisa, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Ryuichi

    2011-08-26

    We examined the contractile reactivity to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in isolated human saphenous vein (SV), as a vascular conduit in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), harvested from patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and non-DM (NDM). Vascular rings of endothelium-denuded SV were used for functional and biochemical experiments. The vasoconstrictions caused by 5-HT were significantly greater (hyperreactivity) in the DM group than in the NDM group. RhoA/ROCK pathway is activated by various G-protein-coupled receptor agonists and consequently induces phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1), a subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP), which inhibits MLCP activity. In the resting state of the vessels, total tissue protein levels of 5-HT(2A) receptor, 5-HT(1B) receptor, RhoA, ROCK1, and ROCK2 did not differ between NDM and DM groups. However, the total protein level of MYPT1 was significantly lower in the DM group than in the NDM group. Furthermore, the ratio of P(Thr(696))-MYPT1 to total MYPT1 was significantly higher in the DM group than in the NDM group. These results suggest that the hyperreactivity to 5-HT in the SV smooth muscle of patients with DM is due to not only enhanced phosphorylation of MLCP but also defective protein level of MLCP. Thus, we reveal for the first time that the defective protein level of MLCP in the DM group can partially explain the poor patency of SV graft harvested from patients with DM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interactions between the Leucine-zipper Motif of cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase and the C-terminal Region of the Targeting Subunit of Myosin Light Chain Phosphatase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunhee; Hayes, David B.; Langsetmo, Knut; Sundberg, Eric J.; Tao, Terence C.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Nitric oxide induces vasodilation by elevating the production of cGMP, an activator of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). PKG subsequently causes smooth muscle relaxation in part via activation of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). To date, the interaction between PKG and the targeting subunit of MLCP (MYPT1) is not fully understood. Earlier studies by one group of workers showed that the binding of PKG to MYPT1 is mediated by the leucine-zipper motifs at the N- and C-termini, respectively, of the two proteins. Another group, however, reported that binding of PKG to MYPT1 did not require the leucine-zipper motif of MYPT1. In this work we fully characterized the interaction between PKG and MYPT1 using biophysical techniques. For this purpose we constructed a recombinant PKG peptide corresponding to a predicted coiled coil region that contains the leucine-zipper motif. We further constructed various C-terminal MYPT1 peptides bearing various combinations of a predicted coiled coil region, extensions preceding this coiled coil region, and the leucine-zipper motif. Our results show, firstly, that while the leucine-zipper motif at the N-terminus of PKG forms a homodimeric coiled coil, the one at the C-terminus of MYPT1 is monomeric and non-helical. Secondly, the leucine-zipper motif of PKG binds to that of MYPT1 to form a heterodimer. Thirdly, when the leucine-zipper motif of MYPT1 is absent, the PKG leucine-zipper motif binds to the coiled coil region and upstream segments of MYPT1 via formation of a heterotetramer. These results provide rationalization of some of the findings by others using alternative binding analyses. PMID:17904578

  2. Supply chain dynamics in healthcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Cherian; Gonapa, Kasiviswanadh; Chaudhary, P K; Mishra, Ananya

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse health service supply chain systems. A great deal of literature is available on supply chain management in finished goods inventory situations; however, little research exists on managing service capacity when finished goods inventories are absent. System dynamics models for a typical service-oriented supply chain such as healthcare processes are developed, wherein three service stages are presented sequentially. Just like supply chains with finished goods inventory, healthcare service supply chains also show dynamic behaviour. Comparing options, service reduction, and capacity adjustment delays showed that reducing capacity adjustment and service delays gives better results. The study is confined to health service-oriented supply chains. Further work includes extending the study to service-oriented supply chains with parallel processing, i.e. having more than one stage to perform a similar operation and also to study the behaviour in service-oriented supply chains that have re-entrant orders and applications. Specific case studies can also be developed to reveal factors relevant to particular service-oriented supply chains. The paper explains the bullwhip effect in healthcare service-oriented supply chains. Reducing stages and capacity adjustment are strategic options for service-oriented supply chains. The paper throws light on policy options for managing healthcare service-oriented supply chain dynamics.

  3. Ammonia-treated N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride as a novel matrix for rapid quantitative and qualitative determination of serum free fatty acids by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yaping [Department of Biophysics and Structural Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, 5 Dongdan San Tiao, Beijing 100005 (China); Wang, Yanmin [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Heze Municipal Hospital, Shandong (China); Guo, Shuai; Guo, Yumei; Liu, Hui [Department of Biophysics and Structural Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, 5 Dongdan San Tiao, Beijing 100005 (China); Li, Zhili, E-mail: lizhili@ibms.pumc.edu.cn [Department of Biophysics and Structural Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, 5 Dongdan San Tiao, Beijing 100005 (China)

    2013-09-10

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A novel MALDI matrix for the detection of serum free fatty acids is ammonia-treated N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride. •Multiple point internal standard calibration curves were constructed for nine FFAs, respectively, with excellent correlation coefficients between 0.991 and 0.999. •The MALDI-MS approach was used to rapidly differentiate the patients with and without hyperglycemia and healthy controls. -- Abstract: The blood free fatty acids (FFAs), which provide energy to the cell and act as substrates in the synthesis of fats, lipoproteins, liposaccharides, and eicosanoids, involve in a number of important physiological processes. In the present study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICR MS) with ammonia-treated N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (ATNEDC) as a novel MALDI matrix in a negative ion mode was employed to directly quantify serum FFAs. Multiple point internal standard calibration curves between the concentration ratios of individual fatty acids to internal standard (IS, C{sub 17:0}) versus their corresponding intensity ratios were constructed for C{sub 14:0}, C{sub 16:1}, C{sub 16:0}, C{sub 18:0}, C{sub 18:1}, C{sub 18:2}, C{sub 18:3}, C{sub 20:4}, and C{sub 22:6}, respectively, in their mixture, with correlation coefficients between 0.991 and 0.999 and limits of detection (LODs) between 0.2 and 5.4 μM, along with the linear dynamic range of more than two orders of magnitude. The results indicate that the multiple point internal standard calibration could reduce the impact of ion suppression and improve quantification accuracy in the MALDI mode. The quantitative results of nine FFAs from 339 serum samples, including 161 healthy controls, 118 patients with hyperglycemia and 60 patients without hyperglycemia show that FFAs levels in hyperglycemic patient sera are significantly higher than those in healthy

  4. Calculating light & lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Lighting in a greenhouse is surrounded by questions. How much light to supply and when?. What intensity and light sum to aim for? Is it radiation, light growlight, PAR, photons or quanta? How much is joule, watt, lux?. What does wavelength, nanometer, spectrum, UV, IR and NIR mean?

  5. Marginal AMP chain graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new family of models that is based on graphs that may have undirected, directed and bidirected edges. We name these new models marginal AMP (MAMP) chain graphs because each of them is Markov equivalent to some AMP chain graph under marginalization of some of its nodes. However, MAMP chain graphs do not only subsume AMP chain graphs but also multivariate regression chain graphs. We describe global and pairwise Markov properties for MAMP chain graphs and prove their equivalence for...

  6. Human umbilical cord stem cell conditioned medium versus serum-free culture medium in the treatment of cryopreserved human ovarian tissues in in-vitro culture: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yingxian; Shi, Xiaohan; Xie, Yidong; Xie, Xiaochuan; Wang, Yan; Li, Shangwei

    2017-06-24

    To reduce young female fertility loss, the in-vitro culture of cryopreserved ovarian cortical tissues (OCTs) is considered an effective approach without delaying treatment and undergoing stimulation medicine. However, ischemic damage and follicular loss during the in-vitro culture of OCTs are major technical challenges. Human umbilical cord stem cells (HUMSCs) and their conditioned medium (HUMSC-CM) have been considered to be potential resources for regeneration medicine because they secrete cytokines and enhance cell survival and function. The aim of this study was to determine whether HUMSC-CM improves the development of frozen-thawed in-vitro cultured ovarian tissues compared with a serum-free culture medium (SF-CM). The thawed OCTs (n = 68) were cultivated in HUMSC-CM and SF-CM in vitro for 8 days, and the ovarian tissues were processed and analyzed by a classical histological evaluation. The microvessel density (MVD) and apotosis detection during in-vitro culture of OCTs were also performed. A significant difference in the rate of morphologically normal primordial follicles in the HUMSC-CM group was observed compared to that in the SF-CM group (group C) from days 2 to 4 (day 2: group B 58.0 ± 2.45% vs group C 32.0 ± 5.83%, p = 0.002; day 3: group B 55.5 ± 4.20% vs group C 21.0 ± 9.80%, p = 0.048; day 4: group B 52.0 ± 4.08% vs group C 21.5 ± 8.19%, p = 0.019). The microvessel density (MVD) detection showed a time-dependent increase and peaked on day 4. There was a significant difference between groups B (49.33 ± 0.58) and C (24.33 ± 3.79) (p = 0.036). The percentage of apoptotic follicles in group B was lower than that in group C on day 1 (13.75 ± 2.50% vs 27.0 ± 10.10%, p = 0.003), day 5 (11.75 ± 1.50% vs 51.0 ± 10.5%, p = 0.019) and day 7 (15.0 ± 5.10% vs 46.5 ± 21.75%, p = 0.018). These data have provided the first experimental evidence of the effect of

  7. Logistic chain modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slats, P.A.; Bhola, B.; Evers, J.J.M.; Dijkhuizen, G.

    1995-01-01

    Logistic chain modelling is very important in improving the overall performance of the total logistic chain. Logistic models provide support for a large range of applications, such as analysing bottlenecks, improving customer service, configuring new logistic chains and adapting existing chains to

  8. Health supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors.

  9. Chains and identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article is available in English and DutchGuidelines are presented to cope with identity problems in chains. A chain is a collaboration of a great number of autonomous organisations and professionals to tackle a dominant chain problem. In many chains identity fraud is an aspect of the dominant

  10. Silicone chain extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a silicone chain extender, more particularly a chain extender for silicone polymers and copolymers, to a chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer and to a functionalized chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer, to a method for the preparation thereof...

  11. Single chain Fab (scFab fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenneis Mariam

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The connection of the variable part of the heavy chain (VH and and the variable part of the light chain (VL by a peptide linker to form a consecutive polypeptide chain (single chain antibody, scFv was a breakthrough for the functional production of antibody fragments in Escherichia coli. Being double the size of fragment variable (Fv fragments and requiring assembly of two independent polypeptide chains, functional Fab fragments are usually produced with significantly lower yields in E. coli. An antibody design combining stability and assay compatibility of the fragment antigen binding (Fab with high level bacterial expression of single chain Fv fragments would be desirable. The desired antibody fragment should be both suitable for expression as soluble antibody in E. coli and antibody phage display. Results Here, we demonstrate that the introduction of a polypeptide linker between the fragment difficult (Fd and the light chain (LC, resulting in the formation of a single chain Fab fragment (scFab, can lead to improved production of functional molecules. We tested the impact of various linker designs and modifications of the constant regions on both phage display efficiency and the yield of soluble antibody fragments. A scFab variant without cysteins (scFabΔC connecting the constant part 1 of the heavy chain (CH1 and the constant part of the light chain (CL were best suited for phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. Beside the expression system E. coli, the new antibody format was also expressed in Pichia pastoris. Monovalent and divalent fragments (DiFabodies as well as multimers were characterised. Conclusion A new antibody design offers the generation of bivalent Fab derivates for antibody phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. This antibody format is of particular value for high throughput proteome binder generation projects, due to the avidity effect and the possible use of

  12. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how...... to implement TBL goals across the supply chain. In supply chain design, the classic economic perspective still dominates, although the idea of the TBL is more widely disseminated. The purpose of this research is to add to the sustainable supply chain management literature (SSCM) research agenda...... by incorporating the physical chain, and the (information and financial) support chains into supply chain design. This manuscript tackles issues of what the chains are designed for and how they are designed structurally. Four sustainable businesses are used as illustrative case examples of innovative supply chain...

  13. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Two-coordinate control of the radiation pattern of a chemical non-chain electric-discharge DF laser by using space—time light modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V. N.; Kotylev, V. N.; Liber, V. I.

    2008-07-01

    The results of studies of radiation parameters of a chemical non-chain DF laser (emitting in the range from 3.5 to 4.1 μm) with an intracavity control of the radiation pattern with the help of spatiotemporal modulators based on PLZT electrooptic ceramics are presented.

  14. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  15. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed...

  16. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Aidonis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 3rd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on Athens Metropolitan Expo, November 7 & 8 2015, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics Technological Educational Institute of Central Macedonia, in collaboration with the: a Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH, b Greek Association of Supply Chain Management (EEL of Northern Greece and the c Supply Chain & Logistics Journal. During the 2-Days Conference more than 60 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Transportation, (ii Best Practices in Logistics, (iii Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, (iv Food Logistics, (v New Trends in Business Logistics, and (vi Green Supply Chain Management. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Operational Research, the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  17. Understanding the Chain Fountain

    CERN Document Server

    Biggins, John Simeon

    2013-01-01

    If a chain is initially at rest in a beaker at a height h1 above the ground, and the end of the chain is pulled over the rim of the beaker and down towards the ground and then released, the chain will spontaneously "flow" out of the beaker under gravity. Furthermore, if h1 is sufficient, the beads do not simply drag over the edge of the beaker but form a fountain reaching a height h2 above it. We show that the formation of a fountain requires that the beads come into motion not only by being pulled upwards by the part of the chain immediately above the pile, but also by being pushed upwards by an anomalous reaction force from the pile of stationary chain. We propose possible origins for this force, argue that its magnitude will be proportional to the square of the chain velocity, and predict and verify experimentally that h2 is proportional to h1.

  18. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  19. Stability of llama heavy chain antibody fragments under extreme conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolk, E.

    2004-01-01

    Camelids have next to their normal antibodies, a unique subset of antibodies lacking light chains. The resulting single binding domain, VHH, of these heavy chain antibodies consequently have unique properties. A high stability is one of these properties, which was investigated in this thesis. The

  20. Physicochemical characterisation of rVIII-SingleChain, a novel recombinant single-chain factor VIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidbauer, Stefan; Witzel, Reinhild; Robbel, Lars; Sebastian, Petra; Grammel, Nicolas; Metzner, Hubert J; Schulte, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    rVIII-SingleChain is a novel recombinant single-chain factor VIII (FVIII) construct, comprising covalently bonded heavy and light chains. Post-translational modifications of FVIII affect physicochemical parameters, including hydrophobicity and charge. The most relevant post-translational modifications of FVIII products are N-glycosylation of asparagine residues and tyrosine sulphations. Here, the physicochemical properties, thrombin cleavage products and post-translational modifications of rVIII-SingleChain were investigated and compared against commercially available recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) products with a predominant two-chain structure (B-domain deleted rFVIII and full-length rFVIII). rVIII-SingleChain was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and purified by chromatographic methods. Physicochemical properties of rVIII-SingleChain or thrombin-derived cleavage products were assessed using size-exclusion chromatography, reversed-phase chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the respective carbohydrate structures was performed after release of N-glycans by PNGase F followed by fluorescence labelling and high-performance liquid chromatography. Proteolysis by trypsin generated the corresponding peptides, which were analysed for sulphated tyrosines by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation time of flight-mass spectrometry. rVIII-SingleChain was shown to be of high purity and homogeneity, and presented a well-defined single-chain molecule with predominant β-sheet conformation. The coagulation-relevant thrombin-activation products of rVIII-SingleChain were comparable with those obtained by activation of commercially available rFVIII products. rVIII-SingleChain post-translational modifications were similar to other CHO cell-derived rFVIII products for N-glycopattern and tyrosine sulphation. In conclusion, rVIII-SingleChain is of high homogeneity and purity, and provides an expected cleavage pattern on

  1. Failures of chain systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, A

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Chains are used for various purposes in a wide range of industries. This paper describes three case studies where a failure analysis was carried out on chains used in markedly different applications namely: a furnace health, a drilling rig for rock...

  2. Value Chain Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2015-01-01

    This workbook is recommended for the attention of students of and managers in Danish small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Danish SMEs are currently facing a number of key challenges related to their position in global value chains. This book provides an insight into value chain management...

  3. Shared Value Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy L.

    In Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) research still the classic economic perspective is the dominating perspective, although the triple bottom line (including economic, social and ecological) is well accepted. The theoretical foundation for the paper is Stakeholder Theory. Case studies...... in local communities, fundamentally changing supply chains....

  4. Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Handfield, Robert B.

    Supply chain management has made great strides in becoming a discipline with a standalone body of theories. As part of this evolution, researchers have sought to embed and integrate observed supply chain management phenomena into theoretical statements. In our review, we explore where we have been...

  5. REVERSE SUPPLY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz DOMAGAŁA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the presentation of the reverse supply chain, of which the role in the modern business grows along with the increasing number of environmental regulations and possibilities of reducing an operating cost. The paper also describes main problems in developing the profitable chain and possibilities to take an action in order to overcome them.

  6. Precast Pearl-Chain concrete arch bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    A Pearl-Chain Bridge is a closed-spandrel arch bridge consisting of a number of straight pre-fabricated so called Super-Light Deck elements put together in an arch shape by post-tensioning cables. Several Pearl-Chain arches can be positioned adjacent to each other by a crane to achieve a bridge...... the technology was used. We also study other important components and details in the Pearl-Chain Bridge concept and review the effects of different types of loads. A theoretical case study of a circular 30 m span Pearl-Chain Bridge is presented showing the influence of a number of parameters: The number of post......-tensioning cables, the rise to span ratio, the height of the filling, and the height of the Super-Light Decks. We find that Pearl-Chain Bridges can be adjusted to resist specific moment loads by changing the normal force in the arch cross section by altering the above parameters. It is also found that the negative...

  7. Ensuring Sustainability in Global Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Heike; Bals, Lydia

    Implementing sustainability into global value chains remains a challenge for companies. Purchasing and Supply Management (PSM) is one of the functions with most interaction towards the upstream supply chain network of the firm, thus influencing a substantial part of how its value creation...... is delivered. While previous sustainable PSM (SPSM) research has shed light on key elements such as stakeholder management on an organizational level, the individual level competences required to perform such tasks are much less understood. Therefore, a systematic literature review is conducted to determine...

  8. Periodic Traveling Waves in Diatomic Granular Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Matthew; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.

    2013-10-01

    We study bifurcations of periodic traveling waves in diatomic granular chains from the anti-continuum limit, when the mass ratio between the light and heavy beads is zero. We show that every limiting periodic wave is uniquely continued with respect to the mass ratio parameter, and the periodic waves with a wavelength larger than a certain critical value are spectrally stable. Numerical computations are developed to study how this solution family is continued to the limit of equal mass ratio between the beads, where periodic traveling waves of homogeneous granular chains exist.

  9. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  10. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  11. Project Decision Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; Pinto, Jeffrey K.; Falster, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To add value to project performance and help obtain project success, a new framework for decision making in projects is defined. It introduces the project decision chain inspired by the supply chain thinking in the manufacturing sector and uses three types of decisions: authorization, selection......, and plan decision. A primitive decision element is defined where all the three decision types can be accommodated. Each task in the primitive element can in itself contain subtasks that in turn will comprise new primitive elements. The primitive elements are nested together in a project decision chain....

  12. Global Value Chain Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Virginia; Pedersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on global value chain configuration, providing an overview of this topic. Specifically, we review the literature focusing on the concept of the global value chain and its activities, the decisions involved in its configuration, such as location, the governance...... modes chosen and the different ways of coordinating them. We also examine the outcomes of a global value chain configuration in terms of performance and upgrading. Our aim is to review the state of the art of these issues, identify research gaps and suggest new lines for future research that would...

  13. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  14. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light...

  15. Moldova - Value Chain Training

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation of the GHS value chain training subactivity wwas designed to measure the extent, if any, to which the training activities improved the productivity...

  16. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  17. Characterizing Oregon's supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In many regions throughout the world, freight models are used to aid infrastructure investment and : policy decisions. Since freight is such an integral part of efficient supply chains, more realistic : transportation models can be of greater assista...

  18. Writing on polymer chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Jean-François

    2013-11-19

    Synthetic polymer materials are currently limited by their inability to store information in their chains, unlike some well-characterized biopolymers. Nucleic acids store and transmit genetic information, and amino acids encode the complex tridimensional structures and functions within proteins. To confer similar properties on synthetic materials, researchers must develop"writing" mechanisms, facile chemical pathways that allow control over the primary structure of synthetic polymer chains. The most obvious way to control the primary structure is to connect monomer units one-by-one in a given order using iterative chemistry. Although such synthesis strategies are commonly used to produce peptides and nucleic acids, they produce limited yields and are much slower than natural polymerization mechanisms. An alternative strategy would be to use multiblock copolymers with blocks that have specified sequences. In this case, however, the basic storage element is not a single molecular unit, but a longer block composed of several repeating units. However, the synthesis of multiblock copolymers is long and tedious. Therefore, researchers will need to develop other strategies for writing information onto polymer chains. In this Account, I describe our recent progress in the development of sequence controlled polymerization methods. Although our research focuses on different strategies, we have emphasized sequence-regulation in chain-growth polymerization processes. Chain-growth polymerizations, particularly radical polymerization, are very convenient methods for synthesizing polymers. However, in most cases, such approaches do not lead to controlled monomer sequences. During the last five years, we have shown that controlled/living chain-growth polymerization mechanisms offer interesting advantages for sequence regulation. In such mechanisms, the chains form gradually over time, and therefore the primary structure can be tuned by using time-controlled monomer additions. For

  19. MASTERING SUPPLY CHAIN RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Jereb

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Risks in supply chains represent one of the major business issues today. Since every organizationstrives for success and uninterrupted operations, efficient supply chain risk management is crucial.During supply chain risk research at the Faculty of Logistics in Maribor (Slovenia some keyissues in the field were identified, the major being the lack of instruments which can make riskmanagement in an organization easier and more efficient. Consequently, a model which captures anddescribes risks in an organization and its supply chain was developed. It is in accordance with thegeneral risk management and supply chain security standards, the ISO 31000 and ISO 28000families. It also incorporates recent finding from the risk management field, especially from theviewpoint of segmenting of the public.The model described in this paper focuses on the risks itself by defining them by different keydimensions, so that risk management is simplified and can be undertaken in every supply chain andorganizations within them. Based on our mode and consequent practical research in actualorganizations, a freely accessible risk catalog has been assembled and published online from the risksthat have been identified so far. This catalog can serve as a checklist and a starting point in supplychain risk management in organizations. It also incorporates experts from the field into a community,in order to assemble an ever growing list of possible risks and to provide insight into the model andits value in practice.

  20. Innovation Across the Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druehl, Cheryl; Carrillo, Janice; Hsuan, Juliana

    Innovation is an integral part of every firm’s ongoing operations. Beyond product innovation, supply chain innovations offer a unique source of competitive advantage. We synthesize recent research on innovation in the supply chain, specifically, innovative supply chain processes...

  1. Characterizing chain-compact and chain-finite topological semilattices

    OpenAIRE

    Banakh, Taras; Bardyla, Serhii

    2017-01-01

    In the paper we present various characterizations of chain-compact and chain-finite topological semilattices. A topological semilattice $X$ is called chain-compact (resp. chain-finite) if each closed chain in $X$ is compact (finite). In particular, we prove that a (Hausdorff) $T_1$-topological semilattice $X$ is chain-finite (chain-compact) if and only if for any closed subsemilattice $Z\\subset X$ and any continuous homomorphism $h:X\\to Y$ to a (Hausdorff) $T_1$-topological semilattice $Y$ th...

  2. METRODOS: Meteorological preprocessor chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Deme, S.

    2001-01-01

    The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain combines measured tower data and coarse grid numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with local scale flow models and similarity scaling to give high resolution approximations of the meteorological situation. Based on available wind velocity and dire......The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain combines measured tower data and coarse grid numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with local scale flow models and similarity scaling to give high resolution approximations of the meteorological situation. Based on available wind velocity...... - heat flux related measurement, e.g. a temperature gradient, are used to give local values of friction velocity and Monin-Obukhov length plus an estimate of the mixing height. The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain is an integral part of the RODOS - Real Time On Line Decision Support - program...

  3. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale that evaluates the environmental elements in retail supply chains and to examine the environmental supply chain management initiatives of the world's largest 100 retailing companies. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical evaluation has...... been undertaken through an investigative approach applying a web-scan framework which included the analysis of web sites and publicly published documents such as annual reports and corporate social responsibility reports. Findings – The authors identified 34 environmental sustainability initiatives...... which were grouped into eight categories; they refer to “fundamental environmental attitude”, “use of energy”, “use of input material”, “product”, “packaging”, “transport”, “consumption” and “waste”. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very...

  4. Supply chain quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there are several methods introduced for the improvement of operational performances. Total quality management and supply chain management are two methods recommended for this purpose. These two approaches have been studied in most researches separately, while they have objectives in common, and this makes them a strategic means, which can be used, simultaneously. Total quality management and supply chain management play significant roles to increase the organizational competitiveness power. Moreover, they have only one purpose that is customer satisfaction, and they are different only on their approaches to reach their objectives. In this research, we aim to study both approaches of quality management and supply chain, their positive increasing effects that may be generated after their integration. For this purpose, the concept and definitions of each approach is studied, independently, their similarities and differences are recognized, and finally, the advantages of their integration are introduced.

  5. Chain Mixing and Chain Recurrent Iterated Function Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nia, Mehdi Fatehi

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the egodicity properties in iterated function systems. First, we will introduce chain mixing and chain transitive iterated function systems then some results and examples are presented to compare with these notions in discrete dynamical systems. As our main result, using adding machine maps and topological conjugacy we show that chain mixing, chain transitive and chain recurrence properties in iterated function systems are equivalent.

  6. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  7. Essentials of supply chain management

    CERN Document Server

    Hugos, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    The latest thinking, strategies, developments, and technologies to stay current in supply chain management Presenting the core concepts and techniques of supply chain management in a clear, concise and easily readable style, the Third Edition of Essentials of Supply Chain Management outlines the most crucial tenets and concepts of supply chain management.

  8. Light Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Light Robotics - Structure-Mediated Nanobiophotonics covers the latest means of sculpting of both light and matter for achieving bioprobing and manipulation at the smallest scales. The synergy between photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology spans the rapidly growing field of nanobiophotonics...

  9. Surgical lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Knulst, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The surgical light is an important tool for surgeons to create and maintain good visibility on the surgical task. Chapter 1 gives background to the field of (surgical) lighting and related terminology. Although the surgical light has been developed strongly since its introduction a long time ago, the last decades only minor developments have been made. This lack of significant development suggests that the current state of surgical lighting is perfectly developed and functions without any fla...

  10. Surgical lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knulst, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The surgical light is an important tool for surgeons to create and maintain good visibility on the surgical task. Chapter 1 gives background to the field of (surgical) lighting and related terminology. Although the surgical light has been developed strongly since its introduction a long time ago,

  11. Twisted light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Research at the Mathematical Optics Group uses "twisted" light to study new quatum-based information security systems. In order to understand the structure of "twisted" light, it is useful to start with an ordinary light beam with zero twist, namely...

  12. Global Supply Chain Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mary Jo Lamberti; Mary Costello; Kenneth Getz

    2012-01-01

    ... clinical supplies will be needed. Some clinical supply managers have been using just-in-time or on-demand packaging and labeling2 or regional depots to address changes in the clinical supply chain strategy or forecasting during a trial...

  13. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  14. Cryochemical chain reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkalov, I. M.; Kiryukhin, D. P.

    The possibility of a chemical reaction near absolute zero has appeared doubtful since the beginning of the 1970s. The existing ideas must be revised after the radiation polymerization of formaldehyde at 4.2 K has been observed. In glassy systems, we have examined chain processes that occur under sharp (by five to six orders) changes in molecular mobility of the medium in the region of matrix devitrification. Quite unusual mechano-energetic chains of chemical conversion arise in the studied systems submerged in liquid helium. The chemical transformation initiated by local brittle fracture travels over the sample as an autowave. A series of experimental and theoretical investigations devoted to this interesting phenomenon are described. There is no generalization in this new region of chemistry up to this time. Many journal articles and reviews have been previously published only in Russian. The cycles of investigations of chain cryochemical reactions are the subject of this review. We hope that the investigation of the extraordinary peculiarities of chain cryochemical reactions should produce new ideas in chemical theory and industry.

  15. Galileo Chain Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucke, C.; Schlichting, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    This relatively rare thermometer has a rather unusual display: lower temperatures are located at the top of the scale, higher ones at the bottom. A sphere on a chain floats in a suitable liquid, sinking at high temperatures when the density of the liquid decreases and rising in the increased density at low temperatures. With reasonable effort and…

  16. Supply Chain Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jürgen

    Die Produktionslogistik hat im Rahmen der Materialbeschaffung und der Belieferung von externen Kunden vielfältige Beziehungen zu Lieferanten und Kunden. Im Ansatz des Supply Chain Managements (Lieferkettenmanagement), kurz auch als SCM bezeichnet, versucht man, sowohl Lieferanten als auch Kunden in die gesamte Logistikplanung zu integrieren. SCM umfasst dabei vor allem folgende Aufgaben: Bedarfs- und Bestandsplanung der Materialien entlang der Lieferkette

  17. Innovation in Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Maximilian; Korbel, Jakob; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    . Moreover, along with the fourth industrial revolution – industry 4.0 – new technologies such as cyber physical systems are fast gaining popularity. Hence, based on the analysis of relevant literature, we further develop the supply chain committee model, developed by Kaluza et al. (2003) to demonstrate how...

  18. Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE. Markov Chain Monte Carlo. 1. ... Note that I have numbered only those squares that are. 'stable', 'i. e., do not have .... probability approaches 1 in the limit as t tends to infinity was obvious even without all this mathematics, since it is a common experience that all games of Ludo eventually end since.

  19. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  20. Economy, market and chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    In their pursuit of growth and professionalisation, the Dutch organic sector focuses primarily on market development. But how do you stimulate the market for organic foods? This is the subject of many research projects concerning market, consumer preferences and the supply chain. These projects

  1. Improved chain control operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In California, field maintenance personnel use turntable signs to advise motorists of chain control conditions on rural : highways and freeways. To do this an operator has to park, exit the vehicle, turn the sign on the shoulder and then : walk acros...

  2. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen...

  3. Supply Chain Costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Jesper Normann; Kristensen, Jesper; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    Based Costing (ABC) på et forsyningskædeniveau – heri benævnt Supply Chain Costing (SCC). Udoverdefordelederfindesved ABCtilføjerSCCogså et økonomisk grundlag til det strategiske rationale, der ofte ligger bag opbygningen af virksomhedens forsyningskæde, og kan dermed medvirke til konkret...

  4. Managing Supply Chain Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-09

    objectives, alternatives, and the resources (Hayes, Wheelwright , & Clark, 1988). Further, Hayes et al. relate that planning should lead the...Chain Management Review, 7(6), pp 64. Hayes, R., Wheelwright , S. C., & Clark, K. B. (1988). Dynamic Manufacturing: Creating the Learning

  5. Cauldron of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation In this animation, a seething cauldron of light appears to bubble and ooze around the remains of a giant star that astronomers have been watching tear itself apart for the last 300 years. This movie flips quickly between different observations taken over three years by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Beginning in the center, the well-studied Cassiopeia A supernova remnant is shown. Cassiopeia A is the remnant of a once massive star that died in a violent supernova explosion. It consists of a dead star, called a neutron star, and a surrounding shell of material that was blasted off as the star died. Panning outward, 'light echoes' create the illusion of motion in the clouds, as different areas of the material are lit up in succession by the light flash of the supernova. A light echo occurs when a star explodes, acting like a cosmic flashbulb. The light from this explosion zips through nearby dust clumps, illuminating and heating them up slightly. This brief period of warming causes them to glow in infrared, like a chain of Christmas bulbs lighting up one by one. The result is an optical illusion, in which the dust appears to be flying outward at the speed of light. In reality, the clouds are stationary, at least in the brief time over which these observations were taken. The inclination of the clouds cause some light echoes to appear to expand away from the supernova remnant, while others move towards it or boil in many directions with seeming turbulence.

  6. Standard handbook of chains chains for power transmission and material handling

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHAINEarly DevelopmentsCog ChainCast Detachable ChainCast Pintle ChainPrecision Roller ChainEngineering Steel ChainSilent ChainFlat-Top ChainTerminologyA CHAIN OVERVIEW: USES AND ADVANTAGESGeneralTypes of ChainScope of Chains CoveredStyles and Forms of ChainsStraight and Offset Link ChainsChains With and Without RollersUses of ChainStandard Chains and Their UsesThe Advantages of Chains in ApplicationsAdvantages of Roller Chains in DrivesAdvantages of Silent Chain Drives

  7. How to manage sustainable supply chain? The issue of maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Rudnicka

    2016-01-01

    Background: The issue of managing sustainability in supply chain seems to be more and more complex. There are many aspects that need to be taken into consideration when planning, implementing and monitoring environmental and social conditions of supply chains. Despite many works, already published, on the concept of sustainable development (SD) is seems that the issue of assessment and especially the issue of maturity in the light of the SD concept is still not developed enough. Method...

  8. Towards the Sustainable Supply Chain of the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Edward; PARK, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    A working definition of supply chain management (SCM) – the Four Fundamentals– was introduced in Chapter 1. This final chapter reflects on thisdefinition in the light of the detailed issues introduced in each subsequentchapter. It provides a framework for looking ahead and identifying anumber of key emerging challenges that are likely to play a significant rolein the design and management of the economically, socially and environmentallysustainable supply chain architectures of the future.

  9. Association between low serum free testosterone and adverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aging in normal men on bioavailable testosterone and luteinizing hormone secretion: response to clomiphene citrate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987;65:1118-1226. 22. Mitchell R, Hollis S, Rothwell C, et al. Age-related changes in the pituitary-testicular axis in normal men: lower serum testosterone results from ...

  10. The Association between Elevated Serum Free Fatty Acids in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gestational age > 37 weeks) registered to El Shatby Maternity University Hospital were ... total serum FFAs during the third trimester of pregnancy might be a predisposing factor for preterm delivery in non obese uncomplicated pregnant women.

  11. Force-Degradation Pattern of Six Different Orthodontic Elastomeric Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhashemi, AH.; Saffarshahroudi, A.; Sodagar, A.; Atai, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An ideal orthodontic force system should exert continuous light force. Thus, many efforts have been made to improve the memory characteristics of elastomeric chains. The aim of this study was to compare elastomeric chains (ECs) claimed by their manufacturers to offer high memory with traditional ones according to their force-extension diagrams. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, ECs were divided into six groups, each containing 40 pieces of chain, from three brands (American Orthodontics, GAC and Ortho-Technology). Each brand was divided into two groups with respect to their claimed characteristics (with or without memory). Each sample was stretched to twice its original length and kept constant in 37°C distilled water. Force-extension diagrams were drawn by universal testing machine at 0,1,8,24,72 hours and 1, 2, 4-week intervals. Additionally, the amounts of elongation required to deliver 200 g force were calculated. To compare the results, ANOVA and Tukey tests were performed. Results: Force-decay rate was significantly different between traditional and memory chains (pOrthodontics memory chains (61.9% after 24hr) and the minimum to Ortho-Technology ECs (23.4% initially). Conclusion: Memory chains exhibited superior mechanical properties compared to traditional ones. For delivering the same force, memory chains required more elongation. Memory chains of GAC and American Orthodontics showed better characteristics among all chains. PMID:23323182

  12. The design of supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge Sørensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Keywords Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Design, Literature studyAbstract Argues stability is a design objective for supply chain design alongside cost, leadtime and responsiveness. Performs an extensive literature study on supply chain design,identifies methods, theories and objectives...... in the existing literature. Describes the conceptexternal specificity and how it's used to design supply chains. Using the concept upstream,archetypes of risk minimal and maximal design are identified. Downstream the conceptdescribes two viable scenarios, one minimizing the impact, the other minimizing...... theprobability of (intended) departure of a supply chain partner. Finally, principles for supplychain design are described and managerial outlined....

  13. Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubi, Ebbe

    .e. by creating Focused Supply Chains. At the same time, customer satisfaction can be increased. As a second means to achieving a better fit between product and supply chain, the firm can deploy Design for Logistics, the discipline of considering the supply chain during product creation. The thesis sets out...... and supply chains should be created concurrently and integrated. The concept of Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation is introduced, and the two main components Focused Supply Chains and Design For Logistics are explained and exemplified by use of Bang & Olufsen....

  14. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration Supply Chain Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lettice, Fiona; Durowoju, Olatunde

    2012-01-01

    Effective supply chain integration, and the tight co-ordination it creates, is an essential pre-requisite for successful supply chain management.  Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration is a practical reference on recent research in the area of supply chain integration focusing on distributed decision-making problems. Recent applications of various decision-making tools for integrating supply chains are covered including chapters focusing on: •Supplier selection, pricing strategy and inventory decisions in multi-level supply chains, •RFID-enabled distributed decision-making, •Operational risk issues and time-critical decision-making for sensitive logistics nodes, Modelling end to end processes to improve supply chain integration, and •Integrated systems to improve service delivery and optimize resource use. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration provides an insight into the tools and methodologies of this field with support from real-life case studies demonstrating successful application ...

  15. Perioperative supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, N R; Keck, B R

    2000-09-01

    Faced with declining revenues and increasing operating expenses, hospitals are evaluating numerous mechanisms designed to reduce costs while simultaneously maintaining quality care. Many facilities have targeted initial cost reduction efforts in the reduction of labor expenses. Once labor expenses have been "right sized," facilities have continued to focus on service delivery improvements by the optimization of the "supply chain" process. This report presents a case study of the efforts of Vanderbilt University Medical Center in the redesign of its supply chain management process in the department of Perioperative Services. Utilizing a multidisciplinary project management structure, 3 work teams were established to complete the redesign process. To date, the project has reduced costs by $2.3 million and enhanced quality patient care by enhancing the delivery of appropriate clinical supplies during the perioperative experience.

  16. Extended linear chain compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Linear chain substances span a large cross section of contemporary chemistry ranging from covalent polymers, to organic charge transfer com­ plexes to nonstoichiometric transition metal coordination complexes. Their commonality, which coalesced intense interest in the theoretical and exper­ imental solid state physics/chemistry communities, was based on the obser­ vation that these inorganic and organic polymeric substrates exhibit striking metal-like electrical and optical properties. Exploitation and extension of these systems has led to the systematic study of both the chemistry and physics of highly and poorly conducting linear chain substances. To gain a salient understanding of these complex materials rich in anomalous aniso­ tropic electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, the conver­ gence of diverse skills and talents was required. The constructive blending of traditionally segregated disciplines such as synthetic and physical organic, inorganic, and polymer chemistry, crystallog...

  17. Development of new supply chains. Insights from Strategic Niche Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caniels, M.C.J. [Open University of the Netherlands OUNL, Faculty of Management Sciences MW, Heerlen (Netherlands); Van Eijck, J. [Diligent Tanzania, Moshi (Tanzania); Romijn, H.A. [Faculty of Technology Management, Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2007-02-15

    The extant supply chain literature devotes remarkably little attention to possible strategies and instruments of supply chain design associated with the development of radically new innovations. The main argument put forward in this paper is that an analytical framework derived from evolutionary innovation studies, Strategic Niche Management, is helpful for this purpose. The framework offers a set of concepts with which one can shed light on three key dynamic processes that have to form an integral part of the setting up of a new supply chain, namely networking, learning and the management of actor expectations. It also helps to understand how these processes are embedded into a wider societal context, which forms the setting within which supply chain design decisions have to be made. We illustrate these points with a case study about the setting up of a new supply chain in the biofuels sector in East Africa. Some implications for strategic managerial decision making are also addressed.

  18. Streamlining the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management.

  19. Supply chain finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasavica Petar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of supply chain finance is a response to global illiquidity, intensified through the global economic crisis and globalization of commercial and financial flows. The growing illiquidity undermines credit ratings of economic entities, thereby reducing the potential for achieving the projected goals (profitability and portfolio quality. In order to overcome this, banks have introduced certain products flexible to the requirements of specific transactions. The concerned products redirect the focus from a client's credit rating and risk to the credit rating and risk of a business partner (buyer, resulting in benefits for all transaction participants ('win-win-win'. Moreover, the activities are targeted at transaction analysis, i.e. the isolation and protection of the cash flow as the source of financial instrument's repayment. On the other hand, there has been an increasing number of transactions based on the risk of the commercial bank of the client's business partner, or on the risk of collateral (inventory. The focus is actually placed on the financing of adequate supply chain stages, given that counterparty relationship management has been proven to be crucial for efficient management of one's own business. The tensions existing in the relations between partners (increasingly long payment deadlines are in the basis of the supply chain finance concept. Decisions made by banks are based on the entire supply chain (wide information basis, thereby shifting the focus from the product (as was the case before the crisis to the client's needs. Thus, decisions become increasingly comprehensive, quicker, and more precise, and portfolios less risky. Through the individual portfolio of banks, the market of national economies also becomes safer and more liquid. These are rather profitable transactions, because, due to the risk transfer, financing is enabled to companies to whom classic crediting in most cases is not available.

  20. Supply Chain Initiatives Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-01

    The Supply Chain Initiatives Database (SCID) presents innovative approaches to engaging industrial suppliers in efforts to save energy, increase productivity and improve environmental performance. This comprehensive and freely-accessible database was developed by the Institute for Industrial Productivity (IIP). IIP acknowledges Ecofys for their valuable contributions. The database contains case studies searchable according to the types of activities buyers are undertaking to motivate suppliers, target sector, organization leading the initiative, and program or partnership linkages.

  1. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases......Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...

  2. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kongshaug, Jesper; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...... to be static, and no longer acts as a kind of spatial constancy maintaining stability and order? Moreover, what new potentials open in lighting design? This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research project entitled LED Lighting; Interdisciplinary LED Lighting Research...

  3. Port supply chain integration : analyzing biofuel supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Leonie C. E.; Vis, Iris F. A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on port supply chain integration to strengthen operational and business performance. We provide a structured and comprehensive method to enable port supply chain integration and demonstrate its applicability to the biofuel supply chain. We define the value proposition, role,

  4. Light cone matrix product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, Matthew B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {Delta} = 0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx} 22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the