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Sample records for serum urea total

  1. Comparative changes in monthly blood urea nitrogen, total protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the comparative changes in the monthly blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, total protein (TP) concentration in blood serum and the body condition score of Nguni cows and heifers raised on sweetveld. Twenty-four clinically healthy animals in different parities, namely Parity ...

  2. Serum urea and creatinine levels in Nigerian human malaria patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum urea and creatinine levels were determined in malaria patients infected with P. falciparum. Serum urea levels decreased significantly (P<0.05) in both mild (4.10 ±1.10 mmol/L) and moderate (4.40 ±1.40 mmol/L) parasitaemia when compared to control subjects (5.50 ±1.40 mmol/L). On the other hand, serum ...

  3. SERUM AND PAROTID FLUIS UREA-LEVELS IN UNREALOADED HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-four healthy young adult male subjects were given oral doses of urea, and parotid fluid and serum urea levels were studied for 1 to 3 hours. A...highly significant correlation between urea in serum and in parotid fluid (r equals 0.982) was found. The indication was that, with flow rate...carefully controlled, parotid fluid could be used interchangeably with serum in urea determination, regardless of the magnitude of the blood concentration. (Author)

  4. Association of serum uric acid with blood urea and serum creatinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.U.; Ahmad, Z.; Rehman, J.U.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hyperuricemia can cause serious health problems including renal insufficiency. Hyperuricemia is associated with many diseases including Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertriglyceridemia and Obesity. Objective of the present study was to study the Association of Serum Uric Acid with Blood Urea and Serum Creatinine. Methods: Eighty subjects, aged above 40, having blood urea more than 40 mg/dl and serum Creatinine more than 1.3 mg/dl were selected. 52.5 % subjects were male. Eighty subjects were selected as control group matching the age and sex with study group with normal blood urea and serum Creatinine. Results: Serum Uric Acid was found to be raised in 33 patients. Mean Serum Uric Acid value was 6.98+-2.021 in males (p<0.05) and 5.054+-2.324 in females (p<0.05). Conclusion: Serum Uric Acid is raised in patients with impaired renal function (p<0.05). Levels of increased Serum Uric Acid were not significantly associated with the cause of renal disease. (author)

  5. The elevated serum urea:creatinine ratio in canine babesiosis in South Africa is not of renal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Scally, M P; Leisewitz, A L; Lobetti, R G; Thompson, P N

    2006-12-01

    Pigmented serum, usually due to free haemoglobin and/or bilirubin, is a common finding in dogs with babesiosis, resulting in interference with all biochemical tests that rely on photochemistry. This is particularly true of urea and creatinine determinations, complicating the diagnosis of acute renal failure, which is a serious complication of babesiosis. A disproportionately raised serum urea concentration of unknown origin occurs in severely anaemic canine babesiosis patients and gives rise to an increased serum urea:creatinine ratio. The assay for cystatin-C, an excellent measure of glomerular filtration rate, is unaffected by free serum haemoglobin, and due to its different intrinsic origins, is free of influence by the metabolic derangements and organ pathology, other than renal disease, encountered in canine babesiosis. Serum cystatin-C was used to compare the concentrations of serum urea and serum creatinine in dogs with the severely anaemic form of canine babesiosis as well as a canine babesiosis-free reference group. Mean serum urea and mean serum urea:creatinine ratio were significantly elevated in the babesia-infected group relative to the reference population in this study. Mean serum creatinine and mean serum cystatin-C were within the reference ranges. Therefore an elevated urea:creatinine ratio in canine babesiosis in the presence of a normal serum creatinine concentration is considered to be caused by an elevated serum urea concentration and is most likely of non-renal origin. Serum creatinine was therefore as specific a measure of renal function as serum cystatin-C in canine babesiosis in this study. The sensitivity of serum creatinine as a measure of renal function was not established by this study. Serum urea, however, proved to be of little use compared to serum cystatin-C and serum creatinine. Serum urea should therefore not be used to diagnose renal failure in canine babesiosis.

  6. Urea-induced binding between diclofenac sodium and bovine serum albumin: a spectroscopic insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohare, Neeraj; Khan, Abbul Bashar; Athar, Fareeda; Thakur, Sonu Chand; Patel, Rajan

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the interaction of diclofenac sodium (Dic.Na) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the absence and presence of urea using different spectroscopic techniques. A fluorescence quenching study revealed that the Stern-Volmer quenching constant decreases in the presence of urea, decreasing further at higher urea concentrations. The binding constant and number of binding sites were also evaluated for the BSA-Dic.Na interaction system in the absence and presence of urea using a modified Stern-Volmer equation. The binding constant is greater at high urea concentrations, as shown by the fluorescence results. In addition, for the BSA-Dic.Na interaction system, a static quenching mechanism was observed, which was further confirmed using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. UV-vis spectroscopy provided information about the formation of a complex between BSA and Dic.Na. Circular dichroism was carried out to explain the conformational changes in BSA induced by Dic.Na in the absence and presence of urea. The presence of urea reduced the α-helical content of BSA as the Dic.Na concentration varied. The distance r between the donor (BSA) and acceptor (Dic.Na) was also obtained in the absence and presence of urea, using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium in emergency surgical patients in a tertiary hospital in Ghana. Robert Djagbletey, Brenda Phillips, Frank Boni, Christian Owoo, Ebenezer Owusu-Darkwa, Papa Kobina Gyakye deGraft-Johnson, Alfred E. Yawson ...

  8. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Total Cholesterol and Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most dangerous tropical diseases that complicates HIV infection in Nigeria to date. Over two million Nigerians are known to be infected with TB and many more are at risk of the infection. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol and total lipid of 117 female TB patients attending chest clinic at ...

  9. Can salivary creatinine and urea levels be used to diagnose chronic kidney disease in children as accurately as serum creatinine and urea levels? A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Rahime

    2017-11-01

    Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) develop many metabolic changes in blood that often necessitate frequent biochemical analysis. Serum analysis is an invasive and painful procedure. It would be highly beneficial if a noninvasive alternative process to serum analysis in children were identified. Saliva can be collected noninvasively, repeatedly, and without the use of healthcare personnel. The aims of this study were to compare serum and salivary urea and creatinine levels in children with CKD and healthy controls, and to determine if salivary creatinine and urea levels can be used to diagnose CKD in children as accurately as serum creatinine and urea levels. This case-control study included 35 children with CKD and 28 healthy children as controls. Saliva and blood samples were collected for measurement of urea and creatinine levels. The urea and creatinine levels in serum and saliva in the CKD and control groups were compared using the independent samples Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations between the serum and salivary urea and creatinine levels were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the diagnostic performance of salivary creatinine and cutoff values were identified. In the CKD group, the mean salivary creatinine level was 0.45 mg/dL and the mean salivary urea level was 0.11 mg/dL, versus 28.83 mg/dL and 21.78 mg/dL, respectively, in the control group. Stage 4 and 5 CKD patients had a mean salivary urea level of 31.35 mg/dL, as compared to 17.78 mg/dL in the control group. Serum urea and creatinine, and salivary creatinine were significantly higher in the CKD patients (regardless of disease stage) than in the controls (p creatinine. The area under the curve for salivary creatinine was 0.805. The cutoff value for salivary creatinine was 0.125 mg/dL, with a sensitivity of 82.9% and specificity of 78.6%. Based on the positive correlation between the serum and saliva

  10. Quantification of urea in serum by isotope dilution HPLC/MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwa Shim; Park, Sang Ryoul

    2005-01-01

    Urea in blood has been measured as an effective marker for diagnosis of renal function. Urea which is the end-product of nitrogen containing metabolites such as proteins is filtered through glomeruli of kidneys and then excreted as urine. If the renal function is deteriorated, the urea concentration in blood will be increased, from which the healthiness of renal function is judged. In order to improve the confidence of diagnosis results, the results must keep traceability chain to certified reference materials, which was certified by primary reference method. In this study, we proposed Isotope Dilution-Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (ID-LC/MS) as a candidate primary method, in which 15 N 2 -urea is used as an internal reference material. The developed method is highly accurate in principle and is convenient as it does not require cumbersome derivatization 0.1 mmol/L ammonium chloride was selected as a mobile phase for HPLC because it provide low interference in MS analysis of relatively low molecular weighted urea. HPLC and MS were connected with an ElectroSpry Ionization(ESI) interface of positive mode, which provided high sensitivity and reproducibility. The developed method was validated with internationally recognized reference materials, and we have obtained satisfactory results in an international ring trial. The expanded uncertainty calculated according to ISO guide was 1.8% at 95% confidence interval. The developed method is being used as a primary reference measurement method such as for certification of serum Certified Reference Materials (CRMs)

  11. Estimation of folate binding capacity (unsaturated and total) in normal human serum and in β-thalassaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulopoulos, S.; Mantzos, J.; Gyftaki, E.; Kesse-Elias, M.; Alevizou-Terzaki, V.; Souli-Tsimili, E.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the total serum folate binding capacity (TBC) after treating the serum with urea at pH5.5, the unsaturated serum folate binding capacity (UBC) being determined without treatment with urea. The method was applied to 50 normal controls and 20 patients with homozygous β-thalassaemia. The results show an increase in folate binding capacity after treating the serum with urea in all cases studied. There is no correlation between serum folic acid level and total or unsaturated folate binding capacity or per cent saturation. The method described is a simple and rapid one for screening the different groups studied for saturated and unsaturated specific folate-binding proteins. (author)

  12. GC-MS DETERMINATION OF RATIOS OF STABLE-ISOTOPE LABELED TO NATURAL UREA USING [(CN2)-C-13-N-15]UREA FOR STUDYING UREA KINETICS IN SERUM AND AS A MEANS TO VALIDATE ROUTINE METHODS FOR THE QUANTITATIVE ASSAY OF UREA IN DIALYSATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLTHERS, BG; TEPPER, T; WITHAG, A; NAGEL, GT; DEHAAN, THY; VANLEEUWEN, JJ; STEGEMAN, CA; HUISMAN, RM

    A GC-MS determination of urea in serum or spent dialysate is described, using (CN2)-C-13-N-15-labelled urea and assaying the area ratio of labelled to natural urea by mass fragmentographic monitoring of fragments m/e 153 and 156, after its eventual conversion into the trimethylsilylether-derivative

  13. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Blood Urea Nitrogen, and Serum Creatinine Can Predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wandong; Lin, Suhan; Zippi, Maddalena; Geng, Wujun; Stock, Simon; Zimmer, Vincent; Xu, Chunfang; Zhou, Mengtao

    2017-01-01

    Early prediction of disease severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) would be helpful for triaging patients to the appropriate level of care and intervention. The aim of the study was to develop a model able to predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 647 patients with AP were enrolled. The demographic data, hematocrit, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) determinant at time of admission, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (Scr) determinant at time of admission and 24 hrs after hospitalization were collected and analyzed statistically. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours (hrs) were independently associated with SAP. A logistic regression function (LR model) was developed to predict SAP as follows: -2.25-0.06 HDL-C (mg/dl) at admission + 0.06 BUN (mg/dl) at 24 hours + 0.66 Scr (mg/dl) at 24 hours. The optimism-corrected c-index for LR model was 0.832 after bootstrap validation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for LR model for the prediction of SAP was 0.84. The LR model consists of HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours, representing an additional tool to stratify patients at risk of SAP.

  14. Longitudinal Associations among Renal Urea Clearance-Corrected Normalized Protein Catabolic Rate, Serum Albumin, and Mortality in Patients on Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriguchi, Rieko; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Streja, Elani; Tortorici, Amanda R; Rhee, Connie M; Soohoo, Melissa; Kim, Taehee; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-07-07

    There are inconsistent reports on the association of dietary protein intake with serum albumin and outcomes among patients on hemodialysis. Using a new normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) variable accounting for residual renal urea clearance, we hypothesized that higher baseline nPCR and rise in nPCR would be associated with higher serum albumin and better survival among incident hemodialysis patients. Among 36,757 incident hemodialysis patients in a large United States dialysis organization, we examined baseline and change in renal urea clearance-corrected nPCR as a protein intake surrogate and modeled their associations with serum albumin and mortality over 5 years (1/2007-12/2011). Median nPCRs with and without accounting for renal urea clearance at baseline were 0.94 and 0.78 g/kg per day, respectively (median within-patient difference, 0.14 [interquartile range, 0.07-0.23] g/kg per day). During a median follow-up period of 1.4 years, 8481 deaths were observed. Baseline renal urea clearance-corrected nPCR was associated with higher serum albumin and lower mortality in the fully adjusted model ( P trend urea clearance-corrected nPCR during the first 6 months was also associated with attaining high serum albumin (≥3.8 g/dl) and lower mortality ( P trend urea clearance, higher levels of renal urea clearance-corrected nPCR consistently showed lower mortality risk. Among incident hemodialysis patients, higher dietary protein intake represented by nPCR and its changes over time appear to be associated with increased serum albumin levels and greater survival. nPCR may be underestimated when not accounting for renal urea clearance. Compared with the conventional nPCR, renal urea clearance-corrected nPCR may be a better marker of mortality. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. A coupled-enzyme equilibrium method for measuring urea in serum: optimization and evaluation of the AACC study group on urea candidate reference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, E J; Baird, M A; Burtis, C A; Smith, E M; Witte, D L; Bayse, D D

    1980-06-01

    We describe a coupled-enzyme equilibrium method for measuring urea in serum, which is performed on supernates prepared by treating each specimen with Ba(OH)2 and ZnSO4 (Somogyi reagent). Analytical recovery of [14C]urea added to a variety of matrices was essentially complete (mean, 100.6%) for the supernates after precipitation. Nine variables were univariately examined in arriving at the reaction conditions for the method: glutamate dehydrogenase, urease, 2-oxoglutarate, ADP, Tris . HCI, NADH, EDTA, pH, and temperature. The reagent is stable for at least 48 days at--20 degrees C and for 23 days at 4 degrees C. Mean analytical recovery of urea (14 mmol/L) added to seven different specimens (three different matrices) was 100.8%. The analytical linear range of the method extends to 30 mmol of urea per liter. Of 22 potential interferents, only bilirubin at 1 mmol/L (580 mg/L), hemoglobin at 10 g/L, and hydroxyurea at 6 mmol/L showed more than 2% interference. We discuss precision and effects of specimen dilution, and compare results for 100 human serum specimens with those measured for the same specimens with four other urea methods. We examined the effects of measuring a blank, consisting of sample and reagent without urease, with each specimen.

  16. Effects of polymer coated slow-release urea on ruminal fermentation and nutrient total tract digestion of beef steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gardinal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of polymer coated slow-release urea (SRU in high-forage diets of beef steers on nutrient intake and digestibility, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and energy balance. Eight 24-mo-old rumen-fistulated castrated Nellore steers (average body weight = 418.0±40.0 kg were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Animals were randomly distributed to receive one of the following diets: no urea inclusion; 1.0% inclusion of feed grade urea in the diet (dry matter [DM] basis; 1.0% inclusion of slow-release urea 1 in the diet (DM basis; and 1.0% inclusion of slow-release urea 2 in the diet (DM basis. Slow-release urea 2 had a similar composition to that of slow-release urea 1 and differed in that it contained 2.95% sulfur. A high-forage diet was provided (75% of total DM and corn silage was used as the forage source. Diets with urea had increased crude protein (CP intake, and CP and total digestible nutrients total tract digestion. Urea sources increased ruminal concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and acetate, and decreased butyrate concentrations. The polymer coated urea did not alter ruminal fermentation when compared with feed grade urea. Diets did not affect the energy balance of steers. Feed grade urea presented greater microbial protein synthesis than polymer coated slow-release urea. The partial replacement of soybean meal by 1% slow-release urea in a diet with 75% forage does not improve ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis, and shows similar results as feeding feed grade urea to beef steers.

  17. Urea recycling in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshiaki; Niibayashi, Tsunekazu

    1980-01-01

    The transfer of blood urea into the alimentary tract of goats, as ruminants, was studied by the use of 15 N-urea, 15 N-ammonium chloride and physiological experimental techniques. Blood urea after an intravenous injection of 15 N-urea appeared in the first rumen via two routes, the saliva (approximately 60% of the serum urea concentration) and idrect diffusion from the wall of the first rumen, both as the ammonium-form N. The serum urea levels from diets containing different protein levels were paralleled with the protein levels, the ammonium level in the first rumen being similar to that of the serum urea. The transfer of low protein into the NH 3 pool of the first rumen was 56% of the total NH 3 in the entire alimentary tract, and the quantitative ratio of salivary secretion of diffusion in the first rumen was 1:9. The transfer of high protein was 14% in the entire alimentary tract, and the ratio of saliva to diffusion in the first rumen was 6:1. Thus, when protein uptake was large, salivary secretion was the primary route to the first rumen. Approximately 50% of the entire quantity of blood urea in the alimentary tract appeared in the first rumen, and 35%, in the lower alimentary tract, primarily in the duodenum and jejunum. (Chiba, N.)

  18. Undernutrition and serum and urinary urea nitrogen of white-tailed deer during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1994-01-01

    Direct, practical means of assessing undernutrition in deer (Odocoileus spp.) and other ungulates during winter are needed in areas of research and management. We examined the relationship between mass loss and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine (U:C) in captive white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). During 4 February-5 May 1988, we maintained 7 adult white-tailed deer on various feeding regimes to simulate natural nutritional restriction during winter. Mass loss was greater (P = 0.037) in deer (17.0-32.2%) fed restricted amounts of a low protein low energy diet versus control deer (7.0-17.4%) fed the same diet ad libitum. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations did not differ (P = 0.191) between groups, but declined (P = 0.001) as nutrition declined. Slopes of percent mass lossSUN and urinary U:C relationships were positive (P = 0.008 and 0.055) in 7 and 6 deer, respectively. Mean U:C was directly related (r2 = 0.52, P = 0.040) to mean cumulative mass loss, whereas mean SUN was not (r2 = 0.29, P = 0.125). Data presented support the potential of urinary U:C as an index of winter nutritional condition of white-tailed deer; however, additional research is required to provide a complete understanding of this index's utility under field conditions.

  19. RENAL FUNCTION TEST ON THE BASIS OF SERUM CREATININE AND UREA IN TYPE-2 DIABETICS AND NONDIABETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type-2 diabetes mellitus has quickly become a global health problem due to rapidly increasing population growth, aging, urbanization and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major causes of chronic renal failure. Both serum urea and creatinine are widely used to assess the function of kidney. This study was conducted to observe the impaired renal function in type 2 diabetics and compare with non-diabetics controls. Method: To determine the incidence of renal dysfunction in diabetics in Nepalgunj medical college and Hospital , Nepalgunj , Banke, Nepal , blood samples from 100 diabetic subjects and 100 non-diabetic controls were taken between the period 1st February  , 2012  to  31st January , 2013 for investigation of  plasma glucose fasting(FPG, blood urea and serum creatinine. These biochemical parameters were determined by using a fully automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: Our findings showed that the level of blood urea (P<0.0001, 95%Cl and serum creatinine (P≈0.0004,95%Cl were significantly higher in type 2 diabetics as compared to non-diabetics in both male and female. There was no significant difference between diabetic male and female. 15 out of 100 diabetes samples have high urea level whereas 7 out of 100 had increased creatinine level. In control only 3 samples had high urea value and 1 had high creatinine level. There was statistical significant increased in urea level with increased in blood sugar level. Conclusion: Blood urea and creatinine is widely accepted to assess the renal functions. Good control of blood glucose level is absolute requirement to prevent progressive renal impairment.

  20. Protein Losses and Urea Nitrogen Underestimate Total Nitrogen Losses in Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salame, Clara; Eaton, Simon; Grimble, George; Davenport, Andrew

    2018-04-28

    Muscle wasting is associated with increased mortality and is commonly reported in dialysis patients. Hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatments lead to protein losses in effluent dialysate. We wished to determine whether changes in current dialysis practice had increased therapy-associated nitrogen losses. Cross-sectional cohort study. Measurement of total protein, urea and total nitrogen in effluent dialysate from 24-hour collections from PD patients, and during haemodiafiltration (HDF) and haemodialysis (HD) sessions. One hundred eight adult dialysis patients. Peritoneal dialysis, high-flux haemodialysis and haemodiafiltration. Total nitrogen and protein losses. Dialysate protein losses were measured in 68 PD and 40 HD patients. Sessional losses of urea (13.9 [9.2-21.1] vs. 4.8 [2.8-7.8] g); protein (8.6 [7.2-11.1] vs. 6.7 [3.9-11.1] g); and nitrogen (11.5 [8.7-17.7] vs. 4.9 [2.6-9.5] g) were all greater for HD than PD, P losses were lower with HD 25.9 (21.5-33.4) versus 46.6 (27-77.6) g/week, but nitrogen losses were similar. We found no difference between high-flux HD and HDF: urea (13.5 [8.8-20.6] vs. 15.3 [10.5-25.5] g); protein (8.8 [7.3-12.2] vs. 7.6 [5.8-9.0] g); and total nitrogen (11.6 [8.3-17.3] vs. 10.8 [8.9-22.5] g). Urea nitrogen (UN) only accounted for 45.1 (38.3-51.0)% PD and 63.0 (55.3-62.4)% HD of total nitrogen losses. Although sessional losses of protein and UN were greater with HD, weekly losses were similar between modalities. We found no differences between HD and HDF. However, total nitrogen losses were much greater than the combination of protein and UN, suggesting greater nutritional losses with dialysis than previously reported. Copyright © 2018 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reference Ranges of Serum Blood Urea Nitrogen, Creatinine Concentration and Ultrasonographic Measurement of the Kidneys in Term Healthy Newborns in the Neonatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şebnem Kader

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute kidney injury is an important problem in neonates. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study to determine normal serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine reference ranges and ranges of ultrasonographic measurement of kidneys in healthy term newborns. Study Design: Blood samples were collected from total 357 healthy newborns at birth (n=45, 1st (n=30, 3rd (n=61, 7th (n=34, 10th (n=132, 14th (n=36, and 28th (n=19 days of life. Renal ultrasonographic was performed by the same two radiologists on 81 newborns aged 10 days. Results: Serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations have reached to the highest level at the first day of life and have returned to cord level at the third day of life. There were gradually decrease in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels after the first day of life. There were significant difference in both right and left renal length, width, and volumes in terms of gender and these parameters were statistically higher in boys than girls (p<0.05. Birth weight of the boys (3548±539g was statistically higher than girls (3307±405 g (p=0.028. There was a positive correlation between birth weight and right (r=0.38, p=0.000 and left kidney volumes (r=0.44, p=0.000. Conclusion: Our findings showed that measured blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels changed in accordance with postnatal days and there was a positive correlation between kidney volume and birth weight of newborns. We concluded that these findings are important for evaluation of acute kidney injury and for screening of for urinary tract anomalies in neonates

  2. Changes in the level of urea, creatine and creatinine in the liver and serum of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Kashef, H.S.; Saada, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    This study aims to compare between the susceptibility of two tissues (liver and serum) toγ-radiation with respect to some protein end-products; namely urea, creatine and creatinine. The results indicated that in control rat liver, the concentration of urea, creatine and creatinine ranged between 262-266, 106-108 and 18.86-19.48 μg/g fresh tissue, respectively. In blood serum, the concentration of these end-products were 327-383, 94-97 and 12.36-12.51μg/ml blood serum. Whole body -irradiation at dose 5.5 Gy caused significant changes in the levels of both urea and creatine in the blood serum on the 7th and 14th post irradiation days, while the level of creatinine was not altered. As for the liver of whole body γ -irradiated rats, significant changes were observed in the content of urea at the all post-irradiation days except at the 3 rd day. The creatinine content of the liver was significantly decreased on the 3 rd, 14th and 21st days after irradiation. Similar decrease was noticed in the content of creatine, but on the 7th day, significant increase was observed. The variation in the studied parameters started early in the liver and lated longer, but it started later and lasted shorter in the serum of irradiated rats. It could be suggested that the liver of irradiated rats is more sensitive to the radiation dose 5.5 Gy than the blood.1 fig.,2 tab

  3. Estimating the concentration of urea and creatinine in the human serum of normal and dialysis patients through Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Silveira, Landulfo

    2016-09-01

    Urea and creatinine are commonly used as biomarkers of renal function. Abnormal concentrations of these biomarkers are indicative of pathological processes such as renal failure. This study aimed to develop a model based on Raman spectroscopy to estimate the concentration values of urea and creatinine in human serum. Blood sera from 55 clinically normal subjects and 47 patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis were collected, and concentrations of urea and creatinine were determined by spectrophotometric methods. A Raman spectrum was obtained with a high-resolution dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm). A spectral model was developed based on partial least squares (PLS), where the concentrations of urea and creatinine were correlated with the Raman features. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to discriminate dialysis patients from normal subjects. The PLS model showed r = 0.97 and r = 0.93 for urea and creatinine, respectively. The root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) for the model were 17.6 and 1.94 mg/dL, respectively. PCA showed high discrimination between dialysis and normality (95 % accuracy). The Raman technique was able to determine the concentrations with low error and to discriminate dialysis from normal subjects, consistent with a rapid and low-cost test.

  4. Increased serum urea to creatinine ratio and its negative correlation with arterial pressure in canine babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga

    2014-09-01

    The increase of the serum urea to creatinine ratio (UCR) was observed in dogs infected with Babesia canis. Previous studies have suggested that decrease of blood pressure can be one of the reasons for this phenomenon. In this work statistically significant increase of the UCR was observed in dogs with babesiosis. Comparison of the UCR between 23 azotaemic dogs and 25 non-azotaemic dogs infected with Babesia canis showed statistically significantly higher mean of the UCR in azotaemic dogs. Correlations between UCR and systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP and MAP) in 48 dogs infected with B. canis were negative (UCR and SAP: r = -0.3909; UCR and DAP: r = -0.3182; UCR and MAP: r = -0.3682) and statistically significant (p high, and there was no statistically significant correlation between UCR and arterial pressures in azotaemic dogs. Thus, it seems that decrease of blood pressure in dogs with babesiosis explains only partially the cause of increased UCR in infected dogs. The other authors suggested hyperureagenesis and myocardial injury as a potential reason for the increased UCR in canine babesiosis. Thus, further studies are needed to determine causes of increased UCR in dogs with babesiosis, especially on the connection between UCR changes and the concentrations of plasma cardiac troponins and ammonia, and the occurrence of occult blood on fecal examination.

  5. Urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate spaces and their relationship to total body water during chronic hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, F.; Odar-Cederloef, I.E.; Eriksson, C.G.; Lindgren, S.; Kjellstrand, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors determined total body water (TBW) with tritium in 11 patients on chronic hemodialysis and compared this space to that estimated by 60% of body weight, and removal spaces of urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate (PO 4 ). The latter spaces were determined by dividing the total amount of substance (measured in total dialysate) by pre- minus post-dialysis concentrations. Body water X 0.6 was more than 10% less than the tritium space, and showed a maximal variation of 10 liters, or 24%. The removal space of urea was 80% of the tritium space, but correlated closely with it. The difference between total body water and urea removal space was variable and dependent on fluid excess (edema) in the patients. Creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate removal spaces were highly variable and not correlated to total body water. The authors suggest that actual measured TBW should be used, rather than estimations using BW X 0.6, for V in K X T/V, where K = clearance, T = duration of dialysis, and V = the removal space of urea. Furthermore, one may need to introduce a correction factor for urea removal space over TBW in the equation to allow better quantification of dialysis in edematous patients and during very fast dialyses

  6. Effects of urea, metal ions and surfactants on the binding of baicalein with bovine serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanu Singha Roy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of baicalein with bovine serum albumin (BSA was investigated with the help of spectroscopic and molecular docking studies. The binding affinity of baicalein towards BSA was estimated to be in order of 105 M−1 from fluorescence quenching studies. Negative ΔH° (−5.66±0.14 kJ/mol and positive (ΔS° (+79.96±0.65 J/mol K indicate the presence of electrostatic interactions along with the hydrophobic forces that result in a positive ΔS°. The hydrophobic association of baicalein with BSA diminishes in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS due to probable hydrophobic association of baicalein with SDS, resulting in a negative ΔS° (−40.65±0.87 J/mol K. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight (MALDI--TOF experiments indicate a 1:1 complexation between baicalein and BSA. The unfolding and refolding phenomena of BSA were investigated in the absence and presence of baicalein using steady-state and fluorescence lifetime measurements. It was observed that the presence of urea ruptured the non-covalent interaction between baicalein and BSA. The presence of metal ions (Ag+, Mg2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Co2+and Zn2+ increased the binding affinity of ligand towards BSA. The changes in conformational aspects of BSA after ligand binding were also investigated using circular dichroism (CD and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. Site selectivity studies following molecular docking analyses indicated the binding of baicalein to site 1 (subdomain IIA of BSA.

  7. Ground Juniperus pinchotii and urea in supplements fed to Rambouillet ewe lambs: I. Feedlot growth traits, blood serum parameters, and fecal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, T R

    2017-08-01

    Ground woody products and urea are low-cost roughage and N sources. Rambouillet ewe lambs ( = 48, 6 lambs/treatment; initial BW = 42 kg ± 3.8) were used to evaluate effects of using ground (juniper) and urea in supplements on feedlot lamb growth traits, blood serum parameters, and fecal characteristics. In a randomized complete block design (40 d), lambs were individually fed an ad libitum basal sorghum-Sudangrass hay diet, which was fed separate from 1 of 8 supplemental diets (6 lambs/diet; 533 g of supplement/d, as-fed basis). Treatment structure was a 4 × 2 factorial: 4 concentrations of ground juniper (JN: 15%, 30%, 45%, or 60% of DM) and 2 concentrations of urea (UR: 1 or 3% of DM). Lamb growth traits were evaluated on d 0, 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, and 40; blood serum was evaluated on d 6 to 8, 20 to 22, and 34 (at h 3 and 6), and feces was evaluated on d 35. Compared to lambs fed all of the other treatments, lambs fed JN60UR1 or JN60UR3 had reduced supplement DMI (negative quadratic, = 0.007). Hay and total DMI were variable across day (JN × UR × day, 0.10). A JN × day interaction was detected ( 0.17) ADG and G:F. Lamb G:F fluctuated across day (JN × day, = 0.007), but the JN × day quadratic trend ( urea N quadratically increased ( urea N resulted from a greater decline from 3 to 6 h after feeding in lambs supplemented with UR1 vs. UR3. Increasing JN concentration tended to quadratically increase ( = 0.09) fecal DM and linearly decrease ( = 0.002) fecal N, but an effect due to dietary UR was not detected ( > 0.34). Results indicated that daily supplement DMI was restricted only by using JN60. However, a 60% JN-based supplement will not make an effective rangeland supplement for growing ewe lambs, and using 3% UR should not be considered, especially since daily UR intake was not restricted enough to be considered safe.

  8. Reduced total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Schieffer

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD results in increased oxidative stress that damages the colonic microenvironment. Low levels of serum bilirubin, an endogenous antioxidant, have been associated with increased risk for Crohn's disease (CD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC. We identified a retrospective case-control population (n = 6,649 from a single tertiary care center, Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSU and a validation cohort (n = 1,996 from Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center (VCU. Cases were age- and sex-matched to controls (PSU: CD n = 254, UC n = 187; VCU: CD n = 233, UC n = 124. Total serum bilirubin levels were obtained from de-identified medical records and segregated into quartiles. Logistic regression analysis was performed on each quartile of total serum bilirubin compared to the last quartile (highest bilirubin levels to determine the association of total serum bilirubin with UC. Similar to CD patients, UC patients demonstrated reduced levels of total serum bilirubin compared to controls at PSU and VCU. The lowest quartile of total serum bilirubin was independently associated with UC for the PSU (OR: 1.98 [95% CI: 1.09-3.63] and VCU cohorts (OR: 6.07 [95% CI: 3.01-12.75]. Lower levels of the antioxidant bilirubin may reduce the capability of UC patients to remove reactive oxygen species leading to an increase in intestinal injury. Therapeutics that reduce oxidative stress may be beneficial for these patients.

  9. False high level in total bilirubin estimation in nonicteric serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    estimation of total bilirubin by DiaSys and Randox reagents along with simultaneous re-estimation by Roche reagents in ... been used mainly due to slightly lower cost in ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... air-conditioned laboratory overnight. ..... Elevated IgG causing spurious elevation in serum total bilirubin assay. Asia.

  10. Determinants of urea nitrogen production in sepsis. Muscle catabolism, total parenteral nutrition, and hepatic clearance of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittiruti, M; Siegel, J H; Sganga, G; Coleman, B; Wiles, C E; Placko, R

    1989-03-01

    The major determinants of urea production were investigated in 26 patients with multiple trauma (300 studies). The body clearances (CLRs) of ten amino acids (AAs) were estimated as a ratio of muscle-released AAs plus total parenteral nutrition-infused AAs to their extracellular pool. While clinically septic trauma (ST) patients without multiple-organ failure syndrome (MOFS) had a higher level of urea nitrogen production (25.6 +/- 13.4 g of N per day) compared with nonseptic trauma (NST) patients (14 +/- 7.5 g of N per day) and with ST patients with MOFS (4.28 +/- 1.5 g of N per day), in all groups urea N production was found to be a function of muscle protein degradation (catabolism), total parenteral nutrition-administered AAs, and the ratio between leucine CLR and tyrosine CLR (L/T) (r2 = .82, P less than .0001). Since tyrosine is cleared almost exclusively by the liver, the L/T ratio may be regarded as an index of hepatic function. The significant differences between urea N production in ST and NST patients lay in an increased positive dependence on muscle catabolism and increased negative correlation with L/T in the ST group. At any L/T ratio, urea N production was increased in ST patients over NST patients, but in ST patients with MOFS, it fell to or below levels of NST patients. These data show that the ST process is associated with enhancement of ureagenesis, due to increased hepatic CLR of both exogenous and endogenous AAs. In sepsis with MOFS, a marked inhibition of urea synthesis occurs, partially explained by a decreased hepatic CLR of non-branched-chain AAs.

  11. The role of serum and urinary urea in the evaluation of enteral protein intake in adequate and small-for-gestational-age very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Darcie

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Very low birth weight (VLBW infants have special nutritional needs. There is a current tendency to individualize their protein needs. The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of serum and urinary urea as indicators for protein intake in adequate-for-gestational-age (AGA and small-for-gestational-age (SGA VLBW infants. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the nursery attached to the Maternity Ward of the "Prof. Pedro de Alcântara" Children's Institute, Hospital das Clínicas, Department of Pediatrics, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Seventy-two VLBW infants (mean protein intake = 3.7 mg/kg/day were enrolled in a prospective cohort study in two groups: AGA (n = 34 and SGA (n = 38. Blood samples, six-hour urine (6hUr collections and urine sample tests (STUr were obtained for urea and creatinine assays at three and five weeks of life. Statistical analysis: Student's t test, Pearson correlation and linear regression (p < 0.05. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups for serum urea, 6hUr and STUr, or between two assessments within each group. Serum urea correlated with 6hUr in both AGA and SGA, and to STUr in SGA; 6hUr correlated with STUr in both AGA and SGA. There was no correlation between protein intake and serum or urine urea. CONCLUSIONS: Serum and urinary urea did not reflect protein intake when mean intakes of 3.7 g/kg/day were used. Sample tests of urinary urea can be as reliable as urea from urine collected over longer periods.

  12. Refractometric total protein concentrations in icteric serum from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aradhana; Stockham, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether high serum bilirubin concentrations interfere with the measurement of serum total protein concentration by refractometry and to assess potential biases among refractometer measurements. Evaluation study. Sera from 2 healthy Greyhounds. Bilirubin was dissolved in 0.1M NaOH, and the resulting solution was mixed with sera from 2 dogs from which food had been withheld to achieve various bilirubin concentrations up to 40 mg/dL. Refractometric total protein concentrations were estimated with 3 clinical refractometers. A biochemical analyzer was used to measure biuret assay-based total protein and bilirubin concentrations with spectrophotometric assays. No interference with refractometric measurement of total protein concentrations was detected with bilirubin concentrations up to 41.5 mg/dL. Biases in refractometric total protein concentrations were detected and were related to the conversion of refractive index values to total protein concentrations. Hyperbilirubinemia did not interfere with the refractometric estimation of serum total protein concentration. The agreement among total protein concentrations estimated by 3 refractometers was dependent on the method of conversion of refractive index to total protein concentration and was independent of hyperbilirubinemia.

  13. Changes in serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron is a vital constituent of cells but in excess may be harmful and is associated with a raised risk for some malignant diseases including breast cancer. We aimed to study changes in iron profile in Sudanese females newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods: A case- control study in which serum iron, Total ...

  14. Serum total proteins and creatinine levels in experimental gambian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempt was therefore made to evaluate the effect of two strains of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense on total proteins and other serum biochemical parameters using vervet monkeys as a model. The outcome of both strains in vervet monkeys was traumatic as the monkeys died from infection 12 – 15 weeks post infection while ...

  15. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin levels in Trypanosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of orally administered Scoparia dulcis on Trypanosoma brucei-induced changes in serum total protein, albumin and globulin were investigated in rabbits over a period of twenty eight days. Results obtained show that infection resulted in hyperproteinaemia, hyperglobulinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia. However ...

  16. A solid-phase-radioimmunoassay for total serum thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moedder, G.; Sokolowski, G.

    1978-01-01

    A new solid phase radioimmunoassay for total serum thyroxine was evaluated over a longer time under clinical routine conditions and compared with an established test system. The results show up that the T 4 values are precise, reliable and reproducible, the is incomplicate to handle and well suitable for semiautomatic pipetting systems. (orig.) 891 MG [de

  17. marital status and occupation versus serum total cholesterol and hdl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. The influence of marital status and occupation on serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL – CH) concentrations was studied in sixty one (61) adult male and female Hausa subjects aged 20 – 50 years. Irrespective of marital status and occupation, female subjects had higher ...

  18. Serum total antioxidant capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira Hadžović-Džuvo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. It is characterized by loss of myelin, the fatty tissue that surrounds and protects nerve fibres allowing them to conduct electrical impulses. Recent data indicate that oxidative stress (OS plays a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study was to estimate level of serum total antioxidative capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Our cross-sectional study included 33 patients with MS and 24 age and sex matched control subjects. All our patients had a Poser criteria for definite diagnostic categories of multiple sclerosis. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC was measured by quantitative colorimetric determination, using Total antioxidant Capacity-QuantiCromAntioxidant Assay Kit (BioAssay systems, USA; DTAC-100. Mean serum TAC in multiple sclerosis group of patients was 119.2 mM Trolox equivalents and was significantly lower (p<0.001 compared to the control group of subjects (167.1 mM Trolox equivalents. Our results showed that oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. This finding, also, suggests the importance of antioxidants in diet and therapy of MS patients.

  19. Speed associated with plasma pH, oxygen content, total protein and urea in an 80 km race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R M; Hess, T M; Williams, C A; Kronfeld, D S; Griewe-Crandell, K M; Waldron, J E; Graham-Thiers, P M; Gay, L S; Splan, R K; Saker, K E; Harris, P A

    2002-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that endurance performance may be related quantitatively to changes in blood, we measured selected blood variables then determined their reference ranges and associations with speed during an 80 km race. The plan had 46 horses in a 2 x 2 factorial design testing a potassium-free electrolyte mix and a vitamin supplement. Blood samples were collected before the race, at 21, 37, 56 and 80 km, and 20 min after finishing, for assay of haematocrit, plasma pH, pO2, pCO2, [Na+], [K+], [Ca++], [Mg++], [Cl-], lactate, glucose, urea, cortisol, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbate, creatine kinase, aspartate amino transferase, lipid hydroperoxides, total protein, albumin and creatinine, and erythrocyte glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. Data from 34 finishers were analysed statistically. Reference ranges for resting and running horses were wide and overlapping and, therefore, limiting with respect to evaluation of individual horses. Speed correlations were most repeatable, with variables reflecting blood oxygen transport (enabling exercise), acidity and electrolytes (limiting exercise) and total protein (enabling then, perhaps, limiting). Stepwise regressions also included plasma urea concentration (limiting). The association of speed with less plasma acidity and urea suggests the potential for fat adaptation and protein restriction in endurance horses, as found previously in Arabians performing repeated sprints. Conditioning horses fed fat-fortified and protein-restricted diets may not only improve performance but also avoid grain-associated disorders.

  20. Serum total and free carnitine levels in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asilsoy, Suna; Bekem, Ozlem; Karaman, Ozkan; Uzuner, Nevin; Kavukçu, Salih

    2009-02-01

    Serum carnitine is decreased in recurrent pulmonary infections. We aimed to evaluate serum carnitine levels in asthmatic children. Study group consisted of children with stable asthma and those with acute asthma attacks, while control group included healthy children. Attack severity was determined by the pulmonary score system. Total and free carnitine levels were studied in one blood sample from the control group and stable asthmatics and in two samples from children with acute asthma exacerbation during and after the attack. All the 40 patients in the study group had moderate asthma including 30 with acute attack (13 mild and 17 moderate) and 10 with stable asthma. Carnitine levels were significantly lower in acute attack asthmatics than in the stable asthmatics and controls, while there was no significant difference between the latter two groups. Carnitine levels were not different between asthmatics with mild and moderate attack, and were similar during and after an acute attack. Serum carnitine levels decrease in children with moderate asthma during exacerbation of asthma and shortly thereafter. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of carnitine treatment on serum carnitine level.

  1. Radioimmunological determination of total thyroxine in the serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premachandra, Bhartur

    1975-09-04

    A radioimmunological method to determine total thyroxine in a serum sample is described. The method is as follows: trichloracetic acid and sodium hydroxide are mixed with the sample; radioactive thyroxine is added to the mixture, which is left to reach equilibrium then placed in contact with a resin sponge consisting of a polyurethane foam with intercommunicating cells containing a strongly basic anion exchange resin; the mixture and the resin sponge are incubated, the initial radioactivity of the mixture and resin sponge combination is measured with an appropriate detection system, then the resin sponge is removed from the mixture, washed and its residual radioactivity measured.

  2. Radioimmunological determination of total thyroxine in the serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premachandra, Bhartur.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunological method to determine total thyroxine in a serum sample is described. The method is as follows: trichloracetic acid and sodium hydroxide are mixed with the sample; radioactive thyroxine is added to the mixture, which is left to reach equilibrium then placed in contact with a resin sponge consisting of a polyurethane foam with intercommunicating cells containing a strongly basic anion exchange resin; the mixture and the resin sponge are incubated, the initial radioactivity of the mixture and resin sponge combination is measured with an appropriate detection system, then the resin sponge is removed from the mixture, washed and its residual radioactivity measured [fr

  3. Role of urea in controlling radiation-induced changes in some amino acids level and protein end products in blood serum of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kashef, H.S.; Saada, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    In previous studies (Helen Saada, 1982), urea could successfully act as a good radio-protector. It helps the recovery from changes induced by gamma irradiation in soluble protein contents, and percentage of protein fractions as well as some enzymatic activity. In the present study, it has been found that urea acts also as adequate radioprotector against radiation induced changes in the level of free and tied amino acids, glucosamine,free ammonia and urea concentration in the blood serum of white rats. The radioprotective role of urea was very clear on the first day after irradiation as manifested by the levels of free amino acids and protein end products (urea and ammonia). While in the case of tied amino acids, the action of urea as a radioprotector could be noticed lately, on the third post-irradiation day. The recovery from radiation hazards depended not only on the time lapse after irradiation but also on the chemical structure of the molecule which presents or constitutes the biological matter.2 tab.,1 fig

  4. Effect of urea on bovine serum albumin in aqueous and reverse micelle environments investigated by small angle X-ray scattering, fluorescence and circular dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itri, Rosangela; Caetano, Wilker; Barbosa, Leandro R.S.; Baptista, Mauricio S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence that urea has on the conformation of water-soluble globular protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), exposed directly to the aqueous solution as compared to the condition where the macromolecule is confined in the Aerosol-OT (AOT - sodium bis-2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate)/n-hexane/water reverse micelle (RM) is addressed. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence emission and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of aqueous BSA solution in the absence and in the presence of urea (3M and 5M) confirm the known denaturing effect of urea in proteins. The loss of the globular native structure is observed by the increase in the protein maximum dimension and gyration radius, through the Trp emission increase and maximum red-shift as well as the decrease in helix content. In RMs, the Trp fluorescence and CD spectra show that BSA is mainly located in its interfacial region independently of the micellar size. Addition of urea in this BSA/RM system also causes changes in the Trp fluorescence (emission decrease and maximum red-shift) and in the BSA CD spectra (decrease in helix content), which are compatible with the denaturation of the protein and Trp exposition to a more apolar environment in the RM. The fact that urea causes changes in the protein structure when it is located in the interfacial region (evidenced by CD) is interpreted as an indication that the direct interaction of urea with the protein is the major factor to explain its denaturing effect. (author)

  5. Urea metabolism in Barbari kids d on urea molasses diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, M.; Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    The entry rates of urea into the body pool of urea were estimated in Barbari kids using a single injection isotope dilution technique using 14 C-urea. The excretion rates of urea were calculated by estimating total urine output over 24 h and urea content. (M.G.B.)

  6. The effect of yeast β-glucan on the amount of albumin, globulin, urea and total protein of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali kargarirezapour

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glucans derived from yeast cell wall are promising alternatives to antibiotics, as they have been shown to improve growth performance and stimulate the immune system of immature broilers. In this study we evaluated the effect of different levels of yeast beta-glucan (YBG on some blood parametrs of broiler chickens. In a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design (the first factor: YBG levels: 0, 0.04 and 0.08% of basal diet and sex as a second factor 144 day old chicks (72 male and 72 female were selected and allocated to different treatments (three replicates of each treatment. The overall experimental period was 34 days. At the end of study, two birds from each pen were randomly selected as a sample. The level of albumin, globulin, urea and total protein was measured on blood samples. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the YBG had no significant effect on albumin, globulin, urea and total protein level. But the amount of plasma albumin and total protein in female chicks was significantly higher than male chicks (p

  7. Male Accessory Gland Infection: Relevance of Serum Total Testosterone Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Condorelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to evaluate the different ultrasound characterization of fertile symptomatic patients with MAGI (male accessory gland infection according to different serum concentrations of total T (TT. We analyzed the ultrasound and hormonal data of 200 patients aged between 24.0 and 67.0 years. Patients were divided into six groups according to the sextile distribution of TT. Patients with serum concentrations of TT 6.6 ng mL−1 showed a frequency of ultrasound criteria suggestive for bilateral form of prostatitis and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis and significantly lower compared to the other examined groups. At multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and BMI, TT was an independent predictive factor of prostatovesiculitis (OR = 0.818 [95% CI: 0.675–0.992]; P<0.01 and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (OR = 0.714 [95% CI: 0.578–0.880]; P<0.01, which represent the main forms of complicated MAGI. The results of this study suggest that male hypogonadism could be associated with a different ultrasound characterization of these patients.

  8. Influence of dietary slow-release urea on growth performance, organ development and serum biochemical parameters of mutton sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S K; Zhang, F; Sun, Y K; Deng, K D; Wang, B; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Jiang, C G; Wang, S Q; Diao, Q Y

    2017-10-01

    Eighty Dorper × thin-tailed Han cross-bred non-castrated male lambs [mean body weight (BW), 25.87 ± 1.06 kg] were randomly allocated to one of five different concentrations of slow-release urea (urea phosphate, UP). The feed consisted of an equal amount of concentrate diet and roughage; the concentrate feed was formulated to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenic and contained 0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% UP (UP0.0, UP1.0, UP2.0, UP4.0 and UP8.0, respectively) as a replacement for soya bean meal. Feed intake, BW, average daily gain (ADG), feed utilisation efficiency (FUE), absolute and relative organ weights and biochemical and histopathological parameters were measured. Feed intake, BW, ADG and FUE significantly decreased in the group receiving UP8.0 (p  0.05). Quadratic equations were developed between the UP dosage in the concentrate feed and ADG or FUE (r 2  = 0.973 for ADG and r 2  = 0.761 for FUE) to determine the appropriate dosage of UP given the desire to maximise either ADG or FUE, the appropriate dosage (feed concentration) was calculated as 2.01% UP to achieve the greatest ADG or 2.13% UP to achieve the best FUE. The relative weight of the liver (% BW) in the UP2.0 groups was significantly greater than that of UP0.0 (p  0.05). The UP8.0 treatment significantly increased serum phosphorus levels (p < 0.05) and decreased the levels of alkaline phosphatase, glucose and calcium (Ca) compared with the lower UP dosage (p < 0.05). No histopathological differences were found in either hepatic tissues or renal tissues among treatments. Dietary UP as a replacement for soya bean in concentrate feeds for mutton sheep should not exceed 4%, as higher dosing may cause malnutrition and mineral disorders. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Evaluation of serum angiopoietin-II in HCV related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hoda A. Abd-El-Moety

    2011-08-30

    Aug 30, 2011 ... blood urea, serum creatinine, serum uric acid, ALT, AST, total and direct bilirubin ... factor, cryoglobulins31–33 and urinary albumin creatinine ratio ..... reported that VEGF stimulates increased synthesis of collage- nase by ...

  10. Fordelinger af serum total kolesterol i befolkninger med varierende risiko for hjerte-karsygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, P; Voss, A; Hørder, M

    1990-01-01

    , it was found that serum total cholesterol increases with age in all groups. A distinct sex difference was observed in the majority of investigations: in the age groups under 25 years and over 50 years, women have higher serum total cholesterol values than men while, in the age group 25-50 years, men have......By means of search in the literature and subsequent meta-analysis, the authors have described the serum total cholesterol values in three different risk groups for cardiovascular disease. High total serum cholesterol levels were associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition...

  11. Profile of Rumen Fermentation and Blood Urea Nitrogen Concentration of Kacang Goat Fed Total Mixed Ration Vs. Roughage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiwinarti, R.; Kustantinah; Budisatria, I. G. S.; Rusman; Indarto, E.

    2018-02-01

    Kacang goat is usually reared traditionally fed natural grass and having inferior performance. Many researches had been done to improve the performance. Total mixed ration (TMR) containing soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM) could increase the performance of Kacang goat, but the profile of rumen fermentation has not been published. Therefore, this study investigated the profile of rumen fermentation and blood urea Nitrogen concentration (BUN) in Kacang goat fed natural grass (roughage) and TMR. Twelve yearling Kacang buck, 15.2-19.6 kg were arranged in completely randomized design. The treatments were NG (natural grass), FM (TMR containing FM), and SBM (TMR containing SBM). The TMR were formulated containing 15% crude protein and 56-58% TDN. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Rumen pH 6 hours after feeding of NG (7.4) was higher (P<0.01) than that of FM (6.2) and SBM (6.4). This lowering pH of TMR was caused by increasing volatile fatty acids (VFA). The VFA total of FM (129.7 mmol/l) and SBM (153.1 mmol/l) were higher than that of NG (86.4 mmol/l). At 3 and 6 hours after feeding, ammonia in the rumen of SBM was higher than that of NG and FM, indicating higher degraded protein. The BUN at 3 hours after feeding of SBM was higher than that of NG. It can be concluded that protein in SBM was degraded higher than others and the lower pH in rumen of TMR goats was caused by higher VFA produced by TMR goats compared to NG goats.

  12. Comparison of Transcutaneous Bilirubin Measurement With Total Serum Bilirubin Levels in Preterm Neonates Receiving Phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendse, Amruta; Jasani, Bonny; Nanavati, Ruchi; Kabra, Nandkishor

    2017-08-15

    To compare transcutaneous bilirubin with total serum bilirubin in preterm neonates after initiation of phototherapy. Jaundice was assessed in 30 preterm neonates with transcutaneous bilirubin and total serum bilirubin before initiation of phototherapy and at 12 hr after initiation of phototherapy. A photo-occlusive patch was applied over the sternum. Transcutaneous bilirubin has a good correlation with total serum bilirubin after initiation of phototherapy. (r=0.918, Pbilirubin at 28-32 weeks of gestation (r = 0.97) was better correlated with total serum bilirubin than those at 32-37 weeks (r =0.88). The correlation was better for neonates 72 hours of age (r = 0.82). Transcutaneous bilirubin correlates significantly with total serum bilirubin at the patched sternal site after initiation of phototherapy in preterm neonates.

  13. Reference intervals for serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reference intervals of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were determined on 309 blood donors from an urban and peri-urban population of Botswana. Using non-parametric methods to establish 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the distribution, the intervals were: total cholesterol 2.16 ...

  14. Can Serum Albumin Level and Total Lymphocyte Count be Surrogates for Malnutrition to Predict Wound Complications After Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Vivek M; Song, Young Dong; Whang, Ji Sup; Kang, Yeon Gwi; Kim, Tae Kyun

    2016-06-01

    Although the serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count (TLC) have been reported as valid and reliable markers for defining malnutrition, their cutoff levels and predictive values for wound complications in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remain questionable. A total of 3169 TKAs performed between April 2003 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. We determined the prevalence of malnutrition on applying different definitions, with various cutoff values of serum albumin and TLC and analyzed the variations in outcome. The differences between groups with and without malnutrition in terms of functional outcome and complications were determined using Student's t test and analysis of variance. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the independent risk factors. Among all the patients (N = 3169), the serum albumin level and TLC varied widely, with means of 4.1 g/dL and 2189 cells/mm(3), respectively. The prevalence of malnutrition (21%) as per the conventional definition (serum albumin level malnutrition was defined as serum albumin malnutrition for predicting wound complications after TKA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Concurrent determination of total serum calcium and magnesium by thermometric titration with ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicott, R H; Carr, P W

    1976-07-01

    Total serum calcium and magnesium may be determined in one thermometric titration, with disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate as the titrant. A 1-ml serum sample is diluted with 1 ml of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer (pH 8) and titrated at a constant rate with a motorized syringe buret. Results by the thermometric method compared well with those by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  16. Association of serum total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status with pain perception in patients with myofacial pain dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etoz, Osman A; Ataoglu, Hanife; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Herken, Emine Nur; Bayazit, Yildirim Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to find out the association of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) with generalized pressure pain thresholds (PPT) of patients with myofacial pain dysfunction (MPD). PPT scores of patients with MPD (n = 37) and healthy individuals (n = 43) were measured on the hypothenar region of the hand using a mechanical algometer. Serum samples were collected and TAC and TOS were measured by novel methods. The TAC of patients was significantly lower than that of the control subjects. The difference between the TOS measurements of patients and control subjects was not significant. The PPT scores of the patients were significantly lower than that of control subjects. There may be an association between serum antioxidant capacity and MPD. Low serum TAC might also be related with pain perception.

  17. Impact of Gate 99mTc DTPA GFR, Serum Creatinine and Urea in Diagnosis of Patients with Chronic Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftari, Rame; Nura, Adem; Topçiu-Shufta, Valdete; Miftari, Valon; Murseli, Arbenita; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was determination of validity of 99mTcDTPA estimation of GFR for early detection of chronic kidney failure Material and methods: There were 110 patients (54 males and 56 females) with kidney disease referred for evaluation of renal function at UCC of Kosovo. All patients were included in two groups. In the first group were included 30 patients confirmed with renal failure, whereas in the second group were included 80 patients with other renal disease. In study were included only patients with ready results of creatinine, urea and glucose in the blood serum. For estimation of GFR we have used the Gate GFR DTPA method. The statistical data processing was conducted using statistical methods such as arithmetic average, the student t-test, percentage or rate, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the test. Results: The average age of all patients was 36 years old. The average age of female was 37 whereas of male 35. Patients with renal failure was significantly older than patients with other renal disease (p<0.005). Renal failure was found in 30 patients (27.27%). The concentration of urea and creatinine in blood serum of patients with renal failure were significantly higher than in patients with other renal disease (P< 0.00001). GFR in patients with renal failure were significantly lower than in patients with other renal disease, 51.75 ml/min (p<0.00001). Sensitivity of uremia and creatininemia for detection of renal failure were 83.33%, whereas sensitivity of 99mTcDTPA GFR was 100%. Specificity of uraemia and creatininemia were 63% whereas specificity of 99mTcDTPA GFR was 47.5%. Diagnostic accuracy of blood urea and creatinine in detecting of renal failure were 69%, whereas diagnostic accuracy of 99mTcDTPA GFR was 61.8%. Conclusion: Gate 99mTc DTPA scintigraphy in collaboration with biochemical tests are very sensitive methods for early detection of patients with chronic renal failure. PMID:28883673

  18. Influence of Body Condition Score, blood ammonia and serum urea levels on conception rate in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zicarelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In buffaloes, an optimal BCS at calving time improves reproductive efficiency (Baruselli et al., 2001 therefore shortening the calving/conception period and lowering the number of services/conception. In buffalo cows in negative energy balance a delayed ovulation and a reduced percentage of large follicles were found (Campanile et al., 2001. In buffaloes naturally mated protein degradability in the rumen did not influence reproductive activity (Campanile et al., 2003. It is possible that, independently of the Blood Area (BU, a lower diffusion of ammonia occurs in the uterus, reducing the detrimental effect on reproductive efficiency. The aim in the present study was to determine the influence of BCS, urea e ammonia blood levels on conception rate in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes synchronised and mated by AI in mid-winter which coincided with transition to the seasonal nadir in reproductive activity.

  19. Serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease--Causal association or epiphenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K

    2015-12-01

    Observational epidemiological evidence supports a linear inverse and independent association between serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but whether this association is causal remains to be ascertained. A Mendelian randomization approach was employed to test whether serum total bilirubin is causally linked to CHD. The genetic variant rs6742078--well known to specifically modify levels of serum total bilirubin and accounting for up to 20% of the variance in circulating serum total bilirubin levels--was used as an instrumental variable. In pooled analysis of estimates reported from published genome-wide association studies, every copy of the T allele of rs6742078 was associated with 0.42 standard deviation (SD) higher levels of serum total bilirubin (95% confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.43). Based on combined data from the Coronary Artery Disease Genome wide Replication and Meta-analyses and the Coronary Artery Disease (C4D) Genetics Consortium involving a total of 36,763 CHD cases and 76,997 controls, the odds ratio for CHD per copy of the T allele was 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.04). The odds ratio of CHD for a 1 SD genetically elevated serum total bilirubin level was 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 1.09). The current findings casts doubt on a strong causal association of serum total bilirubin levels with CHD. The inverse associations demonstrated in observational studies may be driven by biases such as unmeasured confounding and/or reverse causation. However, further research in large-scale consortia is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  1. Serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Lorenzo

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare, during the pollen season, serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 (sCD23 from patients with allergic bronchial asthma, with those from healthy subjects. Significantly higher levels of total IgE and sCD23 were found in patients with asthma compared to the control group. Both in normal controls and in asthmatic patients, a significant correlation was shown between the levels of these two molecules. In asthmatic patients, significant correlations were found for both total IgE and sCD23, with lung function measured as bronchial responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. These results suggest that in asthmatic patients, in addition to the study of total serum IgE levels, the assessment of sCD23 serum levels may be helpful in the evaluation of disease activity.

  2. Reference values for serum total adiponectin in healthy non-obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann

    2015-01-01

    : A total of 1193 healthy, non-obese Danish schoolchildren (730 girls, 463 boys) aged 6-18years (median 11.9) were examined by trained medical staff. Total serum adiponectin concentrations in venous fasting blood samples were quantitated by a DuoSet® ELISA human Adiponectin/Acrp30 (R&D Systems) following...

  3. Derivation of a formula for adjusting the total serum calcium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-06-16

    Jun 16, 2006 ... The total calcium concentration, total protein, albumin and globulin were estimated for 302 patients that reported for serum calcium estimation at the clinical biochemistry laboratory of the Olabisi Onabanjo. University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria. Based on regression analysis, three formulae were.

  4. Creatinine index as a surrogate of lean body mass derived from urea Kt/V, pre-dialysis serum levels and anthropometric characteristics of haemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Canaud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Protein-energy wasting is common in long-term haemodialysis (HD patients with chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The creatinine index (CI is a simple and useful nutritional parameter reflecting the dietary skeletal muscle protein intake and skeletal muscle mass of the patient. Because of the complexity of creatinine kinetic modeling (CKM to derive CI, we developed a more simplified formula to estimate CI in HD patients. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS & MEASUREMENTS: A large database of 549 HD patients followed over more than 20 years including monthly CKM-derived CI values was used to develop a simple equation based on patient demographics, predialysis serum creatinine values and dialysis dose (spKt/V using mixed regression models. RESULTS: The equation to estimate CI was developed based on age, gender, pre-dialysis serum creatinine concentrations and spKt/V urea. The equation-derived CI correlated strongly with the measured CI using CKM (correlation coefficient  = 0.79, p-value <0.001. The mean error of CI prediction using the equation was 13.47%. Preliminary examples of few typical HD patients have been used to illustrate the clinical relevance and potential usefulness of CI. CONCLUSIONS: The elementary equation used to derive CI using demographic parameters, pre-dialysis serum creatinine concentrations and dialysis dose is a simple and accurate surrogate measure for muscle mass estimation. However, the predictive value of the simplified CI assessment method on mortality deserves further evaluation in large cohorts of HD patients.

  5. Is there any relationship between serum levels of total bilirubin and the severity of erectile dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ercüment; Karabakan, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Aliseydi; Hirik, Erkan; Karabulut, İbrahim; Gunay, Murat; Çakan, Murat

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that atherosclerosis is associated with erectile dysfunction and the serum bilirubin level. In this study, the serum total bilirubin levels of patients with erectile dysfunction were measured to investigate the relationship between the levels of erectile dysfunction and total bilirubin. A total of 94 patients with erectile dysfunction were divided into three groups; severe erectile dysfunction (33 patients), moderate erectile dysfunction (31 patients), and mild erectile dysfunction (30 patients). In addition, a control group was formed with 31 healthy men. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 Questionnaire was used to measure the quality of erection in all the groups. The body mass index was calculated for all the participants. The serum glucose, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein, cholesterol, triglyceride, total bilirubin, and total testosterone levels were also determined. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of the mean age, hypertension, smoking status, alcohol use, cardiovascular diseases, hepatobiliary disease, diabetes mellitus, and levels of total testosterone, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglyceride. However, high-density lipoprotein, body mass index, and total bilirubin were significantly lower compared to the control group (p < 0.001). The serum total bilirubin level was found to be 0.41 ± 0.21 ng/dL in the severe erectile dysfunction, 0.43 ± 0.19 ng/dL in the moderate erectile dysfunction, and 0.48 ± 0.11 ng/dL in the mild erectile dysfunction groups (p < 0.001). Considering the significant differences between the erectile dysfunction and control groups in terms of serum total bilirubin levels, a low level of bilirubin may have a role in the etiology of erectile dysfunction.

  6. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpou, P; Odén, A; Simonsson, T; Wilhelmsen, L; Landin-Wilhelmsen, K

    2011-05-01

    Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures were evaluated in 1,396 men and women for a period of 20 years. Serum total cholesterol was found to be an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term risk factors for osteoporotic fracture. A population random sample of men and women aged 25-64 years (the Gothenburg WHO MONICA project, N = 1,396, 53% women) was studied prospectively. The 1985 baseline examination recorded physical activity at work and during leisure time, psychological stress, smoking habits, coffee consumption, BMI, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fibrinogen. Osteoporotic fractures over a period of 20 years were retrieved from the Gothenburg hospital registers. Poisson regression was used to analyze the predictive power for osteoporotic fracture of each risk factor. A total number of 258 osteoporotic fractures occurred in 143 participants (10.2%). As expected, we found that previous fracture, smoking, coffee consumption, and lower BMI each increase the risk for osteoporotic fracture independently of age and sex. More unexpectedly, we found that the gradient of risk of serum total cholesterol to predict osteoporotic fracture significantly increases over time (p = 0.0377). Serum total cholesterol is an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.

  7. Mass fragmentographic analysis of total cholesterol in serum using a heptadeuterated internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolthers, B.G.; Hindriks, F.R.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Groen, A.

    1980-01-01

    A mass fragmentographic method for the determination of total cholesterol in serum using heptadeuterated [25,26,26,26,27,27,27- 2 H] cholesterol as internal standard is presented. The results obtained are compared with a colorimetric and gas chromatographic method which were previously proposed as reference methods. Criteria for the development of absolute measurement by means of mass fragmentography and stable isotopically labelled internal standards are given. The conclusion is drawn that, at present, mass fragmentographic methods for the determination of total cholesterol in serum do not fulfil the criteria required for absolute methods. (Auth.)

  8. Correlation of radiotherapy with serum total and lipid-bound sialic acid in OSCC patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Increased quantities of glycoconjugates such as Total Sialic Acid (TSA and Lipid-bound Sialic Acid (LSA have been detected in the plasma and serum of patients with various malignancies, indicating their usefulness in diagnosis or monitoring of the treatment modality. Aims: (1 To estimate and compare the serum TSA and LSA levels in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC patients before and after radiotherapy, as also in healthy individuals. (2 To determine the correlation, if any, between Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM staging and levels of TSA and LSA. (3 To determine the use of serum TSA and LSA as biomarkers of OSCC. Settings and Design: The study was designed as a case-control study and was undertaken in a dental college and cancer hospital. Materials and Methods: It was planned to estimate the serum TSA and LSA levels of 20 healthy individuals and of 20 OSCC patients, spectrophotometrically; before starting and one month after completion of radiotherapy. Statistical Analysis: The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 10.0 was used. Results: The mean serum TSA and LSA levels in OSCC patients decreased significantly after radiotherapy; however, they were still higher than the levels in the controls. In untreated OSCC patients, a statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the TNM stage of the disease and the serum TSA levels; but the same was not found between the TNM stage of the disease and the serum LSA levels. In OSCC, the serum TSA and LSA levels had a positive relationship with the TNM stages. These levels decreased significantly after radiotherapy. Conclusion: Serum TSA and LSA can be utilized as potential diagnostic and prognostic indicators in OSCC.

  9. Comparison of biuret and refractometry methods for the serum total proteins measurement in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulos, Panagiotis D; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Karatzia, Maria A; Giadinis, Nektarios; Karatzias, Harilaos; Boscos, Constantin; Polizopoulou, Zoe S

    2017-12-01

    Determination of serum total protein concentration is commonly performed by the biuret method. Refractometric measurement is a faster and less expensive alternative but its accuracy has not been determined in ruminants. The purpose of the study was to compare the serum total protein concentrations in cattle, sheep, and goats measured by the biuret method with those obtained by refractometry. Serum total protein concentration was determined in 120 cattle, 67 sheep, and 58 goat blood samples refractometrically and with the biuret method. The data were analyzed with a paired samples t-test, and Passing and Bablok regression equations and Bland and Altman plots were generated. There was a strong linear relationship between the total protein values determined with the refractometer and the biuret method in cattle, sheep, and goats. The statistical accuracy, which represents a bias correction factor that measures the deviation of the best-fit line from the 45° line through the origin, was 90.63% for cattle, 93.05% for sheep, and 91.76% for goats. The mean protein values determined with the refractometer were significantly lower than those measured with the biuret method in cattle and goats (P  .05). The evaluated refractometer was sufficiently accurate for the determination of serum total proteins in cattle, sheep, and goats, although it cannot be used interchangeably with the biuret method. The RIs should be corrected for negative bias based on the created equations. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. Changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guohong; Xu Ruiji; Zhang Zhongshu

    2011-01-01

    To determine changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men.the healthy men (n=126) were divided 20-29 yr, 30-39 yr and 40-49 yr three groups,their serum levels of total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were detected. The results were statically analyzed. The results showed that the levels of serum T and FT was found significantly decreased in 30-39 yr group than in 20-29 yr group (15.06±13 nmol/L vs 20.41±86 nmol/L, P<0.01; 9.36±95 pg/L vs 11.48±88 pg/L, P<0.05; respectively). There were young trends that age-related decline in androgen levels. (authors)

  11. Higher Total Serum Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Less Severe Strokes and Lower All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Kammersgaard, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Evidence of a causal relation between serum cholesterol and stroke is inconsistent. We investigated the relation between total serum cholesterol and both stroke severity and poststroke mortality to test the hypothesis that hyperch....

  12. Serum protein concentration in low-dose total body irradiation of normal and malnourished rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, W.C.M.; Lambertz, D.; Borges, E.S.; Neto, A.M.O.; Lambertz, K.M.F.T.; Amaral, A.

    2016-01-01

    Among the radiotherapeutics' modalities, total body irradiation (TBI) is used as treatment for certain hematological, oncological and immunological diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose TBI on plasma concentration of total protein and albumin using prematurely and undernourished rats as animal model. For this, four groups with 9 animals each were formed: Normal nourished (N); Malnourished (M); Irradiated Normal nourished (IN); Irradiated Malnourished (IM). At the age of 28 days, rats of the IN and IM groups underwent total body gamma irradiation with a source of cobalt-60. Total protein and Albumin in the blood serum was quantified by colorimetry. This research indicates that procedures involving low-dose total body irradiation in children have repercussions in the reduction in body-mass as well as in the plasma levels of total protein and albumin. Our findings reinforce the periodic monitoring of total serum protein and albumin levels as an important tool in long-term follow-up of pediatric patients in treatments associated to total body irradiation. - Highlights: • Low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) in children have repercussions in their body-mass. • Long-term total protein and albumin levels are affected by TBI. • The monitoring of total protein and albumin levels are useful in the follow-up of TBI pediatric patients.

  13. The effect of CoQ10 and vitamin E on serum total sialic acid, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-13

    Jun 13, 2011 ... This study was designed to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 and vitamin E on serum total sialic acid (TSA), lipid bound sialic acid (LSA) and some elements in rat administered doxorubicin (DXR). Cu levels were increased in the group treated with DXR + vitamin E in comparison with DXR (p<0.05) and CoQ10 ...

  14. The effect of CoQ 10 and vitamin E on serum total sialic acid, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 and vitamin E on serum total sialic acid (TSA), lipid bound sialic acid (LSA) and some elements in rat administered doxorubicin (DXR). Cu levels were increased in the group treated with DXR + vitamin E in comparison with DXR (p<0.05) and CoQ10 groups (p ...

  15. Serum total anti-oxidant capacity of some Nigerian cigarette smokers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Cigarette smoke has been reported to contain free radicals. The interaction of these free radicals with the body defense system and associated health risk among Nigerian smokers have remained scarcely investigated despite the high numbers of smokers in our society. This study thus, investigates the serum total ...

  16. Serum iron and total iron binding capacity levels among the abo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a common tropical disease. Iron plays a very important role in the human body. The understanding of the different blood groups ability to retain iron in their system can give an insight into their ability to handle the disease Iron deficiency anaemia. Serum Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) and ...

  17. Association Of Serum Total Bilirubin Level With Diabetic Retinopathy In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Tahir; Marwat, Zahid Irfan; Ullah, Fahim; Khan, Salman; Hassan Aamir, Aziz Ul

    2016-01-01

    Serum bilirubin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunological properties. It is considered a protective substance against atherosclerotic and microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study was designed to find the association between total serum bilirubin concentration and diabetic retinopathy (DR). This case control study was conducted in the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar. Type-2 DM patients more than 18 years of age of either gender with duration of T2DM more than 6 months were included and sub categorized in two groups. Cases (DM with DR) and Controls (DM without DR) while patients with acute and chronic liver diseases, haemolytic anaemia, history of chronic alcohol consumption, use of hepatotoxic drugs (anti-tuberculous, anti-epileptic), women on oral contraceptive pills were excluded. All participants underwent ophthalmic examination at diabetic retinopathy screening clinic followed by pre designed set of investigations. A total of 152 patients, 76 cases and 76 controls were included. Serum bilirubin concentration was found inversely and independently (p 0.000) associated and inversely co related (r -0.345and p 0.000) with prevalence of DR. Cases were concentrated in the lower quartiles of serum bilirubin concentration and vice versa. Low haemoglobin (p 0.00) and longer duration of DM (0.003) were independently and directly associated with prevalence of DR. Serum bilirubin concentration is inversely and independently associated and inversely correlated with the prevalence of DR and may predict progression of DR over time.

  18. Total serum homocysteine as an indicator of vitamin B12 and folate status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, R.C.; Hall, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a modification of an assay for total serum homocysteine (Hcy) in which the Hcy plus radioactive adenosine is converted enzymatically to labeled S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). The modifications included a commerical source for the AdoHcy hydrolase, adenosine labeled with either 14 C or 3 H, and separation of the AdoHcy by thin layer chromatography. The assay was sensitive to 25 pmol. Hcy levels in sera from 18 controls ranged from 6.9 to 12.1 mumol/L with a mean of 9.1 and a SD of 1.5 mumol/L. The total serum Hcy was increased in vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The level was high in congenital defects of vitamin B12 metabolism, blocking the methylation of Hcy regardless of the serum vitamin B12 levels, but was normal in the absence of tissue deficiency even if the serum vitamin B12 levels were low. The procedure has been found practical in two years of use and requires only 0.1 mL of serum

  19. 21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862....1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to measure urea nitrogen (an end-product of nitrogen metabolism) in whole blood, serum, plasma, and urine...

  20. Carvacrol attenuates serum levels of total protein, phospholipase A2 and histamine in asthmatic guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pharmacological effects of carvacrol such as its anti-inflammatory activities have been shows. In this study the effects of carvacrol on serum levels of total protein (TP, phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and histamine in sensitized guinea pigs was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Sensitized guinea pigs were given drinking water alone (group S, drinking water containing three concentrations of carvacrol (40, 80 and 160 µg/ml or dexamethasone. Serum levels of TP, PLA2 and histamine were examined I all sensitized groups as well as a non-sensitized control group (n=6 for each group. Results: In sensitized animals, serum levels of TP, PLA2 and histamine were significantly increased compared to control animals (p

  1. Influência da temperatura e do tempo de armazenamento nas dosagens bioquímicas de uréia e creatinina em soro ou plasma caninos Effect of temperature and storage time on urea and creatinine dosages from canine serum or plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Fernandes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar algumas condições de estocagem de soro e de plasma com EDTA 10% utilizados para determinação dos valores de uréia e creatinina em cães, e avaliar a possibilidade de substituir o soro pelo plasma conservado com EDTA 10%. Foram realizadas 3600 análises (1800 amostras de soro e 1800 de plasma com amostras que permaneceram em temperaturas ambiente, de refrigeração e de congelamento. As análises foram realizadas imediatamente após a obtenção da amostra (tempo 0 e após 2, 6, 12, 24, 72 horas e 30 e 60 dias após a coleta do sangue. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a uréia conservou-se por mais tempo na amostra sérica refrigerada até 30 dias e a creatinina na amostra sérica congelada até 72h. O soro mostrou mais estabilidade que o plasma em todas as condições de estoque estabelecidas.Aiming to evaluating some conditions of EDTA 10% serum and plasma storage for urea and creatinine values determinations in canines as well as analyzing the possibility of serum substitution by plasma, a total of 3600 samples (1800 serum and 1800 of plasma were analyzed at room, refrigeration and freezing temperatures. Different time intervals were used in the analysis: immediately after sampling (time 0, and at 2, 6, 12, 24, and 72 hours, and 30 and 60 days after the blood collection. The data showed that urea remains conserved for more time in the refrigerated serum sample until 30 days and the creatinine in the frozen serum sample until 72 hours. Serum showed more stability than plasma in all storage conditions established.

  2. Clinical Usefulness of serum total cholesterol as an index of hypothyroidism in patients after cervical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguma, Yoko; Iwai, Chikako; Okuyama, Masako; Futami, Takahiro; Inui, Ken-ichi; Asato, Ryo

    2003-01-01

    Cervical radiation therapy is often applied to patients with head and neck cancers because radiation has a high sensitivity to these cancers and permits the preservation of functions and physical form. However, it has been shown that various complications can result from radiation therapy. We have encountered some patients who showed hypercholesterolemia resulting from cervical radiation. Therefore, we have paid close attention to the relationship between hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation and hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone tests in these patients with hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation showed high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and low free thyroxine (fT 4 ), indicating the presence of hypothyroidism. After administration of levothyroxine Na, their fT 4 levels increased and both TSH levels and serum total cholesterol levels decreased. In conclusion, in patients who have received cervical radiation, we recommend monitoring serum total cholesterol periodically to detect hypothyroidism easily before the appearance of its symptoms. (author)

  3. Clinical Usefulness of serum total cholesterol as an index of hypothyroidism in patients after cervical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguma, Yoko; Iwai, Chikako; Okuyama, Masako; Futami, Takahiro; Inui, Ken-ichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Asato, Ryo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2003-02-01

    Cervical radiation therapy is often applied to patients with head and neck cancers because radiation has a high sensitivity to these cancers and permits the preservation of functions and physical form. However, it has been shown that various complications can result from radiation therapy. We have encountered some patients who showed hypercholesterolemia resulting from cervical radiation. Therefore, we have paid close attention to the relationship between hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation and hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone tests in these patients with hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation showed high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and low free thyroxine (fT{sub 4}), indicating the presence of hypothyroidism. After administration of levothyroxine Na, their fT{sub 4} levels increased and both TSH levels and serum total cholesterol levels decreased. In conclusion, in patients who have received cervical radiation, we recommend monitoring serum total cholesterol periodically to detect hypothyroidism easily before the appearance of its symptoms. (author)

  4. Total cholesterol in serum determined by isotope dilution/mass spectrometry, with liquid-chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Akiko; Nishi, Sueo

    1988-01-01

    We describe an accurate, precise method for determination of total serum cholesterol by isotope dilution/mass spectrometry (IDMS) with liquid chromatographic separation. After adding [3,4- 13 C] cholesterol to serum and hydrolyzing the cholesterol esters, we extract the total cholesterol. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate the extracted cholesterol for measurement by electron-impact mass spectrometry with use of a direct-insertion device. To evaluate the specificity and the accuracy of this method, we also studied the conventional IDMS method, which involves converting cholesterol to the trimethylsilyl ether and assay by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with use of a capillary column. The coefficient of variation for the HPLC method was a little larger than for the conventional method, but mean values by each method agreed within 1% for all sera tested. (author)

  5. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Verma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 193-194

  6. Association of serum total bilirubin level with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffar, T.; Khan, S.; Aamir, A.U.H.; Marwat, Z.I.

    2016-01-01

    Serum bilirubin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunological properties. It is considered a protective substance against atherosclerotic and microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study was designed to find the association between total serum bilirubin concentration and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: This case control study was conducted in the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar. Type-2 DM patients more than 18 years of age of either gender with duration of T2DM more than 6 months were included and sub categorized in two groups. Cases (DM with DR) and Controls (DM without DR) while patients with acute and chronic liver diseases, haemolytic anaemia, history of chronic alcohol consumption, use of hepatotoxic drugs (anti-tuberculous, anti-epileptic), women on oral contraceptive pills were excluded. All participants underwent ophthalmic examination at diabetic retinopathy screening clinic followed by pre designed set of investigations. Results: A total of 152 patients, 76 cases and 76 controls were included. Serum bilirubin concentration was found inversely and independently (p 0.000) associated and inversely co related (r -0.345 and p 0.000) with prevalence of DR. Cases were concentrated in the lower quartiles of serum bilirubin concentration and vice versa. Low haemoglobin (p 0.00) and longer duration of DM (0.003) were independently and directly associated with prevalence of DR. Conclusion: Serum bilirubin concentration is inversely and independently associated and inversely correlated with the prevalence of DR and may predict progression of DR over time. (author)

  7. Total serum homocysteine levels do not identify cognitive dysfunction in multimorbid elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstermann, S; Laemmler, G; Hanemann, A; Schweter, A; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E; Lun, A; Schulz, R-J

    2009-02-01

    Total blood homocysteine (Hcys) and folate levels have been investigated in association with cognitive dysfunction in healthy but not in multimorbid elderly patients. We hypothesized that total serum Hcys is an adequate marker to identify multimorbid elderly patients with cognitive dysfunction assessed by the Short Cognitive Performance Test (SKT) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cross-sectional study. The study center was an acute geriatric hospital. A total of 189 multimorbid elderly patients were recruited. Cognitive dysfunction was determined according to the SKT and MMSE. Biochemical parameters (Hcys, folate, vitamin B12, hemoglobin), nutritional status (BMI, Mini Nutritional Assessment, nutritional intake), and activities of daily living were assessed. According to the SKT, 25.4% of patients showed no cerebral cognitive dysfunction, 21.2% had suspected incipient cognitive dysfunction, 12.7% showed mild cognitive dysfunction, 9.0% had moderate cognitive dysfunction, and 31.7% of patients were demented. The median plasma Hcys value was elevated by approximately 20% in multimorbid elderly patients, independent of cognitive dysfunction. Serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were within normal ranges. We did not find significant differences in nutritional status, activities of daily living, numbers of diseases or medications, or selected biochemical parameters between the SKT groups. Elevated serum Hcys levels with normal plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were observed in multimorbid elderly patients. The plasma Hcys level did not appear to be an important biological risk factor for cognitive dysfunction in multimorbid geriatric patients.

  8. Total volatile fatty acids and bacterial production rates as affected by rations containing untreated or ammonia (urea) treated rice straw in croos-bred cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, J.P.; Gupta, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding ammoniated rice straw on ruminal total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and bacterial production rates. Twelve karan swiss, male, rumen fistulated calves (2-2.5 yrs) were divided in three equal groups. Animals were offered rice straw either untreated (A) or 4 per cent urea+40 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (B) or 5 per cent urea+30 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (C). Protein requirements were met through concentrate mixture. Levels of NH 3 -N and TCA-precipitable-N in strained rumen liquor (SRL) were significantly higher (20.34±0.022, 63.26±0.81 (B), 20.78±0.41, 64.98±0.87 (C) (mg/100 ml SRL) in groups fed ammoniated ±0.31, 45.94±1.91 mg/100 ml S RL), respectively. The bacterial production rates in the rumen (g/day) were significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. TVFA concentrations (mmole/100 ml SRL ) and TVFA production rates (mmole/d) were also significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. The bacterial production rates were significantly co-related with TVFA, NH 3 -N, TCA precipitable-N concentration in the rumen and ATP production. Multiple regression equations relating bacterial production rates with (i)NH 3 -N and TVFA concentration in the rumen, (ii)NH 3 -N and TVFA production rates and (iii)NH 3 -N and ATP produced were also developed. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Preliminary evaluation of serum total cholesterol concentrations in dogs with osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, H; Viall, A; Ruaux, C; Bracha, S

    2017-10-01

    To determine if total serum cholesterol concentrations were altered in dogs with osteosarcoma. To evaluate association of total serum cholesterol concentration with clinical outcomes in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma. Retrospective, multi-institutional study on 64 dogs with osteosarcoma. Control population consisted of dogs with traumatic bone fractures (n=30) and healthy patients of similar age and weight as those of the osteosarcoma cases (n=31). Survival analysis was done on 35 appendicular osteosarcoma patients that received the current standard of care. Statistical associations were assessed by univariable and multi-variable analysis. Information about age, sex, primary tumour location, total cholesterol concentration, monocytes and lymphocyte counts and alkaline phosphatase were also included. Total cholesterol was elevated above the reference interval (3·89 to 7·12 mmol/L) (150 to 275 mg/dL) in 29 of 64 (45·3%) osteosarcoma-bearing dogs, whereas similar elevations were found in only 3 of 30 (10%) fracture controls (Posteosarcoma. These results suggest that elevated total cholesterol is associated with canine osteosarcoma and may have prognostic significance. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  10. Measurement of total antioxidant capacity in gingival crevicular fluid and serum in dogs with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlica, Zlatko; Petelin, Milan; Nemec, Alenka; Erzen, Damjan; Skaleric, Uros

    2004-11-01

    To determine whether gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum total antioxidant capacities (TACs) correlate with the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs. 41 Toy and Miniature Poodles. After assessment of the degree of severity of naturally occurring periodontitis, GCF samples from both maxillary fourth premolars and a blood sample were collected from each dog. The condition of the periodontium of the entire dentition and at each site of GCF collection was recorded. Clinical parameters assessed included plaque index, gingival index, and probing depth. Radiographic analysis of alveolar bone level was also performed. Total antioxidant capacity was measured in GCF and serum samples by use of a commercial kit. Dogs with gingivitis and minimal periodontitis had significantly higher TAC in GCF than dogs with advanced periodontitis. Bivariate regression analysis revealed significant negative correlations between TAC in GCF and clinical parameters and age. The TAC in serum was significantly negatively correlated with the degree of gingival inflammation but was not significantly correlated with age. TAC in GCF is related to the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs. This is likely the result of release of reactive oxygen species by activated phagocytes and fibroblasts in the inflamed periodontal tissues. The results of our study suggest that the local delivery of antioxidants may be a useful adjunctive treatment for periodontitis in dogs.

  11. Significance of Serum Total Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Patients with Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wu

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in a variety of diseases. Prospective studies investigating the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers and the status and development of colorectal cancer (CRC are scarce; previous studies have failed to establish a relationship between the serum total oxidant/antioxidant status and CRC. Therefore, we compared the total serum oxidant/antioxidant levels of CRC patients and healthy subjects, and analyzed their clinical significance in the CRC. Fasting blood samples from 132 CRC patients and 64 healthy subjects were collected. Oxidative stress parameters, including total oxidant status (TOS and total antioxidant status (TAS, were measured, and the oxidative stress index (OSI was calculated. The TOS and OSI levels increased significantly (P0.05.However, the levels of TOS, TAS, and OSI were significantly different between patients with no metastasis and those with metastases to two organs (P<0.05 Finally, the parameters are affected by smoking and drinking, and subsequent research should be conducted excluding the relevant influencing factors.

  12. Serum lipid profiles, total tract nutrient digestibility, and gastrointestinal tolerance by dogs of α-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, M A; Bauer, L L; Garleb, K A; Fahey, G C; de Godoy, M R C

    2015-05-01

    The objectives were to quantify gastrointestinal tolerance, total tract nutrient digestibility, and serum lipid profiles of dogs as affected by α-cyclodextrin (ACD) supplementation and to validate the accuracy of fat analyses techniques using novel ACD-fat complexes. The ACD was hydrolyzed and free sugars and hydrolyzed monosaccharides were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Known amount of fats were complexed with ACD, and fat content of complexes were determined using the ether extraction and acid-hydrolyzed fat methods. Nine mixed-breed hounds were used in a crossover design with 3 periods of 10 d each, including 6 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for fecal collection. Dogs were fed twice daily a diet with poultry byproduct meal and brewer's rice as the main ingredients, and chromic oxide (0.2%) was included as a digestion marker. Dogs were supplemented with either 0, 3, or 6 g of ACD diluted in 15 mL of water twice per day for a total of 0, 6, and 12 g ACD per day. The ACD had a very low free sugar concentration and, once hydrolyzed, released only glucose, as expected. Average daily food intake, fecal output (DM basis), and fecal scores were not significantly different among treatments. Body weight and condition score and serum triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations remained unaltered throughout the duration of the experiment. Dry matter, OM, and fat digestibility coefficients were lower (P < 0.05) for both treatment groups compared to the control. The acid-hydrolyzed fat method was valid to measure fat that was bound to ACD. Intake of ACD lowered fat digestibility somewhat but not to the extent previously reported, without affecting serum lipid concentrations or outcomes related to tolerance. Therefore, ACD supplementation resulted in a small decrease in fat digestibility, but ACD supplementation might have potential in modifying serum lipid profiles.

  13. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A. V.; Ravishankar, P. L.; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K.; Kalaivani, V.; Rajula, M. Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease. PMID:28462181

  14. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A V; Ravishankar, P L; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K; Kalaivani, V; Rajula, M Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease.

  15. Effects of buddleja officinalis total flavonoids on serum testosterone level of castrated male rats with xeroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Juan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe buddleja officinalis total flavonoids' effect on the basal tear secretion amount, tear film stability, lacrimal gland histomorphology and serum testosterone level of castrated male rat model with xeroma, to study the mechanism of rat xeroma caused by buddleja officinalis total flavones' anti-sex hormones disorders.MEATHODS: A total of 150 Wistar male rats of 1 month old, weighted about 200g, were randomly divided into 5 groups with 30 rats in each group with A representing normal group; B representing sham operation group; C representing surgery control group; D representing group treated with androgen; E representing group treated with buddleja officinalis total flavonoids. For the groups C, D, E, the bilateral testicle and epididymis were excised; For group B, scrota were incised without removal of the testicles, as the sham operation group; For group A, nothing was done. One week after modeling when the wound was to be healed, drug was given to each group. Respectively at the 1st month, 3rd, and 5th months after treatment, 10 rats were randomly selected in each group, to receive Schirmer I test, tear breakup time measurement. Blood serum testosterone levels were tested in the fifth month. RESUITS: For groups D and E, the Schirmer I test measurements were significantly higher than that of group C(PPPCONCLUSION: Decreased androgen levels can lead to xeroma, and removal of bilateral testes and epididymis can successfully establish the animal models of xeroma in rats caused by decreased androgen levels. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids have androgenic effect, which produces the similar treatment effect of xeroma with testosterone propionate. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids may become a new treatment for xeroma.

  16. Total serum bilirubin levels and sensorineural hearing loss in the US adolescents: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoli; Fu, Wenjiang

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to investigate whether current levels of total serum bilirubin are associated with different subtypes of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in adolescents. A set of cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2007-2010) was used. A subset of 1404 adolescents was sampled for measurements of total serum bilirubin, tympanometry, and average pure tone threshold at low-frequencies (LPTA: 500, 1000, 2000 Hz) or high-frequencies (HPTA: 3000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hz). SNHL was defined as the hearing loss that had type A tympanograms with a peak admittance of 0.3 ml or greater. Associations between serum bilirubin (square-root transformed) and different subtypes of SNHL were evaluated using binary or multinomial logistic regression models with 4-year sampling weights. The bootstrap method was used for estimation of variance and 10-fold cross-validation for assessment of overfitting issue. Total serum bilirubin levels were found to be associated with any high-frequency (HPTA>15 dB in at least one ear, adjusted odds-ratio (OR a )(bootstrap 95% confidence interval) = 3.29(1.31-8.19), p = 0.011), but not with any low-frequency (LPTA>15 dB in at least one ear), SNHL in the US adolescents. Furthermore, high-frequency SNHL with HPTA>15 dB in both ears (bilateral) or HPTA≥25 dB in at least one ear, compared to that with HPTA>15 dB in one ear only (unilateral) or HPTA = 15-25 dB in at least one ear, had a stronger association with total serum bilirubin levels (OR a  = 5.37(1.27-22.65), p = 0.022 for bilateral; OR a  = 2.64(0.84-8.25), p = 0.094 for unilateral; OR a  = 5.00(0.95-26.58), p = 0.058 for HPTA≥25 dB in at least one ear; as well as OR a  = 3.06(1.15-8.25), p = 0.025 for HPTA = 15-25 dB in at least one ear). No severe overfitting problems were found. Our findings suggest that current levels of total serum bilirubin may be informative in predicting and/or targeting high-frequency SNHL

  17. Utilization of dietary urea in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, S J; Dabrowski, K R; Dabrowska, H; Olah, E; Luquet, P

    1983-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the potential utilization of dietary urea by rainbow trout. A control diet and two diets supplemented with 1 and 3% of urea were fed to fish. Postprandial levels of urea and ammonia in blood plasma, and postprandial excretion of these metabolites were followed during 24 h. Apparent digestibility of urea in rainbow trout was very high (greater than 98%). Maximum values of urea levels in plasma were reached 6 h (32.3 +/- 10.2 micrograms/ml) after a meal in the control fish and respectively 6 h (83.4 +/- 18.4 micrograms/ml) and 8 h (250.3 +/- 96.1 micrograms/ml) after a meal in trout fed 1 and 3% urea diets. Peaks of urea excretion rates appeared 7-9 h after meal, coinciding with the highest circulating urea concentration. Total daily urea excretion amounted to 5.53, 10.43 and 33.80 mg urea N/100 mg N intake in trout fed the control, 1 and 3% urea diets, respectively. It is concluded that the dietary urea is readily absorbed in the digestive tract of trout but is totally excreted thus leading to no beneficial effect on nitrogen balance. This excretion of urea also takes place passively without any increase in energy demands.

  18. Serum homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and total antioxidant status in vegetarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, J; Klemarczyk, W; Chełchowska, M; Gajewska, J; Laskowska-Klita, T

    2006-01-01

    The results of several studies point to the positive role of vegetarian diets in reducing the risk of diabetes, some cancers and cardiovascular diseases. However, exclusion of animal products in vegetarian diets may affect the cobalamin status and cause an elevation of the plasma homocysteine level. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vegetarian diets on serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and total antioxidant status (TAS) in children. The study included 32 vegetarians (including 5 vegans), age 2-10 years. Dietary constituents were analyzed using a local nutritional programme. Serum homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 were determined with fluorescence and chemiluminescence immunoassays. The concentration of TAS was measured by a colorimetric method. Average daily energy intake and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates in the diets of the studied children were just above or similar to the recommended amounts. It could be shown that vegetarian diets contain high concentrations of folate. In vegan diets it even exceeds the recommended dietary allowance. Mean daily intake of vitamin B12 in the studied diets was adequate but in vegans was below the recommended range. The serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and TAS in vegetarian children remained within the physiological range. The presented data indicate that vegetarian children, contrary to adults, have enough vitamin B12 in their diet (excluding vegans) and normal serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12. Therefore, in order to prevent deficiencies in the future, close monitoring of vegetarian children (especially on a vegan diet) is important to make sure that they receive adequate quantities of nutrients needed for healthy growth.

  19. Serum total bilirubin levels are negatively correlated with metabolic syndrome in aged Chinese women: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, P; Sun, D M; Wu, D H; Li, T M; Liu, X Y; Liu, H Y

    2017-01-26

    We evaluated serum total bilirubin levels as a predictor for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and investigated the relationship between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS prevalence. This cross-sectional study included 1728 participants over 65 years of age from Eastern China. Anthropometric data, lifestyle information, and previous medical history were collected. We then measured serum levels of fasting blood-glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and total bilirubin, as well as alanine aminotransferase activity. The prevalence of MetS and each of its individual component were calculated per quartile of total bilirubin level. Logistic regression was used to assess the correlation between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS. Total bilirubin level in the women who did not have MetS was significantly higher than in those who had MetS (Pbilirubin quartiles were linearly and negatively correlated with MetS prevalence and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) in females (Pbilirubin was an independent predictor of MetS for females (OR: 0.910, 95%CI: 0.863-0.960; P=0.001). The present study suggests that physiological levels of serum total bilirubin might be an independent risk factor for aged Chinese women, and the prevalence of MetS and HTG are negatively correlated to serum total bilirubin levels.

  20. Serum total antioxidant status in cardiovascular patients and in healthy individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.

    2010-01-01

    The previous studies suggest that low serum total antioxidant status (TAS) might be related to oxidative stress. To further examine the TAS, we investigated its relation in patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Total 39 samples of males and females were collected; age ranged from 18 to 86 years and divided them into two groups. Group I included 30 samples of cardiovascular patients; group 2 included 9 healthy individuals as control group. In group I, patients suffering from Myocardial infarction (Ml) showed low TAS values compared to the patients suffering from angina. The rest of the patients in group I showed TAS value within the reference range (1.3- 1.77 mmoVL). The present study concluded that the TAS value in MI patients is lower than patients suffering from angina pectoris, further it was also concluded that aging and smoking both leads to the decrease in the level of T AS. (author)

  1. Final report for CCQM-K107: total elements and selenomethionine in human serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenaga Infante, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Routine tests that measure the concentration of electrolytes in serum are needed for diagnosis and management of renal, endocrine, acid-base, water balance and other conditions such as screening D- and A-vitamin disorders, kidney insufficiency, bone diseases and leukaemia. The diagnostic concentration ranges for many such markers are narrow, requiring reference methods with small uncertainty. Serum concentration of total selenium (Se) is important in health studies but there is increasing interest in the speciation of selenium compounds in clinical samples such as serum and individual Se- Species are bio-indicators of Se status. The last CCQM IAWG key comparison for elements in the clinical area (CCQM-K14: Ca in human serum) was organized in 2003 and the previous key comparison (CCQM-K60) for Se and Se species used a wheat flour sample. Therefore, the CCQM IAWG agreed that CCQM-K107 and a parallel pilot study CCQM-P146 should be carried out. The candidate human serum sample used for both CCQM-K107 and P146 is of high complexity and contains approximately 1000-fold lower concentrations of selenium methionine (SeMet) than those encountered in the CCQM-K60 wheat flour. This significantly broadens the scope and degree of difficulty of earlier measurements in this field. A total of eleven institutes participated in CCQM-K107 (11 participants for total elements and 7 for SeMet). The performance of the majority of the K107 participants for all the measurands was very good, illustrating their ability to obtain accurate results for analytes such as electrolytes at mg kg-1 level, essential elements at µg kg-1 level and selenium species at µg kg-1 level in a complex biological fluid. The range of agreement between participants was within the interval of ± 0.1% for Ca and up to ± 1.8% for Fe. CMC claims based on total elements in this study may include other elements with similar core competencies (e.g. Se, Cu, Zn) in a wide range of biological materials (including liquids

  2. Total and ionized serum magnesium and calcium levels during magnesium sulfate administration for preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Hee; An, Yuna; Moon, Jong Ho; Noh, Eun Ji; Kim, Jong Woon

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to estimate the association between total and ionized magnesium, and the changes in serum magnesium and calcium levels in patients with preterm labor during magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) administration. Methods The study population included 64 women who were candidates for intravenous MgSO4 treatment for preterm labor. Serial blood samples were taken and measured total magnesium (T-Mg), ionized magnesium (I-Mg), total calcium (T-Ca), and ionized calcium (I-Ca) levels every one-week interval (1st, 2nd, 3rd). Results There was no significant difference in T-Mg and I-Mg levels during MgSO4 administration (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in T-Ca and I-Ca levels during MgSO4 administration (P>0.05). Compared before and after administration of MgSO4, T-Mg and I-Mg levels and T-Ca levels were changed allow statistically significant (P0.05). There was significant correlation between levels of I-Mg and T-Mg (I-Mg=0.395×T-Mg+0.144, P<0.01). Conclusion There were no significant differences in serum Mg and Ca levels during MgSO4 administration for preterm labor. Compared to the before and after administration of MgSO4, only I-Ca levels were not substantially changed. There are significant correlations between I-Mg and T-Mg levels during administration of MgSO4 and I-Mg level seemed to have more correlation with adverse effect than T-Mg. PMID:29372150

  3. A Comparison between Transcutaneous and Total Serum Bilirubin in Healthy-term Greek Neonates with Clinical Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Neocleous

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of transcutaneous bilirubin meters has been assessed in newborns from various ethnic backgrounds. However, there are limited data on Greek newborns. Our study examined the accuracy of transcutaneous bilirubin measurements in clinically jaundiced healthy-term Greek newborns, using total serum bilirubin as the reference standard, in order to re-evaluate our local guidelines about neonatal jaundice. Clinically jaundiced newborns requiring total serum bilirubin level estimation were recruited prospectively. 368 pairs of total serum bilirubin/transcutaneous bilirubin measurements were taken in 222 newborns, using a direct spectrophotometric device and the BiliCheck device, respectively. The level of agreement between the obtained transcutaneous bilirubin and total serum bilirubin values was assessed. Our data were analysed using the Stata/SE 12.0 (StataCorp LP, USA statistical programme. The mean (± SD TSB was 225.4 ± 25.4 μmol/l and the mean (± SD TcB was 237.9 ± 21.0 μmol/l. The correlation between the values was poor (Pearson’s correlation coefficient 0.439; Lin’s concordance coefficient 0.377 [95% CI 0.301 to 0.453]; P<0.001. The Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that transcutaneous bilirubin measurements tended to overestimate the total serum bilirubin value (mean difference 12.5 ± 24.9 μmol/l, with wide 95% limits of agreement (–36.2 μmol/l to 61.3 μmol/l. Transcutaneous bilirubin values did not correlate well with total serum bilirubin values, being often imprecise in predicting the actual total serum bilirubin levels. This permits us to continue estimating total serum bilirubin in clinically jaundiced newborns according to our local guidelines, in order to safely decide the appropriate care plan.

  4. Serum Interleukin-4 and Total Immunoglobulin E in Nonatopic Alopecia Areata Patients and HLA-DRB1 Typing

    OpenAIRE

    Attia, Enas A. S.; El Shennawy, Dina; Sefin, Ashraf

    2010-01-01

    Background. Interleukin-4 (IL-4), a Th2 cytokine, can stimulate immunoglobulin E (IgE) transcription. No previous studies evaluated the genetic mechanisms in nonatopic AA patients with elevated serum IgE. Objective. To compare serum IL-4 and total IgE levels between Egyptian nonatopic AA patients and healthy subjects and to investigate a possible relation to HLA-DRB1 alleles. Results. Serum IL-4 and total IgE were measured by ELISA in 40 controls and 54 nonatopic AA patients. Patients' HL...

  5. Total matrix metalloproteinase-8 serum levels in patients labouring preterm and patients with threatened preterm delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Laudański

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Preterm labour and prematurity are still a main cause of perinatal morbidity nowadays. The aim of our study was to assess the role of MMP-8 as a predictive marker of preterm delivery. Four groups of patients were involved to the study: I - pregnant women at 24-34 weeks of gestation with any symptoms of threatened preterm labour; II - threatened preterm labour patients between 24-34 weeks of gestation; III - preterm vaginal delivery patients; IV - healthy term vaginal delivery patients. Serum concentration of total MMP-8 was measured using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. There were no significant differences in the median concentrations of total MMP-8 between physiological pregnancy and threatened preterm labour patients with existing uterine contractility. No significant differences of total MMP-8 were either found between healthy term and preterm labouring patients. The studies on a larger population are needed to reject the hypothesis that preterm labour is connected with increased MMP-8 plasma concentrations of women in preterm labour and threatened preterm delivery.

  6. Serum immunoglobulin levels in humans exposed to therapeutic total-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaskes, S.; Kingdon, G.C.; Balish, E.

    1975-01-01

    Reduced serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, IgM) levels developed in the majority of 27 patients with hematologic disorders after treatment with 100 to 350 R total-body gamma-ray exposures at a dose rate of either 1.5 R/min to 1.5 R/hr. A reduction in IgA of 20 percent or more was found in 66 percent of the cases, while 56 percent showed an IgM decrease, and 49 percent an IgG decrease of 20 percent. The severity of immunoglobulin depression was influenced by the total radiation dose and the patient's primary disease. The occurrence of IgG and IgM depression was greater when the radiation was given at 1.5 R/hr than when the dose rate was 1.5 R/min. Substantial but incomplete recovery toward preirradiation immunoglobulin levels was found for most patients by 7 wk after total-body irradiation (TBI). (U.S.)

  7. Transfer of blood urea into the goat colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W. von; Hinderer, S.

    1976-01-01

    Transfer of blood urea to the temporarily isolated and perfused colon of conscious goats was measured. Simultaneously, total urea turnover was estimated using 14 C-labelled urea. Three animals in the weight range 50-70 k were used, with appropriately placed cannulae. The entry of blood urea into the total gastrointestinal tract was estimated from the difference between total urea turnover renal urea excretion. When experimental conditions remained constant, such as the permeability of the gastrointestinal tract wall, blood urea diffusion into the colon depended on plasma urea concentration. Results of varying feeding conditions demonstrated that changes in permeability of the gastrointestinal tract will have a more pronounced influence on the amounts of blood urea entering the gastrointestinal tract than differences in plasma urea concentration

  8. Total synthesis of [2-11C]thymidine from [11C]urea: A tracer of choice for measurement of cellular proliferation using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labar, D.; Vander Borght, T.

    1990-01-01

    In preliminary studies of cellular proliferation with [methyl- 11 C]thymidine, the labelled degradative products mask the progressive incorporation of the tracer into DNA. The authors have developed a procedure for the synthesis of [2- 11 C]thymidine to circumvent this difficulty, using a [ 11 C]urea precursor

  9. Brix refractometry in serum as a measure of failure of passive transfer compared to measured immunoglobulin G and total protein by refractometry in serum from dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, D; Nydam, D V; Godden, S M; Bristol, L S; Kryzer, A; Ranum, J; Schaefer, D

    2016-05-01

    A series of trials were conducted to evaluate Brix refractometry (Brix %) for the assessment of failure of passive transfer (FPT) in dairy calves compared to: (1) serum IgG (reference standard) when measured by radial immunodiffusion (RID) or a turbidometric immunoassay (TIA), and (2) serum total protein refractometry (STP). For the serum samples tested with TIA, STP, and Brix % (n = 310; Holstein calves), the median concentrations were 21.3 g/L IgG, 58 g/L STP, and 9.2%, respectively. For the serum samples tested with RID, STP and Brix % (n = 112; Jersey calves), the mean concentrations were 38 g/L IgG, 68 g/L STP, and 10.2%, respectively. For samples tested with only Brix % and STP (n = 265; Holstein calves), median STP and Brix % were 50 g/L STP and 8.5%, respectively. Correlations between Brix % and RID, and between Brix % and TIA were equal (r = 0.79, respectively). Brix % and STP were positively correlated (r = 0.99). Brix % estimated serum IgG concentrations determined by TIA and RID (r(2) = 0.63, 0.62, respectively). When FPT was defined as serum IgG refractometry predicted successful transfer of passive immunity in dairy calves, but further evaluation as a diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of FPT is warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Mildly elevated serum total bilirubin levels are negatively associated with carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is strongly associated with several mechanisms of tissue damage such as oxidative stress. Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Limited information is available on whether serum bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were 169 men aged 79 ± 8 (mean ± SD) years and 205 women aged 81 ± 8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients in the medical department. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum total bilirubin (β = -0.160) was significantly associated with carotid IMT. Compared to subjects with a serum total bilirubin of tertile-1 (0.13-0.58 mg/dL), the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of carotid IMT ≥1.0 mm including plaque and carotid plaque was 0.46 (0.23-0.93) and 0.32 (0.17-0.60) in the Tertile-3 group (0.87-1.93 mg/dL), respectively. Next, data were further stratified by gender, age, smoking status, medication and prevalence of CVD. There were no significant differences in serum total bilirubin levels between selected subgroups. Our data demonstrated a negative association between serum total bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Serum total IgG and IgG4 levels in thyroid eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aileen Sy, Rona Z Silkiss Department of Ophthalmology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA Purpose: To investigate the relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD and thyroid eye disease (TED with respect to IgG levels. Patients and methods: A retrospective review of total IgG, IgG subclass, and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI levels in 24 patients with TED. Results: Five patients (20.8% demonstrated serum IgG4 levels consistent with IgG4-RD without any additional systemic disease. Total IgG and IgG subclass levels were found to be an inadequate proxy for TSI elevation. Conclusion: There may be a subtype of TED patients with elevated IgG4 in the absence of IgG4-RD systemic findings. Keywords: thyroid eye disease, IgG subclass, IgG4, Graves’ disease, Graves’ ophthalmopathy, IgG4-RD

  12. Serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of outcome in hip fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Daly, Brendan J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hip fractures are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the elderly. Malnutrition is a significant contributor to this, however no consensus exists as to the detection or management of this condition. We hypothesise that results of admission serum albumin and total lymphocyte count (TLC), as markers of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) can help predict clinical outcome in hip fracture patients aged over 60 years. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the nutritional status of patients with hip fractures using albumin and TLC assays and analysed their prognostic relevance. Clinical outcome parameters studied were delay to operation, duration of in-patient stay, re-admission and in-patient, 3- and 12-month mortality. RESULTS: Four hundred and fifteen hip fracture patients were evaluated. Survival data were available for 377 patients at 12 months. In-hospital mortality for PEM patients was 9.8%, compared with 0% for patients without. Patients with PEM had a higher 12-month mortality compared to patients who had normal values of both laboratory parameters (Odds Ratio 4.6; 95% CI: 1.0-21.3). Serum albumin (Hazard Ratio 0.932, 95% CI: 0.9-1.0) and age (Hazard Ratio 1.04, 95% CI: 1.0-1.1) were found to be significant independent prognostic factors of mortality by Cox regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the relevance of assessing the nutritional status of patients with hip fractures at the time of admission and emphasises the correlation between PEM and outcome in these patients.

  13. Transrectal ultrasound in detecting prostate cancer compared with serum total prostate-specific antigen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamsel, S.; Killi, R.; Demirpolat, G.; Hekimgil, M.; Soydan, S.; Altay, B.

    2008-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective study to review the efficiency of grey-scale transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in detecting prostate cancer compared with the data in recent published work, including alternative imaging methods of the prostate gland. Our study group consisted of 830 patients who underwent TRUS-guided biopsy of the prostate between May 2000 and June 2004. The relation between abnormal TRUS findings and serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) levels was evaluated in patients with prostate cancer who were divided into three different groups according to serum tPSA levels. Group I included patients with tPSA levels of 4-9.9 ng/mL, group II included tPSA levels of 10-19.9 ng/mL and group III included patients with tPSA levels of 20 ng/mL or more. In general, TRUS detected 185 (64%) of 291 cancers with a specificity of 89%, a PPV of 76% and an accuracy of 80%. TRUS findings enabled the correct identification of 22 (56%) of the 39 cancers in group I, 28 (30%) of the 93 cancers in group II and 135 (85%) of the 159 cancers in group III. In conclusion, TRUS alone has a limited potential to identify prostate cancer, especially in patients with tPSA levels lower than 20 ng/mL. Therefore, increased numbers of systematically placed biopsy cores must be taken or alternative imaging methods are required to direct TRUS-guided biopsy for improving prostate cancer detection.

  14. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN G6PD DEFICIENCY AND TOTAL SERUM BILIRUBIN LEVEL IN ICTERIC NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Behjati-Ardakani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available "nGlucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most important disease of the hexose monophosphate pathway. Deficiency of this enzym can lead to hemolysis of red blood cells. Our aim was to study the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in relation to neonatal jaundice. We studied 456 clinically icteric neonates Laboratory investigations included determination of direct and indirect serum bilirubin concentrations, blood group typing, direct coomb's test, hemoglobin, blood smear, reticulocyte count and G6PD level. We divided these neonates to 3 groups based on total serum bilirubin level (TSB: TSB< 20 mg%, TSB=20-25 mg%, and TSB>25 mg%. In only 35 (7.6% of cases G6PD deficiency was diagnosed. All of these babies were male. From 456 icteric neonates, 213 cases belong to group 1 (TSB<20 mg%, 158 cases belong to group 2 (TSB=20-25 mg% and 85 cases belong to group 3 (TSB>25 mg%. 16 neonates from 213 neonates of group 1, 6 neonates from 158 neonates of group 2 and 13 neonates from 85 neonates of group 3 had G6PD deficiency. There was statistically significant difference of prevalence of G6PD deficiency between group 2 and 3 ( 15.3% vs 3.8%( P = 0.001. Between groups 1 vs 2 and 1 vs 3 no statistically significant difference was found. Early detection of this enzymopathy regardless of sex and close surveillance of the affected newborns may be important in reducing the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia. This emphasizes the necessity of neonatal screening on cord blood samples for G6PD deficiency.

  15. Elevated Serum Osmolality and Total Water Deficit Indicate Impaired Hydration Status in Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities Regardless of Low or High Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Melissa Ventura; Simmons, Sandra F; Shotwell, Matthew S; Hudson, Abbie; Hollingsworth, Emily K; Long, Emily; Kuertz, Brittany; Silver, Heidi J

    2016-05-01

    Dehydration is typically associated with underweight and malnutrition in long-term care (LTC) settings. Evidence is lacking regarding the influence of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity on risk factors, prevalence, and presentation of dehydration. The aim of this study was to objectively assess hydration status and the adequacy of total water intake, and determine relationships between hydration status, total water intake, and body mass index (BMI) in LTC residents. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was performed. Baseline data from 247 subjects recruited from eight community-based LTC facilities participating in two randomized trials comparing nutrient and cost-efficacy of between-meal snacks vs oral nutrition supplements (ONS). Hydration status was assessed by serum osmolality concentration and total water intakes were quantified by weighed food, beverage, water, and ONS intake. Simple and multiple linear regression methods were applied. Forty-nine (38.3%) subjects were dehydrated (>300 mOsm/kg) and another 39 (30.5%) had impending dehydration (295 to 300 mOsm/kg). The variance in serum osmolality was significantly accounted for by blood urea nitrogen level, mental status score, and having diabetes (R(2)=0.46; PTotal water intake averaged 1,147.2±433.1 mL/day. Thus, 96% to 100% of subjects did not meet estimated requirements, with a deficit range of 700 to 1,800 mL/day. The variance in total water intake was significantly accounted for by type of liquid beverages (thin vs thick), type of ONS, total energy intake, total activities of daily living dependence, sex, and BMI (R(2)=0.56; Ptotal water intake is prevalent in LTC residents across all BMI categories. Type of liquid beverages, type of ONS, and type of between-meal snacks are factors that could be targeted for nutrition interventions designed to prevent or reverse dehydration. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Risk factors for elevated serum total bile acid in preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan-Ting; Wang, Yong-Qin; Zhao, Yue-Hua; Zhu, Hai-Ling; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Xiao; Gao, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Wei-Ye; Sang, Yu-Tong

    2018-03-01

    To study the risk factors for elevated serum total bile acid (TBA) in preterm infants. A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 216 preterm infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. According to the presence or absence of elevated TBA (TBA >24.8 μmol/L), the preterm infants were divided into elevated TBA group with 53 infants and non-elevated TBA group with 163 infants. A univariate analysis and an unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the risk factors for elevated TBA. The univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences between the elevated TBA group and the non-elevated TBA group in gestational age at birth, birth weight, proportion of small-for-gestational-age infants, proportion of infants undergoing ventilator-assisted ventilation, fasting time, parenteral nutrition time, and incidence of neonatal respiratory failure and sepsis (PTBA in preterm infants. Low birth weight and neonatal sepsis may lead to elevated TBA in preterm infants.

  17. Clinical evaluation of free to total prostate specific antigen ratio in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Wei; Deng Shouzhen; Lin Xiangtong

    1999-01-01

    Free and total prostate specific antigen (F-PSA and T-PSA) in serum were measured with immunoradiometric assay and the F/T-PSA ratio was calculated in 175 patients with T-PSA levels in the range of 4-20 μg/L. Among them 141 patients were benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 23 were untreated prostate cancer (Pca untreated) and 11 were treated prostate cancer (Pca treated). The results showed that difference in F-PSA and F/T-PSA ratio for BPH group and Pca untreated group were statistically significant (P<0.01). The effectiveness of F/T-PSA ratio for Pca (89.9%) was higher than F-PSA (54.8%). The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed an improved diagnostic efficacy of F/T-PSA ratio compared with T-PSA for discrimination between BPH and Pca. If mean F/T-PSA ratio value + 1 SE (13.2%) was used in BPH group as discrimination limits of Pca patients, the diagnostic accuracy of BPH group and Pca untreated group were 90.8% and 82.6% respectively. Thereby F/T-PSA ratio may be useful for the differentiation between BPH and prostate cancer

  18. Elevated serum urate is a potential factor in reduction of total bilirubin: a Mendelian randomization study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Jing; Dong, Zheng; Ding, Yue; Qian, Qiaoxia; Zhou, Jingru; Ma, Yanyun; Mei, Zhendong; Chen, Xiangxiang; Li, Yuan; Yuan, Ziyu; Zhang, Juan; Yang, Yajun; Chen, Xingdong; Jin, Li; Zou, Hejian; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jiucun

    2017-01-01

    Aim A Mendelian randomization study (MRS) can be linked to a “natural” randomized controlled trial in order to avoid potential bias of observational epidemiology. We aimed to study the possible association between serum urate (SU) and total bilirubin (TBIL) using MRS. Materials and Methods An observational epidemiological study using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and MRS using two-stage least square (TLS) regression was conducted to assess the effect of SU on TBIL. The comparison between the OLS regression and the TLS regression was analyzed by the Durbin-Hausman test. If the p value is significant, it suggests that the OLS regression cannot evaluate the relationship between exposure and outcome, and the TLS regression is precise; while if the p value is not significant, there would be no significant difference between the two regressions. Results A total of 3,753 subjects were analyzed. In OLS regression, there was no significant association between SU and TBIL in all subjects and subgroup analysis (all p > 0.05). However, MRS revealed a negative correlation between SU and TBIL after adjustment for confounders (beta = –0.021, p = 0.010). Further analysis was conducted in different SU subgroups, and results show that elevated SU was associated with a significant reduction in TBIL after adjustment for hyperuricemic subjects (beta = –0.053, p = 0.027). In addition, the results using the Durbin-Hausman test further confirmed a negative effect of SU on TBIL (p = 0.002 and 0.010, respectively). Conclusions This research shows for the first time that elevated SU was a potential causal factor in the reduction of TBIL and it provides strong evidence to resolve the controversial association between SU and TBIL. PMID:29262606

  19. [Total serum calcium and corrected calcium as severity predictors in acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Jiménez, A A; Castro-Jiménez, E; Lagunes-Córdoba, R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate total serum calcium (TC) and albumin-corrected calcium (ACC) as prognostic severity factors in acute pancreatitis (AP). Ninety-six patients were included in the study. They were diagnosed with AP and admitted to the Hospital Regional de Veracruz within the time frame of January 2010 to December 2012. AP severity was determined through the updated Atlanta Classification (2013). TC and ACC values were measured in the first 24hours of admittance and the percentages of sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) were calculated through ROC curves and contingency tables. In accordance with the updated Atlanta Classification, 70 patients presented with mild AP, 17 with moderately severe AP, and 9 with severe AP. Of the patient total, 61.5% were women, and 69.8% presented with biliary etiology. The maximum TC cut-off point was 7.5mg/dL, with values of S, 67%; Sp, 82%; PPV, 27%, and NPV, 96%. The maximum ACC cut-off point was 7.5mg/dL, with values of S, 67%; Sp, 90%; PPV, 40%; NPV, 96%. Both had values similar to those of the Ranson and APACHE II prognostic scales. TC and ACC, measured within the first 24hours, are useful severity predictors in acute pancreatitis, with sensitivity and predictive values comparable or superior to those of the conventional prognostic scales. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Serum and plasma for total and free anticonvulsant drug analyses: effects on EMIT assays and ultrafiltration devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, W; Trepanier, J; Farrell, K

    1983-01-01

    The suitability of serum and plasma anticoagulated with heparin, EDTA, citrate, or oxalate was assessed for analysis of free and total phenytoin, carbamazepine, and valproic acid. The free fraction was isolated by ultrafiltration through FreeLevel devices (Syva, Palo Alto, CA). Serum, heparin, and EDTA plasma were satisfactory for both free and total phenytoin and carbamazepine. EDTA could not be used for EMIT (Syva) analysis of valproate. Citrate and, to a lesser degree, oxalate cause a significant negative interference in the concentration of these three drugs as measured both by EMIT and gas-liquid chromatography.

  1. Determination of total bile acids in serum. A comparison of a radioimmunoassay with an enzymatic-fluorimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkey, B.J.; Marks, V.

    1982-01-01

    A solid phase radioimmunoassay kit method for total conjugated bile acids has been compared to an enzymatic fluorimetric method for total serum bile acids. The methods were compared with respect to: precision, cross-reactivity (molar equivalence) of different bile salts, recovery of different bile salts from serum, the reference range for a healthy population, linearity, coefficient of correlation, diagnostic effectiveness, cost and ease of assay. Both assays seemed equally capable of predicting the presence or absence of liver disease. Radioimmunoassay had little advantage over the enzymatic-fluorimetric method. Its relative ease was far outweighed by its greater cost and poorer analytical performance. (Auth.)

  2. Serum Interleukin-4 and Total Immunoglobulin E in Nonatopic Alopecia Areata Patients and HLA-DRB1 Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Enas A S; El Shennawy, Dina; Sefin, Ashraf

    2010-01-01

    Background. Interleukin-4 (IL-4), a Th(2) cytokine, can stimulate immunoglobulin E (IgE) transcription. No previous studies evaluated the genetic mechanisms in nonatopic AA patients with elevated serum IgE. Objective. To compare serum IL-4 and total IgE levels between Egyptian nonatopic AA patients and healthy subjects and to investigate a possible relation to HLA-DRB1 alleles. Results. Serum IL-4 and total IgE were measured by ELISA in 40 controls and 54 nonatopic AA patients. Patients' HLA-DRB1 typing by sequence specific oligonucleotide probe technique was compared to normal Egyptian population. We found significantly elevated serum IL-4 and total IgE in AA patients (particularly alopecia universalis, AU, and chronic patients) (P Serum IL-4 and IgE are elevated in nonatopic AA patients, particularly AU and chronic disease. Relevant susceptibility, chronicity, and severity HLADRB1 alleles may have a role in determining type, magnitude, and duration of immune response in AA favouring increased IL4 and IgE.

  3. Association Between Maternal Serum Total Oxidant Status Total Antioxidant Status and Preterm Labor: A Prospective - Controlled Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Kalaycı; Mete Gürol Uğur; Ebru Öztürk; Özcan Balat; Özcan Erel

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the levels of individual antioxidant components of pregnants with preterm labor to evaluate their total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI). STUDY DESIGN: Prospectively-controlled 31 pregnants with a diagnosis of preterm labor (group Ι) and 32 controls (group ΙΙ) were evaluated for demographic data, general and obstetrical physical examination, obstetrical sonography, and routine laboratory tests. TAS, TOS and OSI leve...

  4. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kandasamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP and hemoglobin (Hb levels. Materials and Methods: The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Results: Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Also serum and salivary IgG and IgA levels showed significantly increased (P < 0.01 in all the three staging of OSMF when compared to control group. Hb levels and TSP levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. One-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and unpaired t -test were used for statistical analysis. Conclusion: The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  5. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, M; Jaisanghar, N; Austin, Ravi David; Srivastava, Kumar Chandan; Anusuya, G Sai; Anisa, N

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA) levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased ( P < 0.001) in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Also serum and salivary IgG and IgA levels showed significantly increased ( P < 0.01) in all the three staging of OSMF when compared to control group. Hb levels and TSP levels were significantly decreased ( P < 0.001) in OSMF patients when compared to controls. One-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and unpaired t -test were used for statistical analysis. The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  6. Serum high molecular weight complex of adiponectin correlates better with glucose tolerance than total serum adiponectin in Indo-Asian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, F F M; Trujillo, M E; Hanif, W; Barnett, A H; McTernan, P G; Scherer, P E; Kumar, S

    2005-06-01

    It is well established that total systemic adiponectin is reduced in type 2 diabetic subjects. To date most studies have been concerned with the singular full-length protein or proteolytically cleaved globular domain. It is, however, apparent that the native protein circulates in serum as a lower molecular weight hexamer and as larger multimeric structures of high molecular weight (HMW). In this study we address the clinical significance of each form of the protein with respect to glucose tolerance. Serum was obtained from 34 Indo-Asian male subjects (BMI 26.5+/-3.1; age 52.15+/-10.14 years) who had undertaken a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. An aliquot of serum was fractionated using velocity sedimentation followed by reducing SDS-PAGE. Western blots were probed for adiponectin, and HMW adiponectin as a percentage of total adiponectin (percentage of higher molecular weight adiponectin [S(A)] index) was calculated from densitometry readings. Total adiponectin was measured using ELISA; leptin, insulin and IL-6 were determined using ELISA. Analysis of the cohort demonstrated that total adiponectin (r = 0.625, p = 0.0001), fasting insulin (r = -0.354, p = 0.040) and age (r = 0.567, p = 0.0001) correlated with S(A). S(A) showed a tighter, inverse correlation with 2-h glucose levels (r = -0.58, p = 0.0003) than total adiponectin (r = -0.38, p = 0.0001). This study demonstrates the importance of the S(A) index as a better determinant of glucose intolerance than measurements of total adiponectin. Our findings suggest that HMW adiponectin is the active form of the protein.

  7. Validation of a transcutaneous bilirubin meter in Mongolian neonates: comparison with total serum bilirubin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahira-Azuma, Moe; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Ganzorig, Battsengel; Mori, Rintaro; Hosokawa, Shinichi; Matsushita, Takeji; Bavuusuren, Bayasgalantai; Shonkhuuz, Enkhtur

    2013-09-27

    Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, especially kernicterus, can be prevented by screening for neonatal jaundice. The transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) meter is a non-invasive medical device for screening neonates. The study aimed to investigate the validity of a TcB meter in a resource-limited setting such as Mongolia. Term and late preterm neonates from the National Center for Maternal and Child Health of Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia who met the inclusion criteria (gestational age ≥35 weeks, birth weight ≥2000 g, postnatal age ≤ 1 month) were enrolled in the study. We used a TcB meter, JM-103 to screen for neonatal jaundice. TcB measurements at the infant's forehead and midsternum were performed within 3 h of obtaining samples for total serum bilirubin (TSB) measurement. We analyzed the correlation between TcB measurements and TSB measurements to validate the meter. A total of 47 term and six late preterm neonates were included in the study. TcB measured by the meter at both the forehead and the midsternum showed a strong correlation with TSB measured in the laboratory. The correlation equations were TSB = 1.409+0.8655 × TcB (R2=0.78871) at the forehead, and TSB = 0.7555+0.8974 × TcB (R2=0.78488) at the midsternum. Bland-Altman plots and the Bradley-Blackwood test showed no significant differences between the two methods at all measured ranges of bilirubin. The mean areas under the curves of TcB at the forehead and midsternum at three TSB levels (>10 mg/dL, >13 mg/dL, >15 mg/dL) of TcB were greater than 0.9, and all had high sensitivity and specificity. This study established the validity of the JM-103 meter as a screening tool for neonatal jaundice in term and late preterm infants in Mongolia. Future studies are needed, including the establishment of a TcB hour-specific nomogram, for more effective clinical practice to prevent severe hyperbilirubinemia.

  8. Measurement of synovial fluid volume using urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, V B; Stabler, T V; Kong, S Y; Varju, G; McDaniel, G

    2007-10-01

    To examine the utility of using urea concentrations for determining Synovial Fluid (SF) joint volume in effused and non-effused joints. Knee joint SF was aspirated from 159 human study participants with symptomatic osteoarthritis of at least one knee either directly (165 knees) or by lavage (110 knees). Serum was obtained immediately prior to SF aspiration. Participants were asked to rate individual knee pain, aching or stiffness. SF and serum urea levels were determined using a specific enzymatic method run on an automated CMA600 analyzer. Cell counts were performed on direct SF aspirates when volume permitted. The formula for calculating SF joint volume was as follows: V(j)=C(D)(V(I))/(C-C(D)) with V(j)=volume of SF in entire joint, C(D)=concentration of urea in diluted (lavage) SF, V(I)=volume of saline injected into joint, and C=concentration of urea in undiluted (neat) SF derived below where C=0.897(C(S)) and C(s)=concentration of urea in serum. There was an excellent correlation (r(2)=0.8588) between SF and serum urea in the direct aspirates with a ratio of 0.897 (SF/serum). Neither urea levels nor the SF/serum ratio showed any correlation with Kellgren Lawrence (KL) grade, or cell count. While urea levels increased with age there was no change in the ratio. Intraarticular SF volumes calculated for the lavaged knees ranged from 0.555 to 71.71ml with a median volume of 3.048ml. There was no correlation of SF volume to KL grade but there was a positive correlation (P=0.001) between SF volume and self-reported individual knee pain. Our urea results for direct aspirates indicate an equilibrium state between serum and SF with regard to the water fraction. This equilibrium exists regardless of disease status (KL grade), inflammation (cell count), or age, making it possible to calculate intraarticular volume of lavaged joints based upon this urea method. Most of the joint volumes we calculated fell within the previously reported range for normal knees of 0.5-4.0ml

  9. IFCC reference measurement procedure for substance concentration determination of total carbon dioxide in blood, plasma or serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burnett, RW; Covington, AK; Fogh-Andersen, N; Kulpmann, WR; Lewenstam, A; Mas, AHJ; VanKessel, AL; Zijlstra, WG

    A reference measurement procedure for substance concentration determination of total CO, in blood, plasma (the anticoagulant is usually heparin) or serum is described. The document covers the principle of the method, the materials and equipment needed and essential aspects of the procedure. The

  10. Quantitation of bilirubin conjugates with high-performance liquid chromatography in patients with low total serum bilirubin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P. L.; Cuypers, H. T.; Peters, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Bilirubin mono- and diconjugates were determined by alkaline methanolysis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in serum from patients with metastatic liver disease and liver cirrhosis. Conjugates could be detected and quantitated at normal or low total bilirubin levels. Comparison with

  11. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone, inhibin B, and total inhibin levels in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea and anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisi, Stefano; Ciani, Valentina; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Lazzeri, Lucia; De Pascalis, Flavio; Meczekalski, Blazej; Petraglia, Felice

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether neuroendocrine forms of secondary amenorrhea (hypothalamic nervosa (HA) and anorexia nervosa (AN)) affect serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, and total inhibin levels. Amenorrheic women (n = 82) (aged between 16 and 35 years old) according to diagnosed with neuroendocrine forms of amenorrhea: HA (n = 64), AN (n = 18), and healthy women (n = 41) (control group) were enrolled. Serum AMH, inhibin B, and total inhibin levels were measured by specific ELISA. No statistically significant difference of AMH serum levels between women with HA, AN, and control group was observed. Serum inhibin B and total inhibin levels in women with HA (p < 0.0001), AN (p < 0.05) resulted significantly lower than in control healthy women. The present data showed that neuroendocrine forms of amenorrhea are associated with an impaired inhibin secretion while not AMH. These data indirectly support that AMH is an excellent marker of ovarian reserve and its secretion is not influenced by the hypothalamic-ovarian axis activity.

  12. First trimester serum levels of the soluble transcobalamin receptor, holo-transcobalamin, and total transcobalamin in relation to preeclampsia risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abuyaman, Omar; Torring, Niels; Obeid, Rima

    2016-01-01

    transcobalamin (TC) with the risk of subsequent preeclampsia using serum samples from asymptomatic first trimester pregnant women. Moreover, we aimed to establish reference intervals of the aforementioned biomarkers for first trimester pregnant women who remained healthy throughout pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN...... preeclampsia while the controls remained normotensive throughout pregnancy. We measured the serum concentration of sCD320, holoTC, and total TC by using in-house ELISA methods. RESULTS: First trimester median concentrations of sCD320, holoTC and total TC were not significantly different between cases...... and controls. The odd ratio for developing preeclampsia based on exposure to low or high levels of sCD320, holoTC or total TC at first trimester was not significant. The reference intervals (2.5-97.5% percentiles (median)) derived from the controls were 50-170 (90) pmol\\L for sCD320, 20-140 (70) pmol...

  13. Relationship between serum total bilirubin levels and mortality in uremia patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Man; Lin, Yi-Chun; Lin, Yen-Chung; Kao, Chih-Chin; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Wu, Mai-Szu

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies show that serum bilirubin has potent antioxidant effect and is associated with protection from kidney damage and reduce cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to examine the association of serum total bilirubin level and mortality in uremia patients who underwent hemodialysis. This is a nationwide retrospective long-term cohort study. Patients were registered in the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System (TWRDS) from 2005 to 2012. A total of 115,535 hemodialysis patients were surveyed and those with valid baseline total bilirubin (TB) data were enrolled. All-cause mortality was the primary outcome. A total of 47,650 hemodialysis patients followed for 27.6 ± 12 months, were divided into 3 groups according to different baseline serum total bilirubin levels (0.1-0.3, 0.3-0.7, 0.7-1.2 mg/dL). Mean age was 61.4 ± 13.6 years, 50% were male, 13% were hepatitis B carriers, and 20% were hepatitis C carriers. Primary outcome was the 3-year mortality. The TB level 0.7-1.2 mg/dL group had high mortality, statistically significant hazard ratio of mortality was 1.14 (crude HR, 95% 1.07-1.20, p bilirubin on hemodialysis patients are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Study of the Influence of Urea and Hexa Methylene Tetramine (HMTA) Additive on the Total Gelation Process of Uranium on the Chemical Characteristic of the Poly (Uranate-Vinyl Alcohol) Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damunir

    2007-01-01

    The study of the influence of urea and Hexa methylene tetramine (HMTA) additive on the total gelation process of uranium on the chemical characteristic of the poly (uranate-vinyl alcohol) gel was done. First of all the 1M uranyl nitrate solution was heated at 70 °C, then variation the 1,2,3,4 and 5M urea additive was studied. Urea was added to the hot solution, and stirred for 10 minutes, producing the colloid particles of UO 3 . The mixing and heating up for 20 minutes, the colloid of UO 3 solution reacted by mixed of THF-PVA 1:1 solution. The solution was cooled at 32°C for 2 hours, and then variation the 1,2,3,4 and 5M HMTA additive was studied. HMTA was added into solution at 32°C and was stirred to form the homogenous sol solution. For the poly (urinate-vinyl) gel formation, the sol solution was dropped to the medium solution of 5M NH 5 OH at ambient condition. Gel formatted was microsphere then soaked, washed by NH 4 OH and hot water to release the chemical matters which were unreacted, was dried at 60°C and then dried at 150°C for 4 hours. The chemical characteristic of gel was made, covering the analyzed of colour, shape and diameter microsphere using optical microscope. Next, the analysis of molecular composition of the gel, using Fourier transform infra red spectroscopic (FTIR), was made. The analytical were the qualitative analysis of the absorption band of infra red spectrum on O-U-O-U-O bond, U-O bond and NH 3 , C-OH, C-H and OH functional group at 300-4000 wave numbers. The result of the research showed that the addition of urea and HMTA additive influences on chemical characteristic of the poly (uranate-vinyl alcohol) gel. The optimum condition was at 2-3 M urea and 2- M HMTA concentration. The analyze of absorption band of infra red spectrum showed that the molecular composition of poly (vinyl alcohol) gel was the uranium trioxide, ammonia, water and polyvinyl alcohol molecular contain with the molecular formulas of [2UO 3 .2 NH 3 .H 2 O

  15. Multiplex ready flow cytometric immunoassay for total insulin like growth factor 1 in serum of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    The European Union has banned the use of recombinant bovine somatotropins (rbST, growth hormones) to increase milk yield in dairy cattle. As direct detection of rbST in serum is problematic, methods based on the detection of changes in multiple rbST-dependent biomarkers have high potential for

  16. Blood urea nitrogen to serum creatinine ratio is an accurate predictor of outcome in diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome, a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenswijk, Werner; Vanmassenhove, Jill; Raes, Ann; Dhont, Evelyn; Vande Walle, Johan

    2017-03-01

    Diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS) is a common thrombotic microangiopathy during childhood and early identification of parameters predicting poor outcome could enable timely intervention. This study aims to establish the accuracy of BUN-to-serum creatinine ratio at admission, in addition to other parameters in predicting the clinical course and outcome. Records were searched for children between 1 January 2008 and 1 January 2015 admitted with D+HUS. A complicated course was defined as developing one or more of the following: neurological dysfunction, pancreatitis, cardiac or pulmonary involvement, hemodynamic instability, and hematologic complications while poor outcome was defined by death or development of chronic kidney disease. Thirty-four children were included from which 11 with a complicated disease course/poor outcome. Risk of a complicated course/poor outcome was strongly associated with oliguria (p = 0.000006) and hypertension (p = 0.00003) at presentation. In addition, higher serum creatinine (p = 0.000006) and sLDH (p = 0.02) with lower BUN-to-serum creatinine ratio (p = 0.000007) were significantly associated with development of complications. A BUN-to-sCreatinine ratio ≤40 at admission was a sensitive and highly specific predictor of a complicated disease course/poor outcome. A BUN-to-serum Creatinine ratio can accurately identify children with D+HUS at risk for a complicated course and poor outcome. What is Known: • Oliguria is a predictor of poor long-term outcome in D+HUS What is New: • BUN-to-serum Creatinine ratio at admission is an entirely novel and accurate predictor of poor outcome and complicated clinical outcome in D+HUS • Early detection of the high risk group in D+HUS enabling early treatment and adequate monitoring.

  17. Serum IGF-1 is insufficient to restore skeletal size in the total absence of the growth hormone receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingjie; Sun, Hui; Basta-Pljakic, Jelena; Cardoso, Luis; Kennedy, Oran D; Jasper, Hector; Domené, Horacio; Karabatas, Liliana; Guida, Clara; Schaffler, Mitchell B; Rosen, Clifford J; Yakar, Shoshana

    2013-01-01

    States of growth hormone (GH) resistance, such those observed in Laron’s dwarf patients, are characterized by mutations in the GH receptor (GHR), decreased serum and tissue IGF-1 levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired skeletal acquisition. IGF-1 replacement therapy in such patients increases growth velocity but does not normalize growth. Herein we combined the GH-resistant (GHR knockout, GHRKO) mouse model with mice expressing the hepatic Igf-1 transgene (HIT) to generate the GHRKO-HIT mouse model. In GHRKOHIT mice, serum IGF-1 levels were restored via transgenic expression of Igf-1 allowing us to study how endocrine IGF-1 affects growth, metabolic homeostasis, and skeletal integrity. We show that in a GH-resistant state, normalization of serum IGF-1 improved body adiposity and restored glucose tolerance but was insufficient to support normal skeletal growth, resulting in an osteopenic skeletal phenotype. The inability of serum IGF-1 to restore skeletal integrity in the total absence of GHR likely resulted from reduced skeletal Igf-1 gene expression, blunted GH-mediated effects on the skeleton that are independent of serum or tissue IGF-1, and from poor delivery of IGF-1 to the tissues. These findings are consistent with clinical data showing that IGF-I replacement therapy in patients with Laron’s syndrome does not achieve full skeletal growth. PMID:23456957

  18. Experimental studies on urea degradation in seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajendran, A.; Joseph, T.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    polluted waters, resulting in the accumulation of ammonia. The urea decomposing bacteria varied between 7 and 40% among the total heterotrophic bacteria in Velsao Bay, while these were from 15 to 22% near Mormugao. The rate for biological oxidation of urea...

  19. The relationship between serum total testosterone and free testosterone levels with serum hemoglobin and hematocrit levels: a study in 1221 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu Seob; You, Jae Hyung; Cha, Jai Seong; Park, Jong Kwan

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) levels in men with anemia. We reviewed the records of 1221 subjects between March 2009 and December 2014. All the subjects' blood samples were drawn for TT and FT assays. Their serum hemoglobin (Hb) and serum hematocrit (Hct) levels were measured. The primary objective of our study was to investigate the association between TT and FT levels with Hb and Hct levels. The mean age was 59.82 ± 12.71 years. The mean TT and FT levels were 4.54 ± 2.02 ng/mL and 10.63 ± 3.69 pg/mL, respectively. The mean Hb and Hct levels were 14.72 ± 1.34 g/dL and 43.11 ± 3.75%, respectively. Subjects with low TT (<2.35 ng/mL) had low Hb and Hct levels (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). TT was positively associated with FT, Hb, and Hct. TT and FT levels were significantly lower in older men. Subjects with low TT and FT levels had low Hb and Hct levels. This suggests that TT and FT play a significant role in erythropoiesis. Testosterone replacement therapy may be effective in men with hypogonadism to reduce the incidence of anemia.

  20. Serum Interleukin-4 and Total Immunoglobulin E in Nonatopic Alopecia Areata Patients and HLA-DRB1 Typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. S. Attia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Interleukin-4 (IL-4, a Th2 cytokine, can stimulate immunoglobulin E (IgE transcription. No previous studies evaluated the genetic mechanisms in nonatopic AA patients with elevated serum IgE. Objective. To compare serum IL-4 and total IgE levels between Egyptian nonatopic AA patients and healthy subjects and to investigate a possible relation to HLA-DRB1 alleles. Results. Serum IL-4 and total IgE were measured by ELISA in 40 controls and 54 nonatopic AA patients. Patients' HLA-DRB1 typing by sequence specific oligonucleotide probe technique was compared to normal Egyptian population. We found significantly elevated serum IL-4 and total IgE in AA patients (particularly alopecia universalis, AU, and chronic patients (P<.01. HLA-DRB1*11 is a general susceptibility/chronicity allele. DRB1*13 is a protective allele. DRB1*01 and DRB1*07 are linked to chronicity. Localized AA showed decreased DRB1*03 and DRB1*07. Extensive forms showed increased DRB1*08 and decreased DRB1*04. Elevated IL4 and IgE were observed in patients with DRB1*07 and DRB1*11 not DRB1*04. Conclusion. Serum IL-4 and IgE are elevated in nonatopic AA patients, particularly AU and chronic disease. Relevant susceptibility, chronicity, and severity HLADRB1 alleles may have a role in determining type, magnitude, and duration of immune response in AA favouring increased IL4 and IgE.

  1. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Hossain, Mahmud; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Izmirlian, Grant; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Wei-Jun; Leach, Robin J.; Thompson, Ian M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) has been more frequently applied to measure low abundance biomarker candidates in tissues and biofluids, owing to its high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of assay configuration, and exceptional multiplexing capability. In this study, we report for the first time the development of immunoaffinity depletion-based workflows and SRM-MS assays that enable sensitive and accurate quantification of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum without the requirement for specific PSA antibodies. Low ng/mL level detection of both total and free PSA was consistently achieved in both PSA-spiked female serum samples and actual patient serum samples. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained when SRM PSA assays and conventional immunoassays were applied to the same samples showed good correlation in several independent clinical serum sample sets. These results demonstrate that the workflows and SRM assays developed here provide an attractive alternative for reliably measuring candidate biomarkers in human blood, without the need to develop affinity reagents. Furthermore, the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers, including the free and bound forms of PSA, can be performed in a single multiplexed analysis using high-resolution liquid chromatographic separation coupled with SRM-MS. PMID:22846433

  2. The investigation of immunoprotective and sedative hypnotic effect of total polysaccharide from Suanzaoren decoction by serum metabonomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoyi; He, Bosai; Du, Yiyang; Sui, Zhenyu; Rong, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaotong; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2018-06-01

    Suanzaoren decoction, as one of the traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions, has been most commonly used in Asian countries and reported to inhibit the process of immunodeficiency insomnia. Polysaccharide is important component which also contributes to the role of immunoprotective and sedative hypnotic effects. This study was aimed to explore the immunoprotective and sedative hypnotic mechanisms of polysaccharide from Suanzaoren decoction by serum metabonomics approach. With this purpose, complex physical and chemical immunodeficiency insomnia models were firstly established according to its multi-target property. Serum samples were analyzed using UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS spectrometry approach to determine endogenous metabolites. Then, principal component analysis was used to distinguish the groups, and partial least squares discriminate analysis was carried out to confirm the important variables. The serum metabolic profiling was identified and pathway analysis was performed after the total polysaccharide administration. The twenty-one potential biomarkers were screened, and the levels were all reversed to different degrees in the total polysaccharide treated groups. These potential biomarkers were mainly related to vitamin, sphingolipid, bile acid, phospholipid and acylcarnitine metabolisms. The result has indicated that total polysaccharide could inhibit insomnia triggered by immunodeficiency stimulation through regulating those metabolic pathways. This study provides a useful approach for exploring the mechanism and evaluating the efficacy of total polysaccharide from Suanzaoren decoction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Entry of blood urea into the rumen of the llama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinderer, S.; Engelhardt, W. von

    1976-01-01

    Transfer of body urea into the temporarily isolated rumen cleaned and filled with a test solution was measured in the llama. Simultaneously urea recirculation into the total gastro-intestinal tract (GI-tract) was estimated using 14 C-urea. The permeability of the rumen wall to urea could be changed significantly. With CO 2 or butyric acid in the test solution, permeability was highest, it was low when food was withheld and when no volatile fatty acids were present in the solution. Changes in the permeability can affect the transfer of blood urea across the rumen wall more extensively than changes in plasma urea concentrations. (author)

  4. Serum level modifications of female sex hormones after radiocastration with different total doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naujokat, B.; Rohloff, R.; Willich, N.; Eiermann, W.

    1988-01-01

    We determined serum level of estradiol, FSH and LH over a period of six to eight weeks after ovarian irradiation for castration with different doses (2x2.5 Gy/3x2.5 Gy/4x2.5 Gy) in 15 patients with metastatic breast cancer as compared to changes after ovarectomy in five patients. The time course of the changing estradiol-, FSH and LH-serum levels sigificantly depends on the ovarian dose. After radiological castration with a dose of 4x2.5 Gy = 10 Gy in four days the estrogen levels decrease within two to three weeks, and the FSH- and LH-levels increase after three to four weeks into the postmenopausal range. Therefore, the time course is not very different from changes after ovarectomy. (orig.) [de

  5. Urea metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Claus-Peter

    2011-03-01

    Urea is a plant metabolite derived either from root uptake or from catabolism of arginine by arginase. In agriculture, urea is intensively used as a nitrogen fertilizer. Urea nitrogen enters the plant either directly, or in the form of ammonium or nitrate after urea degradation by soil microbes. In recent years various molecular players of plant urea metabolism have been investigated: active and passive urea transporters, the nickel metalloenzyme urease catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea, and three urease accessory proteins involved in the complex activation of urease. The degradation of ureides derived from purine breakdown has long been discussed as a possible additional metabolic source for urea, but an enzymatic route for the complete hydrolysis of ureides without a urea intermediate has recently been described for Arabidopsis thaliana. This review focuses on the proteins involved in plant urea metabolism and the metabolic sources of urea but also addresses open questions regarding plant urea metabolism in a physiological and agricultural context. The contribution of plant urea uptake and metabolism to fertilizer urea usage in crop production is still not investigated although globally more than half of all nitrogen fertilizer is applied to crops in the form of urea. Nitrogen use efficiency in crop production is generally well below 50% resulting in economical losses and creating ecological problems like groundwater pollution and emission of nitric oxides that can damage the ozone layer and function as greenhouse gasses. Biotechnological approaches to improve fertilizer urea usage bear the potential to increase crop nitrogen use efficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using total reflection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, D.; Testoni, S.; Buoso, M.C.; Ceccato, D.; Moschini, G.; Valdes, M.; Torboli, A.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 months old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn Kα. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed. (author)

  7. Urea in Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Projectsatbangalore

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-cost, portable instrument using CO2 and NH3 gas sensor technology to quantify and differentiate milk samples containing excess urea. Milk containing urea, in presence of urease enzyme hydrolyses urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide.

  8. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tao; Hossain, Mahmud; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Izmirlian, Grant; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Weijun; Leach, Robin; Thompson, Ian M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srinivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2012-08-03

    Sandwich immunoassay is the standard technique used in clinical labs for quantifying protein biomarkers for disease detection, monitoring and therapeutic intervention. Albeit highly sensitive, the development of a specific immunoassay is rather time-consuming and associated with extremely high cost due to the requirement for paired immunoaffinity reagents of high specificity. Recently, mass spectrometry-based methods, specifically selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS), have been increasingly applied to measure low abundance biomarker candidates in tissue and biofluids, owing to high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of assay configuration, and great multiplexing capability. In this study, we report for the first time the development of immunoaffinity depletion-based workflows and SRM-MS assays that enable sensitive and accurate quantification of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum without the requirement for specific PSA antibodies. With stable isotope dilution and external calibration, low ng/mL level detection of both total and free PSA was consistently achieved in both PSA-spiked female serum samples and actual patient serum samples. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained when SRM PSA assays and conventional immunoassays were applied to the same samples showed very good correlation (R2 values ranging from 0.90 to 0.99) in several independent clinical serum sample sets, including a set of 33 samples assayed in a blinded test. These results demonstrate that the workflows and SRM assays developed here provide an attractive alternative for reliably measuring total and free PSA in human blood. Furthermore, simultaneous measurement of free and total PSA and many other biomarkers can be performed in a single analysis using high-resolution liquid chromatographic separation coupled with SRM-MS.

  9. [Serum total cholesterol levels and eligibility for long-term care insurance: a prospective cohort study of the Tsurugaya project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Rena; Tomata, Yasutake; Kakizaki, Masako; Tsuboya, Toru; Nagai, Masato; Watanabe, Ikue; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between serum total cholesterol levels and certification eligibility for long-term care insurance in elderly Japanese individuals. The Tsurugaya Project was a comprehensive geriatric assessment conducted for community-dwelling elderly individuals aged ≥70 years in the Tsurugaya area, Sendai, Japan. Of the 2,925 inhabitants, 958 subjects participated in the Tsurugaya Project. For this analysis, we used 827 subjects who gave informed consent and were not qualified for long-term care insurance at the time of the baseline survey. Subjects were followed up for 6 years. We classified the subjects into 4 quintiles and used the fourth quintile (212-230 mg/dL) as a reference for statistical analysis. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of certification eligibility for long-term care insurance according to total cholesterol levels in serum. During 6 years of follow-up, a total of 214 subjects were qualified for long-term care insurance certification. The lowest serum total cholesterol level (care insurance certification. Compared with the fourth quintile, multivariate HRs (95%CIs) of long-term care insurance certification were 1.91 (1.23-2.98), 1.36 (0.85-2.18), 0.99 (0.62-1.56), 1.38 (0.88-2.17), for total cholesterol levels were significantly associated with increased eligibility for long-term care insurance certification even after adjusting for a variety of confounding factors.

  10. Transfer of blood urea into the goat colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W. von; Hinderer, S.

    1976-01-01

    Transfer of body urea into the temporarily isolated and perfused colon of conscious goats was measured. Simultaneously total urea turnover was estimated using 14 C-urea. The transfer of urea into the total gastrointestinal tract (total turnover minus renal excretion) was four times higher with the high-energy - low-protein diet (sugar pulp plus straw) compared with control feeding (hay ad lib.). The transfer of urea into the colon was 8% of the transfer into the total GI tract during control feeding, 14% when food was withheld for 48 hours and 1% during sugar pulp feeding. The transfer into the colon depends mainly on the plasma urea concentration, whereas in the proximal part of the GI tract changes in the permeability of the GI tract wall have a more pronounced influence than plasma urea concentration. (author)

  11. Total protein concentration and diagnostic test results for gray wolf (Canis lupus) serum using Nobuto filter paper strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Rocio F.; Sepúlveda, Carolina; Ip, Hon S.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Nobuto filter paper strips are widely used for storing blood-serum samples, but the recovery of proteins from these strips following rehydration is unknown. Poor recovery of proteins could reduce the concentration of antibodies and antigens and reduce the sensitivity of diagnostic assays. We compared the protein concentration, and its association with test sensitivity, of eluted Nobuto strip samples with paired sera. We collected and froze serum from five gray wolves (Canis lupus) for 8 mo. When thawed, we used a spectrophotometer (absorbance 280 nm) to determine the serum protein concentration for paired sera and Nobuto eluates for each animal in 2-fold serial dilutions. Total protein concentration was similar for both sample storage methods (Nobuto eluates and control sera), except for the undiluted samples in which Nobuto eluates had higher total protein concentrations. Both sample storage methods appear to produce similar results using the SNAP® 4Dx® Test to detect antibodies against pathogens causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and ehrlichiosis as well as antigen for canine heartworm disease.

  12. CCQM K6.2 determination of total cholesterol in human serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Phinney, Karen W.; Duewer, David L.; Sniegoski, Lorna T.; Welch, Michael J.; Pabello, Guiomar; Avila Caldero, Marco A.; Qinde, Liu; Kooi, Lee Tong; Rego, Eliane; Garrido, Bruno; Allegri, Gabriella; de La Cruz, Marcia; Barrabin, Juliana; Puglisi, Celia; Lopez, Eduardo; Lee, Hwashim; Kim, Byungjoo; Delatour, Vincent; Heuillet, Maud; Nammoonnoy, Jintana; Ceyhan Gören, Ahmet; Bilsel, Gokhan; Konopelko, L.; Krylov, A.; Lopushanskaya, E.

    2018-01-01

    Cholesterol is one of the most frequently measured substances in human blood/serum to assist in assessing the health status of individuals. Because of its clinical significance, CCQM-K6 determination of cholesterol in serum was completed in 2000 as one of the first key comparison (KC) studies performed within the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG). The first subsequent KC for cholesterol, CCQM-K6.1, was completed in 2001. Measurements for this second subsequent, CCQM-K6.2, were completed in 2012. These subsequent comparisons were conducted to enable CCQM members that had not participated in earlier studies to demonstrate their capabilities to measure a nonpolar (pKow mass (100 g/mol to 500 g/mol) metabolite in human serum at relatively high concentrations (1 mg/g to 3 mg/g) found in normal populations. Successful participation in CCQM-K6.2 demonstrated capabilities in analysis of complex biological matrices including sample preparation (extraction, derivatization), LC or GC separation, and quantification using an isotope dilution mass spectrometry approach. Normally in a subsequent KC, no key comparison reference value (KCRV) would be established and assessment of performance would be via the deviation of participants' results to the anchor institute's results, adjusted to account for the anchor's performance in the original comparison versus its KCRV. Due to the very long-time period since the original key comparison, the OAWG decided that this did not represent the best approach to assess performance in what is a relatively complex measurement. Given the excellent agreement between the anchor institute's results and robust consensus summary of the participants' values, the reference value for this study was taken as the anchor institute's result and treated as a 'KCRV'. Seven of the nine participants demonstrated agreement with the reference value. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears

  13. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing corn dried distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-01-01

    Increased availability of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and a great proportion of corn-derived CP in the diet may result in a degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit. Therefore, ruminal DIP deficit may result from high dietary inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary DIP concentration through the inclusion of urea on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index. In Exp. 1, 42 steers (428 ± 5 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets containing (DM basis) 0 (control [CON]), 0.4 (low urea [LU]), or 0.6% urea (high urea [HU]) to provide 6.4, 7.5, or 8.0% dietary DIP, respectively, and 12% high-moisture corn (HMC), 20% corn dried DG with solubles (DDGS), 10% ryegrass haylage, 2.9% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DRC). Steers were fed ad libitum once daily using a Calan gate system. Carcass-adjusted final BW and DMI were similar among treatments (P ≥ 0.58). Carcass-adjusted ADG was greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the HU diet compared with the LU and CON diets and was similar (P = 0.73) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass-adjusted G:F was greater (P = 0.03) for the HU diet compared with the LU diet, tended (P = 0.09) to be greater compared with the CON diet, and was similar (P = 0.61) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass characteristics were similar (P ≥ 0.34) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 4 ruminally cannulated steers (347 ± 18 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design. Steers were fed the same CON or HU diet used in Exp. 1 ad libitum once daily. Differences in the PDC index were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Ruminal pH, OM intake, and starch and CP digestibility were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.13). Digestibility of OM and NDF and

  14. Disorders of urea cycle: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Álvarez

    2017-08-01

    Discussion: Urea cycle disorders are part of innate errors in ammonia detoxification or arginine synthesis, secondary to defects in the enzymes involved in this cycle. Clinical manifestations are secondary to elevated levels of serum ammonia. The treatment is composed of an acute and chronic phase.

  15. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone, total and free T4 during the neonatal period: Establishing regional reference intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sheikhbahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH, the most common etiology of preventable mental retardation in children, is estimated to be more prevalent among Asian population. Aims: Since thyroid function tests (TFTs varied among different ages and geographical regions, in this study, the neonatal thyroid reference intervals in a healthy neonatal population is determined for the first time in Iran. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study performed on 246 healthy term newborns aged between 2 days and 1 month. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture from all subjects. The median, 2.5 th , 5 th , 95 th , and 97.5 th percentile of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, as well as the total and free T4 were assessed among different age groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Predictive Analytics Software (PASW Statistics 18 was used for the analysis. Results: Serum TSH, total and free T4 concentration peaked in 5 th to 7 th days of life, continued over 2 weeks, then decreased and started reaching to adult reference range. A significant negative correlation between age and serum concentration of TSH (P = 0.02, total T4 (P = 0.01 and free T4 (P = 0.01 was found. Conclusion: This study yielded fairly different values for TFTs compared compared values found in other countries and also different from values reported for laboratory kits we used. These differences were assumed to be due to variations in ethnicity, age, and laboratory methods used. Due to the lack of international standardization, conducting multicenter studies helps in making a more precise evaluation of thyroid status in neonates.

  16. Measurement of urea kinetics in vivo by means of a constant tracer infusion of di-15N-urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    We have assessed the feasibility of studying urea metabolism in vivo in both steady state and nonsteady state situations by means of the primed constant infusion of di-15N-urea and the analysis of the resulting enrichment in plasma urea. Both hepatectomized dogs with known rates of urea infusion and intact dogs were studied. The enrichment of the bistrimethylsilyl derivative of urea was determined on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Selected ion monitoring was set for m/e 189 (M - 15), m/e 190 (A + 1), and m/e 191 (A + 2), thus enabling the calculation of the rate of urea production from nonrecycled NH3 (from A + 2 data) (Ra N), the rate of recycling of NH3 into urea (Ra R) (from A + 1 data), and thus the total rate of urea production (Ra N + Ra R). When urine collections were made, the incorporation of urea-N into protein was estimated from the difference between Ra N and urea excretion. We found that, in the steady state in a hepatectomized dog, the rate of appearance of urea can be determined accurately. In the nonsteady state in both hepatectomized and intact dogs, urea appearance could be estimated within +/- 20% in most situations. The only situation in which this was not the case was when we attempted to measure rapid changes in Ra R. Thus, within limits, this can be a useful technique enabling the quantitation of various aspects of urea metabolism

  17. Exploration of Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D in Total Joint Arthroplasty within a Subtropical Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Naylor

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The majority (53.8% of an otherwise classically low risk patient population present with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency prior to undergoing elective total joint arthroplasty, with elderly non-white patients in the winter months at the highest risk. Appropriate vitamin D management is associated with favorable influences on both skeletal and non-skeletal outcomes. Potential complications of total joint arthroplasty (TJA, including periprosthetic joint infection and aseptic loosening, can possibly be decreased with proper identification and treatment, which can be elucidated by future high quality studies.

  18. A three-month longitudinal study of changes in day/night serum total antioxidant capacity in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera-Fumero, Armando L; Díaz-Mesa, Estefanía; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Fernandez-Lopez, Lourdes; Guillen-Pino, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Free radicals and an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance have been involved in the schizophrenia pathophysiology. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is a measure of the antioxidant capacity of a system. Day/night changes are a biological characteristic of hormones such as melatonin or cortisol. There is little information about TAC day/night changes in schizophrenia patients. The aim of this research is to study if there are day/night changes in serum TAC levels of schizophrenia patients. Thirty-two DSM-IV schizophrenia paranoid patients were studied. Blood was sampled at 12:00 and 00:00 h at admission, discharge and three months after hospital discharge (TMAHD). TAC results are expressed as mmol of Trolox/L. Patients did not have day/night TAC differences at admission (12:00: 0.67±0.12 vs. 00:00: 0.61±0.14, p>0.14) or discharge (12:00: 0.65±0.15 vs. 00:00: 0.65±0.12, p>0.99). At TMHD, patients had significantly higher TAC levels at midday than midnight (12:00: 0.83±0.10 vs. 00:00: 0.74±0.12, pday/night serum TAC changes when clinically relapsed and the normalization of day/night serum TAC changes at TMHD can be considered as a biological marker of schizophrenia evolution.

  19. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanay, A.; Schiffman, G.; Strober, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA

  20. Ultratrace element contents in rat tissues: Comparative analysis of serum and hair as indicative matrices of the total body burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skalny Anatoly V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of ultratrace elements in rat tissues and to perform a comparative analysis of hair and serum as potential bioindicators of the total ultratrace element content. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow containing 0.006±0.000, 0.001±0.000, 0.017±0.002, 0.382±0.031, 0.168±0.014, 3.211±0.134, 0.095±0.006, 0.000±0.000, 6.675±0.336, 15.327±0.564, 0.002±0.000, and 1.185±0.202 μg/g of silver (Ag, gold (Au, cesium (Cs, gallium (Ga, germanium (Ge, lanthanum (La, niobium (Nb, platinum (Pt, rubidium (Rb, titanium (Ti, thallium (Tland zirconium (Zr, respectively, from weaning to 3 months old. The ultratrace element content in the liver, kidney, muscle, heart, serum and hair was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data indicate that the highest concentrations of most of the studied elements (Ti, Zr, Ge, Nb, tungsten (W, La, uranium (U, Ag, Au, Pt are in hair, whereas the lowest were observed in the serum. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between concentrations in the hair and other tissues for Cs, Ti, Nb, Tl, La, U and Au. At the same time, serum Cs, Rb, Ti, Ge, Nb, W, Ga, Tl and La concentrations significantly correlated with the tissue content of the respective ultratrace elements. It can be concluded that hair may be used as a potential bioindicator for certain ultratrace element content in the mammalian organism.

  1. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Postmortem serum levels of tryptase and total and specific IgE in fatal asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkie, M L; Mitchell, I; Revers, C W; Karkhanis, A; Butt, J; Tough, S; Green, F H

    1998-01-01

    Sera were obtained postmortem from 55 subjects classified into three groups; death due to asthma (FA, n = 21), asthmatic but death not due to asthma (NFA, n = 24) and a nonasthmatic control group (NAC, n = 10). A full autopsy was performed on all cases and a medical history, including details of allergies, was obtained by questionnaire from the next of kin. Grading of asthma severity by either questionnaire or autopsy was comparable (tP = 0.435, p > 0.05) and the mean pathology-grade was significantly higher for the FA group (3.375) compared to the NFA group (2.375), p 2.0 micrograms/L) in 21/55 sera (38%) and there was no significant difference between the groups. ROC plots showed that tryptase levels did not discriminate between the FA and NFA groups, even if specimens were collected within 24 hours after death. Total IgE was significantly elevated in the FA group (geometric mean 140.3 kU/L) compared to the other two groups (NFA 30.2 kU/L, NAC 9.4 kU/L), p = 0.05. Fatal asthmatics also had a greater positivity (67%) to a screen for common inhalant allergens than did the other groups (NFA 30%, NAC 20%). Sera with a positive screen were tested against a panel of 10 common aero-allergens. Each sample was then assigned a number (N) and a score (S), dependent on either the number of allergens positive (N) or the total sum of pluses for all allergens (S). Both the N and S values were higher for the FA group (N = 98, S = 264) than the NFA group (N = 52, S = 151) and NAC group (N = 4, S = 8). The ratio (S/N) which gives an index (I) was 2.69, 2.90, and 2.00, respectively. Tryptase was poorly correlated to the total IgE level (r = 0.036); however, mean values for N and S were significantly different (N 6.81, S 4.50, and N 19.25, S 11.5, p or = 2.0 micrograms/L, respectively. We conclude that total and specific IgE may be useful predictors of asthma severity but that postmortem tryptase is not useful in the diagnosis of a fatal asthmatic attack.

  3. Modulation of total IgE levels in serum of normal and athymic nude BALB/c mice by cells and exogenous antigenic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Akker, van den T.W.; Soeting, P.W.C.; Oudenaren, van A.; Benner, R.

    1989-01-01

    Several different grades of T-system impairment were studied for their effects on the total serum IgE concentration in BALB/c mice. Homozygous athymic nu/nu mice and their heterozygous nu/ littermates were compared for serum IgE levels while kept under either barrier-maintained or conventional

  4. Application of laboratory and portable attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopic approaches for rapid quantification of alpaca serum immunoglobulin G.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Elsohaby

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop and compare the performance of laboratory grade and portable attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR spectroscopic approaches in combination with partial least squares regression (PLSR for the rapid quantification of alpaca serum IgG concentration, and the identification of low IgG (<1000 mg/dL, which is consistent with the diagnosis of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI in neonates. Serum samples (n = 175 collected from privately owned, healthy alpacas were tested by the reference method of radial immunodiffusion (RID assay, and laboratory grade and portable ATR-IR spectrometers. Various pre-processing strategies were applied to the ATR-IR spectra that were linked to corresponding RID-IgG concentrations, and then randomly split into two sets: calibration (training and test sets. PLSR was applied to the calibration set and calibration models were developed, and the test set was used to assess the accuracy of the analytical method. For the test set, the Pearson correlation coefficients between the IgG measured by RID and predicted by both laboratory grade and portable ATR-IR spectrometers was 0.91. The average differences between reference serum IgG concentrations and the two IR-based methods were 120.5 mg/dL and 71 mg/dL for the laboratory and portable ATR-IR-based assays, respectively. Adopting an IgG concentration <1000 mg/dL as the cut-point for FTPI cases, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identifying serum samples below this cut point by laboratory ATR-IR assay were 86, 100 and 98%, respectively (within the entire data set. Corresponding values for the portable ATR-IR assay were 95, 99 and 99%, respectively. These results suggest that the two different ATR-IR assays performed similarly for rapid qualitative evaluation of alpaca serum IgG and for diagnosis of IgG <1000 mg/dL, the portable ATR-IR spectrometer performed slightly better, and provides more flexibility for

  5. Effect of urea supplemented and urea treated straw based diet on milk urea concentration in crossbred Karan-Fries cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Sirohi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of urea supplemented and urea treated straw based diet on milk ureaconcentration. Six multiparous crossbred Karan-Fries (Holstein Friesian ✕ Tharparkar cows were blocked into threegroups of nearly equal body weight, DIM, milk yield and milk fat content and were randomized into a 3 ✕ 3 Latin squaredesign with 3-week period. Three experimental diets were fed to the animals. Composition of these diets were: Diet 1green maize, wheat straw and concentrate mixture; Diet 2 green maize, wheat straw, concentrate mixture (urea supplementedand molasses; Diet 3 green maize (4 % of total DM, 4 % urea treated wheat straw and concentrate mixture.Intake of DM and CP did not vary across the diets. Intake of digestible crude protein (DCP was found significantlyhigher in diet 2, while ME and NEL intakes were found significantly lower in diet 3 but did not differ between diets 1and 2. Average milk and plasma urea concentrations (mg dl-1 were found 29.2 ± 2.6, 45.3 ± 0.9, 34.5 ± 2.3 and 28.9± 2.4, 36.6 ± 1.4, 33.9 ± 2.2, respectively in diet 1, diet 2 and diet 3. Urea concentrations in morning milk sampleswere found significantly lower than noon or evening samples in all the three diets. Concentrations of urea in milk andplasma were found closely correlated (r = 0.94 and the regression equation developed was, plasma urea = 8.90 (.89+ .79 (.02 milk urea. Intake (g of DCP than CP, per unit (MCal of ME was found more closely associated with milk ureaconcentration. The study revealed that urea supplementation and urea treated straw based diet increased urea concentrationsignificantly in milk and plasma. Morning milk urea values that estimated at a time gap of 15 hr since last majorfeeding may be considered as the lowest level and can be used for interpretation to monitor feeding adequacy or reproductiveperformances in dairy cows.

  6. A three-month longitudinal study of changes in day/night serum total antioxidant capacity in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando L Morera-Fumero

    Full Text Available Free radicals and an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance have been involved in the schizophrenia pathophysiology. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC is a measure of the antioxidant capacity of a system. Day/night changes are a biological characteristic of hormones such as melatonin or cortisol. There is little information about TAC day/night changes in schizophrenia patients. The aim of this research is to study if there are day/night changes in serum TAC levels of schizophrenia patients. Thirty-two DSM-IV schizophrenia paranoid patients were studied. Blood was sampled at 12:00 and 00:00 h at admission, discharge and three months after hospital discharge (TMAHD. TAC results are expressed as mmol of Trolox/L. Patients did not have day/night TAC differences at admission (12:00: 0.67±0.12 vs. 00:00: 0.61±0.14, p>0.14 or discharge (12:00: 0.65±0.15 vs. 00:00: 0.65±0.12, p>0.99. At TMHD, patients had significantly higher TAC levels at midday than midnight (12:00: 0.83±0.10 vs. 00:00: 0.74±0.12, p<0.006 as it has been reported in healthy subjects. There were no significant TAC differences at 12.00 and 00:00 between admission and discharge. At TMAHD, patients had significantly higher TAC levels than at admission and discharge, both at 12:00 and 00:00 h. In conclusion, the absence of day/night serum TAC changes when clinically relapsed and the normalization of day/night serum TAC changes at TMHD can be considered as a biological marker of schizophrenia evolution.

  7. Application of laboratory and portable attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopic approaches for rapid quantification of alpaca serum immunoglobulin G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jennifer B.; Riley, Christopher B.; Shaw, R. Anthony; McClure, J. Trenton

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and compare the performance of laboratory grade and portable attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopic approaches in combination with partial least squares regression (PLSR) for the rapid quantification of alpaca serum IgG concentration, and the identification of low IgG (portable ATR-IR spectrometers. Various pre-processing strategies were applied to the ATR-IR spectra that were linked to corresponding RID-IgG concentrations, and then randomly split into two sets: calibration (training) and test sets. PLSR was applied to the calibration set and calibration models were developed, and the test set was used to assess the accuracy of the analytical method. For the test set, the Pearson correlation coefficients between the IgG measured by RID and predicted by both laboratory grade and portable ATR-IR spectrometers was 0.91. The average differences between reference serum IgG concentrations and the two IR-based methods were 120.5 mg/dL and 71 mg/dL for the laboratory and portable ATR-IR-based assays, respectively. Adopting an IgG concentration portable ATR-IR assay were 95, 99 and 99%, respectively. These results suggest that the two different ATR-IR assays performed similarly for rapid qualitative evaluation of alpaca serum IgG and for diagnosis of IgG portable ATR-IR spectrometer performed slightly better, and provides more flexibility for potential application in the field. PMID:28651006

  8. Serum Levels Of Free And Total Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-1 And IGF Binding Protein-3 In Normal And Growth Hormone Deficient Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M.A.; Soliman, S.E.T.; Hafez, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect the endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 pre-pubertal GH deficient (GHD) children to study the correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97-1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the pre-pubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD were decreased significantly with increasing the degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

  9. Serum levels of free and total insulin-link growth factor (IGF)-1 and (IGF) binding protein-3 in normal and growth hormone deficient children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M.A.; Soliman, S.E.T.; Hafez, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 prepubertal GH. deficient (GHD) children to study correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97. 1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the prepubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD decreased significantly with increasing degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

  10. The Relationship Between Serum Levels of Total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN- γ and Disease Severity in Children With Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies about the role of cytokines on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD are generally based on in vitro observations and this role has not been completely clarified yet. Serum levels of total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN- γ and the relationship between these parameters and disease severity, determined using the SCORAD index, in a group of atopic patients were investigated in this study. Serum levels of total IgE were measured by the nephelometric method and serum levels of IL-18, IL-12/p40 and IFN- γ were measured by ELISA method. Serum levels of total IgE and IL-18 were found significantly higher in study group than in controls ( p<.001 . There was no statistically significant difference between patients and controls in respect of serum levels of IL-12/p40 ( p=.227 . A statistically significant relationship between SCORAD values and serum levels of total IgE ( p<.001 , IL-18 ( p<.001 , and IL-12/p40 ( p<.001 was determined. These results show that serum levels of IL-18 can be a sensitive parameter that importantly correlates with clinical severity of AD, can play a role in the immunopathogenesis of AD, and furthermore may be used in the diagnosis and follow-up of the disease in addition to other parameters.

  11. Hydration of urea and alkylated urea derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo

    2018-01-01

    Compressibility data and broadband dielectric spectra of aqueous solutions of urea and some of its alkylated derivatives have been evaluated to yield their numbers Nh of hydration water molecules per molecule of solute. Nh values in a broad range of solute concentrations are discussed and are compared to hydration numbers of other relevant molecules and organic ions. Consistent with previous results, it is found that urea differs from other solutes in its unusually small hydration number, corresponding to just one third of the estimated number of nearest neighbor molecules. This remarkable hydration behavior is explained by the large density φH of hydrogen bonding abilities offered by the urea molecule. In terms of currently discussed models of reorientational motions and allied dynamics in water and related associating liquids, the large density φH causes a relaxation time close to that of undisturbed water with most parts of water encircling the solute. Therefore only a small part of disturbed ("hydration") water is left around each urea molecule. Adding alkyl groups to the basic molecule leads to Nh values which, within the series of n-alkylurea derivatives, progressively increase with the number of methyl groups per solute. With n-butylurea, Nh from dielectric spectra, in conformity with many other organic solutes, slightly exceeds the number of nearest neighbors. Compared to such Nh values, hydration numbers from compressibility data are substantially smaller, disclosing incorrect assumptions in the formula commonly used to interpret the experimental compressibilities. Similar to other series of organic solutes, effects of isomerization have been found with alkylated urea derivatives, indicating that factors other than the predominating density φH of hydrogen bond abilities contribute also to the hydration properties.

  12. Milk Urea Dynamics during its Transformation into Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Vintila

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our work was to evaluate in what measure milk urea concentration stays in processed yogurt and in what measure urea dose influences its quality. We added known amounts of urea into milk destined to yogurt processing in order to obtain probes with concentrations from 0,5 to 28 mg/ 100 ml milk. Obtained results lead us to the conclusion that milk urea decreases dramatically until the finishing of the process of milk coagulation and its transformation into yogurt. All probes which contained higher amounts of urea than 6 mg/ 100 ml milk, urea totally disappeared from yogurt before 48 hours of keeping. Milk coagulation time and its transformation to yogurt is reduced proportional with urea concentration in milk.

  13. Limiting the testing of urea: Urea along with every plasma creatinine test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gao-Ming; Guo, Xu-Xiao; Zhang, Guo-Ming

    2017-09-01

    We found that it is not necessary to simultaneously detect both creatinine (CREA) and urea until the concentration of CREA is lower than the certain level. To reduce urea testing, we suggest measuring urea only when CREA or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) exceeds a predetermined limit. CREA and urea data were analyzed consisting of almost all of people age above 65 years old check-up (n=95441) in Shuyang countryside, and inpatients (n=101631), outpatients (n=18474) and Routine Health Check-up (n=20509) in Shuyang People's Hospital. The proportions of elevated urea were derived. The data used in this study was generated from people more than 13 years old in both outpatients and inpatients. When the limits for initiating urea testing were used at 85 μmol/L CREA and 120 mL/min/1.73 m 2 eGFR, the percentage of unnecessary urea test are 94.5% and 64.7% (elderly health check-up), 67.9% and 84.5% (outpatients), 88.5% and 73.2% (inpatients), 92.2% and 81.7% (routine health check-up). The missing rate of urea are 1%, 2.5%, 4.6% and 9.2%, 0.1%, 0.4%, 0.9% and 1.8%, 0.4%, 0.8%, 1.4%, and 2.5%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 1.1%, and 0.8% of ureas exceeding 9.28 mmol/L and 8.3 mmol/L in above each group, respectively. If the CREA≤85 μmol/L or eGFR≥90 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , there is 97.5% urea urea missed is 2.5%. We suggest that the initiating urea testing should be based on the upper limit of Reference Intervals serum CREA of females or a 120 mL/min/1.73 m 2 eGFR limit. Conservatively, the urea testing would be reduced by 65% at least. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Simultaneous measurement of total Estradiol and Testosterone in human serum by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wang, Yuesong; Gatcombe, Matthew; Farris, Jacob; Botelho, Julianne C.; Caudill, Samuel P.; Vesper, Hubert W.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable measurement of total testosterone and estradiol is critical for their use as biomarkers of hormone related disorders in patient care and translation research. We developed and validated a mass spectrometry method to simultaneously quantify these analytes in human serum without chemical derivatization. Serum is equilibrated with isotopic internal standards and treated with acidic buffer to release hormones from their binding proteins. Lipids are isolated and polar impurities are removed by two serial liquid-liquid extraction steps. Total testosterone and estradiol are measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in combination of positive and negative electrospray ionization modes. The method shows broad analytical measurement range for both testosterone 0.03–48.5 nM (0.75–1400 ng/dL) and estradiol 11.0–5138 pM (2.99–1400 pg/mL) and excellent agreement with certified reference materials (mean bias less than 2.1% to SRM 971, BCR 576, 577, and 578) and a high order reference method (mean bias 1.25% for testosterone and −0.84% for estradiol). The high accuracy of the method was monitored and certified by CDC Hormone Standardization (HoSt) Program for two years with mean bias −0.7% (95%CI: −1.6% to 0.2%) for testosterone and 0.1% (95%CI: −2.2% to 2.3%) for estradiol. The method precision over a 2-year period for Quality Control pools at low, medium and high concentrations was 2.7–2.9% for testosterone and 3.3–5.3% for estradiol. With the consistently excellent accuracy and precision, this method is readily applicable for high-throughput clinical and epidemiological studies. PMID:28801832

  15. Serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.M.M.; Huque, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the relationship of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels with systemic hypertension, Diabetes mellitus and smoking as risk factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and changes in the former levels with vitamins supplementation. Study Design: An interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical College for Women and Hospital (MCW and H), Dhaka, Bangladesh, from July 2008 to December 2009. Methodology: Consecutive AMI patients were recruited from the Coronary Care Unit (CCU) at MCW and H, Dhaka. Blood samples were collected at inclusion (Patient-I0). They were given conventional treatments and prescribed vitamins (vitamins B6=25 mg, B12=2 mg and folic acid=2.5 mg) daily for 2 months. After follow-up, blood samples were taken again (Patient-II0). A group of 25 normal subjects were also included as controls. Serum tHcy and Lp(a) were measured by kinetic method and nephelometric method respectively. Results: Serum tHcy (macor mol/L) and Lp(a) (mg/dl) levels were elevated in Patient-I that reduced in Patient-II after vitamins supplementation, but not to the normal control level. tHcy of Patient-I0 was 25.1 +- 4.7 macro mol/L, of Patient-II0 was 20.1 +- 4.5 mu mol/L and of controls 12.1 +- 3.3, p 0.1). However, in a significant proportion of patients tHcy and Lp(a) levels were reduced to control levels (tHcy: p < 0.001, Lp(a): p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicated that tHcy and Lp(a) levels were possibly atherogenic risk factors independent of conventional risk factors. Since both tHcy and Lp(a) levels responded in a similar fashion, a common point of the metabolic and pathogenetic pathways of tHcy and Lp(a) may be influenced by the vitamins supplementation. (author)

  16. Simultaneous determination of glucose, triglycerides, urea, cholesterol, albumin and total protein in human plasma by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: direct clinical biochemistry without reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Torben E; Höskuldsson, Agnar T; Bjerrum, Poul J; Verder, Henrik; Sørensen, Lars; Bratholm, Palle S; Christensen, Bo; Jensen, Lene S; Jensen, Maria A B

    2014-09-01

    Direct measurement of chemical constituents in complex biologic matrices without the use of analyte specific reagents could be a step forward toward the simplification of clinical biochemistry. Problems related to reagents such as production errors, improper handling, and lot-to-lot variations would be eliminated as well as errors occurring during assay execution. We describe and validate a reagent free method for direct measurement of six analytes in human plasma based on Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Blood plasma is analyzed without any sample preparation. FTIR spectrum of the raw plasma is recorded in a sampling cuvette specially designed for measurement of aqueous solutions. For each analyte, a mathematical calibration process is performed by a stepwise selection of wavelengths giving the optimal least-squares correlation between the measured FTIR signal and the analyte concentration measured by conventional clinical reference methods. The developed calibration algorithms are subsequently evaluated for their capability to predict the concentration of the six analytes in blinded patient samples. The correlation between the six FTIR methods and corresponding reference methods were 0.87albumin and total protein in human plasma. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Urea ammoniation compared to urea supplementation as a method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urea ammoniation compared to urea supplementation as a method of improving the nutritive value of wheat straw for sheep. S.W.P. Cloete, N.M. Kritzinger. Winter Rainfall Region, Eisenburg. The ammoniation of wheat straw by urea in a stack method was in- vestigated and compared to urea supplemented and untreated ...

  18. Dietary determinants of serum total cholesterol among middle-aged and older adults: a population-based cross-sectional study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarmath, Sujay S; Zack, Rachel M; Leyna, Germana H; Fahimi, Saman; Liu, Enju; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Lukmanji, Zohra; Killewo, Japhet; Sacks, Frank; Danaei, Goodarz

    2017-06-06

    To assess the dietary determinants of serum total cholesterol. Cross-sectional population-based study. Peri-urban region of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 347 adults aged 40 years and older from the Dar es Salaam Urban Cohort Hypertension Study. Serum total cholesterol measured using a point-of-care device. Mean serum total cholesterol level was 204 mg/dL (IQR 169-236 mg/dL) in women and 185 mg/dL (IQR 152-216 mg/dL) in men. After adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle and dietary factors, participants who reported using palm oil as the major cooking oil had serum total cholesterol higher by 15 mg/dL (95% CI 1 to 29 mg/dL) compared with those who reported using sunflower oil. Consumption of one or more servings of meat per day (p for trend=0.017) and less than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day (p for trend=0.024) were also associated with higher serum total cholesterol. A combination of using palm oil for cooking, eating more than one serving of meat per day and fewer than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, was associated with 46 mg/dL (95% CI 16 to 76 mg/dL) higher serum total cholesterol. Using palm oil for cooking was associated with higher serum total cholesterol levels in this peri-urban population in Dar es Salaam. Reduction of saturated fat content of edible oil may be considered as a population-based strategy for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, K E; Crowe, F L; Appleby, P N; Schmidt, J A; Travis, R C; Key, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. Vegans had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 mmol/l lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 mmol/l. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.6 mmol/l, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 mmol/l. [corrected]. In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet.

  20. The Association of Serum Total Peptide YY (PYY) with Obesity and Body Fat Measures in the CODING Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Farrell; Ji, Yunqi; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Randell, Edward; Vasdev, Sudesh; Gulliver, Wayne; Sun, Guang

    2014-01-01

    PYY is an appetite suppressing hormone. Low circulating PYY has been linked to greater BMI. However data is controversial and this association has not been verified in large human populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate if fasting serum total PYY is associated with obesity status and/or adiposity at the population level. A total of 2094 subjects (Male-523, Female-1571) participated in this investigation. Total PYY was measured in fasting serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Obesity status (NW-normal-weight, OW-overweight and OB-obese) was determined by the Bray Criteria according to body fat percentage measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and the WHO criteria according to BMI. One-way ANOVA and multiple regression was used to assess the adiposity-specific association between PYY and the following; weight, BMI, waist-circumference, hip-circumference, waist-hip ratio, percent body fat (%BF), trunk fat (%TF), android fat (%AF) and gynoid fat (%GF). PYY was not significantly different among NW, OW and OB groups defined by neither %BF nor BMI for both men and women. However among women, fasting PYY was positively associated with adiposity measures. Women with the highest (Top 33%) waist-circumference, %BF and %TF had significantly higher PYY (10.5%, 8.3% and 9.2% respectively) than women with the lowest (Bottom 33%). Age, smoking, medication use and menopause were all positively associated with PYY levels in women but not in men. To our knowledge this is the largest population based study, with the most comprehensive analysis and measures of confounding factors, to explore the relationship of circulating PYY with obesity. Contrary to initial findings in the literature we discovered that PYY was positively associated with body fat measures (waist-circumference, %BF and %TF) in women. Although the effect size of the positive association of PYY with obesity in women is small, and potentially negligible, it may in fact represent a protective

  1. Serum Total Cholinesterase Activity on Admission Is Associated with Disease Severity and Outcome in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of neurological disability. In this retrospective study, serum total cholinesterase (ChE activities were analyzed in 188 patients for diagnostic as well as predictive values for mortality.Within 72 hours after injury, serum ChE activities including both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were measured. Disease severity was evaluated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score, Glasgow Coma Score, length of coma, post-traumatic amnesia and injury feature. Neurocognitive and functional scores were assessed using clinical records. Of 188 patients, 146 (77.7% survived and 42 (22.3% died within 90 days. Lower ChE activities were noted in the non-survivors vs. survivors (5.94±2.19 vs. 7.04±2.16 kU/L, p=0.023, in septic vs. non-infected patients (5.93±1.89 vs. 7.31±2.45 kU/L, p=0.0005 and in patients with extremely severe injury vs. mild injury (6.3±1.98 vs. 7.57±2.48 kU/L, p=0.049. The trajectories of serum ChE levels were also different between non-survivors and survivors, septic and non-infected patients, mild and severely injured patients, respectively. Admission ChE activities were closely correlated with blood cell counts, neurocognitive and functional scores both on admission and at discharge. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve for ChE was inferior to that for either APACHE II or white blood cell (WBC count. However, at the optimal cutoff value of 5 kU/L, the sensitivity of ChE for correct prediction of 90-day mortality was 65.5% and the specificity was 86.4%. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that lower ChE activity (5 kU/L (p=0.04. After adjusting for other variables, ChE was identified as a borderline independent predictor for mortality as analyzed by Binary logistic regression (P=0.078.Lowered ChE activity measured on admission appears to be associated with disease severity and outcome for TBI patients.

  2. Determination of serum free thyroxine concentration (FT4) by means of fT4-fraction and total thyroxine concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passath, A.; Leb, G.

    1985-01-01

    A new equilibrium assay for the determination of serum free thyroxine was evaluated in 514 patients. The assay comprises a two-vial-procedure to measure total thyroxine and free thyroxine fraction by use of monoclonal antibodies. Free thyroxine concentrations are calculated from fT 4 -fraction and total thyroxine concentration readings. In euthyroidism the average free thyroxine fraction (%fT 4 ) was 0.011%, in hyperthyroidism this fraction was elevated, in hypothyroidism it was below normal. In patients with TBG anomalies, TBG values were inversely correlated with fT 4 fraction readings. The 'euthyroid reference range' of FT 4 (SPAC ET) was between 0.70 to 1.78ng/dl. This euthyroid range of FT 4 was determined from TT 4 concentrations measured by T 4 -RIA (SPAC T 4 MONO) which were 30% above TT 4 values measured by conventional T 4 -RIA (SPAC T 4 POLY; polyclonal antibodies). However, a different euthyroid range of FT 4 between 0.55 to 1.30 ng/dl was observed as well as by other investigators when conventional T 4 -RIA measurements were used for calculation of FT 4 values. Our results indicate that calculated FT 4 concentration values are highly dependent on the methods used for determination of total thyroxine concentrations. Precision and reproducability of this two vial equilibrium assay did not meet the requirements mandatory for the application as a clinical routine diagnostic procedure, and its general use for this purpose can as yet not be recommended. (Author)

  3. Changes of Serum Total and Free Testosterone Concentrations in Male Chronic Hemodialysis Patients with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Response to Cinacalcet Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kuczera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR is expressed, among others also in testis. Cinacalcet binds to the CaSR, increases sensitivity of CaSR to serum calcium and is used in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT in chronic hemodialysis patients (HDP. In most of male HDP, serum testosterone concentration is lower than in healthy males. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of six-month treatment with cinacalcet on the serum total and free testosterone concentration in male HDP with sHPT. Methods: 38 male, hemodialysed CKD patients with sHPT (PTH>300 pg/ml were enrolled into the study. In each patient serum PTH, total testosterone (TT and free testosterone (FT concentrations were assessed before the first dose of cinacalcet and then after 3 and 6 months of treatment. The results are presented as means with 95% confidence interval. Results: In 33 patients who completed the study cinacalcet treatment caused significant decrease of serum PTH from 1143 pg/ml (828 - 1458 pg/ml at the baseline, to 809 pg/ml (487 - 1132pg/ml after 3 month of treatment (p = 0.002, and to 607 pg/ml (281 - 934pg/ml; p Conclusion: Treatment with cinacalcet decreases serum total and free testosterone concentration in male hemodialysed patients with chronic kidney disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  4. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) activity as an indicator of total body granuloma load and prognosis in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuswamy, P P; Lopez-Majano, V; Ranginwala, M; Trainor, W D

    1987-09-01

    The relationship between the level of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) and the total body granuloma load in patients with sarcoidosis was studied in two groups using SACE levels and total body gallium67 scans. The study group consisted of 22 patients with SACE levels greater than or equal to 100 U/ml (EH-SACE group) and the control group consisted of 24 patients consecutively diagnosed to have sarcoidosis in a one year period with SACE level of less than 80 U/ml. The average number of organs involved in the EH-SACE group was 3.9 +/- 1 compared to 2.3 +/- 1 in the control group (p less than 0.0001). The incidence of extra pulmonary organ involvement in the EH-SACE group was 2.2 +/- 1 organs compared to 1.0 + 0.8 in the control group (p less than 0.0002). The SACE level was correlated with the number of organs involved for all patients with sarcoidosis (r = .55; p less than .0001). Following corticosteroid therapy for 39 +/- 41 weeks the SACE dropped to 64 +/- 45 units in the EH-SACE group. But it took only 13 +/- 10 weeks to normalize the SACE level to 27 +/- 9 units in the control group. The EH-SACE group patients were followed for 114 +/- 64 weeks and 73% of them still have active sarcoidosis requiring repeated cycles of corticosteroid therapy, while after 42 +/- 23 weeks of follow up only 10% of patients from the control group were still on therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Phenobarbital and Phototherapy Combination Enhances Decline of Total Serum Bilirubin and May Decrease the Need for Blood Exchange Transfusion in Newborns with Isoimmune Hemolytic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaabneh, Mahmoud AF; Salama, Ghassan SA; Shakkoury, Ayoub GA; Al-abdallah, Ibrahim MH; Alshamari, Afrah; Halaseh, Ruba AA

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenobarbital and phototherapy combination on the total serum bilirubin of the newborn infants with isoimmune hemolytic disease (IHD) and its impact on blood exchange transfusion rates. PATIENTS AND METHOD This single-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted between March 2013 and December 2014 at the pediatric ward of two Military Hospitals in Jordan. A total of 200 full-term neonates with IHD were divided randomly into two groups: (1) the phenobarbital plus phototherapy group (n = 103), and (2) the phototherapy-only group (n = 97). Infants in group 1 received an oral dose of 2.5 mg/kg phenobarbital every 12 hours for 3 days in addition to phototherapy. The total serum bilirubin was observed. RESULTS Of the total 200 included newborn infants, 186 infants completed the study: 97 infants were included in group 1 and 89 infants in group 2. The difference between the mean total serum bilirubin levels at 24, 48, and 72 hours after starting the trial was clinically and statistically significant at P newborn infants with IHD, as it results in a faster decline in total serum bilirubin, thus decreasing the need for blood exchange transfusion than phototherapy alone. PMID:26309423

  6. Selenium, zinc, copper, Cu/Zn ratio and total antioxidant status in the serum of vitiligo patients treated by narrow-band ultraviolet-B phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacewicz, Marta; Socha, Katarzyna; Soroczyńska, Jolanta; Niczyporuk, Marek; Aleksiejczuk, Piotr; Ostrowska, Jolanta; Borawska, Maria H

    2018-03-01

    Vitiligo is a chronic, depigmenting skin disorder, whose pathogenesis is still unknown. Narrow band ultraviolet-B (NB-UVB) is now one of the most widely used treatment of vitiligo. It was suggested that trace elements may play a role in pathogenesis of vitiligo. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentration of selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and Cu/Zn ratio as well as total antioxidant status (TAS) in the serum of patients with vitiligo. We assessed 50 patients with vitiligo and 58 healthy controls. Serum levels of Se, Zn and Cu were determined by the atomic absorption spectrometry method, and the Cu/Zn ratio was also calculated. TAS in serum was measured spectrophotometrically. Serum concentration of Se in patients with vitiligo before and after phototherapy was significantly lower as compared to the control group. Zn level in the serum of patients decreased significantly after phototherapy. We observed higher Cu/Zn ratio (p vitiligo patients after NB-UVB. The current study showed some disturbances in the serum levels of trace elements and total antioxidant status in vitiligo patients.

  7. Usefulness of determination of serum levels of total bile acids (TBA) and other five markers of liver fibrosis for diagnosis of chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhenxian; Geng Quanlin; Gong Xiping; Yang Chenbao

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of combined determination of serum levels of TBA, PC-III, IV-C, HA, CG and LN in diagnosis of chronic hepatic diseases. Methods: Serum TBA levels were measured with totally automatic enzymatic method and the other five markers with RIA in 118 patients with various types of hepatic diseases as well as in 31 controls. Results: Serum levels of TBA and the other markers were significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls (p<0.01). Among the various types of diseases, values of the tested markers increased along with the increase of the severity of the disease process. Conclusion: Combined measurements of serum levels of TBA and other five markers were of important value for the diagnosis, treatment and outcome prediction of hepatic fibrosis

  8. In vivo urea cycle flux distinguishes and correlates with phenotypic severity in disorders of the urea cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brendan; Yu, Hong; Jahoor, Farook; O'Brien, William; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Reeds, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Urea cycle disorders are a group of inborn errors of hepatic metabolism that result in often life-threatening hyperammonemia and hyperglutaminemia. Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of partial deficiencies during asymptomatic periods is difficult, and correlation of phenotypic severity with either genotype and/or in vitro enzyme activity is often imprecise. We hypothesized that stable isotopically determined in vivo rates of total body urea synthesis and urea cycle-specific nitrogen flux would correlate with both phenotypic severity and carrier status in patients with a variety of different enzymatic deficiencies of the urea cycle. We studied control subjects, patients, and their relatives with different enzymatic deficiencies affecting the urea cycle while consuming a low protein diet. On a separate occasion the subjects either received a higher protein intake or were treated with an alternative route medication sodium phenylacetate/benzoate (Ucephan), or oral arginine supplementation. Total urea synthesis from all nitrogen sources was determined from [18O]urea labeling, and the utilization of peripheral nitrogen was estimated from the relative isotopic enrichments of [15N]urea and [15N]glutamine during i.v. co-infusions of [5-(amide)15N]glutamine and [18O]urea. The ratio of the isotopic enrichments of 15N-urea/15N-glutamine distinguished normal control subjects (ratio = 0.42 ± 0.06) from urea cycle patients with late (0.17 ± 0.03) and neonatal (0.003 ± 0.007) presentations irrespective of enzymatic deficiency. This index of urea cycle activity also distinguished asymptomatic heterozygous carriers of argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency (0.22 ± 0.03), argininosuccinate lyase deficiency (0.35 ± 0.11), and partial ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (0.26 ± 0.06) from normal controls. Administration of Ucephan lowered, and arginine increased, urea synthesis to the degree predicted from their respective rates of metabolism. The 15N-urea/15N-glutamine ratio

  9. Evaluation of five commercially available assays and measurement of serum total protein concentration via refractometry for the diagnosis of failure of passive transfer of immunity in foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Giguère, Steeve

    2005-11-15

    To determine and compare sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and predictive values of measurement of serum total protein concentration by refractometry as well as 5 commercially available kits for the diagnosis of failure of passive transfer (FPT) of immunity in foals. Prospective study. 65 foals with various medical problems and 35 clinically normal foals. IgG concentration in serum was assessed by use of zinc sulfate turbidity (assay C), glutaraldehyde coagulation (assay D), 2 semiquantitative immunoassays (assays F and G), and a quantitative immunoassay (assay H). Serum total protein concentration was assessed by refractometry. Radial immunodiffusion (assays A and B) was used as the reference method. For detection of IgG or = 6.0 g/dL indicated adequate IgG concentrations. Most assays were adequate as initial screening tests. However, their use as a definitive test would result in unnecessary treatment of foals with adequate IgG concentrations.

  10. Urea metabolism in Zebu calves fed on diets of dierent crude protein contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.K.; Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.; Lal, M.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    The entry rates of urea into the body pool of urea have been estimated in Zebu calves using a single injection isotope dilution technique using 14 C-urea. The excretion rates of urea were calculated by estimating total urine over 24 h and urea content. The calves were fed 2 levels of crude protein, i.e., 25 percent lower and 25 percent higher than NRC recommendations. Results show that the degradation of urea is significantly better in animals given rations low in crude protein contents. (M.G.B.)

  11. The urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Guy; Pacheco-Colón, Ileana; Gropman, Andrea L

    2014-07-01

    The urea cycle is the primary nitrogen-disposal pathway in humans. It requires the coordinated function of six enzymes and two mitochondrial transporters to catalyze the conversion of a molecule of ammonia, the α-nitrogen of aspartate, and bicarbonate into urea. Whereas ammonia is toxic, urea is relatively inert, soluble in water, and readily excreted by the kidney in the urine. Accumulation of ammonia and other toxic intermediates of the cycle lead to predominantly neurologic sequelae. The disorders may present at any age from the neonatal period to adulthood, with the more severely affected patients presenting earlier in life. Patients are at risk for metabolic decompensation throughout life, often triggered by illness, fasting, surgery and postoperative states, peripartum, stress, and increased exogenous protein load. Here the authors address neurologic presentations of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency in detail, the most common of the urea cycle disorders, neuropathology, neurophysiology, and our studies in neuroimaging. Special attention to late-onset presentations is given. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Living with urea stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Intracellular organic osmolytes are present in certain organisms adapted to harsh environments. These osmolytes protect intracellular macromolecules against denaturing environmental stress. In contrast to the usually benign effects of most organic osmolytes, the waste product urea is a well-known perturbant of ...

  13. Ground Juniperus pinchotii and urea in supplements fed to Rambouillet ewe lambs Part 2: Ewe lamb rumen microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, S L; Yeoman, C J; Whitney, T R

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated effects of ground redberry juniper () and urea in dried distillers grains with solubles-based supplements fed to Rambouillet ewe lambs ( = 48) on rumen physiological parameters and bacterial diversity. In a randomized study (40 d), individually-penned lambs were fed ground sorghum-sudangrass hay and of 1 of 8 supplements (6 lambs/treatment; 533 g/d; as-fed basis) in a 4 × 2 factorial design with 4 concentrations of ground juniper (15%, 30%, 45%, or 60% of DM) and 2 levels of urea (1% or 3% of DM). Increasing juniper resulted in minor changes in microbial β-diversity (PERMANOVA, pseudo F = 1.33, = 0.04); however, concentrations of urea did not show detectable broad-scale differences at phylum, family, or genus levels according to ANOSIM ( > 0.05), AMOVA ( > 0.10), and PERMANOVA ( > 0.05). Linear discriminant analysis indicated some genera were specific to certain dietary treatments ( < 0.05), though none of these genera were present in high abundance; high concentrations of juniper were associated with and , low concentrations of urea were associated with , and high concentrations of urea were associated with and . were decreased by juniper and urea. , , and increased with juniper and were positively correlated (Spearman's, < 0.05) with each other but not to rumen factors, suggesting a symbiotic interaction. Overall, there was not a juniper × urea interaction for total VFA, VFA by concentration or percent total, pH, or ammonia ( 0.29). When considering only percent inclusion of juniper, ruminal pH and proportion of acetic acid linearly increased ( < 0.001) and percentage of butyric acid linearly decreased ( = 0.009). Lamb ADG and G:F were positively correlated with (Spearman's, < 0.05) and negatively correlated with Synergistaceae, the BS5 group, and Lentisphaerae. Firmicutes were negatively correlated with serum urea nitrogen, ammonia, total VFA, total acetate, and total propionate. Overall, modest differences in bacterial diversity among

  14. Serum total prostate-specific antigen values in men with symptomatic prostate enlargement in Nigeria: role in clinical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnabugwu, Ikenna I; Ugwumba, Fred O; Enivwenae, Oghenekaro A; Udeh, Emeka I; Otene, Chris O; Nnabugwu, Chinwe A

    2015-01-01

    Prostatic enlargement is a common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in men in Nigeria. Malignant enlargements must be differentiated from benign enlargements for adequate treatment of each patient. High serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) levels suggest malignancy, but some of the biopsies done due to a serum tPSA value >4 ng/mL would be negative for malignancy because of the low specificity of tPSA for prostate cancer. This study aims to compare the histologic findings of all prostate specimens obtained from core needle biopsy, open simple prostatectomy, and transurethral resection of the prostate with the respective serum tPSA values in an attempt to decipher the role of serum tPSA in the management of these patients. The case notes of patients attended to from April 2009 to March 2012 were analyzed. Essentially, the age of the patient, findings on digital rectal examination, abdominopelvic ultrasonography report on the prostate, serum tPSA, and histology reports from biopsy or prostatectomy specimens as indicated were extracted for analysis. The relationship between age, findings on digital rectal examination, serum tPSA, abdominopelvic ultrasonography report, and histology are compared. A statistically significant relationship existed between a malignant histology and age 65 years and older, suspicious findings on digital rectal examination, suspicious ultrasonography findings, and serum tPSA >10 ng/mL, but not tPSA >4 ng/mL. In Nigerian patients with symptomatic prostate enlargement, serum tPSA should be seen as a continuum with increasing risk of prostate malignancy.

  15. Phenobarbital and Phototherapy Combination Enhances Decline of Total Serum Bilirubin and May Decrease the Need for Blood Exchange Transfusion in Newborns with Isoimmune Hemolytic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. F. Kaabneh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenobarbital and phototherapy combination on the total serum bilirubin of the newborn infants with isoimmune hemolytic disease (IHD and its impact on blood exchange transfusion rates. Patients and Method This single-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted between March 2013 and December 2014 at the pediatric ward of two Military Hospitals in Jordan. A total of 200 full-term neonates with IHD were divided randomly into two groups: (1 the phenobarbital plus phototherapy group ( n = 103, and (2 the phototherapy-only group ( n = 97. Infants in group 1 received an oral dose of 2.5 mg/kg phenobarbital every 12 hours for 3 days in addition to phototherapy. The total serum bilirubin was observed. Results Of the total 200 included newborn infants, 186 infants completed the study: 97 infants were included in group 1 and 89 infants in group 2. The difference between the mean total serum bilirubin levels at 24, 48, and 72 hours after starting the trial was clinically and statistically significant at P < 0.05. The differences between the two groups were also statistically significant at P < 0.05. Of the total 186 who completed the study, only 22 underwent blood exchange transfusion [7 from group 1, and 15 from group 2 ( P = 0.0478]. Conclusion In a limited-resources setting, phenobarbital in combination with phototherapy may be helpful to newborn infants with IHD, as it results in a faster decline in total serum bilirubin, thus decreasing the need for blood exchange transfusion than phototherapy alone.

  16. Effects of high ambient temperature on urea-nitrogen recycling in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obitsu, Taketo; Kamiya, Mitsuru; Kamiya, Yuko; Tanaka, Masahito; Sugino, Toshihisa; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2011-08-01

    Effects of exposure to hot environment on urea metabolism were studied in lactating Holstein cows. Four cows were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration and housed in a temperature-controlled chamber at constant moderate (18°C) or high (28°C) ambient temperatures in a cross-over design. Urea nitrogen (N) kinetics was measured by determining urea isotopomer in urine after single injection of [(15) N(2) ]urea into the jugular vein. Both dry matter intake and milk yield were decreased under high ambient temperature. Intakes of total N and digestible N were decreased under high ambient temperature but urinary urea-N excretion was increased. The ratio of urea-N production to digestible N was increased, whereas the proportion of gut urea-N entry to urea-N production tended to be decreased under high ambient temperature. Neither return to the ornithine cycle, anabolic use nor fecal excretion of urea-N recycled to the gut was affected by ambient temperature. Under high ambient temperature, renal clearance of plasma urea was not affected but the gut clearance was decreased. Increase of urea-N production and reduction of gut urea-N entry, in relative terms, were associated with increased urinary urea-N excretion of lactating dairy cows in higher thermal environments. 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Urea transporters and sweat response to uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Raymond W; Bailey, James L; Wang, Yanhua; Klein, Janet D; Sands, Jeff M

    2016-06-01

    In humans, urea is excreted in sweat, largely through the eccrine sweat gland. The urea concentration in human sweat is elevated when compared to blood urea nitrogen. The sweat urea nitrogen (UN) of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESRD) is increased when compared with healthy humans. The ability to produce sweat is maintained in the overwhelming majority of ESRD patients. A comprehensive literature review found no reports of sweat UN neither in healthy rodents nor in rodent models of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, this study measured sweat UN concentrations in healthy and uremic rats. Uninephrectomy followed by renal artery ligation was used to remove 5/6 of renal function. Rats were then fed a high-protein diet to induce uremia. Pilocarpine was used to induce sweating. Sweat droplets were collected under oil. Sweat UN was measured with a urease assay. Serum UN was measured using a fluorescent ortho-pthalaldehyde reaction. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was accomplished with a horseradish peroxidase and diaminobenzidine technique. Sweat UN in uremic rats was elevated greater than two times compared to healthy pair-fed controls (220 ± 17 and 91 ± 15 mmol/L, respectively). Post hoc analysis showed a significant difference between male and female uremic sweat UN (279 ± 38 and 177 ± 11 mmol/L, respectively.) IHC shows, for the first time, the presence of the urea transporters UT-B and UT-A2 in both healthy and uremic rat cutaneous structures. Future studies will use this model to elucidate how rat sweat UN and other solute excretion is altered by commonly prescribed diuretics. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  18. Serum total prostate-specific antigen values in men with symptomatic prostate enlargement in Nigeria: role in clinical decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabugwu II

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikenna I Nnabugwu,1,2 Fred O Ugwumba,1 Oghenekaro A Enivwenae,2 Emeka I Udeh,1 Chris O Otene,2 Chinwe A Nnabugwu3 1Urology Unit, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 2Urology Unit, Department of Surgery, 3Department of Medical Laboratory Services, Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, Nigeria Background: Prostatic enlargement is a common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in men in Nigeria. Malignant enlargements must be differentiated from benign enlargements for adequate treatment of each patient. High serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA levels suggest malignancy, but some of the biopsies done due to a serum tPSA value >4 ng/mL would be negative for malignancy because of the low specificity of tPSA for prostate cancer. This study aims to compare the histologic findings of all prostate specimens obtained from core needle biopsy, open simple prostatectomy, and transurethral resection of the prostate with the respective serum tPSA values in an attempt to decipher the role of serum tPSA in the management of these patients.Methods: The case notes of patients attended to from April 2009 to March 2012 were analyzed. Essentially, the age of the patient, findings on digital rectal examination, abdominopelvic ultrasonography report on the prostate, serum tPSA, and histology reports from biopsy or prostatectomy specimens as indicated were extracted for analysis.Results: The relationship between age, findings on digital rectal examination, serum tPSA, abdominopelvic ultrasonography report, and histology are compared. A statistically significant relationship existed between a malignant histology and age 65 years and older, suspicious findings on digital rectal examination, suspicious ultrasonography findings, and serum tPSA >10 ng/mL, but not tPSA >4 ng/mL.Conclusion: In Nigerian patients with symptomatic prostate enlargement, serum tPSA should be seen as a continuum with increasing risk of prostate malignancy

  19. Total and specific serum IgE decreases with age in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma and insect allergy but not in patients with atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuber Karsten

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Concerning allergic diseases, the incidence of allergic symptoms, as well as their severity, seems to decrease with age. The decline of onset of allergic symptoms observed in ageing might result from a decrease of serum total and specific IgE. Atopic disorders are complex diseases that involve interactions among several physiological systems, e.g. skin, lung, mucosae, and the immune system. It was the aim of this study to compare the effects of age on total and specific IgE in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD, allergic rhinitis or asthma, and insect allergy, respectively. The study population consisted of 559 individuals (male: 229 and female: 330. Total and allergen specific IgE was measured in every individual. From the whole study population, 113 patients suffered from atopic dermatitis (AD, 132 had allergic rhinitis or asthma, and 314 were tested because of insect allergy. Total and specific serum IgE was significantly decreased as a function of age in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma and with insect allergy. In contrast, no significant decrease of total and specific serum IgE in old individuals with AD was observed. Additionally, in the group of patients with a total IgE 300 kU/l showed no correlation with age. Immunosenescence does not affect increased IgE levels in atopic patients with AD and/or high serum IgE levels indicating that in these subgroups of patients the atopic propensity remains into advanced age. One may hypothesize that either onset of allergic sensitization during life or the kind of atopic disease influences the correlation between age and IgE synthesis.

  20. The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizome and curcumin on total and differential WBC and serum oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers in rat model of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Shakeri; Mohammad Soukhtanloo; Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): The effects of Curcuma longa (C. longa) and curcumin on total and differential WBC count and oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers, in rat model of asthma were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Total and differential WBC count in the blood, NO2, NO3, MDA, SOD, CAT and thiol levels in serum were examined in control, asthma, Asthmatic rats treated with C. longa (0.75, 1.50, and 3.00 mg/ml), curcumin (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml), and dexamethasone (1.25 ?g/ml) rats. Results: Total and mo...

  1. An improved reference measurement procedure for triglycerides and total glycerides in human serum by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhao; Liu, Qinde; Yong, Sharon; Teo, Hui Ling; Lee, Tong Kooi

    2014-01-20

    Triglycerides are widely tested in clinical laboratories using enzymatic methods for lipid profiling. As enzymatic methods can be affected by interferences from biological samples, this together with the non-specific nature of triglycerides measurement makes it necessary to verify the accuracy of the test results with a reference measurement procedure. Several such measurement procedures had been published. These procedures generally involved lengthy and laborious sample preparation steps. In this paper, an improved reference measurement procedure for triglycerides and total glycerides was reported which simplifies the sample preparation steps and greatly shortens the time taken. The procedure was based on isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (IDGC-MS)with tripalmitin as the calibration standard. Serum samples were first spiked with isotope-labeled tripalmitin. For the measurement of triglycerides, the serum samples were subjected to lipid extraction followed by separation of triglycerides from diglycerides and monoglycerides. Triglycerides were then hydrolyzed to glycerol, derivatized and injected into the GC–MS for quantification. For the measurement of total glycerides, the serum samples were hydrolyzed directly and derivatized before injection into the GC-MS for quantification. All measurement results showed good precision with CV triglycerides and total glycerides were well within the certified ranges of the CRM, with deviation triglycerides and total glycerides.

  2. Genome-wide association study for levels of total serum IgE identifies HLA-C in a Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Yatagai

    Full Text Available Most of the previously reported loci for total immunoglobulin E (IgE levels are related to Th2 cell-dependent pathways. We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS to identify genetic loci responsible for IgE regulation. A total of 479,940 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were tested for association with total serum IgE levels in 1180 Japanese adults. Fine-mapping with SNP imputation demonstrated 6 candidate regions: the PYHIN1/IFI16, MHC classes I and II, LEMD2, GRAMD1B, and chr13∶60576338 regions. Replication of these candidate loci in each region was assessed in 2 independent Japanese cohorts (n = 1110 and 1364, respectively. SNP rs3130941 in the HLA-C region was consistently associated with total IgE levels in 3 independent populations, and the meta-analysis yielded genome-wide significance (P = 1.07×10(-10. Using our GWAS results, we also assessed the reproducibility of previously reported gene associations with total IgE levels. Nine of 32 candidate genes identified by a literature search were associated with total IgE levels after correction for multiple testing. Our findings demonstrate that SNPs in the HLA-C region are strongly associated with total serum IgE levels in the Japanese population and that some of the previously reported genetic associations are replicated across ethnic groups.

  3. Substituição total do farelo de soja por uréia ou amiréia, em dietas com alto teor de concentrado, sobre a amônia ruminal, os parâmetros sangüíneos e o metabolismo do nitrogênio em bovinos de corte Total replacement of soybean meal by urea or starea in high grain diets on nitrogen metabolism, ruminal ammonia-N concentration and blood parameters in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Cunha de Oliveira Junior

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Seis novilhos da raça Nelore, não castrados, com peso médio inicial de 420 kg, distribuídos em delineamento em quadrado latino 3x3 duplicado, foram utilizados para avaliar a substituição total de uma fonte de proteína verdadeira (farelo de soja, em uma dieta deficiente em proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR, por uréia ou amiréia (fontes de nitrogênio não protéico, ambas em uma dieta adequada em PDR. As dietas foram isoprotéicas (13,0% utilizando-se o bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura (BIN como única fonte de volumoso (20% da MS. Foram avaliados: a concentração de amônia ruminal, nitrogênio uréico plasmático, glicose plasmática e o metabolismo do nitrogênio. Os tratamentos foram: 1 farelo de soja (FS; 2 uréia e 3 amiréia (A-150S. A concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal no fluido ruminal foi superior no tratamento com uréia, comparado ao tratamento com farelo de soja, sendo que o tratamento com amiréia não diferiu dos demais. O tratamento com amiréia apresentou maior perda de N urinário. A retenção de N (g/d e % do consumido e o valor biológico da proteína (N retido, % do N digerido foram superiores para o tratamento com uréia, comparado aos demais. A concentração de nitrogênio uréico no plasma e a concentração de glicose plasmática foram similares entre os tratamentos. A substituição total do farelo de soja por uréia, ajustando a PDR na dieta de bovinos de corte, demonstrou ser viável. A uréia na forma convencional apresentou vantagens em relação à amiréia.Six Nellore bulls, with initial body weight of 420 kg, were assigned to a duplicated 3x3 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of replacing a true protein source (soybean meal, of high biological value, in a rumen degradable protein (RDP deficient diet, by urea or starea (a supposedly slow release nonprotein nitrogen source, both in a RDP adjusted diet. In natura sugarcane bagasse as the only source of forage (20% of DM. Evaluated

  4. Foliar absorption of 15N labeled urea by tea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshina, Tsuguo; Kozai, Shuji; Ishigaki, Kozo

    1978-01-01

    The effect of foliar application on the nitrogen nutrient status of tea shoots has been studied using 15 N labelled urea. Furthermore, the difference in nitrogen utilization by tea plant between foliar applied and top dressed nitrogen was investigated using 15 N labelled urea and ammonium sulfate. The foliar application of urea increased the amount of chlorophyll and total nitrogen in the new shoot, and the foliar application was more effective under shading condition. The urea sprayed upon old leaves prior to the opening of new leaf translocated to the new shoots. However, the foliar application after the opening of new leaf was more effective on nitrogen absorption by new shoots than one prior to that, and rather than top dressing for new shoots. It could be recognized that the foliar application of urea raises the nitrogen nutrient status of tea leaves in summer. (author)

  5. Comparative study of the second antibody for radioimmunoassay totally produced in the country to a similar imported one (sheep serum anti-rabbit IgG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.R. da; Borghi, V.C.; Wajchenberg, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    This work compares a second antibody for radioimmunoassay (RIA) produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP with a commercial one of known quality, produced by Radioassay Systems Laboratories, U.S.A.. This antiserum, sheep serum anti-rabbit IgG produced in its totality in the country, presented title and precipitation characteristics similar to those exhibited by the commercial product, being as suitable for the RIA separation as its imported similar. (author)

  6. PENGARUH MINUMAN FUNGSIONAL MENGANDUNG TEPUNG KEDELAI KAYA ISOFLAVON DAN SERAT PANGAN LARUT TERHADAP KADAR TOTAL KOLESTEROL DAN TRIGLISERIDA SERUM TIKUS PERCOBAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Eva Nirmagustina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of functional drink that containe soybean flour rich in isoflavone, soluble dietary fiber, and other ingredients on the level of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and trigliseride in rat blood serum.  The formulation of functional drink consisted of soybean flour rich in isoflavone (0,115 g, soluble dietary fiber (fibergum (3 g, vitamine C (0,06 g; sucrosa (6,605 g; aspartam (0,02 g; and flavour (orange (0,2 g in 200 ml functional drink.  The total concentration of soybean flour rich in isoflavone, soluble dietary fiber (fibergum, and vitamine C was based on optimation of human need.  Whereas the concentration of sucrosa, aspartam, and flavour (orange based on organoleptic evaluation.  The result showed that functional drink caused a decrease the level of total blood serum rat colesterol after 1 and 2 month.  The HDL level of serum rat fed with standard ransum contain cholesterol was lower than the rat fed with sandard ransum only after 1 and 2 month because this was probably due to regulation feedback colesterol making in heart by enzim reductase HMG CoA. The functional drink caused decrease HDL level after 2 month . The functional drink also caused decrease the level of LDL and trigliseride after 2 month Keyword: functional drink, soy flour, isoflavon, soluble fiber, cholesterol, triglyseride

  7. A comparison of the effects of 2 doses of soy protein or casein on serum lipids, serum lipoproteins, and plasma total homocysteine in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Smerud, Knut; Høie, Lars

    2002-07-01

    Studies have shown that soy protein reduces some atherogenic lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, although lipoprotein(a) concentrations may be increased. The dose response of soy protein has not been established; neither has its effect on plasma total homocysteine. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of 2 doses of soy protein on lipid, lipoprotein, and homocysteine concentrations. Four to 24 wk after being instructed to consume a lipid-lowering diet, 130 men and women with LDL-cholesterol concentrations > or = 4 mmol/L were studied during a parallel group trial in which 4 interventions were assigned randomly. Thirty grams isolated soy protein (ISP) and 10 g cotyledon fiber or 50 g ISP and 16.6 g cotyledon fiber or equivalent doses of casein and cellulose were consumed daily as a beverage for 16 wk. When the 2 groups who consumed ISP were compared with the 2 groups who consumed casein, the differences in the net changes from baseline to week 16 in the concentrations of LDL cholesterol and plasma total homocysteine were -0.26 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.43, -0.09 mmol/L; P = 0.01) and -0.8 micromol/L (-1.4, -0.2 micromol/L; P = 0.005), respectively. The effect of the ISP dose was not significant. There were no significant differences between the 2 ISP and the 2 casein groups in changes in lipoprotein(a), HDL-cholesterol, or triacylglycerol concentrations. Adding 30-50 g soy protein/d to a lipid-lowering diet significantly reduced LDL-cholesterol concentrations without increasing lipoprotein(a) concentrations. Plasma total homocysteine concentrations also decreased, suggesting a novel, possibly antiatherosclerotic effect.

  8. Diagnostic value of serum free PSA and the ratio of free to total PSA in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Ningyan; Zhang Jingxin; Wu Jinchang; Gong Yiming; Li Huiping

    2005-01-01

    In order to evaluate the value of free prostate specific antigen (FPSA) and F/T PSA ratio in differential diagnosis of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) from prostate cancer (PC), serum FPSA and TPSA levels were measured in 85 patients with PC, 97 BPH and 89 healthy volunteers by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA), and the ratio of F/T PSA was calculated. The results showed that serum FPSA and TPSA levels were increased in healthy volunteers of 41-88 years old and were significantly higher in healthy volunteers of 61-88 years old than that in 20-40 gear old (P 10.0 μg/L were 65.0%, 30.9% and 4.1%, respectively, while they were 5.9%, 20.0% and 74.1% in PC patients (P<0.01). When the TPSA value was between 4.0-10.0 μg/L and the ratio of F/T PSA was at 0.10 and below, the probability of PC was larger(88.9%). But the ratio of F/T PSA was at 0.25 and above, the probability of PC was smaller(6.20%). Serum FPSA and TPSA both increased with age in healthy volunteers of 41-88 years old and were positively correlated with age. There were about 30.9% of BPH and 20.0% of PC patients with overlapping of TPSA level. Our conclusion is that the F/T PSA ratio can significantly enhance the specificity for PC diagnosis, especially when the TPSA is within the diagnostic gray zone. (authors)

  9. Mildly elevated serum total bilirubin is negatively associated with hemoglobin A1c independently of confounding factors among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Kawamoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally high glycated hemoglobin (Hb (HbA1c is significantly associated with oxidative stress and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Serum total bilirubin (T-B may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes and be a negative risk factor of CVD. Limited information is available on whether serum T-B is an independent confounding factor of HbA1c. The study subjects were 633 men aged 70 ± 9 (mean ± standard deviation (SD years and 878 women aged 70 ± 8 years who were enrolled consecutively from among patients aged ≥40 years through a community-based annual check-up process. We evaluated the relationship between various confounding factors including serum T-B and HbA1c in each gender. Multiple linear regression analysis pertaining to HbA1c showed that in men, serum T-B ( β = −0.139 as well as waist circumference ( β = 0.099, exercise habit ( β = 0.137, systolic blood pressure (SBP ( β = 0.076, triglycerides ( β = 0.087, and uric acid ( β = −0.123 were significantly and independently associated with HbA1c, and in women, serum T-B ( β = −0.084 as well as body mass index ( β = 0.090, smoking status ( β = −0.077, SBP ( β = 0.117, diastolic blood pressure (DBP ( β = −0.155, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( β = 0.074, prevalence of antidyslipidemic medication ( β = 0.174, and uric acid ( β = 0.090 were also significantly and independently associated with HbA1c. Multivariate-adjusted serum HbA1c levels were significantly high in subjects with the lowest serum T-B levels in both genders. Serum T-B is an independent confounding factor for HbA1c among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons.

  10. The impact of hypoxemia on serum total and free prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, Cengiz; Bozlu, Murat; Ozgur, Eylem Sercan; Tek, Mesut; Tunckiran, Ahmet; Muslu, Necati; Ilvan, Ahmet

    2015-05-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most important biochemical marker in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with prostate cancer. In recent years, a relationship between PSA levels and hypoxic conditions has been described. However, no study has investigated the PSA levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of hypoxemia on serum total (tPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) levels in patients with COPD. Between January 2010 and January 2014, 95 male patients who hospitalized for acute exacerbations of COPD and 80 control subjects were enrolled in the study. Serum tPSA and fPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios were determined in all patients on the first day of hospitalization (exacerbation) and 7 days after the treatment (stable state). Statistical analysis included paired t test and Mann-Whitney U test. No statistically significant differences were found between COPD and control groups with regard to the baseline characteristics, except for smoking status. The levels of serum tPSA and fPSA during exacerbation of COPD were significantly higher than the levels of the stable period (p 0.05). Hypoxemia during acute exacerbation of COPD can cause a rise in serum tPSA and fPSA levels, but f/tPSA ratio is not affected. Acute exacerbation of COPD may be added to list of the events in which PSA measurements must be interpreted with caution.

  11. The validation & verification of an LC/MS method for the determination of total docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in canine blood serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Gerald Patrick; Keegan, Jason D; Wallace, Geoff; Yiannikouris, Alexandros; Moran, Colm Anthony

    2018-06-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is an omega 3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) that has been shown to play a role in canine growth and physiological integrity and improvements in skin and coat condition. However, potential adverse effects of n-3 FA specifically, impaired cellular immunity has been observed in dogs fed diets with elevated levels of n-3 FA. As such, a safe upper limit (SUL) for total n-3 FAs (DHA and EPA) in dogs has been established. Considering this SUL, sensitive methods detecting DHA in blood serum as a biomarker when conducting n-3 FA supplementation trials involving dogs are required. In this study, an LC-ESI-MS/MS method of DHA detection in dog serum was validated and verified. Recovery of DHA was optimized and parallelism tests were conducted with spiked samples demonstrating that the serum matrix did not interfere with quantitation. The stability of DHA in serum was also investigated, with -80 °C considered suitable when storing samples for up to six months. The method was linear over a calibration range of 1-500 μg/mL and precision and accuracy were found to meet the requirements for validation. This method was verified in an alternative laboratory using a different analytical system and operator, with the results meeting the criteria for verification. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Dispersion Interactions between Urea and Nucleobases Contribute to the Destabilization of RNA by Urea in Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasavajhala, Koushik; Bikkina, Swetha; Patil, Indrajit; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Priyakumar, U. Deva

    2015-01-01

    Urea has long been used to investigate protein folding and, more recently, RNA folding. Studies have proposed that urea denatures RNA by participating in stacking interactions and hydrogen bonds with nucleic acid bases. In this study, the ability of urea to form unconventional stacking interactions with RNA bases is investigated using ab initio calculations (RI-MP2 and CCSD(T) methods with the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set). A total of 29 stable nucleobase-urea stacked complexes are identified in which the intermolecular interaction energies (up to −14 kcal/mol) are dominated by dispersion effects. Natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) calculations further confirm strong interactions between urea and nucleobases. Calculations on model systems with multiple urea and water molecules interacting with a guanine base lead to a hypothesis that urea molecules along with water are able to form cage-like structures capable of trapping nucleic acid bases in extrahelical states by forming both hydrogen bonded and dispersion interactions, thereby contributing to the unfolding of RNA in the presence of urea in aqueous solution. PMID:25668757

  13. Effect of dietary protein sources of on blood or milk urea nitrogen of native cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, N R; Huque, K S; Asaduzzaman, M. [Animal Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)], E-mail: nathusarker@yahoo.com

    2009-07-01

    al. Concentration of MUN in milk was calculated from the standard curve shown. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein of a cow after feeding the diets using heparinised tubes. Immediately after collection, samples were placed on ice and refrigerated for 1.0 h. followed by centrifugation. Plasma was removed and serum samples were analyzed for urea content (BSU) using a colorimetric method described by Patton and Crouch. Daily feed intake was measured by deducting the amount of feed remained in the manger in each day from the total feed supplied. The feed samples were collected daily, composited and analyzed for nutrient composition using methods described by AOAC. Data were analyzed by using General Linear Model Procedures of SPSS in the computer to determine treatment effects. Duncan multiple range test was used to test significant differences in treatments. production. Feeding urea and molasses in meals or mix (T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} ) did not affect significantly (P > 0.05) BSU and MUN contents. It indicates that feeding urea and molasses in two meals a day either as a single mix of the two or as a mix of the two with concentrates significantly (P > 0.05) reduced the concentration of BSU or MUN without having any change in milk protein (%) of the cows. Dry matter (DM) intake was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in T{sub 1} treatment group followed by T{sub 4}, T{sub 0}, T{sub 3} and T{sub 2}, respectively. Similarly, CP intake was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} treatment groups followed by T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} treatment groups. The values of CP intake were 490, 770, 760, 630 and 580 g/day for treatment groups T{sub 0}, T{sub 1}, T{sub 2}, T{sub 3}, and T{sub 4}, respectively. Feedings urea and molasses as meals (T{sub 3}) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the fat content in milk compared to other treatment groups. Similar to T{sub 3}, UMS feeding also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced fat content in milk compared to Matikalai hay and

  14. Comparison between Total Parenteral Nutrition Vs. Partial Parenteral Nutrition on Serum Lipids Among Chronic Ventilator Dependent Patients; A Multi Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radpay, Rojan; Poor Zamany Nejat Kermany, Mahtab; Radpay, Badiozaman

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is very common among chronically hospitalized patients, especially those in the intensive care unit (ICU). Identifying the patients at risk and providing suitable nutritional support can prevent and/or overcome malnutrition in them. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and partial parenteral nutrition (PPN) are two common routes to deliver nutrition to hospitalized patients. We conducted a multicenter, prospective double blind randomized controlled trial to evaluate the benefits and compare their adverse effects of each method. 97 patients were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the inclusion criteria. Serum protein, serum albumin, serum transferrin, and total lymphocyte count were measured on days 7 and 14. We did not find any statistically significant differences in clinical status or laboratory values between the two groups but there were significant improvements in measured lab values between days 7 and 14 (pnutritional status in each groups. This study shows that both TPN and PPN can be used safely in chronic ICU patients to provide nutritional support and prevent catabolic state among chronic critically ill patients. We need to develop precise selection criteria in order to choose the patients who would benefit the most from TPN and PPN. In addition, appropriate laboratory markers are needed to monitor the metabolic requirements of the patients and assess their progress.

  15. Fabrication and Optimization of ChE/ChO/HRP-AuNPs/c-MWCNTs Based Silver Electrode for Determining Total Cholesterol in Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum Lata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed method used three enzymes comprised of cholesterol esterase, cholesterol oxidase, and peroxidase for fabrication of amperometric biosensor in order to determine total cholesterol in serum samples. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs were used to design core of working electrode, having covalently immobilized ChO, ChE, and HRP. Polyacrylamide layer was finally coated on working electrode in order to prevent enzyme leaching. Chemically synthesised Au nanoparticles were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM for analysing the shape and size of the particles. Working electrode was subjected to FTIR and XRD. The combined action of AuNP and c-MWCNT showed enhancement in electrocatalytic activity at a very low potential of 0.27 V. The pH 7, temperature 40°C, and response time of 20 seconds, respectively, were observed. The biosensor shows a broad linear range from 0.5 mg/dL to 250 mg/dL (0.01 mM–5.83 mM with minimum detection limit being 0.5 mg/dL (0.01 mM. The biosensor showed reusability of more than 45 times and was stable for 60 days. The biosensor was successfully tested for determining total cholesterol in serum samples amperometrically with no significant interference by serum components.

  16. Serum Total Tryptase Level Confirms Itself as a More Reliable Marker of Mast Cells Burden in Mast Cell Leukaemia (Aleukaemic Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Savini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cell leukemia (MCL is a very rare form of systemic mastocytosis (SM with a short median survival of 6 months. We describe a case of a 65-year-old woman with aleukaemic variant of MCL with a very high serum total tryptase level of 2255 μg/L at diagnosis, which occurred following an episode of hypotensive shock. She fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of SM, with a bone marrow smear infiltration of 50–60% of atypical mast cells (MCs. She tested negative for the KIT D816V mutation, without any sign of organ damage (no B- or C-findings and only few mediator-related symptoms. She was treated with antihistamine alone and then with imatinib for the appearance of anemia. She maintained stable tryptase level and a very indolent clinical course for twenty-two months; then, she suddenly progressed to acute MCL with a serum tryptase level up to 12960 μg/L. The patient died due to haemorrhagic diathesis twenty-four months after diagnosis. This clinical case maybe represents an example of the chronic form of mast cell leukemia, described as unpredictable disease, in which the serum total tryptase level has confirmed itself as a reliable marker of mast cells burden regardless of the presence of other signs or symptoms.

  17. The Effect of Cloud Ear Fungus (Auricularia polytricha on Serum Total Cholesterol, LDL And HDL Levels on Wistar Rats Induced by Reused Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budinastiti Ratih

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of reused cooking oil affects the increase of serum total cholesterol (TC and LDL, also the decrease of serum HDL. This condition escalates the risk of atherosclerosis, which could lead to the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Cloud ear fungus is a natural antioxidant that contains polysaccharides, flavonoids, niacin, and vitamin C, which can improve the lipid profiles. Objective of this research is to analyze the impact of water from boiled cloud ear fungus on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL level of Wistar rats that have been given reused cooking oil. This study is a true experimental research with post test only control group design, using 12 weeks-aged male Wistar rats (n = 24 that were randomly divided into 4 groups. K1 as the negative control, K2 was given reused cooking oil and standard diet, K3 was given water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet, and K4 was given reused cooking oil, water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet. Serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were measured by the CHOD-PAP method after 28 days treatment. The study showed that TC mean value of K1 (80.2217 ± 3.61 mg / dL, K2 (195.8483 ± 5.47 mg / dL, K3 (75.5800 ± 4.02 mg / dL, and K4 (110.8683 ± 5.82 mg / dL; p = 0.000. LDL mean value of K1 (29.9200 ± 1.53 mg / dL, K2 (78.4167 ± 1.77 mg / dL, K3 (24.3167 ± 1.77 mg / dL, and K4 (40, 1617 ± 2.84 mg / dL; p = 0.000. HDL mean value of K1 (65.8950 ± 1.99 mg / dL, K2 (24.3233 ± 1.44 mg / dL, K3 (73.2300 ± 1.92 mg / dL, and K4 (54, 9550 ± 2.04 mg / dL; p= 0.000. Conclusion: Water from boiled cloud ear fungus decreases the serum total cholesterol and LDL, 06006 increases serum HDL levels of Wistar rats that has been given reused cooking oil.

  18. The Effect of Cloud Ear Fungus (Auricularia polytricha) on Serum Total Cholesterol, LDL And HDL Levels on Wistar Rats Induced by Reused Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinastiti, Ratih; Sunoko, Henna Rya; Widiastiti, Nyoman Suci

    2018-02-01

    The usage of reused cooking oil affects the increase of serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL, also the decrease of serum HDL. This condition escalates the risk of atherosclerosis, which could lead to the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Cloud ear fungus is a natural antioxidant that contains polysaccharides, flavonoids, niacin, and vitamin C, which can improve the lipid profiles. Objective of this research is to analyze the impact of water from boiled cloud ear fungus on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL level of Wistar rats that have been given reused cooking oil. This study is a true experimental research with post test only control group design, using 12 weeks-aged male Wistar rats (n = 24) that were randomly divided into 4 groups. K1 as the negative control, K2 was given reused cooking oil and standard diet, K3 was given water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet, and K4 was given reused cooking oil, water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet. Serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were measured by the CHOD-PAP method after 28 days treatment. The study showed that TC mean value of K1 (80.2217 ± 3.61 mg / dL), K2 (195.8483 ± 5.47 mg / dL), K3 (75.5800 ± 4.02 mg / dL), and K4 (110.8683 ± 5.82 mg / dL); p = 0.000. LDL mean value of K1 (29.9200 ± 1.53 mg / dL), K2 (78.4167 ± 1.77 mg / dL), K3 (24.3167 ± 1.77 mg / dL), and K4 (40, 1617 ± 2.84 mg / dL); p = 0.000. HDL mean value of K1 (65.8950 ± 1.99 mg / dL), K2 (24.3233 ± 1.44 mg / dL), K3 (73.2300 ± 1.92 mg / dL), and K4 (54, 9550 ± 2.04 mg / dL); p= 0.000. Conclusion: Water from boiled cloud ear fungus decreases the serum total cholesterol and LDL, 06006 increases serum HDL levels of Wistar rats that has been given reused cooking oil.

  19. Total Effective Xenoestrogen Burden in Serum Samples and Risk for Breast Cancer in a Population-Based Multicase–Control Study in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Fernández, Mariana F.; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Whelan, Denis; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Llorca, Javier; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Guevara, Marcela; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Barriuso-Lapresa, Laura; Tusquets, Ignasi; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Aragonés, Nuria; Olea, Nicolás; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollán, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most studies on endocrine-disrupting chemicals and breast cancer have focused on single compounds and have produced inconclusive findings. Objectives: We assessed the combined estrogenic effects of mixtures of xenoestrogens in serum and their relationship to breast cancer risk. Methods: A total of 186 incident pretreatment breast cancer cases and 196 frequency-matched controls were randomly sampled from a large population-based multicase–control study in Spain. The total effective xenoestrogen burden attributable to organohalogenated xenoestrogens (TEXB-α) and endogenous hormones and more polar xenoestrogens (TEXB-β) was determined in serum samples using high-performance liquid chromatography and E-Screen bioassay. Odds ratios for breast cancer comparing tertiles of serum TEXB-α and TEXB-β were estimated using logistic models, and smooth risk trends were obtained using spline models. Results: Cases had higher geometric mean TEXB-α and TEXB-β levels (8.32 and 9.94 Eeq pM/mL, respectively) than controls (2.99 and 5.96 Eeq pM/mL, respectively). The fully adjusted odds ratios for breast cancer (95% confidence intervals) comparing the second and third tertiles of TEXB-α with the first tertile were 1.77 (0.76, 4.10) and 3.45 (1.50, 7.97), respectively, and those for TEXB-β were 2.35 (1.10, 5.03) and 4.01 (1.88, 8.56), respectively. A steady increase in risk was evident across all detected TEXB-α levels and a sigmoidal trend was observed for TEXB-β. Individual xenoestrogens showed weak and opposing associations with breast cancer risk. Conclusions: This is the first study to show a strong positive association between serum total xenoestrogen burden and breast cancer risk, highlighting the importance of evaluating xenoestrogen mixtures, rather than single compounds, when studying hormone-related cancers. Citation: Pastor-Barriuso R, Fernández MF, Castaño-Vinyals G, Whelan D, Pérez-Gómez B, Llorca J, Villanueva CM, Guevara M, Molina-Molina JM

  20. Serial changes of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone after total thyroidectomy or withdrawal of suppressive thyroxine therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jin Ho; Lee, Jae Tae; Seo, Ji Hyoung [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy and whole-body scanning are the fundamentals of treatment and follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is generally accepted that a Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level of at least 30 {mu}U/ml is a prerequisite for the effective use of RAI, and that it requires 4-6 weeks of off-thyroxine to attain these levels. Because thyroxine withdrawal and the consequent hypothyroidism are often poorly tolerated, and occasionally might be hazardous, it is important to be certain that these assumptions are correct. We have measured serial changes in serum TSH after total thyroidectomy or withdrawl of thyroxine in patients with thyroid cancer. Serum TSH levels were measured weekly after thyroidectomy in 10 patients (group A) and after the discontinuation of thyroxine in 12 patients (group B). Symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism were also evaluated weekly by modified Billewicz diagnostic index. By the second week, 78% of group A patients and 17% of group B patients had serum TSH levels {>=} 30 {mu}U/ml. By the third week, 89% of group A patients and 90% of group B patients had serum TSH levels {>=} 30 {mu}U/ml. By the fourth week, all patients in two groups achieved target TSH levels and there were no overt hypothyroidism. In all patients, serum TSH elevated to the target concentration ({>=} 30 {mu}U/ml) within 4 weeks without significant manifestation of hypothyroidism. The schedule of RAI administration could be adjusted to fit. the needs and circumstances of individual patients with a shorter preparation period than the conventional.

  1. Estimation of serum, salivary immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A levels and total protein, hemoglobin in smokeless tobacco chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakanth Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a debilitating, potentially cancerous oral condition. Although areca nut is the most important causative agent, it is also considered that the disease is immunologically mediated. Aim of the Study: To establish that autoimmunity and nutritional deficiency play a role in the etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Objectives of the Study: To show that serum immunoglobulin markers (immunoglobulin-G [IgG], immunoglobulin-A [IgA] and nutritional parameters such as total serum protein (TSP, Hemoglobin (Hb play a role in causing OSMF and also to correlate serum, salivary IgG, IgA levels in OSMF patients. Settings and Design: A case-control study was done with 50 patients (25 patients who were provisionally diagnosed as OSMF - Group I, and 25 patients who were chronic smokeless tobacco chewers and who did not have any intraoral lesion - Group II. Materials and Methods: Five milliliters of blood and saliva were collected from both the groups. Quantitative analysis of serum, and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hemoglobin (Hb were estimated by spectrophotometry. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed by independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: All patients of OSMF showed significant (P < 0.01 increase in serum IgG, IgA, and salivary IgG levels as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. The salivary IgA levels showed a significant decrease in OSMF patients (P < 0.05. TSP and Hb levels showed significant (P < 0.01 decrease in OSMF patients as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. Conclusion: The elevation of immunoglobulin levels supports the concept of autoimmunity. The decrease in TSP and Hb suggests that nutritional deficiency plays a defined role in the occurrence as well as a further progression of OSMF.

  2. Hydrogen bonding of formamide, urea, urea monoxide and their thio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ab initio and DFT methods have been employed to study the hydrogen bonding ability of formamide, urea, urea monoxide, thioformamide, thiourea and thiourea monoxide with one water molecule and the homodimers of the selected molecules. The stabilization energies associated with themonohydrated adducts and ...

  3. Influence of slow-release urea on nitrogen balance and portal-drained visceral nutrient flux in beef steers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Elam, N A; Kitts, S E

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow-release urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on portal-drained visceral (PDV) nutrient flux, nutrient digestibility, and total N balance in beef steers.......Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow-release urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on portal-drained visceral (PDV) nutrient flux, nutrient digestibility, and total N balance in beef steers....

  4. Effect of Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Total Cholesterol and High-Sensitivity C-reactive Protein in High-Risk Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming Yu; Xue, Feng Hua; Teng, Shi Chao; Jiang, Li; Zhu, Jing; Yin, Feng; Gu, Hong Yue

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and total cholesterol in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in Asia. By searching English and Chinese language-based electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, SpringerLink, Wiley, Web of Science, Wanfang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP database), we identified 13 studies relevant to our topic of interest. Data were collected from the 13 studies and analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (version 2.0, Biostat Inc., Englewood, New Jersey). Initially, our database searches retrieved 356 studies (45 in English, 311 in Chinese). Thirteen studies were selected for the meta-analysis following stringent criteria. The data included 1239 patients with AF, of whom 634 were treated with atorvastatin and included in the treatment group, and 605 patients were treated with conventional treatment and included in the control group. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that the serum levels of hs-CRP (mg/L) and total cholesterol (mmol/L) in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (hs-CRP: standardized mean difference = 0.962; 95% CI, 0.629-1.295, P < 0.001; total cholesterol: standardized mean difference = 1.400; 95% CI, 0.653-2.146, P < 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that atorvastatin may be very effective in decreasing serum levels of hs-CRP and total cholesterol to prevent cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. National Urea Cycle Disorders Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urea cycle disorders. Donate Now To End Urea Cycle Disorders © 2005-2017 NUCDF. All rights reserved. This site may be freely linked to but not copied or duplicated in any fashion without the Foundation's consent. Make A Donation in ...

  6. Effects of Feeding Ammoniated Cottonseed Hull on Ruminal Environment Indexes and Serum Urea Nitrogen Content of Tarim Red Deer%饲喂氨化棉籽壳对塔里木马鹿瘤胃内环境指标及血清尿素氮含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾存辉; 钱文熙; 吐尔逊阿依·赛买提; 敖维平; 古力米拉·艾尼; 苏皮·赛迪

    2017-01-01

    This experiment was conducted study the effects of feeding ammoniated cottonseed hull on ruminal environment indexes and serum urea nitrogen content of Tarim red deer, and hope to provide a theoretical basis for ammoniated feed rational use of Tarim red deer. A paired experimental design ( feeding ammoniated cotton⁃seed hull before and after feeding ammoniated cottonseed hull) was used, and three Tarim red deer fitted with permanent rumen fistula were chosen as experimental animals. The experiment divided into 2 periods, and each period had a 7⁃day pretrial period plus a 15⁃day trial period. The Tarim red deer in prophase were fed a diet with 1 kg un⁃ammoniated cottonseed hull, and those in anaphase were fed a diet using ammoniated cottonseed hull to replace un⁃ammoniated cottonseed hull. The results showed as follows:after feeding ammoniated cotton⁃seed hull, ruminal fluid pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, microbial protein content and serum urea nitro⁃gen content of Tarim red deer were significantly or extremely significantly increased compared with feeding am⁃moniated cottonseed hull before ( P<0.05 or P<0.01) , while the concentrations of ruminal fluid acetate, buty⁃rate and total volatile fatty acids ( VFA) were significantly decreased compared with feeding ammoniated cot⁃tonseed hull before ( P<0.05 or P<0.01) . The feed cost of Tarim red deer before and after feeding ammoni⁃ated cottonseed hull were 5. 55 and 5. 04 RMB/( head · d ) , respectively, and the cost was reduced 0.51 RMB/( head·d) . Thus, Tarim red deer on ammoniated cottonseed shell has a strong ability to adapt, the application of ammoniated cottonseed shell in the diet of Tarim red deer can effectively save protein feed, improve the utilization efficiency of forage and increase economic efficiency.%本试验旨在研究饲喂氨化棉籽壳对塔里木马鹿瘤胃内环境指标及血清尿素氮含量的影响,以期为塔里木马鹿对氨化饲料的合理利

  7. Validation of the salivary urea and creatinine tests as screening methods of chronic kidney disease in Vietnamese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thuy Anh Vu

    2017-11-01

    The aims of this case control study were to correlate the serum and salivary urea as well as creatinine levels; and to evaluate salivary urea and creatinine as noninvasive alternatives to serum for creatinine estimation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 112 CKD patients and 108 subjects without CKD for quantitative analysis of urea and creatinine. Spearman's correlation coefficients between salivary and serum urea as well as creatinine were obtained. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was done to assess the diagnostic tests of salivary urea and creatinine. Cut-off values were determined based on the best trade-off between the sensitivity and specificity for both salivary urea and creatinine. Salivary urea and creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in CKD patients than those in control subjects; and increased by the stages of the severity of the disease. The positive correlation was significantly found between salivary and serum creatinine (r  =  0.90) and between salivary and serum urea (r  =  0.73). Area under the curve for salivary urea was 0.76 and a cut-off value of 14.25 mmol/L gave a sensitivity of 82.9% and specificity of 57.8%. Area under the curve for salivary creatinine was 0.92 and a cut-off value of 0.24 mg/dL gave a sensitivity of 86.5% and specificity of 87.2%. Both salivary urea and creatinine have a high capacity for serum creatinine estimation. Salivary urea and creatinine tests can be used as low-cost, easily accessible and noninvasive tools for screening, diagnosing, monitoring treatment outcomes and ascertaining prognosis of chronic kidney disease.

  8. The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizome and curcumin on total and differential WBC and serum oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers in rat model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Farzaneh; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    The effects of Curcuma longa ( C. longa ) and curcumin on total and differential WBC count and oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers, in rat model of asthma were evaluated. Total and differential WBC count in the blood, NO 2 , NO 3 , MDA, SOD, CAT and thiol levels in serum were examined in control, asthma, Asthmatic rats treated with C. longa (0.75, 1.50, and 3.00 mg/ml), curcumin (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml), and dexamethasone (1.25 μg/ml) rats. Total and most differential WBC count, NO 2 , NO 3 and MDA were increased but lymphocytes, SOD, CAT and thiol were decreased in asthmatic animals compared to controls ( P longa and curcumin compared to asthmatic group ( P longa and curcumin ( P longa extract and its constituent curcumin in animal model of asthma was observed which suggest a therapeutic potential for the plant and its constituent on asthma.

  9. GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms and total serum GST concentration in stable male COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žuntar Irena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that glutathione- S-transferase (GST genotypes were associated with COPD. GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes were determined by DNA methods and GST activity spectrophotometrically in older male Caucasian Croats (non- -smokers, ex-smokers, and smokers with stable COPD (n = 30 and sex/age matched controls (n = 60. The distribution of GSTP1 genotypes and alleles in controls vs. COPD showed a statistical difference (p < 0.05. The odds ratio of CC/CT+TT (wild type GSTP1 exon 6 vs. joint heterozygous and mutant homozygous GSTP1 exon 6 was 10.000 and statistically different (p = 0.002. In this study, the GSTP1 mutant genotype of exon 5 (GG, as well as GSTP1 mutant and heterozygous genotypes of exon 6 (TT and CT, were suggested to be genetic contributors to COPD susceptibility. Null GSTM1, null GSTT1 and joint GSTM1/GSTT1 null genotypes were not disease associated. Serum GST was not associated with GST genotypes and COPD or smoking history in our study subjects. Conclusions drawn from the study should be further supported and clarified by studies with larger sample sizes.

  10. Relationship between circulating serum osteoprotegerin and total receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand levels, triglycerides, and coronary calcification in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poornima, Indu G; Mackey, Rachel H; Buhari, Alhaji M; Cauley, Jane A; Matthews, Karen A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluates the relationship of blood osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand (RANKL) levels with coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cardiovascular risk factors in two studies of postmenopausal women. OPG, a marker of bone turnover, and its ligand, RANKL, may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. We tested the hypothesis that serum OPG and RANKL levels were associated with CAC and cardiovascular disease risk factors among postmenopausal women in the Women On the Move through Activity and Nutrition Study (WOMAN Study; n = 86; mean [SD], age 58 [2.9] y) and replicated our findings in the Healthy Women Study (HWS; n = 205; mean [SD] age, 61 [2.3] y). Serum OPG, total RANKL, and CAC were measured at baseline and 48 months in the WOMAN Study and on the eighth postmenopausal visit in the HWS. In the WOMAN Study, higher OPG was associated with higher CAC, and higher total RANKL was associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In the HWS, higher total RANKL was also associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In logistic regression models adjusted for body mass index and triglycerides, the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in OPG were 1.78 (1.17-2.73) for the WOMAN Study and 1.02 (0.84-1.24) for the HWS, and the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in log total RANKL were 0.86 (0.64-1.17) for the WOMAN Study and 0.83 (0.72-0.96) for the HWS. The inverse association of total RANKL with CAC and triglycerides is a new finding and may have important implications given the increasing use of drugs that modify total RANKL and its receptor, receptor activator of nuclear κ-B.

  11. Association between total serum cholesterol and suicide attempts in subjects with major depressive disorder: Exploring the role of clinical and biochemical confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Dakanalis, Antonios; Riboldi, Ilaria; Miotto, Alessio; Brosio, Enrico; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    We tested whether serum total cholesterol levels might be associated with recent suicide attempts in subjects with major depressive disorder, after controlling for relevant individual characteristics. We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study including consecutive inpatients with major depressive disorder. We differentiated subjects admitted for a recent serious (violent or non-violent) suicide attempt and those without such recent history. Total cholesterol was measured from fasting blood tests. At univariate analyses, suicide attempters had levels of total cholesterol (174.0±45.7mg/dL) lower than non-attempters (193.9±42.6mg/dL) (p=0.004). This was confirmed among both violent (174.1±46.2mg/dL) and non-violent (173.8±46.1mg/dL) suicide attempters (p=0.035 and 0.016, respectively). However, logistic regression analyses, sequentially including demographic, clinical (comorbid alcohol and personality disorders), and biochemical factors, did not show any association between serum cholesterol and recent suicide attempts (p=0.172). Similar findings were observed in multinomial logistic regression analyses, for both violent (p=0.512) and non-violent (p=0.157) suicide attempts. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that serum cholesterol and suicide attempts are associated among subjects with major depressive disorder. The identification of valid and accessible biological markers of suicidal behaviors still represents a challenge for future research. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The bone mass density in men aged over 50 and its relation to the concentration of free and total testosterone in the blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purzycka-Jazdon, A.; Lasek, W.; Serafin, Z.; Manysiak, S.

    2003-01-01

    As the mean length of life increases, osteoporosis affects a growing number of men and women, thus becoming an important medical and socioeconomic problem in many countries. Pathogenesis and the prevalence of the osteoporosis in women are well established, however, in men, they are still controversial. In this study, the bone mass density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was determined in 100 healthy men age 50-83, using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Also, the total serum and free testosterone was measured. The mean BMD was 123.1I39.3 mg/cm 3 , and the values below a fracture threshold were noted in 39% of subjects. The mean concentration of total and free serum testosterone was 4.3I1.7 ng/ml and 6.2I3.7 pg/ml, respectively. There was a significant (p 3 , respectively). There was no correlation found between total testosterone and BMD. Results indicate that reduced bone mass density in males over 50 is as frequent as recently reported in females. Moreover, sex hormones seem to be related to osteoporosis development in men as well. (author)

  13. Uric Acid or 1-Methyl Uric Acid in the Urinary Bladder Increases Serum Glucose, Insulin, True Triglyceride, and Total Cholesterol Levels in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs, can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels.

  14. Analysis of some chosen elements of cerebrospinal fluid and serum in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostachowicz, B.; Lankosz, M.; Tomik, B.; Adamek, D.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.; Kregsamer, P.

    2006-01-01

    Trace elements play an important role in the human central nervous system. Significant variations of the concentration of trace elements in body fluids may occur in neurodegenerative diseases. In the present work an investigation of the elemental composition of the serum, and the cerebrospinal fluid in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and a control group was performed. For the analysis of the body fluids Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry was used. The samples were taken during routine diagnostic procedures. Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, and Br were determined in both fluids. In order to validate the results of analysis a serum standard reference material was measured. A t-test was applied to check if the mean concentrations of the elements are different for ALS and the control group. For the serum samples higher values for Br were found in the ALS group, for the cerebrospinal fluid lower values of Na, Mg and Zn as well as higher Ca values were found in the ALS group compared to the control group

  15. Analysis of some chosen elements of cerebrospinal fluid and serum in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostachowicz, B. [Department of Radiometric Analyses, Faculty of Physic and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland); Lankosz, M. [Department of Radiometric Analyses, Faculty of Physic and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland); Tomik, B. [Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Adamek, D. [Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Streli, C. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: streli@ati.ac.at; Kregsamer, P. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-11-15

    Trace elements play an important role in the human central nervous system. Significant variations of the concentration of trace elements in body fluids may occur in neurodegenerative diseases. In the present work an investigation of the elemental composition of the serum, and the cerebrospinal fluid in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and a control group was performed. For the analysis of the body fluids Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry was used. The samples were taken during routine diagnostic procedures. Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, and Br were determined in both fluids. In order to validate the results of analysis a serum standard reference material was measured. A t-test was applied to check if the mean concentrations of the elements are different for ALS and the control group. For the serum samples higher values for Br were found in the ALS group, for the cerebrospinal fluid lower values of Na, Mg and Zn as well as higher Ca values were found in the ALS group compared to the control group.

  16. Development of a simple method for the immobilization of anti-thyroxine antibody on polystyrene tubes for use in the measurement of total thyroxine in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani Gnanasekar; Shalaka Paradkar; Vijay Kadwad; Ketaki Bapat; Grace Samuel; Sachdev, S.S.; Sivaprasad, N.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a simple method for the immobilisation of anti-thyroxine antibody on to the surface of polystyrene tubes and a simple assay format for the quantitative estimation of total thyroxine in serum. The immobilisation of anti-thyroxine antibody was achieved through passive adsorption of normal rabbit gamma globulin and anti-rabbit antibody raised in goat, as immune bridges. This procedure ensured minimum utilisation of primary and secondary antibody as neat sera without precipitation or affinity purification. The developed assay system using these antibody coated tubes covers a range of 0-240 ng/mL of thyroxine with intra and inter assay variations of less than 10 %. (author)

  17. Modification of Death rate and Disturbances induced in the Levels of serum total Lipids and free fatty acids of irradiated rats by ascorbic acid and serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, A.M.; Saada, H.N.; Osama, Z.S.

    1999-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of normal rats with ascorbic acid (10 mg/100 g body weight ) or serotonin (2 mg/100 g body weight) had no harmful effect on the life span. Moreover, the levels of serum total lipids and free fatty acids did not show any significant changes at 3, 7, 10 and 14 days after injection. Administration of ascorbic acid or serotonin to rats at the pre mentioned doses, 15 minutes, before gamma irradiation at 7.5 Gy (single dose ) improved the survival time of rats and the hyperlipemic state recorded after radiation exposure

  18. Total serum IgE level influences oral food challenge tests for IgE-mediated food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimukai, K; Hayashi, K; Tsumura, Y; Nomura, I; Narita, M; Ohya, Y; Saito, H; Matsumoto, K

    2015-03-01

    Probability curves predicting oral food challenge test (OFC) results based on specific IgE levels are widely used to prevent serious allergic reactions. Although several confounding factors are known to affect probability curves, the main factors that affect OFC outcomes are currently unclear. We hypothesized that an increased total IgE level would reduce allergic reactivity. Medical records of 337 and 266 patients who underwent OFCs for 3.5 g boiled hen's egg white and 3.1 ml raw cow's milk, respectively, were examined retrospectively. We subdivided the patients into three groups based on total IgE levels and age by percentile (75th percentiles), and logistic regression analyses were performed on each group. Patients with higher total IgE levels were significantly less responsive. In addition, age did not significantly affect the OFC results. Therefore, total IgE levels should be taken into account when predicting OFC results based on food-specific IgE levels. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Low serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of 30 day hospital readmission in patients 65 years of age or older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Robinson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge is a target for health care cost savings through the medicare Value Based Purchasing initiative. Because of this focus, hospitals and health systems are investing considerable resources into the identification of patients at risk of hospital readmission and designing interventions to reduce the rate of hospital readmission. Malnutrition is a known risk factor for hospital readmission.Materials and Methods. All medical patients 65 years of age or older discharged from Memorial Medical Center from January 1, 2012 to March 31, 2012 who had a determination of serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count on hospital admission were studied retrospectively. Admission serum albumin levels and total lymphocyte counts were used to classify the nutritional status of all patients in the study. Patients with a serum albumin less than 3.5 grams/dL and/or a TLC less than 1,500 cells per mm3 were classified as having protein energy malnutrition. The primary outcome investigated in this study was hospital readmission for any reason within 30 days of discharge.Results. The study population included 1,683 hospital discharges with an average age of 79 years. The majority of the patients were female (55.9% and had a DRG weight of 1.22 (0.68. 219 patients (13% were readmitted within 30 days of hospital discharge. Protein energy malnutrition was common in this population. Low albumin was found in 973 (58% patients and a low TLC was found in 1,152 (68% patients. Low albumin and low TLC was found in 709 (42% of patients. Kaplan–Meier analysis shows any laboratory evidence of PEM is a significant (p < 0.001 predictor of hospital readmission. Low serum albumin (p < 0.001 and TLC (p = 0.018 show similar trends. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed low serum albumin (Hazard Ratio 3.27, 95% CI [2.30–4.63] and higher DRG weight (Hazard Ratio 1.19, 95% CI [1.03–1.38] to be significant

  20. Plant sterol ester diet supplementation increases serum plant sterols and markers of cholesterol synthesis, but has no effect on total cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingärtner, Oliver; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Schirmer, Stephan H; Husche, Constanze; Vanmierlo, Tim; Wagenpfeil, Gudrun; Hoth, Markus; Böhm, Michael; Lütjohann, Dieter; Laufs, Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention-study was conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine on cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols and oxidative stress in serum and monocytes. Sixteen volunteers, average age 34 years, with no or mild hypercholesterolemia were subjected to a 4 week period of daily intake of 3g plant sterols per day supplied via a supplemented margarine on top of regular eating habits. After a wash-out period of one week, volunteers switched groups. Compared to placebo, a diet supplementation with plant sterols increased serum levels of plant sterols such as campesterol (+0.16±0.19mg/dL, p=0.005) and sitosterol (+0.27±0.18mg/dL, psynthesis such as desmosterol (+0.05±0.07mg/dL, p=0.006) as well as lathosterol (+0.11±0.16mg/dL, p=0.012). Cholesterol serum levels, however, were not changed significantly (+18.68±32.6mg/dL, p=0.052). These findings could not be verified in isolated circulating monocytes. Moreover, there was no effect on monocyte activation and no differences with regard to redox state after plant sterol supplemented diet. Therefore, in a population of healthy volunteers with no or mild hypercholesterolemia, consumption of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine results in increased concentrations of plant sterols and cholesterol synthesis markers without affecting total cholesterol in the serum, activation of circulating monocytes or redox state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Fe and Zn/Cu ratio in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Bellido, Alfredo Victor B.; Anjos, Marcelino J.

    2011-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. In this work we have analyzed serum samples from patients with SCA by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. We have studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 years old, suffering from SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years old. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Student's t-test was applied in order to check whether the two populations (CG x SCA) had the same mean values. It was observed that elemental concentration of P, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br differed significantly (α = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and SCA. The concentrations of K, Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger 15%, 120 % and 20 %, respectively, when compared with the CG. On the other hand, the concentrations of P (-20 %), Cl (-6 %), Zn (-25 %) and Br (-22 %) were smaller than the values determined for the control group. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples of patients with SCA group than the CG. So, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Fe and Zn/Cu ratio in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Instrumentaco Nuclear; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bellido, Alfredo Victor B., E-mail: alfredo@ien.gov.b [Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Chemistry Inst.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b [State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Physics Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. In this work we have analyzed serum samples from patients with SCA by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. We have studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 years old, suffering from SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years old. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Student's t-test was applied in order to check whether the two populations (CG x SCA) had the same mean values. It was observed that elemental concentration of P, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br differed significantly ({alpha} = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and SCA. The concentrations of K, Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger 15%, 120 % and 20 %, respectively, when compared with the CG. On the other hand, the concentrations of P (-20 %), Cl (-6 %), Zn (-25 %) and Br (-22 %) were smaller than the values determined for the control group. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples of patients with SCA group than the CG. So, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. (author)

  3. Evaluation of Fe and Zn/Cu ratio in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Leitao, Roberta G; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Instrumentaco Nuclear; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bellido, Alfredo Victor B., E-mail: alfredo@ien.gov.b [Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Chemistry Inst.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b [State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Physics Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. In this work we have analyzed serum samples from patients with SCA by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. We have studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 years old, suffering from SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years old. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Student's t-test was applied in order to check whether the two populations (CG x SCA) had the same mean values. It was observed that elemental concentration of P, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br differed significantly ({alpha} = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and SCA. The concentrations of K, Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger 15%, 120 % and 20 %, respectively, when compared with the CG. On the other hand, the concentrations of P (-20 %), Cl (-6 %), Zn (-25 %) and Br (-22 %) were smaller than the values determined for the control group. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples of patients with SCA group than the CG. So, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. (author)

  4. Slow-release urea in supplement fed to beef steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Replacing regular urea (RU by slow-release urea (SRU at two levels of non-protein nitrogen (NPN in concentrate, offered with low-quality roughage, was evaluated in beef steers on dry matter intake (DMI, ruminal fermentation parameters, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, total tract apparent digestibility of diets and in situ degradability of nitrogen sources. Eight ruminally cannulated steers were allocated into two 4x4 Latin squares, totalizing four treatments: 40 NPN/0 SRU: 40% of concentrate crude protein (CP as NPN, resulting from 0% of SRU and 100% of RU; 40 NPN/50 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 50% of SRU and 50% of RU; 40 NPN/100 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU; 80 NPN/100 SRU: 80% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU. Results showed that partial substitution of regular urea by slow-release urea did not alter dry matter intake, pattern of ruminal fermentation or plasma urea nitrogen concentrations and increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein in steers diets. The increase in non-protein nitrogen content in crude protein of the concentrate could compromise feed intake and the efficiency of nutrient utilization in the steers fed complete diets based on low quality forage.

  5. Effect of sodium chloride intake on urine volume, urinary urea excretion, and milk urea concentration in lactating dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Bannink, A.; Gort, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) has been shown to be related to excretion of urinary urea N (UUN; g of N/d) and total excretion of urinary N (UN; g of N/d) in dairy cows. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that MUN and the relationship between MUN and UUN or UN is affected by urine

  6. comparative studies on the mineralization of furfural urea and urea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-12-02

    Dec 2, 2013 ... In this research, laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural urea as a slow release N ... regarding groundwater pollution ( Myrold, 2008). The ... The plastic pots containing the treated soil sample and.

  7. Statins attenuate but do not eliminate the reverse epidemiology of total serum cholesterol in patients with non-ischemic chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Raman, Nandita; Täger, Tobias; Schellberg, Dieter; Goode, Kevin M; Kazmi, Syed; Grundtvig, Morten; Hole, Torstein; Cleland, John G F; Katus, Hugo A; Agewall, Stefan; Clark, Andrew L; Atar, Dan; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2017-07-01

    In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) increasing levels of total serum cholesterol are associated with improved survival - while statin usage is not. The impact of statin treatment on the "reverse epidemiology" of cholesterol is unclear. 2992 consecutive patients with non-ischemic CHF due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction from the Norwegian CHF Registry and the CHF Registries of the Universities of Hull, UK, and Heidelberg, Germany, were studied. 1736 patients were individually double-matched on both cholesterol levels and the individual propensity scores for statin treatment. All-cause mortality was analyzed as a function of baseline cholesterol and statin use in both the general and the matched sample. 1209 patients (40.4%) received a statin. During a follow-up of 13,740 patient-years, 360 statin users (29.8%) and 573 (32.1%) statin non-users died. When grouped according to total cholesterol levels as low (≤3.6mmol/L), moderate (3.7-4.9mmol/L), high (4.8-6.2mmol/L), and very high (>6.2mmol/L), we found improved survival with very high as compared with low cholesterol levels. This association was present in statin users and non-users in both the general and matched sample (p<0.05 for each group comparison). The negative association of total cholesterol and mortality persisted when cholesterol was treated as a continuous variable (HR 0.83, 95%CI 0.77-0.90, p<0.001 for matched patients), but it was less pronounced in statin users than in non-users (F-test p<0.001). Statins attenuate but do not eliminate the reverse epidemiological association between increasing total serum cholesterol and improved survival in patients with non-ischemic CHF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The ratio of free to total serum prostate specific antigen in 412 patients with prostate cancer and analysis of bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jinlai; Dong Li; Pan Fangfang; Gao Zheng; Xu Meihua; Shen Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the characteristics of the ratio of serum free prostate specific antigen (FPSA) to total prostate specific antigen (TPSA) and bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer (Pca). Methods: 412 patients with prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. The preoperative serum FPSA and TPSA levels in patients were measured and SPECT imaging with 99m Tc-MDP were carried out. The patients were further divided into 2 groups according to whether they were found with bone metastases. Results: The result showed that 25.5% of patients (105/412) were found without any bone metastasis, and 74.5% of them(307/412) were with bone metastasis. Among the 307 cases of Pca patients with bone metastases, total 2907 metastatic lesions were found. 97.5% of the metastasis showed a 'hot zone' sign, 2.5% of them showed a 'cold zone' sign. The serum levels of TPSA, FPSA and F/T in patients with bone metastasis were 97.9±59.4μg/L, 10.2±8.1μg/L, 0.09±0.04, respectively. The serum levels of TPSA, FPSA and F/T in patients without bone metastasis were 24.8±23.0μg/L, 4.4±3.4μg/L, 0.12±0.05, respectively. There was significantly different in TPSA, FPSA and F/T between two groups (P<0.01). The TPSA in patients was positively correlated with bone metastasis (r=-0.487, P<0.05). There was positively correlation between the ratio of F/T and bone metastasis (r=-0.641, P<0.05). Conclusion: The prostate patients with F/T<0.15 were highly suspected to have bone metastasis. The SPECT bone scan was recommended in these patients when necessary. The bone metastasis predication sites were pelvis, vertebrae and ribs, most of the type of bone metastases were ossification. (authors)

  9. Relationship among antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, blood urea nitrogen and complement in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tamihiro; Kimura, Satoko; Takeuchi, Sora; Soma, Yoshinao

    2013-07-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), also known as Churg-Strauss syndrome, is an antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis characterized by a history of asthma, hypereosinophilia. The prevalence of ANCA in EGPA is less common than in other ANCA-associated vasculitis. Increasing evidence of complement activation in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis has been provided by studies in animal models. We examined EGPA patients with cutaneous manifestations as an initial sign and investigated the correlations among clinical, serological and histopathological findings. We focused on differences among ANCA, blood urea nitrogen and complement levels such as complement 3 (C3), C4 and total complement hemolytic activity (CH50). We retrospectively investigated the records of 22 patients (11 male and 11 female) with EGPA admitted to our hospital from 1997-2012. Ten of the 22 patients (46%) were positive for serum myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA. In contrast, all the patients were negative for serum proteinase 3 ANCA. There was a significantly positive correlation between serum CH50 and C4 levels in patients with EGPA. Serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels differed significantly between MPO-ANCA-positive and -negative patients. Serum CH50 levels were higher in MPO-ANCA-positive patients compared to negative patients. Serum BUN levels were higher in elevated CH50 patients compared to normal and low CH50-negative patients. We propose that positive findings for MPO-ANCA with CH50 high activity may be a risk factor for developing renal insufficiency. Assuming there are correlations between the presence of ANCA and complements, earlier diagnosis based on initial efficacious treatment for EGPA. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  10. Production of granules of urea, urea-ammonium sulphate and urea-potassium chloride enriched with 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendassolli, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Using a pearling tower it was possible to produce granulated urea, and granulated mixtures of ammonium sulphate and urea, potassium chloride and urea, Labelled in 15 N. Granulated urea with 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm of diameter was obtained using a system with a heating controller. A low concentration of biuret was observed in the granules produced ( 15 N-Labelled ( 15 NH 4' 15 NH 2 ) with variable proportion of ammonium sulphate and urea. (author)

  11. urea space versus tritiated water space as an in vivo predtctor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kock (1973) consider urea space in the ruminant to be a measure of empty body water (total body water less the water in the digestive tract) rather than total body water. The study reported in this paper evaluates the pros and cons of urea space measurement as compared to tritiated water space measurement in terms of ...

  12. Rapid changes in the serum total protein and globulin levels in complications caused by facultatively pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrás, G; Kiss, S; Juraszek, J; Merétey, K

    1978-01-01

    The changes in the levels of total protein and four globulin fractions were followed up throughout the entire course of complications caused by Gram-negative facultative pathogens in 37 acute cases of respiratory insufficiency accompanying different underlying illnesses and in 9 chronic, bedridden patients given artificial ventilation. At the onset of the infectious complications, in the first place in septic shock, the levels of various globulin fractions showed a decrease corresponding to a half-life of 2 to 4 days. Neither the increased catabolism, nor the protein losses by the urine and tracheal secretions offer a sufficient explanation for the escape of globulins of this extent from the plasma. It seems that this is a consequence of the increase in capillary permeability due to the effect of antigen-antibody reactions and that of endotoxin. As a result, in the critical phase of the infectious complications, at the point of culmination, e.g. in septic shock, diminished amount of different globulins is transported to the site of utilization, that is, to the inflammatory area.

  13. Correlation between dietary nitrogen, level of plasma urea and urea excretion in urine of buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted with 6 male buffalo calves of Murrah breed, aged 1.5 years, to determine whether blood urea nitrogen and urea excretion in urine were associated with protein intake. The animals were fed different amounts of crude protein in their diet. The levels of urea-N in the blood, excretion of 14 C from urea and urea-N in the urine were estimated. Close relationships were observed between nitrogen intake, blood urea nitrogen and urea excretion in the urine. The observations indicated that blood urea-N and urea excretion in urine could be quantitated with the protein intake. (author)

  14. Urea utilization in growing lambs. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbrich, M.; Nikitin, S.; Geissler, C.; Hoffmann, M.

    1988-01-01

    Lambs aged 2 or 4 months and of an average live weight of 14.7 and 27.4 kg, resp., received rations consisting of 44% cereals, 46% dried sugar beet pulp, 6% wheat starch, 2% urea and 2% mineral-vitamin mixture. The crude protein content was 17.1 and 15.9%, resp., in the dry matter, that of natively crude protein 10.6 and 9.4%, resp. During a 6-day N balance period 8 and 16 g 15 N-urea resp. with a 15 N excess ( 15 N') of 9.26 and 9.40 atom-% were fed orally instead of commercial feeding urea. There were no significant differences between the two age groups with regard to the digestibility of the organic matter and the crude nutrients. The average N balance of 372 ± 85 mg/kg LW 0.75 /day were in the intermediate range of N retention capacity and accounted for 26 ± 5% of the consumed N. N retention in per cent. was slightly lower in younger lambs. Projections of urea utilization in a quasi stationary state resulted in an efficiency of the utilization of 33 ± 4%. The cutting up of the lambs at the end of the main period showed between 0.02 and 0.22 atom-% 15 N' in the total N, TCA precipitable N and amino acid N of the meat. At between 0.24 and 0.38 atom-% 15 N' they were highest in the heart and jaw muscles. The quota of 15 N' amounts found in the total N of the meat were 10.6 ± 3% of the 15 N intake and 20.1 ± 5.1% of the 15 N'amount remaining in the body. The bones contained 7.7 ± 1.7% and the fleece 7.9 ± 3.1% of the 15 N' intake. Total N and urea utilization was slightly lower in younger lambs than in older ones. (author)

  15. Analysis of serum and cerebrospinal fluid in clinically normal adult miniature donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, A A; Samadieh, H

    2013-09-01

    To establish reference intervals for serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters in clinically healthy adult miniature donkeys. Experiments were conducted on 10 female and 10 male clinically normal adult miniature donkeys, randomly selected from five herds. Lumbosacral CSF collection was performed with the sedated donkey in the standing position. Cell analysis was performed immediately after the samples were collected. Blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein immediately after CSF sample collection. Sodium, potassium, glucose, urea nitrogen, total protein, calcium, chloride, phosphorous and magnesium concentrations were measured in CSF and serum samples. A paired t-test was used to compare mean values between female and male donkeys. The CSF was uniformly clear, colourless and free from flocculent material, with a specific gravity of 1.002. The range of total nucleated cell counts was 2-4 cells/μL. The differential white cell count comprised only small lymphocytes. No erythrocytes or polymorphonuclear cells were observed on cytological examination. Reference values were obtained for biochemical analysis of serum and CSF. Gender had no effect on any variables measured in serum or CSF (p>0.05). CSF analysis can provide important information in addition to that gained by clinical examination. CSF analysis has not previously been performed in miniature donkeys; this is the first report on the subject. In the present study, reference intervals for total nucleated cell count, total protein, glucose, urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium concentrations of serum and CSF were determined for male and female miniature donkeys.

  16. Examination of the relation between periodontal health status and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T; Trevisan, M; Genco, R J; Falkner, K L; Dorn, J P; Sempos, C T

    2000-02-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), the authors examined the relation between periodontal health and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen. A total of 10,146 participants were included in the analyses of cholesterol and C-reactive protein and 4,461 in the analyses of fibrinogen. Periodontal health indicators included the gingival bleeding index, calculus index, and periodontal disease status (defined by pocket depth and attachment loss). While cholesterol and fibrinogen were analyzed as continuous variables, C-reactive protein was dichotomized into two levels. The results show a significant relation between indicators of poor periodontal status and increased C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. The association between periodontal status and total cholesterol level is much weaker. No consistent association between periodontal status and high density lipoprotein cholesterol was detectable. Similar patterns of association were observed for participants aged 17-54 years and those 55 years and older. In conclusion, this study suggests that total cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen are possible intermediate factors that may link periodontal disease to elevated cardiovascular risk.

  17. Release of Gentamicin and Vancomycin from Preformed Spacers in Infected Total Hip Arthroplasties: Measurement of Concentrations and Inhibitory Activity in Patients’ Drainage Fluids and Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Regis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin (G and vancomycin (V concentrations in drainage fluids obtained from patients during the first 24 hours after implantation of antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA spacers in two-stage revision of infected total hip arthroplasty were studied. The inhibitory activity of drainage fluids against different multiresistant clinical isolates was investigated as well. Seven hips were treated by implantation of industrial G-loaded spacers. Vancomycin was added by manually mixing with PMMA bone cement. Serum and drainage fluid samples were collected 1, 4, and 24 hours after spacer implantation. Antibiotics concentrations and drains bactericidal titer of combination were determined against multiresistant staphylococcal strains. The release of G and V from PMMA cement at the site of infection was prompt and effective. Serum levels were below the limit of detection. The local release kinetics of G and V from PMMA cement was similar, exerting a pronounced, combined inhibitory effect in the implant site. The inhibitory activity of drainage fluids showed substantial intersubject variability related to antibiotic concentrations and differed according to the pathogens tested. Gentamicin and vancomycin were released from temporary hip spacers at bactericidal concentrations, and their use in combination exerted strong inhibition against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci strains.

  18. Urinary and Serum Metabolomics Analyses Uncover That Total Glucosides of Paeony Protect Liver against Acute Injury Potentially via Reprogramming of Multiple Metabolic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haojie Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Total glucosides of paeony (TGP have been confirmed to be hepatoprotective. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the metabolic profiles of urine and serum in rats with carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced experimental liver injury and TGP administration by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS. The vehicle or a single dose of TGP was intragastrically administered to Wistar rats once a day for 14 consecutive days. To induce ALI, 50% CCl4 was injected intraperitoneally into these rats 2 hours after the last time administration of saline of TGP at the 14th day. The results indicated that TGP administration could protect rats from CCl4-induced ALI and alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST elevation, as well as hepatocyte apoptosis and inflammation. Furthermore, metabolomics analysis showed that TGP treatment significantly attenuated CCl4-triggered deregulation of multiple metabolites in both urine and serum, including glycine, alanine, proline, and glutamine. Metabolite set enrichment and pathway analyses demonstrated that amino acid cycling and glutathione metabolism were two main pathways involved in CCl4-induced experimental liver injury and TGP administration. Taken together, these findings revealed that regulation of metabolites potentially plays a pivotal role in the protective effect of TGP on ALI.

  19. Simple and sensitive method for the quantification of total bilirubin in human serum using 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride as a chromogenic probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Avinash, Krishnegowda; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Dinesh, Rangappa; Shrestha, Ashwinee Kumar

    2010-11-01

    We here describe a new spectrophotometric method for measuring total bilirubin in serum. The method is based on the cleavage of bilirubin giving formaldehyde which further reacts with diazotized 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride giving blue colored solution with maximum absorbance at 630 nm. Sensitivity of the developed method was compared with Jendrassik-Grof assay procedure and its applicability has been tested with human serum samples. Good correlation was attained between both methods giving slope of 0.994, intercept 0.015, and R2 = 0.997. Beers law obeyed in the range of 0.068-17.2 μM with good linearity, absorbance y = 0.044 Cbil + 0.003. Relative standard deviation was 0.006872, within day precision ranged 0.3-1.2% and day-to-day precision ranged 1-6%. Recovery of the method varied from 97 to 102%. The proposed method has higher sensitivity with less interference. The obtained product was extracted and was spectrally characterized for structural confirmation with FT-IR, 1H NMR.

  20. Total serum vitamin C concentration in pregnant women: implications for a healthy pregnancy Concentração total de vitamina C na gestante: implicações para uma gestação saudável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garba Ibrahim Hassan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: total serum vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid concentration was measured in 90 pregnant women, 30 in each trimester (age range 18-35 years and a control group of age-matched non-pregnant women. METHODS: total serum vitamin C concentration was measured using the 2.4-dinitrophenylhydrazine method which involves the conversion of vitamin C to dehydroascorbic acid in the presence of copper (II ions and subsequent measurement of the resulting bis-hydrazone at 540nm. RESULTS: the total vitamin C concentration in the first trimester was 2.55 ± 0.82 mg/dl and 2.32 ± 0.40 mg/dl and 0.77 ± 0.10 mg/dl in the second and third trimesters respectively. Relative to serum total vitamin C concentration in the controls (3.15 ± 0.13 mg/dl these values are significantly lower (p OBJETIVOS: a concentração sérica total de vitamina C (ácido 1-ascórbico foi medida em 90 mulheres grávidas sendo 30 em cada trimestre (idade de 18-35 anos e um grupo controle, pareado por idade, de mulheres não grávidas. MÉTODOS: a concentração sérica total de vitamina C foi medida usando o método 2.4-dinitrofenilhidrazina que envolve a conversão de vitama C a ácido dehidroascorbico na presença de íons cobre II e, em seguida, medindo a resultante bi-hidrazona em 540 nm. RESULTADOS: a concentração total de vitamina C no primeiro semestre foi de 2.55 ± 0,13 mg/dL e de 2,32 ± 0,40 mg/dL e 0,77 ± 0,10 mg/dL no segundo e terceiro trimestres, respectivamente. Estes valores são significativamente mais baixos do que nos controles (3,15 ± 0,13 mg/dL(p<0,05. CONCLUSÕES: reduzida concentração de vitamina C sérica na gestação pode indicar a sua utilização para retirar o excesso de espécies oxigênio-reativas e manter a homeostase normal. Assim, recomenda-se a suplementação de vitamina C na gestação para aumentar o seu baixo nível no organismo e previnir a predisposição para o baixo peso ao nascer, parto prematuro e pré-eclâmpsia, condições associadas

  1. Analysis of nutrition-relevant trace elements in human blood and serum by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stosnach, Hagen; Mages, Margarete

    2009-01-01

    In clinical service laboratories, one of the most common analytical tasks with regard to inorganic traces is the determination of the nutrition-relevant elements Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se. Because of the high numbers of samples and the commercial character of these analyses, a time-consuming sample preparation must be avoided. In this presentation, the results of total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements with a low-power system and different sample preparation procedures are compared with those derived from analysis with common methods like Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The results of these investigations indicate that the optimal total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of the nutrition-relevant elements Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se can be performed by preparing whole blood and serum samples after dilution with ultrapure water and transferring 10 μl of internally standardized sample to an unsiliconized quartz glass sample carrier with subsequent drying in a laboratory oven. Suitable measurement time was found to be 600 s. The enhanced sample preparation by means of microwave or open digestion, in parts combined with cold plasma ashing, led to an improvement of detection limits by a factor of 2 for serum samples while for whole blood samples an improvement was only observed for samples prepared by means of microwave digestion. As the matrix elements P, S, Cl, and for whole blood Fe have a major influence on the detection limits, most probably a further enhancement of analytical quality requires the removal of the organic matrix. However, for the routine analysis of the nutrition-relevant elements, the dilution preparation was found to be sufficient.

  2. Effects of policosanol on borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol levels: a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Castaño, PhD

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Clinical studies have shown that lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, is beneficial for patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol (TC levels (5.0–6.0 mmol/L. Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug made from purified sugar cane wax. The therapeutic range of policosanol is 5 to 20 mg/d. Objective: This study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol 5 mg/d in patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum TC levels. Methods: This 14-week, single-center, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, comparative study was conducted in men and women aged 25 to 75 years with a serum TC level ≥4.8 to <6.0 mmol/L. After a 6-week run-in period in which patients were placed on therapeutic lifestyle changes, in particular a cholesterol-lowering diet, patients were randomly assigned to receive policosanol 5-mg tablets or placebo tablets once daily with the evening meal for 8 weeks, and the diet was continued throughout the study. Lipid profile variables, safety indicators, adverse events (AEs, and compliance with study medications were assessed. Results: One hundred patients (71 women, 29 men; mean [SD] age, 52 [10] years entered the study after the dietary run-in period. After 8 weeks of treatment, the mean (SD serum LDL-C level decreased significantly in the policosanol group (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo from 3.57 (0.30 mmol/L to 2.86 (0.41 mmol/L (change, −19.9%. Significantly more patients in the policosanol group (42 patients [84%] achieved a ≥15% decrease in serum LDL-C than in the placebo group (2 patients [4%] (P<0.001. Also in the policosanol group, the mean (SD serum TC level decreased significantly, from 5.20 (0.22 mmol/L to 4.56 (0.44 mmol/L (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo (change, −12.3%; the mean (SD triglyceride (TG

  3. The effect of CP concentration in the diet on urea kinetics and microbial usage of recycled urea in cattle: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E D; Detmann, E; Valadares Filho, S C; Titgemeyer, E C; Valadares, R F D

    2017-08-01

    In ruminants, urea recycling is considered an evolutionary advantage. The amount of urea recycled mainly depends of the nitrogen (N) intake and the amount of organic matter (OM) digested in the rumen. Because recycled N contributes to meeting microbial N requirements, accurate estimates of urea recycling can improve the understanding of efficiency of N utilization and N losses to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate urea kinetics and microbial usage of recycled urea N in ruminants using a meta-analytical approach. Treatment mean values were compiled from 25 studies with ruminants (beef cattle, dairy cows and sheep) which were published from 2001 to 2016, totalling 107 treatment means. The data set was analyzed according to meta-analysis techniques using linear or non-linear mixed models, taking into account the random variations among experiments. Urea N synthesized in the liver (UER) and urea N recycled to the gut (GER) linearly increased (PCP concentration and the ratio of CP to digestible OM (CP:DOM). Maximum curvature analyses identified 17% dietary CP as the point where there was a prominent increase in hepatic synthesis of urea N, likely due to an excess of dietary N leading to greater ammonia absorption. The GER:UER decreased with increasing dietary CP concentration (PCP⩾19%, GER:UER reached near minimal values. The fraction of UER eliminated as urinary urea N and the contribution of urea N to total urinary N were positively associated with dietary CP (PCP was 17%. The fractions of GER excreted in the feces and utilized for anabolism decreased, whereas the fraction of GER returned to the ornithine cycle increased with dietary CP concentration (PCP and CP:DOM increased (PCP/kg DOM. The models obtained in this study contribute to the knowledge on N utilization, and they could be used in feeding models to predict urea recycling and thus to improve formulation of diets to reduce N losses that contribute to air and water pollution.

  4. Regulation of urea synthesis during the acute phase response in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Karen Louise; Jessen, Niels; Buch Møller, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The acute-phase response is a catabolic event involving increased waste of amino-nitrogen (N) via hepatic urea synthesis, despite an increased need for amino-N incorporation into acute-phase proteins. This study aimed to clarify the regulation of N elimination via urea during different phases...... of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced acute-phase response in rats. We used four methods to study the regulation of urea synthesis: We examined urea cycle enzyme mRNA levels in liver tissue, the hepatocyte urea cycle enzyme proteins, the in vivo capacity of urea-N synthesis (CUNS), and known humoral...... regulators of CUNS at 1, 3, 24, and 72 h after TNF-α injection (25 μg/kg iv rrTNF-α) in rats. Serum acute-phase proteins and their liver mRNA levels were also measured. The urea cycle enzyme mRNA levels acutely decreased and then gradually normalized, whereas the urea cycle enzyme proteins remained...

  5. Effect of different component ratio of Astragalus total saponins and Verbena total glycosides on the cerebral infarction area and serum biochemical indicators in the focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erping Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose is to study the effect of different component ratio of Astragalus Total Saponins (ATS and Verbena Total Glycosides (VTG on the cerebral infarction area and the serum biochemical indicators in the focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model. Compared with the model group, different component ratio of ATS and VTG could significantly improve the neurological deficit scores to the focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model, and the group of 7:3, 6:4, 5:5 got the best results; it could reduce the mortality of rat model to a certain extent, and the group of 5:5 group got the best results; it can significantly reduce the cerebral infarction area, and the group of 7:3, 5:5, 4:6 got the best results; it could significantly reduce the content of TNF-α, and the group of 8:2, 6:4 got the best results; it could significantly reduce the content of NO, and the group of 7:3, 5:5 got the best results; it could significantly increase the content of SOD, and the group of 6:4, 5:5 got the best results. This indicates that different component ratio of ATS and VTG may protect the damage of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model to a certain extent, which are compared using the comprehensive weight method and the ratio of 5:5 was proved to be the optimal active ratio.

  6. Isotopic studies of urea metabolism in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoeczi, E.; Irons, L.; Koj, A.; McFarlane, A. S.

    1965-01-01

    1. The half-life of [15N]urea was found to be significantly longer than that of [14C]urea injected at the same time, the differences being due to endogenous catabolism of urea, which is accompanied by little or no reutilization of 14C but is approx. 20% for 15N. [15N]Urea therefore appears to be valueless as an indicator of nitrogen metabolism unless the extents of endogenous catabolism of urea and of fractional reutilization of 15N can be separately estimated. 2. Though measurements of the radioactivity of expired 14CO2 confirmed the existence of considerable urea catabolism these could not be used for quantitative assessments. 3. Alternative graphical methods based on [14C]urea specific activities in plasma and urine samples were used to calculate the fraction of urea production that is excreted. Values by the two methods were in good agreement and showed that some animals excrete less than half the urea that they produce. 4. Specific activity differences between simultaneous samples of urinary and plasma urea reflect the presence of a pool of urea in the kidney that is not in equilibrium with the body urea pool. Calculations indicate the presence of urea in the kidney that in some cases may represent as much as 15% of the body pool, and in two animals in which post-mortem renal analyses were performed the masses of urea found agreed closely with the calculated values. 5. A model for urea metabolism is proposed that includes this pool in the excretory pathway. The related theory is shown to be adequate to explain the shape of the specific activity curves of urinary urea from the time of injection and the constant delay of the specific activity of urinary urea, relative to that of plasma urea, that is observed after a short preliminary equilibration period. 6. The body urea pool was calculated from the activity retained at 1·5hr. by excluding renal activity and the corrected specific activity of plasma urea at the same time. The urea pool was calculated to be

  7. Distribution of Serum Total Homocysteine and Its Association with Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Mexican American Men: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillum Richard

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data have been published on the association of variables of the insulin resistance syndrome and serum total homocysteine (tHcy, a putative risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity, in representative samples of total populations or in Hispanic Americans. Methods To describe the distributions of serum tHcy concentration and variables associated with insulin resistance in Mexican American men and to assess their association, data from a cross-sectional survey of a large national sample, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Analyses were restricted to Mexican American men aged 40–74 years with data on glycated hemoglobin (%, body mass index (BMI, body fat distribution, HDL cholesterol, fasting serum insulin, serum triglycerides and serum tHcy concentrations. Results Cumulative distributions of serum tHcy shifted to the right with increasing age. Log serum tHcy was not associated with prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus or glycated hemoglobin percent or other risk factors other than age. Log serum tHcy concentration showed borderline significant (p = 0.049 positive association with fasting serum insulin concentration independent of age and BMI, only in men aged 60–74. Conclusion No consistent association of tHcy with diabetes prevalence or variables of the insulin resistance syndrome were found in Mexican American men aged 40–74 years. Further research is needed on the associations of serum tHcy concentration with insulin resistance and other components of the insulin resistance syndrome in persons of varying ethnicity.

  8. Distribution and excretion of. cap alpha. -naphthylthio-(/sup 14/C)urea in Albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, T N; Radhakrishnamurty, R [Central Food Technological Research Inst., Mysore (India)

    1977-09-01

    ..cap alpha..-naphthylthio-(/sup 14/C) urea was synthesised by allowing potassium (/sup 14/C)thiocyanate to react with ..cap alpha..-naphthylamine. Its distribution and excretion were studied in Albino rats following the administration of this rodenticide. Considerable radioactivity observed in liver and kidney, increased till 8 hr and later decreased. About 80% of the activities present in serum and pleural effusion were found in the respective albumin fractions. Approximately 40% of the dose administered was excreted in urine and less than 1% in faeces in 20 hr. About 36% of the total urinary activity was recovered as unchanged compound and the rest was distributed in three metabolites with low Rsyb(f) values. Decrease in cytochsome P-450 content and activities of N, N-dimethylaniline demethylase, aryl 4-hydroxylase and reduced NAD dehydrogenase were observed in ..cap alpha..-naphthylathiourea-treated rats.

  9. Distribution and excretion of α-naphthylthio-[14C]urea in Albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, T.N.; Radhakrishnamurty, R.

    1977-01-01

    α-naphthylthio-( 14 C) urea was synthesised by allowing potassium ( 14 C)thiocyanate to react with α-naphthylamine. Its distribution and excretion were studied in Albino rats following the administration of this rodenticide. Considerable radioactivity observed in liver and kidney, increased till 8 hr and later decreased. About 80% of the activities present in serum and pleural effusion were found in the respective albumin fractions. Approximately 40% of the dose administered was excreted in urine and less than 1% in faeces in 20 hr. About 36% of the total urinary activity was recovered as unchanged compound and the rest was distributed in three metabolites with low Rsyb(f) values. Decrease in cytochsome P-450 content and activities of N, N-dimethylaniline demethylase, aryl 4-hydroxylase and reduced NAD dehydrogenase were observed in α-naphthylathiourea-treated rats. (author)

  10. Comparative studies on the mineralization of furfural urea and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural urea as a slow release N fertilizer in an alfisol of Nigeria Savanna in the year 2009/2010 season. Incubation studies revealed that released N through mineralizatoin and microbial activities had confirmed that the compound may stay longer ...

  11. The effect of supplementing untreated, urea-supplemented and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3x2x2 factorial experiment, involving an intake and in vivo digestibility trial with 48 adult S.A. Mutton Merino wethers. Straw dry matter (OM) intake on ammoniated wheat-straw diets was 27 and 22% higher (P ';;0,01) than on untreated and urea-supplemented diets, respectively. No significant difference was found between ...

  12. An evaluation of twelve nested models of transperitoneal transport of urea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Fugleberg, S; Joffe, P

    1995-01-01

    the mechanism(s) of transperitoneal urea transport and to test the one-compartment assumption for urea. A total of 12 nested models were formulated and validated on the basis of experimental results obtained from 23 non-diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The validation procedure demonstrated...

  13. Serum Albumin Is Independently Associated with Persistent Organ Failure in Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandong Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. To investigate the association between serum albumin levels within 24 hrs of patient admission and the development of persistent organ failure in acute pancreatitis. Methods. A total of 700 patients with acute pancreatitis were enrolled. Multivariate logistic regression and subgroup analysis determined whether decreased albumin was independently associated with persistent organ failure and mortality. The diagnostic performance of serum albumin was evaluated by the area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves. Results. As levels of serum albumin decrease, the risk of persistent organ failure significantly increases (Ptrend<0.001. The incidence of organ failure was 3.5%, 10.6%, and 41.6% in patients with normal albumin and mild and severe hypoalbuminaemia, respectively. Decreased albumin levels were also proportionally associated with prolonged hospital stay (Ptrend<0.001 and the risk of death (Ptrend<0.001. Multivariate analysis suggested that biliary etiology, chronic concomitant diseases, hematocrit, blood urea nitrogen, and the serum albumin level were independently associated with persistent organ failure. Blood urea nitrogen and the serum albumin level were also independently associated with mortality. The area under ROC curves of albumin for predicting organ failure and mortality were 0.78 and 0.87, respectively. Conclusion. A low serum albumin is independently associated with an increased risk of developing of persistent organ failure and death in acute pancreatitis. It may also be useful for the prediction of the severity of acute pancreatitis.

  14. Opium and heroin alter biochemical parameters of human's serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Divsalar; Tahereh, Haghpanah; Mohammadreza, Afarinesh; Minoo, Mahmoudi Zarandi

    2010-05-01

    Iran is a significant consumer of opium, and, generally, of opioids, in the world. Addiction is one of the important issues of the 21st century and is an imperative issue in Iran. Long-term consumption of opioids affects homeostasis. To determine the effects of opium and heroin consumption on serum biochemical parameters. In a cross-sectional study, subjects who had consumed heroin (n = 35) or opium (n = 42) for more than two years and 35 nonaddict volunteers as the control group were compared in regard to various biochemical parameters such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid (UA), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, creatinine, and total protein. Chromatography was used to confirm opioid consumption, and the concentration of biochemical parameters was determined by laboratory diagnostic tests on serum. No significant differences were found in Na(+), Ca(2+), BUN, UA, TG, creatinine, and total protein concentrations among the three groups. FBS, K(+), and UA levels were significantly lower in opium addicts compared to the control group. Serum Ca(2+) concentration of heroin addicts showed a significant decrease compared to that of the control group. Both addict groups showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Chronic use of opium and heroin can change serum FBS, K(+), Ca(2+), UA, and cholesterol. This study, one of few on the effects of opium on serum biochemical parameters in human subjects, has the potential to contribute to the investigation of new approaches for further basic studies.

  15. Evaluation of four commercial biuret reagent kits of serum total protein by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry reference measurement procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meilin; Zhang, Jie

    2011-06-01

    In China, the traceability of clinical chemistry methods is still immature. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a reference measurement procedure and evaluate commercial reagent kits using such established procedures. We reproduced the reference measurement procedure for serum total protein, as recommended by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC). We evaluated the performance by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines EP15-A and EP6-A. Subsequently, four commercial reagent kits were evaluated by the reproduced reference procedure following CLSI guideline EP9-A2. The performance of the reproduced reference procedure was as follows: CVs ranged from 0.47% to 0.85% at medical decision levels (X(c)) of 45 g/L, 60 g/L and 80 g/L. Linearity was Y=1.0022X-0.2121 (r=0.9999), and recovery ranged from 100.2% to 102.4%. The External Quality Assessment Scheme for Reference Laboratories in Laboratory Medicine (RELA) was applied, and the result was within the limit of equivalence. The linear relationships of four commercial reagent kits, Merit Choice, KHB, Leadman, and Olympus, were, respectively: Y=0.9922X+0.5776 (r=0.9961); Y=0.9936X+0.4316 (r=0.9992); Y=0.9949X+0.9129 (r=0.9987) and Y=0.9923X+0.8876 (r=0.9989). KHB showed slight negative bias, and the mean±SD was -0.03±0.60 g/L. Merit Choice, Leadman, and Olympus all showed positive bias, and the mean±SDs were 0.02±0.63 g/L, 0.55±0.77 g/L and 0.34±0.71 g/L, respectively. The correlation and bias of four commercial reagent kits for serum total protein were found to be acceptable. Thus, these reagent kits can be used reliably in China.

  16. Leaching of dieldrin, permethrin, phenyl urea and 4-CL phenyl urea pesticides from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, G.

    1978-01-01

    Leaching of four 14 C-labelled pesticides (dieldrin, permethrin, phenyl urea and 4-Cl phenyl urea) were investigated. It was found that dieldrin and permethrin were not leached from soil but adsorbed by the soil; phenyl urea and 4-CL phenyl urea were leached to a 7.5 cm depth

  17. Serum total homocystein, folate and vitamin B12 levels and their correlation with antipsychotic drug doses in adult male patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Esin; Yeğin, Ayşenur; Yilmaz, Necat; Herken, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Elevated blood levels of homocysteine (hCY) have been associated with schizophrenic male patients. However, controversy remains regarding the association between lowered plasma folate and vitamin B12, hyperhomocysteinemia, and schizophrenia. Sixty-six (66) male patients with chronic schizophrenia were investigated to test the hypotheses that alterations in Hcy, folate, and vitamin B12 levels might be related to the antipsychotic drug doses used in treatment. Serum total homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels were determined by chemiluminescence methods in both patients and control subjects. The patients were grouped according to the antipsychotic drug doses used in their treatment. Patients had higher homocysteine levels but they did not differ from controls in terms of folate and vitamin B12 levels. On the other hand, only folate levels were negatively correlated in the patient group treated with higher therapeutic doses of chlorpromazine equivalents (> 400 mg/day) compared to the patient group with lower doses (< 400 mg/day). Our findings show that higher typical antipsychotic drugs may play a role as modifiying factor for folate metabolism in chronic schizoprenic male patients.

  18. /sup 15/N study on dietary urea utility in young pigs fed with a low protein diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niiyama, M; Kagota, K; Iwase, T; Namioka, S [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1978-10-01

    To investigate effect of a low protein diet on urea utilization, a tracer study was conducted with /sup 15/N-urea on pigs fed a low protein diet (DCP 5.7%) with 2% urea (group B), and on pigs fed and optimal protein diet (DCP 13.3%) with 2% urea (group A). /sup 15/N was incorporated into protein of liver, serum and muscle, which were obtained 8 days after the last administration of /sup 15/N-urea. The /sup 15/N incorporation rate into the tissue protein tended to be higher in group B than in group A. Approximately 70% of /sup 15/N, however, was excreted into urine within 48 hours in group B. A comparison was made on growth and urea level in blood and urine to evaluate efficacy of the administered urea on growth between group B pigs and pigs fed the same low protein diet without urea supplementation (group C). Since group B pigs always maintained a higher level of blood urea, they were considered to have had more ammonia nitrogen which was available for protein synthesis than group C animals. A similar amount of urea to ingested dose, however, was excessively eliminated in urine. The increased ammonia nitrogen by urea ingestion may be excreted in form of urinary urea in group B pigs. There was no difference in growth between group B and group C animals; therefore, poor efficacy of administered urea on growth may have resulted not only from its loss into urine in early stage after ingestion, but also to poor utility of ammonia for protein synthesis.

  19. A 15N study on dietary urea utility in young pigs fed with a low protein diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niiyama, Masayoshi; Kagota, Katsumoto; Iwase, Toshio; Namioka, Shigeo

    1978-01-01

    To investigate effect of a low protein diet on urea utilization, a tracer study was conducted with 15 N-urea on pigs fed a low protein diet (DCP 5.7%) with 2% urea (group B), and on pigs fed and optimal protein diet (DCP 13.3%) with 2% urea (group A). 15 N was incorporated into protein of liver, serum and muscle, which were obtained 8 days after the last administration of 15 N-urea. The 15 N incorporation rate into the tissue protein tended to be higher in group B than in group A. Approximately 70% of 15 N, however, was excreted into urine within 48 hours in group B. A comparison was made on growth and urea level in blood and urine to evaluate efficacy of the administered urea on growth between group B pigs and pigs fed the same low protein diet without urea supplementation (group C). Since group B pigs always maintained a higher level of blood urea, they were considered to have had more ammonia nitrogen which was available for protein synthesis than group C animals. A similar amount of urea to ingested dose, however, was excessively eliminated in urine. The increased ammonia nitrogen by urea ingestion may be excreted in form of urinary urea in group B pigs. There was no difference in growth between group B and group C animals; therefore, poor efficacy of administered urea on growth may have resulted not only from its loss into urine in early stage after ingestion, but also to poor utility of ammonia for protein synthesis. (author)

  20. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721... Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to reporting under this...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9928 - Urea, tetraethyl-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urea, tetraethyl-. 721.9928 Section... Substances § 721.9928 Urea, tetraethyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as urea, tetraethyl- (PMN P-94-1017; CAS No. 1187-03-7) is...

  2. [Studies on the relationship between beta-adrenergic receptor density on cell wall lymphocytes, total serum catecholamine level and heart rate in patients with hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, J; Zieba, I; Zyśko, D

    2000-08-01

    Hyperthyreosis mimics the hyperadrenergic state and its symptoms were though to be dependent on increased level of catecholamines. Another reason for the symptoms could be the increased density or affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors to catecholamines. The aim of the study was to examine the elements of sympathetic nervous system, thyroid hormones level and their influence on heart rate control in patients with hyperthyreosis. The study was carried out in 18 women, mean age 48.9 +/- 8.7 yrs and 6 men, mean age 54.2 +/- 8.7 yrs. The control group consisted of 30 healthy persons matched for age and sex. We examined the density of beta-adrenergic receptors using radioligand labelling method with 125I-cyanopindolol, serum total catecholamines level with radioenzymatic assay kit, the levels of free thyroid hormones using radioimmunoassays and thyreotropine level with immunoradiometric assay. Maximal, minimal and mean heart rate were studied using Holter monitoring system. The density of beta-adrenergic receptors in hyperthyreosis was 37.3 +/- 21.7 vs 37.2 +/- 18.1 fmol/mg in the control group (p = NS). Total catecholamines level was significantly decreased in hyperthyreosis group: 1.5 +/- 0.89 vs 1.9 +/- 0.73 pmol/ml (p < 0.05). There was significantly higher minimal, maximal and mean heart rate in hyperthyreosis group (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05 respectively). There was a weak inverse correlation between minimum heart rate and triiodothyronine level (r = -0.38, p < 0.05). An inverse correlation between triiodothyronine and catecholamines level (r = -0.49, p < 0.05) was observed. Beta-adrenergic receptors density is unchanged and catecholamines level is decreased in hyperthyreosis when compared to normal subjects. There is no correlation between minimal heart rate and adrenergic receptors density or catecholamines level in hyperthyreosis.

  3. Intake, digestion and nitrogen balance of diets blended with urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The diet blended with 3% urea treated cowpea husk gave the highest dry matter intake, growth rate and .... total collection of faeces and urine during the last five days of the trial. .... tissue synthesis of non-essential amino acids from absorbed ...

  4. Reduction in slow intercompartmental clearance of urea during dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, D.J.; Krejcie, T.C.; Avram, M.J.; Chow, M.J.; Del Greco, F.; Atkinson, A.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of urea and inulin were analyzed in five anesthetized dogs during sequential 2-hour periods before, during, and after hemodialysis. The distribution of both compounds after simultaneous intravenous injection was characterized by three-compartment models, and the total volumes of urea (0.66 +/- 0.05 L/kg) and inulin (0.19 +/- 0.01 L/kg) distribution were similar to expected values for total body water and extravascular space, respectively. Intercompartmental clearances calculated before dialysis were used to estimate blood flows to the fast and slow equilibrating compartments. In agreement with previous results, the sum of these flows was similar to cardiac output, averaging 101% of cardiac output measured before dialysis (range 72% to 135%). Dialysis was accompanied by reductions in the slow intercompartmental clearances of urea (81%) and inulin (47%), which reflected a 90% attenuation in blood flow supplying the slow equilibrating compartments. This was estimated to result in a 10% average reduction in the efficiency with which urea was removed by dialysis (range 2.0% to 16.4%). Mean arterial pressure fell by less than 5% during dialysis, but total peripheral resistance increased by 47% and cardiac output fell by 35%. In the postdialysis period, total peripheral resistance and cardiac output returned toward predialysis values, but blood flow to the slow equilibrating peripheral compartment was still reduced by 80%. These changes parallel activation of the renin-angiotensin system, but further studies are required to establish causality

  5. Increases In Plasma Urea And Creatinine In Experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alterations in both plasma urea and creatinine levels were monitored over a period of twenty eight (28) days in experimentally infected rabbits. A total of 15 animals were randomly divided into three groups of n=5. The groups were control (group I), infected and treated (group II) and infected but untreated (group III) ...

  6. Treatment of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone by urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaux, G; Brimioulle, S; Genette, F; Mockel, J

    1980-07-01

    Recent data have shown the role of urea in the urinary concentrating mechanism. We studied the effects of exogenous urea administration in hyponatremia associated with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). In 20 patients with SIADH, we observed a positive correlation between serum sodium and blood urea levels (r = 0.65; p less than 0.01). In one patient with an oat cell carcinoma and SIADH-induced hyponatremia, we observed the same positive correlation (r = 0.80; p less than 0.01) but also a negative one between the excreted fraction of filtered sodium and urinary urea (r = -0.67; p less than 0.001). The short-term administration of low doses of urea (4 to 10 g) resulted in correcting the "salt-losing" tendency of this patient. Longer term administration of high doses of urea (30 g/day) was attempted with the same patient as well as with a healthy volunteer subject with Pitressin-induced SIADH. in both patients, urea treatment lowered urinary sodium excretion as long as hyponatremia was significant (less than 130 meq/liter). Urea treatment also induced a persistent osmotic diuresis, allowing a normal daily intake of water despite SIADH. This was clearly shown during the long-term treatment of a third patient with SIADH who was taking 30 g urea/day during 11 weeks. It is concluded that urea is a good alternative in the treatment of patients with SIADH who presented with persistent hyponatremia despite the restriction of water intake.

  7. Synergistic mechanism of combinative application of bensulfuron and urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Liuqing; Huang Shiwen; Zhou Hongjie; Ye Guibiao

    1998-01-01

    Nutrient culture study was initiated to examine the synergistic mechanism of combinative application of bensulfuron and urea for weed control. The absorption of 14 C-bensulfuron and their distribution in Lindernia procumbens (Krock.) Philcox were also investigated to determine the variation between two methods (combinative use of 14 C-bensulfuron plus urea and 14 C-bensulfuron alone). One hour after combinative application of 14 C-bensulfuron plus urea, the highest amount of 14 C-activity in L. procumbens were obtained. However, when 14 C-bensulfuron applied alone, total absorption of 14 C-activity was much lower in the 1st hour and then it slowly increased with time. The distribution of 14 C-bensulfuron in root of L. procumbens plant was the highest and that in leaves was the lowest

  8. Response of maize to reduced urea application combined with compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xiuying; WANG Zhengyin

    2006-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to study the response to application rate of urea labeled with 15 N combined with compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists in the growth, yield, uptake and utilization rate of urea of maize. In pot experiment, the standard urea application rate is 120 mg/perpot; in field experiment, the standard urea application rate is 157.5 kg/hm 2 . Maize with 15 N-urea. The results showed that the growth of maize seedling was obviously promoted with appropriate dosage of compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists (20%-60% of N). The treatments of urea application rate reduced by 5%-15% and added compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists, the growth and nitrogen content of maize were not significant changed, and the total 15 N uptake and nitrogen uptake by maize were the same as CK 2 or increased a little. Nitrogen use efficiency of other treatments increased by 5.6%-7.3% comparing with CK, except the treatment of urea application rate reduced by 30%. The apparent utilization rate of nitrogen was enhanced by 7.7%-17.0%. Under the field condition, maize yield, total uptake, net uptake, physiological rate and agronomic use efficiency of nitrogen were the same as CK or increased. The apparent utilization rate of nitrogen was enhanced by 14.8%-15.2% treated with urea reduced by 5%-15% (7.8-23.7 kg/hm 2 ) and added with compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists. It was not helpful for the growth and nitrogen utilization rate of maize when urea reduced by 30% and combined with compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists. As a result, treated with urea decreased by 15% and combined with appropriate dosage of compound nitrogen fertilizer synergists (20% of urea), the growth and yield of maize had litter effect and higher the uptake and utilization of nitrogen. (authors)

  9. Nitrogen mineralization and volatilization from controlled release urea fertilizers in selected malaysian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.J.K.A.; Yusop, M.K.; Oad, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    Controlled release urea fertilizers are usually used for extended duration in supplying nitrogen. The rate of urea hydrolysis could be efficiently minimized through these fertilizers. Various controlled released fertilizers i.e Uber-10 (30%N), Meister-20 (40%N), Meister-27 (40%N), Humate Coated Urea (45%N), Duration Polymer Coated Urea Type-V (43%N), Gold-N-Sulfur Coated Urea (41%N) and common urea (46%N) were applied to inland soil series of Malaysia. The soil series investigated were: Serdang (Typic Paleudult), Munchong (Typic Hapludox), Segamat (Typic Hapludox), Selangor (Typic Tropaquept), Rengam (Typic Kandiudult) and Holyrood (Typic Kandiudult). The maximum release of ammonium (NH/sub 4/-N) was noted in Gold-N-Sulfur Coated Urea, Humate Coated Urea and common Urea over 8 weeks of incubation. However, the release of NH4-N under the influence of Duration Type-V and Uber-10 took 2nd place. The Meister-20 and Meister-27 had minimum release of NH4-N. Munchong series was efficient in releasing higher NH4-N compared to rest of soils during 8th week of incubation due to higher soil total carbon, low /sub 4/-N and total nitrogen. Ammonia (NH/sub 3/-N) loss progressively increased with unit increase in incubation week and was higher during 6th week of fertilizer application. The higher loss of NH3-N was found in common Urea. However, Meister-20, Meister-27, Duration Polymer Coated Urea Type-V and Uber-10 had lower loss of NH/sub 3/-N due to slow release property and this character could be beneficial for supplying nutrients to next season crop. (author)

  10. Effect of dietary nitrogen content and intravenous urea infusion on ruminal and portal-drained visceral extraction of arterial urea in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, N B; Storm, A C; Larsen, M

    2010-06-01

    Urea extraction across ruminal and portal-drained visceral (PDV) tissues were investigated using 9 rumen-cannulated and multi-catheterized lactating dairy cows adapted to low-N (12.9% crude protein) and high-N (17.1% crude protein) diets in a crossover design. The interaction between adaptation to dietary treatments and blood plasma concentrations of urea was studied by dividing samplings into a 2.5-h period without urea infusion followed by a 2.5-h period with primed continuous intravenous infusion of urea (0.493+/-0.012 mmol/kg of BW per h). Cows were sampled at 66+/-14 and 68+/-12 d in milk and produced 42+/-1 and 36+/-1 kg of milk/d with the high-N and low-N diets, respectively. The arterial blood urea concentration before urea infusion was 1.37 and 4.09+/-0.18 mmol/L with low-N and high-N, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect the urea infusion-induced increase in arterial urea concentration (1.91+/-0.13 mmol/L). Arterial urea extraction across the PDV and rumen increased from 2.7 to 5.4+/-0.5% and from 7.1 to 23.8+/-2.1% when cows were changed from high-N to low-N, respectively. Urea infusion did not decrease urea extractions, implying that urea transport rates were proportional to arterial urea concentrations. Urea extraction increased more across the rumen wall than across the total PDV for low-N compared with high-N, which implies that a larger proportion of total PDV uptake of arterial urea is directed toward the rumen with decreasing N intake. The ruminal vein - arterial (RA) concentration difference for ammonia increased instantly (first sampling 15 min after initiation of infusion) to the primed intravenous infusion when cows were adapted to the low-N diet. The RA difference for ammonia correlated poorly to the ventral ruminal concentration of ammonia (r=0.55). Relating the RA difference for ammonia to a function of both ruminal ammonia concentration and the RA difference for urea markedly improved the fit (r=0.85), indicating that a large

  11. Treating agent for urea containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hiroshi; Maki, Kentaro.

    1973-01-01

    Object: To add a coagulant into urea containing radioactive material to precipitate and remove the radioactive material in the urea. Structure: Iodosalt is added into urea and next, a mixed reagent in which silver ion or silver acetic ion and iron hydroxide precipitation or ferrite ion coexist is added therein. The urea is treated to have a sufficient alkaline, after which it is introduced into a basket type centrifuge formed with a filter layer in combination of an upper glass fiber layer and a lower active carbon layer. The treating agent can uniformly remove radioactive ion and radioactive chelate within urea containing inorganic salt and various metabolites. (Nakamura, S.)

  12. Urea for long-term treatment of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaux, G; Genette, F

    1981-10-24

    The efficacy of oral urea in producing a sufficiently high osmotic diuresis was tested in seven patients with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. In all patients urea corrected the hyponatraemia despite a normal fluid intake. Five patients were controlled (serum sodium concentration greater than 128 mmol(mEq)/1) with a dose of 30 g urea daily, and two with 60 g daily. The patients who needed 30 g drank 1-2 1 of fluid daily, while those who needed 60 g drank up to 3.1 per day. No major side effects were noted, even after treatment periods of up to 270 days. These findings suggest that urea is a safe and efficacious treatment of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone.

  13. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette M Hormann

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax in unconjugated (bioactive BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.

  14. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Annette M; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Stahlhut, Richard W; Moyer, Carol L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Welshons, Wade V; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.

  15. Detection of the value of consecutive serum total light chain (sTLC) in patients diagnosed with diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Linzhu; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Peng, Songguo; Zhu, Ke; Yu, Rongjian; Chen, Hailong; Lin, Tongyu; Lin, Lizhu

    2016-12-01

    There are limited data on serum total light chain (sTLC) in lymphoma and its relative role on the outcome of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Blood samples from 46 cases newly diagnosed with DLBCL were collected consecutively during chemotherapy to detect sTLC, IgG, IgA, and IgM levels. Clinical data and survival outcomes were analyzed according to the results of sTLC measurements. In summary, 22 patients (47.8 %) had abnormal k or λ light chain, respectively, and 6 patients (13.0 %) had both abnormal k and λ light chains before chemotherapy. Patients with elevated k light chain more frequently displayed multiple extra-nodal organ involvement (P = 0.01) and had an inferior overall survival (OS) (P = 0.041) and progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.044) compared to patients with normal level of k light chain. Furthermore, patients with elevated level of both k and λ also exhibited significant association with shorter OS (P = 0.002) and PFS (P = 0.009). Both elevated k alone and concurrent elevated k and λ had independent adverse effects on PFS (P = 0.031 and P = 0.019, respectively). sTLC level was reduced gradually by treatment in this study and reached the lowest point after the fourth cycle of chemotherapy, which was consistent with the disease behavior during chemotherapy. Considering the small sample size of this study, these results should be confirmed in a larger prospective study.

  16. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A as early-phase and prognostic indicators of acute radiation exposure in nonhuman primate total-body irradiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossetrova, N.I., E-mail: ossetrova@afrri.usuhs.mil [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Sandgren, D.J.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Terrorist radiological attacks or nuclear accidents could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. In mass-casualty radiological incidents early medical-management requires triage tools for first-responders to quantitatively identify individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and for early initiation (i.e., within one day after radiation exposure) of cytokine therapy for treatment of bone marrow acute radiation syndrome. Herein, we present results from 30 rhesus macaques total-body irradiated (TBI) to a broad dose range of 1-8.5 Gy with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (0.55 Gy min{sup -1}) and demonstrate dose- and time-dependent changes in blood of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CRP and SAA dose-response results are consistent with {approx}1 Gy and {approx}0.2 Gy thresholds for photon-exposure at 24 h after TBI, respectively. Highly significant elevations of CRP and SAA (p = 0.00017 and p = 0.0024, respectively) were found in animal plasma at 6 h after all TBI doses suggesting their potential use as early-phase biodosimeters. Results also show that the dynamics and content of CRP and SAA levels reflect the course and severity of the acute radiation sickness (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results demonstrate proof-of-concept that these radiation-responsive proteins show promise as a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and may also contribute as diagnostic indices in the medical management of radiation accidents.

  17. Holding Thermal Receipt Paper and Eating Food after Using Hand Sanitizer Results in High Serum Bioactive and Urine Total Levels of Bisphenol A (BPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Annette M.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Moyer, Carol L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Welshons, Wade V.; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone’s urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

  18. Urea biosensor for hemodialysis monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting and quantifying urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures. The sensor is based upon measurement of the pH change produced in an aqueous environment by the products of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The sensor may be fabricated using methods amenable to mass fabrication, resulting in low-cost sensors and thus providing the potential for disposable use. In a typical application, the sensor could be used in treatment centers, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. The sensor can also be utilized to allow at-home testing to determine if dialysis was necessary. Such a home monitor is similar, in principle, to devices used for blood glucose testing by diabetics, and would require a blood droplet sample by using a finger prick.

  19. Low serum levels of free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in patients with anorexia nervosa are not associated with increased IGF-binding protein-3 proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Flyvbjerg, A; Frystyk, J

    1999-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are GH resistant, with elevated GH levels and low serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). IGF-I action is modulated by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), and a variety of catabolic states has been characterized by the presence of increased IGFBP-3...

  20. Comparison of nitrogen utilization and urea kinetics between yaks (Bos grunniens) and indigenous cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J W; Zhong, C L; Liu, H; Degen, A A; Titgemeyer, E C; Ding, L M; Shang, Z H; Guo, X S; Qiu, Q; Li, Z P; Yang, G; Long, R J

    2017-10-01

    Under traditional management on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, yaks () graze only on natural pasture without supplements and are forced to cope with sparse forage of low N content, especially in winter. In contrast, indigenous Tibetan yellow cattle () require supplements during the cold season. We hypothesized that, in response to harsh conditions, yaks cope with low N intakes better than cattle. To test this hypothesis, a study of whole-body N retention and urea kinetics was conducted in 2 concurrent 4 × 4 Latin squares, with 1 square using yaks and 1 square using cattle. Four isocaloric forage-concentrate diets differing in N concentrations (10.3, 19.5, 28.5, and 37.6 g N/kg DM) were formulated, and by design, DMI were similar between species and across diets. Urea kinetics were determined with continuous intravenous infusion of NN urea for 104 h, and total urine and feces were concomitantly collected. Urea production, urea recycling to the gut, and ruminal microbial protein synthesis all linearly increased ( Urea production was greater in yaks than in cattle at the 3 lowest N diets but greater in cattle than in yaks at the highest N diet (species × diet, Urea N recycled to the gut ( urea N captured by ruminal bacteria ( urea recycling was through saliva, with no difference between species ( = 0.61). Glomerular filtration rate was lower ( = 0.05) in yaks than in cattle. The higher urea recycling and greater capture of recycled urea by ruminal microbes in yaks than in cattle suggest that yaks use mechanisms to utilize dietary N more efficiently than cattle, which may partially explain the better survival of yaks than cattle when fed low-N diets.

  1. Effect of dietary nitrogen content and intravenous urea infusion on ruminal and portal-drained visceral extraction of arterial urea in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Storm, Adam Christian; Larsen, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    Urea extraction across ruminal and portal-drained visceral (PDV) tissues were investigated using 9 rumen-cannulated and multi-catheterized lactating dairy cows adapted to low-N (12.9% crude protein) and high-N (17.1% crude protein) diets in a crossover design. The interaction between adaptation...... to arterial urea concentrations. Urea extraction increased more across the rumen wall than across the total PDV for low-N compared with high-N, which implies that a larger proportion of total PDV uptake of arterial urea is directed toward the rumen with decreasing N intake. The ruminal vein - arterial (RA......) concentration difference for ammonia increased instantly (first sampling 15 min after initiation of infusion) to the primed intravenous infusion when cows were adapted to the low-N diet. The RA difference for ammonia correlated poorly to the ventral ruminal concentration of ammonia (r = 0.55). Relating the RA...

  2. Highly sensitive enzymatic determination of urea based on the pH-dependence of the fluorescence of graphene quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Taili; Zhang, Ping; Zhuo, Shujuan; Zhu, Changqing; Tang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    We report on a nanoparticle-based fluorescent sensing scheme for urea. It is based on the finding that graphene quantum dots (GQDs) display pH-sensitive green fluorescence if photoexcited at 460 nm. Fluorescence is gradually quenched due to an increase in the local pH value as a result of the hydrolysis of urea as catalyzed by urease. The effect was used to quantify urea in the 0.1–100 mM concentration range, with a limit of detection of 0.01 mM. The method was successfully applied to the determination of urea in human serum samples. The method is simple, effective, and therefore holds promise as a platform for sensing urea in blood. (author)

  3. Urea and Ammonia Metabolism and the Control of Renal Nitrogen Excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitch, William E.; Sands, Jeff M.

    2015-01-01

    Renal nitrogen metabolism primarily involves urea and ammonia metabolism, and is essential to normal health. Urea is the largest circulating pool of nitrogen, excluding nitrogen in circulating proteins, and its production changes in parallel to the degradation of dietary and endogenous proteins. In addition to serving as a way to excrete nitrogen, urea transport, mediated through specific urea transport proteins, mediates a central role in the urine concentrating mechanism. Renal ammonia excretion, although often considered only in the context of acid-base homeostasis, accounts for approximately 10% of total renal nitrogen excretion under basal conditions, but can increase substantially in a variety of clinical conditions. Because renal ammonia metabolism requires intrarenal ammoniagenesis from glutamine, changes in factors regulating renal ammonia metabolism can have important effects on glutamine in addition to nitrogen balance. This review covers aspects of protein metabolism and the control of the two major molecules involved in renal nitrogen excretion: urea and ammonia. Both urea and ammonia transport can be altered by glucocorticoids and hypokalemia, two conditions that also affect protein metabolism. Clinical conditions associated with altered urine concentrating ability or water homeostasis can result in changes in urea excretion and urea transporters. Clinical conditions associated with altered ammonia excretion can have important effects on nitrogen balance. PMID:25078422

  4. Comparison of urea space, deuterium oxide space and body composition in growing pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, A.D.; Steele, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    Urea and deuterium oxide (D 2 O) space were compared by simultaneous infusion into pigs weighing approximately 55 or 90 kg. Urea was cleared from the plasma pool more rapidly than D 2 O and appeared to equilibrate at a relative concentration which was lower than that of D 2 O. Consequently, urea and D 2 O space values were closest when extrapolated to zero time values. Correlations between urea space and D 2 O space were highest at 15 minutes post infusion (R2 = .75) or between urea space at 15 minutes and D 2 O at equilibrium (R2 = .86). Results of urea and D 2 O space measurements were compared with water, lipid and protein content of the carcass. Urea space at 15 minutes and D 2 O space at 35 minutes most closely approximated total body water while D 2 O space at 15 minutes was nearly equivalent to empty body water. Overall, D 2 O space at equilibrium had the highest correlations with carcass values of water, lipid and protein and appears to be preferable to urea space for estimating carcass composition in pigs

  5. Effect of rumen-degradable intake protein supplementation on urea kinetics and microbial use of recycled urea in steers consuming low-quality forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickersham, T A; Titgemeyer, E C; Cochran, R C; Wickersham, E E; Gnad, D P

    2008-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of increasing amounts of rumen-degradable intake protein (DIP) on urea kinetics in steers consuming prairie hay. Ruminally and duodenally fistulated steers (278 kg of BW) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square and provided ad libitum access to low-quality prairie hay (4.9% CP). The DIP was provided as casein dosed ruminally once daily in amounts of 0, 59, 118, and 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily. Periods were 13 d long, with 7 d for adaptation and 6 d for collection. Steers were in metabolism crates for total collection of urine and feces. Jugular infusion of (15)N(15)N-urea, followed by determination of urinary enrichment of (15)N(15)N-urea and (14)N(15)N-urea was used to determine urea kinetics. Forage and N intake increased (linear, P Urea synthesis was 19.9, 24.8, 42.9, and 50.9 g of urea-N/d for 0, 59, 118, and 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily (linear, P = 0.004). Entry of urea into the gut was 98.9, 98.8, 98.6, and 95.9% of production for 0, 59, 118, and 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily, respectively (quadratic, P = 0.003). The amount of urea-N entering the gastrointestinal tract was greatest for 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily (48.6 g of urea-N/d) and decreased (linear, P = 0.005) to 42.4, 24.5, and 19.8 g of urea-N/d for 118, 59, and 0 mg of N/kg of BW daily. Microbial incorporation of recycled urea-N increased linearly (P = 0.02) from 12.3 g of N/d for 0 mg of N/kg of BW daily to 28.9 g of N/d for 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily. Provision of DIP produced the desired and previously observed increase in forage intake while also increasing N retention. The large percentage of urea synthesis that was recycled to the gut (95.9% even when steers received the greatest amount of DIP) points to the remarkable ability of cattle to conserve N when fed a low-protein diet.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1923 - Urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Urea. 184.1923 Section 184.1923 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1923 Urea. (a) Urea (CO(NH2)2, CAS Reg. No. 57-13-6) is the diamide of...

  7. Nutritional factors influencing milk urea in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995. In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........

  8. Effects of Oral, Vaginal, and Transdermal Hormonal Contraception on Serum Levels of Coenzyme Q10, Vitamin E, and Total Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhudas R. Palan

    2010-01-01

    coenzyme Q10 levels compared with normal subjects. Serum TAOC levels were significantly lower (P<.05 among the contraceptive user groups. Alterations in coenzyme Q10 and α-tocopherol induced by hormonal contraception and the potential effect(s of exogenous ovarian hormones should be taken into consideration in future antioxidant research.

  9. Serum albumin levels in burn people are associated to the total body surface burned and the length of hospital stay but not to the initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; de Haro-Padilla, Jesús M; Rioja, Luis F; Derosier, Leo C; de la Torre, Jorge I

    2013-01-01

    Serum albumin levels have been used to evaluate the severity of the burns and the nutrition protein status in burn people, specifically in the response of the burn patient to the nutrition. Although it hasn't been proven if all these associations are fully funded. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the relationship of serum albumin levels at 3-7 days after the burn injury, with the total body surface area burned (TBSA), the length of hospital stay (LHS) and the initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition (IOEN). It was carried out with the health records of patients that accomplished the inclusion criteria and were admitted to the burn units at the University Hospital of Reina Sofia (Córdoba, Spain) and UAB Hospital at Birmingham (Alabama, USA) over a 10 years period, between January 2000 and December 2009. We studied the statistical association of serum albumin levels with the TBSA, LHS and IOEN by ANOVA one way test. The confidence interval chosen for statistical differences was 95%. Duncan's test was used to determine the number of statistically significantly groups. Were expressed as mean±standard deviation. We found serum albumin levels association with TBSA and LHS, with greater to lesser serum albumin levels found associated to lesser to greater TBSA and LHS. We didn't find statistical association with IOEN. We conclude that serum albumin levels aren't a nutritional marker in burn people although they could be used as a simple clinical tool to identify the severity of the burn wounds represented by the total body surface area burned and the lenght of hospital stay.

  10. Biochemical indicators of nephrotoxicity in blood serum of rats treated with novel 4-thiazolidinone derivatives or their complexes with polyethylene glycol-containing nanoscale polymeric carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kоbylinska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of new synthetic 4-thiazolidinone derivatives (potential anticancer compounds denoted as 3882, 3288 and 3833 and doxorubicin (positive control in free form and in their complexes with synthetic polyethylene glycol-containing nanoscale polymeric carrier on the biochemical indicators of nephrotoxicity in blood serum of rats. The concentration of total protein, urea, creatinine, glucose, ions of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron and chloride was measured. It was found that after injection of the investigated compounds, the concentration of sodium cations and chloride anions in blood serum was increased compared with control (untreated animals. Doxorubicin’s injection was accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of iron cations. The concentration of total protein, urea and creatinine decreased under the influence of the studied compounds. Complexation of these аntineoplastic substances with a synthetic polymeric nanocarrier lowered the concentration of the investigated metabolites substantially compared to the effect of these compounds in free form. The normalization of concentration of total protein, urea and creatinine in blood serum of rats treated with complexes of the studied compounds with the polymeric carrier comparing with increased concentration of these indicators at the introduction of such compounds in free form was found.

  11. Comparative changes in monthly blood urea nitrogen, total protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibanda M

    2015-03-29

    Mar 29, 2015 ... Twenty-four clinically healthy animals in different parities, namely Parity 1 ..... In the dry spell there is low protein intake because of high fibrous diets from dry forage materials. (MacDonald .... Prentice Hall, Malaysia. Mapekula ...

  12. Urea adsorption by activated carbon prepared from palm kernel shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Chee-Heong; Sim, Yoke-Leng; Yeoh, Fei-Yee

    2017-07-01

    Dialysis treatment is crucial for patients suffer from renal failure. The dialysis system removes the uremic toxin to a safe level in a patient's body. One of the major limitations of the current hemodialysis system is the capability to efficiently remove uremic toxins from patient's body. Nanoporous materials can be applied to improve the treatment. Palm kernel shell (PKS) biomass generated from palm oil mills can be utilized to prepare high quality nanoporous activated carbon (AC) and applied for urea adsorption in the dialysis system. In this study, AC was prepared from PKS via different carbonization temperatures and followed by carbon dioxide gas activation processes. The physical and chemical properties of the samples were studied. The results show that the porous AC with BET surface areas ranging from 541 to 622 m2g-1 and with total pore volumes varying from 0.254 to 0.297 cm3g-1, are formed with different carbonization temperatures. The equilibrium constant for urea adsorption by AC samples carbonized at 400, 500 and 600 °C are 0.091, 0.287 and 0.334, respectively. The increase of carbonization temperatures from 400 to 600 °C resulted in the increase in urea adsorption by AC predominantly due to increase in surface area. The present study reveals the feasibility of preparing AC with good porosity from PKS and potentially applied in urea adsorption application.

  13. Changes in Serum Biochemical Factors Associated with Opium Addiction after Addiction Desertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afarinesh, Mohammad Reza; Haghpanah, Tahereh; Divsalar, Kouros; Dehyadegary, Elham; Shaikh-Aleslami, Azar; Mahmoodi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background The long time use of opium has some effects on serums biochemical factors, the determination of this variation is a new approach in understanding off addiction and relive of drug abuser health. Hence in this study, these indicators in person who were withdrawing of opium have been studied. Methods In this cross-sectional study bloods biochemical factors such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), uric acid (UA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, and fibrinogen in three groups serum were studied: (1) Who had been permanent opium users more than 2 years (case). (2) Dependent person who has taken one month addiction withdrawal course (control). (3) A healthy group that had been demographically similar to the other groups. Findings According to these study findings, FBS serum level in the case group is lower than control group. Serum level of Na, creatinine, and blood triglyceride (TG) in case study are higher than group control. Concentration of potassium, Ca, UA, BUN, cholesterol, total serum protein, fibrinogen, and thrombin time in case study and group control showed no significant difference. Also, in withdrawing case serum level of Na, Ca, UA, BUN, creatinine, and TG significantly increase and thrombin time decrease. Conclusion According to this study not only the longtime use of opium but also opium with drawerin opium dependent people can change their serum biochemical factors. So recognition, treatment, and prevention of this change could be a new step in improving of health and condition of patients. PMID:25984281

  14. Changes in serum biochemical factors associated with opium addiction after addiction desertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afarinesh, Mohammad Reza; Haghpanah, Tahereh; Divsalar, Kouros; Dehyadegary, Elham; Shaikh-Aleslami, Azar; Mahmoodi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    The long time use of opium has some effects on serums biochemical factors, the determination of this variation is a new approach in understanding off addiction and relive of drug abuser health. Hence in this study, these indicators in person who were withdrawing of opium have been studied. In this cross-sectional study bloods biochemical factors such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), uric acid (UA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, and fibrinogen in three groups serum were studied: (1) Who had been permanent opium users more than 2 years (case). (2) Dependent person who has taken one month addiction withdrawal course (control). (3) A healthy group that had been demographically similar to the other groups. According to these study findings, FBS serum level in the case group is lower than control group. Serum level of Na, creatinine, and blood triglyceride (TG) in case study are higher than group control. Concentration of potassium, Ca, UA, BUN, cholesterol, total serum protein, fibrinogen, and thrombin time in case study and group control showed no significant difference. Also, in withdrawing case serum level of Na, Ca, UA, BUN, creatinine, and TG significantly increase and thrombin time decrease. According to this study not only the longtime use of opium but also opium with drawerin opium dependent people can change their serum biochemical factors. So recognition, treatment, and prevention of this change could be a new step in improving of health and condition of patients.

  15. Ionic effect investigation of a potentiometric sensor for urea and surface morphology observation of entrapped urease/polypyrrole matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syu, Mei-Jywan; Chang, Yu-Sung

    2009-04-15

    Potentio-dynamic polymerization of buffered urease and pyrrole monomer onto carbon papers was conducted to fabricate an immobilized urease electrode for measuring the urea concentration. To use carbon paper as the substrate for the electro-growth of polypyrrole matrix not only created sufficient adhesion of the conducting polymer layer but also provided superior entrapment of urease enzymes. The potentiometric response corresponding to ammonia, the product formed from the urease catalyzed urea reaction, was employed for the urea concentration measurement. Scanning electron microscopic photographs showed that the polypyrrole matrix deposited on the carbon papers appeared to be of a cylindrical nanotube shape. The charge density applied in the polymerization was found to affect the potentiometric response while the potential-scanning rate showed minor influence. The composite electrodes had high sensitivity in urea detection, showing a response linear to the logarithm of the urea concentration in the range of 10(-3) to 10 mM. The detection of urea solution prepared in water and buffer was also compared. Ionic effect on the sensing of urea solution was investigated. By comparing the data reported in literature, the urease/polypyrrole/carbon paper electrode developed in this work showed superior long-term stability and reusability. The detection of urea in serum was also well performed.

  16. Salivary creatinine and urea analysis in patients with chronic kidney disease: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasisi, Taye Jemilat; Raji, Yemi Raheem; Salako, Babatunde Lawal

    2016-01-16

    Many metabolic changes develop in patients with chronic kidney disease which often necessitate frequent biochemical analysis of blood. Saliva analysis as an alternative to blood has many advantages. The aims of this study were to evaluate levels of salivary creatinine and urea in patients with chronic kidney disease in comparison to healthy individuals; to determine correlation between salivary creatinine/urea and blood creatinine/urea and to evaluate the diagnostic potential of saliva. A case control study, involving 50 patients with late stage chronic kidney disease and 49 healthy individuals as control. Blood and saliva samples were analyzed for urea and creatinine levels. Data are presented as median with interquartile range and compared using Independent Samples Mann Whitney U test. Correlation between plasma and salivary creatinine as well as urea was determined using Spearman's correlation test. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was done to determine the diagnostic ability of salivary creatinine and urea and cut-off values were established. Median salivary creatinine levels were 2.60 mg/dl and 0.20 mg/dl while median salivary urea levels were 92.00 mg/dl and 20.50 mg/dl in patients with chronic kidney disease and controls respectively. Salivary levels of creatinine and urea were significantly elevated in chronic kidney disease patients (p creatinine as well as urea levels. Total areas under the curve for salivary creatinine and urea were 0.97 and 0.89 respectively. Cut-off values for salivary creatinine and urea were 0.55 mg/dl and 27.50 mg/dl respectively which gave sensitivity and specificity of 94 % and 85 % for creatinine; as well as 86 % and 93 % for urea. Findings of this study suggest that analysis of salivary creatinine and urea in patients with chronic kidney disease reflects their levels in blood. Hence, salivary creatinine and urea could be used as diagnostic biomarkers of chronic kidney disease.

  17. SERUM PARAOXONASE ACTIVITY IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saritha Gadicherla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Serum paraoxonase is an enzyme synthesised in the liver. It is known to prevent atherosclerosis by inhibiting oxidation of lowdensity lipoprotein. Renal transplant recipients have increased tendency for developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Reduced activity of serum paraoxonase contributes to accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular complications in these patients. The aim of this study was to estimate serum paraoxonase activity in renal transplant recipients and compare it with healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 renal transplant recipients and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls were taken for the study. Serum paraoxonase activity, blood urea, serum creatinine and uric acid were estimated in these groups. The serum paraoxonase activity was correlated with urea, creatinine and uric acid levels. RESULTS Serum paraoxonase activity was reduced in renal transplant recipients compared to healthy controls. There was a negative correlation between paraoxonase activity and the levels of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels. CONCLUSION In this study, the paraoxonase activity was reduced in renal transplant recipients compared to controls. The increased cardiovascular disease in these patients could be due to reduced paraoxonase activity.

  18. Urea utilization in growing lambs. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbrich, M.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization quota of NPN and pure feed protein for body protein synthesis was calculated on the basis of N balance experiments with 15 N-labelled urea with the help of model concepts of a 3-pool model and its mathematical usage. In lambs weighing 13 kg the efficiency of amino acid and nucleic acid synthesis in the non-amino acid N pool was 64%. This results in a total utilization quota for NPN and pure protein in the ration of 40% and 60%, resp. Lambs weighing 27 kg showed an efficiency in amino acid and nucleic acid synthesis in the non-AA N pool of 77% and in the AA N pool of 60%. The total utilization quota of NPN was 47% and that of pure protein 56%. The pure protein in the ration was thus about twice as well utilized for total protein synthesis and for protein syntesis for crude protein retention as the NPN compounds in the ration. (author)

  19. The crystal structure of urea nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, Sybolt; Feil, D.

    1969-01-01

    The structure of urea nitrate has been solved, by the use of three-dimensional X-ray data. Data were collected using Cu Ke and Mo K0~ radiations. The structure consists of layers with urea and nitrate groups held together by hydrogen bonds. The positions of all hydrogen atoms were found. The final R

  20. Urea synthesis in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke; Sonne, J

    2001-01-01

    Up-regulation of urea synthesis by amino acids and dietary protein intake may be impaired in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) due to the reduced glucagon secretion. Conversely, urea synthesis may be increased as a result of the chronic inflammation. The aims of the study were to determine...

  1. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen): MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/bunbloodureanitrogen.html BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. What is a BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) Test? A BUN, or blood urea nitrogen ...

  2. Estimation of daily protein intake based on spot urine urea nitrogen concentration in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Hiroko; Kanda, Eiichiro; Sato, Asako; Sakamoto, Kaori; Kanno, Yoshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Determination of daily protein intake in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires precision. Inaccuracies in recording dietary intake occur, and estimation from total urea excretion presents hurdles owing to the difficulty of collecting whole urine for 24 h. Spot urine has been used for measuring daily sodium intake and urinary protein excretion. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether urea nitrogen (UN) concentration in spot urine can be used to predict daily protein intake instead of the 24-h urine collection in 193 Japanese CKD patients (Stages G1-G5). After patient randomization into 2 datasets for the development and validation of models, bootstrapping was used to develop protein intake estimation models. The parameters for the candidate multivariate regression models were male gender, age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum albumin level, spot urinary UN and creatinine level, and spot urinary UN/creatinine levels. The final model contained BMI and spot urinary UN level. The final model was selected because of the higher correlation between the predicted and measured protein intakes r = 0.558 (95 % confidence interval 0.400, 0.683), and the smaller distribution of the difference between the measured and predicted protein intakes than those of the other models. The results suggest that UN concentration in spot urine may be used to estimate daily protein intake and that a prediction formula would be useful for nutritional control in CKD patients.

  3. Effect of method of N-application and modified urea on N-15 recovery by rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.; Abdelmonem, M.A.S.

    1995-01-01

    Rice is a very responsive crop to nitrogen fertilizer, but the efficiency of the applied N-fertilizer is low. Greenhouse experiment conducted to evaluate several methods to improve fertilizer efficiency and reduce N-losses in rice fields. N-15 labelled urea was applied to 10 kg soils in pots, urea was applied alone, with addition of two urease inhibitors (NBPT and HQ), with addition of nitrification inhibitor (DCD),or with the combination of both inhibitors. The fertilizers were applied either broadcast on soil surface or at depth of 8 cm below the surface. At maturity, plants were separated into grain and straw, dried and weighted. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for total N and N-15 excess. Both fertilizer placement and inhibitor application significantly increased straw and grain yield, as well as N-uptake. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer (%Ndff) was more than doubled, when urea was applied deep and in combination with inhibitors. Plant recovery of N-15 labelled urea ranged from 17% to 75% according to treatment. Regardless of inhibitors application, plant recovery was increased from 39% to 65% when urea was applied at depth of 8 cm. Approximately 2/3 of the applied urea (64%)was lost when urea was applied alone. Those losses were reduced down to 12% with deep placement and inhibitor application. The two management practices show significant effect on minimizing N-losses and increasing plant recovery. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  4. Effect of method of N-application and modified urea on N-15 recovery by rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, S M; Abdelmonem, M A.S. [Soil and Water Dept., Atomic Energy Auth., Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Rice is a very responsive crop to nitrogen fertilizer, but the efficiency of the applied N-fertilizer is low. Greenhouse experiment conducted to evaluate several methods to improve fertilizer efficiency and reduce N-losses in rice fields. N-15 labelled urea was applied to 10 kg soils in pots, urea was applied alone, with addition of two urease inhibitors (NBPT and HQ), with addition of nitrification inhibitor (DCD),or with the combination of both inhibitors. The fertilizers were applied either broadcast on soil surface or at depth of 8 cm below the surface. At maturity, plants were separated into grain and straw, dried and weighted. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for total N and N-15 excess. Both fertilizer placement and inhibitor application significantly increased straw and grain yield, as well as N-uptake. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer (%Ndff) was more than doubled, when urea was applied deep and in combination with inhibitors. Plant recovery of N-15 labelled urea ranged from 17% to 75% according to treatment. Regardless of inhibitors application, plant recovery was increased from 39% to 65% when urea was applied at depth of 8 cm. Approximately 2/3 of the applied urea (64%)was lost when urea was applied alone. Those losses were reduced down to 12% with deep placement and inhibitor application. The two management practices show significant effect on minimizing N-losses and increasing plant recovery. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. The baseline serum value of α-amylase is a significant predictor of distance running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Tarperi, Cantor; La Torre, Antonio; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Schena, Federico

    2015-02-01

    This study was planned to investigate whether serum α-amylase concentration may be associated with running performance, physiological characteristics and other clinical chemistry analytes in a large sample of recreational athletes undergoing distance running. Forty-three amateur runners successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75%-85% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Blood was drawn during warm up and 15 min after conclusion of the run. After correction for body weight change, significant post-run increases were observed for serum values of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, creatine kinase (CK), iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides, urea and uric acid, whereas the values of body weight, glomerular filtration rate, total and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were significantly decreased. The concentration of serum α-amylase was unchanged. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running performance were found for gender, VO2max, training regimen and pre-run serum values of α-amylase, CK, glucose, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDH, urea and uric acid. In multivariate analysis, only VO2max (p=0.042) and baseline α-amylase (p=0.021) remained significant predictors of running performance. The combination of these two variables predicted 71% of variance in running performance. The baseline concentration of serum α-amylase was positively correlated with variation of serum glucose during the trial (r=0.345; p=0.025) and negatively with capillary blood lactate at the end of the run (r=-0.352; p=0.021). We showed that the baseline serum α-amylase concentration significantly and independently predicts distance running performance in recreational runners.

  6. Investigation of some urea derivatives under in vitro conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goersch, R.; Bergner, H.

    1978-01-01

    The protein synthesis from urea, isobutylidene diurea (IBDU), acetyl urea and urea phosphate was investigated in vitro under standardized conditions. The 35 S incorporation into the trichloroacetic acid precipitable fraction of the fermentation mixture and the NH 3 level served as test criteria. If rumen juice of donor animals adapted to urea was used (test 1), only IBDU made possible a protein synthesis comparable to the urea preparation. Under conditions of IBDU adaption of the donor animals (test 2), urea, IBDU and urea phosphate proved to be of equal value. Acetyl urea showed considerably lower incorporation ratios, irrespective of the adaption of the donor animals. (author)

  7. Investigation of some urea derivatives under in vitro conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goersch, R; Bergner, H [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin

    1978-10-01

    The protein synthesis from urea, isobutylidene diurea (IBDU), acetyl urea and urea phosphate was investigated in vitro under standardized conditions. The /sup 35/S incorporation into the trichloroacetic acid precipitable fraction of the fermentation mixture and the NH/sub 3/ level served as test criteria. If rumen juice of donor animals adapted to urea was used (test 1), only IBDU made possible a protein synthesis comparable to the urea preparation. Under conditions of IBDU adaption of the donor animals (test 2), urea, IBDU and urea phosphate proved to be of equal value. Acetyl urea showed considerably lower incorporation ratios, irrespective of the adaption of the donor animals.

  8. Serum biochemistry and native protein electrophoresis in diarrheic calves with arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekcan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, serum biochemistry and native protein electrophoresis in newborn calves with diarrhea and arthritis, were performed in order to evaluate the changes along with clinical findings for their possible application in the diagnosis and prognosis of disease. Based on clinical examination, animals were allotied into two groups comprising either diseased or healthy animals. Urea, creatinine, ALT, AST, LDH, albumin, total protein, glucose, total cholesterol, uric acid and iron levels were determined in the sera. Serum protein native polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (nPAGE was performed followed by protein band ratio estimation supported with densitometry at 596 nm. Differences between the average mean of healthy and diseased animals were compared statistically (Kruskal-Walley test. In this study a decrease in serum glucose and cholesterol values (p<0.001, increase in urea, LDH levels and α1-and α2-globulin levels (p<0.01 and p<0.05 respectively were found to be associated with the disease. As a result, the observed significant changes in biochemical parameters and clinical investigation in calves, suggesting acute inflammation causing the decrease in glucose and increase in α-globulins, may be of prognostic value.

  9. The Effect of Supplementation Urea and Sulfur in Mixed Cassava Waste Fermented and Soyabean Cake Waste on Digestibility of Protein and Blood Urea Male Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bata

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 groups I,II and III based on the body weight 18.55±1.27, 15.79±0.67 and 13.14±1.33 kg respectively. Two level urea (2 and 3% and three levels Sulfur (0.02 and 0.3% as treatment, so pattern factorial 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment. All of the treatment get a same basal feed namely land-grass and concentrate with dry matter ratio 70:30.  The total intake of  dry matter was 4 % of body weight. The concentrate consist of cassava waste fermented  and soyabean cake waste with dry matter  ratio 77.50 : 22.50. Supplementation of urea and sulfur shown not significant interaction, but supplementation urea had effect high significantly (P<0.01 on digestibility of protein and sulfur only had effect significant  (P<0.05 on blood urea. These result had indication that enriched urea in the diet could increase protein digestibility and sulfur level 0.2% could prevent NH3 absorption from rumen. (Animal Production 1(2: 75-81 (1999   Key Words: cassava waste, soyabean cake waste, fermentation, digestibility, urea blood.

  10. Preliminary Studies on Some Haematological and Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean serum values of sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate, as well as urea, creatinine and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) enzyme did not differ from the normal values, while the mean aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme value appeared to be lower than the normal range.In conclusion, the RBC, PCV ...

  11. Determination of urea utilization of rice at different growth stages by 15N tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, A.; Halitligil, M.B.; Torun, M.

    1991-01-01

    This study reported here examines the percent utilization of 15 N labelled urea by rice when it is broadcasted over the soil surface or mixed within 10 cm soil at different vegetative stages. The experimental plots were arranged in randomized block design and replicated 3 times. N was applied at a rate of 120 kg N/ha as single or split applications at four different times during the growing season. Labelled urea was applied to 0.5x0.5 m plots only in 1988, however in 1989 unlabelled urea was applied to all plots. Stover and seed samples from each plot were harvested, dried at 65 0 C, weighed and kilogram per hectare were calculated in 1988. Also, the yield surplus per kilogram N was calculated for each treatment and this was indicated as urea fertilizer efficiency coefficient. Total N and 15 N analysis for stover and seed were done. Significant differences (at 0.05 level) were observed in stover and seed yields, when 120 kg/ha urea was split applied at different growth stages. Similar yield responses were obtained in 1988 and 1989. Highest seed yields were obtained when half of urea was applied at planting and the other half was applied at one week before heading. The results also showed that the highest utilization of urea for seed plus stover was obtained from the second half of urea (60 kg N/ha) applied one week before heading. Percent utilization of urea by rice also differed according to the rate applied at each stage

  12. Comparison of ammonium sulfate and urea as nitrogen sources in rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufogle, A. Jr.; Bollich, P.K.; Kovar, J.L.; Lindau, C.W.; Macchiavellid, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Wetland rice agriculture is the major anthropogenic source of methane, an important greenhouse gas. Methane emissions are less when ammonium sulfate (AS) rather than urea is the nitrogen (N) source. However, an agronomic advantage of AS over urea has not been established. The objectives of this study were: (i) to compare the effectiveness of AS, urea, and urea plus elemental sulfur (S) as sources of N in flooded rice culture, (ii) to compare fertilizer recovery of each source of N from application at preflood (PF) and panicle initiation (PI), and (iii) to determine if there is a response to S by rice grown on a soil with a less than optimum level of available S. 'Cypress' rice was drill-seeded in a Crowley silt loam soil (fine, montmorillonitic, thermic Typic Albaqualf) of 7.25 to 10.75 mg S kg-1. Ammonium sulfate, urea, or urea plus S was applied in split applications of 101 kg N ha-1 PF and 50 kg N ha-1 PI. Microplots with retainers and 15N-labeled N were used. Unlabeled N was used in field plots. Microplots were harvested at 50% heading, while field plots were harvested at maturity. Dry matter and total N accumulation at 50% heading and at maturity were similar regardless of N source. Grain dry matter yields were 8.54, 8.47, and 8.79 Mg ha-1 for AS, urea, and urea plus S treatments, respectively. Greater N recovery was generally found from N application at PI than at PF, but this was not reflected by an increase in grain yield. No response to S was detected, although grain yields were slightly higher when S-containing fertilizers were used. Ammonium sulfate and urea were equally effective for flooded rice production in Louisiana

  13. Greener on the Other Side: How Increased Urea Use may Promote Cyanobacterial Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erratt, K. J.; Creed, I. F.; Trick, C. G.

    2017-12-01

    The frequency of freshwater cyanobacterial blooms is on the rise in temperate regions around the world. The widespread use of chemical fertilizers linked to modern agricultural practices has enhanced the fertility of surface waters promoting the expansion of cyanobacteria dominated harmful algal blooms. While phosphorus (P) has been recognized as the principal agent regulating phytoplankton productivity in inland waters, elevated P is not the universal trigger for bloom initiation. P fertilizer applications across the globe have been outpaced by nitrogen (N) fertilizer use. Not only has the load of N entering surface waters increased, but its chemical composition has been altered. The use of inorganic-N fertilizers has been waned in favor of urea-based products, with urea now accounting for more than half of total N-fertilizer applications worldwide. This contemporary shift in fertilizer usage has coincided with the rise of cyanobacteria dominated harmful algal blooms in freshwaters. Here, we examined the relative success of urea as a N-source relative to inorganic N forms (NO3-, NH4+) for three common bloom-forming species of cyanobacteria: Microcystis aeruginosa, Dolichospermum flos-aque, and Synechococcus sp. We found that (1) urea was consistently drawdown more rapidly relative to inorganic N substrates, suggesting that cyanobacteria exhibit a preference for urea over inorganic N forms; (2) cyanobacteria consume urea in excess of cellular requirements; and (3) urea may offer cyanobacteria a competitive edge over eukaryotic algae by enhancing light absorption capabilities. As we push forward into the 21st century, our reliance on urea-based fertilizers is projected to escalate and it is critical that we understand the unintended consequences urea discharge could be having on receiving freshwaters.

  14. Ammonia volatilization from coated urea forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa do Nascimento

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is a major component of the cost of agricultural production, due to the high cost and low efficiency of fertilizers. In the case of urea, the low efficiency is mainly due to losses by volatilization, which are more pronounced in cultivation systems in which plant residues are left on the soil. The objective of this work was to compare the influence of urea coated with sulfur or boric acid and copper sulfate with conventional N fertilizers on N volatilization losses in sugar cane harvested after stubble burning. The sources urea, sulfur-coated urea, urea coated with boric acid and copper sulfate, as well as nitrate and ammonium sulfate, were tested at amounts containing N rates of 120 kg ha-1 N. The integration of new technologies in urea fertilization can reduce N losses by volatilization. These losses were most reduced when using nitrate and ammonium sulfate. The application of a readily acidified substance (boric acid to urea was more efficient in reducing volatilization losses and nutrient removal by sugar cane than that of a substance with gradual acidification (elemental sulfur.

  15. Structural changes during the unfolding of Bovine serum albumin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The native form of serum albumin is the most important soluble protein in the body plasma. In order to investigate the structural changes of Bovine serum albumin (BSA) during its unfolding in the presence of urea, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) study was performed. The scattering curves of dilute solutions of BSA ...

  16. Urea metabolism in cattle and buffaloes fed diets containing NPN salts, usin g urea radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhiman, T.R.; Arora, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    Urea metabolism studies were conducted using isotope dilution techniques. Animals in groups 1 and 3 were fed basal diet (S, 0.11%) supplemented with urea (test diet 1) and those of groups 2 and 4 supplemented urea plus ammonium sulphate (test diet 2) containing 0.22% S. A single injection of a mixture of 15 N-urea and 14 C-urea was given intravenously and 51 Cr-EDTA was given as a single infusion intraruminally. The pattern of release of ammonia, mean ruminal ammonia, plasma urea, rumen fluid outflow rate, rumen ammonia pool size and ammonia outflow from rumen remained unaffected due to different dietary treatments. On an average, 73.3% of plasma urea synthesized was excreted in urine with test diet 1 and showing 26.6% degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, whereas 68.8% was excreted with test diet 2 and showing 31.3% degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. At 24 hr, 18.33 to 20.93% of nitrogen entering the ruminal ammonia pool was derived from plasma urea in calves of groups 1 and 2 and 24.22 to 27.49 in buffalo calves of groups 3 and 4 respectively. Sulphur supplementation through ammonium sulphate (N : S, 10 :1) resulted in better utilization of nitrogen with test diet 2 by lowering urea excretion rate and increasing urea recycling rate in both the species. (author). 5 tabs., 16 refs

  17. A method of radiocompetitive assay of total thyroxine in the serum by means of enzymatic release of thyroxine from the transporting proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snarski, A.; Wyrwinski, J.

    1978-01-01

    Pepsin causes denaturation of the transporting proteins and liberates thyroxine which can be assayed by the radiocompetitive method. Change of the pH of the medium from acid to alkaline inactivates irreveribly pepsin. The enzymatic release of thyroxine is much simpler that the method of ethanol extraction and thermal denaturation of the transporting proteins applied up to now. The new technique of thyroxine release has been introduced for radiocompetitive determination of thyroxine using dextran coated charcoal for adsorption of the free hormone. A new method has been elaborated for preparation of working standards of thyroxine in a mixture of pepsin solution with hormone-free serum. The method is efficient and rapid. The normal range is from 50 to 130 nanomol/l. Over 7 000 determinations were done as yet in patients with suspected thyroid function disturbances. (author)

  18. No association between pseudotumors, high serum metal-ion levels and metal hypersensitivity in large-head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty at 5-7-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mette Holm; Stilling, Maiken; Soballe, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    -ion concentrations were measured, metal allergy and atopic dermatitis were evaluated, and the questionnaires of the Oxford Hip Score (OHS), Harris Hip Score (HHS) and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were completed. RESULTS: Pseudotumors were found in eight patients, but they were asymptomatic and their serum...... pseudotumor formation, serum metal-ion levels, metal patch test reactivity, and atopic dermatitis. However, clinicians should be aware of asymptomatic pseudotumors, and we advise further exploration into the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of pseudotumors.......OBJECTIVE: The relationship between metal wear debris, pseudotumor formation and metal hypersensitivity is complex and not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of pseudotumor formation in a consecutive series of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty...

  19. The effect of sodium bicarbonate and validation of beckman coulter AU680 analyzers for measuring total carbon dioxide (TCO2) concentrations in horse serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirikolu, Levent; Waller, Pamela; Waguespack, Mona Landry; Andrews, Frank Michael; Keowen, Michael Layne; Gaunt, Stephen David

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the usage of Beckman Coulter AU680 analyzers for measurement of TCO 2 in horse serum, and the effect of sodium bicarbonate administrations on serum TCO 2 levels in resting horses. Treatment of horses with sodium bicarbonate did not result in any adverse events. Mean TCO 2 concentration was significantly higher from 1 to 8 h in the sodium bicarbonate-treated horses compared to the untreated controls. Within an hour, administration of sodium bicarbonate increased the TCO 2 level from 31.5 ± -2.5 (SD) to 34.0 ± 2.65 (SD) mmol/L and at 2-8 h post-administration, the TCO 2 level was above the 36 mmol/L cut-off level. In all quality control analysis of Australian standard by Beckman Coulter AU680 analyzer, the instrument slightly over estimated the TCO 2 level but the values were in close agreement with mean TCO 2 level being 38.03 with ± 0.87 mmol/L (SD). Expanded uncertainty was calculated using different levels of confidence interval. Based on 99.5% confidence interval using 0.805% expanded uncertainty using mean measured concentration of 38.05 mmol/L, it was estimated that any race samples TCO 2 level higher than 38.5 mmol/L will be indicative of sodium bicarbonate administration using Beckman Coulter AU680 analyzer in Louisiana.

  20. UREA BREATH TEST – ITS ROLE IN DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joško Osredkar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Each year many patients visit their physicians complaining of digestive symptoms, most commonly functional dyspepsia (»indigestion« or gastroesophageal reflux (»heartburn«. However, many patients with abdominal discomfort are actually suffering from gastric or duodenal ulcers that are commonly caused by H. pylori and thus are curable. Clearing the infection usually heals the ulcer and prevents relapse, so an accurate diagnosis is important. There are several options for diagnosing H. pylori infection: serology to detect antibodies against the bacterium; endoscopic biopsy for urease testing (H. pylori produce a urease that breaks down urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide; histology with special stains; or culture. Unfortunately, these procedures are invasive, expensive and not always accurate. Serological tests require a blood sample and tell only that a patient has been exposed to H. pylori at some time in the past, but not whether the patient is currently infected. Endoscopy and biopsy can detect current infection — the CLO test urease test allows rapid detection of H. pylori in gastric biopsy specimens — but endoscopy and biopsy are unpleasant medical procedures.Recently, noninvasive, sensitive, specific, easy to perform and patient’s well accepted methods had been developed known as urea breath test (UBT. When an infected person swallows a dose of urea labeled with an isotope of carbon — carbon-13 (13C or carbon-14 (14C – H. pylori in the gastric mucosa break down the labeled urea to form ammonia and labeled carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted via the lungs. The patient then exhales into a device that measures the level of carbon dioxide. The urea breath test is specific for H. pylori (it detects only urease-producing bacteria, it is sensitive (the labeled urea reaches a large area of the stomach and thus reflects total gastric urease activity and the results can be

  1. Modeling of flux, binding and substitution of urea molecules in the urea transporter dvUT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Tian; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Tao; Sang, Jian-Ping; Zou, Xian-Wu; Zou, Xiaoqin

    2017-09-01

    Urea transporters (UTs) are transmembrane proteins that transport urea molecules across cell membranes and play a crucial role in urea excretion and water balance. Modeling the functional characteristics of UTs helps us understand how their structures accomplish the functions at the atomic level, and facilitates future therapeutic design targeting the UTs. This study was based on the crystal structure of Desulfovibrio vulgaris urea transporter (dvUT). To model the binding behavior of urea molecules in dvUT, we constructed a cooperative binding model. To model the substitution of urea by the urea analogue N,N'-dimethylurea (DMU) in dvUT, we calculated the occupation probability of DMU along the urea pore and the ratio of the occupation probabilities of DMU at the external (S ext ) and internal (S int ) binding sites, and we established the mutual substitution rule for binding and substitution of urea and DMU. Based on these calculations and modelings, together with the use of the Monte Carlo (MC) method, we further modeled the urea flux in dvUT, equilibrium urea binding to dvUT, and the substitution of urea by DMU in the dvUT. Our modeling results are in good agreement with the existing experimental functional data. Furthermore, the modelings have discovered the microscopic process and mechanisms of those functional characteristics. The methods and the results would help our future understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the diseases associated with impaired UT functions and rational drug design for the treatment of these diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Zock, P.L.; Kester, A.D.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The effects of dietary fats on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) have traditionally been estimated from their effects on LDL cholesterol. Fats, however, also affect HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol is a more specific marker of CAD than is LDL

  3. Urea and deuterium mixtures at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, M., E-mail: m.donnelly-2@sms.ed.ac.uk; Husband, R. J.; Frantzana, A. D.; Loveday, J. S. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Erskine Williamson Building, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, The King’s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom); Bull, C. L. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxford Harwell, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Klotz, S. [IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, Université P and M Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France)

    2015-03-28

    Urea, like many network forming compounds, has long been known to form inclusion (guest-host) compounds. Unlike other network formers like water, urea is not known to form such inclusion compounds with simple molecules like hydrogen. Such compounds if they existed would be of interest both for the fundamental insight they provide into molecular bonding and as potential gas storage systems. Urea has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material [T. A. Strobel et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 97 (2009)]. Here, we report the results of high-pressure neutron diffraction studies of urea and D{sub 2} mixtures that indicate no inclusion compound forms up to 3.7 GPa.

  4. Study of furfural-urea grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of raw materials, formulation and performance of furfural-urea grout is given. Characteristics of the grout slurry, mechanism of stabilization and examples of shaft sinking with grouting in quicksand are summarized.

  5. Metabolism of urea in kids fed different levels of urea molasses diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, M.; Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Urea entry rates were measured in the body pool of Barbari kids using a single injection isotope dilution technique. The kids were divided into five groups (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 and T 5 ) and they were fed different levels of urea molasses viz., 10, 25, 35, 40 and 0 percent to meet their DCP requirement along with concentrate mixture and oat hay as per A.R.C. recommendation. Urea entry rate was significantly higher (P 1 and the control group (T 5 without urea in their diets) than that of T 2 , T 3 and T 4 which were not significantly different from each other. (author)

  6. Urea hydrolysis and ammonia volatilization from some urea based fertilizers applied to rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, C.; Jena, D.; Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Schepers, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out in replicated microplots (1 m x 1 m) with rice (cv. Pathara) to study urea hydrolysis using several urea based N-fertilizer sources. Results indicated highly significant urea based N-fertilizers, among which urea super granule (USG) and prilled urea (PU) (applied in two splits) could be rated as the most efficient sources of N. Based on measured ammonia volatilization loss, NH 2 -N concentration in flood water and soil solution (following fertilizer application); urea hydrolysis was observed to be faster in the case of PU, USG, PU + ECC (encapsulated calcium carbide) and UNP (urea nitro phosphate) (19-19-0) than in the case of GCU (gypsum coated urea) and UNP (27-9-0) treatments. Based on the 15 N tagged prilled urea experiment, it is observed that about 24 per cent of fertilizer nitrogen was utilized by the crop in closed system as compared to 18 per cent in natural free system. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  7. The incidence of urea cycle disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Summar, Marshall L.; Koelker, Stefan; Freedenberg, Debra; Le Mons, Cynthia; Haberle, Johannes; Lee, Hye-Seung; Kirmse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A key question for urea cycle disorders is their incidence. In the United States two UCDs argininosuccinic synthetase and lyase deficiency are currently detected by newborn screening. We used newborn screening data on over 6. million births and data from the large US and European longitudinal registries to determine how common these conditions are. The incidence for the United States is predicted to be 1 urea cycle disorder patient for every 35000 births presenting about 113 new patients per ...

  8. Effect of Two Kinds of Green Manure and Urea on Production and N Uptake by Lowland Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryanto; Idawati; Havid Rasjid; Elsje L Sisworo

    2004-01-01

    One field experiment has been conducted to study effect of two kinds of green manure and urea on production and N uptake in lowland rice. This experiment were used 11 treatments : (U) applying urea fertilizer at dose 200 kg urea/ha or recommended dose, (1/2 U) urea at 100 kg/ha, (1/2 U + Az) urea at 100 kg/ha + Azolla inoculation, (1/2 U + S) urea at 100 kg/ha + Sesbania incorporated at 50 DAT (days after transplanting), (Az + S) Azolla inoculation + Sesbania incorporated at 50 DAT, (Az + Sph) Azolla inoculation + Sesbania crop imported into the soil as green manure applied at preparation time of the land, (1/2 U + Az + S) treatment of (Az + S) combined with 100 kg urea/ha application, (1/2 U + Az + Sph) treatment of (Az + Sph) combined with 100 kg urea/ha application, (A) inoculation of Azolla, (S) Sesbania incorporated at 50 DAT, and Control (without urea, Azolla, and Sesbania). Lowland rice variety Cilosari was used in this experiment. This experiment was designed by Randomized Complete Block Design with 4 replicates for each treatment. To study the N-derived from fertilizer and green manure the 15 N isotope technique was used with the non direct method. Labelled 15 N ammonium sulphate with 10.12% 15 N was applied at 1 m x 1 m isotope plots for each plot in this experiment. The result showed that treatment combination of 100 kg urea/ha + Azolla inoculation + Sesbania crop incorporated into the soil as green manure applied at preparation time of the land gave N availability of soil higher than that resulted by 200 kg Urea/ha application. These treatments were not significantly different for total N uptake and N-derived from fertilizer in the rice grain. (author)

  9. Urochloa ruziziensis responses to sources and doses of urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João E. S. Lima

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of products that promote reduction of nitrogen (N losses from the urea fertilizer can contribute to increasing its use efficiency in forage grasses. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of N sources and doses on the growth of Urochloa ruziziensis. The experiment was carried out in the growing season of 2007/2008 in Santo Antônio de Goiás-GO, in a Brazilian Oxisol. A completely randomized block was used, with four replicates in a factorial scheme, corresponding to two N sources (conventional urea and urea with urease inhibitor and five N doses (0, 50, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1, divided into equal applications in five periods (Nov 14 to Dec 13, Dec 14 to Jan 12, Jan 13 to Feb 11 - rainy season, Mar 24 to Apr 22 and Jul 10 to Aug 08 - dry season. The effects of the treatments were evaluated for: shoot dry matter, tiller density, total N content in the leaves and relative chlorophyll content. N fertilizer sources did not affect the evaluated variables; however, N fertilization allowed linear increases in all variables with higher values during the rainy period. The relative chlorophyll content in U. ruziziensis had positive correlation with its dry matter productivity.

  10. Serum tree IGF-I, total IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in an elderly population : relation to age and sex steroid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, JAMJL; Stolk, RP; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE; de Jong, FH; Lamberts, SWJ

    BACKGROUND Most previous studies concerning the relationship between IGF-I and age used assays measuring total IGF-I, Although free IGF-I is considered of greater biological relevance, little is known about its relationship with sex steroids levels in elderly healthy subjects, MEASUREMENTS In a

  11. Hepatic urea biosynthesis in the euryhaline elasmobranch Carcharhinus leucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W Gary; Good, Jonathan P; Pillans, Richard D; Hazon, Neil; Franklin, Craig E

    2005-10-01

    Plasma urea levels and hepatic urea production in the euryhaline bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, acclimated to freshwater and seawater environments were measured. It was found that plasma urea concentration increased with salinity and that this increase was, in part, the result of a significant increase in hepatic production of urea. This study provides direct evidence that hepatic production of urea plays an important role in the osmoregulatory strategy of C. leucas. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Automated monosegmented flow analyser. Determination of glucose, creatinine and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimundo Júnior, I M; Pasquini, C

    1997-10-01

    An automated monosegmented flow analyser containing a sampling valve and a reagent addition module and employing a laboratory-made photodiode array spectrophotometer as detection system is described. The instrument was controlled by a 386SX IBM compatible microcomputer through an IC8255 parallel port that communicates with the interface which controls the sampling valve and reagent addition module. The spectrophotometer was controlled by the same microcomputer through an RS232 serial standard interface. The software for the instrument was written in QuickBasic 4.5. Opto-switches were employed to detect the air bubbles limiting the monosegment, allowing precise sample localisation for reagent addition and signal reading. The main characteristics of the analyser are low reagent consumption and high sensitivity which is independent of the sample volume. The instrument was designed to determine glucose, creatinine or urea in blood plasma and serum without hardware modification. The results were compared against those obtained by the Clinical Hospital of UNICAMP using commercial analysers. Correlation coefficients among the methods were 0.997, 0.982 and 0.996 for glucose, creatinine and urea, respectively.

  13. Blood gas and serum biochemical RIs for healthy newborn Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, André M; Silva, Daniela G; Clemente, Virna; Pizauro, Lucas J L; Bernardes, Priscila A; Santana, Clarissa H; Eckersall, Peter D; Fagliari, José J

    2018-03-01

    There is a lack of published work on RIs for newborn buffaloes. Establishing blood gas and serum biochemical RIs for newborn buffaloes is important for monitoring health. This study establishes blood gas and serum biochemical RIs of newborn buffaloes. Twenty-eight newborn buffaloes, 10-30 days old, were selected. Thirty blood biochemical variables were analyzed. The Anderson-Darling test was used to assess the normality of the distribution. The Dixon test and the Tukey test were used to identify outliers. The RI and 90% CI were determined using standard and robust methods and the Box-Cox transformation. A total of 30 RIs for healthy buffalo calves have been reported in this study. RIs for blood gas variables were reported for pH, partial pressure of oxygen (pO 2 ), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO 2 ), saturation of O 2 (SO 2 ), bicarbonate (cHCO 3 - ), base excess (BE), total carbon dioxide (ctCO 2 ), and anion gap (AG). RIs for serum biochemical variables were reported for glucose (GLU), direct bilirubin (DB), total bilirubin (TB), AST, ALP, GGT, CK, LDH, creatinine (CREA), urea, cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TG), Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, iCa, Cl, iron, total protein (TP), and albumin (ALB). This is the first reported study covering complete serum chemistry and blood gas RIs for healthy 1-month-old Murrah buffaloes. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  14. Urea utilization in protein deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Noriko

    1982-01-01

    Three experiments were performed to investigate the mechanism of urea utilization and the nutritional roles of intestinal flora on the utilization of urea by rats fed with a protein deficient diet. Ammonia content in the small intestine in LPD(low protein diet) group fed with a low protein diet for 2 or 5 weeks was about three of five times higher than that of control group fed with SPD(standard protein diet) after administration of urea (0.2gN/100gB.W.). The 15 N incorporation into plasma protein of LPD group was significantly higher than that of the control group two hours after the administration of 15 N-urea (10 mg/100gB.W.) and higher level of 15 N concentration in plasma protein in LPD group was maintained thereafter. The 15 N incorporation into the amino acids of plasma protein was higher in LPD group than in control group. The 15 N incorporation into the amino acids in portal plasma seemed to be higher in LPD group than in control group one hour after the administration of 15 N-urea (10mg/100gB.W.). However, the 15 N incorporation into each free amino acids was suppressed considerably by the administration of antibiotic mixture. it follows that amino acids may be synthesized from urea in the intestine by intestinal-bacterial action and absorbed from portal vein. From these results, it may be concluded that the ammonia nitrogen converted from urea by the action of intestinal-bacterial urease in the intestine is utilized for the synthesis of essential and nonessential amino acids in protein deficient rats and transfered to the liver through portal vein and utilized for protein synthesis. (J.P.N.)

  15. Urea utilization in protein deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, N [Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan)

    1982-06-01

    Three experiments were performed to investigate the mechanism of urea utilization and the nutritional roles of intestinal flora on the utilization of urea by rats fed with a protein deficient diet. Ammonia content in the small intestine in LPD(low protein diet) group fed with a low protein diet for 2 or 5 weeks was about three of five times higher than that of control group fed with SPD(standard protein diet) after administration of urea (0.2gN/100gB.W.). The /sup 15/N incorporation into plasma protein of LPD group was significantly higher than that of the control group two hours after the administration of /sup 15/N-urea (10 mg/100gB.W.) and higher level of /sup 15/N concentration in plasma protein in LPD group was maintained thereafter. The /sup 15/N incorporation into the amino acids of plasma protein was higher in LPD group than in control group. The /sup 15/N incorporation into the amino acids in portal plasma seemed to be higher in LPD group than in control group one hour after the administration of /sup 15/N-urea (10mg/100gB.W.). However, the /sup 15/N incorporation into each free amino acids was suppressed considerably by the administration of antibiotic mixture. it follows that amino acids may be synthesized from urea in the intestine by intestinal-bacterial action and absorbed from portal vein. From these results, it may be concluded that the ammonia nitrogen converted from urea by the action of intestinal-bacterial urease in the intestine is utilized for the synthesis of essential and nonessential amino acids in protein deficient rats and transfered to the liver through portal vein and utilized for protein synthesis.

  16. Standardization of the TRUE Test imidazolidinyl urea and diazolidinyl urea patches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Björkner, B

    2001-01-01

    The preservatives imidazolidinyl urea (IMID, Germall 115) and diazolidinyl urea (DU, Germall II) are commonly used in cosmetic products and are well-known sensitizers. The aim of the present study was to establish the optimal patch test concentration in hydrophilic dried-in vehicle (TRUE Test...

  17. Substitution of lucerne hay by untreated, urea-enriched and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat straw was left untreated (WS), enriched with 1.5% urea (UWS), or ammoniated with 5.5% urea in a stack for 8 .... nitrogen concentration for maximal microbial synthesis is in ... faeces and urine samples were taken daily and pooled for.

  18. Thermoplastic poly(urethane urea)s from novel, bio-based amorphous polyester diols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, D.; Noordover, B.A.J.; Sablong, R.J.; Koning, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, two novel, bio-based, amorphous polyester diols, namely poly(1,2-dimethylethylene adipate) (PDMEA) and poly(1,2-dimethylethylene succinate) (PDMES) are used to prepare thermoplastic poly(urethane urea)s (TPUUs). Interestingly, the TPUUs based on PDMEA show similar thermal and

  19. DETERMINATION OF PROTEIN CATABOLIC RATE IN PATIENTS ON CHRONIC INTERMITTENT HEMODIALYSIS - UREA OUTPUT MEASUREMENTS COMPARED WITH DIETARY-PROTEIN INTAKE AND WITH CALCULATION OF UREA GENERATION RATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGEMAN, CA; HUISMAN, RM; DEROUW, B; JOOSTEMA, A; DEJONG, PE

    We assessed the agreement between different methods of determining protein catabolic rate (PCR) in hemodialysis patients and the possible influence of postdialysis urea rebound and the length of the interdialytic interval on the PCR determination. Protein catabolic rate derived from measured total

  20. Correlation of serum magnesium with dyslipidemia in patients on maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rafique Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the correlation between serum magnesium (Mg and dyslipidemia in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD. This hospital-based cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the Department of Nephro-Urology, Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakistan, from April 2008 to June 2008. Fifty patients with end-stage kidney disease on MHD treatment (33 males and 17 females were studied. The mean duration on HD was 7.58 ± 2.05 years, with frequency being two to three sessions/week, and each session lasted for four hours. After obtaining informed written consent, the general information of each patient was recorded on a proforma. After overnight fasting, blood samples was drawn from the arterio-venous fistula for lipid profile, lipoprotein, serum Mg, serum creatinine, blood urea, serum calcium and serum phosphorus. Dyslipidemia was defined as presence of total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG or low-density lipoprotein (LDL levels more then 95 th percentile for age and gender or high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels less then 35 mg/dL. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0. The mean age of the study patients was 45.68 ± 13.97 years. There was a significant positive correlation between serum Mg and serum lipoprotein-a (LP-a (r = 0.40, P < 0.007, serum HDL (r = 0.31, P < 0.01 and serum TG (r = 0.35, P < 0.005. There was no significant correlation between serum Mg and serum LDL-c and serum TC. The serum TG and LP-a levels were significantly increased while HDL-c was significantly lower in MHD patients. The serum TC, LDL-c and very low-density lipoprotein-c were not significantly elevated. We conclude that patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing MHD show positive correlation between serum Mg and serum HDL, LP-a and TG. The abnormalities of lipid metabolism, such as hyper-triglyceridemia, elevated LP-a and low HDL-c, could contribute to

  1. Circadian variation in serum free and total insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II in untreated and treated acromegaly and growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjaerbaek, Christian; Frystyk, Jan; Kaal, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    to the nocturnal increase in IGF binding protein-1. In this study we have investigated the circadian variation in circulating free IGF-I and IGF-II in patients with acromegaly and patients with adult onset growth hormone deficiency. PATIENTS: Seven acromegalic patients were studied with and without treatment...... no significant circadian variations in free IGF-I or free IGF-II in either of the two occasions. In contrast, there was a significant circadian variation of total IGF-I after adjustment for changes in plasma volume in both treated and untreated acromegaly and GH deficiency in all cases with a peak between 0300 h...

  2. Urea concentration in sheep’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Havranek

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining urea concentration in milk is a useful indicator for controlling supply of proteins to organisms, as well as the relationship of energy and protein in the food, thus it is finding more and more ways of practical use. The concentration of urea in milk, along with the feeding process, is influenced by a number of other factors such as: breed, stage and sequence of lactation, body mass, daily production and chemical structure of milk, number of somatic cells, season, milking.The goal of the research was to establish the influence of the breed (Island of Krk, East Frisian, lactation stage (beginning, middle and the end and the herd (3 to the concentration of urea in milk during lactation.For each breed there has been established daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in milk.Statistical analysis of data was conducted by using General Linear Models procedure, SAS program system (1999.The breed of sheep considerably (P<0.001 influenced daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in the milk.East Frisian sheep produced on average almost double the daily quantities of milk (1070 mL compared to the Krk sheep (588 mL.Protein share and the urea concentration in Krk sheep milk were higher (5.99 % and 35.97 mg/100 mL then in the milk of East Frisian sheep (5.12 % and 33.31 mg/100 mL.For both breeds the significant influence of lactation stage to the daily milk quantity has been established (0.001, that is also for the urea concentration in the milk of Krk sheep (0.001, as well as protein share in the milk of East Frisian sheep (0.001.Herd influence significantly affected daily milk quantities (0.001 and concentration of urea in the milk (0.05.The defining of the urea concentration in sheep milk should be occasionally carried out in the Republic of Croatia to establish the standard physiological values typical for the particular sheep breed.

  3. Photoluminescence of urea- and urea/rhodamine B-capped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalo-Juan, I., E-mail: gonzalo@materials.tu-darmstadt.de; Macé, L.; Tengeler, S.; Mosallem, A.; Nicoloso, N.; Riedel, R.

    2016-07-01

    Urea- and rhodamine B (RhB)-capped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared by solvothermal synthesis and characterized by HRTEM, XRD, FTIR, XPS, optical absorption and photoemission. The urea and urea/RhB ligands are capped to the surface of the TiO{sub 2} NPs for the first time through carbamate bonding. The band gap of TiO{sub 2} is slightly reduced from 3.1 eV to 3.0 eV in the urea capped TiO{sub 2} NPs (TU) and 2.9 eV for the NPs capped with urea/RhB (TUR). The generation of new trapping states in TU and TUR at the conduction band edges (surface oxygen vacancies) has been confirmed by the Urbach law providing tail state energies of 180 meV and 270 meV, respectively. These tail states are considered to be responsible for the strong reduction of the photoluminescence at ≈400 nm and the increased emission at ≈600 nm in TU and TUR. The findings suggest that urea- and RhB-capped TiO{sub 2} NPs could have potential applications as photocatalysts, opto-electronic devices, sensors, biological labels and anti-bacterial agents. - Highlights: • Urea- and urea/rhodamine B (RhB)-capped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles preparation. • Characterization of optical properties of urea- and urea/rhodamine B (RhB)-capped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • The recombination of electrons and holes is significantly reduced in the capped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, in comparison with TiO{sub 2}.

  4. Effects of polymer-coated slow-release urea on performance, ruminal fermentation, and blood metabolites in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Delfino Calomeni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this experiment was to quantify the effects of feeding polymer-coated slow-release urea on nutrient intake and total tract digestion, milk yield and composition, nutrient balances, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and blood parameters in dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (580±20 kg of live weight (mean ± standard deviation; 90 to 180 days in milk (DIM; and 28 kg/d of average milk yield were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design. The animals were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to receive one of the following experimental diets: 1 control (without urea addition; urea (addition of 1% on the diet DM basis; polymer-coated slow release urea 1 (addition of 1% on the diet DM basis; and polymer-coated slow release urea 2 (addition of 1% on the diet DM basis. All diets contained corn silage as forage source and a 50:50 forage:concentrate ratio. Milk and protein yield, production of volatile fatty acids, and propionate decreased when cows were fed diets containing urea. Addition of urea decreased nitrogen efficiency and nitrogen excreted in the feces. However, the diets did not change the cows' microbial protein synthesis, ruminal pH, or ammonia concentration. The inclusion of urea in cow diets decreases milk and protein yield due to lower production of volatile fatty acids. No advantages are observed with supplementation of polymer-coated slow-release urea when compared with feed-grade urea.

  5. A low serum bicarbonate concentration as a risk factor for mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ik Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Metabolic acidosis is common in patients with chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, this relationship has not yet been determined in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. METHODS: This prospective observational study included a total of 441 incident patients who started PD between January 2000 and December 2005. Using time-averaged serum bicarbonate (TA-Bic levels, we aimed to investigate whether a low serum bicarbonate concentration can predict mortality in these patients. RESULTS: Among the baseline parameters, serum bicarbonate level was positively associated with hemoglobin level and residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR, while it was negatively associated with albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP levels, peritoneal Kt/V urea, and normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR in a multivariable linear regression analysis. During a median follow-up of 34.8 months, 149 deaths were recorded. After adjustment for age, diabetes, coronary artery disease, serum albumin, ferritin, CRP, residual GFR, peritoneal Kt/V urea, nPCR, and percentage of lean body mass, TA-Bic level was associated with a significantly decreased risk of mortality (HR per 1 mEq/L increase, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.91; p < 0.001. In addition, compared to patients with a TA-Bic level of 24-26 mEq/L, those with a TA-Bic level < 22 and between 22-24 mEq/L conferred a 13.10- and 2.13-fold increased risk of death, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that a low serum bicarbonate concentration is an independent risk factor for mortality in PD patients. This relationship between low bicarbonate levels and adverse outcome could be related to enhanced inflammation and a more rapid loss of RRF associated with metabolic acidosis. Large randomized clinical trials to correct acidosis are warranted to confirm our findings.

  6. A perfusion study of the handling of urea and urea analogues by the gills of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M; Liew, Hon Jung; De Boeck, Gudrun; Walsh, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    The branchial mechanism of urea retention in elasmobranchs was investigated using an in vitro isolated-perfused head preparation, as well as in vivo samples, in the spiny dogfish shark. Both in vivo and in control saline perfusions containing 350 mmol L(-1) urea, calculated intracellular urea concentrations in gill epithelial cells were close to extracellular concentrations. Urea efflux to the external water fell only non-significantly, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentration did not change when perfusate urea concentration was reduced from 350 to 175 mmol L(-1) with osmotic compensation by 175 mmol L(-1) mannitol. However, when the urea analogues thiourea or acetamide were present in the perfusate at concentrations equimolar (175 mmol L(-1)) to those of urea (175 mmol L(-1)), urea efflux rates were increased 4-fold and 6.5-fold respectively, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentrations were depressed by about 55%. Analogue efflux rates were similar to urea efflux rates. Previous studies have argued that either the basolateral or apical membranes provided the limiting permeability barrier, and/or that a back-transporter on the basolateral membranes of gill cells is responsible for urea retention. The present results provide new evidence that the apical membrane is the limiting factor in maintaining gill urea impermeability, and raise the prospect that a urea back-transporter, which can be competitively inhibited by thiourea and acetamide, operates at the apical membrane.

  7. A perfusion study of the handling of urea and urea analogues by the gills of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M. Wood

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The branchial mechanism of urea retention in elasmobranchs was investigated using an in vitro isolated-perfused head preparation, as well as in vivo samples, in the spiny dogfish shark. Both in vivo and in control saline perfusions containing 350 mmol L−1 urea, calculated intracellular urea concentrations in gill epithelial cells were close to extracellular concentrations. Urea efflux to the external water fell only non-significantly, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentration did not change when perfusate urea concentration was reduced from 350 to 175 mmol L−1 with osmotic compensation by 175 mmol L−1 mannitol. However, when the urea analogues thiourea or acetamide were present in the perfusate at concentrations equimolar (175 mmol L−1 to those of urea (175 mmol L−1, urea efflux rates were increased 4-fold and 6.5-fold respectively, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentrations were depressed by about 55%. Analogue efflux rates were similar to urea efflux rates. Previous studies have argued that either the basolateral or apical membranes provided the limiting permeability barrier, and/or that a back-transporter on the basolateral membranes of gill cells is responsible for urea retention. The present results provide new evidence that the apical membrane is the limiting factor in maintaining gill urea impermeability, and raise the prospect that a urea back-transporter, which can be competitively inhibited by thiourea and acetamide, operates at the apical membrane.

  8. Influence of the thyroid remnant in the elevation of the serum thyroglobulin after thyroidectomy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Importance of the diagnostic iodine total-body scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero-Calabuig, Elisa; Cano-Terol, Carmen; Sopena-Monforte, Ramon; Reyes-Ojeda, Dolores; Abreu-Sanchez, Pedro; Ferrer-Rebolleda, Jose; Sopena-Novales, Pablo; Plancha-Mansanet, Carmen; Felix-Fontestad, Jesus

    2008-01-01

    Stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) and 131 I total-body scan (TBS) have been the mainstays of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), but now diagnostic TBS has been eliminated from some follow-up protocols. Nevertheless, Tg can be negative in the presence of thyroid tissue, and moderately elevated Tg poses management problems. The purpose of this study was to check how many patients have Tg negative but visible thyroid tissue and if diagnostic TBS could be clinically useful. Retrospective review of 317 exams (stimulated Tg and TBS) of 128 patients with DTC. Patients with high-grade criteria and/or positive autoantibodies are excluded. Tg is considered positive if higher than the sensitivity level of the technique. TBS is positive if thyroid remnant, lymphatic node or metastases are detected. Results are classified in Tg and TBS concordant or discordant. Discordant 131 I TBS and Tg were found in 74/317 studies (23.3%), 48 (65%) being TBS positive and Tg negative. None of 128 patients had a first post-surgery negative scan, but 13 (10%) were Tg negative, even two patients with lymph node uptake. One year after radioiodine treatment, 26 out of 115 patients (initially Tg and TBS concordant positive) showed Tg negative and TBS still positive due to cervical remnants (20 patients), lymph node uptake (one) and metastasis (five); 20 patients remained Tg and TBS positive, but 14 of them only showed thyroid remnants. We propose to perform periodic diagnostic TBS to improve Tg specificity, at least while neck thyroid activity is detected, even if Tg is negative. (orig.)

  9. Influence of the thyroid remnant in the elevation of the serum thyroglobulin after thyroidectomy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Importance of the diagnostic iodine total-body scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Calabuig, Elisa; Cano-Terol, Carmen; Sopena-Monforte, Ramon; Reyes-Ojeda, Dolores; Abreu-Sanchez, Pedro; Ferrer-Rebolleda, Jose; Sopena-Novales, Pablo; Plancha-Mansanet, Carmen; Felix-Fontestad, Jesus [Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset - Medicina Nuclear, Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    Stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) and {sup 131}I total-body scan (TBS) have been the mainstays of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), but now diagnostic TBS has been eliminated from some follow-up protocols. Nevertheless, Tg can be negative in the presence of thyroid tissue, and moderately elevated Tg poses management problems. The purpose of this study was to check how many patients have Tg negative but visible thyroid tissue and if diagnostic TBS could be clinically useful. Retrospective review of 317 exams (stimulated Tg and TBS) of 128 patients with DTC. Patients with high-grade criteria and/or positive autoantibodies are excluded. Tg is considered positive if higher than the sensitivity level of the technique. TBS is positive if thyroid remnant, lymphatic node or metastases are detected. Results are classified in Tg and TBS concordant or discordant. Discordant {sup 131}I TBS and Tg were found in 74/317 studies (23.3%), 48 (65%) being TBS positive and Tg negative. None of 128 patients had a first post-surgery negative scan, but 13 (10%) were Tg negative, even two patients with lymph node uptake. One year after radioiodine treatment, 26 out of 115 patients (initially Tg and TBS concordant positive) showed Tg negative and TBS still positive due to cervical remnants (20 patients), lymph node uptake (one) and metastasis (five); 20 patients remained Tg and TBS positive, but 14 of them only showed thyroid remnants. We propose to perform periodic diagnostic TBS to improve Tg specificity, at least while neck thyroid activity is detected, even if Tg is negative. (orig.)

  10. Urea recycling from the renal pelvis in sheep: A study with [14C]urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirio, A.; Boivin, R.

    1990-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that urea can be recycled from the renal pelvis, [14C]urea diluted in native urine (1 microCi/ml) was perfused (0.5 ml/min) into one of the pelvises of sheep fed either normal (NP) or low (LP)-protein diets. Blood samples were obtained from the ipsilateral renal vein and from the carotid artery throughout the perfusions. 14C activity determinations in urine and plasma demonstrated a flux of [14C]urea from the pelvis to renal vein blood (40,000 in NP and 130,000 disintegrations/min in LP sheep, P less than 0.01). The corresponding flux of native urea was only 1.5 times higher in NP than in LP sheep (6.8 +/- 1.1 vs. 4.7 +/- 2.9 mumol/min, not significant) despite their 8 times higher urinary concentration of urea. The fraction of filtered urea that was reabsorbed in the pelvis was larger in LP sheep (7.5 +/- 3.7 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.7% in NP sheep, P less than 0.05). A fraction of urea is thus actually recycled from the renal pelvis in sheep, and this pelvic retention is enhanced in LP animals. The importance of this phenomenon in the nitrogen economy is discussed

  11. The incidence of urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summar, Marshall L; Koelker, Stefan; Freedenberg, Debra; Le Mons, Cynthia; Haberle, Johannes; Lee, Hye-Seung; Kirmse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A key question for urea cycle disorders is their incidence. In the United States two UCDs, argininosuccinic synthetase and lyase deficiency, are currently detected by newborn screening. We used newborn screening data on over 6million births and data from the large US and European longitudinal registries to determine how common these conditions are. The incidence for the United States is predicted to be 1 urea cycle disorder patient for every 35,000 births presenting about 113 new patients per year across all age groups. © 2013.

  12. Role of thin descending limb urea transport in renal urea handling and the urine concentrating mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tianluo; Zhou, Lei; Layton, Anita T.; Zhou, Hong; Zhao, Xuejian; Bankir, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Urea transporters UT-A2 and UT-B are expressed in epithelia of thin descending limb of Henle's loop and in descending vasa recta, respectively. To study their role and possible interaction in the context of the urine concentration mechanism, a UT-A2 and UT-B double knockout (UT-A2/B knockout) mouse model was generated by targeted deletion of the UT-A2 promoter in embryonic stem cells with UT-B gene knockout. The UT-A2/B knockout mice lacked detectable UT-A2 and UT-B transcripts and proteins and showed normal survival and growth. Daily urine output was significantly higher in UT-A2/B knockout mice than that in wild-type mice and lower than that in UT-B knockout mice. Urine osmolality in UT-A2/B knockout mice was intermediate between that in UT-B knockout and wild-type mice. The changes in urine osmolality and flow rate, plasma and urine urea concentration, as well as non-urea solute concentration after an acute urea load or chronic changes in protein intake suggested that UT-A2 plays a role in the progressive accumulation of urea in the inner medulla. These results suggest that in wild-type mice UT-A2 facilitates urea absorption by urea efflux from the thin descending limb of short loops of Henle. Moreover, UT-A2 deletion in UT-B knockout mice partially remedies the urine concentrating defect caused by UT-B deletion, by reducing urea loss from the descending limbs to the peripheral circulation; instead, urea is returned to the inner medulla through the loops of Henle and the collecting ducts. PMID:21849488

  13. Serum total and bone alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activities for the assessment of bone fracture healing in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sousa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o padrão de variação da atividade sérica da fosfatase alcalina total (tALP, da isoenzima óssea da fosfatase alcalina (BALP e da fosfatase ácida resistente ao tartarato (TRAP, assim como a variação da concentração dos minerais séricos durante o processo de cicatrização de fraturas ósseas no cão. A variação sérica destes marcadores do metabolismo ósseo foi avaliada em nove cães com fraturas diafisárias fechadas de ossos longos, submetidas a tratamento cirúrgico para osteosíntese. Durante o período pós-operatório, sete animais evoluíram no sentido de uma normal união óssea, sendo que dois deles desenvolveram um processo de não união óssea. Foram observados, relativamente à BALP, valores de actividade sérica mais elevados e com diferença estatística (P<0,05 no grupo de animais que evoluiu no sentido de uma normal união óssea, comparativamente ao grupo de animais que evoluiu no sentido do processo de não união. No grupo de animais que evoluiu para a completa união óssea foram, adicionalmente, observados valores diminuidos (P<0,05 da atividade sérica da TRAP, até ao dia 60 do período pós-operatório seguido de uma elevação estatisticamente significativa após este período. Em conclusão, os biomarcadores do metabolismo ósseo poderão vir a constituir um método auxiliar de diagnóstico na monitorização do processo de cicatrização de fracturas ósseas, possibilitando, a detecção precoce de complicações pós-operatórias.

  14. Determination of Non-Transferrin Bound Iron, Transferrin Bound Iron, Drug Bound Iron and Total Iron in Serum in a Rats after IV Administration of Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex by Simple Ultrafiltration Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali K. Matta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, sensitive and specific ultrafiltration inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI, transferrin bound iron (TBI, drug bound iron (DI and total iron (TI in the same rat serum sample after intravenous (IV administration of iron gluconate nanoparticles in sucrose solution (Ferrlecit®. Ultrafiltration with a 30 kDa molecular cut-off filter was used for sample cleanup. Different elution solvents were used to separate each form of iron from sample serum. Isolated fractions were subjected to inductively-coupled mass spectrometric analysis after microwave digestion in 4% nitric acid. The reproducibility of the method was evaluated by precision and accuracy. The calibration curve demonstrated linearity from 5–500 ng/mL with a regression (r2 of more than 0.998. This method was effectively implemented to quantify rat pharmacokinetic study samples after intravenous administration of Ferrlecit®. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic (PK study of Ferrlecit in rats. The colloidal iron followed first order kinetics with half-life of 2.2 h and reached background or pre-dose levels after 12 h post-dosing. The drug shown a clearance of 0.31 mL/min/kg and volume of distribution of 0.05 L/kg. 19.4 ± 2.4 mL/h/kg.

  15. The Contribution of Azolla and Urea in Lowland Rice Growth Production for Three Consecutive Seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E-L-Sisworo; H-Rasjid; Haryanto; Idawati

    2008-01-01

    Three field experiments have been carried out in three consecutive seasons namely wet season (120 days), dry season (120 days), wet season (120 days) at Pusakanegara. The purpose of this experiment is to test whether urea combined with Azolla could increase lowland rice production and soil quality. The experimental plots have a size of 20 m 2 and in each experimental plot an isotope plot was placed with a size of 1 m 2 . The isotope plots were used to apply labeled 15 N urea. Treatments conducted were lowland varieties: Atomita I (V1) and IR-64 (V2); several levels of urea and Azolla : Pu1 urea-tablets + an Azolla cover (Azc), Pu2 = urea-tablets + Azolla incorporated (Azi ), Pu3 = urea-prill + Azc , Pu4 = urea-prill + Azi; seasons : Ss 1 = wet season, Ss2 = dry season, Ss3 = wet season. The experimental design used was a factorial experiment in a Randomized Block Design, where each treatment was replicated four times. Parameters used were, dry weight of straw (St), grain (G), plant (P1 = St + G) in kg/ha; N-total percentage (% N-to) of St and G, percentage N-derived from urea + Az (% N-Pu) of St and G; percentage N-derived from soil (% N-S) of St and G; uptake of N-Pu and N-S in St, G and P1. Some results of these experiment were, N-Pu play a less important role in growth of lowland crop expressed in several parameters compared to N-soil. The form of N-urea in tablets are superior to that the form of urea in prills. For the last product of lowland rice which is grain obviously V1 (Atomita-1) is better than V2 (IR-64) expressed in t/ha. The progress of seasons showed clearly that there is an N accumulation which might be the increase of soil organic matter (SOM) and that means there is an increase in soil quality in the view point of N. (author)

  16. The Contribution of Azolla and Urea in Lowland Rice Growth Production for Three Consecutive Seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL. Sisworo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments have been carried out in three consecutive seasons namely wet season (120 days, dry season (120 days, wet season (120 days at Pusakanegara. The purpose of this experiment is to test whether urea combined with Azolla could increase lowland rice production and soil quality. The experimental plots have a size of 20 m2 and in each experimental plot an isotope plot was placed with a size of 1 m2. The isotope plots were used to apply labeled 15N urea. Treatments conducted were lowland varieties: Atomita I (V1 and IR-64 (V2; several levels of urea and Azolla : Pu1 = urea-tablets + an Azolla cover (Azc, Pu2 = urea-tablets + Azolla incorporated (Azi , Pu3 = urea-prill + Azc , Pu4 = urea-prill + Azi; seasons : Ss 1 = wet season, Ss2 = dry season, Ss3 = wet season. The experimental design used was a factorial experiment in a Randomized Block Design, where each treatment was replicated four times. Parameters used were, dry weight of straw (St, grain (G, plant (P1 = St + G in kg/ha; N-total percentage (% N-to of St and G, percentage N-derived from urea + Az (% N-Pu of St and G; percentage N-derived from soil (% N-S of St and G; uptake of N-Pu and N-S in St, G and P1. Some results of these experiment were, N-Pu play a less important role in growth of lowland crop expressed in several parameters compared to N-soil. The form of N-urea in tablets are superior to that the form of urea in prills. For the last product of lowland rice which is grain obviously V1 (Atomita-1 is better than V2 (IR-64 expressed in t/ha. The progress of seasons showed clearly that there is an N accumulation which might be the increase of soil organic matter (SOM and that means there is an increase in soil quality in the view point of N

  17. Testosterone like Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Mucuna pruriens Seeds and its Effects on Serum Biochemical Metabolites in Immature Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmad*, Zia-ur-Rahman1, Nafees Akhtar and Shujait Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone like activity of seeds of Mucuna pruriens and its effects on serum biochemical metabolites in immature male rats were investigated. Forty eight immature male rats were divided into four equal groups. Rats of groups A and B were orally given ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Mucuna pruriens seeds daily at the dose rate of 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 14 days. Rats of group C were injected with testosterone at the dose rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight daily, while rats of group D served as controls. After 7 days, six rats from each group were euthanized, while the remaining six rats from each group were euthanized after 14 days of treatment. Rats given ethanolic extract gained higher weight compared to controls (P<0.05. Testis weight was the highest in rats treated with testosterone. The effect of treatments on the weight of the liver and the kidneys was non significant. Rats given ethanolic or aqueous extract had higher serum testosterone concentration than controls. Similarly, rats given ethanolic or aqueous extract had higher serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol compared to controls. Moreover, ethanolic extract treated rats also had higher total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol than aqueous extract treated rats. However, differences in serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol between control and testosterone injected rats were non significant. Serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and ALT activity did not differ among rats of four groups. Serum AST activity and urea were lower in rats treated with ethanolic or aqueous extract compared to controls. Thus, seeds of Mucuna pruriens had testosterone like activity and increased serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, with no adverse effects on the serum LDL cholesterol, liver or kidney functions.

  18. Environmental factors influencing milk urea nitrogen in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    following fixed effects model, in matrix notation, was used for the ANOVA: .... Estimation of genetic parameters for milk urea nitrogen and its ... urea nitrogen concentration: Heritability and genetic correlations with reproductive performance and.

  19. Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2015-01-01

    In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence. PMID:25440717

  20. Increase in fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency in lowland rice with application of dicyandiamide and pellet urea formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, M.S.; Sachdev, P.; Jain, Neeru

    2008-01-01

    Two greenhouse and one field experiment were conducted in a sandy clay loam Typic Ustochrept soil of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute farm using 15 N labeled urea and dicyandiamide (DCD). The results clearly revealed that application of DCD with urea resulted in significant increase in paddy yield and both total and fertilizer N uptake. The application of full dose of N as urea plus DCD in the form of 1.0 g pellets and given as basal gave the highest yield compared to that obtained with application of urea in two splits in the prilled form. The 15 N fertilizer balance data showed that maximum amount of unaccounted fertilizer 15 N was in the treatment where urea was applied in full dose in the prilled form as basal and it was least in the treatment where it was applied in the form of pellets of 1.0 g along with DCD. The ammonium N concentration in flood water was significantly higher in treatments where urea was applied in prilled form and with or without DCD. However urea application in the pellet form and particularly in combination with DCD reduced the ammonium concentration in floodwater appreciably. (author)

  1. Quantitative aspect of the endogenous urea cycle in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Yu

    1975-01-01

    The turnover of plasma urea was studied in goats fed rations with different protein contents by using 14 C- and 15 N-urea as tracers. The biological half-life time of urea determined with 15 N-urea was always longer than that determined with 14 C-urea, reflecting the difference in the metabolic pathway between the urea hydrolysates, ammonia and carbon dioxide. It was roughly estimated from the turnover studies that more than a half the quantity of urea synthesized might be transferred to the alimentary canal, including the rumen, where it underwent dissociation, with a decrease in the protein content of the ration, the percentage of transfer and dissociation increased. The 14 C-urea discharged into the urine was less than 57% of the administered dose. It decreased to 3.9% in goats fed rations with a low protein content. The rate of urea turnover determined with 15 N-urea was nearly consistent with the rate of urea discharge into the urine in goats fed higher protein rations. In goats fed lower protein rations, on the other hand, the rate of urea discharge decreased and its consistency with the rate of turnover determined with 15 N-urea was upset. This was caused by assimilation of urea-nitrogen in rumen microorganisms, as was convinced by studying the incorporation of urea- 15 N into the fraction of rumen microorganisms. It was assumed that in goats fed lower protein rations the bulk of urea synthesized might have entered the endogenous recycling system within the body and assimilated by rumen microorganisms. (auth.)

  2. Determination of urea 13C in urea 13C mixed powder by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jianguo; Song Tianqi

    2006-01-01

    A HPLC method is developed for determination of Urea 13 C in Urea 13 C Mixed Powder. A Alltech Econosphere NH2 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm)is used as stationary phrase, a mixture of V(acetonitrile): V(methanol): V(water) = 900 : 100: 10 is used as mobile phase and the flow rate is l mL·min -1 , UV detection wavelength is performed at 200 nm. The calibration curve shows good linearity in the range of 0.2-1.0 g·L -1 of Urea 13 C, y=2.548 x 10 6 x + 4.005 x 10 4 , r=0.9999, and the averaged recovery is 100.6%. The method is simple and accurate, and can be used for the quality control of Urea 13C Mixed Powder. (authors)

  3. 40 CFR 721.9925 - Aminoethylethylene urea methacrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aminoethylethylene urea methacrylamide... Substances § 721.9925 Aminoethylethylene urea methacrylamide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an aminoethylethylene urea...

  4. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium nitrate-urea complex may be safely used as a component of articles intended for use in producing...

  5. 76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... urea from Russia and Ukraine. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be...

  6. A field evaluation of coated urea with biodegradable materials and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... Urease inhibitor and biodegradable polymer coatings are two most suitable startegies to increase urea fertilizer efficiency. Coating of urea with selected inhibitors can increase the crop production by slowing down the hydrolysis process of urea in the soil. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted ...

  7. The effects of urea, guanidinium chloride and sorbitol on porphyrin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper compares the inhibition effect of porphyrin aggregation in the presence of urea, guanidinium chloride (Gdn) and sorbitol by molecular dynamics simulation. It demonstrates that porphyrin aggregation increases in sorbitol, but decreases towards addition of urea and Gdn. It shows that urea, Gdn and sorbitol can ...

  8. A field evaluation of coated urea with biodegradable materials and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urease inhibitor and biodegradable polymer coatings are two most suitable startegies to increase urea fertilizer efficiency. Coating of urea with selected inhibitors can increase the crop production by slowing down the hydrolysis process of urea in the soil. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the ...

  9. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  10. Recovery of 15N-urea in soil-plant system of tanzania grass pasture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martha Junior, Geraldo Bueno; Vilela, Lourival; Corsi, Moacyr; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze

    2009-01-01

    The economic attractiveness and negative environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization in pastures depend on the N use efficiency in the soil-plant system. However, the recovery of urea- 15 N by Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania pastures, one of the most widely used forage species in intensified pastoral systems, is still unknown. This experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four treatments (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 of N-urea) and three replications, to determine the recovery of 15 N urea by Tanzania grass. Forage production, total N content and N yield were not affected by fertilization (p > 0.05), reflecting the high losses of applied N under the experimental conditions. The recovery of 15 N urea (% of applied N) in forage and roots was not affected by fertilization levels (p > 0.05), but decreased exponentially in the soil and soil-plant system (p 15 N (kg ha -1 ) in forage and roots (15 to 30 cm) increased with increasing urea doses (p < 0.05). (author)

  11. Effect of nitrogen supplementation on urea kinetics and microbial use of recycled urea in steers consuming corn-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, D W; Titgemeyer, E C; Jones, M L; Anderson, D E

    2010-08-01

    We studied the effects of supplementing N as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) or urea to steers consuming corn-based diets. Six ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (244 kg) were used in 2 concurrent 3 x 3 Latin squares and fed 1 of 3 corn-based diets: control (10.2% CP), urea (13.3% CP), or DDGS (14.9% CP). Periods were 14 d, with 9 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection of urine and feces. Urinary (15)N(15)N-urea enrichments, resulting from venous infusions of (15)N(15)N-urea, were used to measure urea kinetics. Dry matter intake (6.0 kg/d) was not affected by treatment, but N intake differed (99, 151, and 123 g/d for the control, DDGS, and urea treatments, respectively). Urea-N synthesis tended to be greater (P = 0.09) for DDGS (118 g/d) than for the control treatment (52 g/d), with the urea treatment (86 g/d) being intermediate. Urea-N excreted in the urine was greater (P urea treatments (29 g/d) than for the control treatment (13 g/d). Gastrointestinal entry of urea-N was not statistically different among treatments (P = 0.25), but was numerically greatest for DDGS (83 g/d), intermediate for urea (57 g/d), and least for the control (39 g/d). The amount of urea-N returned to the ornithine cycle tended to be greater (P = 0.09) for the DDGS treatment (47 g/d) than for the urea (27 g/d) or control treatment (16 g/d). The fraction of recycled urea-N that was apparently used for anabolism tended (P = 0.14) to be greater for the control treatment (0.56) than for the DDGS treatment (0.31), with the urea treatment (0.45) being intermediate, but no differences were observed among treatments in the amount of urea-N used for anabolism (P = 0.66). Urea kinetics in cattle fed grain-based diets were largely related to the amount of N consumed. The percentage of urea production that was captured by ruminal bacteria was greater (P urea treatment (22%), but the percentage of duodenal microbial N flow that was derived from recycled urea-N tended (P = 0.10) to

  12. Efficiency of zinc incorporated urea on wheat in two Bihar soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutatkar, V.K.; Parik, B.L.; Sahay, R.N.; Dhua, S.P.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of zinc application as zinc sulphate alone and incorporated with urea (granulated zincated urea) on wheat was compared in pot culture study using 62 Zn as tracer. Two typical alluvial calcareous soils from Samastipur and Dholi, Bihar were used for the study. The crop responded to zinc application and the increase in dry matter yield was significant. Total uptake and concentration of zinc in plant, zinc percent derived from fertilizer source and its utilization, were non-significant between the two sources, although there was a significant differences in all the parameters because of the higher dose of zinc application. Relative efficiency of zincated urea was slightly higher in Samastipur soil having low available zinc and similar to zinc sulphate in Dholi soil containing medium amount of available zinc. The field experiment carried out at Sindri (Bihar) confirmed the above finding. (author)

  13. The Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, decreases nitrogenous excretion, reduces urea synthesis and suppresses ammonia production during emersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Yuen K; Lee, Serene M L; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 6 days of emersion on nitrogen metabolism and excretion in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis. Despite having a soft shell with a cutaneous surface that is known to be water permeable, P. sinensis lost only ~2% of body mass and was able to maintain its hematocrit and plasma osmolality, [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)] during 6 days of emersion. During emersion, it ameliorated water loss by reducing urine output, which led to a reduction (by 29-76%) in ammonia excretion. In comparison, there was a more prominent reduction (by 82-99%) in urea excretion during emersion due to a lack of water to flush the buccopharyngeal epithelium, which is known to be the major route of urea excretion. Consequently, emersion resulted in an apparent shift from ureotely to ammonotely in P. sinensis. Although urea concentration increased in several tissues, the excess urea accumulated could only account for 13-22% of the deficit in urea excretion. Hence, it can be concluded that a decrease (~80%) in urea synthesis occurred in P. sinensis during the 6 days of emersion. Indeed, emersion led to significant decreases in the activity of some ornithine-urea cycle enzymes (argininosuccinate synthetase/argininosuccinate lyase and arginase) from the liver of P. sinensis. As a decrease in urea synthesis occurred without the accumulation of ammonia and total free amino acids, it can be deduced that ammonia production through amino acid catabolism was suppressed with a proportional reduction in proteolysis in P. sinensis during emersion. Indeed, calculated results revealed that there could be a prominent decrease (~88%) in ammonia production in turtles after 6 days of emersion. In summary, despite being ureogenic and ureotelic in water, P. sinensis adopted a reduction in ammonia production, instead of increased urea synthesis, as the major strategy to ameliorate ammonia toxicity and problems associated with dehydration during

  14. Clinical value of the joint measurement of serum concentrations of type IV collagen and laminin in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lu; Wang Ping; Li Yongpei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study clinical value of the joint measurement of serum concentrations of type IV collagen (IV C) and laminin (LN) in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Methods: Serum concentrations of IV C, LN were measured by RIA in 35 diabetic patients with normalbuminuria (group A), 28 cases of microalbuminuria (group B), 15 cases of macroalbuminuria (group C) and 30 normal subjects as control . Results: The serum concentrations of IV C, LN in total 78 diabetic patients [(97.6 ± 19.2), (132.4 ± 31.5) μg/L] were higher than that of the controls [(77.4 ± 8.2), (101.5 ± 17.6) μg/L, P<0.05], especially in group B and C, it was remarkably higher compared with the controls (P<0.05, P<0.01). There was significant positive correlation of serum IV C, LN to diabetic duration and the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER). Conclusions: The results suggest that the joint measurement of serum levels of IV C, LN and UAER in DN patients might better evaluate the development process of DN, and be of help for early diagnosis and treatment of DN. Serum levels of IV C, LN and UAER in DN patients may become the reliable clinical markers for assessing the severity and predicting the prognosis of DN

  15. Utilization of 15N-labelled urea in laying hens. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.; Hennig, A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the utilization of urea in poultry, 3 colostomized laying hybrids were orally supplied with a traditional ration supplemented with 1% 15 N'-labelled urea with a 15 N excess ( 15 N') of 96.06 atom-% over a period of 6 days. After another 2 days on which the hens received the same ration with unlabelled urea, they were killed. The atom-% 15 N' of the blood on an average of the 3 hens was 0.64, of the plasma 1.40 and of the corpuscles 0.47. The TCA-soluble fraction of the blood had an average 15 N' of 1.14 atom-%; the 15 N amount was 9.7% of the total amount of 15 N in the blood. The amount of 15 N' in the urea in the blood was 6.8 atom-%. This shows that the absorbed urea is decomposed very slowly. The quota of 15 N' in the basic amino acids from the total 15 N' of the blood plasma was only 0.3% and that of the corpuscles 2.2%. The average 15 N' of the mature follicles was 2.39 atom-% whereas the smallest and the remaining ovary contain 1.12 atom-%. The labelling level of lysine in mature egg cells was, in contrast to this, only 0.08 atom-% 15 N' and in infantile follicles 0.04 atom-% 15 N'. 1% of the 15 N' quota was in the follicles and the remaining ovary. Of the basic amino acids, histidine is most strongly labelled. The lower incorporation of the 15 N' from urea into the basic amino acids shows that the nitrogen of this compound can be used for the synthesis of the essential amino acids to a low degree only. (author)

  16. Oral administration of L-arginine in patients with angina or following myocardial infarction may be protective by increasing plasma superoxide dismutase and total thiols with reduction in serum cholesterol and xanthine oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Pratima; Chandra, M

    2009-01-01

    Administration of L-arginine has been shown to control ischemic injury by producing nitric oxide which dilates the vessels and thus maintains proper blood flow to the myocardium. In the present study attempt has been made to determine whether oral administration of L-arginine has any effect on oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis in ischemic myocardial patients [represented by the patients of acute angina (AA) and acute myocardial infarction (MI)]. L-arginine has antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, decreases endothelin-1 expression and improves endothelial function, thereby controlling oxidative injury caused during myocardial ischemic syndrome. Effect of L-arginine administration on the status of free radical scavenging enzymes, pro-oxidant enzyme and antioxidants viz. total thiols, carbonyl content and plasma ascorbic acid levels in the patients has been evaluated. We have observed that L-arginine administration (three grams per day for 15 days) resulted in increased activity of free radical scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increase in the levels of total thiols (T-SH) and ascorbic acid with concomitant decrease in lipid per-oxidation, carbonyl content, serum cholesterol and the activity of proxidant enzyme, xanthine oxidase (XO). These findings suggest that the supplementation of L-arginine along with regular therapy may be beneficial to the patients of ischemic myocardial syndromes. PMID:20716909

  17. Oral Administration of L-Arginine in Patients With Angina or Following Myocardial Infarction May Be Protective By Increasing Plasma Superoxide Dismutase and Total Thiols With Reduction in Serum Cholesterol and Xanthine Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Tripathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Administration of L-arginine has been shown to control ischemic injury by producing nitric oxide which dilates the vessels and thus maintains proper blood flow to the myocardium. In the present study attempt has been made to determine whether oral administration of L-arginine has any effect on oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis in ischemic myocardial patients [represented by the patients of acute angina (AA and acute myocardial infarction (MI]. L-arginine has antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, decreases endothelin-1 expression and improves endothelial function, thereby controlling oxidative injury caused during myocardial ischemic syndrome. Effect of L-arginine administration on the status of free radical scavenging enzymes, pro-oxidant enzyme and antioxidants viz. total thiols, carbonyl content and plasma ascorbic acid levels in the patients has been evaluated. We have observed that L-arginine administration (three grams per day for 15 days resulted in increased activity of free radical scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD and increase in the levels of total thiols (T-SH and ascorbic acid with concomitant decrease in lipid per-oxidation, carbonyl content, serum cholesterol and the activity of proxidant enzyme, xanthine oxidase (XO. These findings suggest that the supplementation of L-arginine along with regular therapy may be beneficial to the patients of ischemic myocardial syndromes.

  18. The effect of low serum bicarbonate values on the onset of action of local anesthesia with vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus block in patients with End-stage renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-mustafa Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus block is utilized in patients with chronic renal failure at the time of creation of an arterio-venous fistula (AVF. The aim of this study is to test the effect of impaired renal function, with the resulting deranged serum electrolytes and blood gases, on the success rate and the onset of action of the local anesthetics used. In this prospective clinical study, we investigated the effect of the serum levels of sodium, potassium, urea, crea-tinine, pH, and bicarbonate on the onset of action of a mixture of lidocaine and bupivacaine administered to create infraclavicular brachial plexus block. A total of 31 patients were studied. The success rate of the block was 93.5 % (29 patients. The mean onset time for impaired or re-duced sensation was found to be 8.9 ± 4.7 mins and for complete loss of sensation, was 21.2 ± 6.7 mins. There was no significant association with serum sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine or the blood pH level (P> 0.05. The bivariate correlation between serum bicarbonate level and the partial and complete sensory loss was -0.714 and -0.433 respectively, with significant correlation (P= 0.00, 0.019. Our study suggests that infraclavicular block in patients with chronic renal failure carries a high success rate; the onset of the block is delayed in patients with low serum bicarbonate levels.

  19. Evaluation of endogenous nitric oxide synthesis in congenital urea cycle enzyme defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaka, Hironori; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Yorifuji, Tohru; Miida, Takashi; Murayama, Kei; Tsuruoka, Tomoko; Takatani, Tomozumi; Kanazawa, Masaki; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Okano, Yoshiyuki; Takayanagi, Masaki

    2009-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized from arginine and O(2) by nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Citrulline, which is formed as a by-product of the NOS reaction, can be recycled to arginine by the 2 enzymes acting in the urea cycle: argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL). Although the complete urea cycle is expressed only in the liver, ASS and ASL are expressed in other organs including the kidney and vascular endothelium. To examine possible alterations of the NO pathway in urea cycle defects, we measured plasma concentrations of arginine and citrulline and serum concentrations of nitrite/nitrate (NOx(-), stable NO metabolites) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, an endogenous NOS inhibitor) in patients with congenital urea cycle disorders of 3 types: ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency, ASS deficiency, and ASL deficiency. All were receiving oral arginine replacement at the time of this study. The same parameters were also measured in healthy subjects, who participated as controls. The OTC-deficient patients had significantly high NOx(-) and nonsignificantly high ADMA concentrations. Their NOx(-) was significantly positively correlated with arginine. The ASS-deficient patients had significantly low NOx(-) and significantly high ADMA concentrations. The ASL-deficient patients had normal NOx(-) and nonsignificantly high ADMA concentrations. In ASS-deficient and ASL-deficient patients, the NOx(-) was significantly inversely correlated with citrulline. These results suggest that NO synthesis is enhanced in OTC-deficient patients while receiving arginine but that NO synthesis remains low in ASS-deficient patients despite receiving arginine. They also suggest that endogenous NO synthesis is negatively affected by citrulline and ADMA in ASS-deficient and ASL-deficient patients. Although the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood, we infer that the NO pathway might play a role in the pathophysiology related to congenital urea cycle

  20. Determination of urea kinetics by isotope dilution with [C-13]urea and gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenburg, Wybe; Wolthers, BG; Stellaard, F; Elzinga, H; Tepper, T; deJong, PE; Huisman, RM

    1. Stable urea isotopes can be used to study urea kinetics in humans, The use of stable urea isotopes far studying urea kinetic parameters in humans on a large scale is hampered by the high costs of the labelled material, We devised a urea dilution for measurement of the distribution volume,

  1. Urea, a true uremic toxin: the empire strikes back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wei Ling; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2017-01-01

    Blood levels of urea rise with progressive decline in kidney function. Older studies examining acute urea infusion suggested that urea was well-tolerated at levels 8-10× above normal values. More recent in vitro and in vivo work argue the opposite and demonstrate both direct and indirect toxicities of urea, which probably promote the premature aging phenotype that is pervasive in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated urea at concentrations typically encountered in uremic patients induces disintegration of the gut epithelial barrier, leading to translocation of bacterial toxins into the bloodstream and systemic inflammation. Urea induces apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells as well as endothelial dysfunction, thus directly promoting cardiovascular disease. Further, urea stimulates oxidative stress and dysfunction in adipocytes, leading to insulin resistance. Finally, there are widespread indirect effects of elevated urea as a result of the carbamylation reaction, where isocyanic acid (a product of urea catabolism) alters the structure and function of proteins in the body. Carbamylation has been linked with renal fibrosis, atherosclerosis and anaemia. In summary, urea is a re-emerging Dark Force in CKD pathophysiology. Trials examining low protein diet to minimize accumulation of urea and other toxins suggest a clinical benefit in terms of slowing progression of CKD. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  2. Rumen volatile fatty acids and milk composition from cows fed hay, haylage, or urea-treated corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schingoethe, D J; Voelker, H H; Beardsley, G L; Parsons, J G

    1976-05-01

    Alfalfa-brome hay, haylage, .5% urea-treated corn silage, or .5% urea plus 1% dried whey-treated corn silage was fed as the only forage to one of four groups of 10 lactating cows per group for a lactation trial of 10 wk. Rumen samples were collected via stomach tube 3 to 4 h after the morning feeding. The pH of the rumen samples from cows fed hay was higher than for cows fed haylage, urea-treated corn silage, and urea-whey corn silage, 6.69 versus 6.36, 6.40, and 6.50. Total volatile fatty acids and propionate were highest from cows fed urea-whey corn silage and were higher on all three fermented forages than cows fed hay. Acetate/propionate ratio was highest from cows fed hay and lowest from cows fed corn silages. Butyrate was highest from cows fed haylage or hay. Milk protein composition was not affected by ration although nonprotein nitrogen of milk was highest from cows fed the urea-treated corn silages. Oleic acid and total unsaturated fatty acids were lowest in milk fat from cows fed hay while palmitic acid was highest from cows fed hay and haylage. These results suggest that type of forage fed may cause small changes in rumen fermentation and in milk composition. The importance of these changes is unknown but may affect properties of dairy products produced from this milk.

  3. Extrinsic nerves are not involved in branchial 5-HT dynamics or pulsatile urea excretion in Gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartolano, Maria C; Amador, Molly H B; Tzaneva, Velislava; Milsom, William K; McDonald, M Danielle

    2017-12-01

    Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) can switch from continuously excreting ammonia as their primary nitrogenous waste to excreting predominantly urea in distinct pulses. Previous studies have shown that the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is involved in controlling this process, but it is unknown if 5-HT availability is under central nervous control or if the 5-HT signal originates from a peripheral source. Following up on a previous study, cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal) and X (vagus) were sectioned to further characterize their role in controlling pulsatile urea excretion and 5-HT release within the gill. In contrast to an earlier study, nerve sectioning did not result in a change in urea pulse frequency. Total urea excretion, average pulse size, total nitrogen excretion, and percent ureotely were reduced the first day post-surgery in nerve-sectioned fish but recovered by 72h post-surgery. Nerve sectioning also had no effect on toadfish urea transporter (tUT), 5-HT transporter (SERT), or 5-HT 2A receptor mRNA expression or 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) abundance in the gill, all of which were found consistently across the three gill arches except 5-HIAA, which was undetectable in the first gill arch. Our findings indicate that the central nervous system does not directly control pulsatile urea excretion or local changes in gill 5-HT and 5-HIAA abundance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. DHA Concentration and Purification from the Marine Heterotrophic Microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii CCMP 316 by Winterization and Urea Complexation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mendes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and inexpensive procedure involving saponification and methylation in wet biomass, winterization and urea complexation in a sequential way has been developed in order to concentrate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA from Crypthecodinium cohnii CCMP 316 biomass. Different urea/fatty acid ratios and crystallization temperatures were tested in the urea complexation method. ANOVA test revealed that, in the studied range, the temperature had the most significant effect on the DHA concentration. The highest DHA fraction (99.2 % of total fatty acids was found at the urea/fatty acid ratio of 3.5 at the crystallization temperatures of 4 and 8 °C. The highest DHA recovery (49.9 % was observed at 24 °C at the urea/fatty acid ratio of 4.0, corresponding to 89.4 % DHA of total fatty acids. Considering the high proportions of DHA obtained in the non-urea complexing fractions, the current procedure was an appropriate way to concentrate and purify DHA from C. cohnii.

  5. Voltamperometric Discrimination of Urea and Melamine Adulterated Skimmed Milk Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cortón

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data and their first derivative were subjected to functional principal component analysis (f-PCA and correctly classified by the KNN classifier. The adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples showed significant differences. Best results of prediction were obtained with first derivative data. Detection limits in milk samples adulterated with 1% of its total nitrogen derived from melamine or urea were as low as 85.0 mg·L−1 and 121.4 mg·L−1, respectively. We present this method as a fast and robust screening method for milk adulteration analysis and prevention of food intoxication.

  6. Entry of blood urea into the rumen of the llama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinderer, S.; Engelhardt, W. von

    1976-01-01

    Llamas were provided with a large rumen fistula, and the transfer of blood urea into the temporarily isolated rumen, cleaned and filled with test solution was measured. Plasma urea clearance due to transfer of blood urea across the rumen wall should indicate changes in its permeability to urea. Clearance values were highest with CO 2 or with high concentrations of butyric acid. Permeability was low when food was with-held and when no volatile fatty acids were present in the solution. The permeability of the rumen wall to blood urea can be altered significantly. These changes can affect blood urea transfer more extensively than changes in the plasma urea concentration within physiological ranges

  7. The combined effects of urea application and simulated acid rain on soil acidification and microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingmei; Zhou, Jian; Li, Wanlu; Xu, Jianming; Brookes, Philip C

    2014-05-01

    Our aim was to test the effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) at different pHs, when applied to fertilized and unfertilized soils, on the leaching of soil cations (K, Ca, Mg, Na) and Al. Their effects on soil pH, exchangeable H(+) and Al(3+) and microbial community structure were also determined. A Paleudalfs soil was incubated for 30 days, with and without an initial application of urea (200 mg N kg(-1)soil) as nitrogen (N) fertilizer. The soil was held in columns and leached with SAR at three pH levels. Six treatments were tested: SAR of pH 2.5, 4.0 and 5.6 leaching on unfertilized soil (T1, T2 and T3), and on soils fertilized with urea (T4, T5 and T6). Increasing acid inputs proportionally increased cation leaching in both unfertilized and fertilized soils. Urea application increased the initial Ca and Mg leaching, but had no effect on the total concentrations of Ca, Mg and K leached. There was no significant difference for the amount of Na leached between the different treatments. The SAR pH and urea application had significant effects on soil pH, exchangeable H(+) and Al(3+). Urea application, SAR treated with various pH, and the interactions between them all had significant impacts on total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). The highest concentration of total PLFAs occurred in fertilized soils with SAR pH5.6 and the lowest in soils leached with the lowest SAR pH. Soils pretreated with urea then leached with SARs of pH 4.0 and 5.6 had larger total PLFA concentrations than soil without urea. Bacterial, fungal, actinomycete, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial PLFAs had generally similar trends to total PLFAs.

  8. Correlation of Serum Magnesium with Serum Parathormone Levels in Patients on Regular Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradaran Azar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT is a common, important, and treatable complication of end-stage renal disease. This study was conducted to investigate the role of serum magnesium (Mg in regulating the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH by the parathyroid gland in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD. Pre-dialysis serum levels of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, Mg, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, intact serum PTH (iPTH, serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25-OH Vit D and plasma bicarbonate (HCO3 were measured. The Urea Reduction Rate as well as duration and dosage of HD treatment were noted. Our study did not show any significant correlation between serum Mg levels and duration of HD treatment, levels of serum ALP, and plasma HCO3, Ca and P. An inverse correlation, albeit insignificant, was found between the serum Mg levels and iPTH (r=-0.30 p=0.079; also, a significant positive correlation was found between serum Mg levels and serum 25-OH Vit D levels (r= 0.40 p= 0.009. Our findings are in agreement with previous data, which suggest that factors other than serum Mg are more important in the regulation of PTH secretion in HD patients. A positive and strong association between serum Mg with 25-OH Vit D needs to be studied in greater detail.

  9. Hematology and serum biochemistry in debilitated, free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) infested with sarcoptic mange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Nobuhide; Kamegaya, Chihiro; Omiya, Tomoko; Wada, Yuko; Takahashi, Maya; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of Sarcoptes scabiei infestation in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) have been reported in Japan. Although many raccoon dogs are brought to Kanazawa Zoological Garden (Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan) because of S. scabiei infestation and debilitation, some of them die of asthenia. The clinical status of severely debilitated raccoon dogs must be determined to save their lives. In this study, we compared hematological and serum biochemical values between severely debilitated and nondebilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei. The total protein, albumin, glucose, and calcium values of debilitated raccoon dogs were significantly lower than those of nondebilitated raccoon dogs. On the other hand, debilitated raccoon dogs had significantly higher aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, chloride, and phosphorus values than did nondebilitated raccoon dogs. The increase in the blood urea nitrogen value was particularly dramatic. The present study revealed that debilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei exhibited abnormal hematological values compared with nondebilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei. Clinically, the raccoon dogs developed malnutrition and sepsis if the mange infestation was untreated. Moreover, dehydration associated with appetite loss may have resulted in insufficient renal perfusion. These findings suggest that chronic S. scabiei infestations debilitated the raccoon dogs and resulted in physiological changes that were detected with hematological and serum biochemical tests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurological implications of urea cycle disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summar, M.; Leonard, J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The urea cycle disorders constitute a group of rare congenital disorders caused by a deficiency of the enzymes or transport proteins required to remove ammonia from the body. Via a series of biochemical steps, nitrogen, the waste product of protein metabolism, is removed from the blood and converted into urea. A consequence of these disorders is hyperammonaemia, resulting in central nervous system dysfunction with mental status changes, brain oedema, seizures, coma, and potentially death. Both acute and chronic hyperammonaemia result in alterations of neurotransmitter systems. In acute hyperammonaemia, activation of the NMDA receptor leads to excitotoxic cell death, changes in energy metabolism and alterations in protein expression of the astrocyte that affect volume regulation and contribute to oedema. Neuropathological evaluation demonstrates alterations in the astrocyte morphology. Imaging studies, in particular 1H MRS, can reveal markers of impaired metabolism such as elevations of glutamine and reduction of myoinositol. In contrast, chronic hyperammonaemia leads to adaptive responses in the NMDA receptor and impairments in the glutamate–nitric oxide–cGMP pathway, leading to alterations in cognition and learning. Therapy of acute hyperammonaemia has relied on ammonia-lowering agents but in recent years there has been considerable interest in neuroprotective strategies. Recent studies have suggested restoration of learning abilities by pharmacological manipulation of brain cGMP with phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Thus, both strategies are intriguing areas for potential investigation in human urea cycle disorders. PMID:18038189

  11. A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batshaw, Mark L; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCDs) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCDs enrolled in the UCDC's longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenylbutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D correlates with serum level of anti-Müllerian hormone in male patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Hamid, F F; Soliman, A F; Lashin, F E S

    2018-02-14

    This study was designed to assess the relationship between serum levels of anti-Müllerian hormone and 25-hydroxy vitamin D in chronic kidney disease male patients. For that, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and anti-Müllerian hormone along with follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, prolactin, total testosterone and estradiol were assayed in 59 patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease and 21 healthy participants. Compared to controls, serum levels of anti-Müllerian hormone and 25-hydroxy vitamin D were significantly decreased in patients with chronic kidney disease. The decreased anti-Müllerian hormone level correlated positively with estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum levels of testosterone and 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Meanwhile, it was negatively correlated with age and serum levels of urea, creatinine, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone and prolactin. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D and luteinising hormone explained the 65.9% variability of anti-Müllerian hormone in a multiple linear regression model. However, anti-Müllerian hormone in crude correlation was more strongly associated with serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D than luteinising hormone. In conclusion, serum level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D might be a determinant factor of anti-Müllerian hormone level, and their relationship might explain in part the dysfunction of Sertoli cells and the impaired testicular functions in chronic kidney disease male patients. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Nitrogen management and nitrification inhibitor effects on nitrogen-15 urea: 2. Nitrogen leaching and balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, D.T.; Malzer, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Nitrification inhibitors (NI) may reduce N leaching losses, and should have the greatest effect on sandy soils where leaching potential is high. This study used 27 lysimeters to evaluate the effect of a NI, nitrapyrin [2-chloro-6(trichloromethyl) pyridine], on soil water percolation (SWP) and N leaching losses from an irrigated sandy loam soil (Typic Hapludoll) planted with corn (Zea mays L.), and monitor the fate of a single application of 15 N-enriched urea over a multiyear period. Urea was applied at 90 and 180 kg N ha -1 yr -1 for a 3-yr period, with and without NI, and with and without incorporation. Urea + NI reduced SWP between planting and silking in 2 out of 3 yr when growing degree days (GDD) were high. After silking, SWP was reduced when urea + NI was incorporated and leaching load was high. A twofold increase in N rate resulted in an average of 3.4 times more N leached over 3 yr. The NI influenced time of N loss but not total N loss. Leaching losses of fertilizer-derived N (FDN) were delayed 25 to 50d when urea + NI were incorporated. The leaching load required to reach the maximum rate of FDN loss was higher with urea + NI. Leaching losses of fertilizer N were three times greater when determined by the difference method than by isotope-ratio analysis. Differing results with these two calculations are attributed to isotope dilution with indigenous soil N as a result of microbial activity. Nitrification inhibitors may reduce the potential for nonpoint-source pollution by delaying NO 3 leaching, but will be most effective if coupled with proper N rates and conservative irrigation water management

  14. Urea-temperature phase diagrams capture the thermodynamics of denatured state expansion that accompany protein unfolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Alexander; Auton, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed the thermodynamic properties of the von Willebrand factor (VWF) A3 domain using urea-induced unfolding at variable temperature and thermal unfolding at variable urea concentrations to generate a phase diagram that quantitatively describes the equilibrium between native and denatured states. From this analysis, we were able to determine consistent thermodynamic parameters with various spectroscopic and calorimetric methods that define the urea–temperature parameter plane from cold denaturation to heat denaturation. Urea and thermal denaturation are experimentally reversible and independent of the thermal scan rate indicating that all transitions are at equilibrium and the van't Hoff and calorimetric enthalpies obtained from analysis of individual thermal transitions are equivalent demonstrating two-state character. Global analysis of the urea–temperature phase diagram results in a significantly higher enthalpy of unfolding than obtained from analysis of individual thermal transitions and significant cross correlations describing the urea dependence of and that define a complex temperature dependence of the m-value. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy illustrates a large increase in secondary structure content of the urea-denatured state as temperature increases and a loss of secondary structure in the thermally denatured state upon addition of urea. These structural changes in the denatured ensemble make up ∼40% of the total ellipticity change indicating a highly compact thermally denatured state. The difference between the thermodynamic parameters obtained from phase diagram analysis and those obtained from analysis of individual thermal transitions illustrates that phase diagrams capture both contributions to unfolding and denatured state expansion and by comparison are able to decipher these contributions. PMID:23813497

  15. Ionized calcium serum evaluation in unilateral thyroidectomized cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Barão Corgozinho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Corgozinho K.B., Cunha S.C.S., Neves A.P., Belchior C., Damico C.B., Silva C.A., Souza H.J.M.& Ferreira A.M.R. [Ionized calcium serum evaluation in unilateral thyroidectomized cats.] Avaliação do cálcio ionizado em gatos submetidos a tireoidectomia unilateral. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária 37(4:345-349, 2015. Pós-Graduação em Clínica e Reprodução Animal, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Vital Brasil Filho, 64, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brasil. E-mail: katia.barao@gmail.com Seventeen hyperthyroid cats with cervical palpable nodules were submitted to clinical and laboratorial examination and they were prepared to surgery. Unilateral thyroparathyroidectomy with parathyroid gland autotransplantation was performed. Concentrations of serum urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, potassium, total thyroxine and hematologic profile were determined before and seven days after surgery. Blood samples for serum ionized calcium concentration were collected before and after surgery on days 1, 2, 7, 15, 21. All cats had ionized calcium concentration within the reference range before surgery. Serum calcium concentration fell significantly in all cats within 24 hours after surgery. Hypocalcemia occurred in two cats without clinical signs. Ionized calcium concentration decreased after surgery and returned to normal levels on day 7 postoperatively. The results of this study suggest that calcium concentration must be measured before surgery in cats submitted to thyroidectomy even if they are submitted to unilateral technique.

  16. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, J W; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed to obtain insight in urea transfer characteristics within the mammary gland and from the mammary gland to blood plasma in dairy cows at various concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN; mg of N/dL) and MUN. Urea transfer from milk to blood plasma and urea transfer within the mammary gland itself was evaluated in a 4×4 Latin square design using 4 lactating multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (milk production of 39.8±4.70kg/d and 90±3.9 d in milk). Treatments consisted of 4 primed continuous intravenous urea infusions of 0, 5, 10, and 15g of urea/h. Boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea were injected in cistern milk at 20, 60, and 100 min before the 1700h milking. Milk was collected in portions of approximately 2 L at the 1700h milking. Milk samples were analyzed for urea and enrichment of (15)N-urea. Results from one cow were discarded because of leakage of milk from the teats after injection of boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea. Increasing urea infusion rate linearly increased PUN from 11.4 (0g of urea/h) to 25.9mg/dL (15g of urea/h) and MUN from 10.3 (0g of urea/h) to 23.5 (15g of urea/h) mg of N/dL. The percentage of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea recovered from milk at the time of injection was not affected by urea infusion rate and varied between 65.1 and 73.0%, indicating that a substantial portion of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea was not accounted for by collected milk. The estimated fractional disappearance rate of (15)N-urea from milk to blood (Kurea; per hour) linearly increased from 0.429 (0g of urea/h) to 0.641 per hour (15g of urea/h). Cistern injected [(15)N(15)N]urea diffused within 20 min after injection toward alveoli milk. Calculations with the average Kurea estimated in this

  17. Determination of urea content in urea cream by centrifugal partition chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Qun Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to establish a centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC method for determination of the urea ingredient in urea cream. The mechanism of this method is that urea is determined by UV detector at 430 nm after being extracted from the cream and derivatized on line via Ehrlich reaction in rotor of CPC, where the reaction products dissolve in the mobile phase and the cream matrix retains in the stationary phase. The mixed solvent consisting of n-hexane, methanol, hydrochloric acid and p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde with a ratio of 1000 mL:1000 mL:18 mL:2.0 g is used for solvent system of CPC. The CPC method proposed offers good precision and convenience without complex sample pretreatment processes.

  18. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  19. Variation of milk urea in dairy cattle : a study on factors that affect the relationship between urea concentration in milk and urea excretion in urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to increase the applicability of milk urea nitrogen concentration (MUN) as a predictor of urinary urea nitrogen excretion (UUN) by identifying and quantifying factors that can explain variation in MUN that is not related to UUN. A literature study was conducted in

  20. National, regional, and global trends in serum total cholesterol since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 321 country-years and 3·0 million participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farzadfar, Farshad; Finucane, Mariel M; Danaei, Goodarz

    2011-01-01

    Data for trends in serum cholesterol are needed to understand the effects of its dietary, lifestyle, and pharmacological determinants; set intervention priorities; and evaluate national programmes. Previous analyses of trends in serum cholesterol were limited to a few countries, with no consisten...

  1. Polymer-Coated Urea Delays Growth and Accumulation of Key Nutrients in Aerobic Rice but Does Not Affect Grain Mineral Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry J. Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced efficiency nitrogen (N fertilizers (EEFs may improve crop recovery of fertilizer-N, but there is evidence that some EEFs cause a lag in crop growth compared to growth with standard urea. Biomass and mineral nutrient accumulation was investigated in rice fertilized with urea, urea-3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP and polymer-coated urea (PCU to determine whether any delays in biomass production alter the accumulation patterns, and subsequent grain concentrations, of key mineral nutrients. Plant growth and mineral accumulation and partitioning to grains did not differ significantly between plants fertilized with urea or urea-DMPP. In contrast, biomass accumulation and the accumulation of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and manganese were delayed during the early growth phase of plants fertilized with PCU. However, plants in the PCU treatment ultimately compensated for this by increasing growth and nutrient uptake during the latter vegetative stages so that no differences in biomass or nutrient accumulation generally existed among N fertilizer treatments at anthesis. Delayed biomass accumulation in rice fertilized with PCU does not appear to reduce the total accumulation of mineral nutrients, nor to have any impact on grain mineral nutrition when biomass and grain yields are equal to those of rice grown with urea or urea-DMPP.

  2. Ammonia emission from a permanent grassland on volcanic soil after the treatment with dairy slurry and urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, F.; Martínez-Lagos, J.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

    2014-10-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is an air pollutant largely emitted from agricultural activities including the application of livestock manures and fertilizers to grassland. This gas has been linked with important negative impacts on natural ecosystems. In southern Chile, the use of inorganic and organic fertilizers (e.g. slurries) has increased in cattle production systems over recent years, heightening the risk of N losses to the wider environment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate on permanent grasslands on a volcanic ash soil in southern Chile: 1) the N loss due to NH3 volatilization following surface application of dairy slurry and urea fertilizer; and 2) the effect of a urease inhibitor on NH3 emissions from urea fertilizer application. Small plot field experiments were conducted over spring, fall, winter and summer seasons, using a system of wind tunnels to measure ammonia emissions. Ammonia losses ranged from 1.8 (winter) to 26.0% (fall) and 3.1 (winter) to 20.5% (summer) of total N applied for urea and slurry, respectively. Based on the readily available N applied (ammoniacal N for dairy slurry and urea N for urea fertilizer), losses from dairy slurry were much greater, at 16.1 and 82.0%, for winter and summer, respectively. The use of a urease inhibitor proved to be an effective option to minimize the N loss due NH3 volatilization from urea fertilizer, with an average reduction of 71% across all seasons. The results of this and other recent studies regarding N losses suggest that ammonia volatilization is the main pathway of N loss from grassland systems in southern Chile on volcanic ash soils when urea and slurry are used as an N source. The use of good management practices, such as the inclusion of a urease inhibitor with urea fertilizer could have a beneficial impact on reducing N losses due NH3 volatilization and the environmental and economic impact of these emissions.

  3. Penentuan Rute Pengiriman Pupuk Urea Bersubsidi di Karanganyar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Priyandari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a vehicle routing problem (VRP model for determining the routes in urea fertilizer distribution from a depot to retailers. The distribution is done in work days which uses trucks, each truck can serve more than one route (multiple trips, and each retailer has a time window. The vehicle routing model is built in a mixed integer linear programming (MILP and the objective function is minimizing total transportation cost. The distances from the distributor to retailers and inter-retailers do not use Euclidian approach but the road network on a digital map in order to make the route solution is more realistic. Historical distribution data was used to test the model. The result shows that the model can minimize the cost about 2.28% which is compared to the original routes.

  4. The dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) increases both hepatic and extrahepatic ornithine urea cycle enzyme activities for nitrogen conservation after feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimura, Makiko; Walsh, Patrick J; Mommsen, Thomas P; Wood, Chris M

    2006-01-01

    Urea not only is utilized as a major osmolyte in marine elasmobranchs but also constitutes their main nitrogenous waste. This study investigated the effect of feeding, and thus elevated nitrogen intake, on nitrogen metabolism in the Pacific spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias. We determined the activities of ornithine urea cycle (O-UC) and related enzymes in liver and nonhepatic tissues. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (the rate-limiting enzyme of the O-UC) activity in muscle is high compared with liver, and the activities in both tissues increased after feeding. The contribution of muscle to urea synthesis in the dogfish body appears to be much larger than that of liver when body mass is considered. Furthermore, enhanced activities of the O-UC and related enzymes (glutamine synthetase, ornithine transcarbamoylase, arginase) were seen after feeding in both liver and muscle and were accompanied by delayed increases in plasma urea, trimethylamine oxide, total free amino acids, alanine, and chloride concentrations, as well as in total osmolality. The O-UC and related enzymes also occurred in the intestine but showed little change after feeding. Feeding did not change the rate of urea excretion, indicating strong N retention after feeding. Ammonia excretion, which constituted only a small percentage of total N excretion, was raised in fed fish, while plasma ammonia did not change, suggesting that excess ammonia in plasma is quickly ushered into synthesis of urea or protein. In conclusion, we suggest that N conservation is a high priority in this elasmobranch and that feeding promotes ureogenesis and growth. Furthermore, exogenous nitrogen from food is converted into urea not only by the liver but also by the muscle and to a small extent by the intestine.

  5. Role of rumen butyrate in regulation of nitrogen utilization and urea nitrogen kinetics in growing sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, U; Hu, Q; Baldwin, R L; Bequette, B J

    2015-05-01

    Butyrate, a major rumen VFA, has been indirectly linked to enhancement of urea recycling on the basis of increased expression of urea transporter in the rumen epithelia of steers fed a rumen butyrate-enhancing diet. Two studies were conducted to quantify the effect of elevated rumen butyrate concentrations on N balance, urea kinetics and rumen epithelial proliferation. Wether sheep (n= 4), fitted with a rumen cannula, were fed a pelleted ration (∼165 g CP/kg DM, 10.3 MJ ME/kg DM) at 1.8 × ME requirement. In Exp. 1, sheep were infused intraruminally with either an electrolyte buffer solution (Con-Buf) or butyrate dissolved in the buffer solution (But-Buf) during 8-d periods in a balanced crossover design. In Exp. 2, sheep were infused intraruminally with either sodium acetate (Na-Ac) or sodium butyrate (Na-But) for 9 d. All solutions were adjusted to pH 6.8 and 8.0 in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, and VFA were infused at 10% of ME intake. [15N2] urea was continuously infused intravenously for the last 5 d of each period, and total urine and feces were collected. In Exp. 1, 2H5-phenylalanine was continuously infused intravenously over the last 12 h, after which a biopsy from the rumen papillae was taken for measurement of fractional protein synthesis rate (FSR). Butyrate infusion treatments increased (P = 0.1 in Exp. 1; P urea entry (synthesis) rate was reduced ( urea kinetics were not altered by But-Buf compared with Con-Buf. These studies are the first to directly assess the role of butyrate in urea recycling and its effects on rumen papillae protein turnover in growing lambs. Under the feeding conditions used and the rate of continuous butyrate infusion into the rumen in the present studies, butyrate does not affect overall N retention in growing sheep. However, butyrate may play a role in the redistribution of urea N fluxes in the overall scheme of N metabolism.

  6. Modeled Urea Distribution Volume and Mortality in the HEMO Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom; Depner, Thomas A.; Levin, Nathan W.; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives In the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study, observed small decreases in achieved equilibrated Kt/Vurea were noncausally associated with markedly increased mortality. Here we examine the association of mortality with modeled volume (Vm), the denominator of equilibrated Kt/Vurea. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Parameters derived from modeled urea kinetics (including Vm) and blood pressure (BP) were obtained monthly in 1846 patients. Case mix–adjusted time-dependent Cox regressions were used to relate the relative mortality hazard at each time point to Vm and to the change in Vm over the preceding 6 months. Mixed effects models were used to relate Vm to changes in intradialytic systolic BP and to other factors at each follow-up visit. Results Mortality was associated with Vm and change in Vm over the preceding 6 months. The association between change in Vm and mortality was independent of vascular access complications. In contrast, mortality was inversely associated with V calculated from anthropometric measurements (Vant). In case mix–adjusted analysis using Vm as a time-dependent covariate, the association of mortality with Vm strengthened after statistical adjustment for Vant. After adjustment for Vant, higher Vm was associated with slightly smaller reductions in intradialytic systolic BP and with risk factors for mortality including recent hospitalization and reductions in serum albumin concentration and body weight. Conclusions An increase in Vm is a marker for illness and mortality risk in hemodialysis patients. PMID:21511841

  7. Effect of extradural blockage upon glucose and urea kinetics in surgical patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.H.; Galler, L.; Holdaway, I.M.; Holdaway, C.M.

    1987-09-01

    We have determined the metabolic effects induced by the use of extradural blockage with 0.5 per cent bupivacaine hydrochloride in a group of surgical patients. Turnover rates of glucose and urea were determined isotopically using radioisotopes and studies were performed both in the basal state and during total parenteral nutrition. In the basal state, extradural blockade resulted in a decrease in the turnover rates of both glucose and urea. In addition, when extradural blockade was instituted while the patients were receiving total parenteral nutrition, there was also a significant fall in glucose turnover. We conclude that the use of extradural blockade is effective as a means of conserving bodily resources in surgical patients both in the basal state and during total parenteral nutrition.

  8. Effect of extradural blockage upon glucose and urea kinetics in surgical patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, J.H.; Galler, L.; Holdaway, I.M.; Holdaway, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    We have determined the metabolic effects induced by the use of extradural blockage with 0.5 per cent bupivacaine hydrochloride in a group of surgical patients. Turnover rates of glucose and urea were determined isotopically using radioisotopes and studies were performed both in the basal state and during total parenteral nutrition. In the basal state, extradural blockade resulted in a decrease in the turnover rates of both glucose and urea. In addition, when extradural blockade was instituted while the patients were receiving total parenteral nutrition, there was also a significant fall in glucose turnover. We conclude that the use of extradural blockade is effective as a means of conserving bodily resources in surgical patients both in the basal state and during total parenteral nutrition

  9. Final report of the safety assessment of Urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Although Urea is officially described as a buffering agent, humectant, and skin-conditioning agent-humectant for use in cosmetic products, there is a report stating that Urea also is used in cosmetics for its desquamating and antimicrobial action. In 2001, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported that Urea was used in 239 formulations. Concentrations of use for Urea ranged from 0.01% to 10%. Urea is generally recognized as safe by FDA for the following uses: side-seam cements for food contact; an inhibitor or stabilizer in pesticide formulations and formulations applied to animals; internal sizing for paper and paperboard and surface sizing and coating of paper and paper board that contact water-in-oil dairy emulsions, low-moisture fats and oils, moist bakery products, dry solids with surface containing no free fats or oil, and dry solids with the surface of fat or oil; and to facilitate fermentation of wine. Urea is the end product of mammalian protein metabolism and the chief nitrogenous compound of urine. Urea concentrations in muscle, liver, and fetuses of rats increased after a subcutaneous injection of Urea. Urea diffused readily through the placenta and into other maternal and fetal organs. The half-life of Urea injected into rabbits was on the order of several hours, and the reutilization rate was 32.2% to 88.8%. Urea given to rats by a bolus injection or continuous infusion resulted in distribution to the following brain regions: frontal lobe, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, thalamus plus hypothalamus, pons and white matter (corpus callosum). The permeability constant after treatment with Urea of whole skin and the dermis of rabbits was 2.37 +/- 0.13 (x 10(6)) and 1.20 +/- 0.09 (x10(3)) cm/min, respectively. The absorption of Urea across normal and abraded human skin was 9.5% +/- 2.3% and 67.9% +/- 5.6%, respectively. Urea increased the skin penetration of other compounds, including hydrocortisone. No toxicity was observed for Urea at levels as high

  10. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in late-onset urea cycle disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Mercedes L.; Martins Cecilia E.; Pérez-Dueñas Belén; Gómez-López Lilian; Murgui Empar; Fons Carmen; García-Cazorla Ángels; Artuch Rafael M D; Jara Fernando; Arranz José Antonio; Häberle Johannes; Briones Paz; Campistol Jaume M D; Pineda Mercè; Vilaseca María Antònia Antonia

    2010-01-01

    Inherited urea cycle disorders represent one of the most common groups of inborn errors of metabolism. Late onset urea cycle disorders caused by partial enzyme deficiencies may present with unexpected clinical phenotypes. We report 9 patients followed up in our hospital presenting late onset urea cycle disorders who initially manifested neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms (the most prevalent neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnoses were mental retardation attention deficit hyper...

  11. Haematological and serum electrolyte responses in goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematocrit, haemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen, blood glucose, sodium, potassium, chlorine, total carbon diaoxide (TCO2), anion gap, base excess, pH, partial carbon diaoxide (PaCO2) concentration and bicarbonate concentrations in the samples were obtained using the i-STAT EC8+ handheld biosensor analyzer.

  12. Urea cycle disorder--argininosuccinic lyase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neeta; Kirk, Pia Chatterjee; Holder, Ray; Precheur, Harry V

    2012-01-01

    An increased level of ammonia in the bloodstream, or hyperammonemia, is a symptom associated with metabolic disorders referred to as inborn errors of metabolism. Urea cycle disorder is a congenital abnormality or absence of one of the six enzymes involved in the elimination of ammonia. Administration of certain medications, high protein diet, excessive exercise, surgical procedures, or trauma can precipitate symptoms of mental confusion, seizure-like activity, and ataxia. This paper reviews the literature with insight into current treatment and management options of the disorder and modification of treatment for the dental patient. © 2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. N-Urea Efficiency In Lowland Rice Applied With Azolla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasjid, Havid; Sisworo, E.L.; Wemay, Y.; Sisworo, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Two N-fertilizer experiments have been conducted using urea tablet and prill urea combined with Azolla application. Twelve treatments have been tested using 2 rice varieties namely Atomita-4 and IR-64. To enable the determination of N-urea efficiency 15 N labelled urea was used. The experiments were conducted in the dry and wet season (DS and WS) 1994/1995 at the experimental station, pusaka negara, Subang West Java. Data obtained from the two experiments showed that the highest N-urea efficiency was found in Atomita-4 applied with urea-tablet (DS=46,1%, WS= 35,8%). Letting the Azolla grow during one lowland rice growth period could increase the N-urea prill efficiency (±5%) compared when no azolla was applied. Apparently Atomita-4 could use N-urea more efficiently compared to IR-64, showing higher grain yield (atomita-4 DS=6.2 ton ha -1 WS=5.9 ton ha -1 ) vs IR-64 (DS=5.8 ton ha -1 , WS=5.3 ton ha -1 ). Decreasing the levels of TSP not influence to the urea efficiency at the DS and WS

  14. Urea thermolysis and NOx reduction with and without SCR catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Howard L.; DaCosta, Herbert F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been a leading contender for removal of nitrogen oxides (deNO x ) from diesel engine emissions. Despite its advantages, the SCR technology faces some critical detriments to its catalytic performance such as catalyst surface passivation (caused by deposit formation) and consequent stoichiometric imbalance of the urea consumption. Deposit formation deactivates catalytic performance by not only consuming part of the ammonia produced during urea decomposition but also degrading the structural and thermal properties of the catalyst surface. We have characterized the urea thermolysis with and without the urea-SCR catalyst using both spectroscopic (DRIFTS and Raman) and thermal techniques (thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)) to identify the deposit components and their corresponding thermal properties. Urea thermolysis exhibits two decomposition stages, involving ammonia generation and consumption, respectively. The decomposition after the second stage leads to the product of melamine complexes, (HNC=NH) x (HNCO) y , that hinder catalytic performance. The presence of catalyst accompanied with a good spray of the urea solution helps to eliminate the second stage. In this work, kinetics of the direct reduction of NO x by urea is determined and the possibility of using additives to the urea solution in order to rejuvenate the catalyst surface and improve its performance will be discussed

  15. Pengolahan Limbah Cair Pabrik Pupuk Urea Menggunakan Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmadi Darmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Limbah cair pabrik pupuk urea terdiri dari urea dan amonium yang masing-masing mempunyai konsentrasi berkisar antara 1500-10000 ppm dan 400-3000 ppm. Konsentrasi urea yang tinggi di dalam badan air dapat menyebabkan blooming algae dalam ekosistem tersebut yang dapat mengakibatkan kehidupan biota air lain terserang penyakit. Peristiwa ini terjadi karena kurangnya nutrisi bagi biota air dan sedikitnya sinar matahari yang dapat menembusi permukaan air. Disamping kedua hal tersebut di atas, algae juga dapat memproduksi senyawa beracun bagi biota air dan manusia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengolah urea menggunakan oksidasi konvensional (H2O2 dan Advanced Oxidation Processes (kombinasi H2O2-Fe2+ pada pH 5 dengan parameter yang digunakan adalah variasi konsen-trasi awal H2O2  dan konsentrasi Fe2+. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penurunan konsentrasi urea tertinggi diperoleh pada penggunaan reagen fenton (8000 ppm H2O2 dan 500 ppm Fe2+, yaitu dapat menurunkan urea dari konsentrasi awal urea 2566,145 ppm menjadi 0 ppm. Kinetika reaksi dekomposisi urea menjadi amonium dan amonium menjadi nitrit dan nitrat yang diuji mengikuti laju kinetika reaksi orde 1 (satu terhadap urea dan orde satu terhadap amonium dengan konstanta laju reaksi masing-masing k1 = 0,019 dan k2 = 0,022 min-1.

  16. Carcass characteristics of sheep fed diets with slow-release urea replacing conventional urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanilton Moura Alves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of adding slow-release urea to replace conventional urea in the diet on carcass characteristics of feedlot sheep. We used 20 Santa Ines x SRD rams, with average body weight of 21.1±1.2 kgand average age of 120 days, distributed in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments. The replacement levels used as treatments were 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80%, composing diets of about 12% crude protein, with 50 % Tifton-85 hay and 50% concentrate. There was no influence of slow release urea on weight at slaughter (35.17 kg, and on hot (16.75 kg and cold (16.24 kg carcass weight, but the yield of these carcasses showed quadratic trend, revealing lower percentages at 48.5 and 47.63% replacement levels, respectively. The weights and yields of cuts did not change, except for the posterior arm, whose values showed a cubic trend. Objective measures of carcass, loin eye area, and subjective evaluations of conformation, finishing and marbling of carcasses were not affected. The subcutaneous fat thickness decreased linearly (4.25 to2.48 mm. The inclusion of slow release urea in the diet changes the yield and reduces subcutaneous fat, however, it does not influence other carcass characteristics.

  17. The effect of urea and urea-modified halloysite on performance of PCL

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khunová, V.; Kelnar, Ivan; Kristóf, J.; Dybal, Jiří; Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Kaprálková, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 2 (2015), s. 1283-1291 ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-15255S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : PCL * urea * halloysite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.781, year: 2015

  18. [Analysis of Relationship between Serum Total Light Chain κ/λ Ratio and Proportion of Bone Marrow Plasma Cells in Patients with IgG type and IgA type Multiple Myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, An-You; Zhu, Fang-Bing; Wang, Feng-Chao; Zhang, Lun-Jun; Ma, Yue; Hu, Jian-Guo

    2017-10-01

    To explore the relationship between serum total light chain κ/λ ratio (sTLC-κ/λ) and proportion of bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC) in patients with IgG type and IgA type multiple myeloma (MM) and its clinical significance. The levels of serum IgG, IgA, κ type and λ type total light chain were detected in 79 newly diagnosed patients with IgG type (n=52) and IgA type (n=27) MM by immuno-nephelometric assay and the sTLC-κ/λ ratio was calculated. The proportion of BMPC was determined by bone marrow smears in the corresponding period, and the changes in sTLC-κ/λ ratio and the proportion of BMPC were observed in 19 patients with IgG type(n=16) and IgA type (n=3) MM undergoing treatment, 26 cases of non-phasmocytic proliferative diseases were enrolled in control group. In MM patients with IgGκ type and IgAκ type, the sTLC-κ/λ ratio was significantly higher than that in the control group (Pratio was significantly lower than that in the control group (Pratio was significantly higher than that in MM patients with IgAκ(Pratio in MM patients with IgGλ was significantly lower than that in MM patients with IgAλ. The sTLC-κ/λ ratios in MM patients with IgGκ and IgAκ were positively correlated with the concentrations of IgG (r=0.778,P=0.000) and IgA (r=0.601,P=0.039), while the sTLC-κ/λ ratios of patients with IgGλ and IgAλ were negativily correlated with the IgG(r=-0.586,P=0.01) and IgA level(r=-0.718,P=0.003). In addition, a correlation between each type MM was not found except the IgGκ type MM which had a positive correlation between the sTLC-κ/λ ratio and proportion of BMPC (r=0.579,P=0.002). Nonetheless, 18 of 19 patients with IgG type and IgA type MM undergoing treatment showed concordance between the sTLC-κ/λ ratio and proportion of BMPC change. There is a lower correlation between the sTLC-κ/λ ratio and the proportion of BMPC in MM patients with IgG type and IgA type, but there is a high concordance between the sTLC-κ/λ ratio and the

  19. Low percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a strong predictor of later detection of prostate cancer among Japanese men with serum levels of total PSA of 4.0 ng/mL or less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Mitsuharu; Ishidoya, Shigeto; Ito, Akihiro; Saito, Hideo; Yamada, Shigeyuki; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Kaiho, Yasuhiro; Shibuya, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Arai, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effect of the percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) on future prostate cancer risk. We examined serum total PSA (tPSA) and %fPSA annually in a prostate cancer-screening cohort between July 2001 and June 2011. Men with tPSA >4.0 ng/mL or tPSA of 2.0-4.0 ng/mL with %fPSA ≤12% were screened as positive and were recommended to undergo a biopsy. The study population consisted of 6368 men, aged 40-79 years, who had tPSA ≤4.0 ng/mL at initial screening and who subsequently underwent 1 or more screenings. We calculated the cumulative risk and hazard ratio of prostate cancer stratified by the initial %fPSA groups as quartiles of prostate cancer patients. During a median follow-up of 36 months, 119 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The lowest quartile of %fPSA (22.2%). For the subset with an initial tPSA ≤1.0 ng/mL, all men diagnosed with cancer had an initial %fPSA ≤33.3% (median). For the subset with tPSA >1.0 ng/mL, men with %fPSA ≤23.0% (median) had significantly higher risk for cancer than those with %fPSA >23.0% (P men with prostate cancer in whom pathologic findings were available, 79 (69.3%) had a Gleason score ≥3 + 4 = 7. A low %fPSA is a strong predictor of a subsequent diagnosis of prostate cancer among men with tPSA levels ≤4.0 ng/mL. Measurement of %fPSA might enhance the detection of high-grade cancer that warrants aggressive treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Low levels of serum total antioxidant capacity and presence at admission and absence at discharge of a day/night change as a marker of acute paranoid schizophrenia relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera-Fumero, Armando L; Díaz-Mesa, Estefanía; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Fernandez-Lopez, Lourdes; Cejas-Mendez, Maria Del Rosario

    2017-03-01

    An oxidant-antioxidant system dysregulation has been described as a schizophrenia pathophysiological base. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is one measure of the antioxidant capacity of a system. Day/night concentration changes is a biological characteristic of hormones such as melatonin or cortisol. There is no information about TAC day/night changes in schizophrenia. Studying the existence of a day/night TAC change in schizophrenia. Forty-three DSM-IV paranoid schizophrenia inpatients participated in the study. Thirty healthy subjects matched by age and gender acted as control group. Blood was sampled at 12:00 and 00:00h the day after admission and the day before discharge. Serum TAC was measured by the ABTS radical cation technique and expressed in Trolox mmol/L. Patients had significantly lower TAC levels at admission and discharge (12:00 and 00:00) than controls. At admission patients had a TAC day/night change, with higher day-time than night-time levels (0.66±0.14 vs 0.60±0.15) as well as healthy subjects (0.83±0.07 vs 0.77±0.11). At discharge patients had a similar TAC level at 12:00 and 00:00 (0.64±0.15 vs 0.63±0.14). Schizophrenic patients present a deficit of the antioxidant system. The initial presence and the later absence of a day/night change deserves future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 75 FR 51440 - Solid Urea from the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-821-801] Solid Urea from the Russian... duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation. The solid urea subject to this review was... solid urea from the Russian Federation. See Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results...

  2. 76 FR 66690 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-821-801] Solid Urea From the Russian... duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation. The solid urea subject to this review was... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation. See Solid Urea...

  3. pH-switchable electrochemical sensing platform based on chitosan-reduced graphene oxide/concanavalin a layer for assay of glucose and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yonghai; Liu, Hongyu; Tan, Hongliang; Xu, Fugang; Jia, Jianbo; Zhang, Lixue; Li, Zhuang; Wang, Li

    2014-02-18

    A facile and effective electrochemical sensing platform for the detection of glucose and urea in one sample without separation was developed using chitosan-reduced graphene oxide (CS-rGO)/concanavalin A (Con A) as a sensing layer. The CS-rGO/Con A with pH-dependent surface net charges exhibited pH-switchable response to negatively charged Fe(CN)6(3-). The principle for glucose and urea detection was essentially based on in situ pH-switchable enzyme-catalyzed reaction in which the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by glucose oxidase or the hydrolyzation of urea catalyzed by urease resulted in a pH change of electrolyte solution to give different electrochemical responses toward Fe(CN)6(3-). It was verified by cyclic voltammograms, differential pulse voltammograms, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The resistance to charge transfer or amperometric current changed proportionally toward glucose concentration from 1.0 to 10.0 mM and urea concentration from 1.0 to 7.0 mM. On the basis of human serum experiments, the sensing platform was proved to be suitable for simultaneous assay of glucose and urea in a practical biosystem. This work not only gives a way to detect glucose and urea in one sample without separation but also provides a potential strategy for the detection of nonelectroactive species based on the enzyme-catalyzed reaction and pH-switchable biosensor.

  4. Radioimmunoassay of cholylglycine in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakushima, Tadashi; Yamanishi, Yasuhito; Hirayama, Chisato

    1979-01-01

    Serum levels of cholylglycines (CG) were determined by radioimmunoassay and that of total bile acids (TBA) by enzymatic method. In normal subjects, serum levels of CG, TBA and CG/TBA ratio were 0.6 +- 0.4 μM, 7 +- 2 μM, and 0.08 +- 0.06, respectively. They were increased markedly in acute hepatitis and moderately in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Thus, measurement of serum CG as compared with serum TBA appears to be a sensitive liver test. (author)

  5. Effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrient intake and growth performance in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntiranyibagira Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of urea in camels has beneficial and negative effects. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance, feed efficiency and economics in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets. In the present study, eighteen growing camels with an average live body weight of 306.17 ± 2.05 kg were randomly assigned in three treatments: T1 = roughage complete pellet diet without urea, T2 = T1 plus 1% urea, and T3 = T1 plus 2% urea. The results showed that the urea supplementation significantly affected average daily feed and nutrient intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF (P  0.05. Similarly, digestion coefficient of DM, CP, ether extract (EE, crude fiber (CF and ADF was influenced by increasing urea level (P  0.05. The intake of digestive nutrients was similar among all treatment groups. Total body live weight gain and average daily gain were significantly higher in urea supplemented groups (P < 0.05 than in the control group. The supplementation of urea at 1% in low quality roughage complete pellet diets significantly improved (P < 0.05 the feed efficiency. In conclusion, these results indicated that the incorporation of urea at 1% in roughage based complete pellet diets could positively improve nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of growing camels.

  6. Nickel hydroxide modified electrodes for urea determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel hydroxide films were prepared by electrodeposition from a solution Ni(NO32 0,05 mol L ?¹ on ITO electrodes (Tin oxide doped with Indium on PET-like plastic film, applying a current of - 0,1 A cm ?² during different time intervals between 1800 and 7200 s. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode was investigated through a cyclic voltammogram, in NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹, where it was observed two peaks in the profile in 0,410 and 0,280 V, corresponding to redox couple Ni(II/Ni(III. A sensor for urea presenting a satisfactory answer can be obtained when, after the deposit of the film of Ni(OH2 on the electrode of nickel, it is immersed in a solution of NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹ and applying a potential of + 0,435 V, where the maximum of the anodic current occurs in the cyclic voltammogram. Analyzing the results it can be observed that, for a range of analite concentration between 5 to 50 m mol L ?¹, the behavior is linear and the sensibility found was of 20,3 mA cm?² (mol L?¹?¹, presenting reproducibility confirming the nickel hydroxide electrodes utilization for the determination of urea.

  7. Effect of urea and urea-gamma treatments on cellulose degradation of Thai rice straw and corn stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchorndhevakul, Siriwattana

    2002-01-01

    Cellulose degradation of 20% urea treated and 20% urea-10 kGy gamma treated Thai rice straw and corn stalk showed that combination effect of urea and gamma radiation gave a higher % decrease in neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and cutin in comparison with urea effect only for both room temperature storage and room temperature +258 K storage. The results also indicated that cellulose degradation proceeded with time, even at 258 K. A drastic drop to less than half of the original contents in NDF, ADF, and ADL could not be obtained in this study

  8. Effect of urea and urea-gamma treatments on cellulose degradation of Thai rice straw and corn stalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchorndhevakul, Siriwattana

    2002-08-01

    Cellulose degradation of 20% urea treated and 20% urea-10 kGy gamma treated Thai rice straw and corn stalk showed that combination effect of urea and gamma radiation gave a higher % decrease in neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and cutin in comparison with urea effect only for both room temperature storage and room temperature +258 K storage. The results also indicated that cellulose degradation proceeded with time, even at 258 K. A drastic drop to less than half of the original contents in NDF, ADF, and ADL could not be obtained in this study.

  9. Changes of serum levels of prealbumin (PAB), cholinesterase (CHE), total bile acid (TBA) and ALT as related to the severity of inflammatory process and hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic virus B hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Xiaoxia; Chen Jianxiong; Xiong Ying

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlationship between the serum levels of PAB, CHE, TBA, ALT and the severity of the disease process in patients with chronic virus B hepatitis. Methods: Serum levels of PAB, CHE, ALT (with biochemical methods) and TBA (with RIA) were examined in 93 patients with biopsy proven virus B hepatitis and 46 controls. Results: The 93 patients were of two groups: a less advanced group (n=51) and a more advanced group (n=42). Serum TBA, ALT levels were significnatly higher and serum PAB, CHE levels were significantly lower in the more advanced group than those in the less advanced group (P 0 to s 4 . Changes of levels of ALT were of no regular pattern, but serum levels of TBA regularly increased and levels of PAB, CHE regularly decreased as the fibrosis grading proceeded from s 0 to s 4 and the differences between the levels in s 4 and any other grading were significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: Combined determination of these serum markers might reflect the degree of inflammatory process and hepatic fibrosis in patients with virus B hepatitis, leading to earlier detection of cirrhosis. (authors)

  10. Interferences of homogentisic acid (HGA) on routine clinical chemistry assays in serum and urine and the implications for biochemical monitoring of patients with alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, S L; Roberts, N B; Ranganath, L R

    2014-05-01

    We have assessed the effect of elevated concentrations of homogentisic acid (HGA) as in alkaptonuria (AKU), on a range of routine chemistry tests in serum and urine. HGA was added to pooled serum and a range of assays was analysed with Roche Modular chemistries. Effects on urine were assessed by diluting normal urine with urine from a patient with AKU, adding HGA to urine and after lowering output of urinary HGA with nitisinone treatment. Serum enzymatic creatinine showed 30% negative interference with 100μmol/L HGA and >50% at 400μmol/L. Serum urate 100 to 480μmol/L was reduced up to 20% at 100 and to 50% with 400μmol/L HGA. Serum cholesterol between 3 and 11mmol/L was reduced by 0.5mmol/L with 400μmol/L HGA. Urine enzymatic creatinine and urate with >2mmol/L HGA showed concentration dependent negative interference up to 80%. A positive interference in urine total protein by benzethonium turbidometric assay was observed, with 10mmol/L HGA equivalent to 1g/L protein. Jaffe creatinine, Na, K, Cl, Mg, Ca, phosphate, ALT, GGT, ALP activities and urea in serum and or urine were not affected by increases in HGA. To avoid interferences by HGA in alkaptonuria concentration of HGA should be established before samples are assayed with peroxidase assays and benzethonium urine protein. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. All rights reserved.

  11. Baseline hematology and serum biochemistry results for Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Arun Attur; Muliya, Sanath Krishna; Deshmukh, Ajay; Suresh, Sujay; Nath, Anukul; Kalaignan, Pa; Venkataravanappa, Manjunath; Jose, Lyju

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to establish the baseline hematology and serum biochemistry values for Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca), and to assess the possible variations in these parameters based on age and gender. Materials and Methods: Hemato-biochemical test reports from a total of 83 healthy leopards, carried out as part of routine health evaluation in Bannerghatta Biological Park and Manikdoh Leopard Rescue Center, were used to establish baseline hematology and serum biochemistry parameters for the subspecies. The hematological parameters considered for the analysis included hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), and MCH concentration. The serum biochemistry parameters considered included total protein (TP), albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, triglycerides, calcium, and phosphorus. Results: Even though few differences were observed in hematologic and biochemistry values between male and female Indian leopards, the differences were statistically not significant. Effects of age, however, were evident in relation to many hematologic and biochemical parameters. Sub-adults had significantly greater values for Hb, TEC, and TLC compared to adults and geriatric group, whereas they had significantly lower MCV and MCH compared to adults and geriatric group. Among, serum biochemistry parameters the sub-adult age group was observed to have significantly lower values for TP and ALT than adult and geriatric leopards. Conclusion: The study provides a comprehensive analysis of hematologic and biochemical parameters for Indian leopards. Baselines established here will permit better captive management of the subspecies, serve as a guide to assess the health and physiological status of the free ranging leopards, and may contribute valuable information for making effective

  12. Baseline hematology and serum biochemistry results for Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Attur Shanmugam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to establish the baseline hematology and serum biochemistry values for Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca, and to assess the possible variations in these parameters based on age and gender. Materials and Methods: Hemato-biochemical test reports from a total of 83 healthy leopards, carried out as part of routine health evaluation in Bannerghatta Biological Park and Manikdoh Leopard Rescue Center, were used to establish baseline hematology and serum biochemistry parameters for the subspecies. The hematological parameters considered for the analysis included hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count (TEC, total leukocyte count (TLC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH, and MCH concentration. The serum biochemistry parameters considered included total protein (TP, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, triglycerides, calcium, and phosphorus. Results: Even though few differences were observed in hematologic and biochemistry values between male and female Indian leopards, the differences were statistically not significant. Effects of age, however, were evident in relation to many hematologic and biochemical parameters. Sub-adults had significantly greater values for Hb, TEC, and TLC compared to adults and geriatric group, whereas they had significantly lower MCV and MCH compared to adults and geriatric group. Among, serum biochemistry parameters the sub-adult age group was observed to have significantly lower values for TP and ALT than adult and geriatric leopards. Conclusion: The study provides a comprehensive analysis of hematologic and biochemical parameters for Indian leopards. Baselines established here will permit better captive management of the subspecies, serve as a guide to assess the health and physiological status of the free ranging leopards, and may contribute valuable information for making

  13. Growth, serum biochemistry, complement activity, and liver gene expression responses of Pekin ducklings to graded levels of cultured aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Horn, N; Cotter, P F; Applegate, T J

    2014-08-01

    A 14-d study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cultured aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on performance, serum biochemistry, serum natural antibody and complement activity, and hepatic gene expression parameters in Pekin ducklings. A total of 144 male Pekin ducklings were weighed, tagged, and randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments containing 4 concentrations of AFB1 (0, 0.11, 0.14, and 0.21 mg/kg) from 0 to 14 d of age (6 cages per diet; 6 ducklings per cage). Compared with the control group, there was a 10.9, 31.7, and 47.4% (P feed efficiency was not affected. Increasing concentrations of AFB1 reduced cumulative BW gain and feed intake both linearly and quadratically, and regression equations were developed with r(2) ≥0.73. Feeding 0.11 to 0.21 mg of AFB1/kg reduced serum glucose, creatinine, albumin, total protein, globulin, Ca, P, and creatine phosphokinase linearly, whereas serum urea N, Cl, alkaline phosphatase, and aspartate amino transferase concentrations increased linearly with increasing AFB1 (P complement pathways in the duckling serum when tested by lysis of rabbit, human type O, and horse erythrocytes, and decreased rabbit and horse agglutinins (P feed intake and BW gain decrease approximately 230 and 169 g per duckling from hatch to 14 d; and that AFB1 at very low concentrations can significantly impair liver function and gene expression, and innate immune dynamics in Pekin ducklings. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. A New Theory for Calculation of Some Biochemical Parameters Concentration in Human Serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, K.A.; Amien, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    The serum volumes of the blood samples are varied from one patient to another according to the packed cell volume (PCV %), so if the patient sample has low PCV %, it will have high serum volume and vice versa. To calculate a certain clinical parameter such as glucose in the serum of patients using the conventional calculation, it will give the concentration in units per deci liter serum, while by calculating the concentration according to the ratio of serum volume to the total volume of the blood, it will give different results. Thus, the present study aimed to find a new theory used for calculation of some biochemical parameters concentration taking into consideration the ratio of plasma volume to the total blood volume. The present study was conducted on 122 subjects. These subjects were categorized into 4 groups. Group 1 (G1) comprised 40 healthy subjects as control group, group 2 (G2) comprised 30 low PCV % patients, group 3 (G3) comprised 30 subjects with relatively high PCV % and group 4 comprised 22 diabetic patients. Each group of the previous groups was further subdivided into group a (G a ) and group b (G b ). In the later group, the results were multiplied by the correction factor (V p /V b ), which is the ratio of plasma volume (V p ) to the blood volume (V b ) TSH hormone, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated and the results were multiplied by the correction factor (V p /V b ) to get the results after correction. Compared the results before and after correction, there was a very highly significant (ρ p /V b ), thus we recommended that biochemical parameters results must be calculated as indicated in the present study to obtain actual results which might be useful in the correct diagnosis, monitoring and follow up of the different diseases

  15. [The National Serum Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magos-López, C; Sánchez-Villarreal, F; Gutiérrez, G; Tapia-Conyer, R

    1992-01-01

    A National Serum Bank was established to store sera obtained during the National Seroepidemiological Survey performed in Mexico in 1987. More than 70,000 serum samples were obtained from subjects of either sex 1-99 years of age in each of the 32 states of the country. The current collection of sera includes 28,704 male samples and 40,629 female samples. This paper describes the procedures for handling serum samples, including reception registry, storage and distribution to several laboratories for detection of measles, rubella, poliomyelitis, AIDS, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, brucella, salmonella, amoeba, toxoplasma, American trypanosomiasis and cysticercus. Determinations of total cholesterol were also made in order to describe its distribution and to identify the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia.

  16. Nonhepatic hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to undiagnosed urea cycle disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Tashfeen; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamoylase deficiency is the most common inherited urea cycle disorder. In adults, its phenotypes are diverse. In asymptomatic patients with late presentations, symptom onset is often associated with a precipitating factor. We present a case of a woman with urea cycle disorder diagnosed after an acute peptic ulcer bleed and fasting.

  17. Nonhepatic hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to undiagnosed urea cycle disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tashfeen; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Ornithine transcarbamoylase deficiency is the most common inherited urea cycle disorder. In adults, its phenotypes are diverse. In asymptomatic patients with late presentations, symptom onset is often associated with a precipitating factor. We present a case of a woman with urea cycle disorder diagnosed after an acute peptic ulcer bleed and fasting.

  18. 76 FR 77015 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... Urea From Russia and Ukraine Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record...

  19. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Bannink, A.; Gort, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl)

  20. A colorimeter for measurement of picomole quantities of urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurek, G G; Knepper, M A

    1982-04-01

    We described a new colorimeter for the measurement of picomole quantities of urea in nanoliter volume fluid samples. The diacetyl monoxime reaction was used to produce a colored product from urea. The method is capable of resolving differences of 10 pmoles between samples containing 0 to 225 pmoles.

  1. Urea production by yeasts other than Saccharomyces in food fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Qun; Cui, Kaixiang; Lin, Jianchun; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Urea is an important intermediate in the synthesis of carcinogenic ethyl carbamate in various food fermentations. Identifying urea-producing microorganisms can help control or reduce ethyl carbamate production. Using Chinese liquor fermentation as a model system, we identified the yeasts responsible

  2. Preparation and characterization of dialdehyde starch urea (DASU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dialdehyde starch urea (DASU) was prepared by the reaction of dialdehyde starch (DAS) from periodate oxidized cassava starch with urea, which was then used to adsorb Co(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution. Starch modified starches and starch complexes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared ...

  3. Reference Values for Plasma Electrolytes and Urea in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reference values for plasma electrolytes and urea have been defined for Nigerian children and adolescents residing in Abeokuta and its environs, a location in southern Nigeria, by estimating plasma sodium, potassium bicarbonate and urea concentrations in a reference population. The study group comprised three ...

  4. Effect of urea treatment on digestibility and utilization of sorghum straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianogo A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine male goats and nine castrated lambs were randomly divided into three groups of six animals to receive one of three experimental diets in a digestion trial. Diet S, provided chopped sorghum straw (SS, 28/ concentrate (C and 10/ Dolichos lablab hay (D. Diet Su1 provided SS containing 2/ urea, 24/ C and 12/ D, and diet Sue1 provided SS treated to contain 2/ urea and ensiled for 28 days, plus 25/ C and 14/ D. Twenty four lambs were randomly divided into three groups of eight animals to receive one of three diets in a 56-day growth trial; diet S2 provided SS plus 60/ C; diet Su2 provided SS containing 2/ urea plus 60/ C, and diet Sue2 provided SS treated to contain 2/ urea and ensiled for 28 days, plus 60/ C. The digestion trial showed higher (P<.05 daily intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber for S, than for Sue1 and Su1. Dry matter intake was 55.93; 39.42 and 42.34 g[kgE0.75E-1 for S1, Su1 and Sue1, respectively. Dry matter intake was slightly higher for lambs [50 g[kgE0.75E-1] than for goats [42 g[kE0.75E-1]. There was no effect of dietary treatments on apparent nutrient digestibility. During the growth trial, intake of straw varied from 17.97 (S2 to 24.78 g[kgE0.75E-1 (Sue2, but differences were not significant. Daily gain did not differ between treatments. Total feed intake and feed efficiency were only slightly affected by dietary treatments. Average feed intake was 4.36/ of body weight. High concentrate intakes may have upset the effect of urea treatment and silo fermentation in this study.

  5. Metabolic reprogramming of the urea cycle pathway in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension rats induced by monocrotaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hai-Kuo; Zhao, Jun-Han; Yan, Yi; Lian, Tian-Yu; Ye, Jue; Wang, Xiao-Jian; Wang, Zhe; Jing, Zhi-Cheng; He, Yang-Yang; Yang, Ping

    2018-05-11

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare systemic disorder associated with considerable metabolic dysfunction. Although enormous metabolomic studies on PAH have been emerging, research remains lacking on metabolic reprogramming in experimental PAH models. We aim to evaluate the metabolic changes in PAH and provide new insight into endogenous metabolic disorders of PAH. A single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (MCT) (60 mg kg - 1 ) was used for rats to establish PAH model. Hemodynamics and right ventricular hypertrophy were adopted to evaluate the successful establishment of PAH model. Plasma samples were assessed through targeted metabolomic profiling platform to quantify 126 endogenous metabolites. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to discriminate between MCT-treated model and control groups. Metabolite Set Enrichment Analysis was adapted to exploit the most disturbed metabolic pathways. Endogenous metabolites of MCT treated PAH model and control group were well profiled using this platform. A total of 13 plasma metabolites were significantly altered between the two groups. Metabolite Set Enrichment Analysis highlighted that a disruption in the urea cycle pathway may contribute to PAH onset. Moreover, five novel potential biomarkers in the urea cycle, adenosine monophosphate, urea, 4-hydroxy-proline, ornithine, N-acetylornithine, and two candidate biomarkers, namely, O-acetylcarnitine and betaine, were found to be highly correlated with PAH. The present study suggests a new role of urea cycle disruption in the pathogenesis of PAH. We also found five urea cycle related biomarkers and another two candidate biomarkers to facilitate early diagnosis of PAH in metabolomic profile.

  6. Silicone Doped Chitosan-Acrylamide Coencapsulated Urea Fertilizer: An Approach to Controlled Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sempeho Ibahati Siafu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of special management practices, urea is known to undergo chemical transformations resulting in severe losses (≈60–70% of total fertilizer applied. In an attempt to design urea controlled release fertilizers in order to counterbalance the 60–70% loss, urea was cross-linked with chitosan and acrylamide under refluxed in situ copolymerization technique; the procedures were repeated with silicone doping prior cross-linking with MBA. The particles were characterized with FTIR/ATR, EDX, XRD, and SEM. The IR bands observed within 3426–409 cm−1 revealed the formation of new bands after coencapsulation for the νγN-H, νβN-H, νOH, νsNH2, νCH2, νC=O, δ′NH2, νC=C, δNH2, νC-N, βCH3, $C-N, γNH2, νC=O, and $CH2. Crystallinity indices for urea with and without silicone doping were found to be 50.9% and 72.1%, respectively, with a distinctive split peak at (d 12.30°. The formation of Microdunes and Microballs 3D network sized 0.64 μm was noted. Release profiles demonstrated that 80% N was released in a period of 30 days at RT and pH 7. The release patterns exhibited linear and deformed sigmoid release models. Empirically, the findings demonstrated that it is possible to design urea controlled release fertilizers with varying particle sizes and morphologies by using chitosan-acrylamide coencapsulation.

  7. Propionate supplementation improves nitrogen use by reducing urea flux in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, U; Hu, Q; Bequette, B J

    2015-10-01

    Feeding and postruminal infusion of propionate is known to increase N retention in ruminants. Our aim was to determine the role of rumen propionate on urea N recycling and gluconeogenesis in growing sheep. In Exp. 1, wether sheep ( = 6; 32.5 ± 3.57 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed to 1.8 × ME requirement a concentrate-type ration (172 g CP/kg DM and 10.4 MJ ME/kg DM) and continuously infused into the rumen with isoenergetic (10% of dietary ME intake) solutions of either sodium acetate (control) or sodium propionate for 9-d periods in a crossover design. In Exp. 2, a different group of wether sheep ( = 5; 33.6 ± 3.70 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed, on an isonitrogenous basis, either a control (151 g CP/kg DM and 8.4 MJ ME/kg DM) or sodium propionate-supplemented (139 g CP/kg DM and 8.9 MJ ME/kg DM) diet at 2-h intervals. [N] urea was continuously infused intravenously for the last 5 d of each period, and total urine was collected by vacuum and feces were collected by a harness bag. Over the last 12 h, [C]glucose was continuously infused intravenously and hourly blood samples were collected during the last 5 h. Propionate treatments increased ( urea entry (synthesis) rate (UER) in Exp. 1; however, sodium propionate infusion tended ( urea elimination (UUE). In Exp. 2, feeding propionate increased ( urea N/d, leading to a reduction ( urea N/d). Between the 2 experiments, the proportion of UER recycled to the gut was greater with the forage-type diet in Exp. 2 (approximately 60%) compared with the concentrate-type diet in Exp. 1 (approximately 40%), although urea N fluxes across the gut remained unchanged in both experiments. In Exp. 1, glucose entry and gluconeogenesis were greater ( < 0.05) and plasma glucose tended ( < 0.1) to be greater with sodium propionate infusion than with sodium acetate infusion, but there was no difference in Cori cycling. In Exp. 2, glucose entry, gluconeogenesis, Cori cycling, and plasma glucose increased ( < 0

  8. Effect of Microbial Interaction on Urea Metabolism in Chinese Liquor Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Lin, Jianchun; Cui, Kaixiang; Du, Rubin; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-12-20

    Urea is the primary precursor of the carcinogen ethyl carbamate in fermented foods. Understanding urea metabolism is important for controlling ethyl carbamate production. Using Chinese liquor as a model system, we used metatranscriptome analysis to investigate urea metabolism in spontaneous food fermentation processes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was dominant in gene transcription for urea biosynthesis and degradation. Lysinibacillus sphaericus was dominant for urea degradation. S. cerevisiae degraded 18% and L. sphaericus degraded 13% of urea in their corresponding single cultures, whereas they degraded 56% of urea in coculture after 12 h. Compared to single cultures, transcription of CAR1, DAL2, and argA, which are related to urea biosynthesis, decreased by 51, 36, and 69% in coculture, respectively. Transcription of DUR1 and ureA, which are related to urea degradation, increased by 227 and 70%, respectively. Thus, coexistence of the two strains promoted degradation of urea via transcriptional regulation of genes related to urea metabolism.

  9. Effects of nitrogen supply on inter-organ fluxes of urea-N and renal urea-N kinetics in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Theil, Peter Kappel; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2011-01-01

    The effects of decreasing ruminal urea infusion in lactating dairy cows fed a basal diet deficient in rumen degradable protein on inter-organ urea-N fluxes, epithelial urea-N extraction, and renal urea-N kinetics were investigated. Eight Danish Holstein cows fitted with a ruminal cannula...... and permanent indwelling catheters in the major splanchnic blood vessels and the gastrosplenic vein were used. The cows were randomly allocated to a triplicate incomplete 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Treatments were continuous ventral ruminal infusion of water, 4.1 g of feed urea/kg of dry...... matter intake, and 8.5 g of feed urea/kg of dry matter intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. Arterial blood urea-N and ruminal ammonia concentrations decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. In absolute amounts, the urea-N recycling did...

  10. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in late-onset urea cycle disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Mercedes; Martins, Cecilia; Pérez-Dueñas, Belén; Gómez-López, Lilian; Murgui, Empar; Fons, Carmen; García-Cazorla, Angels; Artuch, Rafael; Jara, Fernando; Arranz, José A; Häberle, Johannes; Briones, Paz; Campistol, Jaume; Pineda, Mercedes; Vilaseca, Maria A

    2010-03-01

    Inherited urea cycle disorders represent one of the most common groups of inborn errors of metabolism. Late-onset urea cycle disorders caused by partial enzyme deficiencies may present with unexpected clinical phenotypes. We report 9 patients followed up in our hospital presenting late-onset urea cycle disorders who initially manifested neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms (the most prevalent neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnoses were mental retardation, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], language disorder, and delirium). Generally, these clinical pictures did not benefit from pharmacological treatment. Conversely, dietary treatment improved the symptoms. Regarding biochemical data, 2 patients showed normal ammonium but high glutamine levels. This study highlights the fact that neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental findings are common among the initial symptomatology of late-onset urea cycle disorders. The authors recommend that unexplained or nonresponsive neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms appearing during childhood or adolescence be followed by a study of ammonia and amino acid plasmatic levels to rule out a urea cycle disorder.

  11. Effect of urea-supplemented diets on the ruminal bacterial and archaeal community composition of finishing bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenming; Meng, Qingxiang; Li, Shengli; Jiang, Lan; Wu, Hao

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of urea-supplemented diets on the ruminal bacterial and archaeal communities of finishing bulls using sequencing technology. Eighteen bulls were fed a total mixed ration based on maize silage and concentrate (40:60) and randomly allocated to one of three experimental diets: a basal diet with no urea (UC, 0%), a basal diet supplemented with low urea levels (UL, 0.8% dry matter (DM) basis), and a basal diet supplemented with high urea levels (UH, 2% DM basis). All treatments were iso-nitrogenous (14% crude protein, DM basis) and iso-metabolic energetic (ME = 11.3 MJ/kg, DM basis). After a 12-week feeding trial, DNA was isolated from ruminal samples and used for 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. For bacteria, the most abundant phyla were Firmicutes (44.47%) and Bacteroidetes (41.83%), and the dominant genera were Prevotella (13.17%), Succiniclasticum (4.24%), Butyrivibrio (2.36%), and Ruminococcus (1.93%). Urea supplementation had no effect on most phyla (P > 0.05), while there was a decreasing tendency in phylum TM7 with increasing urea levels (P = 0.0914). Compared to UC, UH had lower abundance of genera Butyrivibrio and Coprococcus (P = 0.0092 and P = 0.0222, respectively). For archaea, the most abundant phylum was Euryarchaeota (99.81% of the sequence reads), and the most abundant genus was Methanobrevibacter (90.87% of the sequence reads). UH increased the abundance of genus Methanobrevibacter and Methanobacterium (P = 0.0299 and P = 0.0007, respectively) and decreased the abundance of vadinCA11 (P = 0.0151). These findings suggest that urea-supplemented diets were associated with a shift in archaeal biodiversity and changes in the bacterial community in the rumen.

  12. Utilization of urea-nitrogen-15 in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boda, K.; Varady, J.; Havassy, I.

    1976-01-01

    In Merino sheep a series of experiments were carried out investigating exogenous and endogenous urea utilization. On the experimental sheep with isolated jejunum, rumen and intestine fistula, re-entral intestine cannulae, and after intra-ruminal or intra-intestinal 15 N-urea administration it was found that urea- 15 N takes part in the nitrogen recycling, and is utilized in the nitrogen pool. In experiments with synthetic protein-free diet, low protein diet and high nitrogen diet, after the intravenous administration of 15 N-urea the following findings were made: The results of experiments with synthetic diet, where the only nitrogen source was perorally (for 3-6 months) and then intravenously (for 3 months) administered urea, indicated the ability of ruminants to replace fully the nitrogen in the feed under certain conditions by increased endogenous urea recirculation. The results of the experiments with various nitrogen intakes showed that considerable amounts of urea- 15 N (44-96% from the given dose) were retained. Nitrogen compounds synthetized from blood urea- 15 N were recycled through the alimentary tract. Its secretion predominated in the forestomachs, abomasum and duodenum, and its reabsorption took place in the intestinal tract. From the 15 N incorporated into the nitrogenous substances which passed through the duodenum, 73-84% was reabsorbed. The retained 15 N was incorporated into the microbial and plasma proteins and its amide-N. On the basis of these results it is concluded that in addition to the rumeno-hepatal circulation, the entero-hepatal circulation of nitrogenous substances, including endogenous nitrogen, also plays an important role quantitatively and perhaps qualitatively in the process of re-utilizing the blood urea N for proteosynthesis and synthesis of other N-metabolites in ruminants. The hydrolysis of endogenous urea in the gastro-intestinal tract of ruminants and its utilization is a natural process indispensable for the maintenance of

  13. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed

  14. Hardness evaluation of cured urea-formaldehyde resins with different formaldehyde/urea mole ratios using nanoindentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byung-Dae Park; Charles R. Frihart; Yan Yu; Adya P. Singh

    2013-01-01

    To understand the influence of formaldehyde/urea (F/U) mole ratio on the properties of urea–formaldehyde (UF) resins, this study investigated hardness of cured UF resins with different F/U mole ratios using a nanoindentation method. The traditional Brinell hardness (HB) method was also used...

  15. Development of melamine modified urea formaldehyde resins based o nstrong acidic pH catalyzed urea formaldehyde polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    To upgrade the performance of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin bonded particleboards, melamine modified urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resins based on strong acidic pH catalyzed UF polymers were investigated. The study was conducted in a series of two experiments: 1) formulation of MUF resins based on a UF polymer catalyzed with strong acidic pH and 2) determination of the...

  16. Effect of levels of urea and cassava chip on feed intake, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites and microbial populations in growing goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess effect of levels of urea and cassava chip (CC on feed intake, rumen ecology, blood metabolites and microbial populations. Four, Thai Native X Anglo Nubian crossbred growing male goats with an average liveweight 19.0+1 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design to receive one of four diets: T1=urea at 0 % (CC=30%, T2=urea at 1% (CC=40%, T3=urea at 2% (CC = 50% and T4=urea at 3%(CC=60%, of DM basis, respectively. Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum was offered on an ad lib basis. The results revealed that total DM intake (%BW and g/kg W0.75 and BW change were similar among treatments (p>0.05. Likewise, rumen pH, BUN, blood glucose, PCV and microbial populations were similar among treatments (p>0.05, while NH3-N increased as the urea level increased and were found highest (p<0.05 in T4 at 12.8 mg/dL. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that a higher level of urea (3% could be used with a high level of CC in concentrate and it was good approach in exploiting the use of local feed resources for goat production.

  17. Effect of abomasal infusion of oligofructose on portal-drained visceral ammonia and urea-nitrogen fluxes in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røjen, B A; Larsen, M; Kristensen, N B

    2012-12-01

    The effects of abomasal infusion of oligofructose in lactating dairy cows on the relationship between hindgut fermentation and N metabolism, and its effects on NH(3) absorption and transfer of blood urea-N across the portal-drained viscera versus ruminal epithelia were investigated. Nine lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used in an unbalanced crossover design with 14-d periods. Treatments were continuous abomasal infusion of water or 1,500 g/d of oligofructose. The same basal diet was fed with both treatments. Eight sample sets of arterial, portal, hepatic, and ruminal vein blood, ruminal fluid, and urine were obtained at 0.5h before the morning feeding and at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, and 6.5 h after feeding. It was hypothesized that an increased supply of fermentable substrate to the hindgut would increase the uptake of urea-N from blood to the hindgut at the expense of urea-N uptake to the forestomach. The study showed that abomasal oligofructose infusion decreased the total amount of urea-N transferred from the blood to the gut, NH(3) absorption, and arterial blood urea-N concentration. Subsequently, hepatic NH(3) uptake and urea-N production also decreased with oligofructose infusion. Additionally, urea-N concentration in milk and urinary N excretion decreased with oligofructose treatment. The oligofructose infusion did not affect ruminal NH(3) concentrations or any other ruminal variables, nor did it affect ruminal venous - arterial concentration differences for urea-N and NH(3). The oligofructose treatment did not affect milk yield, but did decrease apparent digestibility of OM, N, and starch. Nitrogen excreted in the feces was greater with the oligofructose infusion. In conclusion, the present data suggest that increased hindgut fermentation did not upregulate urea-N transfer to the hindgut at the expense of urea-N uptake by the rumen, and the observed reduction

  18. Digoxin serum levels with respect to some biochemical and clinical indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlak, J.; Curilla, E.

    1984-01-01

    Digoxin serum levels were examined in 40 patients using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) and correlated with levels of potassium, magnesium, creatinine, urea, glomerular filtration (GF) and with clinical signs of different degrees of digitalis serum concentration. The digoxin level assessed by ELISA and RIA methods correlated fairly closely. An average dependence was found between digoxin levels and levels of creatinine, urea and GF. A correlation was observed between a high level of digoxin and clinical signs of digitalis intoxication

  19. Digoxin serum levels with respect to some biochemical and clinical indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlak, J; Curilla, E [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta

    1984-10-01

    Digoxin serum levels were examined in 40 patients using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) and correlated with levels of potassium, magnesium, creatinine, urea, glomerular filtration (GF) and with clinical signs of different degrees of digitalis serum concentration. The digoxin level assessed by ELISA and RIA methods correlated fairly closely. An average dependence was found between digoxin levels and levels of creatinine, urea and GF. A correlation was observed between a high level of digoxin and clinical signs of digitalis intoxication.

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection and serum leptin, obestatin, and ghrelin levels in Mexican schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-González, Carolina; Mendoza, Eugenia; Mera, Robertino M; Coria-Jiménez, Rafael; Chico-Aldama, Patricia; Gomez-Diaz, Rita; Duque, Ximena

    2017-10-01

    BackgroundThere is little information about the possible role of Helicobacter pylori infection on appetite-regulating peptides in children. This study evaluated the association between H. pylori infection and serum levels of ghrelin, leptin, and obestatin in schoolchildren.MethodsOne hundred seventy-eight schoolchildren, students at boarding schools in Mexico City, participated. H. pylori infection status was determined every 6 months for 1 year by a breath test using 13 C-urea; schoolchildren with consistently positive or negative results were selected to participate. Age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Serum concentrations of total ghrelin, leptin, and obestatin via specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were determined.ResultsSchoolchildren with H. pylori infection had lower concentration of leptin, -0.54 pg/ml (95% CI: -0.98 to -0.09), compared to the schoolchildren without infection, after adjustment by age, gender, and BMI. And the children with the infection had a median of obestatin lower in 0.99 ng/ml (95% CI: -1.93 to -0.06) compared with the uninfected children after adjustment by BMI.ConclusionAssociation was found between H. pylori infection and decreased serum concentrations of leptin and obestatin. These results suggest that in schoolchildren, H. pylori infection affects the levels of hormones implicated in regulating appetite and energy homeostasis.

  1. Serum Lipoprotein (a Levels in Chronic Renal Failure and Liver Cirrhosis Patients. Relationship with Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Mady

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between lipoprotein (a levels and the development of atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure (CRF patients with the possible role of the liver. Serum Lp (a levels were measured in samples from 20 CRF patients on hemodialysis (HD, 20 liver cirrhosis (LC patients, 20 patients having both CRF and LC and undergoing HD, and 20 normal control subjects. Renal function (blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine, hepatic function (transaminases (ALT and AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total bilirubin investigations and serum cholesterol were carried out for all the subjects enrolled in this study. Serum Lp (a concentration in CRF patients without LC was 87.25 ± 6.17 mg/dl, which was significantly higher than all the investigated groups (P < 0.001. Lp(a concentration in patients with both CRF and LC was 24.65 ± 1.98 mg/dl, which was not significantly different from the controls, but was significantly higher than that in the subjects with LC only (P < 0.001 where the latter group had significantly low Lp (a values (11.1 ± 0.99 relative to all the other groups (P < 0.001. Lp (a correlated positively with cholesterol in all groups except the LC subjects, but did not correlate with age, or renal function in both CRF groups.

  2. Effect of two doses of urea foliar application on leaves and grape nitrogen composition during two vintages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Álvarez, Eva P; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; García-Escudero, Enrique; Martínez-Vidaurre, José María

    2017-06-01

    Nitrogen affects grapevine growth and also yeast metabolism, which have a direct influence on fermentation kinetics and the formation of different volatile compounds. Throughout the grapevine cycle, soil nitrogen availability and grape nitrogen composition can vary because of different factors. Nitrogen foliar applications can contribute toward enhancing grapevine nitrogen status and minimize the problem of leaching that traditional nitrogen-soil applications can provoke. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of urea foliar applications on grapevine nitrogen status and grape amino acid content. Accordingly, two different doses of urea were applied over the leaves of a 'Tempranillo' vineyard. The highest urea doses affected nitrogen content on blade leaf tissues after veraison. Must amino acid profiles were modified by urea application and some of the compounds increased their concentrations. The effect of year on the increase of must total amino acid concentrations was more important than the effect of the doses applied. Urea foliar applications can be an interesting tool for decreasing grapevine nitrogen deficiencies. This method of nitrogen implementation in the vineyard could avoid sluggish fermentation problems during winemaking, enhance must nitrogen composition, and contribute to improving wine quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. GROWTH, PHYSIOLOGY AND YIELD OF FORMOSA ‘PAPAYA’ CULTIVATED UNDER DIFFERENT DOSES OF COATED AND CONVENTIONAL UREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL BARBOSA DA SILVA JÚNIOR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral fertilizer management is one of the most important agronomic techniques applied in papaya cultivation, which generally extracts large amounts of nutrients from soil, especially nitrogen. This study aimed to assess the phytotechnical and physiological attributes and yield of „Formosa‟ papaya hybrid Caliman 01 as a function of different doses of coated and conventional urea in the region of Bom Jesus - PI, Brazil. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme (2 × 4 and distributed in a randomized block design with four replications, corresponding to 2 nitrogen sources (coated urea, 43% of N; and conventional urea, 45% of N and 4 doses nitrogen (350, 440, 530 and 620 g per plant. The N doses used corresponded to 80, 100, 120 and 140% of the nitrogen fertilization. It was used six plants per plot with two row borders, totaling 192 plants cultivated in the field. It was assessed the intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (int.PAR, radiation interception efficiency (PAREff., leaf area index (LAI, plant height, stem diameter and yield. The coated urea promotes a higher growth and yield of „Formosa‟ papaya compared to the conventional urea. The application of 1.0 g of coated N promotes the production of 2.87 g of fruit per hectare while the application of 1.0 g of conventional N produces only 1.89 g of fruit per hectare, showing that the source of polymerized N increases the use efficiency of N applied to soil.

  4. Effect of urea on protein-ligand association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanian, Lora; Son, Ikbae; Chalikian, Tigran V

    2017-12-01

    We combine experimental and theoretical approaches to investigate the influence of a cosolvent on a ligand-protein association event. We apply fluorescence measurements to determining the affinity of the inhibitor tri-N-acetylglucosamine [(GlcNAc) 3 ] for lysozyme at urea concentrations ranging from 0 to 8M. Notwithstanding that, at room temperature and neutral pH, lysozyme retains its native conformation up to the solubility limit of urea, the affinity of (GlcNAc) 3 for the protein steadily decreases as the concentration of urea increases. We analyze the urea dependence of the binding free energy within the framework of a simplified statistical thermodynamics-based model that accounts for the excluded volume effect and direct solute-solvent interactions. The analysis reveals that the detrimental action of urea on the inhibitor-lysozyme binding originates from competition between the free energy contributions of the excluded volume effect and direct solute-solvent interactions. The free energy contribution of direct urea-solute interactions narrowly overcomes the excluded volume contribution thereby resulting in urea weakening the protein-ligand association. More broadly, the successful application of the simple model employed in this work points to the possibility of its use in quantifying the stabilizing/destabilizing action of individual cosolvents on biochemical folding and binding reactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dissolution of lignin in green urea aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyu; Li, Ying; Qiu, Xueqing; Liu, Di; Yang, Dongjie; Liu, Weifeng; Qian, Yong