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Sample records for serum transferrin receptor

  1. Serum transferrin receptors in detection of iron deficiency in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusia, U; Flowers, C; Madan, N; Agarwal, N; Sood, S K; Sikka, M

    1999-08-01

    A prospective hospital-based study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of serum transferrin receptors in the detection of iron deficiency in pregnant women. The iron status of 100 pregnant women with single uncomplicated term pregnancies in the first stage of labor was established using standard laboratory measures. These included complete hemogram, red cell indices, serum iron, percent transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin. In addition, serum transferrin receptor (STFR) was estimated. The results of 81 women with complete laboratory profiles were analyzed. Thirty-five (43.2%) women were anemic (hemoglobin <11 g/dl). Hemoglobin (Hb) showed a significant correlation with MCH, MCHC, serum iron, and percent transferrin saturation, suggesting that the anemia was likely to be due to iron deficiency. The mean STFR level was 18.05+/-9.9 mg/l in the anemic women and was significantly raised (p<0.001) compared with that of the nonanemic women. STFR correlated significantly with Hb (p<0.001), MCH (p<0.05), MCHC (p<0.01), serum iron (p<0.01), and percent transferrin saturation (p<0.01) and also showed a highly significant correlation with the degree of anemia. Serum ferritin in these women did not correlate with Hb, and only 54.4% of the women had levels <12 ng/ml, which does not reflect the true prevalence of iron deficiency. Serum transferrin receptor estimation is thus a useful measure for detecting iron deficiency in pregnancy.

  2. Serum transferrin receptor concentration indicates increased erythropoiesis in Kenyan children with asymptomatic malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, H.; West, C.E.; Ndeto, P.; Burema, J.; Benguin, Y.; Kok, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Serum transferrin receptor concentrations indicate both erythropoietic activity and the deficit of functional iron in the erythron. In contrast with serum ferritin concentrations, serum transferrin receptor concentrations are not or are only marginally influenced by the inflammatory

  3. Receptor recognition sites reside in both lobes of human serum transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, A B; Tam, B M; Woodworth, R C; Oliver, R W; Green, B N; Lin, L N; Brandts, J F; Savage, K J; Lineback, J A; MacGillivray, R T

    1997-08-15

    The binding of iron by transferrin leads to a significant conformational change in each lobe of the protein. Numerous studies have shown that the transferrin receptor discriminates between iron-saturated and iron-free transferrin and that it modulates the release of iron. Given these observations, it seems likely that there is contact between each lobe of transferrin and the receptor. This is the case with chicken transferrin, in which it has been demonstrated unambiguously that both lobes are required for binding and iron donation to occur [Brown-Mason and Woodworth (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 1866-1873]. Further support to this contention is added by the ability of both N- and C-domain-specific monoclonal antibodies to block the binding of a solution containing both lobes [Mason, Brown and Church (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 9011-9015]. In the present study a similar conclusion is reached for the binding of human serum transferrin to the transferrin receptor. With the use of recombinant N- and C-lobes of human transferrin produced in a mammalian expression system, we show that both lobes are required to achieve full binding. (Production of recombinant C-lobe in the baby hamster kidney cell system is reported here for the first time.) Each lobe is able to donate iron to transferrin receptors on HeLa S3 cells in the presence of the contralateral lobe. The results are not identical with the chicken system, because the C-lobe alone shows a limited ability to bind to receptors and to donate iron. Further complications arise from the relatively weak re-association between the two lobes of human transferrin compared with the re-association of the ovotransferrin lobes. However, domain-specific monoclonal antibodies to either lobe block the binding of N- and C-lobe mixtures in the human system, thus substantiating the need for both.

  4. Receptor recognition sites reside in both lobes of human serum transferrin.

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, A B; Tam, B M; Woodworth, R C; Oliver, R W; Green, B N; Lin, L N; Brandts, J F; Savage, K J; Lineback, J A; MacGillivray, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    The binding of iron by transferrin leads to a significant conformational change in each lobe of the protein. Numerous studies have shown that the transferrin receptor discriminates between iron-saturated and iron-free transferrin and that it modulates the release of iron. Given these observations, it seems likely that there is contact between each lobe of transferrin and the receptor. This is the case with chicken transferrin, in which it has been demonstrated unambiguously that both lobes ar...

  5. Serum transferrin receptor levels in the evaluation of iron deficiency in the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusia, U; Flowers, C; Madan, N; Agarwal, N; Sood, S K; Sikka, M

    1996-10-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major global problem. Early onset of iron deficiency in developing countries makes it imperative to identify iron deficiency in neonates. Most conventional laboratory parameters of iron status fail to distinguish neonates with iron deficient erythropoiesis. Serum transferrin receptor (STFR) levels are a recent sensitive measure of iron deficiency and the present study was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of cord serum transferrin receptors in identifying iron deficient erythropoiesis in neonates. A complete hemogram, red cell indices, iron profile: serum iron (SI), percent transferrin saturation (TS%) and serum ferritin (SF) was carried out in 100 full-term neonates and their mothers at parturition. Cord and maternal STFR levels were estimated using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Anemic women had a significantly lower SI, their TS% and high STFR levels suggesting that iron deficiency was responsible for the anemia. In the neonates of iron deficient mothers, cord SI, TS% and cord ferritin were not significantly different from those of neonates born to non-anemic mothers. Cord STFR level correlated well with hemoglobin (Hb) and laboratory parameters of iron status, and its level was significantly higher in neonates born to anemic mothers than in those born to non-anemic mothers. It was the only laboratory parameter to differentiate between neonates born to anemic and non-anemic mothers. Therefore, STFR is a sensitive index of iron status in neonates and identifies neonates with iron deficient erythropoiesis.

  6. Correlations between hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor levels in children aged 6-59 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajar Diah Tri Kusumastuti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Early detection of iron deficiency is important in young children to prevent iron deficiency anemia, which may cause permanent neurocognitive development disorders. Hemoglobin level is an insensitive tool for detecting iron deficiency without anemia, while serum ferritin levels may be influenced by infection and inflammation. However, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR is a sensitive marker for detecting iron deficiency, yet not widely used in daily practice. Objective To assess for correlations between hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor levels in children aged 6-59 months. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in the Yogyakarta and Bantul Districts involving 85 children aged 6-59 months who visited integrated health posts (posyandu and who met the inclusion criteria. Subjects were chosen by cluster random sampling. Blood specimens were collected to examine hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and sTfR levels. Results Spearman’s correlation test revealed weak negative correlations between hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels, as well as between hemoglobin and sTfR levels, with coefficient correlations of r = -0.220, (P=0.043 and r = -0.317, (P=0.003, respectively. There was no correlation between serum ferritin and sTfR levels (r = -0.033; P=0.767. Conclusion Hemoglobin levels has weak negative correlations with serum ferritin and sTfR, but serum ferritin does not correlate with sTfR. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:122-6.

  7. The crystal structure of iron-free human serum transferrin provides insight into inter-lobe communication and receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wally, Jeremy; Halbrooks, Peter J; Vonrhein, Clemens; Rould, Mark A; Everse, Stephen J; Mason, Anne B; Buchanan, Susan K

    2006-08-25

    Serum transferrin reversibly binds iron in each of two lobes and delivers it to cells by a receptor-mediated, pH-dependent process. The binding and release of iron result in a large conformational change in which two subdomains in each lobe close or open with a rigid twisting motion around a hinge. We report the structure of human serum transferrin (hTF) lacking iron (apo-hTF), which was independently determined by two methods: 1) the crystal structure of recombinant non-glycosylated apo-hTF was solved at 2.7-A resolution using a multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing strategy, by substituting the nine methionines in hTF with selenomethionine and 2) the structure of glycosylated apo-hTF (isolated from serum) was determined to a resolution of 2.7A by molecular replacement using the human apo-N-lobe and the rabbit holo-C1-subdomain as search models. These two crystal structures are essentially identical. They represent the first published model for full-length human transferrin and reveal that, in contrast to family members (human lactoferrin and hen ovotransferrin), both lobes are almost equally open: 59.4 degrees and 49.5 degrees rotations are required to open the N- and C-lobes, respectively (compared with closed pig TF). Availability of this structure is critical to a complete understanding of the metal binding properties of each lobe of hTF; the apo-hTF structure suggests that differences in the hinge regions of the N- and C-lobes may influence the rates of iron binding and release. In addition, we evaluate potential interactions between apo-hTF and the human transferrin receptor.

  8. Heterotypic interactions between transferrin receptor and transferrin receptor 2

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, TM; Blackwell, AD; Giannetti, AM; Bjorkman, PJ; Enns, CA

    2003-01-01

    Cellular iron uptake in most tissues occurs via endocytosis of diferric transferrin (Tf) bound to the transferrin receptor (TfR). Recently, a second transferrin receptor, transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2), has been identified and shown to play a critical role in iron metabolism. TfR2 is capable of Tf-mediated iron uptake and mutations in this gene result in a rare form of hereditary hemochromatosis unrelated to the hereditary hemochromatosis protein, HFE. Unlike TfR, TfR2 expression is not contro...

  9. Structure and dynamics of drug carriers and their interaction with cellular receptors: focus on serum transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Ashley N; Mason, Anne B

    2013-07-01

    Highly proliferative cells have a dramatically increased need for iron which results in the expression of an increased number of transferrin receptors (TFR). This insight makes the transferrin receptor on these cells an excellent candidate for targeted therapeutics. In this regard, it is critical to understand at a molecular level exactly how the TFR interacts with its ligand, hTF. Understanding of the hTF/TFR pathway could, in theory, maximize the use of this system for development of more effective small molecules or toxin-conjugates to specifically target cancer cells. Many strategies have been attempted with the objective of utilizing the hTF/TFR system to deliver drugs; these include conjugation of a toxin or drug to hTF or direct targeting of the TFR by antibodies. To date, in spite of all of the effort, there is a conspicuous absence of any successful candidate drugs reaching the clinic. We suggest that a lack of quantitative data to determine the basic biochemical properties of the drug carrier and the effects of drug-conjugation on the hTF-TFR interaction may have contributed to the failure to realize the full potential of this system. This review provides some guidelines for developing a more quantitative approach for evaluation of current and future hTF-drug conjugates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Serum Hepcidin and Soluble Transferrin Receptor in the Assessment of Iron Metabolism in Children on a Vegetarian Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Mazur, Joanna; Gajewska, Joanna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Chełchowska, Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vegetarian diet on iron metabolism parameters paying special attention to serum hepcidin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations in 43 prepubertal children (age range 4.5-9.0 years) on vegetarian and in 46 children on omnivorous diets. There were no significant differences according to age, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) between vegetarian and omnivorous children. Vegetarians had similar intake of iron and vitamin B 12 and a significantly higher intake of vitamin C (p vegetarians. Hematologic parameters and serum iron concentrations were within the reference range in both groups of children. Serum transferrin levels were similar in all subjects; however, ferritin concentrations were significantly (p vegetarians than in omnivores. In children on a vegetarian diet, median hepcidin levels were lower (p vegetarians. We did not find significant associations with concentration of sTfR and selected biochemical, anthropometric, and dietary parameters in any of the studied groups of children. As hematologic parameters and iron concentrations in vegetarians and omnivores were comparable and ferritin level was lower in vegetarians, we suggest that inclusion of novel markers, in particular sTfR (not cofounded by inflammation) and hepcidin, can better detect subclinical iron deficiency in children following vegetarian diets.

  11. Soluble Transferrin Receptor - A Marker For Iron Deficiency; A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The serum transferrin are shed into the blood and its level has been found to correlate with the level of iron stores and thereby the degree of erythropoietic activity. The aim of this literature review is to explore the physical properties of the serum transferrin receptor and its usefulness in the detection of iron deficiency.

  12. Transferrin-directed Internalization and Cycling of Transferrin Receptor 2

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Juxing; Wang, Jinzhi; Meyers, Kathrin R.; Enns, Caroline A.

    2009-01-01

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) is a homologue of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) but has distinct functions from TfR1 in iron homeostasis. In keeping with its proposed role in iron sensing, previous studies showed that TfR2 has a short half-life and that holo-Tf stabilizes TfR2 by redirecting it from a degradative pathway to a recycling pathway. In this study, we characterized how the endocytosis, recycling and degradation of TfR2 relates to its function and differs from TfR1. TfR2 endocytosis w...

  13. Transferrin receptor expression and role in transendothelial transport of transferrin in cultured brain endothelial monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersom, Maria; Helms, Hans Christian; Pretzer, Natasia

    2016-01-01

    receptor localization patterns in mono-cultures and co-cultures. The endothelial cells demonstrated an up-regulation of transferrin receptor mRNA after treatment with the iron chelator deferoxamine. The association of [125I]holo-transferrin and [59Fe]-transferrin to the endothelial cells was inhibited...... by an excess of unlabeled holo-transferrin, indicating receptor mediated association. However, over time the cell associated [59Fe]-label exceeded that of [125I]holo-transferrin, which could indicate release of iron in the endothelial cells and receptor recycling. Luminal-to-abluminal transport of [125I...

  14. Transferrin-directed internalization and cycling of transferrin receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juxing; Wang, Jinzhi; Meyers, Kathrin R; Enns, Caroline A

    2009-10-01

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) is a homologue of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) but has distinct functions from TfR1 in iron homeostasis. In keeping with its proposed role in iron sensing, previous studies showed that TfR2 has a short half-life and that holo-Tf stabilizes TfR2 by redirecting it from a degradative pathway to a recycling pathway. In this study, we characterized how the endocytosis, recycling and degradation of TfR2 relates to its function and differs from TfR1. TfR2 endocytosis was adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) dependent. Flow cytometry analysis showed that TfR1 and TfR2 utilized the same endocytic pathway only in the presence of holo-Tf, indicating that holo-Tf alters the interaction of TfR2 with the endocytic machinery. Unlike TfR1, phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 1 (PACS-1) binds to the cytoplasmic domain of TfR2 and data suggest that PACS-1 is involved in the TfR2 recycling. Depletion of TSG101 by siRNA or expression of a dominant negative Vps4 inhibited TfR2 degradation, indicating that TfR2 degradation occurs through a multivesicular body (MVB) pathway. TfR2 degradation is not mediated through ubiquitination on the single lysine (K31) in the cytoplasmic domain or on the amino terminal residue. No ubiquitination of TfR2 by HA-ubiquitin was detected, indicating a lack of direct TfR2 ubiquitination involvement in its degradation.

  15. Diferric transferrin regulates transferrin receptor 2 protein stability.

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    Johnson, Martha B; Enns, Caroline A

    2004-12-15

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) is a type 2 transmembrane protein expressed in hepatocytes that binds iron-bound transferrin (Tf). Mutations in TfR2 cause one form of hereditary hemochromatosis, a disease in which excessive absorption of dietary iron can lead to liver cirrhosis, diabetes, arthritis, and heart failure. The function of TfR2 in iron homeostasis is unknown. We have studied the regulation of TfR2 in HepG2 cells. Western blot analysis shows that TfR2 increases in a time- and dose-dependent manner after diferric Tf is added to the culture medium. In cells exposed to diferric Tf, the amount of TfR2 returns to control levels within 8 hours after the removal of diferric Tf from the medium. However, TfR2 does not increase when non-Tf-bound iron (FeNTA) or apo Tf is added to the medium. The response to diferric Tf appears to be hepatocyte specific. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis shows that TfR2 mRNA levels do not change in cells exposed to diferric Tf. Rather, the increase in TfR2 is attributed to an increase in the half-life of TfR2 protein in cells exposed to diferric Tf. Our results support a role for TfR2 in monitoring iron levels by sensing changes in the concentration of diferric Tf.

  16. Regulation of transferrin receptor 2 protein levels by transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Aeisha; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2004-12-15

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) plays a critical role in iron homeostasis because patients carrying disabling mutations in the TFR2 gene suffer from hemochromatosis. In this study, iron-responsive regulation of TfR2 at the protein level was examined in vitro and in vivo. HepG2 cell TfR2 protein levels were up-regulated after exposure to holotransferrin (holoTf) in a time- and dose-responsive manner. ApoTf or high-iron treatment with non-Tf-bound iron failed to elicit similar effects, suggesting that TfR2 regulation reflects interactions of the iron-bound ligand. Hepatic TfR2 protein levels also reflected an adaptive response to changing iron status in vivo. Liver TfR2 protein levels were down- and up-regulated in rats fed an iron-deficient and a high-iron diet, respectively. TfR2 was also up-regulated in Hfe(-/-) mice, an animal model that displays liver iron loading. In contrast, TfR2 levels were reduced in hypotransferrinemic mice despite liver iron overload, supporting the idea that regulation of the receptor is dependent on Tf. This idea is confirmed by up-regulation of TfR2 in beta-thalassemic mice, which, like hypotransferrinemic mice, are anemic and incur iron loading, but have functional Tf. Based on these combined results, we hypothesize that TfR2 acts as a sensor of iron status such that receptor levels reflect Tf saturation.

  17. Transferrin receptors and gallium-67 uptake in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.C.P.; Newman, B.; Turkall, R.M.; Tsan, M.F.

    1982-12-01

    The relationship was studied between the number of transferrin-receptor positive cells and in vitro uptake of /sup 67/Ga and /sup 125/I-labeled transferrin in human cell lines, including two normal cell lines (WI-38 and foreskin fibroblasts), two transformed cell lines (AV-3 amnionic cells and Chang liver cells), and two neoplastic cell lines (HEp-2, larynx cancer and HeLa, cervical cancer). Transferrin receptors were determined by an indirect immunofluoresence technique based on their ability to bind purified human transferrin. Gallium-67 uptake was determined after a 24-h incubation of cells with Ga-67 in the presence and absence of transferrin (0-2.5 mg/mI). /sup 125/I-labeled transferrin uptake was also obtained after a 24-h incubation. The fraction of cells with transferrin receptors was low in normal cell lines (3% and 9%), intermediate with transformed cell lines (33% and 49%), and high in neoplastic cell lines (59% and 61%). Transferrin stimulated /sup 67/Ga uptake by all six cell lines. However, there was poor correlation between the number of transferrin-receptor positive cells and /sup 67/Ga uptake either in the presence (r=0.21) or absence (r=0.46) of human transferrin. Likewise, there was poor correlation between the number of transferrin-receptor positive cells and /sup 125/I-labeled transferrin uptake (r=0.35). In contrast, the correlation between /sup 67/Ga uptake (in the presence of transferrin) and /sup 125/I-labeled transferrin uptake was highly significant (r=0.96). These results suggest that human cell lines in culture are capable of both transferrin-dependent and transferrin-independent uptake of /sup 67/Ga.

  18. Roles of transferrin receptors in erythropoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Soichiro; Masuda, Taro; Uchiyama, Tatsuki; Ohmori, Katsuyuki; Koeffler, H Phillip; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi

    2016-07-01

    Erythropoiesis requires large amounts of iron for hemoglobin synthesis, which is mainly provided by macrophages and the intestines in a transferrin (Tf)-bound form. Bone marrow erythroblasts incorporate Tf through endocytosis, which is mediated by transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1). Recently, human TFR1, aside from its role as a Tf receptor, was also found to be a receptor for the H-subunit of ferritin (FTH). In humans, hematopoietic erythroid precursor cells express high levels of TFR1 and specifically take up the FTH homopolymer (H-ferritin). H-ferritin inhibits the formation of burst forming unit-erythroid colonies in vitro. TFR2, which is also a Tf receptor, is predominantly expressed in hepatocytes and erythroid precursor cells. In the liver, TFR2 forms a complex with HFE, a hereditary hemochromatosis-associated protein, and acts as an iron sensor. In mice, hepatocyte-specific knockout of the TFR2 gene has been shown to cause systemic iron-overload with decreased expression of hepcidin, the central regulator of iron homeostasis. In erythroid cells, TFR2 forms a complex with the erythropoietin receptor and facilitates its trafficking to the cell membrane. Moreover, hematopoietic cell-specific knockout of the TFR2 gene causes microcytic erythrocytosis in mice. This review focuses on the molecular evolution and functions of these TFRs and their ligands.

  19. Kinetics of Transferrin and Transferrin-Receptor during Iron Transport through Blood Brain Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aminul; Liu, Jin; Dutta, Prashanta

    2017-11-01

    Transferrin and its receptors play an important role during the uptake and transcytosis of iron by blood brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells to maintain iron homeostasis in BBB endothelium and brain. In the blood side of BBB, ferric iron binds with the apo-transferrin to form holo-transferrin which enters the endothelial cell via transferrin receptor mediated endocytosis. Depending on the initial concentration of iron inside the cell endocytosed holo-transferrin can either be acidified in the endosome or exocytosed through the basolateral membrane. Acidification of holo-transferrin in the endosome releases ferrous irons which may either be stored and used by the cell or transported into brain side. Exocytosis of the holo-transferrin through basolateral membrane leads to transport of iron bound to transferrin into brain side. In this work, kinetics of internalization, recycling and exocytosis of transferrin and its receptors are modeled by laws of mass action during iron transport in BBB endothelial cell. Kinetic parameters for the model are determined by least square analysis. Our results suggest that the cell's initial iron content determines the extent of the two possible iron transport pathways, which will be presented in this talk Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01GM122081.

  20. The complete amino acid sequence of human serum transferrin.

    OpenAIRE

    MacGillivray, R. T.; Mendez, E. (Elena); Sinha, S. K.; Sutton, M.R.; Lineback-Zins, J; Brew, K

    1982-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of human serum transferrin has been determined by aligning the structures of the 10 CNBr fragments. The order of these fragments in the polypeptide chain is deduced from the structures of peptides overlapping methionine residues and other evidence. Human transferrin contains 678 amino acid residues and--including the two asparagine-linked glycans--has an overall molecular weight of 79,550. The polypeptide chain contains two homologous domains consisting of res...

  1. Erythroblast transferrin receptors and transferrin kinetics in iron deficiency and various anemias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muta, K.; Nishimura, J.; Ideguchi, H.; Umemura, T.; Ibayashi, H.

    1987-06-01

    To clarify the role of transferrin receptors in cases of altered iron metabolism in clinical pathological conditions, we studied: number of binding sites; affinity; and recycling kinetics of transferrin receptors on human erythroblasts. Since transferrin receptors are mainly present on erythroblasts, the number of surface transferrin receptors was determined by assay of binding of /sup 125/I-transferrin and the percentage of erythroblasts in bone marrow mononuclear cells. The number of binding sites on erythroblasts from patients with an iron deficiency anemia was significantly greater than in normal subjects. Among those with an aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and polycythemia vera compared to normal subjects, there were no considerable differences in the numbers of binding sites. The dissociation constants (Kd) were measured using Scatchard analysis. The apparent Kd was unchanged (about 10 nmol/L) in patients and normal subjects. The kinetics of endocytosis and exocytosis of /sup 125/I-transferrin, examined by acid treatment, revealed no variations in recycling kinetics among the patients and normal subjects. These data suggest that iron uptake is regulated by modulation of the number of surface transferrin receptors, thereby reflecting the iron demand of the erythroblast.

  2. Serum transferrin levels in children with protein-energy malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selime Aydoğdu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although the diagnosis of patients with severemalnutrition is easy, it is very difficult to recognize patientswith mild and moderate malnutrition. A variety of methodsattempts to develop for early diagnosis of these cases.In this study, we evaluated the serum transferrin and albuminlevels in children with mild, moderate and severeprotein-energy malnutrition (PEM.Materials and methods: Children admitted to our policlinic,aged between 3 and 25 months, 45 subjects withPEM and 39 healthy subjects (control group were evaluated.According to the Gomez, Waterlow and Kanawatisubjects with PEM were divided in 3 subgroups mild,moderate and severe PEM. Anthropometric measurementsand biochemical results of 4 groups were compared.Results: For albumin levels in mild to moderate PEMgroups, 37.7% sensitivity, and 28.5% specificity, positivepredictive value 54%; negative predictive value 16.6%was found. For severe PEM sensitivity, specificity, positivepredictive value and negative predictive value were71%, 62.5%, 45%, and 83.3% respectively.With respect to the levels of transferrin, a significant differencewas found between mild PEM-control and moderatePEM-control groups (p0.05.Conclusion: Our study results showed that albumin isa weak indicator in mild-moderate PEM. In these cases,serum transferrin level reduces before decreasing of albuminlevel, thus it may be an early sensitive finding thatcan be used as a sensitive parameter in the diagnosis ofearly stages of malnutrition.Key words: Protein energy malnutrition, children, albumin,transferrin

  3. The significance of soluble transferrin receptors in diagnosing iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijanić Ivan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In recent years, determination of soluble transferrin receptor levels has been emerging as a test that can reliably indicate iron deficiency in various states, and that is non-invasive and easy to use. The aim of this study was: to determine reference values of soluble transferrin receptor concentrations in serums in our population, to examine the reliability of this method in the diagnosis of anemia due to iron deficiency and associated iron deficiency in anemia accompanying malignant hemopathies, and to identify possible limitations of the test in certain conditions.

  4. Hereditary Hemochromatosis and Transferrin Receptor 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juxing

    2011-01-01

    Background Multicellular organisms regulate the uptake of calories, trace elements, and other nutrients by complex feedback mechanisms. In the case of iron, the body senses internal iron stores, iron requirements for hematopoiesis, and inflammatory status, and regulates iron uptake by modulating the uptake of dietary iron from the intestine. Both the liver and the intestine participate in the coordination of iron uptake and distribution in the body. The liver senses inflammatory signals and iron status of the organism and secretes a peptide hormone, hepcidin. Under high iron or inflammatory conditions hepcidin levels increase. Hepcidin binds to the iron transport protein, ferroportin (FPN), promoting FPN internalization and degradation. Decreased FPN levels reduce iron efflux out of intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages into the circulation. Derangements in iron metabolism result in either the abnormal accumulation of iron in the body, or in anemias. The identification of the mutations that cause the iron overload disease, hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), or iron-refractory iron-deficiencey anemia has revealed many of the proteins used to regulate iron uptake. Scope of the review In this review we discuss recent data concerning the regulation of iron homeostasis in the body by the liver and how transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) affects this process. Major conclusions TfR2 plays a key role in regulating iron homeostasis in the body. General significance The regulation of iron homeostasis is important. One third of the people in the world are anemic. HH is the most common inherited disease in people of Northern European origin and can lead to severe health complications if left untreated. PMID:21864651

  5. Serum Soluble Transferrin Receptor Concentrations Are Elevated in Congolese Children with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Variants, but Not Sickle Cell Variants or α-Thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Mikaela K; Henderson, Amanda M; Naguib, Karimah; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Devlin, Angela M; Albert, Arianne Y; Bahizire, Esto; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Akilimali, Pierre Z; Boy, Erick; Green, Tim J; Karakochuk, Crystal D

    2017-09-01

    Background: Anemia is common in Congolese children, and inherited blood disorders may be a contributing cause. The presence of sickle cell variants, X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and α-thalassemia, has been previously reported. G6PD A- deficiency is characterized by the co-inheritance of G6PD 376 and 202 variants and is common in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: We aimed to measure the associations between inherited blood disorders and hemoglobin, ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations in Congolese children. Methods: Venous blood was collected from 744 children aged 6-59 mo from 2 provinces. We measured biomarkers of nutritional and inflammation status and malaria. Pyrosequencing was used to detect sickle cell variants. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect G6PD variants and α-thalassemia deletions. Results: Overall, 11% of children had a sickle cell variant, 19% of boys were G6PD A- hemizygotes, 12% and 10% of girls were G6PD A- hetero- or homozygotes, respectively, and 12% of children had α-thalassemia. Multivariable linear regression models (adjusted for age, province, altitude, malaria, and biomarkers of nutritional and inflammation status) showed that G6PD A- hemizygous boys and G6PD 376 homozygous girls had higher sTfR concentrations [geometric mean ratios (95% CIs): 1.20 (1.03, 1.39) and 1.25 (1.02, 1.53), respectively] than children with no G6PD variants. Hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations were not independently associated with any of the inherited blood disorder genotypes. Conclusions: We found that 2 G6PD variant genotypes were associated with elevated sTfR concentrations, which limits the accuracy of sTfR as a biomarker of iron status in this population. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Characterization of the interaction between diferric transferrin and transferrin receptor 2 by functional assays and atomic force microscopy*

    OpenAIRE

    生田, 克哉; Yersin, Alexandre; Ikai, Atsushi; Aisen, Philip; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2), a homologue of the classical transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), is found in two isoforms, alpha and beta. Like TfR1, TfR2alpha is a type II membrane protein, but the beta form lacks transmembrane portions and therefore is likely to be an intracellular protein. To investigate the functional properties of TfR2alpha, we expressed the protein with FLAG tagging in transferrin-receptor-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells. The association constant for the binding of dife...

  7. Transferrin Receptor 2 Is Frequently and Highly Expressed in Glioblastomas

    OpenAIRE

    Calzolari, Alessia; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Deaglio, Silvia; Finisguerra, Veronica; Boe, Alessandra; Raggi, Carla; Ricci-Vitani, Lucia; Pierconti, Francesco; Malavasi, Fabio; De Maria, Ruggero; Testa, Ugo; Pallini, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) is expressed in the liver and its balance is related to the cell cycle rather than to intracellular iron levels. We recently showed that TfR2 is highly expressed in glioblastoma cell lines. Here, we demonstrate that, in these cells, TfR2 appears to localize in lipid rafts, induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation after transferrin binding, and contributes to cell proliferation, as shown by RNA silencing exp...

  8. Iron uptake from plasma transferrin by a transferrin receptor 2 mutant mouse model of haemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Anita C G; Delima, Roheeth D; Morgan, Evan H; Herbison, Carly E; Tirnitz-Parker, Janina E E; Graham, Ross M; Fleming, Robert E; Britton, Robert S; Bacon, Bruce R; Olynyk, John K; Trinder, Debbie

    2010-03-01

    Hereditary haemochromatosis type 3 is caused by mutations in transferrin receptor (TFR) 2. TFR2 has been shown to mediate iron transport in vitro and regulate iron homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Tfr2 in iron transport in vivo using a Tfr2 mutant mouse. Tfr2 mutant and wild-type mice were injected intravenously with (59)Fe-transferrin and tissue (59)Fe uptake was measured. Tfr1, Tfr2 and ferroportin expression was measured by real-time PCR and Western blot. Cellular localisation of ferroportin was determined by immunohistochemistry. Transferrin-bound iron uptake by the liver and spleen in Tfr2 mutant mice was reduced by 20% and 65%, respectively, whilst duodenal and renal uptake was unchanged compared with iron-loaded wild-type mice. In Tfr2 mutant mice, liver Tfr2 protein was absent, whilst ferroportin protein was increased in non-parenchymal cells and there was a low level of expression in hepatocytes. Tfr1 expression was unchanged compared with iron-loaded wild-type mice. Splenic Tfr2 protein expression was absent whilst Tfr1 and ferroportin protein expression was increased in Tfr2 mutant mice compared with iron-loaded wild-type mice. A small reduction in hepatic transferrin-bound iron uptake in Tfr2 mutant mice suggests that Tfr2 plays a minor role in liver iron transport and its primary role is to regulate iron metabolism. Increased ferroportin expression due to decreased hepcidin mRNA levels is likely to be responsible for impaired splenic iron uptake in Tfr2 mutant mice. Copyright (c) 2009 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analyses for binding of the transferrin family of proteins to the transferrin receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Hiroshi; Tong, Xiangjun; Kawanami, Takafumi; Wano, Yuji; Hirose, Yuko; Sugai, Susumu; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2004-11-01

    Transferrin receptor 2 alpha (TfR2 alpha), the major product of the TfR2 gene, is the second receptor for transferrin (Tf), which can mediate cellular iron uptake in vitro. Homozygous mutations of TfR2 cause haemochromatosis, suggesting that TfR2 alpha may not be a simple iron transporter, but a regulator of iron by identifying iron-Tf. In this study, we analysed the ligand specificity of TfR2 alpha using human transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and TfR2 alpha-stably transfected and expressing cells and flow-cytometric techniques. We showed that human TfR2 alpha interacted with both human and bovine Tf, whereas human TfR1 interacted only with human Tf. Neither human TfR1 nor TfR2 alpha interacted with either lactoferrin or melanotransferrin. In addition, by creating point mutations in human TfR2 alpha, the RGD sequence in the extracellular domain of TfR2 alpha was shown to be crucial for Tf-binding. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mutated TfR2 alpha (Y250X), which has been reported in patients with hereditary haemochromatosis, also lost its ability to interact with both human and bovine Tf. Although human TfR1 and TfR2 alpha share an essential structure (RGD) for ligand-binding, they have clearly different ligand specificities, which may be related to the differences in their roles in iron metabolism.

  10. Elevated levels of transferrin receptor 2 mRNA, not transferrin receptor 1 mRNA, are associated with increased survival in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamaki, Tsuyoshi; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Saito, Bungo; Matsunawa, Manabu; Suzuki, Junko; Adachi, Daisuke; Tomoyasu, Shigeru; Phillip Koeffler, H

    2004-04-01

    Transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) is a type II membrane protein that mediates cellular iron uptake. Transferrin receptor 2(TfR2), another receptor for transferrin (Tf), has recently been cloned. We examined expression levels of TfR1, TfR2-alpha (membrane form) and TfR2-beta (non-membrane form) transcripts in cells from 67 patients with de novo acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and correlated the results with a variety of clinical features and disease outcomes of these patients. Significant correlations were noted between the levels of both TfR1 and TfR2-alpha (r = 0.771, P TfR2-beta (r = 0.534, P TfR2-alpha (r = -0.486, P TfR2-beta (r = -0.435, P = 0.0003). Only TfR2 expression was significantly associated with either serum iron (r = -0.270, P = 0.045) or serum ferritin (r = -0.364, P = 0.008). Multivariate analyses using Cox's proportional hazard model showed that elevated TfR2-alpha, but not TfR1 or TfR2-beta mRNA levels significantly contributed to a better prognosis for AML patients. Furthermore, a group with high expression levels of both TfR2-alpha and TfR2-beta survived significantly longer than a group without high expression of both of them (P TfR2 (especially the alpha form) is a novel prognostic factor for patients with AML.

  11. N-Linked Glycosylation Is Required for Transferrin-Induced Stabilization of Transferrin Receptor 2, but Not for Transferrin Binding or Trafficking to the Cell Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ningning; Enns, Caroline A.

    2013-01-01

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) is a member of the transferrin receptor-like family of proteins. Mutations in TfR2 can lead to a rare form of the iron overload disease, hereditary hemochromatosis. TfR2 is proposed to sense body iron levels and increase the level of expression of the iron regulatory hormone, hepcidin. Human TfR2 (hTfR2) contains four potential Asn-linked (N-linked) glycosylation sites on its ectodomain. The importance of glycosylation in TfR2 function has not been elucidated. In...

  12. Modulating antibody affinity towards the transferrin receptor to increase brain uptake of anti-transferrin receptor antibody targeted gold nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kasper Bendix; Bak, Martin; Melander, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    . The transferrin receptor is exclusively expressed on capillaries of the brain, which makes it an interesting target for transport of drugs towards the brain. However, the current evidence on the receptor movement in brain capillaries does not suggest transcytosis, and delivering medicines or nanoparticles using......Drug delivery to the brain is hampered by the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that under physiological conditions precludes entrance of most substances contained in the systemic circulation. Thus, this barrier must be overcome to deliver medicines into the brain parenchyma...

  13. The role of transferrin receptor 1 and 2 in transferrin-bound iron uptake in human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbison, Carly E; Thorstensen, Ketil; Chua, Anita C G; Graham, Ross M; Leedman, Peter; Olynyk, John K; Trinder, Debbie

    2009-12-01

    Transferrin receptor (TFR) 1 and 2 are expressed in the liver; TFR1 levels are regulated by cellular iron levels while TFR2 levels are regulated by transferrin saturation. The aims of this study were to 1) determine the relative importance of TFR1 and TFR2 in transferrin-bound iron (TBI) uptake by HuH7 human hepatoma cells and 2) characterize the role of metal-transferrin complexes in the regulation of these receptors. TFR expression was altered by 1) incubation with metal-transferrin (Tf) complexes, 2) TFR1 and TFR2 small interfering RNA knockdown, and 3) transfection with a human TFR2 plasmid. TBI uptake was measured using (59)Fe-(125)I-labeled Tf and mRNA and protein expression by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Fe(2)Tf, Co(2)Tf, and Mn(2)Tf increased TFR2 protein expression, indicating that the upregulation was not specifically regulated by iron-transferrin but also other metal-transferrins. In addition, Co(2)Tf and Mn(2)Tf upregulated TFR1, reduced ferritin, and increased hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha protein expression, suggesting that TFR1 upregulation was due to a combination of iron deficiency and chemical hypoxia. TBI uptake correlated with changes in TFR1 but not TFR2 expression. TFR1 knockdown reduced iron uptake by 80% while TFR2 knockdown did not affect uptake. At 5 microM transferrin, iron uptake was not affected by combined TFR1 and TFR2 knockdown. Transfection with a hTFR2 plasmid increased TFR2 protein expression, causing a 15-20% increase in iron uptake and ferritin levels. This shows for the first time that TFR-mediated TBI uptake is mediated primarily via TFR1 but not TFR2 and that a high-capacity TFR-independent pathway exists in hepatoma cells.

  14. Stoichiometries of Transferrin Receptors 1 and 2 in Human Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Chloupková, Maja; Zhang, An-Sheng; Enns, Caroline A.

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in either the hereditary hemochromatosis protein, HFE, or transferrin receptor 2, TfR2, result in a similarly severe form of the most common type of iron overload disease called hereditary hemochromatosis. Models of the interactions between HFE, TfR1, and TfR2 imply that these proteins are present in different molar concentrations in the liver, where they control expression of the iron regulatory hormone, hepcidin, in response to body iron loading. The aim of this study was to deter...

  15. Ferristatin II promotes degradation of transferrin receptor-1 in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaina L Byrne

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the small molecule iron transport inhibitor ferristatin (NSC30611 acts by down-regulating transferrin receptor-1 (TfR1 via receptor degradation. In this investigation, we show that another small molecule, ferristatin II (NSC8679, acts in a similar manner to degrade the receptor through a nystatin-sensitive lipid raft pathway. Structural domains of the receptor necessary for interactions with the clathrin pathway do not appear to be necessary for ferristatin II induced degradation of TfR1. While TfR1 constitutively traffics through clathrin-mediated endocytosis, with or without ligand, the presence of Tf blocked ferristatin II induced degradation of TfR1. This effect of Tf was lost in a ligand binding receptor mutant G647A TfR1, suggesting that Tf binding to its receptor interferes with the drug's activity. Rats treated with ferristatin II have lower TfR1 in liver. These effects are associated with reduced intestinal (59Fe uptake, lower serum iron and transferrin saturation, but no change in liver non-heme iron stores. The observed hypoferremia promoted by degradation of TfR1 by ferristatin II appears to be due to induced hepcidin gene expression.

  16. Transferrin receptor 2 is frequently and highly expressed in glioblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, Alessia; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Deaglio, Silvia; Finisguerra, Veronica; Boe, Alessandra; Raggi, Carla; Ricci-Vitani, Lucia; Pierconti, Francesco; Malavasi, Fabio; De Maria, Ruggero; Testa, Ugo; Pallini, Roberto

    2010-04-01

    Under physiological conditions, transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) is expressed in the liver and its balance is related to the cell cycle rather than to intracellular iron levels. We recently showed that TfR2 is highly expressed in glioblastoma cell lines. Here, we demonstrate that, in these cells, TfR2 appears to localize in lipid rafts, induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation after transferrin binding, and contributes to cell proliferation, as shown by RNA silencing experiments. In vitro hypoxic conditions induce a significant TfR2 up-regulation, suggesting a role in tumor angiogenesis. As assessed by immunohistochemistry, the level of TfR2 expression in astrocytic tumors is related to histologic grade, with the highest expression observed in glioblastomas. The level of TfR2 expression represents a favorable prognostic factor, which is associated with the higher sensitivity to temozolomide of TfR2-positive tumor cells in vitro. The endothelial cells of glioblastoma vasculature also stain for TfR2, whereas those of the normal brain vessels do not. Importantly, TfR2 is expressed by the subpopulation of glioblastoma cells with properties of cancer-initiating cells. TfR2-positive glioblastoma cells retain their TfR2 expression on xenografting in immunodeficient mice. In conclusion, our observations demonstrate that TfR2 is a neoantigen for astrocytomas that seems attractive for developing target therapies.

  17. H-Ferritin Is Preferentially Incorporated by Human Erythroid Cells through Transferrin Receptor 1 in a Threshold-Dependent Manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Ferritin is an iron-storage protein composed of different ratios of 24 light (L and heavy (H subunits. The serum level of ferritin is a clinical marker of the body's iron level. Transferrin receptor (TFR1 is the receptor not only for transferrin but also for H-ferritin, but how it binds two different ligands and the blood cell types that preferentially incorporate H-ferritin remain unknown. To address these questions, we investigated hematopoietic cell-specific ferritin uptake by flow cytometry. Alexa Fluor 488-labeled H-ferritin was preferentially incorporated by erythroid cells among various hematopoietic cell lines examined, and was almost exclusively incorporated by bone marrow erythroblasts among human primary hematopoietic cells of various lineages. H-ferritin uptake by erythroid cells was strongly inhibited by unlabeled H-ferritin but was only partially inhibited by a large excess of holo-transferrin. On the other hand, internalization of labeled holo-transferrin by these cells was not inhibited by H-ferritin. Chinese hamster ovary cells lacking functional endogenous TFR1 but expressing human TFR1 with a mutated RGD sequence, which is required for transferrin binding, efficiently incorporated H-ferritin, indicating that TFR1 has distinct binding sites for H-ferritin and holo-transferrin. H-ferritin uptake by these cells required a threshold level of cell surface TFR1 expression, whereas there was no threshold for holo-transferrin uptake. The requirement for a threshold level of TFR1 expression can explain why among primary human hematopoietic cells, only erythroblasts efficiently take up H-ferritin.

  18. Effects of human serum and apo-Transferrin on Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Pengfei; Chen, Lihua; Qi, Yong; Xu, Huan; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Yangxia; Luo, Zhen; Wu, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Biofilm-associated Staphylococcus epidermidis infections present clinically important features due to their high levels of resistance to traditional antibiotics. As a part of human innate immune system, serum shows different degrees of protection against systemic S. epidermidis infection. We investigated the ability of human serum as well as serum component to inhibit the formation of, and eradication of mature S. epidermidis biofilms. In addition, the synergistic effect of vancomycin combined with apo-Transferrin was checked. Human serum exhibited significant antibiofilm activities against S. epidermidis at the concentration without affecting planktonic cell growth. However, there was no effect of human serum on established biofilms. By component separation, we observed that antibiofilm effect of serum components mainly due to the proteins could be damaged by heat inactivation (e.g., complement) or heat-stable proteins ≥100 kDa. In addition, serum apo-Transferrin showed modest antibiofilm effect, but without influence on S. epidermidis initial adhesion. And there was a synergistic antibiofilm interaction between vancomycin and apo-Transferrin against S. epidermidis. Our results indicate that serum or its components (heat-inactivated components or heat-stable proteins ≥100 kDa) could inhibits S. epidermidis biofilm formation. Besides, apo-Transferrin could partially reduce the biofilm formation at the concentration that does not inhibit planktonic cell growth. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Lethal Cardiomyopathy in Mice Lacking Transferrin Receptor in the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjing; Barrientos, Tomasa; Mao, Lan; Rockman, Howard A; Sauve, Anthony A; Andrews, Nancy C

    2015-10-20

    Both iron overload and iron deficiency have been associated with cardiomyopathy and heart failure, but cardiac iron utilization is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that the transferrin receptor (Tfr1) might play a role in cardiac iron uptake and used gene targeting to examine the role of Tfr1 in vivo. Surprisingly, we found that decreased iron, due to inactivation of Tfr1, was associated with severe cardiac consequences. Mice lacking Tfr1 in the heart died in the second week of life and had cardiomegaly, poor cardiac function, failure of mitochondrial respiration, and ineffective mitophagy. The phenotype could only be rescued by aggressive iron therapy, but it was ameliorated by administration of nicotinamide riboside, an NAD precursor. Our findings underscore the importance of both Tfr1 and iron in the heart, and may inform therapy for patients with heart failure. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lethal Cardiomyopathy in Mice Lacking Transferrin Receptor in the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Xu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Both iron overload and iron deficiency have been associated with cardiomyopathy and heart failure, but cardiac iron utilization is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that the transferrin receptor (Tfr1 might play a role in cardiac iron uptake and used gene targeting to examine the role of Tfr1 in vivo. Surprisingly, we found that decreased iron, due to inactivation of Tfr1, was associated with severe cardiac consequences. Mice lacking Tfr1 in the heart died in the second week of life and had cardiomegaly, poor cardiac function, failure of mitochondrial respiration, and ineffective mitophagy. The phenotype could only be rescued by aggressive iron therapy, but it was ameliorated by administration of nicotinamide riboside, an NAD precursor. Our findings underscore the importance of both Tfr1 and iron in the heart, and may inform therapy for patients with heart failure.

  1. Characterization of the interaction between diferric transferrin and transferrin receptor 2 by functional assays and atomic force microscopy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Katsuya; Yersin, Alexandre; Ikai, Atsushi; Aisen, Philip; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Transferrin receptor (TfR2), a homologue of classical transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), is found in two isoforms, α and β. Like TfR1, TfR2α is a type II membrane protein, but the β form lacks transmembrane portions and therefore is likely to be an intracellular protein. To investigate the functional properties of TfR2α we expressed the protein with FLAG-tagging in transferrin receptor-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells. The association constant for binding of diferric transferrin (Tf) to TfR2α is 5.6 × 106 M−1, which is about 50 times lower than that of TfR1, with correspondingly reduced rates of iron uptake. Evidence for Tf internalization and recycling via TfR2α without degradation, as in the TfR1 pathway, was also found. The interaction of TfR2α with Tf was further investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), a powerful tool for investigation of the interaction between ligand and receptor at the single molecule level on the living cell surface. Dynamic force microscopy reveals a difference in the interactions of Tf with TfR2α and TfR1, with Tf-TfR1 unbinding characterized by 2 energy barriers, while only one is present for Tf-TfR2. We speculate that this difference may reflect Tf binding to TfR2α by a single lobe, whereas two lobes of Tf participate in binding to TfR1. The difference in the binding properties of Tf to TfR1 and TfR2α may help account for the different physiological roles of the two receptors. PMID:20096706

  2. HFE modulates transferrin receptor 2 levels in hepatoma cells via interactions that differ from transferrin receptor 1-HFE interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juxing; Chloupková, Maja; Gao, Junwei; Chapman-Arvedson, Tara L; Enns, Caroline A

    2007-12-21

    Mutations in the transmembrane glycoproteins transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) and HFE are associated with hereditary hemochromatosis. Interactions between HFE and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) have been mapped to the alpha1- and alpha2-helices in HFE and to the helical domain of TfR1. Recently, TfR2 was also reported to interact with HFE in transfected mammalian cells. To test whether similar HFE residues are important for both TfR1 and TfR2 binding, a mutant form of HFE (W81AHFE) that has an approximately 5,000-fold lower affinity for TfR1 than HFE was employed. As expected, W81AHFE does not interact with TfR1. However, we found that the same mutation in HFE does not affect the TfR2/HFE interaction. This finding indicates that the TfR2/HFE and TfR1/HFE interactions are distinct. We further observed that, unlike TfR1/HFE, Tf does not compete with HFE for binding to TfR2 and that binding is independent of pH (pH 6-7.5). TfR2-TfR1 and HFE-HLA-B7 chimeras were generated to map the domains of the TfR2/HFE interaction. TfR1 and HLA-B7 were chosen because of their similar overall structures with TfR2 and HFE, respectively. We mapped the interacting domains to the putative stalk and protease-like domains of TfR2 located between residues 104 and 250 and to the alpha3 domain of HFE, both of which differ from the TfR1/HFE interacting domains. Furthermore, we found that HFE increases TfR2 levels in hepatic cells independent of holo-Tf.

  3. Transferrin Receptor 2: Evidence for Ligand-induced Stabilization and Redirection to a Recycling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Martha B.; Chen, Juxing; Murchison, Nicholas; Green, Frank A.; Enns, Caroline A.

    2007-01-01

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) is a homologue of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), the protein that delivers iron to cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis of diferric transferrin (Fe2Tf). TfR2 also binds Fe2Tf, but it seems to function primarily in the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis. In contrast to TfR1, the trafficking of TfR2 within the cell has not been extensively characterized. Previously, we showed that Fe2Tf increases TfR2 stability, suggesting that trafficking of TfR2 may b...

  4. Targeted disruption of the hepatic transferrin receptor 2 gene in mice leads to iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Daniel F; Summerville, Lesa; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2007-01-01

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) plays a key role in the regulation of iron metabolism. Mutations of TfR2 in humans cause type 3 hereditary hemochromatosis. Although highly expressed in liver, several studies have reported TfR2 expression in other tissues. To determine the contribution of liver expressed TfR2 in iron homeostasis, we have generated and characterized a liver-specific TfR2-knockout (KO) mouse. Liver-specific TfR2-KO mice were generated by crossing TfR2-floxed mice with transgenic albumin-Cre mice. Tissue and serum from homozygous TfR2-floxed mice with and without albumin-Cre were analyzed. Serum transferrin saturation, hepatic, and splenic iron concentrations were determined. The expression of iron-related mRNA transcripts was analyzed by real-time PCR. Levels of the iron-related proteins TfR1, TfR2, ferritin, and prohepcidin were analyzed by immunoblotting. Liver-specific TfR2-KO mice develop significant iron overload comparable to complete TfR2-KO mice. At all ages studied, transferrin saturation, hepatic iron concentration, and hepatic ferritin were significantly elevated. Hepatic TfR2 mRNA and protein were absent in the livers of liver-specific TfR2-KO mice, and TfR1 expression was reduced consistent with liver iron loading. At 5 weeks of age, hepcidin1 mRNA, and prohepcidin protein were decreased in liver-specific TfR2-KO compared to control mice. The significant iron loading and modulation of expression of iron-related genes in liver-specific TfR2-KO mice demonstrates that the liver is the primary site for TfR2 expression and activity and that liver-expressed TfR2 is required for the regulation of hepcidin1.

  5. Genomewide linkage analysis of soluble transferrin receptor plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacha, Angel F; Souto, Joan C; Soria, José Manuel; Buil, Alfonso; Sardà, M Pilar; Lathrop, Mark; Blangero, John; Almasy, Laura; Fontcuberta, Jordi

    2006-01-01

    Genetic control of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels was demonstrated using family-based studies (GAIT, Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia project); moreover, a genetic relationship was observed between sTfR and the risk for thrombosis, suggesting that these phenotypes shared genetic determinants. We studied the regions that control sTfR. To assess such regions, a full genome scan was carried out using 604 highly polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid markers (resolution 7.3 cM) in 21 extended pedigrees (358 individuals). Then, a quantitative trait linkage analysis was performed using variance components methods. The genomewide scan linkage analysis showed two regions (quantitative trait locus or QTL) with significant limit of detection (LOD) scores (2q23.14, LOD score = 2.64, nominal p = 0.00024; 3q21.2, LOD score = 1.94, nominal p = 0.0014). There were no obvious candidate genes in these regions. In conclusion, this linkage analysis suggested the existence of a QTL in 2q23.14 that probably harbored a gene (or genes) controlling sTfR levels. Moreover, a second linkage signal was observed in 3q21.2; albeit the evidence for this second locus was lower. The next step will be to identify the gene(s) and its possible involvement in thrombosis and iron homeostasis.

  6. Variability of the Transferrin Receptor 2 Gene in AMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wysokinski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a major factor in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Iron may catalyze the Fenton reaction resulting in overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Transferrin receptor 2 plays a critical role in iron homeostasis and variability in its gene may influence oxidative stress and AMD occurrence. To verify this hypothesis we assessed the association between polymorphisms of the TFR2 gene and AMD. A total of 493 AMD patients and 171 matched controls were genotyped for the two polymorphisms of the TFR2 gene: c.1892C>T (rs2075674 and c.−258+123T>C (rs4434553. We also assessed the modulation of some AMD risk factors by these polymorphisms. The CC and TT genotypes of the c.1892C>T were associated with AMD occurrence but the latter only in obese patients. The other polymorphism was not associated with AMD occurrence, but the CC genotype was correlated with an increasing AMD frequency in subjects with BMIT and c.−258+123T>C polymorphisms of the TRF2 gene may be associated with AMD occurrence, either directly or by modulation of risk factors.

  7. Transferrin protein nanospheres: a nanoplatform for receptor-mediated cancer cell labeling and gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael A.; Spurlin, Tighe A.; Tona, Alessandro; Elliott, John T.; Halter, Michael; Plant, Anne L.

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents preliminary results on the use of transferrin protein nanospheres (TfpNS) for targeting cancer cells in vitro. Protein nanospheres represent an easily prepared and modifiable nanoplatform for receptor-specific targeting, molecular imaging and gene delivery. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate conjugated TfpNS (RBITC-TfpNS) show significantly enhanced uptake in vitro in SK-MEL-28 human malignant melanoma cells known to overexpress transferrin receptors compared to controls. RBITCTfpNS labeling of the cancer cells is due to transferrin receptor-mediated uptake, as demonstrated by competitive inhibition with native transferrin. Initial fluorescence microscopy studies indicate GFP plasmid can be transfected into melanoma cells via GFP plasmid encapsulated by TfpNS.

  8. Interaction of the Hereditary Hemochromatosis Protein, HFE, with Transferrin Receptor 2 Is Required for Transferrin-Induced Hepcidin Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junwei; Chen, Juxing; Kramer, Maxwell; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Zhang, An-Sheng; Enns, Caroline A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The mechanisms that allow the body to sense iron levels in order to maintain iron homeostasis are unknown. Patients with the most common form of hereditary iron overload have mutations in the hereditary hemochromatosis protein, HFE. They have lower levels of hepcidin, than unaffected individuals. Hepcidin, a hepatic peptide hormone, negatively regulates iron efflux from the intestines into the blood. We report two hepatic cell lines, WIF-B cells and HepG2 cells transfected with HFE, where hepcidin expression responded to iron-loaded transferrin. The response was abolished when endogenous transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) was suppressed or in primary hepatocytes lacking either functional TfR2 or HFE. Furthermore, transferrin-treated HepG2 cells transfected with HFE chimeras containing only the α3 and cytoplasmic domains could upregulate hepcidin expression. Since the HFE α3 domain interacts with TfR2, these results supported our finding that TfR2/HFE complex is required for transcriptional regulation of hepcidin by holo-Tf. PMID:19254567

  9. Stoichiometries of transferrin receptors 1 and 2 in human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloupková, Maja; Zhang, An-Sheng; Enns, Caroline A

    2010-01-15

    Mutations in either the hereditary hemochromatosis protein, HFE, or transferrin receptor 2, TfR2, result in a similarly severe form of the most common type of iron overload disease called hereditary hemochromatosis. Models of the interactions between HFE, TfR1, and TfR2 imply that these proteins are present in different molar concentrations in the liver, where they control expression of the iron regulatory hormone, hepcidin, in response to body iron loading. The aim of this study was to determine in vivo levels of mRNA by quantitative RT-PCR and concentrations of these proteins by quantitative immunoblotting in human liver tissues. The level of TfR2 mRNA was 21- and 63-fold higher than that of TfR1 and HFE, respectively. Molar concentration of TfR2 protein was the highest and determined to be 1.95 nmol/g protein in whole cell lysates and 10.89 nmol/g protein in microsomal membranes. Molar concentration of TfR1 protein was 4.5- and 6.1-fold lower than that of TfR2 in whole cell lysates and membranes, respectively. The level of HFE protein was below 0.53 nmol/g of total protein. HFE is thus present in substoichiometric concentrations with respect to both TfR1 and TfR2 in human liver tissue. This finding supports a model, in which availability of HFE is limiting for formation of complexes with TfR1 or TfR2. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Serum iron, ferritin, transferrin and haptoglobin concentration variations during repeated show jumping competition in horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Assenza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modifications of the iron profile in athlete horses during two international three star (*** show jumping competitions performed in two consecutive weekends were evaluated. Serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and haptoglobin were assessed in 12 well-trained Italian Saddle horses. Blood samplings were performed before the first day of competition (R1, within 10 min from the end of each competition (J1, J2 and on the day after competition (R2. The same plan was followed during the second weekend (J3, J4 and R3. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was applied on obtained data, and a significant effect of exercise (P < 0.05 on all studied indices was found. These results suggest that serum iron, transferrin, ferritin and haptoglobin are responsive to intense exercise and could be considered important indicators that may give important information about the horse’s performance.

  11. Soluble transferrin receptor in sickle cell diseases: correlation with spleen function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Zerlotti Wolf Grotto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To correlate spleen function with soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR levels and red cell ferritin (RCF values in patients with sickle cell diseases. DESIGN: Prospective study. LOCATION: University Hospital, School of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas; a tertiary hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 60 patients with sickle cell diseases, in a steady state, who had not received blood transfusions for 3 months; 28 normal individuals with no clinical or laboratory signs of anemia. MEASUREMENTS: Determination of serum iron, transferrin iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin, RCF and sTfR. Evaluation of spleen function: erythrocytes with pits were quantified. RESULTS: Patients with sickle cell anemia had sTfR levels significantly higher than in normal individuals or those with HbSC (p=0.0001 and there was an inverse correlation between sTfR and fetal Hb (p=0.0016. RCF values were significantly higher in sickle cell anemia patients than in normal individuals or those with HbSC (p=0.0001, and there was a correlation between RCF and pitted erythrocytes (p=0.0512. CONCLUSION: The association between sTfR and fetal Hb confirms the contribution of fetal Hb to improving the hemolytic state by minimizing the consequent reactive erythrocyte expansion. High sTfR levels are not related to the degree of spleen function deficiency seen in sickle cell disease patients. The deficiency in the exocytosis process of the spleen occurring in sickle cell anemia patients may contribute to their accumulation of RCF.

  12. Upregulation of transferrin receptor-1 induces cholangiocarcinoma progression via induction of labile iron pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamnongkan, Wassana; Thanan, Raynoo; Techasen, Anchalee; Namwat, Nisana; Loilome, Watcharin; Intarawichian, Piyapharom; Titapun, Attapol; Yongvanit, Puangrat

    2017-07-01

    Labile iron pool is a cellular source of ions available for Fenton reactions resulting in oxidative stress. Living organisms avoid an excess of free irons by a tight control of iron homeostasis. We investigated the altered expression of iron regulatory proteins and iron discrimination in the development of liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma. Additionally, the levels of labile iron pool and the functions of transferrin receptor-1 on cholangiocarcinoma development were also identified. Iron deposition was determined using the Prussian blue staining method in human cholangiocarcinoma tissues. We investigated the alteration of iron regulatory proteins including transferrin, transferrin receptor-1, ferritin, ferroportin, hepcidin, and divalent metal transporter-1 in cholangiocarcinoma tissues using immunohistochemistry. The clinicopathological data of cholangiocarcinoma patients and the expressions of proteins were analyzed. Moreover, the level of intracellular labile iron pool in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines was identified by the RhoNox-1 staining method. We further demonstrated transferrin receptor-1 functions on cell proliferation and migration upon small interfering RNA for human transferrin receptor 1 transfection. Results show that Iron was strongly stained in tumor tissues, whereas negative staining was observed in normal bile ducts of healthy donors. Interestingly, high iron accumulation was significantly correlated with poor prognosis of cholangiocarcinoma patients. The expressions of iron regulatory proteins in human cholangiocarcinoma tissues and normal liver from cadaveric donors revealed that transferrin receptor-1 expression was increased in the cancer cells of cholangiocarcinoma tissues when compared with the adjacent normal bile ducts and was significantly correlated with cholangiocarcinoma metastasis. Labile iron pool level and transferrin receptor-1 expression were significantly increased in KKU-214 and KKU-213 when compared with cholangiocyte

  13. Interaction of imatinib mesylate with human serum transferrin: The comparative spectroscopic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska-Hill, Urszula

    2017-02-01

    Imatinib mesylate (Imt) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor mainly used in the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (Ph + CML). Human serum transferrin is the most abundant serum protein responsible for the transport of iron ions and many endogenous and exogenous ligands. In this study the mechanism of interactions between the imatinib mesylate and all states of transferrin (apo-Tf, Htf and holo-Tf) has been investigated by fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), circular dichroism (CD) and zeta potential spectroscopic methods. Based on the experimental results it was proved that under physiological conditions the imatinib mesylate binds to the each form of transferrin with a binding constant c.a. 105 M- 1. The thermodynamic parameters indicate that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals were involved in the interaction of apo-Tf with the drug and hydrophobic and ionic strength participate in the reaction of Htf and holo-Tf with imatinib mesylate. Moreover, it was shown that common metal ions, Zn2 + and Ca2 + strongly influenced apo-Tf-Imt binding constant. The CD studies showed that there are no conformational changes in the secondary structure of the proteins. No significant changes in secondary structure of the proteins upon binding with the drug and instability of apo-Tf-Imt system are the desirable effects from pharmacological point of view.

  14. A Novel Rat Model of Hereditary Hemochromatosis Due to a Mutation in Transferrin Receptor 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnikas, Thomas B; Wildt, Sheryl J; Wineinger, Amy E; Schmitz-Abe, Klaus; Markianos, Kyriacos; Cooper, Dale M; Fleming, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic iron overload in rats has been reported, but whether it is due to genetic or environmental causes is unknown. In the current study, phenotypic analysis of Hsd:HHCL Wistar rats revealed a low incidence of histologically detected liver iron overload. Here we characterized the pathophysiology of the iron overload and showed that the phenotype is heritable and due to a mutation in a single gene. We identified a single male rat among the 132 screened animals that exhibited predominantly periportal, hepatocellular iron accumulation. This rat expressed low RNA levels of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin and low protein levels of transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2), a membrane protein essential for hepcidin expression in humans and mice and mutated in forms of hereditary hemochromatosis. Sequencing of Tfr2 in the iron-overloaded rat revealed a novel Ala679Gly polymorphism in a highly conserved residue. Quantitative trait locus mapping indicated that this polymorphism correlated strongly with serum iron and transferrin saturations in male rats. Expression of the Gly679 variant in tissue culture cell lines revealed decreased steady-state levels of Tfr2. Characterization of iron metabolism in the progeny of polymorphic rats suggested that homozygosity for the Ala679Gly allele leads to a hemochromatosis phenotype. However, we currently cannot exclude the possibility that a polymorphism or mutation in the noncoding region of Tfr2 contributes to the iron-overload phenotype. Hsd:HHCL rats are the first genetic rat model of hereditary hemochromatosis and may prove useful for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of iron metabolism. PMID:23582421

  15. How the Binding of Human Transferrin Primes the Transferrin Receptor Potentiating Iron Release at Endosomal pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B Eckenroth; A Steere; N Chasteen; S Everse; A Mason

    2011-12-31

    Delivery of iron to cells requires binding of two iron-containing human transferrin (hTF) molecules to the specific homodimeric transferrin receptor (TFR) on the cell surface. Through receptor-mediated endocytosis involving lower pH, salt, and an unidentified chelator, iron is rapidly released from hTF within the endosome. The crystal structure of a monoferric N-lobe hTF/TFR complex (3.22-{angstrom} resolution) features two binding motifs in the N lobe and one in the C lobe of hTF. Binding of Fe{sub N}hTF induces global and site-specific conformational changes within the TFR ectodomain. Specifically, movements at the TFR dimer interface appear to prime the TFR to undergo pH-induced movements that alter the hTF/TFR interaction. Iron release from each lobe then occurs by distinctly different mechanisms: Binding of His349 to the TFR (strengthened by protonation at low pH) controls iron release from the C lobe, whereas displacement of one N-lobe binding motif, in concert with the action of the dilysine trigger, elicits iron release from the N lobe. One binding motif in each lobe remains attached to the same {alpha}-helix in the TFR throughout the endocytic cycle. Collectively, the structure elucidates how the TFR accelerates iron release from the C lobe, slows it from the N lobe, and stabilizes binding of apohTF for return to the cell surface. Importantly, this structure provides new targets for mutagenesis studies to further understand and define this system.

  16. Blunted hepcidin response to inflammation in the absence of Hfe and transferrin receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Daniel F; McDonald, Cameron J; Ostini, Lesa; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2011-03-10

    The induction of the iron-regulatory peptide hepcidin by proinflammatory cytokines is thought to result in the withholding of iron from invading pathogens. Hfe and transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2) are involved in the homeostatic regulation of hepcidin and their disruption causes hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). To determine whether either Hfe or Tfr2 is involved in the inflammatory pathway regulating hepcidin, we analyzed the effect of inflammation in 3 mouse models of HH. The inflammatory response and indicators of iron homeostasis were measured in wild-type, Hfe(-/-), Tfr2(-/-), and Hfe(-/-)/Tfr2(-/-) mice injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The administration of LPS significantly reduced serum iron in wild-type and Hfe(-/-) mice, with smaller reductions in Tfr2(-/-) and Hfe(-/-)/Tfr2(-/-) mice. Low basal levels of hepcidin in the Hfe(-/-)/Tfr2(-/-) mice were increased in response to LPS, but remained significantly lower than in the other strains of mice. These results suggest that despite the absence of Hfe and Tfr2, hepcidin is responsive to inflammation; however, the low basal expression and subsequent low levels of circulating hepcidin are insufficient to reduce serum iron effectively. This suggests that in HH, the iron-withholding response to invading pathogens may be inadequate, and this is especially the case in the absence of both Hfe and Tfr2.

  17. Rabenosyn-5 defines the fate of the transferrin receptor following clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaroli, Deanna M; Bellvé, Karl D; Standley, Clive; Lifshitz, Lawrence M; Cardia, James; Lambright, David; Leonard, Deborah; Fogarty, Kevin E; Corvera, Silvia

    2012-02-21

    Cell surface receptors and other proteins internalize through diverse mechanisms at the plasma membrane and are sorted to different destinations. Different subpopulations of early endosomes have been described, raising the question of whether different internalization mechanisms deliver cargo into different subsets of early endosomes. To address this fundamental question, we developed a microscopy platform to detect the precise position of endosomes relative to the plasma membrane during the uptake of ligands. Axial resolution is maximized by concurrently applied total internal reflection fluorescence and epifluorescence-structured light. We found that transferrin receptors are delivered selectively from clathrin-coated pits on the plasma membrane into a specific subpopulation of endosomes enriched in the multivalent Rab GTPase and phosphoinositide-binding protein Rabenosyn-5. Depletion of Rabenosyn-5, but not of other early endosomal proteins such as early endosome antigen 1, resulted in impaired transferrin uptake and lysosomal degradation of transferrin receptors. These studies reveal a critical role for Rabenosyn-5 in determining the fate of transferrin receptors internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and, more broadly, a mechanism whereby the delivery of cargo from the plasma membrane into specific early endosome subpopulations is required for its appropriate intracellular traffic.

  18. N-linked glycosylation is required for transferrin-induced stabilization of transferrin receptor 2, but not for transferrin binding or trafficking to the cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ningning; Enns, Caroline A

    2013-05-14

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) is a member of the transferrin receptor-like family of proteins. Mutations in TfR2 can lead to a rare form of the iron overload disease, hereditary hemochromatosis. TfR2 is proposed to sense body iron levels and increase the level of expression of the iron regulatory hormone, hepcidin. Human TfR2 (hTfR2) contains four potential Asn-linked (N-linked) glycosylation sites on its ectodomain. The importance of glycosylation in TfR2 function has not been elucidated. In this study, by employing site-directed mutagenesis to remove glycosylation sites of hTfR2 individually or in combination, we found that hTfR2 was glycosylated at Asn 240, 339, and 754, while the consensus sequence for N-linked glycosylation at Asn 540 was not utilized. Cell surface protein biotinylation and biotin-labeled Tf indicated that in the absence of N-linked oligosaccharides, hTfR2 still moved to the plasma membrane and bound its ligand, holo-Tf. However, without N-linked glycosylation, hTfR2 did not form the intersubunit disulfide bonds as efficiently as the wild type (WT). Moreover, the unglycosylated form of hTfR2 could not be stabilized by holo-Tf. We further provide evidence that the unglycosylated hTfR2 behaved in manner different from that of the WT in response to holo-Tf treatment. Thus, the putative iron-sensing function of TfR2 could not be achieved in the absence of N-linked oligosaccharides. On the basis of our analyses, we conclude that unlike TfR1, N-linked glycosylation is dispensable for the cell surface expression and holo-Tf binding, but it is required for efficient intersubunit disulfide bond formation and holo-Tf-induced stabilization of TfR2.

  19. Soluble transferrin receptor and immature reticulocytes are not useful for distinguishing iron-deficiency anemia from heterozygous beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisélia Aparecida Freire Maia de Lima

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency and heterozygous beta-thalassemia are important causes of hypochromic-microcytic anemia. Two laboratory parameters are suggested for the differentiation of such anemia. High-fluorescence reticulocyte counts and soluble transferrin receptor levels were determined in iron-deficiency anemia patients (n = 49 and heterozygous beta-thalassemia patients (n = 43. There was no significant difference in high-fluorescence reticulocyte and soluble transferrin receptor values between the two groups, but a correlation was observed between high-fluorescence reticulocytes and soluble transferrin receptors in iron-deficiency anemia, probably due to increased receptor synthesis as a response to decreased iron content in erythrocytes.

  20. The role of hepatic transferrin receptor 2 in the regulation of iron homeostasis in the body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christal A Worthen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine tuning of body iron is required to prevent diseases such as iron-overload and anemia. The putative iron-sensor, transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2, is expressed in the liver and mutations in this protein result in the iron-overload disease Type III hereditary hemochromatosis (HH. With the loss of functional TfR2, the liver produces about two-fold less of the peptide hormone hepcidin, which is responsible for negatively regulating iron uptake from the diet. This reduction in hepcidin expression leads to the slow accumulation of iron in the liver, heart, joints, and pancreas and subsequent cirrhosis, heart disease, arthritis, and diabetes. TfR2 can bind iron-loaded transferrin in the bloodstream, and hepatocytes treated with transferrin respond with a two-fold increase in hepcidin expression through stimulation of the BMP-signaling pathway. Loss of functional TfR2 or its binding partner, the original HH protein (HFE, results in a loss of this transferrin-sensitivity. While much is known about the trafficking and regulation of TfR2, the mechanism of its transferrin-sensitivity through the BMP-signaling pathway is still not known.

  1. Transferrin receptor 2 mediates a biphasic pattern of transferrin uptake associated with ligand delivery to multivesicular bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Aeisha D; Ericsson, Maria; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2004-12-01

    The physiological role of transferrin (Tf) receptor 2 (TfR2), a homolog of the well-characterized TfR1, is unclear. Mutations in TfR2 result in hemochromatosis, indicating that this receptor has a unique role in iron metabolism. We report that HepG2 cells, which endogenously express TfR2, display a biphasic pattern of Tf uptake when presented with ligand concentrations up to 2 muM. The apparently nonsaturating pathway of Tf endocytosis resembles TfR1-independent Tf uptake, a process previously characterized in some liver cell types. Exogenous expression of TfR2 but not TfR1 induces a similar biphasic pattern of Tf uptake in HeLa cells, supporting a role for TfR2 in this process. Immunoelectron microscopy reveals that while Tf, TfR1, and TfR2 are localized in the plasma membrane and tubulovesicular endosomes, TfR2 expression is associated with the additional appearance of Tf in multivesicular bodies. These combined results imply that unlike TfR1, which recycles apo-Tf back to the cell surface after the release of iron, TfR2 promotes the intracellular deposition of ligand. Tf delivered by TfR2 does not appear to be degraded, which suggests that its delivery to this organelle may be functionally relevant to the storage of iron in overloaded states.

  2. First phenotypic description of transferrin receptor 2 knockout mouse, and the role of hepcidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D F; Summerville, L; Lusby, P E; Subramaniam, V N

    2005-07-01

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) is a key molecule involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis. Mutations in humans cause type 3 haemochromatosis and a targeted mutation in mice leads to iron overload with a similar phenotype. We have previously described the generation of a complete TfR2-knockout (KO) mouse. The aims of this study were to determine the phenotype and analyse expression of iron related molecules in the liver, duodenum, and spleen of homozygous TfR2-KO, heterozygous, and wild-type mice. Serum and tissue iron levels were determined in 10 week old male mice. Expression of iron related mRNA transcripts were analysed in the liver, duodenum, and spleen using real time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of iron related proteins in the liver were analysed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Homozygous TfR2-KO mice had no TfR2 protein expression and developed significant iron overload typical of TfR2 associated haemochromatosis. In the liver of TfR2-KO mice there was no upregulation of hepcidin mRNA or prohepcidin protein in response to iron loading. Our results suggest that TfR2 is required for iron regulated expression of hepcidin and is involved in a pathway related to Hfe and hemojuvelin.

  3. Iron-independent neuronal expression of transferrin receptor mRNA in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Torben; Oates, Phillip S.; Morgan, Evan H.

    1999-01-01

    Hemochromatosis, hippocampus, in situ hybridization, iron deficiency, neurodegeneration, transferrin......Hemochromatosis, hippocampus, in situ hybridization, iron deficiency, neurodegeneration, transferrin...

  4. Erythropoietin, ferritin, haptoglobin, hemoglobin and transferrin receptor in metabolic syndrome: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hämäläinen Päivi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased ferritin concentrations are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS. The association between ferritin as well as hemoglobin level and individual MetS components is unclear. Erythropoietin levels in subjects with MetS have not been determined previously. The aim of this study was to compare serum erythropoietin, ferritin, haptoglobin, hemoglobin, and transferrin receptor (sTFR levels between subjects with and without MetS and subjects with individual MetS components. Methods A population based cross-sectional study of 766 Caucasian, middle-aged subjects (341 men and 425 women from five age groups born in Pieksämäki, Finland who were invited to a health check-up in 2004 with no exclusion criteria. Laboratory analyzes of blood samples collected in 2004 were done during year 2010. MetS was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Results 159 (53% men and 170 (40% women of study population met MetS criteria. Hemoglobin and ferritin levels as well as erythropoietin and haptoglobin levels were higher in subjects with MetS (p  Conclusion Subjects with MetS have elevated hemoglobin, ferritin, erythropoietin and haptoglobin concentrations. Higher hemoglobin levels are related to all components of MetS. Higher ferritin levels associate with TG, abdominal obesity, elevated glucose or low high density cholesterol. Haptoglobin levels associate with blood pressure or elevated glucose. However, erythropoietin levels are related only with abdominal obesity. Higher serum erythropoietin concentrations may suggest underlying adipose tissue hypoxemia in MetS.

  5. The role of hepatic transferrin receptor 2 in the regulation of iron homeostasis in the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Christal A; Enns, Caroline A

    2014-01-01

    Fine-tuning of body iron is required to prevent diseases such as iron-overload and anemia. The putative iron sensor, transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2), is expressed in the liver and mutations in this protein result in the iron-overload disease Type III hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). With the loss of functional TfR2, the liver produces about 2-fold less of the peptide hormone hepcidin, which is responsible for negatively regulating iron uptake from the diet. This reduction in hepcidin expression leads to the slow accumulation of iron in the liver, heart, joints, and pancreas and subsequent cirrhosis, heart disease, arthritis, and diabetes. TfR2 can bind iron-loaded transferrin (Tf) in the bloodstream, and hepatocytes treated with Tf respond with a 2-fold increase in hepcidin expression through stimulation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-signaling pathway. Loss of functional TfR2 or its binding partner, the original HH protein, results in a loss of this transferrin-sensitivity. While much is known about the trafficking and regulation of TfR2, the mechanism of its transferrin-sensitivity through the BMP-signaling pathway is still not known.

  6. Study of the interaction of trivalent actinide and lanthanide ions with human serum transferrin by means of time-resolved laser-fluorescence spectroscopy; Untersuchung der Wechselwirkung trivalenter Actinid- und Lanthanidionen mit humanem Serumtransferrin mittels zeitaufgeloester Laserfluoreszenzspektroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Nicole

    2015-04-27

    In the present work the complexation of Cm(III), Eu(III) and Am(III) with human serum transferrin is studied. The aim of this work was the identification and the spectroscopic and thermodynamic characterization of An(III) and Ln(III) transferrin complex species. Different speciation methods, such as time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), luminescence spectroscopy and EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) spectroscopy were applied. Using TRLFS two unambiguously different Cm(III) transferrin species were identified for the first time. In the pH range from 3.5 to 9.7 the Cm(III) transferrin species I is formed revealing complexation of the metal ion at a nonspecific site of the protein surface. In case of the Cm(III) transferrin species II Cm(III) is bound at the Fe(III) binding site of the protein resulting in a 4-fold coordination via amino acid groups of the protein (His, Asp, 2 x Tyr) and coordination of two water molecules and three additional ligands, e.g. OH{sup -} or CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. Due to the kinetic and thermodynamic differences of the binding sites of the N- and C-lobe, the experimental conditions ensure exclusive coordination of Cm(III) at the C-terminal binding site. In addition to the complexation studies of Cm(III) with transferrin, the interaction with the recombinant N-lobe of human serum transferrin (hTf/2N) as a model component for the transferrin N-lobe was investigated. At pH≥7.4 a Cm(III) hTf/2N species with Cm(III) bound at the Fe(III) binding site is formed which is comparable to the Cm(III) transferrin species II. An increase of the temperature from room temperature (T=296 K) to physiological temperature (T=310 K) favors the complexation of Cm(III) with both transferrin and hTf/2N. The complexation of Cm(III) with transferrin was investigated at three different carbonate concentrations (c(carbonate){sub tot}=0 mM, 0,23 mM und 25 mM (physiological carbonate concentration)). An increase of the total carbonate

  7. Transferrin receptor 2: evidence for ligand-induced stabilization and redirection to a recycling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Martha B; Chen, Juxing; Murchison, Nicholas; Green, Frank A; Enns, Caroline A

    2007-03-01

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) is a homologue of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), the protein that delivers iron to cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis of diferric transferrin (Fe(2)Tf). TfR2 also binds Fe(2)Tf, but it seems to function primarily in the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis. In contrast to TfR1, the trafficking of TfR2 within the cell has not been extensively characterized. Previously, we showed that Fe(2)Tf increases TfR2 stability, suggesting that trafficking of TfR2 may be regulated by interaction with its ligand. In the present study, therefore, we sought to identify the mode of TfR2 degradation, to characterize TfR2 trafficking, and to determine how Fe(2)Tf stabilizes TfR2. Stabilization of TfR2 by bafilomycin implies that TfR2 traffics to the lysosome for degradation. Confocal microscopy reveals that treatment of cells with Fe(2)Tf increases the fraction of TfR2 localizing to recycling endosomes and decreases the fraction of TfR2 localizing to late endosomes. Mutational analysis of TfR2 shows that the mutation G679A, which blocks TfR2 binding to Fe(2)Tf, increases the rate of receptor turnover and prevents stabilization by Fe(2)Tf, indicating a direct role of Fe(2)Tf in TfR2 stabilization. The mutation Y23A in the cytoplasmic domain of TfR2 inhibits its internalization and degradation, implicating YQRV as an endocytic motif.

  8. Second international round robin for the quantification of serum non-transferrin-bound iron and labile plasma iron in patients with iron-overload disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, L. de; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Vorm, L.N. van der; Cabantchik, Z.I.; Evans, P.J.; Hod, E.A.; Brittenham, G.M.; Furman, Y.; Wojczyk, B.; Janssen, M.C.H.; Porter, J.B.; Mattijssen, V.E.; Biemond, B.J.; MacKenzie, M.A.; Origa, R.; Galanello, R.; Hider, R.C.; Swinkels, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    Non-transferrin-bound iron and its labile (redox active) plasma iron component are thought to be potentially toxic forms of iron originally identified in the serum of patients with iron overload. We compared ten worldwide leading assays (6 for non-transferrin-bound iron and 4 for labile plasma iron)

  9. A specialized pathway for erythroid iron delivery through lysosomal trafficking of transferrin receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Shadi; Holy, Maja; Grado, Stephen; Fleming, Robert; Kurita, Ryo; Nakamura, Yukio; Goldfarb, Adam

    2017-06-27

    Erythroid progenitors are the largest consumers of iron in the human body. In these cells, a high flux of iron must reach the mitochondrial matrix to form sufficient heme to support hemoglobinization. Canonical erythroid iron trafficking occurs via the first transferrin receptor (TfR1)-mediated endocytosis of diferric-transferrin into recycling endosomes, where ferric iron is released, reduced, and exported to the cytosol via DMT1. However, mice lacking TfR1 or DMT1 demonstrate residual erythropoiesis, suggesting additional pathways for iron use. How iron moves from endosomes to mitochondria is incompletely understood, with both cytosolic chaperoning and "kiss and run" interorganelle transfer implicated. TfR2, in contrast to its paralog TfR1, has established roles in iron sensing, but not iron uptake. Recently, mice with marrow-selective TfR2 deficiency were found to exhibit microcytosis, suggesting TfR2 may also contribute to erythroid hemoglobinization. In this study, we identify alternative trafficking, in which TfR2 mediates lysosomal transferrin delivery. Imaging studies reveal an erythroid lineage-specific organelle arrangement consisting of a focal lysosomal cluster surrounded by a nest of mitochondria, with direct contacts between these 2 organelles. Erythroid TfR2 deficiency yields aberrant mitochondrial morphology, implicating TfR2-dependent transferrin trafficking in mitochondrial maintenance. Human TFR2 shares a lineage- and stage-specific expression pattern with MCOLN1, encoding a lysosomal iron channel, and MFN2, encoding a protein mediating organelle contacts. Functional studies reveal these latter factors to be involved in mitochondrial regulation and erythroid differentiation, with Mfn2 required for mitochondrial-lysosomal contacts. These findings identify a new pathway for erythroid iron trafficking involving TfR2-mediated lysosomal delivery followed by interorganelle transfer to mitochondria.

  10. Transferrin Receptor 1 Facilitates Poliovirus Permeation of Mouse Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Taketoshi; Ishizaka, Aya; Nihei, Coh-Ichi

    2016-02-05

    As a possible route for invasion of the CNS, circulating poliovirus (PV) in the blood is believed to traverse the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in paralytic poliomyelitis. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that mouse transferrin receptor 1 (mTfR1) is responsible for PV attachment to the cell surface, allowing invasion into the CNS via the BBB. PV interacts with the apical domain of mTfR1 on mouse brain capillary endothelial cells (MBEC4) in a dose-dependent manner via its capsid protein (VP1). We found that F-G, G-H, and H-I loops in VP1 are important for this binding. However, C-D, D-E, and E-F loops in VP1-fused Venus proteins efficiently penetrate MBEC4 cells. These results imply that the VP1 functional domain responsible for cell attachment is different from that involved in viral permeation of the brain capillary endothelium. We observed that co-treatment of MBEC4 cells with excess PV particles but not dextran resulted in blockage of transferrin transport into cells. Using the Transwell in vitro BBB model, transferrin co-treatment inhibited permeation of PV into MBEC4 cells and delayed further viral permeation via mTfR1 knockdown. With mTfR1 as a positive mediator of PV-host cell attachment and PV permeation of MBEC4 cells, our results indicate a novel role of TfR1 as a cellular receptor for human PV receptor/CD155-independent PV invasion of the CNS. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Endocytosis of a functionally enhanced GFP-tagged transferrin receptor in CHO cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi He

    Full Text Available The endocytosis of transferrin receptor (TfR has served as a model to study the receptor-targeted cargo delivery system for cancer therapy for many years. To accurately evaluate and optically measure this TfR targeting delivery in vitro, a CHO cell line with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-tagged human TfR was established. A chimera of the hTfR and EGFP was engineered by fusing EGFP to the amino terminus of hTfR. Data were provided to demonstrate that hTfR-EGFP chimera was predominantly localized on the plasma membrane with some intracellular fluorescent structures on CHO cells and the EGFP moiety did not affect the endocytosis property of hTfR. Receptor internalization occurred similarly to that of HepG2 cells expressing wild-type hTfR. The internalization percentage of this chimeric receptor was about 81 ± 3% of wild type. Time-dependent co-localization of hTfR-EGFP and PE-conjugated anti-hTfR mAb in living cells demonstrated the trafficking of mAb-receptor complexes through the endosomes followed by segregation of part of the mAb and receptor at the late stages of endocytosis. The CHO-hTfR cells preferentially took up anti-hTfR mAb conjugated nanoparticles. This CHO-hTfR cell line makes it feasible for accurate evaluation and visualization of intracellular trafficking of therapeutic agents conjugated with transferrin or Abs targeting the hTfRs.

  12. Association between serum transferrin receptor levels and malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Malaria is endemic in 106 countries where it leads to an estimated 216 million cases per year and. 655,000 deaths, the majority of which are in sub-Saharan Africa (WHO 2015). Tanzania is heavily affected by malaria, which is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the country, accounting for over 30% of the ...

  13. Association between serum transferrin receptor levels and malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The relationship between body iron levels and malaria presents a complex interaction that provide variable and contradicting results. We designed a study to investigate associations between concentrations of biomarkers of body iron and malaria recurrence among children. Methods: We conducted a ...

  14. Transferrin receptor regulates pancreatic cancer growth by modulating mitochondrial respiration and ROS generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seung Min, E-mail: smjeong@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Aging and Metabolic Diseases, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sunsook; Seong, Rho Hyun [School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-11

    The transferrin receptor (TfR1) is upregulated in malignant cells and its expression is associated with cancer progression. Because of its pre-eminent role in cell proliferation, TfR1 has been an important target for the development of cancer therapy. Although TfR1 is highly expressed in pancreatic cancers, what it carries out in these refractory cancers remains poorly understood. Here we report that TfR1 supports mitochondrial respiration and ROS production in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells, which is required for their tumorigenic growth. Elevated TfR1 expression in PDAC cells contributes to oxidative phosphorylation, which allows for the generation of ROS. Importantly, mitochondrial-derived ROS are essential for PDAC growth. However, exogenous iron supplement cannot rescue the defects caused by TfR1 knockdown. Moreover, we found that TfR1 expression determines PDAC cells sensitivity to oxidative stress. Together, our findings reveal that TfR1 can contribute to the mitochondrial respiration and ROS production, which have essential roles in growth and survival of pancreatic cancer. - Highlights: • Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exhibits an elevated transferrin receptor (TfR1) expression in comparison with non-transformed pancreatic cells. • TfR1 is required for PDAC growth by regulating mitochondrial respiration and ROS production. • TfR1 functions as a determinant of cell viability to oxidative stress in PDAC cells.

  15. The Cytoplasmic domain of transferrin receptor 2 dictates its stability and response to holo-transferrin in Hep3B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juxing; Enns, Caroline A

    2007-03-02

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) is a homolog of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), the receptor responsible for the uptake of iron-loaded transferrin (holo-Tf) into cells. Unlike the ubiquitous TfR1, TfR2 is predominantly expressed in the liver. Mutations in TfR2 gene cause a rare autosomal recessive form of the iron overload disease, hereditary hemochromatosis. Previous studies demonstrated that holo-Tf increases TfR2 levels by stabilizing TfR2 at the protein level. In this study we constructed two chimeras, one of which had the cytoplasmic domain of TfR2 and the remaining portion of TfR1 and the other with the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domain of TfR1 joined to the ectodomain of TfR2. Similar to TfR2, the levels of the chimera containing only the cytoplasmic domain of TfR2 increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner after the addition of holo-Tf to the medium. The half-life of the chimera increased 2.7-fold in cells exposed to holo-Tf like the endogenous TfR2 in HepG2 cells. Like TfR2 and unlike TfR1, the levels of the chimera did not respond to intracellular iron content. These results suggest that although holo-Tf binding to the ectodomain is necessary, the cytoplasmic domain of TfR2 is largely responsible for its stabilization by holo-Tf.

  16. The significance of transferrin receptors in oncology: the development of functional nano-based drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorella, Stephanie; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2014-01-01

    Anticancer therapeutic research aims to improve clinical management of the disease through the development of strategies that involve currently-relevant treatment options and targeted delivery. Tumour-specific and -targeted delivery of compounds to the site of malignancy allows for enhanced cellular uptake, increased therapeutic benefit with high intratumoural drug concentrations, and decreased systemic exposure. Due to the upregulation of transferrin receptor expression in a wide variety of cancers, its function and its highly efficient recycling pathway, strategies involving the selective targeting of the receptor are well documented. Direct conjugation and immunotoxin studies using the transferrin peptide or anti-transferrin receptor antibodies as the targeting moiety have established the capacity to enhance cellular uptake, cross the blood brain barrier, limit systemic toxicity and reverse multi-drug resistance. Limitations in direct conjugation, including the difficulty in linking an adequate amount of therapeutic compound to the ligand or antibody have identified the requirement to develop novel delivery methods. The application of nanoparticulate theory in the development of functional drug delivery systems has proven to be most promising, with the ability to selectively modify size-dependent properties and surface chemistry. The transferrin modification on a range of nanoparticle formulations enhances selective cellular uptake through transferrin-mediated processes, and increases therapeutic benefit through the ability to encapsulate high concentrations of relevant drug to the tumour site. Although ineffective in crossing the blood brain barrier in its free form, chemotherapeutic compounds including doxorubicin, may be loaded into transferrin-conjugated nanocarriers and impart cytotoxic effects in glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, transferrin-targeted nanoparticles may be used in selective diagnostic applications with enhanced selectivity and

  17. Effects of exercise on soluble transferrin receptor and other variables of the iron status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Y; Schmid, A; Konig, D; Berg, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfr) is a new marker of iron status and erythropoietic activity. It has been included in multivariable blood testing models for the detection of performance enhancing erythropoietin misuse in sport. Objective: To evaluate the effect of different types and volumes of physical activity on sTfr concentration, variables of iron status (ferritin, transferrin, iron, and protein), and haematological indices. Methods: Thirty nine subjects were divided into three groups: 1, untrained (n = 12); 2, moderately trained (n = 14); 3, highly trained (n = 13, seven men, six women). Groups 1 and 2 carried out two exercise tests: an incremental running test until exhaustion (test A) and a 45 minute constant speed running test at 70% VO2MAX (test B). Group 3 performed three days (women) or four days (men) of prolonged aerobic cycling exercise. The above variables together with haemoglobin and packed cell volume were analysed in venous blood samples before and after exercise. Changes in blood and plasma volume were estimated. Results: sTfr levels were slightly increased in trained and untrained subjects immediately after test A. Test B and aerobic exercise had no significant effect on sTfr. Ferritin levels were increased after the laboratory tests for trained and untrained subjects and after prolonged aerobic exercise in male cyclists. Transferrin was increased significantly in trained and untrained subjects after both laboratory tests, but remained unchanged after prolonged exercise. Plasma and blood volumes were decreased after the laboratory tests but increased after aerobic exercise. No differences in the variables were observed between trained and untrained subjects with respect to response to exercise. Conclusion: The changes in sTfr and the variables of iron status can be mainly attributed to exercise induced changes in volume. Taking these limitations into account, sTfr can be recommended as a marker of iron deficiency in athletes

  18. Haemoglobin, serum albumin and transferrin variants of Bali (Banteng) cattle, Bos (Bibos) javanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K; McKenzie, H A; Shaw, D C

    1990-01-01

    1. Individual blood samples from 144 Bali (Banteng) cattle [Bos (Bibos) javanicus] in the Northern Territory of Australia and from 61 Bali cross cattle, were examined by zone electrophoresis to determine the variants of haemoglobin, serum albumin and transferrin that are present. 2. Of the common cattle haemoglobin variants (A and B) only variant B occurs in the Bali cattle samples. A second variant, designated CBali, occurs in Bali cattle either as the heterozygote (B CBali) or as the homozygote, the frequencies of occurrence indicating a two-allele system of inheritance without dominance. The CBali cross samples may exhibit the homozygous or heterozygous A variant. 3. The CBali variant has an electrophoretic mobility intermediate between those of the A and B variants at pH 8.6 and 9.1 but closer to B than to A (B greater than C greater than A). It appears to be similar in mobility to the C variants found in Indian Khillan (CKhillan) by Naik, Sukumaran and Sanghvi (Anim. Prodn, 1965 I, 275-277), and in Asian cattle by Oishi, Abe and Namikama (Immunogenet. Lett., 1968 5, 170-173) and Abe, Mogi, Oishi, Tanaka and Suzuki (Proc. XIIth Europ. Conf. Anim. Blood Groups Biochem. Polymorphisms 1972, pp. 225-228), but appreciably different from those in Kenyan and Rhodesian cattle (CRhodesia) found by Braend (Anim. Blood Grps Biochem. Genet., 1971 2, 15-21) and Carr (Rhod. J. agric. Res., 1964 3, 62-62A), respectively. It is also different in mobility from the C variant found by Winter, Mayr, Schleger, Dworak, Krutzler and Burger (Res. vet. Sci., 1984 36, 276-283) in the mithun.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. The erythroid function of transferrin receptor 2 revealed by Tmprss6 inactivation in different models of transferrin receptor 2 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Antonella; Pellegrino, Rosa M; Rausa, Marco; Pagani, Alessia; Boero, Martina; Silvestri, Laura; Saglio, Giuseppe; Roetto, Antonella; Camaschella, Clara

    2014-06-01

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed in the liver and in the erythroid compartment, mutated in a form of hereditary hemochromatosis. Hepatic TFR2, together with HFE, activates the transcription of the iron-regulator hepcidin, while erythroid TFR2 is a member of the erythropoietin receptor complex. The TMPRSS6 gene, encoding the liver-expressed serine protease matriptase-2, is the main inhibitor of hepcidin and inactivation of TMPRSS6 leads to iron deficiency with high hepcidin levels. Here we evaluate the phenotype resulting from the genetic loss of Tmprss6 in Tfr2 total (Tfr2(-/-)) and liver-specific (Tfr2(LCKO)) knockout mice. Tmprss6(-/-)Tfr2(-/-) and Tmprss6(-/-)Tfr2(LCKO) mice have increased hepcidin levels and show iron-deficiency anemia like Tmprss6(-/-)mice. However, while Tmprss6(-/-)Tfr2(LCKO) are phenotypically identical to Tmprss6(-/-) mice, Tmprss6(-/-)Tfr2(-/-) mice have increased red blood cell count and more severe microcytosis than Tmprss6(-/-) mice. In addition hepcidin expression in Tmprss6(-/-)Tfr2(-/-) mice is higher than in the wild-type animals, but lower than in Tmprss6(-/-) mice, suggesting partial inhibition of the hepcidin activating pathway. Our results prove that hepatic TFR2 acts upstream of TMPRSS6. In addition Tfr2 deletion causes a relative erythrocytosis in iron-deficient mice, which likely attenuates the effect of over-expression of hepcidin in Tmprss6(-/-) mice. Since liver-specific deletion of Tfr2 in Tmprss6(-/-) mice does not modify the erythrocyte count, we speculate that loss of Tfr2 in the erythroid compartment accounts for the hematologic phenotype of Tmprss6(-/-)Tfr2(-/-) mice. We propose that TFR2 is a limiting factor for erythropoiesis, particularly in conditions of iron restriction. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  20. Loss of rapid transferrin receptor recycling due to a mutation in Sec15l1 in hbd mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2007-02-01

    The hbd (hemoglobin deficit) mutation affects iron trafficking in murine reticulocytes. It is due to a deletion that eliminates exon 8 of Sec15l1, the homolog of a gene that encodes an exocyst component in yeast. We tested the hypothesis that the mutation causes defective slow or rapid receptor recycling by measuring endocytosis and exocytosis of transferrin by hbd reticulocytes. Endocytosis and initial iron incorporation were relatively unaffected, but exocytosis was unexpectedly slowed. These data indicate that rapid transferrin recycling is defective after pSec15l1 has mutated.

  1. Transferrin Receptor 2 Dependent Alterations of Brain Iron Metabolism Affect Anxiety Circuits in the Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Rosa Maria; Boda, Enrica; Montarolo, Francesca; Boero, Martina; Mezzanotte, Mariarosa; Saglio, Giuseppe; Buffo, Annalisa; Roetto, Antonella

    2016-08-01

    The Transferrin Receptor 2 (Tfr2) modulates systemic iron metabolism through the regulation of iron regulator Hepcidin (Hepc) and Tfr2 inactivation causes systemic iron overload. Based on data demonstrating Tfr2 expression in brain, we analysed Tfr2-KO mice in order to examine the molecular, histological and behavioural consequences of Tfr2 silencing in this tissue. Tfr2 abrogation caused an accumulation of iron in specific districts in the nervous tissue that was not accompanied by a brain Hepc response. Moreover, Tfr2-KO mice presented a selective overactivation of neurons in the limbic circuit and the emergence of an anxious-like behaviour. Furthermore, microglial cells showed a particular sensitivity to iron perturbation. We conclude that Tfr2 is a key regulator of brain iron homeostasis and propose a role for Tfr2 alpha in the regulation of anxiety circuits.

  2. The Transferrin Receptor: A Potential Molecular Imaging Marker for Human Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Högemann-Savellano

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive imaging of differences between the molecular properties of cancer and normal tissue has the potential to enhance the detection of tumors. Because overexpression of endogenous transferrin receptor (TfR has been qualitatively described for various cancers and is presumably due to malignant transformation of cells, TfR may represent a suitable target for application of molecular imaging technologies to increase detection of smaller tumors. In the work reported here, investigation into the biology of this receptor using electron microscopy has demonstrated that iron oxide particles targeted to TfR are internalized and accumulate in lysosomal vesicles within cells. Biochemical analysis of the interaction of imaging probes with cells overexpressing the TfR demonstrated that the extent of accumulation, and therefore probe efficacy, is dependent on the nature of the chemical cross-link between transferrin and the iron oxide particle. These data were utilized to design and synthesize an improved imaging probe. Experiments demonstrate that the novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI probe is sensitive enough to detect small differences in endogenous TfR expression in human cancer cell lines. Quantitative measurement of TfR overexpression in a panel of 27 human breast cancer patients demonstrated that 74% of patient cancer tissues overexpressed the TfR and that the sensitivity of the new imaging agent was suitable to detect TfR overexpression in greater than 40% of these cases. Based on a biochemical and cell biological approach, these studies have resulted in the synthesis and development of an improved MRI probe with the best in vitro and in vivo imaging properties reported to date.

  3. Transferrin receptor 2 is frequently expressed in human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, Alessia; Oliviero, Isabella; Deaglio, Silvia; Mariani, Gualtiero; Biffoni, Mauro; Sposi, Nadia Maria; Malavasi, Fabio; Peschle, Cesare; Testa, Ugo

    2007-01-01

    Different proteins ensure the fine control of iron metabolism at the level of various tissues. Among these proteins, it was discovered a second transferrin receptor (TfR2), that seems to play a key role in the regulation of iron homeostasis. Its mutations are responsible for type 3 hemochromatosis (Type 3 HH). Although TfR2 expression in normal tissues was restricted at the level of liver and intestine, we observed that TfR2 was frequently expressed in tumor cell lines. Particularly frequent was its expression in ovarian cancer, colon cancer and glioblastoma cell lines; less frequent was its expression in leukemic and melanoma cell lines. Interestingly, in these tumor cell lines, TfR2 expression was inversely related to that of receptor 1 for transferrin (TfR1). Experiments of in vitro iron loading or iron deprivation provided evidence that TfR2 is modulated in cancer cell lines according to cellular iron levels following two different mechanisms: (i) in some cells, iron loading caused a downmodulation of total TfR2 levels; (ii) in other cell types, iron loading caused a downmodulation of membrane-bound TfR2, without affecting the levels of total cellular TfR2 content. Iron deprivation caused in both conditions an opposite effect compared to iron loading. These observations suggest that TfR2 expression may be altered in human cancers and warrant further studies in primary tumors. Furthermore, our studies indicate that, at least in tumor cells, TfR2 expression is modulated by iron through different biochemical mechanisms, whose molecular basis remains to be determined.

  4. The transferrin receptor of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae: Quantitation of expression and structural characterization using a peptide-specific monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøg, Yang S.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Bastholm, L.

    2001-01-01

    When Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pp) is grown under iron-restricted conditions in vitro, transferrin binding proteins (Tbps) are induced. The functional transferrin receptor of A. pp is composed of two outer membrane proteins (Tbp1 and Tbp2) and shows an exquisite specificity for porcine...... transferrin. This complex was studied using a monoclonal antibody (Mab 1.48) raised against a synthetic peptide corresponding to a hydrophilic domain of Tbp2 common to several A. pp serotypes. The antibody reacted specifically with a 60-70 kDa Tbp2-antigen found in all serotypes of A. pp obtained from iron......-restricted culture. It was found that Tbp2 was not expressed in iron replete medium by any serotype except serotypes 5a, 5b and 6 where a weak expression was seen. There was a weak expression of related antigens in Actinobacillus indolicus and Actinobacillus suis under iron-depleted conditions while no similar...

  5. Combined deletion of Hfe and transferrin receptor 2 in mice leads to marked dysregulation of hepcidin and iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Daniel F; Summerville, Lesa; Crampton, Emily M; Frazer, David M; Anderson, Gregory J; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2009-12-01

    Hepcidin is a central regulator of iron homeostasis. HFE and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) are mutated in adult-onset forms of hereditary hemochromatosis and regulate the expression of hepcidin in response to iron. Whether they act through the same or parallel pathways is unclear. To investigate this, we generated a mouse model with deletion of both Hfe and Tfr2 genes by crossing Hfe and Tfr2 null mice on a genetically identical background. Tissue and serum from wildtype, single-, and double-null mice were analyzed. Serum transferrin saturation and hepatic iron concentrations were determined. The expression of iron-related messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Levels of the iron-related proteins Tfr1, Tfr2, ferritin, and prohepcidin, and the phosphorylation status of the cell signaling proteins extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) and Smad1/5/8, were analyzed by immunoblotting. Double-null mice had more severe iron loading than mice lacking either Hfe or Tfr2; Tfr2 null mice had a greater iron burden than Hfe-null mice. Hepcidin expression relative to iron stores was reduced in the Hfe-null mice, with significantly lower values in the Tfr2-null mice. In the absence of both Hfe and Tfr2, hepcidin expression was reduced even further. A significant decrease in phospho-Erk1/2 in the livers of null mice and a reduction in phospho-Smad1/5/8 suggest that both the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and bone morphogenetic protein / mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (BMP/SMAD) signaling pathways may be involved in Hfe- and Tfr2-mediated regulation of hepcidin. These studies demonstrate that iron overload due to deletion of Tfr2 is more severe than that due to Hfe, and that loss of both molecules results in pronounced iron overload. Analysis of Hfe/Tfr2 double-null mice suggests that Hfe and Tfr2 regulate hepcidin through parallel pathways involving Erk1/2 and Smad1/5/8.

  6. Bivalent Brain Shuttle Increases Antibody Uptake by Monovalent Binding to the Transferrin Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultqvist, Greta; Syvänen, Stina; Fang, Xiaotian T; Lannfelt, Lars; Sehlin, Dag

    2017-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an obstacle for antibody passage into the brain, impeding the development of immunotherapy and antibody-based diagnostics for brain disorders. In the present study, we have developed a brain shuttle for active transport of antibodies across the BBB by receptor-mediated transcytosis. We have thus recombinantly fused two single-chain variable fragments (scFv) of the transferrin receptor (TfR) antibody 8D3 to the light chains of mAb158, an antibody selectively binding to Aβ protofibrils, which are involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite the two TfR binders, a monovalent interaction with TfR was achieved due to the short linkers that sterically hinder bivalent binding to the TfR dimer. The design enabled efficient receptor-mediated brain uptake of the fusion protein. Two hours after administration, brain concentrations were 2-3% of the injected dose per gram brain, comparable to small molecular drugs and 80-fold higher than unmodified mAb158. After three days, fusion protein concentrations in AD transgenic mouse brains were 9-fold higher than in wild type mice, demonstrating high in vivo specificity. Thus, our innovative recombinant design markedly increases mAb158 brain uptake, which makes it a strong candidate for improved Aβ immunotherapy and as a PET radioligand for early diagnosis and evaluation of treatment effect in AD. Moreover, this approach could be applied to any target within the brain. PMID:28042336

  7. The impact of maternal obesity on iron status, placental transferrin receptor expression and hepcidin expression in human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valdes, L; Campoy, C; Hayes, H; Florido, J; Rusanova, I; Miranda, M T; McArdle, H J

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is associated with decreased iron status, possibly due to a rise in hepcidin, an inflammatory protein known to reduce iron absorption. In animals, we have shown that maternal iron deficiency is minimised in the foetus by increased expression of placental transferrin receptor (pTFR1), resulting in increased iron transfer at the expense of maternal iron stores. This study examines the effect of obesity during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal iron status in human cohorts and whether the placenta can compensate for decreased maternal iron stores by increasing pTFR1 expression. A total of 240 women were included in this study. One hundred and fifty-eight placentas (Normal: 90; Overweight: 37; Obese: 31) were collected at delivery. Maternal iron status was measured by determining serum transferrin receptor (sTFR) and ferritin levels at 24 and 34 weeks and at delivery. Hepcidin in maternal and cord blood was measured by ELISA and pTFR1 in placentas by western blotting and real-time RT-PCR. Low iron stores were more common in obese women. Hepcidin levels (ng ml(-1)) at the end of the pregnancy were higher in obese than normal women (26.03±12.95 vs 18.00±10.77, PMaternal hepcidin levels were correlated with maternal iron status (sTFR r=0.2 P=0.025), but not with neonatal values. mRNA and protein levels of pTFR1 were both inversely related to maternal iron status. For mRNA and all women, sTFR r=0.2 P=0.044. Ferritin mRNA levels correlated only in overweight women r=-0.5 P=0.039 with hepcidin (r=0.1 P=0.349), irrespective of maternal body mass index (BMI). The data support the hypothesis that obese pregnant women have a greater risk of iron deficiency and that hepcidin may be a regulatory factor. Further, we show that the placenta responds to decreased maternal iron status by increasing pTFR1 expression.

  8. Disruption of hemochromatosis protein and transferrin receptor 2 causes iron-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delima, Roheeth D; Chua, Anita C G; Tirnitz-Parker, Janina E E; Gan, Eng K; Croft, Kevin D; Graham, Ross M; Olynyk, John K; Trinder, Debbie

    2012-08-01

    Mutations in hemochromatosis protein (HFE) or transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) cause hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) by impeding production of the liver iron-regulatory hormone, hepcidin (HAMP). This study examined the effects of disruption of Hfe or Tfr2, either alone or together, on liver iron loading and injury in mouse models of HH. Iron status was determined in Hfe knockout (Hfe(-/-)), Tfr2 Y245X mutant (Tfr2(mut)), and double-mutant (Hfe(-/-) ×Tfr2(mut) ) mice by measuring plasma and liver iron levels. Plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) activity, liver histology, and collagen deposition were evaluated to assess liver injury. Hepatic oxidative stress was assessed by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and F(2)-isoprostane levels. Gene expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Hfe(-/-) ×Tfr2(mut) mice had elevated hepatic iron with a periportal distribution and increased plasma iron, transferrin saturation, and non-transferrin-bound iron, compared with Hfe(-/-), Tfr2(mut), and wild-type (WT) mice. Hamp1 expression was reduced to 40% (Hfe(-/-) and Tfr2(mut) ) and 1% (Hfe(-/-) ×Tfr2(mut)) of WT values. Hfe(-/-) ×Tfr2(mut) mice had elevated plasma ALT activity and mild hepatic inflammation with scattered aggregates of infiltrating inflammatory cluster of differentiation 45 (CD45)-positive cells. Increased hepatic hydoxyproline levels as well as Sirius red and Masson's Trichrome staining demonstrated advanced portal collagen deposition. Hfe(-/-) and Tfr2(mut) mice had less hepatic inflammation and collagen deposition. Liver F(2) -isoprostane levels were elevated, and copper/zinc and manganese SOD activities decreased in Hfe(-/-) ×Tfr2(mut), Tfr2(mut), and Hfe(-/-) mice, compared with WT mice. Disruption of both Hfe and Tfr2 caused more severe hepatic iron overload with more advanced lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and portal fibrosis than was observed with the disruption of either gene alone. The Hfe(-/-) ×Tfr2(mut) mouse model

  9. Soluble Form of Canine Transferrin Receptor Inhibits Canine Parvovirus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiexia Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Soluble form of canine transferrin receptor inhibits canine parvovirus infection in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiexia; Pan, Sumin; Liang, Shuang; Zhong, Zhenyu; He, Ying; Lin, Hongyu; Li, Wenyan; Wang, Liyue; Li, Xiujin; Zhong, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR) was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR)) possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Antibody-mediated targeting of the transferrin receptor in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria-Pérez, Rosendo; Helguera, Gustavo; Rodríguez, José A

    Iron is essential for cell growth and is imported into cells in part through the action of transferrin (Tf), a protein that binds its receptor (TfR1 or CD71) on the surface of a cell, and then releases iron into endosomes. TfR1 is a single pass type-II transmembrane protein expressed at basal levels in most tissues. High expression of TfR1 is typically associated with rapidly proliferating cells, including various types of cancer. TfR1 is targeted by experimental therapeutics for several reasons: its cell surface accessibility, constitutive endocytosis into cells, essential role in cell growth and proliferation, and its overexpression by cancer cells. Among the therapeutic agents used to target TfR1, antibodies stand out due to their remarkable specificity and affinity. Clinical trials are being conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of agents targeting TfR1 in cancer patients with promising results. These observations suggest that therapies targeting TfR1 as direct therapeutics or delivery conduits remain an attractive alternative for the treatment of cancers that overexpress the receptor. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibody-mediated targeting of the transferrin receptor in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosendo Luria-Pérez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron is essential for cell growth and is imported into cells in part through the action of transferrin (Tf, a protein that binds its receptor (TfR1 or CD71 on the surface of a cell, and then releases iron into endosomes. TfR1 is a single pass type-II transmembrane protein expressed at basal levels in most tissues. High expression of TfR1 is typically associated with rapidly proliferating cells, including various types of cancer. TfR1 is targeted by experimental therapeutics for several reasons: its cell surface accessibility, constitutive endocytosis into cells, essential role in cell growth and proliferation, and its overexpression by cancer cells. Among the therapeutic agents used to target TfR1, antibodies stand out due to their remarkable specificity and affinity. Clinical trials are being conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of agents targeting TfR1 in cancer patients with promising results. These observations suggest that therapies targeting TfR1 as direct therapeutics or delivery conduits remain an attractive alternative for the treatment of cancers that overexpress the receptor.

  13. Aluminum access to the brain: A role for transferrin and its receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roskams, A.J.; Connor, J.R. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Hershey (United States))

    1990-11-01

    The toxicity of aluminum in plant and animal cell biology is well established, although poorly understood. Several recent studies have identified aluminum as a potential, although highly controversial, contributory factor in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and dialysis dementia. For example, aluminum has been found in high concentrations in senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, which occur in the brains of subjects with Alzheimer's disease. However, a mechanism for the entry of aluminum (Al{sup 3+}) into the cells of the central nervous system (CNS) has yet to be found. Here the authors describe a possible route of entry for aluminum into the cells of the CNS via the same high-affinity receptor-ligand system that has been postulated for iron (Fe{sup 3}) aluminum is able to gain access to the central nervous system under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these data suggest that the interaction between transferrin and its receptor may function as a general metal ion regulatory system in the CNS, extending beyond its postulated role in iron regulation.

  14. The second transferrin receptor regulates red blood cell production in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Antonella; Lidonnici, Maria Rosa; Rausa, Marco; Mandelli, Giacomo; Pagani, Alessia; Silvestri, Laura; Ferrari, Giuliana; Camaschella, Clara

    2015-02-12

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) contributes to hepcidin regulation in the liver and associates with erythropoietin receptor in erythroid cells. Nevertheless, TFR2 mutations cause iron overload (hemochromatosis type 3) without overt erythroid abnormalities. To clarify TFR2 erythroid function, we generated a mouse lacking Tfr2 exclusively in the bone marrow (Tfr2(BMKO)). Tfr2(BMKO) mice have normal iron parameters, reduced hepcidin levels, higher hemoglobin and red blood cell counts, and lower mean corpuscular volume than normal control mice, a phenotype that becomes more evident in iron deficiency. In Tfr2(BMKO) mice, the proportion of nucleated erythroid cells in the bone marrow is higher and the apoptosis lower than in controls, irrespective of comparable erythropoietin levels. Induction of moderate iron deficiency increases erythroblasts number, reduces apoptosis, and enhances erythropoietin (Epo) levels in controls, but not in Tfr2(BMKO) mice. Epo-target genes such as Bcl-xL and Epor are highly expressed in the spleen and in isolated erythroblasts from Tfr2(BMKO) mice. Low hepcidin expression in Tfr2(BMKO) is accounted for by erythroid expansion and production of the erythroid regulator erythroferrone. We suggest that Tfr2 is a component of a novel iron-sensing mechanism that adjusts erythrocyte production according to iron availability, likely by modulating the erythroblast Epo sensitivity. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Targeting transferrin receptors at the blood-brain barrier improves the uptake of immunoliposomes and subsequent cargo transport into the brain parenchyma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kasper B.; Burkhart, Annette; Melander, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    investigate the possibility of delivering immunoliposomes and their encapsulated cargo to the brain via targeting of the transferrin receptor. We find that transferrin receptor-targeting increases the association between the immunoliposomes and primary endothelial cells in vitro, but that this does...... not correlate with increased cargo transcytosis. Furthermore, we show that the transferrin receptor-targeted immunoliposomes accumulate along the microvessels of the brains of rats, but find no evidence for transcytosis of the immunoliposome. Conversely, the increased accumulation correlated both with increased...... cargo uptake in the brain endothelium and subsequent cargo transport into the brain. These findings suggest that transferrin receptor-targeting is a relevant strategy of increasing drug exposure to the brain....

  16. Transferrin receptor 2 is a component of the erythropoietin receptor complex and is required for efficient erythropoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forejtnikovà, Hana; Vieillevoye, Maud; Zermati, Yael; Lambert, Mireille; Pellegrino, Rosa Maria; Guihard, Soizic; Gaudry, Muriel; Camaschella, Clara; Lacombe, Catherine; Roetto, Antonella; Mayeux, Patrick; Verdier, Frédérique

    2010-12-09

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is required for erythroid progenitor differentiation. Although Epo crosslinking experiments have revealed the presence of Epo receptor (EpoR)-associated proteins that could never be identified, EpoR is considered to be a paradigm for homodimeric cytokine receptors. We purified EpoR-binding partners and identified the type 2 transferrin receptor (TfR2) as a component of the EpoR complex corresponding to proteins previously detected in cross-linking experiments. TfR2 is involved in iron metabolism by regulating hepcidin production in liver cells. We show that TfR2 and EpoR are synchronously coexpressed during the differentiation of erythroid progenitors. TfR2 associates with EpoR in the endoplasmic reticulum and is required for the efficient transport of this receptor to the cell surface. Erythroid progenitors from TfR2(-/-)mice show a decreased sensitivity to Epo and increased circulating Epo levels. In human erythroid progenitors, TfR2 knockdown delays the terminal differentiation. Erythroid cells produce growth differentiation factor-15, a cytokine that suppresses hepatic hepcidin production in certain erythroid diseases such as thalassemia. We show that the production of growth differentiation factor-15 by erythroid cells is dependent on both Epo and TfR2. Taken together, our results show that TfR2 exhibits a non hepatic function as a component of the EpoR complex and is required for efficient erythropoiesis.

  17. Transferrin receptor (TfR) trafficking determines brain uptake of TfR antibody affinity variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien-Ly, Nga; Yu, Y Joy; Bumbaca, Daniela; Elstrott, Justin; Boswell, C Andrew; Zhang, Yin; Luk, Wilman; Lu, Yanmei; Dennis, Mark S; Weimer, Robby M; Chung, Inhee; Watts, Ryan J

    2014-02-10

    Antibodies to transferrin receptor (TfR) have potential use for therapeutic entry into the brain. We have shown that bispecific antibodies against TfR and β-secretase (BACE1 [β-amyloid cleaving enzyme-1]) traverse the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and effectively reduce brain amyloid β levels. We found that optimizing anti-TfR affinity improves brain exposure and BACE1 inhibition. Here we probe the cellular basis of this improvement and explore whether TfR antibody affinity alters the intracellular trafficking of TfR. Comparing high- and low-affinity TfR bispecific antibodies in vivo, we found that high-affinity binding to TfR caused a dose-dependent reduction of brain TfR levels. In vitro live imaging and colocalization experiments revealed that high-affinity TfR bispecific antibodies facilitated the trafficking of TfR to lysosomes and thus induced the degradation of TfR, an observation which was further confirmed in vivo. Importantly, high-affinity anti-TfR dosing induced reductions in brain TfR levels, which significantly decreased brain exposure to a second dose of low-affinity anti-TfR bispecific. Thus, high-affinity anti-TfR alters TfR trafficking, which dramatically impacts the capacity for TfR to mediate BBB transcytosis.

  18. Transferrin receptor 2 protein is not expressed in normal erythroid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, Alessia; Deaglio, Silvia; Sposi, Nadia Maria; Petrucci, Eleonora; Morsilli, Ornella; Gabbianelli, Marco; Malavasi, Fabio; Peschle, Cesare; Testa, Ugo

    2004-08-01

    Human TFR2 (transferrin receptor 2) is a membrane-bound protein homologous with TFR1. High levels of TFR2 mRNA were found mainly in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in erythroid precursors. However, although the presence of the TFR2 protein in hepatic cells has been confirmed in several studies, evidence is lacking about the presence of the TFR2 protein in normal erythroid cells. Using two anti-TFR2 monoclonal antibodies, G/14C2 and G/14E8, we have provided evidence that TFR2 protein is not expressed in normal erythroid cells at any stage of differentiation, from undifferentiated CD34+ cells to mature orthochromatic erythroblasts. In contrast, erythroleukaemic cells (K562 cells) exhibited a high level of expression of TFR2 at both the mRNA and the protein level. We can therefore conclude that an elevated expression of TFR2 protein is observed in leukaemic cells, but not in normal erythroblasts. The implications of this observation for the understanding of the phenotypic features of haemochromatosis due to mutation of the TFR2 gene are discussed.

  19. Transgenic HFE-dependent induction of hepcidin in mice does not require transferrin receptor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Paul J; Fleming, Mark D

    2012-06-01

    Hereditary hemochomatosis (HH) is caused by mutations in several genes, including HFE and transferrin receptor-2 (TFR2). Loss of either protein decreases expression of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin by the liver, leading to inappropriately high iron uptake from the diet, and resulting in systemic iron overload. In tissue culture, overexpressed HFE and TFR2 physically interact. Hepatocellular overexpression of Hfe in vivo increases hepcidin expression, despite an associated decrease in Tfr2. On this basis, we hypothesized that Tfr2 would not be required for Hfe-dependent up-regulation of hepcidin. We show that hepatocellular overexpression of Hfe in Tfr2(Y245X/Y245X) mice leads to hepcidin induction eventuating in iron deficiency and a hypochromic, microcytic anemia. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation studies using liver lysates did not provide evidence for physical interaction between Hfe and Tfr2 in vivo. In conclusion, we demonstrate that Tfr2 is not essential for Hfe-mediated induction of hepcidin expression, supporting the possibility that TFR2 may regulate iron metabolism in an HFE-independent manner. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A critical role for murine transferrin receptor 2 in erythropoiesis during iron restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Daniel F; Secondes, Eriza S; Rishi, Gautam; Ostini, Lesa; McDonald, Cameron J; Lane, Steven W; Vu, Therese; Hooper, John D; Velasco, Gloria; Ramsay, Andrew J; Lopez-Otin, Carlos; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2015-03-01

    Effective erythropoiesis requires an appropriate supply of iron and mechanisms regulating iron homeostasis and erythropoiesis are intrinsically linked. Iron dysregulation, typified by iron-deficiency anaemia and iron overload, is common in many clinical conditions and impacts the health of up to 30% of the world's population. The proteins transmembrane protease, serine 6 (TMPRSS6; also termed matriptase-2), HFE and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) play important and opposing roles in systemic iron homeostasis, by regulating expression of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin. We have performed a systematic analysis of mice deficient in these three proteins and show that TMPRSS6 predominates over HFE and TFR2 in hepcidin regulation. The phenotype of mice lacking TMPRSS6 and TFR2 is characterized by severe anaemia and extramedullary haematopoiesis in the spleen. Stress erythropoiesis in these mice results in increased expression of the newly identified erythroid iron regulator erythroferrone, which does not appear to overcome the hepcidin overproduction mediated by loss of TMPRSS6. Extended analysis reveals that TFR2 plays an important role in erythroid cells, where it is involved in terminal erythroblast differentiation and the regulation of erythropoietin. In conclusion, we have identified an essential role for TFR2 in erythropoiesis that may provide new targets for the treatment of anaemia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Transferrin receptor regulates pancreatic cancer growth by modulating mitochondrial respiration and ROS generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung Min; Hwang, Sunsook; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2016-03-11

    The transferrin receptor (TfR1) is upregulated in malignant cells and its expression is associated with cancer progression. Because of its pre-eminent role in cell proliferation, TfR1 has been an important target for the development of cancer therapy. Although TfR1 is highly expressed in pancreatic cancers, what it carries out in these refractory cancers remains poorly understood. Here we report that TfR1 supports mitochondrial respiration and ROS production in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells, which is required for their tumorigenic growth. Elevated TfR1 expression in PDAC cells contributes to oxidative phosphorylation, which allows for the generation of ROS. Importantly, mitochondrial-derived ROS are essential for PDAC growth. However, exogenous iron supplement cannot rescue the defects caused by TfR1 knockdown. Moreover, we found that TfR1 expression determines PDAC cells sensitivity to oxidative stress. Together, our findings reveal that TfR1 can contribute to the mitochondrial respiration and ROS production, which have essential roles in growth and survival of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The assessment of frequency of iron deficiency in athletes from the transferrin receptor-ferritin index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malczewska, J; Szczepańska, B; Stupnicki, R; Sendecki, W

    2001-03-01

    The transferrin receptor-ferritin index (sTfR/logFerr) was determined in 131 male and 121 female athletes in order to assess the frequency of iron deficiency (threshold value of that index taken as 1.8). Blood was drawn for determining morphological indices as well as sTfR, ferritin, iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and haptoglobin. A significantly (p iron deficiency was observed in women (26%) than in men (11%). The iron deficiency was latent, since no subject was found to be anemic. The plasma iron was significantly lower and TIBC higher (p iron-deficient subgroups than in the non-deficient ones. This confirmed the latent character of iron deficiency. Some hematological indices (Hb, MCH, MCHC, MCV) were significantly lower in iron-deficient female athletes than in male athletes, which suggested a more profound iron deficiency in the former. The sTfR/logFerr index might thus be useful in detecting iron deficiency in athletes, especially in those with erythropoiesis disorders, since physical loads may affect the widely used ferritin levels.

  3. Heat shock protein 27 downregulates the transferrin receptor 1-mediated iron uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaiyong; Zheng, Chunlei; Zhang, Yong; Chang, Yan-Zhong; Qian, Zhong-Ming; Shen, Xun

    2006-01-01

    It has been reported that over-expression of human heat shock protein 27 (hsp27) in murine cells decreased the intracellular iron level [Arrigo, A. P., Virot, S., Chaufour, S., Firdaus, W., Kretz-Remy, C., & Diaz-Latoud, C. (2005). Hsp27 consolidates intracellular redox homeostasis by upholding glutathione in its reduced form and by decreasing iron intracellular levels. Antioxidants & Redox Signalling, 7, 412-422]. However, the mechanism involved is unknown. In this study, the regulation of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1)-mediated iron uptake by human hsp27 was investigated in CCL39 cells by overexpression of human hsp27 and its dominant-negative mutant (hsp27-3G). The results showed that overexpression of hsp27 diminished intracellular labile iron pool, increased the binding activity of iron regulatory protein (IRP) to iron responsive element (IRE) and the cell surface-expressed TfR1s. However, the increased surface-expressed TfR1s resulted in decrease rather than increase of iron uptake. Further study revealed that overexpression of hsp27 decelerated transferrin endocytosis and recycling, while overexpressed hsp27-3G had a reversal effect. Moreover, flowcytometric analysis showed an enhanced actin polymerization in the cells overexpressing hsp27. In particular, fluorescence imaging of cytoskeleton displayed highly stabilized microfilaments and preferential localization of hsp27 in cortical area of the actin cytoskeleton. In contrast, disruption of actin cytoskeleton by cytochalasin B resulted in acceleration of the endocytosis and recycling of Tf, as well as increase of iron uptake. Meanwhile, the possible involvement of ferroportin 1 in down-regulation of intracellular iron level by overexpression of hsp27 was checked. However, the outcome was negative. Our findings indicate that hsp27 down-regulates TfR1-mediated iron uptake via stabilization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton rather than the classical IRP/IRE mode. The study may also imply that hsp27 protects

  4. Second international round robin for the quantification of serum non-transferrin-bound iron and labile plasma iron in patients with iron-overload disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Swart, Louise; Hendriks, Jan C M; van der Vorm, Lisa N; Cabantchik, Z Ioav; Evans, Patricia J; Hod, Eldad A; Brittenham, Gary M; Furman, Yael; Wojczyk, Boguslaw; Janssen, Mirian C H; Porter, John B; Mattijssen, Vera E J M; Biemond, Bart J; MacKenzie, Marius A; Origa, Raffaella; Galanello, Renzo; Hider, Robert C; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2016-01-01

    Non-transferrin-bound iron and its labile (redox active) plasma iron component are thought to be potentially toxic forms of iron originally identified in the serum of patients with iron overload. We compared ten worldwide leading assays (6 for non-transferrin-bound iron and 4 for labile plasma iron) as part of an international inter-laboratory study. Serum samples from 60 patients with four different iron-overload disorders in various treatment phases were coded and sent in duplicate for analysis to five different laboratories worldwide. Some laboratories provided multiple assays. Overall, highest assay levels were observed for patients with untreated hereditary hemochromatosis and β-thalassemia intermedia, patients with transfusion-dependent myelodysplastic syndromes and patients with transfusion-dependent and chelated β-thalassemia major. Absolute levels differed considerably between assays and were lower for labile plasma iron than for non-transferrin-bound iron. Four assays also reported negative values. Assays were reproducible with high between-sample and low within-sample variation. Assays correlated and correlations were highest within the group of non-transferrin-bound iron assays and within that of labile plasma iron assays. Increased transferrin saturation, but not ferritin, was a good indicator of the presence of forms of circulating non-transferrin-bound iron. The possibility of using non-transferrin-bound iron and labile plasma iron measures as clinical indicators of overt iron overload and/or of treatment efficacy would largely depend on the rigorous validation and standardization of assays. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  5. Microheterogeneity of serum transferrin, haptoglobin and. cap alpha. /sub 2/HS glycoprotein examined by high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, N.L.; Anderson, N.G.

    1979-05-14

    Most human serum proteins consistently appear as more than one spot when analyzed by high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis. We have characterized the micro-patterns corresponding to several of the principal proteins. Three minor forms of transferrin are observed (one larger than the predominant form and probably a precursor) and each shows carbohydrate heterogeneity similar to the main form. The haptoglobin ..beta..-chain exhibits stepwise heterogeneity in both pI (sialic acid variation) and SDS molecular weight (neutral sugar structure attachment), and is shown to give rise to a smaller, likewise heterogeneous product. The two frequent alleles of ..cap alpha../sub 2/HS glycoprotein are shown to differ predominantly in sialic acid content rather than polypeptide charge, suggesting a sequence difference at a carbohydrate attachment site. All of the expected sources of microheterogeneity (sialic acid, proteolysis, allelism) are observed, plus an SDS molecular weight microheterogeneity probably due to variation in attachment of large neutral sugar structures.

  6. Performance of a commercial Chicken-Ovo-transferrin-ELISA on the serum of brown layer chickens infected with Gallibacterium anatis and Streptococcus zooepidemicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Krisna; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate Ovo-transferrin (OTF), a positive acute-phase protein in chickens, as a diagnostic biomarker of selected bacterial infections we checked the performance of a commercial Chicken-OTF-ELISA (ICL, Inc., Portland, OR, USA) by analytical and overlap performances using two groups of serum...

  7. Toward standardization of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) measurements: III. Performance of native serum and serum spiked with disialotransferrin proves that harmonization of CDT assays is possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weykamp, Cas; Wielders, Jos P M; Helander, Anders; Anton, Raymond F; Bianchi, Vincenza; Jeppsson, Jan-Olof; Siebelder, Carla; Whitfield, John B; Schellenberg, François

    2013-05-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a generic term that refers to the transferrin glycoforms whose concentration in blood is temporarily increased by sustained alcohol consumption. Due to high clinical specificity, CDT was proposed as a biomarker of heavy alcohol use and has been available for about 20 years. A number of methods have been developed for CDT measurement based on different analytical techniques and principles and without any harmonization or calibration to a reference method. As a consequence, neither the reference limits nor the cut-off values have been similar across assays, hampering understanding of the diagnostic value of CDT and its routine use. This prompted the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) to initiate a Working Group on Standardization of CDT (WG-CDT). This third publication of the WG-CDT is devoted to testing the commutability of native and disialotransferrin-spiked serum panels as candidate secondary reference materials, in order to prove the harmonization potential of commercial CDT methods. The results showed that assay harmonization reduced the inter-laboratory imprecision in a network of reference laboratories running the HPLC candidate reference method. In the seven commercial methods evaluated in this study, the use of multi-level secondary calibrators of human serum origin significantly reduced the between-method imprecision. Thus, harmonization of CDT measurements by different methods can be achieved using this calibration system, opening the way for a full standardization of commercial methods against a reference method by use of certified reference materials.

  8. Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandawana William Majoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the significance of high serum ferritin observed in Indigenous Australian patients on maintenance haemodialysis in the Northern Territory, we assessed the relationship between ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT as measures of iron status and ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP as markers of inflammation. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of data from adult patients (≥18 years on maintenance haemodialysis (>3 months from 2004 to 2011. Results. There were 1568 patients. The mean age was 53.9 (11.9 years. 1244 (79.3% were Indigenous. 44.2% (n=693 were male. Indigenous patients were younger (mean age [52.3 (11.1 versus 57.4 (15.2, p<0.001] and had higher CRP [14.7 mg/l (7–35 versus 5.9 mg/l (1.9–17.5, p<0.001], higher median serum ferritin [1069 µg/l (668–1522 versus 794.9 µg/l (558.5–1252.0, p<0.001], but similar transferrin saturation [26% (19–37 versus 28% (20–38, p=0.516]. We observed a small positive correlation between ferritin and TSAT (r2=0.11, p<0.001, no correlation between ferritin and CRP (r2 = 0.001, p<0.001, and positive association between high serum ferritin and TSAT (p<0.001, Indigenous ethnicity (p<0.001, urea reduction ratio (p=0.001, and gender (p<0.001 after adjustment in mixed regression analysis. Conclusion. Serum ferritin and TSAT may inadequately reflect iron status in this population. The high ferritin was poorly explained by inflammation.

  9. Soluble transferrin receptor as a marker of erythropoiesis in patients undergoing high-flux hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Yin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a common complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients receiving hemodialysis. The effect of high-flux dialysis (HFD on anemia remains unclear. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the effect of HFD on anemia, and the potential of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR as a marker of iron status and erythropoiesis in CKD patients on hemodialysis. Forty patients, who switched from conventional low-flux dialysis to HFD for 12 months, were enrolled in this study. The levels of sTfR, hemoglobin (Hb, iron, and nutritional markers, as well as the dose of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO and use of chalybeate were determined at 0, 2, 6, and 12 months after starting HFD. HFD significantly increased the hemoglobin level and reduced sTfR level in CKD patients (p < 0.05. In addition, significant decreasing linear trends were observed for rhEPO dosage and chalybeate use (p < 0.05. The level of sTfR was positively correlated with the percentage of reticulocytes (RET%, rhEPO dose, and chalybeate use, while it was negatively correlated with Hb levels and total iron-binding capacity results (all p < 0.05. A univariate generalized estimating equation (GEE model showed that the Hb level, RET%, rhEPO dose, and chalybeate use were the variables associated with sTfR levels. A multivariate GEE model showed that the time points when hemodialysis was performed were the variables associated significantly with sTfR levels. Overall, our findings suggest that HFD can effectively improve renal anemia in hemodialysis patients, and sTfR could be used as a marker of erythropoiesis in HFD patients.

  10. Functional consequences of transferrin receptor-2 mutations causing hereditary hemochromatosis type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ricky; Shvartsman, Maya; Morán, Erica; Lois, Sergi; Aranda, Jessica; Barqué, Anna; de la Cruz, Xavier; Bruguera, Miquel; Vagace, José Manuel; Gervasini, Guillermo; Sanz, Cristina; Sánchez, Mayka

    2015-05-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) type 3 is an autosomal recessive disorder of iron metabolism characterized by excessive iron deposition in the liver and caused by mutations in the transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) gene. Here, we describe three new HH type 3 Spanish families with four TFR2 mutations (p.Gly792Arg, c.1606-8A>G, Gln306*, and Gln672*). The missense variation p.Gly792Arg was found in homozygosity in two adult patients of the same family, and in compound heterozygosity in an adult proband that also carries a novel intronic change (c.1606-8A>G). Two new nonsense TFR2 mutations (Gln306* and Gln672*) were detected in a pediatric case. We examine the functional consequences of two TFR2 variants (p.Gly792Arg and c.1606-8A>G) using molecular and computational methods. Cellular protein localization studies using immunofluorescence demonstrated that the plasma membrane localization of p.Gly792Arg TFR2 is impaired. Splicing studies in vitro and in vivo reveal that the c.1606-8A>G mutation leads to the creation of a new acceptor splice site and an aberrant TFR2 mRNA. The reported mutations caused HH type 3 by protein truncation, altering TFR2 membrane localization or by mRNA splicing defect, producing a nonfunctional TFR2 protein and a defective signaling transduction for hepcidin regulation. TFR2 genotyping should be considered in adult but also in pediatric cases with early-onset of iron overload.

  11. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4α Controls Iron Metabolism and Regulates Transferrin Receptor 2 in Mouse Liver*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Masayuki; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Mizui, Yumiko; Sasaki, Shota; Fujimura, Takafumi; Takizawa, Masayuki; Ariga, Nagayuki; Ozaki, Hiroaki; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Inoue, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential element in biological systems, but excess iron promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in cellular toxicity. Several iron-related genes are highly expressed in the liver, a tissue in which hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) plays a critical role in controlling gene expression. Therefore, the role of hepatic HNF4α in iron homeostasis was examined using liver-specific HNF4α-null mice (Hnf4aΔH mice). Hnf4aΔH mice exhibit hypoferremia and a significant change in hepatic gene expression. Notably, the expression of transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2) mRNA was markedly decreased in Hnf4aΔH mice. Promoter analysis of the Tfr2 gene showed that the basal promoter was located at a GC-rich region upstream of the transcription start site, a region that can be transactivated in an HNF4α-independent manner. HNF4α-dependent expression of Tfr2 was mediated by a proximal promoter containing two HNF4α-binding sites located between the transcription start site and the translation start site. Both the GC-rich region of the basal promoter and the HNF4α-binding sites were required for maximal transactivation. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of HNF4α suppressed TFR2 expression in human HCC cells. These results suggest that Tfr2 is a novel target gene for HNF4α, and hepatic HNF4α plays a critical role in iron homeostasis. PMID:26527688

  12. Normal systemic iron homeostasis in mice with macrophage-specific deletion of transferrin receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Gautam; Secondes, Eriza S; Wallace, Daniel F; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2016-02-01

    Iron is an essential element, since it is a component of many macromolecules involved in diverse physiological and cellular functions, including oxygen transport, cellular growth, and metabolism. Systemic iron homeostasis is predominantly regulated by the liver through the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin expression is itself regulated by a number of proteins, including transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2). TFR2 has been shown to be expressed in the liver, bone marrow, macrophages, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Studies from our laboratory have shown that mice with a hepatocyte-specific deletion of Tfr2 recapitulate the hemochromatosis phenotype of the global Tfr2 knockout mice, suggesting that the hepatic expression of TFR2 is important in systemic iron homeostasis. It is unclear how TFR2 in macrophages contributes to the regulation of iron metabolism. We examined the role of TFR2 in macrophages by analysis of transgenic mice lacking Tfr2 in macrophages by crossing Tfr2(f/f) mice with LysM-Cre mice. Mice were fed an iron-rich diet or injected with lipopolysaccharide to examine the role of macrophage Tfr2 in iron- or inflammation-mediated regulation of hepcidin. Body iron homeostasis was unaffected in the knockout mice, suggesting that macrophage TFR2 is not required for the regulation of systemic iron metabolism. However, peritoneal macrophages of knockout mice had significantly lower levels of ferroportin mRNA and protein, suggesting that TFR2 may be involved in regulating ferroportin levels in macrophages. These studies further elucidate the role of TFR2 in the regulation of iron homeostasis and its role in regulation of ferroportin and thus macrophage iron homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4α Controls Iron Metabolism and Regulates Transferrin Receptor 2 in Mouse Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Masayuki; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Mizui, Yumiko; Sasaki, Shota; Fujimura, Takafumi; Takizawa, Masayuki; Ariga, Nagayuki; Ozaki, Hiroaki; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Gonzalez, Frank J; Inoue, Yusuke

    2015-12-25

    Iron is an essential element in biological systems, but excess iron promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in cellular toxicity. Several iron-related genes are highly expressed in the liver, a tissue in which hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) plays a critical role in controlling gene expression. Therefore, the role of hepatic HNF4α in iron homeostasis was examined using liver-specific HNF4α-null mice (Hnf4a(ΔH) mice). Hnf4a(ΔH) mice exhibit hypoferremia and a significant change in hepatic gene expression. Notably, the expression of transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2) mRNA was markedly decreased in Hnf4a(ΔH) mice. Promoter analysis of the Tfr2 gene showed that the basal promoter was located at a GC-rich region upstream of the transcription start site, a region that can be transactivated in an HNF4α-independent manner. HNF4α-dependent expression of Tfr2 was mediated by a proximal promoter containing two HNF4α-binding sites located between the transcription start site and the translation start site. Both the GC-rich region of the basal promoter and the HNF4α-binding sites were required for maximal transactivation. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of HNF4α suppressed TFR2 expression in human HCC cells. These results suggest that Tfr2 is a novel target gene for HNF4α, and hepatic HNF4α plays a critical role in iron homeostasis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Role of transferrin receptor 2 in hepatic accumulation of iron in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifuji, Rumi; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Ma, Ning; Qiang, Qin Li; Urawa, Naohito; Horiike, Shinichiro; Iwasa, Motoh; Kaito, Masahiko; Malavasi, Fabio; Adachi, Yukihiko

    2006-01-01

    Iron deposition in the liver is a common finding in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CH-C). The mechanism of this hepatic accumulation of iron is not completely understood. This study assessed if the protein expression of transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) is upregulated in the liver of patients with CH-C and if TfR2 protein mediates iron accumulation during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Liver specimens from patients with CH-C that underwent interferon (IFN) therapy (n=23) and from patients with CH-B (n=18) were evaluated. Hepatic expression of TfR2 protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Total hepatic iron score (THIS) was evaluated by Prussian blue staining. TfR2 protein was expressed in the cell membrane and cytosol of hepatocytes. Cytosol TfR2 protein was found to co-localize with Tf. THIS (P=0.0198) and hepatic TfR2 (P=0.0047) expression were significantly higher in CH-C than in CH-B. The change in THIS values (rho=0.580, P=0.0079) and the grade of histological activity (rho=0.444, P=0.0373) were significantly correlated with changes in TfR2 expression after IFN therapy. The protein expression of TfR2 is significantly associated with iron deposition in the liver in patients with CH-C. HCV infection may affect the hepatic expression of TfR2, leading to iron accumulation in the liver.

  15. Targeting transferrin receptors at the blood-brain barrier improves the uptake of immunoliposomes and subsequent cargo transport into the brain parenchyma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kasper B.; Burkhart, Annette; Melander, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Drug delivery to the brain is hampered by the presence of the blood-brain barrier, which excludes most molecules from freely diffusing into the brain, and tightly regulates the active transport mechanisms that ensure sufficient delivery of nutrients to the brain parenchyma. Harnessing...... the possibility of delivering neuroactive drugs by way of receptors already present on the brain endothelium has been of interest for many years. The transferrin receptor is of special interest since its expression is limited to the endothelium of the brain as opposed to peripheral endothelium. Here, we...... investigate the possibility of delivering immunoliposomes and their encapsulated cargo to the brain via targeting of the transferrin receptor. We find that transferrin receptor-targeting increases the association between the immunoliposomes and primary endothelial cells in vitro, but that this does...

  16. Transferrin receptor 2: Continued expression in mouse liver in the face of iron overload and in hereditary hemochromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Robert E.; Migas, Mary C.; Holden, Christopher C.; Waheed, Abdul; Britton, Robert S.; Tomatsu, Shunji; Bacon, Bruce R.; William S Sly

    2000-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a common autosomal recessive disorder characterized by excess absorption of dietary iron and progressive iron deposition in several tissues, particularly liver. Liver disease resulting from iron toxicity is the major cause of death in HH. Hepatic iron loading in HH is progressive despite down-regulation of the classical transferrin receptor (TfR). Recently a human cDNA highly homologous to TfR was identified and reported to encode a protein (TfR2) that binds...

  17. α-Taxilin interacts with sorting nexin 4 and participates in the recycling pathway of transferrin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sakane

    Full Text Available Membrane traffic plays a crucial role in delivering proteins and lipids to their intracellular destinations. We previously identified α-taxilin as a binding partner of the syntaxin family, which is involved in intracellular vesicle traffic. α-Taxilin is overexpressed in tumor tissues and interacts with polymerized tubulin, but the precise function of α-taxilin remains unclear. Receptor proteins on the plasma membrane are internalized, delivered to early endosomes and then either sorted to the lysosome for degradation or recycled back to the plasma membrane. In this study, we found that knockdown of α-taxilin induced the lysosomal degradation of transferrin receptor (TfnR, a well-known receptor which is generally recycled back to the plasma membrane after internalization, and impeded the recycling of transferrin. α-Taxilin was immunoprecipitated with sorting nexin 4 (SNX4, which is involved in the recycling of TfnR. Furthermore, knockdown of α-taxilin decreased the number and length of SNX4-positive tubular structures. We report for the first time that α-taxilin interacts with SNX4 and plays a role in the recycling pathway of TfnR.

  18. Determination of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in human serum with capillary zone electrophoresis. Sample preparation strategies for the removal of interferences caused by increased levels of immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Christian; Falmagne, Jean-Bernard; de l'Escaille, François; Marti, Ulrich; Thormann, Wolfgang

    2008-10-03

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) in fused-silica capillaries is an effective analytical approach for the separation and determination of the transferrin (Tf) isoforms and thus carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in human serum. Sera of patients with progressed liver cirrhosis are prone to interferences in the beta region which prevent the proper determination of CDT by CZE without additional sample preparation. Efforts to identify, reduce or even eliminate these interferences have been undertaken. Data obtained by ultrafiltration, affinity subtraction procedures using protein A, protein L and antibodies against immunoglobulins or Tf, and immunopurification of Tf suggest that the interferences in the patient sera are caused by increased levels of IgA and IgM and are best eliminated by immunopurification. Avian IgY antibody spin column immunocapture of serum Tf followed by CZE analysis of the stripped and concentrated fraction is shown to provide an attractive approach for CDT monitoring in sera with beta region interferences.

  19. The effect of diet on total antioxidant status, ceruloplasmin, transferrin and ferritin serum levels in phenylketonuric children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulpis, Kleopatra H; Papastamataki, Maria; Stamou, Helen; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Margeli, Alexandra

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the effect of diet on total antioxidative status (TAS), transferrin, ferritin and ceruloplasmin serum levels in phenylketonuric (PKU) children. Seventeen poorly controlled PKU children underwent clinical and laboratory examinations before, 'off diet', and 60 days after adhering to their special diet 'on diet', whereas controls (N = 24) were examined once. Blood chemistry was performed with the appropriate methodologies. Phenylalanine levels differed significantly among the examined groups. Lipids and lipoproteins were higher in 'off diet' than in 'on diet' group, except of high density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein AI that remained unaffected. Total antioxidative status (386 ± 30 vs 204 ± 23 μmol/L, p diet' patients' group compared to 'off diet' one. The low lipoprotein and the high TAS and ferritin levels in patients with PKU 'on diet' may be related to the vegetarian diet and the rich in iron formula supplementation. The low ferritin levels found in 'off diet' patients with PKU may be attributed to a decreased liver production of ceruloplasmin, which evaluation may be a useful tool for the follow-up of patients with PKU. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  20. Determination of Non-Transferrin Bound Iron, Transferrin Bound Iron, Drug Bound Iron and Total Iron in Serum in a Rats after IV Administration of Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex by Simple Ultrafiltration Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali K. Matta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, sensitive and specific ultrafiltration inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI, transferrin bound iron (TBI, drug bound iron (DI and total iron (TI in the same rat serum sample after intravenous (IV administration of iron gluconate nanoparticles in sucrose solution (Ferrlecit®. Ultrafiltration with a 30 kDa molecular cut-off filter was used for sample cleanup. Different elution solvents were used to separate each form of iron from sample serum. Isolated fractions were subjected to inductively-coupled mass spectrometric analysis after microwave digestion in 4% nitric acid. The reproducibility of the method was evaluated by precision and accuracy. The calibration curve demonstrated linearity from 5–500 ng/mL with a regression (r2 of more than 0.998. This method was effectively implemented to quantify rat pharmacokinetic study samples after intravenous administration of Ferrlecit®. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic (PK study of Ferrlecit in rats. The colloidal iron followed first order kinetics with half-life of 2.2 h and reached background or pre-dose levels after 12 h post-dosing. The drug shown a clearance of 0.31 mL/min/kg and volume of distribution of 0.05 L/kg. 19.4 ± 2.4 mL/h/kg.

  1. GLUT4 in cultured skeletal myotubes is segregated from the transferrin receptor and stored in vesicles associated with TGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralston, E; Ploug, Thorkil

    1996-01-01

    There is little consensus on the nature of the storage compartment of the glucose transporter GLUT4, in non-stimulated cells of muscle and fat. More specifically, it is not known whether GLUT4 is localized to unique, specialized intracellular storage vesicles, or to vesicles that are part...... of the constitutive endosomal-lysosomal pathway. To address this question, we have investigated the localization of the endogenous GLUT4 in non-stimulated skeletal myotubes from the cell line C2, by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. We have used a panel of antibodies to markers of the Golgi complex...... (alpha mannosidase II and giantin), of the trans-Golgi network (TGN38), of lysosomes (lgp110), and of early and late endosomes (transferrin receptor and mannose-6-phosphate receptor, respectively), to define the position of their subcellular compartments. By immunofluorescence, GLUT4 appears concentrated...

  2. Evidence for low molecular weight, non-transferrin-bound iron in rat brain and cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Torben; Morgan, Evan H.

    1998-01-01

    Neuroscience, blood-brain barrier, choroid plexus, interstitial fluid, transferrin receptor, uptake......Neuroscience, blood-brain barrier, choroid plexus, interstitial fluid, transferrin receptor, uptake...

  3. Phylogenetical and ontogenetical studies on the molecular weight heterogeneity of bovine serum transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, S; Kato, H; Matsuoka, Y; Fukushima, T; Nanjoh, I; Amano, T; Namikawa, T

    1984-12-01

    Antitransferrin (Tf) rabbit serum was highly specific: it reacted with Tfs of ruminants, such as European breeds and Zebu breeds of cattle, Bali cattle, banteng, swamp and river types of water buffalo, anoa, goat, sheep, deer, antelope, camel, and giraffe, but did not react with serum of other non-ruminant species, such as pig, wild boar, hippopotamus, horse, rabbit, rat, chicken, etc. Electrophoresis of Tf and immunoglobulin G (IgG) complexes was carried out using sodium dodecyl sulfate--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Within ruminants, the following species showed two Tf molecules on SDS-PAGE; European and Zebu cattle, Bali cattle, banteng, two types of water buffalo, and two species of anoa. Other ruminants, sheep, goat, deer, antelope, camel, and giraffe, etc., showed only one Tf molecule. The Tf heterogeneity in molecular weight was, thus, restricted to Bos, Bubalus, and Anoa. The molecular weight of Tf of water buffalo was slightly larger than that of cattle on the gel. The peptide pattern from cyanogen bromide cleavage of Tf of the water buffalo differed clearly from that of cattle. Fetal Tf showed only one molecule during development, but a newborn calf has two Tf molecules, (one large and one small) within 18 hr after birth. We suggest, therefore, that the small molecules formed during the last month of gestation. The peptide patterns of adult and fetal Tfs cleaved by cyanogen bromide differed with regard to the two large peptides; fetal Tf, lacking the second-largest peptide, had twice the amount of the largest peptide compared with adult Tf. From these results, we suggest that a change in peptide sequence occurs from the last month of gestation, when the largest peptide is degraded to the second largest. However, a Tf-like protein detected in the liver microsomal fraction has only one molecular size, both in adult and in fetal livers.

  4. Intracellular Delivery of a Planar DNA Origami Structure by the Transferrin-Receptor Internalization Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffert, David Henning; Okholm, Anders Hauge; Sørensen, Rasmus Schøler

    2017-01-01

    DNA origami provides rapid access to easily functionalized, nanometer-sized structures making it an intriguing platform for the development of defined drug delivery and sensor systems. Low cellular uptake of DNA nanostructures is a major obstacle in the development of DNA-based delivery platforms....... Herein, significant strong increase in cellular uptake in an established cancer cell line by modifying a planar DNA origami structure with the iron transport protein transferrin (Tf) is demonstrated. A variable number of Tf molecules are coupled to the origami structure using a DNA-directed, site...... on the origami surface....

  5. Spectroscopic studies of the interaction between alprazolam and apo-human serum transferrin as a drug carrier protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian Amroabadi, Marzieh; Taheri-Kafrani, Asghar; Heidarpoor Saremi, Leily; Rastegari, Ali Asghar

    2018-03-01

    The interaction between apo-human serum transferrin (Apo-hTf) and alprazolam was investigated using various spectroscopic techniques. The drug quenched the fluorescence intensity of Apo-hTf and the mechanism behind the quenching was static. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS) that obtained from tryptophan fluorescence study revealed that the interactions between alprazolam and Apo-hTf were spontaneous. Collectively, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding most likely played major roles in Apo-hTf/alprazolam interactions. Also, the absorption spectra of Apo-hTf increased in the presence of increasing concentration of alprazolam, reflecting Apo-hTf structural alteration after drug's binding. The CD results demonstrated that the Apo-hTf/alprazolam interaction does not affect the protein secondary and tertiary structure significantly until the molar ratios (alprazolam/Apo-hTf) of 10, but the conformational changes become visible at higher molar ratios. The DSC results suggested that alprazolam stabilized the Apo-hTf at alprazolam/Apo-hTf molar ratio of 20. Based on the achieved results, this potentially therapeutic agent can significantly bind to Apo-hTf which also further confirmed by molecular docking study. This study on the interaction of the drug with Apo-hTf should be helpful for understanding the transportation and distribution of drugs in vivo, as well as the action mechanism and dynamics of a drug at the molecular level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence that His349 acts as a pH-inducible switch to accelerate receptor-mediated iron release from the C-lobe of human transferrin

    OpenAIRE

    Steere, Ashley N.; Byrne, Shaina L.; Chasteen, N. Dennis; Smith, Valerie C.; MacGillivray, Ross T. A.; Mason, Anne B.

    2010-01-01

    His349 in human transferrin (hTF) is a residue critical to transferrin receptor (TFR)-stimulated iron release from the C-lobe. To evaluate the importance of His349 on the TFR interaction, it was replaced by alanine, aspartate, lysine, leucine, tryptophan, and tyrosine in a monoferric C-lobe hTF construct (FeChTF). Using a stop-ped-flow spectrofluorimeter, we determined rate processes assigned to iron release and conformational events (in the presence and in the absence of the TFR). Significan...

  7. Development of a transferrin receptor-targeting HVJ-E vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Takashi; Kawachi, Masako; Saga, Kotaro; Fujita, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Takehiko; Tamai, Katsuto; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2007-12-21

    The development of more effective cancer treatments is anticipated. Tumor-targeted drug delivery is an important strategy in cancer therapy. We have developed an HVJ (hemagglutinating virus of Japan; Sendai virus) envelope (HVJ-E) vector using inactivated Sendai virus. The HVJ-E vector has been observed to target a number of cell lines since its hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein recognizes the sialic acids of host cells. Thus, to reduce non-specific binding of the HVJ-E vector, we eliminated HN protein using HN-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA). Then, to further increase its tumor-targeting ability, we constructed HN-depleted HVJ containing the F-transferrin chimeric protein. The modified vectors containing Q-dots demonstrated 32-fold greater tumor-targeting efficiency than wild-type HVJ-E.

  8. An epirubicin-peptide conjugate with anticancer activity is dependent upon the expression level of the surface transferrin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiadan; Yang, Qiyu; Xu, Lu; Lou, Jie; Dong, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Epirubicin (EPI) is one of the most widely used anticarcinogens; however, serious side effects, including cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure, limit its long‑term administration. To overcome this problem, the HAIYPRH peptide ligand was used with EPI in the synthesis of a HAIYPRH‑EPI conjugate. The anticancer activity and cellular uptake of the conjugate were measured and evaluated. The results of the present study indicated that the cytotoxicity of HAIYPRH‑EPI was correlated with the expression of the cell surface transferrin receptor (TfR). The conjugate exerted high cytotoxicity and proapoptotic function when in an LN229 glioma cell line, which overexpresses surface TfR. It was hypothesized that transferrin (Tf) can promote cytotoxicity. Conversely, the conjugate exhibited very low cytotoxicity and proapoptotic function in a U87 glioma cell line, in which surface TfR expression was undetectable. In addition, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry methods were used to evaluate cellular uptake, and the results of these methods were consistent with the present hypotheses. The conjugate cellular uptake of the conjugate in LN229 cells was markedly higher compared with that in U87 cells, and it was hypothesized that Tf can enhance the uptake in LN229 cells. The cytotoxicity of HAIYPRH‑EPI was dependent upon the expression of surface TfR. Considering that the majority of cancer cells have high rates of iron uptake and surface TfR is generally overexpressed on cancer cells, it was speculated by the authors that HAIYPRH‑EPI may form part of an effective strategy for increasing the selectivity of EPI for cancer cells, as well as reducing its systemic toxicity. To confirm the hypothesis, the effects of HAIYPRH‑EPI on non‑cancerous cell lines were investigated. A future study will examine the side effects of HAIYPRH‑EPI, using a suitable delivery system in an animal model.

  9. Predominantly post-transcriptional regulation of activation molecules in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: the case of transferrin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiotoglou, Ioanna; Smilevska, Tatjana; Samara, Maria; Likousi, Sophia; Belessi, Chrysoula; Athanasiadou, Ioanna; Stavroyianni, Niki; Samara, Stavroula; Laoutaris, Nikolaos; Vamvakopoulos, Nikolaos; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Fassas, Athanasios; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Kollia, Panagoula

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms have a differential impact on cellular physiology depending on activation status. Several lines of evidence suggest that chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) malignant B cells resemble antigen-experienced and activated B cells. In the present study, we investigated the expression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, CD71), one of the "classical" markers up-regulated upon B-cell activation, and TfR2, a novel receptor for transferrin, in peripheral blood CD19+ B cells from ten healthy individuals and 76 patients with CLL so as to gain insight into potential disease-related differences in underlying regulatory mechanisms. Marked differences in the production and expression of these receptors were detected in malignant but not in normal B cells. Specifically, TfR1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in comparison to TfR2, both in normal and malignant B cells. Furthermore, discrepancies between TfR mRNA and protein expression were observed in CLL; in contrast, mRNA and protein expression levels were generally concordant in normal B cells. Exposure to actinomycin D decreased TfR1 and TfR2 mRNA levels in normal CD19+ B cells but had no effect on CLL malignant cells. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide had opposing effects in normal vs. CLL malignant B cells: thus, TfR1 and TfR2 mRNA levels were increased in normal B cells, whereas they were unaffected or even suppressed in CLL malignant B cells. These results allude to differential regulation of TfR1 and TfR2 expression in normal B cells vs. CLL. In normal B cells, transcriptional mechanisms exert a critical control over TfR1 and TfR2 expression, whereas in CLL post-transcriptional mechanisms seem to play a complementary and perhaps more important role. This type of control appears to be especially suited for modulation of genes implicated in proliferation of activated cells, like CLL malignant B cells.

  10. The structural basis of transferrin sequestration by transferrin-binding protein B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmettes, Charles; Alcantara, Joenel; Yu, Rong-Hua; Schryvers, Anthony B.; Moraes, Trevor F. (Toronto); (Calgary)

    2012-03-28

    Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of bacterial meningitis, acquires the essential element iron from the host glycoprotein transferrin during infection through a surface transferrin receptor system composed of proteins TbpA and TbpB. Here we present the crystal structures of TbpB from N. meningitidis in its apo form and in complex with human transferrin. The structure reveals how TbpB sequesters and initiates iron release from human transferrin.

  11. Co-localization of the mammalian hemochromatosis gene product (HFE) and a newly identified transferrin receptor (TfR2) in intestinal tissue and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, William J H; Cox, Timothy M

    2003-05-01

    Mutations in the HFE gene and a newly identified second transferrin receptor gene, TfR2, cause hemochromatosis. The cognate proteins, HFE and TfR2, are therefore of key importance in human iron homeostasis. HFE is expressed in small intestinal crypt cells where transferrin-iron entry may determine subsequent iron absorption by mature enterocytes, but the physiological function of TfR2 is unknown. Using specific peptide antisera, we examined the duodenal localization of HFE and TfR2 in humans and mice, with and without HFE deficiency, by confocal microscopy. We also investigated potential interactions of these proteins in human intestinal cells in situ. Duodenal expression of HFE and TfR2 (but not TfR1) in wild-type mice and humans was restricted to crypt cells, in which they co-localized. HFE deficiency disrupted this interaction, altering the cellular distribution of TfR2 in human crypts. In human Caco-2 cells, HFE and TfR2 co-localized to a distinct CD63-negative vesicular compartment showing marked signal enhancement on exposure to iron-saturated transferrin ligand, indicating that HFE preferentially interacts with TfR2 in a specialized early endosomal transport pathway for transferrin-iron. This interaction occurs specifically in small intestinal crypt cells that differentiate to become iron-absorbing enterocytes. Our immunohistochemical findings provide evidence for a novel mechanism for the regulation of iron balance in mammals.

  12. Single-Particle Tracking Shows that a Point Mutation in the Carnivore Parvovirus Capsid Switches Binding between Host-Specific Transferrin Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donald W.; Allison, Andrew B.; Bacon, Kaitlyn B.

    2016-01-01

    Determining how viruses infect new hosts via receptor-binding mechanisms is important for understanding virus emergence. We studied the binding kinetics of canine parvovirus (CPV) variants isolated from raccoons—a newly recognized CPV host—to different carnivore transferrin receptors (TfRs) using single-particle tracking. Our data suggest that CPV may utilize adhesion-strengthening mechanisms during TfR binding and that a single mutation in the viral capsid at VP2 position 300 can profoundly alter receptor binding and infectivity. PMID:26889026

  13. Alteration at translational but not transcriptional level of transferrin receptor expression following manganese exposure at the blood–CSF barrier in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Li, G. Jane; Zhao, Qiuqu; Zheng, Wei

    2005-01-01

    Manganese exposure alters iron homeostasis in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), possibly by acting on iron transport mechanisms localized at the blood–brain barrier and/or blood–CSF barrier. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that manganese exposure may change the binding affinity of iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) to mRNAs encoding transferrin receptor (TfR), thereby influencing iron transport at the blood–CSF barrier. A primary culture of choroidal epithelial cells was adapte...

  14. Combination of Curcumin with an Anti-Transferrin Receptor Antibody Suppressed the Growth of Malignant Gliomas In vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xue; Cheng, Xiaoping; Hu, Dahai; Li, Wenmin; Ha, Jianli; Kang, Zhaochang; Zhang, Mingjun; Huang, Yinghao; Wu, Si

    2016-01-01

    Transferrin receptor (TfR) has been used as a target for the molecular cancer therapy due to its higher expression in a variety of tumors. Anti-TfR antibodies combined with chemotherapeutic drugs has showed great potential as a possible cancer therapeutic strategy. In our study, we investigated the anti-tumor effects of anti-TfR monoclonal antibody (mAb) alone or in combination with curcumin in vitro. We detected the apoptosis, proliferation and cell cycle of glioma cells after treated with anti-TfR mAb and curcumin alone or the combinations by flow cytometer. Anti-TfR mAb or curcumin could inhibit proliferation of tumor cells. Anti-TfR mAb marked S phase arrest and curcumin induced G2/M arrest in tumor cells. When anti-TfR mAb and curcumin were used simultaneously, a synergistic effect was detected in relation to tumor growth inhibition and the induction of cells necrosis. These results provided a potential role of anti-TfR mAb-containing curcumin in the treatment for gliomas.

  15. In situ proximity ligation assays indicate that hemochromatosis proteins Hfe and transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2) do not interact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Gautam; Crampton, Emily M; Wallace, Daniel F; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2013-01-01

    The hemochromatosis associated proteins HFE and Transferrin Receptor 2 (TFR2) have been shown to be important for the proper regulation of hepcidin. A number of in vitro studies using transient overexpression systems have suggested that an interaction between HFE and TFR2 is required for the regulation of hepcidin. This model of iron sensing which centers upon the requirement for an interaction between HFE and TFR2 has recently been questioned with in vivo studies in mice from our laboratory and others which suggest that Hfe and Tfr2 can regulate hepcidin independently of each other. To re-examine the postulated interaction between Hfe and Tfr2 we developed a novel expression system in which both proteins are stably co-expressed and used the proximity ligation assay to examine the interactions between Hfe, Tfr1 and Tfr2 at a cellular level. We were able to detect the previously described interaction between Hfe and Tfr1, and heterodimers between Tfr1 and Tfr2; however no interaction between Hfe and Tfr2 was observed in our system. The results from this study indicate that Hfe and Tfr2 do not interact with each other when they are stably expressed at similar levels. Furthermore, these results support in vivo studies which suggest that Hfe and Tfr2 can independently regulate hepcidin.

  16. Localization of the iron-regulatory proteins hemojuvelin and transferrin receptor 2 to the basolateral membrane domain of hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Uta; Theilig, Franziska; Fein, Evelyn; Gehrke, Sven; Kallinowski, Birgit; Riedel, Hans-Dieter; Bachmann, Sebastian; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Kulaksiz, Hasan

    2007-02-01

    The newly discovered proteins hemojuvelin (Hjv) and transferrin receptor type 2 (TfR2) are involved in iron metabolism. Mutations in the Hjv and TfR2 gene cause hemochromatosis. We investigated the expression and cellular localization of Hjv and TfR2 in rat and human liver. The expression of Hjv and TfR2 was shown on mRNA and protein level by RT-PCR and immunoblot experiments. Their cellular localization was studied by immunofluorescence with antibodies raised against Hjv and TfR2. Hjv and TfR2 are present in human and rat liver and in primary human hepatocytes. Antisera raised against Hjv identified immunoreactive proteins with an apparent size of 44 and 46 kDa in immunoblot experiments of rat and human liver extracts, which are in accordance with the putative membrane-bound and cleaved soluble forms of this protein, respectively. TfR2 was detected as a 105 kDa protein corresponding to the predicted size of glycosylated TfR2 monomers. In immunofluorescence experiments, Hjv and TfR2 were found in rat liver only in hepatocytes. At the subcellular level, both proteins were predominantly localized to the basolateral membrane domain of hepatocytes. The localization of Hjv and TfR2 at the same membrane domain renders a functional interaction of these two proteins in iron homeostasis possible.

  17. In situ proximity ligation assays indicate that hemochromatosis proteins Hfe and transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2 do not interact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Rishi

    Full Text Available The hemochromatosis associated proteins HFE and Transferrin Receptor 2 (TFR2 have been shown to be important for the proper regulation of hepcidin. A number of in vitro studies using transient overexpression systems have suggested that an interaction between HFE and TFR2 is required for the regulation of hepcidin. This model of iron sensing which centers upon the requirement for an interaction between HFE and TFR2 has recently been questioned with in vivo studies in mice from our laboratory and others which suggest that Hfe and Tfr2 can regulate hepcidin independently of each other. To re-examine the postulated interaction between Hfe and Tfr2 we developed a novel expression system in which both proteins are stably co-expressed and used the proximity ligation assay to examine the interactions between Hfe, Tfr1 and Tfr2 at a cellular level. We were able to detect the previously described interaction between Hfe and Tfr1, and heterodimers between Tfr1 and Tfr2; however no interaction between Hfe and Tfr2 was observed in our system. The results from this study indicate that Hfe and Tfr2 do not interact with each other when they are stably expressed at similar levels. Furthermore, these results support in vivo studies which suggest that Hfe and Tfr2 can independently regulate hepcidin.

  18. Transferrin receptor 2: Continued expression in mouse liver in the face of iron overload and in hereditary hemochromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Robert E.; Migas, Mary C.; Holden, Christopher C.; Waheed, Abdul; Britton, Robert S.; Tomatsu, Shunji; Bacon, Bruce R.; Sly, William S.

    2000-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a common autosomal recessive disorder characterized by excess absorption of dietary iron and progressive iron deposition in several tissues, particularly liver. Liver disease resulting from iron toxicity is the major cause of death in HH. Hepatic iron loading in HH is progressive despite down-regulation of the classical transferrin receptor (TfR). Recently a human cDNA highly homologous to TfR was identified and reported to encode a protein (TfR2) that binds holotransferrin and mediates uptake of transferrin-bound iron. We independently identified a full-length murine EST encoding the mouse orthologue of the human TfR2. Although homologous to murine TfR in the coding region, the TfR2 transcript does not contain the iron-responsive elements found in the 3′ untranslated sequence of TfR mRNA. To determine the potential role for TfR2 in iron uptake by liver, we investigated TfR and TfR2 expression in normal mice and murine models of dietary iron overload (2% carbonyl iron), dietary iron deficiency (gastric parietal cell ablation), and HH (HFE −/−). Northern blot analyses demonstrated distinct tissue-specific patterns of expression for TfR and TfR2, with TfR2 expressed highly only in liver where TfR expression is low. In situ hybridization demonstrated abundant TfR2 expression in hepatocytes. In contrast to TfR, TfR2 expression in liver was not increased in iron deficiency. Furthermore, hepatic expression of TfR2 was not down-regulated with dietary iron loading or in the HFE −/− model of HH. From these observations, we propose that TfR2 allows continued uptake of Tf-bound iron by hepatocytes even after TfR has been down-regulated by iron overload, and this uptake contributes to the susceptibility of liver to iron loading in HH. PMID:10681454

  19. Interleukin-8, ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors in type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Shousha, Seham; Abd El-Megeed, Mona H; Sultan, Hala K

    2006-01-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common form of diabetes that constitutes the majority of cases worldwide including Egypt. Chronic elevated glucose level in DM increases monocyte adhesion to aortic endothelial cells (ECs) which is mediated primarily through induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8). This study aimed to investigate the possible role of IL-8 as a potent chemoattractant, pro-inflammatory cytokine in the immuno-inflammatory response of type II diabetic patients in correlation to ferritin and sTFR as markers of glucose homeostasis that characterizes the disease. The current work was conducted on 20 diabetic females and 10 healthy age and sex matching subjects as a group of control. Serum levels of IL-8, ferritin and sTFR were measured in all study subjects under investigation. Results revealed that both serum levels of IL-8 and ferritin were significantly elevated in type II diabetic patients (P = 0.0029 and 0.03 respectively) compared with those of control group while no significant difference was detected between sTFR levels in diabetic patient and control groups. In addition, a significant positive correlation was detected (P = 0.032) between serum levels of IL-8 and sTFR of the studied diabetic patient group. In conclusion, quantitative determination of IL-8, ferritin and sTFR could help in predicting type II diabetes-associated immuno-inflammatory manifestations characterize the micro-and macrovascular disease complications, particularly for high risk populations.

  20. Differing impact of the deletion of hemochromatosis-associated molecules HFE and transferrin receptor-2 on the iron phenotype of mice lacking bone morphogenetic protein 6 or hemojuvelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, Chloé; Besson-Fournier, Céline; Meynard, Delphine; Silvestri, Laura; Gourbeyre, Ophélie; Aguilar-Martinez, Patricia; Schmidt, Paul J; Fleming, Mark D; Roth, Marie-Paule; Coppin, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis, which is characterized by inappropriately low levels of hepcidin, increased dietary iron uptake, and systemic iron accumulation, has been associated with mutations in the HFE, transferrin receptor-2 (TfR2), and hemojuvelin (HJV) genes. However, it is still not clear whether these molecules intersect in vivo with bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6)/mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) homolog signaling, the main pathway up-regulating hepcidin expression in response to elevated hepatic iron. To answer this question, we produced double knockout mice for Bmp6 and β2-microglobulin (a surrogate for the loss of Hfe) and for Bmp6 and Tfr2, and we compared their phenotype (hepcidin expression, Bmp/Smad signaling, hepatic and extrahepatic tissue iron accumulation) with that of single Bmp6-deficient mice and that of mice deficient for Hjv, alone or in combination with Hfe or Tfr2. Whereas the phenotype of Hjv-deficient females was not affected by loss of Hfe or Tfr2, that of Bmp6-deficient females was considerably worsened, with decreased Smad5 phosphorylation, compared with single Bmp6-deficient mice, further repression of hepcidin gene expression, undetectable serum hepcidin, and massive iron accumulation not only in the liver but also in the pancreas, the heart, and the kidneys. These results show that (1) BMP6 does not require HJV to transduce signal to hepcidin in response to intracellular iron, even if the loss of HJV partly reduces this signal, (2) another BMP ligand can replace BMP6 and significantly induce hepcidin expression in response to extracellular iron, and (3) BMP6 alone is as efficient at inducing hepcidin as the other BMPs in association with the HJV/HFE/TfR2 complex; they provide an explanation for the compensatory effect of BMP6 treatment on the molecular defect underlying Hfe hemochromatosis in mice. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. Erythrocytic Iron Deficiency Enhances Susceptibility to Plasmodium chabaudi Infection in Mice Carrying a Missense Mutation in Transferrin Receptor 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelliott, Patrick M.; McMorran, Brendan J.; Foote, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of iron deficiency in areas of high malaria transmission is complicated by evidence which suggests that iron deficiency anemia protects against malaria, while iron supplementation increases malaria risk. Iron deficiency anemia results in an array of pathologies, including reduced systemic iron bioavailability and abnormal erythrocyte physiology; however, the mechanisms by which these pathologies influence malaria infection are not well defined. In the present study, the response to malaria infection was examined in a mutant mouse line, TfrcMRI24910, identified during an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) screen. This line carries a missense mutation in the gene for transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1). Heterozygous mice exhibited reduced erythrocyte volume and density, a phenotype consistent with dietary iron deficiency anemia. However, unlike the case in dietary deficiency, the erythrocyte half-life, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and intraerythrocytic ferritin content were unchanged. Systemic iron bioavailability was also unchanged, indicating that this mutation results in erythrocytic iron deficiency without significantly altering overall iron homeostasis. When infected with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi adami, mice displayed increased parasitemia and succumbed to infection more quickly than their wild-type littermates. Transfusion of fluorescently labeled erythrocytes into malaria parasite-infected mice demonstrated an erythrocyte-autonomous enhanced survival of parasites within mutant erythrocytes. Together, these results indicate that TFR1 deficiency alters erythrocyte physiology in a way that is similar to dietary iron deficiency anemia, albeit to a lesser degree, and that this promotes intraerythrocytic parasite survival and an increased susceptibility to malaria in mice. These findings may have implications for the management of iron deficiency in the context of malaria. PMID:26303393

  2. SOD2 Deficient Erythroid Cells Up-Regulate Transferrin Receptor and Down-Regulate Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Florent M.; Xu, Xiuling; von Löhneysen, Katharina; Gilmartin, Timothy J.; Friedman, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mice irradiated and reconstituted with hematopoietic cells lacking manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) show a persistent hemolytic anemia similar to human sideroblastic anemia (SA), including characteristic intra-mitochondrial iron deposition. SA is primarily an acquired, clonal marrow disorder occurring in individuals over 60 years of age with uncertain etiology. Methodology/Principal Findings To define early events in the pathogenesis of this murine model of SA, we compared erythroid differentiation of Sod2-/- and normal bone marrow cells using flow cytometry and gene expression profiling of erythroblasts. The predominant transcriptional differences observed include widespread down-regulation of mitochondrial metabolic pathways and mitochondrial biogenesis. Multiple nuclear encoded subunits of complexes I-IV of the electron transport chain, ATP synthase (complex V), TCA cycle and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins were coordinately down-regulated in Sod2-/- erythroblasts. Despite iron accumulation within mitochondria, we found increased expression of transferrin receptor, Tfrc, at both the transcript and protein level in SOD2 deficient cells, suggesting deregulation of iron delivery. Interestingly, there was decreased expression of ABCb7, the gene responsible for X-linked hereditary SA with ataxia, a component required for iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that in erythroblasts, mitochondrial oxidative stress reduces expression of multiple nuclear genes encoding components of the respiratory chain, TCA cycle and mitochondrial protein synthesis. An additional target of particular relevance for SA is iron:sulfur cluster biosynthesis. By decreasing transcription of components of cluster synthesis machinery, both iron utilization and regulation of iron uptake are impacted, contributing to the sideroblastic phenotype. PMID:21326867

  3. SOD2 deficient erythroid cells up-regulate transferrin receptor and down-regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent M Martin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mice irradiated and reconstituted with hematopoietic cells lacking manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2 show a persistent hemolytic anemia similar to human sideroblastic anemia (SA, including characteristic intra-mitochondrial iron deposition. SA is primarily an acquired, clonal marrow disorder occurring in individuals over 60 years of age with uncertain etiology.To define early events in the pathogenesis of this murine model of SA, we compared erythroid differentiation of Sod2⁻/⁻ and normal bone marrow cells using flow cytometry and gene expression profiling of erythroblasts. The predominant transcriptional differences observed include widespread down-regulation of mitochondrial metabolic pathways and mitochondrial biogenesis. Multiple nuclear encoded subunits of complexes I-IV of the electron transport chain, ATP synthase (complex V, TCA cycle and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins were coordinately down-regulated in Sod2⁻/⁻ erythroblasts. Despite iron accumulation within mitochondria, we found increased expression of transferrin receptor, Tfrc, at both the transcript and protein level in SOD2 deficient cells, suggesting deregulation of iron delivery. Interestingly, there was decreased expression of ABCb7, the gene responsible for X-linked hereditary SA with ataxia, a component required for iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis.These results indicate that in erythroblasts, mitochondrial oxidative stress reduces expression of multiple nuclear genes encoding components of the respiratory chain, TCA cycle and mitochondrial protein synthesis. An additional target of particular relevance for SA is iron:sulfur cluster biosynthesis. By decreasing transcription of components of cluster synthesis machinery, both iron utilization and regulation of iron uptake are impacted, contributing to the sideroblastic phenotype.

  4. Hematopoietic deletion of transferrin receptor 2 in mice leads to a block in erythroid differentiation during iron-deficient anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Gautam; Secondes, Eriza S; Wallace, Daniel F; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2016-08-01

    Iron metabolism and erythropoiesis are inherently interlinked physiological processes. Regulation of iron metabolism is mediated by the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin limits the amount of iron released into the blood by binding to and causing the internalization of the iron exporter, ferroportin. A number of molecules and physiological stimuli, including erythropoiesis, are known to regulate hepcidin. An increase in erythropoietic demand decreases hepcidin, resulting in increased bioavailable iron in the blood. Transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) is involved in the systemic regulation of iron metabolism. Patients and mice with mutations in TFR2 develop hemochromatosis due to inappropriate hepcidin levels relative to body iron. Recent studies from our laboratory and others have suggested an additional role for TFR2 in response to iron-restricted erythropoiesis. These studies used mouse models with perturbed systemic iron metabolism: anemic mice lacking matriptase-2 and Tfr2, or bone marrow transplants from iron-loaded Tfr2 null mice. We developed a novel transgenic mouse model which lacks Tfr2 in the hematopoietic compartment, enabling the delineation of the role of Tfr2 in erythroid development without interfering with its role in systemic iron metabolism. We show that in the absence of hematopoietic Tfr2 immature polychromatic erythroblasts accumulate with a concordant reduction in the percentage of mature erythroid cells in the spleen and bone marrow of anemic mice. These results demonstrate that erythroid Tfr2 is essential for an appropriate erythropoietic response in iron-deficient anemia. These findings may be of relevance in clinical situations in which an immediate and efficient erythropoietic response is required. Am. J. Hematol. 91:812-818, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Iron regulation of hepcidin despite attenuated Smad1,5,8 signaling in mice without transferrin receptor 2 or Hfe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Elena; Rozier, Molly; Meynard, Delphine; Odhiambo, Adam; Lin, Herbert Y; Feng, Qi; Migas, Mary C; Britton, Robert S; Babitt, Jodie L; Fleming, Robert E

    2011-11-01

    HFE and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) are each necessary for the normal relationship between body iron status and liver hepcidin expression. In murine Hfe and Tfr2 knockout models of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), signal transduction to hepcidin via the bone morphogenetic protein 6 (Bmp6)/Smad1,5,8 pathway is attenuated. We examined the effect of dietary iron on regulation of hepcidin expression via the Bmp6/Smad1,5,8 pathway using mice with targeted disruption of Tfr2, Hfe, or both genes. Hepatic iron concentrations and messenger RNA expression of Bmp6 and hepcidin were compared with wild-type mice in each of the HH models on standard or iron-loading diets. Liver phospho-Smad (P-Smad)1,5,8 and Id1 messenger RNA levels were measured as markers of Bmp/Smad signaling. Whereas Bmp6 expression was increased, liver hepcidin and Id1 expression were decreased in each of the HH models compared with wild-type mice. Each of the HH models also showed attenuated P-Smad1,5,8 levels relative to liver iron status. Mice with combined Hfe/Tfr2 disruption were most affected. Dietary iron loading increased hepcidin and Id1 expression in each of the HH models. Compared with wild-type mice, HH mice demonstrated attenuated (Hfe knockout) or no increases in P-Smad1,5,8 levels in response to dietary iron loading. These observations show that Tfr2 and Hfe are each required for normal signaling of iron status to hepcidin via the Bmp6/Smad1,5,8 pathway. Mice with combined loss of Hfe and Tfr2 up-regulate hepcidin in response to dietary iron loading without increases in liver Bmp6 messenger RNA or steady-state P-Smad1,5,8 levels. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro culture of Babesia bovis in a bovine serum-free culture medium supplemented with insulin, transferrin, and selenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Martínez, C; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Figueroa Millán, J V; Acosta Viana, K Y; Gutiérrez Ruiz, E J; Álvarez Martínez, J A

    2016-11-01

    Bovine serum is an important factor for the optimal growth of Babesia bovis in vitro. This protozoan can be cultured in M-199 with Earle's salts medium (M-199) supplemented with 40% bovine serum (BS). In the present study, four media were assessed along with the control medium M-199. The effect on the proliferation of B. bovis in vitro was tested when these media were combined with insulin (Ins), transferrin (Trans) and selenite (Sel) in the absence of bovine serum. Treatment with Advanced DMEM/F12 medium (A-DMEM/F12) achieved the highest percentage of parasitized erythrocytes (PPE), reaching a maximum value of 9.59%. A-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with a mixture of Ins (2000 mg/L), Trans (1100 mg/L), and Sel (1.34 mg/L) allowed for the adaptation and proliferation of B. bovis without bovine serum, showed a constant increase in PPE, and reached a maximum value of 9.7% during seven cycles of in vitro culture. It was concluded that continuous proliferation of B. bovis in vitro could be achieved using A-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with Ins-Trans-Sel, without bovine serum. After adaptation for proliferation in serum-free medium, the B. bovis strain of parasites could have future use in the study of this economically important protozoan species that affects cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeting immunoliposomes to transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelial cells as a mean for cargo transport across the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kasper Bendix; Larsen, Annette Burkhart; Bruun, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    transport further into the CNS. We studied transferrin receptor-targeted (OX26) immunoliposomes containing oxaliplatin with the aim of quantifying the uptake of OX26, liposomes and oxaliplatin in BCECs and the remaining CNS. The uptake of the immunoliposomes and their cargo was studied in 18-dayold rats...... higher both in vitro and in vivo when compared to isotypic IgG-conjugated liposomes. Quantitative analyses after capillary depletion revealed cargo transport from BCECs to the remaining CNS, but not differences could be detected between OX26- conjugated and isotype IgG control liposomes in vivo, whereas...

  8. Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) and HFE mutational analysis in non‐C282Y iron overload: identification of a novel TfR2 mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Mattman, A.; Huntsman, D; Lockitch, G; Langlois, S.; Buskard, N; RALSTON, D.; BUTTERFIELD, Y.; Rodrigues, P; Jones, S.; Porto, G; Marra, M.; Sousa, M; VATCHER, G.

    2002-01-01

    Blood. 2002 Aug 1;100(3):1075-7. Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) and HFE mutational analysis in non-C282Y iron overload: identification of a novel TfR2 mutation. Mattman A, Huntsman D, Lockitch G, Langlois S, Buskard N, Ralston D, Butterfield Y, Rodrigues P, Jones S, Porto G, Marra M, De Sousa M, Vatcher G. SourceGenes, Elements, and Metabolism Program, Children and Women's Hospital of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Abstract Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH...

  9. Impact of non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) in comparison to serum ferritin on outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilken, Annekathrin; Langebrake, Claudia; Wolschke, Christine; Kersten, Jan Felix; Rohde, Holger; Nielsen, Peter; Kröger, Nicolaus

    2017-08-01

    The optimal parameters and time points for the measurement of iron overload (IO) in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) patients are still under discussion. Hyperferritinemia and IO are poor prognostic factors in ASCT. We hypothesize that non-transferrin-bound iron (NBTI) is possibly a better marker to predict the effect of IO on the outcome than serum ferritin (SF), which however is not specific for IO. The aim of this prospective observational trial was to evaluate the influence of NBTI in comparison to SF on the outcome of ASCT patients [overall survival, bloodstream infections (BSIs), and invasive fungal infections (IFIs)]. We analyzed daily transferrin saturation (TSAT), SF, and NTBI (if TSAT exceeded 70%) in 100 patients who received ASCT during conditioning, and on day 0, +7, and +14 post-ASCT. After a median NTBI level of 0 μmol/l at baseline, the median of the area under the curve (AUC) of NTBI between conditioning and ASCT (d0) increased to 17 μmol*d/l, and between ASCT and day +14 to 56.3 μmol*d/l. Higher NTBI-AUC d0 resulted in a higher risk of BSI (HR 1.042, p = 0.009) and IFI (HR 1.070, p = 0.001) and showed a trend of inferior 1-year survival (65 vs. 76%, p = 0.09). Baseline SF did not influence BSI, but higher levels resulted in more IFI (HR 1.26, p < 0.001). In conclusion, NTBI possibly better predict for a higher risk of bloodstream infections than SF and needs further investigation.

  10. Adjusting soluble transferrin receptor concentrations for inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Fabian; Namaste, Sorrel Ml; Larson, Leila M; Addo, O Yaw; Mei, Zuguo; Suchdev, Parminder S; Williams, Anne M; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A; Rawat, Rahul; Raiten, Daniel J; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A

    2017-07-01

    Background: Iron deficiency is thought to be one of the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies globally, but an accurate assessment in populations who are frequently exposed to infections is impeded by the inflammatory response, which causes iron-biomarker alterations. Objectives: We assessed the relation between soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations and inflammation and malaria in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6-59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y) and investigated adjustment algorithms to account for these effects. Design: Cross-sectional data from the Biomarkers Reflecting the Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project from 11,913 PSC in 11 surveys and from 11,173 WRA in 7 surveys were analyzed individually and combined with the use of a meta-analysis. The following 3 adjustment approaches were compared with estimated iron-deficient erythropoiesis (sTfR concentration >8.3 mg/L): 1 ) the exclusion of individuals with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations >5 mg/L or α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations >1 g/L, 2 ) the application of arithmetic correction factors, and 3 ) the use of regression approaches. Results: The prevalence of elevated sTfR concentrations incrementally decreased as CRP and AGP deciles decreased for PSC and WRA, but the effect was more pronounced for AGP than for CRP. Depending on the approach used to adjust for inflammation, the estimated prevalence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis decreased by 4.4-14.6 and 0.3-9.5 percentage points in PSC and WRA, respectively, compared with unadjusted values. The correction-factor approach yielded a more modest reduction in the estimated prevalence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis than did the regression approach. Mostly, adjustment for malaria in addition to AGP did not significantly change the estimated prevalence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis. Conclusions: sTfR may be useful to assess iron-deficient erythropoiesis, but

  11. Adjusting soluble transferrin receptor concentrations for inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Leila M; Mei, Zuguo; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A; Rawat, Rahul; Raiten, Daniel J; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency is thought to be one of the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies globally, but an accurate assessment in populations who are frequently exposed to infections is impeded by the inflammatory response, which causes iron-biomarker alterations. Objectives: We assessed the relation between soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations and inflammation and malaria in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6–59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15–49 y) and investigated adjustment algorithms to account for these effects. Design: Cross-sectional data from the Biomarkers Reflecting the Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project from 11,913 PSC in 11 surveys and from 11,173 WRA in 7 surveys were analyzed individually and combined with the use of a meta-analysis. The following 3 adjustment approaches were compared with estimated iron-deficient erythropoiesis (sTfR concentration >8.3 mg/L): 1) the exclusion of individuals with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations >5 mg/L or α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations >1 g/L, 2) the application of arithmetic correction factors, and 3) the use of regression approaches. Results: The prevalence of elevated sTfR concentrations incrementally decreased as CRP and AGP deciles decreased for PSC and WRA, but the effect was more pronounced for AGP than for CRP. Depending on the approach used to adjust for inflammation, the estimated prevalence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis decreased by 4.4–14.6 and 0.3–9.5 percentage points in PSC and WRA, respectively, compared with unadjusted values. The correction-factor approach yielded a more modest reduction in the estimated prevalence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis than did the regression approach. Mostly, adjustment for malaria in addition to AGP did not significantly change the estimated prevalence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis. Conclusions: sTfR may be useful to assess iron-deficient erythropoiesis

  12. Overexpression of the MRI Reporter Genes Ferritin and Transferrin Receptor Affect Iron Homeostasis and Produce Limited Contrast in Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia M. Pereira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Imaging technologies that allow the non-invasive monitoring of stem cells in vivo play a vital role in cell-based regenerative therapies. Recently, much interest has been generated in reporter genes that enable simultaneous monitoring of the anatomical location and viability of cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Here, we investigate the efficacy of ferritin heavy chain-1 (Fth1 and transferrin receptor-1 (TfR1 as reporters for tracking mesenchymal stem cells. The overexpression of TfR1 was well tolerated by the cells but Fth1 was found to affect the cell’s iron homeostasis, leading to phenotypic changes in the absence of iron supplementation and an upregulation in transcript and protein levels of the cell’s endogenous transferrin receptor. Neither the sole overexpression of Fth1 nor TfR1 resulted in significant increases in intracellular iron content, although significant differences were seen when the two reporter genes were used in combination, in the presence of high concentrations of iron. The supplementation of the culture medium with iron sources was a more efficient means to obtain contrast than the use of reporter genes, where high levels of intracellular iron were reflected in transverse (T2 relaxation. The feasibility of imaging iron-supplemented cells by MRI is shown using a 3R-compliant chick embryo model.

  13. An iron-dependent and transferrin-mediated cellular uptake pathway for plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P.; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Aryal, Baikuntha; Paunesku, Tatjana; Vogt, Stefan; Rickert, Paul G.; Seifert, Soenke; Lai, Barry; Woloschak, Gayle E.; Soderholm, L.

    2012-01-01

    Plutonium is a toxic synthetic element with no natural biological function, but it is strongly retained by humans when ingested. Using small angle X-ray scattering, receptor binding assays, and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy we find that rat adrenal gland (PC12) cells can acquire plutonium in vitro through the major iron acquisition pathway, receptor-mediated endocytosis of the iron transport protein serum transferrin; however only one form of the plutonium-transferrin complex is active. Low-resolution solution models of plutonium-loaded transferrins derived from small angle scattering demonstrate that only transferrin with plutonium bound in the protein’s C-terminal lobe and iron bound in the N-lobe (PuCFeNTf) adopts the proper conformation for recognition by the transferrin receptor protein. Although the metal binding site in each lobe contains the same donors in the same configuration and both lobes are similar, the differences between transferrin’s two lobes act to restrict, but not eliminate, cellular Pu uptake. PMID:21706034

  14. Targeted Delivery of Amoxicillin to C. trachomatis by the Transferrin Iron Acquisition Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Jun; Serradji, Nawal; Mouton, Ludovic; Redeker, Virginie; Cornu, David; El Hage Chahine, Jean-Michel; Verbeke, Philippe; Hémadi, Miryana

    2016-01-01

    Weak intracellular penetration of antibiotics makes some infections difficult to treat. The Trojan horse strategy for targeted drug delivery is among the interesting routes being explored to overcome this therapeutic difficulty. Chlamydia trachomatis, as an obligate intracellular human pathogen, is responsible for both trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. Chlamydia develops in a vacuole and is therefore protected by four membranes (plasma membrane, bacterial inclusion membrane, and bacterial membranes). In this work, the iron-transport protein, human serum-transferrin, was used as a Trojan horse for antibiotic delivery into the bacterial vacuole. Amoxicillin was grafted onto transferrin. The transferrin-amoxicillin construct was characterized by mass spectrometry and absorption spectroscopy. Its affinity for transferrin receptor 1, determined by fluorescence emission titration [KaffTf-amox = (1.3 ± 1.0) x 108], is very close to that of transferrin [4.3 x 108]. Transmission electron and confocal microscopies showed a co-localization of transferrin with the bacteria in the vacuole and were also used to evaluate the antibiotic capability of the construct. It is significantly more effective than amoxicillin alone. These promising results demonstrate targeted delivery of amoxicillin to suppress Chlamydia and are of interest for Chlamydiaceae and maybe other intracellular bacteria therapies.

  15. Specific, sensitive and accurate quantification of albumin, retinol binding protein and transferrin in human urine and serum by zone immunoelectrophoresis assay (ZIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterberg, O

    1994-05-01

    For zone immunoelectrophoresis assay (ZIA) glass tubes, ID 2 mm and 90 mm high, are filled to 2/3 with buffer containing agarose and antibodies against the protein to be quantified, each sample being pipetted on top of separate agarose gel rods. On electrophoresis at 35-150 V for several hours, the sample proteins enter the gel with resultant immunoprecipitates, visualized by staining. The extension of each immunoprecipitation zone from the upper gel surface (measured with a ruler) is directly proportional to the amount of protein in each sample and can easily be quantitated by comparison with a linear calibration curve. ZIA can be used for quantification of several proteins in blood serum and plasma as well as in urine, as is illustrated for albumin, retinol-binding protein (RBP) and transferrin. The recovery of the pure proteins added to urine is often close to 100%. ZIA has many advantages: (i) simple apparatus and procedure (no gel punching nor cooling), (ii) minimal antiserum consumption (1 mL may allow > 1000 assays), (iii) electrophoresis can be performed within a few hours or overnight, (iv) low coefficient of variation (often < 4%), (v) linear calibration curves, (vi) low detection limit (< 20 ng/mL), (vii) wide concentration ranges, (viii) no kits nor unique antisera preparation are required, and (ix) good agreement with the results from other methods.

  16. Determining the binding site and binding affinity of estradiol to human serum albumin and holo-transferrin: fluorescence spectroscopic, isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular modeling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh, Nazila; Navaee Sedighi, Zahra; Beigoli, Sima; Sharifi-Rad, Atena; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Chamani, Jamshidkhan

    2017-06-02

    The interactions between estradiol and two carrier proteins, i.e. human serum albumin (HSA) and holo-transferrin (HTF) in aqueous solution at pH = 7.4 were studied by three-dimensional fluorescence emission spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), zeta-potential, resonance light-scattering and molecular modeling. Extensive fluorescence quenching was observed throughout the interaction between the drug and both proteins. Moreover, conformational changes were determined by observing the rearrangement of Trp residues during binding of estradiol with HSA and HTF at different concentrations. ITC experiments revealed that, in the presence of estradiol, both van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding became predominant. In addition, other binding parameters such as enthalpy and entropy changes were determined by the zeta potential method. Molecular modeling suggested that estradiol was situated within sub-domain IB sited in the hydrophobic cluster in Site I, whereas the drug was located in the N-terminal of HTF where it was hydrogen bonded with Ala 670.

  17. Utilidad en el post parto de la determinación de protoporfirina eritrocitaria y su relación con el receptor soluble de transferrina Usefulness of erythrocyte protoporphyrin test in the puerperium compared to the soluble transferrin receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia H. Langini

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió, en 77 puérperas, la relación entre la protoporfirina eritrocitaria (PE, la ferritina sérica (FS, el receptor soluble de transferrina (RsT y los indicadores hematológicos utilizados en la rutina clínica. En sangre venosa se determinó: Hematocrito (Hto, Hemoglobina (Hb, recuento de glóbulos rojos (GR y glóbulos blancos (GB (contador electrónico MEGA; PE (Piomelli; en suero: RsT (ELISA, Orion Diagnostica, FS (ELISA, IMx Ferritina, Abbott y Proteína C-Reactiva (PCR- Látex, Wiener lab. Se analizaron sensibilidad (S, especificidad (E y puntos de corte mediante el modelo ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics, considerando como gold standard el RsT. Los resultados (media ± DE fueron: Hto (% 35 ± 5; Hb (g/l 113 ± 18; GRx10³/mm³ 3 893 ± 489; VCM (fL 90 ± 6; GB/mm³ 9 543 ± 2.669; PE (µg/dl GR 46 ± 39; RsT (mg/l 4.7 ± 2.8; FS (µg/l 26 ± 31; PCR (Pos/Neg 72/5. La PE no correlacionó con FS, pero sí con el RsT (r=0.323, p=0.007. La S y E de la FS fueron de 83% y 63%, respectivamente, para un punto de corte de 25 µg/l; para la PE la S fue de 38% y la E de 90% para un punto de corte de 53 µg/dl GR. Estos resultados sugieren que ese punto de corte en el puerperio, permitiría detectar con un bajo costo un mayor porcentaje de mujeres (16% en nuestro estudio que presentan deficiencia de Fe pese a sus valores normales de hemoglobina.Erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP, serum ferritin (SF, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR and routine hematological laboratory tests were studied in 77 women 24 h post-partum, assisted at Paroissien Hospital (in Buenos Aires Province. Hematocrite (Hct, hemoglobin (Hb, red blood cells (RBC and white blood cells (WBC were determined using an electronic counter (Mega; EP by Piomelli’s; SF by ELISA (IMx Ferritina, Abbott; sTfR by ELISA (Orion Diagnostica and C-Reactive Protein (PCR-Latex, Wiener lab. All determinations were made in fasting blood samples. Statistical analysis (Receiver Operating

  18. Genome-wide association study identifies two loci strongly affecting transferrin glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutalik, Zoltán; Benyamin, Beben; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Waeber, Gérard; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Beckmann, Jacques S; Vollenweider, Peter; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Whitfield, John B

    2011-09-15

    Polysaccharide sidechains attached to proteins play important roles in cell-cell and receptor-ligand interactions. Variation in the carbohydrate component has been extensively studied for the iron transport protein transferrin, because serum levels of the transferrin isoforms asialotransferrin + disialotransferrin (carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, CDT) are used as biomarkers of excessive alcohol intake. We conducted a genome-wide association study to assess whether genetic factors affect CDT concentration in serum. CDT was measured in three population-based studies: one in Switzerland (CoLaus study, n = 5181) and two in Australia (n = 1509, n = 775). The first cohort was used as the discovery panel and the latter ones served as replication. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing data were used to identify loci with significant associations with CDT as a percentage of total transferrin (CDT%). The top three SNPs in the discovery panel (rs2749097 near PGM1 on chromosome 1, and missense polymorphisms rs1049296, rs1799899 in TF on chromosome 3) were successfully replicated , yielding genome-wide significant combined association with CDT% (P = 1.9 × 10(-9), 4 × 10(-39), 5.5 × 10(-43), respectively) and explain 5.8% of the variation in CDT%. These allelic effects are postulated to be caused by variation in availability of glucose-1-phosphate as a precursor of the glycan (PGM1), and variation in transferrin (TF) structure.

  19. A novel quantification strategy of transferrin and albumin in human serum by species-unspecific isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Liuxing, E-mail: fenglx@nim.ac.cn; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Jun; Shen, Dairui; Li, Hongmei

    2015-07-16

    Highlights: • Species-unspecific ID-PAGE-LA-ICP-MS was used to quantify Alb and Tf in human serum. • Addition methods of species-unspecific {sup 34}S spike were evaluated. • Isotope change conditions were investigated to reach satisfactory “isotope equilibration”. • Human serum CRM (ERM-DA470k/IFCC) was used to validate the new arrangements. • The developed method offers potential for accurate quantification of protein by ID-PAGE-LA-ICP-MS. - Abstract: Species-specific (SS) isotope dilution analysis with gel electrophoresis (GE)-laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS is a promising technique for the quantification of particular metal-binding proteins in biological samples. However, unavailable isotopically enriched spike and metal losses in GE separation are main limitations for SS-isotope dilution PAGE-LA-ICP-MS. In this study, we report for the first time the absolute quantification of transferrin (Tf) and albumin (Alb) in human serum by non-denaturing (native) GE combined with species-unspecific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In order to achieve a homogeneous distribution of both protein and isotope-enriched spike (simulated isotope equilibration), immersing the protein strips with {sup 34}S spike solution after gel electrophoresis was demonstrated to be an effective way of spike addition. Furthermore, effects of immersion time and {sup 34}S spike concentration were investigated to obtain optimal conditions of the post-electrophoresis isotope dilution method. The relative mass of spike and ablated sample (m{sub sp}/m{sub sam}) in IDMS equation was calculated by standard Tf and Alb proteins, which could be applied to the quantification of Tf and Alb in ERM-DA470k/IFCC for method confirmation. The results were in agreement with the certified value with good precision and small uncertainty (1.5–3%). In this method, species-specific spike protein is not necessary and the integrity of the heteroatom-protein could be maintained in sample preparation

  20. Enhanced transferrin receptor expression by proinflammatory cytokines in enterocytes as a means for local delivery of drugs to inflamed gut mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrat Harel

    Full Text Available Therapeutic intervention in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs is often associated with adverse effects related to drug distribution into non-diseased tissues, a situation which attracts a rational design of a targeted treatment confined to the inflamed mucosa. Upon activation of immune cells, transferrin receptor (TfR expression increases at their surface. Because TfR is expressed in all cell types we hypothesized that its cell surface levels are regulated also in enterocytes. We, therefore, compared TfR expression in healthy and inflamed human colonic mucosa, as well as healthy and inflamed colonic mucosa of the DNBS-induced rat model. TfR expression was elevated in the colonic mucosa of IBD patients in both the basolateral and apical membranes of the enterocytes. Increased TfR expression was also observed in colonocytes of the induced colitis rats. To explore the underlying mechanism CaCo-2 cells were treated with various proinflammatory cytokines, which increased both TfR expression and transferrin cellular uptake in a mechanism that did not involve hyper proliferation. These findings were then exploited for the design of targetable carrier towards inflamed regions of the colon. Anti-TfR antibodies were conjugated to nano-liposomes. As expected, iron-starved Caco-2 cells internalized anti-TfR immunoliposomes better than controls. Ex vivo binding studies to inflamed mucosa showed that the anti-TfR immunoliposomes accumulated significantly better in the mucosa of DNBS-induced rats than the accumulation of non-specific immunoliposomes. It is concluded that targeting mucosal inflammation can be accomplished by nano-liposomes decorated with anti-TfR due to inflammation-dependent, apical, elevated expression of the receptor.

  1. Utility of labile plasma iron and transferrin saturation in addition to serum ferritin as iron overload markers in different underlying anemias before and after deferasirox treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John B; El-Alfy, Mohsen; Viprakasit, Vip; Giraudier, Stephane; Chan, Lee Lee; Lai, Yongrong; El-Ali, Ali; Han, Jackie; Cappellini, Maria D

    2016-01-01

    Plasma markers in addition to serum ferritin (SF) may be useful for the assessment of iron overload; however, predictive utility may differ depending on underlying, transfusion-dependent, anemias. Data were collected before and after 1 year of deferasirox treatment (end of study; EOS) from the large, 1-year EPIC (Evaluation of Patients' Iron Chelation with Exjade(®) ) study. Trends were evaluated between liver iron concentration (LIC), transferrin saturation (TfSat), predose labile plasma iron (LPI) and their relationship to SF categories in 1530 patients: thalassemia major (TM; n = 1114), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS, n = 336), and sickle-cell disease (SCD, n = 80). Baseline and EOS SF values showed a clear and similar relationship to LIC for all disease groups. TfSat also showed a relationship to SF, most clearly in patients with SCD, where TfSat was lowest in the lowest relative SF category. Unlike SF or LIC, TfSat did not decrease at EOS in any disease group. Baseline LPI was raised in TM and MDS, but not in patients with SCD, decreasing at EOS in both patient groups. After 1 year of chelation therapy, there was a significant trend for greater LPI reduction in patients with TM achieving LIC <7 mg Fe/g dw (P = 0.0137). Despite limitations, SF showed the clearest relationship, of the plasma markers evaluated, to LIC before and after 1 year of deferasirox in patients with TM, MDS, and SCD. In patients with TM, changes in LPI with chelation show a significant relationship to EOS LIC and may provide an additional indicator of chelation response (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00171821). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Soluble form of transferrin receptor-1 level is associated with the age at first diagnosis and the risk of therapeutic intervention and iron overloading in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchi, Paolo; Meloni, Antonella; Costantini, Silvia; Spasiano, Anna; Di Matola, Tiziana; Pepe, Alessia; Cinque, Patrizia; Filosa, Aldo

    2017-09-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the relationship between serum transferrin receptor-1 (sTfR1) and some fundamental events in the life and the management (the age at diagnosis, the age at the first red blood cells transfusion, the age at splenectomy, and the overall need of chelation therapy) of 111 patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT) subdivided in four genetic entities: patients with homozygous or compound heterozygous state for β-thalassemia, patients with triplicated α genotype associated with β heterozygosity, patients with deletional HbH, and patients with the combination of a β defect plus a β chain variant. We found that the group with homozygous or compound heterozygous state for β-thalassemia had the highest sTfR1 levels and that the presence of increased sTfR1 levels (>5 times normal) was associated with a complex and severe history of disease requiring splenectomy, occasional red blood cells transfusions, and early start and continuous iron chelation therapy.The complexity in the management of NTDT patients is an emerging issue due to the wide heterogeneity of clinical behavior. Our data indicate that the measurement of sTfR1 levels, a common laboratory test, could contribute to correctly stratify disease history and the iron chelation strategy in NTDT patients.

  3. Uptake of 111In-labeled fully human monoclonal antibody TSP-A18 reflects transferrin receptor expression in normal organs and tissues of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugyo, Aya; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Sudo, Hitomi; Nomura, Fumiko; Satoh, Hirokazu; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Kurosawa, Gene; Kurosawa, Yoshikazu; Saga, Tsuneo

    2017-03-01

    Transferrin receptor (TfR) is an attractive molecule for targeted therapy of cancer. Various TfR-targeted therapeutic agents such as anti-TfR antibodies conjugated with anticancer agents have been developed. An antibody that recognizes both human and murine TfR is needed to predict the toxicity of antibody-based agents before clinical trials, there is no such antibody to date. In this study, a new fully human monoclonal antibody TSP-A18 that recognizes both human and murine TfR was developed and the correlation analysis of the radiolabeled antibody uptake and TfR expression in two murine strains was conducted. TSP-A18 was selected using extracellular portions of human and murine TfR from a human antibody library. The cross-reactivity of TSP-A18 with human and murine cells was confirmed by flow cytometry. Cell binding and competitive inhibition assays with [111In]TSP-A18 showed that TSP-A18 bound highly to TfR-expressing MIAPaCa-2 cells with high affinity. Biodistribution studies of [111In]TSP-A18 and [67Ga]citrate (a transferrin-mediated imaging probe) were conducted in C57BL/6J and BALB/c-nu/nu mice. [111In]TSP-A18 was accumulated highly in the spleen and bone containing marrow component of both strains, whereas high [67Ga]citrate uptake was only observed in bone containing marrow component and not in the spleen. Western blotting indicated the spleen showed the strongest TfR expression compared with other organs in both strains. There was significant correlation between [111In]TSP-A18 uptake and TfR protein expression in both strains, whereas there was significant correlation of [67Ga]citrate uptake with TfR expression only in C57BL/6J. These findings suggest that the difference in TfR expression between murine strains should be carefully considered when testing for the toxicity of anti-TfR antibody in mice and the uptake of anti-TfR antibody could reflect tissue TfR expression more accurately compared with that of transferrin-mediated imaging probe such as [67Ga]citrate.

  4. Development of a complete human IgG monoclonal antibody to transferrin receptor 1 targeted for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimosaki, Shunsuke; Nakahata, Shingo; Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Kitanaka, Akira; Kameda, Takuro; Hidaka, Tomonori; Kubuki, Yoko; Kurosawa, Gene; Zhang, Lilin; Sudo, Yukio; Shimoda, Kazuya; Morishita, Kazuhiro

    2017-03-25

    Iron is an essential nutrient for normal cell growth, and reprogramming of iron metabolism is essential to tumor cell survival and progression. HTLV-1-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) has no effective therapy and high levels of cell surface transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1) expression have been reported in ATLL by us and other groups. In this study, to develop a novel molecular-targeted therapy against TFR1 to modulate iron metabolism, we initially determined the expression pattern of several iron-related genes along with TFR1 and found that ATLL cells presented characteristic of an iron-deficiency state such as high expression of iron-regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) and low expression of its E3 ubiquitin-ligase, FBXL5. Therefore, we developed human IgG monoclonal antibodies to human TFR1 using a phage display method (ICOS method) to block the incorporation of the transferrin (TF)-iron complex into ATLL cells for inhibiting cell growth. One of the mAbs, JST-TFR09, presented its greater affinity to TFR1 on ATLL cells in flow cytometry (FCM) analysis than those of commercially available anti-TFR1 antibodies and identified high expression of TFR1 in most of the acute-type ATLL cells. Moreover, JST-TFR09 could interfere with binding between TFR1 and TF, which resulted in effective blockade of TFR1 internalization and induction of cell apoptosis by the treatment of ATLL cells with JST-TFR09. JST-TFR09 showed dual activities through direct cell cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and the treatment of JST-TFR09 significantly suppressed cell growth of ATLL cells with induction of apoptosis in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Thus, JST-TFR09 described here may become a promising therapeutic antibody for the treatment of ATLL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of Tumor Antigen AF20 as Glycosylated Transferrin Receptor 1 in Complex with Heat Shock Protein 90 and/or Transporting ATPase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Shapiro

    Full Text Available We previously isolated AF20, a murine monoclonal antibody that recognizes a cell surface glycoprotein of approximately 90-110 kDa. The AF20 antigen is specifically expressed in human hepatoma and colon cancer cell lines, and thus could serve as a cancer biomarker. To uncover the molecular identity of the AF20 antigen, a combination of ion-exchange chromatography, immunoprecipitation, and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was employed to purify the AF20 antigen followed by trypsin digestion and mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, three host proteins were thus purified from human hepatoma and colon cancer cell lines: transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, and Na+/K+ ATPase or Mg++ ATPase. Co-immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis confirmed interaction among the three proteins. However, only the cDNA encoding TFR1 conferred strong cell surface staining by the AF20 antibody following its transient transfection into a cell line lacking endogenous AF20. In support of the molecular identity of AF20 as TFR1, diferric but not iron-free transferrin could prevent AF20 antigen-antibody interaction during immunoprecipitation. Moreover, very similar patterns of AF20 and TFR1 overexpression was documented in colon cancer tissues. In conclusion, AF20 is glycosylated TFR1. This finding could explain the molecular structure of AF20, its cell surface localization, as well as overexpression in cancer cells. Glycosylated TFR1 should serve as a usefulness target for anti-cancer therapy, or a vehicle for delivery of anti-tumor drugs with high affinity and specificity. The biological significance of the complex formation between TFR1, HSP90, and/or transporting ATPase warrants further investigation.

  6. Development of a Bifunctional Aptamer Targeting the Transferrin Receptor and Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) for the Treatment of Brain Cancer Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Joanna; Henri, Justin; Goodman, Lynda; Xiang, Dongxi; Duan, Wei; Shigdar, Sarah

    2017-04-19

    The treatment of brain disorders is greatly hindered by the presence of the blood-brain barrier, which restricts the overwhelming majority of small molecules from entering the brain. A novel approach by which to overcome this barrier is to target receptor mediated transport mechanisms present on the endothelial cell membranes. Therefore, we fused an aptamer that binds to epithelial cell adhesion molecule-expressing cancer cells to an aptamer targeting the transferrin receptor. This generated a proof of concept bifunctional aptamer that can overcome the blood-brain barrier and potentially specifically target brain disorders. The initial fusion of the two sequences enhanced the binding affinity of both aptamers while maintaining specificity. Additionally, mutations were introduced into both binding loops to determine their effect on aptamer specificity. The ability of the aptamer to transcytose the blood-brain barrier was then confirmed in vivo following a 1 nmol injection. This study has shown that through the fusion of two aptamer sequences, a bifunctional aptamer can be generated that has the potential to be developed for the specific treatment of brain disorders.

  7. Evolutionary reconstructions of the transferrin receptor of Caniforms supports canine parvovirus being a re-emerged and not a novel pathogen in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaelber, Jason T; Demogines, Ann; Harbison, Carole E; Allison, Andrew B; Goodman, Laura B; Ortega, Alicia N; Sawyer, Sara L; Parrish, Colin R

    2012-01-01

    Parvoviruses exploit transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR) for cellular entry in carnivores, and specific interactions are key to control of host range. We show that several key mutations acquired by TfR during the evolution of Caniforms (dogs and related species) modified the interactions with parvovirus capsids by reducing the level of binding. These data, along with signatures of positive selection in the TFRC gene, are consistent with an evolutionary arms race between the TfR of the Caniform clade and parvoviruses. As well as the modifications of amino acid sequence which modify binding, we found that a glycosylation site mutation in the TfR of dogs which provided resistance to the carnivore parvoviruses which were in circulation prior to about 1975 predates the speciation of coyotes and dogs. Because the closely-related black-backed jackal has a TfR similar to their common ancestor and lacks the glycosylation site, reconstructing this mutation into the jackal TfR shows the potency of that site in blocking binding and infection and explains the resistance of dogs until recent times. This alters our understanding of this well-known example of viral emergence by indicating that canine parvovirus emergence likely resulted from the re-adaptation of a parvovirus to the resistant receptor of a former host.

  8. Evolutionary reconstructions of the transferrin receptor of Caniforms supports canine parvovirus being a re-emerged and not a novel pathogen in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T Kaelber

    Full Text Available Parvoviruses exploit transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR for cellular entry in carnivores, and specific interactions are key to control of host range. We show that several key mutations acquired by TfR during the evolution of Caniforms (dogs and related species modified the interactions with parvovirus capsids by reducing the level of binding. These data, along with signatures of positive selection in the TFRC gene, are consistent with an evolutionary arms race between the TfR of the Caniform clade and parvoviruses. As well as the modifications of amino acid sequence which modify binding, we found that a glycosylation site mutation in the TfR of dogs which provided resistance to the carnivore parvoviruses which were in circulation prior to about 1975 predates the speciation of coyotes and dogs. Because the closely-related black-backed jackal has a TfR similar to their common ancestor and lacks the glycosylation site, reconstructing this mutation into the jackal TfR shows the potency of that site in blocking binding and infection and explains the resistance of dogs until recent times. This alters our understanding of this well-known example of viral emergence by indicating that canine parvovirus emergence likely resulted from the re-adaptation of a parvovirus to the resistant receptor of a former host.

  9. Results of an international round robin for the quantification of serum non-transferrin-bound iron: Need for defining standardization and a clinically relevant isoform.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, E.M.G.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Tits, L.J.H. van; Evans, P.; Breuer, W.; Liu, D.Y.; Jansen, E.H.; Jauhiainen, K.; Sturm, B.; Porter, J.B.; Scheiber-Mojdehkar, B.; Bonsdorff, L. von; Cabantchik, Z.I.; Hider, R.C.; Swinkels, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    Non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) appears in the circulation of patients with iron overload. Various methods to measure NTBI were comparatively assessed as part of an international interlaboratory study. Six laboratories participated in the study, using methods based on iron mobilization and

  10. Transferrin-binding protein B isolated from Neisseria meningitidis discriminates between apo and diferric human transferrin.

    OpenAIRE

    Boulton, I C; Gorringe, A. R.; Allison, N; Robinson, A.; Gorinsky, B; Joannou, C L; Evans, R W

    1998-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis utilization of human serum transferrin (hTF)-bound iron is an important pathogenicity determinant. The efficiency of this system would clearly be increased through preferential binding of diferric hTF over the iron-free form. To characterize this process, functionally active meningococcal transferrin-binding protein A (TbpA) and TbpB have been purified from N. meningitidis using a novel purification procedure. The association of isolated Tbps and Tbps in the presence of...

  11. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in alcoholic cirrhosis: a kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Grønbaek, M; Møller, Søren

    1997-01-01

    of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in liver and kidney. METHODS/RESULTS: The median value of serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin was 16.0 U/l in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 41), and this value was not significantly different from that of a normal control group (median 17.4 U/l, n = 55, ns......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carbohydrate deficient transferrin has been introduced as a marker of excessive alcohol intake. The present study was undertaken in order to measure the circulating level of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and to assess arteriovenous kinetics......). Carbohydrate deficient transferrin was significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis and high current alcohol intake than in abstaining patients (20 vs. 14 U/l, p alcohol intake (> 50 g/day) had a significantly higher carbohydrate deficient transferrin...

  12. Transferrin-a modulates hepcidin expression in zebrafish embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Yann; Holzheimer, Jason L.; Lattanzi, Victoria J.; Burnett, Sarah F.; Dooley, Kimberly A.; Wingert, Rebecca A.; Zon, Leonard I.

    2009-01-01

    The iron regulatory hormone hepcidin is transcriptionally up-regulated in response to iron loading, but the mechanisms by which iron levels are sensed are not well understood. Large-scale genetic screens in the zebrafish have resulted in the identification of hypochromic anemia mutants with a range of mutations affecting conserved pathways in iron metabolism and heme synthesis. We hypothesized that transferrin plays a critical role both in iron transport and in regulating hepcidin expression in zebrafish embryos. Here we report the identification and characterization of the zebrafish hypochromic anemia mutant, gavi, which exhibits transferrin deficiency due to mutations in transferrin-a. Morpholino knockdown of transferrin-a in wild-type embryos reproduced the anemia phenotype and decreased somite and terminal gut iron staining, while coinjection of transferrin-a cRNA partially restored these defects. Embryos with transferrin-a or transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) deficiency exhibited low levels of hepcidin expression, however anemia, in the absence of a defect in the transferrin pathway, failed to impair hepcidin expression. These data indicate that transferrin-a transports iron and that hepcidin expression is regulated by a transferrin-a–dependent pathway in the zebrafish embryo. PMID:19047682

  13. α6 Integrin (α6high/Transferrin Receptor (CD71low Keratinocyte Stem Cells Are More Potent for Generating Reconstructed Skin Epidermis Than Rapid Adherent Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Metral

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis basal layer is composed of two keratinocyte populations: Keratinocyte Stem cells (KSC and Transitory Amplifying (TA cells that arise from KSC division. Unfortunately, no specific marker exists to differ between KSC and TA cells. Here, we aimed at comparing two different methods that pretended to isolate these two populations: (i the rapid adhesion method on coated substrate and (ii the flow cytometry method, which is based on the difference in cell surface expressions of the α6 integrin and transferrin receptor (CD71. Then, we compared different parameters that are known to discriminate KSC and TA populations. Interestingly, we showed that both methods allow enrichment in stem cells. However, cell sorting by flow cytometry (α6high/CD71low phenotype leads to a better enrichment of KSC since the colony forming efficiency is five times increased versus total cell suspension, whereas it is only 1.4 times for the adhesion method. Moreover, α6high/CD71low cells give rise to a thicker pluristratified epithelium with lower seeding density and display a low Ki67 positive cells number, showing that they have reached the balance between proliferation and differentiation. We clearly demonstrated that cells isolated by a rapid adherent method are not the same population as KSC isolated by flow cytometry following α6high/CD71low phenotype.

  14. Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) and HFE mutational analysis in non-C282Y iron overload: identification of a novel TfR2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattman, Andre; Huntsman, David; Lockitch, Gillian; Langlois, Sylvie; Buskard, Noel; Ralston, Diana; Butterfield, Yaron; Rodrigues, Pedro; Jones, Steven; Porto, Graça; Marra, Marco; De Sousa, Maria; Vatcher, Greg

    2002-08-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is classically associated with a Cys282Tyr (C282Y) mutation of the HFE gene. Non-C282Y HH is a heterogeneous group accounting for 15% of HH in Northern Europe. Pathogenic mutations of the transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) gene have been identified in 4 Italian pedigrees with the latter syndrome. The goal of this study was to perform a mutational analysis of the TfR2 and HFE genes in a cohort of non-C282Y iron overload patients of mixed ethnic backgrounds. Several sequence variants were identified within the TfR2 gene, including a homozygous missense change in exon 17, c2069 A-->C, which changes a glutamine to a proline residue at position 690. This putative mutation was found in a severely affected Portuguese man and 2 family members with the same genotype. In summary, pathologic TfR2 mutations are present outside of Italy, accounting for a small proportion of non-C282Y HH.

  15. Bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4, and 9 stimulate murine hepcidin 1 expression independently of Hfe, transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2), and IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truksa, Jaroslav; Peng, Hongfan; Lee, Pauline; Beutler, Ernest

    2006-07-05

    Recently, it has been suggested that hepcidin, a peptide involved in iron homeostasis, is regulated by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), apparently by binding to hemojuvelin (Hjv) as a coreceptor and signaling through Smad4. We investigate the role of Hfe, Tfr2 (transferrin receptor 2), and IL-6 in BMP2-, BMP4-, and BMP9-stimulated up-regulation of murine hepcidin, because these molecules, like Hjv, are known to be involved in hepcidin signaling. We show that the BMP signaling pathway acts independently of Hfe, Tfr2, and IL-6: The response to BMP2, BMP4, and BMP9 is similar in isolated hepatocytes of wild-type, Hfe(-/-), IL-6(-/-), and Tfr2(m) mutant mice. The potency of different human BMPs in stimulating hepcidin transcription by murine primary hepatocytes is BMP9 > BMP4 > BMP2. However, in human HepG2 cells, BMP4 and BMP9 are equally potent, whereas BMP2 requires a higher dose to become an effective hepcidin activator. Moreover, all of the tested BMPs are more potent regulators of hepcidin than IL-6 and thus are the most potent known stimulators of hepcidin transcription.

  16. Competitive advantage of diferric transferrin in delivering iron to reticulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebers, H A; Csiba, E; Huebers, E; Finch, C A

    1983-01-01

    Radioiron- and radioiodine-labeled forms of human diferric and monoferric transferrin and apotransferrin, isolated by preparative isoelectric focusing, were used to define transferrin-iron uptake by human reticulocytes. In mixtures of human diferric and monoferric transferrin, the diferric molecule had a constant 7-fold advantage in delivering iron to reticulocytes, as compared with the 2-fold advantage when single solutions of mono- and diferric transferrins were compared. This was shown to be due to competitive interaction in iron delivery, probably at a common membrane-receptor binding site for transferrin. Apotransferrin did not interfere with the iron-donating process and its limited cellular uptake was inhibited in noncompetitive fashion by diferric transferrin. PMID:6572005

  17. Fluorescence imaging of bombesin and transferrin receptor expression is comparable to 18F-FDG PET in early detection of sorafenib-induced changes in tumor metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chieh Tseng

    noticeable changes in tumor size. For comparison, two FLI probes, BombesinRSense™ 680 (BRS-680 and Transferrin-Vivo™ 750 (TfV-750, were assessed for their potential in metabolic imaging. Metabolically active cancer cells are known to have elevated bombesin and transferrin receptor levels on the surface. In excellent agreement with PET imaging, the BRS-680 imaging showed 40% and 79% inhibition on days 2 and 3, respectively, and the TfV-750 imaging showed 65% inhibition on day 3. In both cases, no significant reduction in tumor volume or BLI signal was observed during the first 3 days of treatment. These results suggest that metabolic FLI has potential preclinical application as an additional method for detecting drug-induced metabolic changes in tumors.

  18. Evidence that His349 acts as a pH-inducible switch to accelerate receptor-mediated iron release from the C-lobe of human transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steere, Ashley N; Byrne, Shaina L; Chasteen, N Dennis; Smith, Valerie C; MacGillivray, Ross T A; Mason, Anne B

    2010-11-01

    His349 in human transferrin (hTF) is a residue critical to transferrin receptor (TFR)-stimulated iron release from the C-lobe. To evaluate the importance of His349 on the TFR interaction, it was replaced by alanine, aspartate, lysine, leucine, tryptophan, and tyrosine in a monoferric C-lobe hTF construct (Fe(C)hTF). Using a stopped-flow spectrofluorimeter, we determined rate processes assigned to iron release and conformational events (in the presence and in the absence of the TFR). Significantly, all mutant/TFR complexes feature dampened iron release rates. The critical contribution of His349 is most convincingly revealed by analysis of the kinetics as a function of pH (5.6-6.2). The Fe(C)hTF/TFR complex titrates with a pK(a) of approximately 5.9. By contrast, the H349A mutant/TFR complex releases iron at higher pH with a profile that is almost the inverse of that of the control complex. At the putative endosomal pH of 5.6 (in the presence of salt and chelator), iron is released from the H349W mutant/TFR and H349Y mutant/TFR complexes with a single rate constant similar to the iron release rate constant for the control; this suggests that these substitutions bypass the required pH-induced conformational change allowing the C-lobe to directly interact with the TFR to release iron. The H349K mutant proves that although the positive charge is crucial to complete iron release, the geometry at this position is also critical. The H349D mutant shows that a negative charge precludes complete iron release at pH 5.6 both in the presence and in the absence of the TFR. Thus, histidine uniquely drives the pH-induced conformational change in the C-lobe required for TFR interaction, which in turn promotes iron release.

  19. Thermodynamic binding constants for gallium transferrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, W.R.; Pecoraro, V.L.

    1983-01-18

    Gallium-67 is widely used as an imaging agent for tumors and inflammatory abscesses. It is well stablished that Ga/sup 3 +/ travels through the circulatory system bound to the serum iron transport protein transferrin and that this protein binding is an essential step in tumor localization. However, there have been conflicting reports on the magnitude of the gallium-transferrin binding constants. Therefore, thermodynamic binding constants for gallium complexation at the two specific metal binding sites of human serum transferrin at pH 7.4 and 5 mM NaHCO/sub 3/ have been determined by UV difference spectroscopy. The conditional constants calculated for 27 mM NaHCO/sub 3/ are log K/sub 1/* = 20.3 and log K/sub 2/* = 19.3. These results are discussed in relation to the thermodynamics of transferrin binding of Fe/sup 3 +/ and to previous reports on gallium binding. The strength of transferrin complexation is also compared to that of a series of low molecular weight ligands by using calculated pM values (pM = -log (Ga(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6/)) to express the effective binding strength at pH 7.4.

  20. Generation and functional characterization of the anti-transferrin receptor single-chain antibody-GAL4 (TfRscFv-GAL4 fusion protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Qing

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of vectors for cell-specific gene delivery is a major goal of gene therapeutic strategies. Transferrin receptor (TfR is an endocytic receptor and identified as tumor relative specific due to its overexpression on most tumor cells or tissues, and TfR binds and intakes of transferrin-iron complex. We have previously generated an anti-TfR single-chain variable fragments of immunoglobulin (scFv which were cloned from hybridoma cell line producing antibody against TfR linked with a 20 aa-long linker sequence (G4S4. In the present study, the anti-TfR single-chain antibody (TfRscFv was fused to DNA-binding domain of the yeast transcription factor GAL4. The recombinant fusion protein, designated as TfRscFv-GAL4, is expected to mediate the entry of DNA-protein complex into targeted tumor cells. Results Fusion protein TfRscFv-GAL4 was expressed in an E. coli bacterial expression system and was recovered from inclusion bodies with subsequent purification by metal-chelate chromatography. The resulting proteins were predominantly monomeric and, upon refolding, became a soluble biologically active bifunctional protein. In biological assays, the antigen-binding activity of the re-natured protein, TfRscFv-GAL4, was confirmed by specific binding to different cancer cells and tumor tissues. The cell binding rates, as indicated by flow cytometry (FCM analysis, ranged from 54.11% to 8.23% in seven different human carcinoma cell lines. It showed similar affinity and binding potency as those of parent full-length mouse anti-TfR antibody. The positive binding rates to tumor tissues by tissue microarrays (TMA assays were 75.32% and 63.25%, but it showed weakly binding with hepatic tissue in 5 cases, and normal tissues such as heart, spleen, adrenal cortex blood vessel and stomach. In addition, the re-natured fusion protein TfRscFv-GAL4 was used in an ELISA with rabbit anti-GAL4 antibody. The GAL4-DNA functional assay through the GAL4

  1. Transferrin receptor-2 (TFR2) mutation Y250X in Alabama Caucasian and African American subjects with and without primary iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E H; West, P A; Rivers, C A; Barton, J C; Acton, R T

    2001-01-01

    Most cases of hemochromatosis are associated with mutations of the HFE gene on Ch6p. In southern Italy and central Alabama, the percentages of patients with hemochromatosis who have "atypical" HFE genotypes (defined as lack of C282Y homozygosity, C282Y/H63D compound heterozygosity, or H63D homozygosity) are relatively great. A mutation of the transferrin receptor-2 gene (TFR2; exon 6, nt 750 C --> G, replaces TAC with stop signal TAG; Y250X) on Ch7q22 was recently identified in two Sicilian families with HFE mutation-negative hemochromatosis. We wanted to estimate the frequency of this mutation in persons from central Alabama. We evaluated Caucasian hemochromatosis probands with atypical HFE genotypes and African Americans with primary iron overload. We also studied control Caucasians, including persons of southern Italian/Sicilian heritage, and control African Americans. Analysis of genomic DNA was performed using a PCR-sequence-specific priming assay and positive control specimens from Sicilian hemochromatosis subjects heterozygous and homozygous for Y250X. Among Alabama subjects, this allele was not detected in 113 Caucasians, including 21 hemochromatosis probands with atypical HFE genotypes and 92 normal control subjects (including 27 of southern Italian/Sicilian descent). In African Americans, Y250X was not detected in 20 index cases with primary iron overload or in 274 unrelated control subjects. We conclude that Y250X is uncommon in Caucasians with hemochromatosis associated with atypical HFE genotypes, in African Americans with primary iron overload, and in the general Caucasian and African American population subgroups in central Alabama. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  2. Iron absorption and hepatic iron uptake are increased in a transferrin receptor 2 (Y245X) mutant mouse model of hemochromatosis type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, S F; Morgan, E H; Herbison, C E; Delima, R; Graham, R M; Chua, A C G; Leedman, P J; Fleming, R E; Bacon, B R; Olynyk, J K; Trinder, D

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis type 3 is an iron (Fe)-overload disorder caused by mutations in transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2). TfR2 is expressed highly in the liver and regulates Fe metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate duodenal Fe absorption and hepatic Fe uptake in a TfR2 (Y245X) mutant mouse model of hereditary hemochromatosis type 3. Duodenal Fe absorption and hepatic Fe uptake were measured in vivo by 59Fe-labeled ascorbate in TfR2 mutant mice, wild-type mice, and Fe-loaded wild-type mice (2% dietary carbonyl Fe). Gene expression was measured by real-time RT-PCR. Liver nonheme Fe concentration increased progressively with age in TfR2 mutant mice compared with wild-type mice. Fe absorption (both duodenal Fe uptake and transfer) was increased in TfR2 mutant mice compared with wild-type mice. Likewise, expression of genes participating in duodenal Fe uptake (Dcytb, DMT1) and transfer (ferroportin) were increased in TfR2 mutant mice. Nearly all of the absorbed Fe was taken up rapidly by the liver. Despite hepatic Fe loading, hepcidin expression was decreased in TfR2 mutant mice compared with wild-type mice. Even when compared with Fe-loaded wild-type mice, TfR2 mutant mice had increased Fe absorption, increased duodenal Fe transport gene expression, increased liver Fe uptake, and decreased liver hepcidin expression. In conclusion, despite systemic Fe loading, Fe absorption and liver Fe uptake were increased in TfR2 mutant mice in association with decreased expression of hepcidin. These findings support a model in which TfR2 is a sensor of Fe status and regulates duodenal Fe absorption and liver Fe uptake.

  3. CD81 Promotes Both the Degradation of Transferrin Receptor 2 (TfR2) and the Tfr2-mediated Maintenance of Hepcidin Expression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juxing; Enns, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) cause a rare form of the hereditary hemochromatosis, resulting in iron overload predominantly in the liver. TfR2 is primarily expressed in hepatocytes and is hypothesized to sense iron levels in the blood to positively regulate the expression of hepcidin through activation of the BMP signaling pathway. Hepcidin is a peptide hormone that negatively regulates iron egress from cells and thus limits intestinal iron uptake. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid approach using the cytoplasmic domain of TfR2 identified CD81 as an interacting protein. CD81 is an abundant tetraspanin in the liver. Co-precipitations of CD81 with different TfR2 constructs demonstrated that both the cytoplasmic and ecto-transmembrane domains of TfR2 interact with CD81. Knockdown of CD81 using siRNA significantly increased TfR2 levels by increasing the half-life of TfR2, indicating that CD81 promotes degradation of TfR2. Previous studies showed that CD81 is targeted for degradation by GRAIL, an ubiquitin E3 ligase. Knockdown of GRAIL in Hep3B-TfR2 cells increased TfR2 levels, consistent with inhibition of CD81 ubiquitination. These results suggest that down-regulation of CD81 by GRAIL targets TfR2 for degradation. Surprisingly, knockdown of CD81 decreased hepcidin expression, implying that the TfR2/CD81 complex is involved in the maintenance of hepcidin mRNA. Moreover, knockdown of CD81 did not affect the stimulation of hepcidin expression by BMP6 but increased both the expression of ID1 and SMAD7, direct targets of BMP signaling pathway, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, indicating that the CD81 regulates hepcidin expression differently from the BMP and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. PMID:25635054

  4. Depleted iron stores and iron deficiency anemia associated with reduced ferritin and hepcidin and elevated soluble transferrin receptors in a multiethnic group of preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Hope A; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Cohen, Tamara R; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry

    2015-09-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in subgroups of the Canadian population. The objective of this study was to examine iron status and anemia in preschool-age children. Healthy children (n = 430, 2-5 years old, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) were sampled from randomly selected daycares. Anthropometry, demographics, and diet were assessed. Biochemistry included hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), ferritin index, markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)), and hepcidin. Iron deficiency and anemia cutoffs conformed to the World Health Organization criteria. Differences among categories were tested using mixed-model ANOVA or χ(2) tests. Children were 3.8 ± 1.0 years of age, with a body mass index z score of 0.48 ± 0.97, and 51% were white. Adjusted intakes of iron indicated children, whereas ferritin was higher with greater age and female sex. Inflammatory markers and hepcidin did not vary with any demographic variable. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 16.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0-20.0). Three percent (95% CI, 1.4-4.6) of children had iron deficiency anemia and 12.8% (95% CI, 9.6-16.0) had unexplained anemia. Children with iron deficiency, with and without anemia, had lower plasma ferritin and hepcidin but higher sTfR, ferritin index, and IL-6, whereas those with unexplained anemia had elevated TNFα. We conclude that iron deficiency anemia is not very common in young children in Montreal. While iron deficiency without anemia is more common than iron deficiency with anemia, the correspondingly reduced circulating hepcidin would have enabled heightened absorption of dietary iron in support of erythropoiesis.

  5. Studies on the binding of fulvic acid with transferrin by spectroscopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-feng; Yang, Guang; Dong, Yu; Zhao, Yan-qin; Sun, Xiao-ran; Chen, Lei; Chen, Hong-bo

    2015-02-01

    Transferrin has shown potential in the delivery of anticancer drugs into primarily proliferating cancer cells that over-express transferrin receptors. Fulvic acid has a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities which caused widespread concerns, the interaction of fulvic acid with human serum transferrin (Tf) has great significance for gaining a deeper insight about anticancer activities of fulvic acid. In this study, the mechanism of interaction between fulvic acid and Tf, has been investigated by using fluorescence quenching, thermodynamics, synchronous fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) under physiological condition. Our results have shown that fulvic acid binds to Tf and form a new complex, and the calculated apparent association constants are 5.04 × 108 M-1, 5.48 × 107 M-1, 7.38 × 106 M-1 from the fluorescence quenching at 288 K, 298 K, and 310 K. The thermodynamic parameters indicate that hydrogen bonding and weak van der Waals are involved in the interaction between fulvic acid and Tf. The binding of fulvic acid to Tf causes the α-helix structure content of the protein to reduce, and resulting that peptide chains of Tf become more stretched. Our results have indicated a mechanism of the interaction between fulvic acid and Tf, which may provide information for possible design of methods to deliver drug molecules via transferrin to target tissues and cells effectively.

  6. Ceruloplasmin/Transferrin Ratio Changes in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Squitti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between iron and Alzheimer's disease (AD has been mainly investigated with a focus on the local accumulation of this metal in specific areas of the brain that are critical for AD. In the present study, we have instead looked at systemic variations of markers of iron metabolism. We measured serum levels of iron, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin and calculated the transferrin saturation and the ceruloplasmin to transferrin ratio (Cp/Tf. Cp/Tf and transferrin saturation increased in AD patients. Cp/Tf ratios also correlated positively with peroxide levels and negatively with serum iron concentrations. Elevated values of ceruloplasmin, peroxides, and Cp/Tf inversely correlated with MMSE scores. Isolated medial temporal lobe atrophy positively correlated with Cp/Tf and negatively with serum iron. All these findings indicate that the local iron accumulation found in brain areas critical for AD should be viewed in the frame of iron systemic alterations.

  7. CD81 promotes both the degradation of transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) and the Tfr2-mediated maintenance of hepcidin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juxing; Enns, Caroline A

    2015-03-20

    Mutations in transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) cause a rare form of the hereditary hemochromatosis, resulting in iron overload predominantly in the liver. TfR2 is primarily expressed in hepatocytes and is hypothesized to sense iron levels in the blood to positively regulate the expression of hepcidin through activation of the BMP signaling pathway. Hepcidin is a peptide hormone that negatively regulates iron egress from cells and thus limits intestinal iron uptake. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid approach using the cytoplasmic domain of TfR2 identified CD81 as an interacting protein. CD81 is an abundant tetraspanin in the liver. Co-precipitations of CD81 with different TfR2 constructs demonstrated that both the cytoplasmic and ecto-transmembrane domains of TfR2 interact with CD81. Knockdown of CD81 using siRNA significantly increased TfR2 levels by increasing the half-life of TfR2, indicating that CD81 promotes degradation of TfR2. Previous studies showed that CD81 is targeted for degradation by GRAIL, an ubiquitin E3 ligase. Knockdown of GRAIL in Hep3B-TfR2 cells increased TfR2 levels, consistent with inhibition of CD81 ubiquitination. These results suggest that down-regulation of CD81 by GRAIL targets TfR2 for degradation. Surprisingly, knockdown of CD81 decreased hepcidin expression, implying that the TfR2/CD81 complex is involved in the maintenance of hepcidin mRNA. Moreover, knockdown of CD81 did not affect the stimulation of hepcidin expression by BMP6 but increased both the expression of ID1 and SMAD7, direct targets of BMP signaling pathway, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, indicating that the CD81 regulates hepcidin expression differently from the BMP and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Influence of ascorbic acid, sodium citrate, and sodium bicarbonate on the uptake of 59Fe-transferrin, 54Mn-transferrin, and 65Zn-transferrin from lactating mouse mammary gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutafchiev, D A; Sirakov, L M

    1998-07-01

    The effects of ascorbic acid, sodium citrate, and sodium bicarbonate on 59Fe-transferrin, 54Mn-transferrin, and 65Zn-transferrin uptake by the receptors disposed of plasma membrane isolated from lactating mouse mammary gland cells have been investigated. The effect of 10(-2) mol/L ascorbic acid alone and in combination with NaHCO3 on the 59Fe-transferrin uptake is significant and positive. 54Mn-transferrin and 65Zn-transferrin binding to the cell receptors are influenced optimally by 0.5 mol/L sodium bicarbonate. Sodium citrate alone or in combination with other substances always has a negative effect on binding of these three metals. It is suggested that a precise mechanism may exist with large possibilities to rearrange metal uptake and its transport from blood to milk.

  9. Transferrin-bound proteins as potential biomarkers for advanced breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Dowling

    2014-12-01

    General significance: Mass spectrometry profiling of Transferrin-bound proteins has revealed serum proteins that can distinguish between serum from advanced breast cancer patients and healthy control subjects with high confidence.

  10. Evaluation of Efficacy of Radioimmunotherapy with 90Y-Labeled Fully Human Anti-Transferrin Receptor Monoclonal Antibody in Pancreatic Cancer Mouse Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Sugyo

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive tumor and the prognosis remains poor. Therefore, development of more effective therapy is needed. We previously reported that 89Zr-labeled TSP-A01, an antibody against transferrin receptor (TfR, is highly accumulated in a pancreatic cancer xenograft, but not in major normal organs. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT with 90Y-TSP-A01 in pancreatic cancer mouse models.TfR expression in pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, MIAPaCa-2 was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining. 111In-labeled anti-TfR antibodies (TSP-A01, TSP-A02 were evaluated in vitro by cell binding assay with the three cell lines and by competitive inhibition assay with MIAPaCa-2. In vivo biodistribution was evaluated in mice bearing BxPC-3 and MIAPaCa-2 xenografts. Tumor volumes of BxPC-3 and MIAPaCa-2 were sequentially measured after 90Y-TSP-A01 injection and histological analysis of tumors was conducted.MIAPaCa-2 cells showed the highest TfR expression, followed by AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. 111In-TSP-A01 and 111In-TSP-A02 bound specifically to the three cell lines according to TfR expression. The dissociation constants for TSP-A01, DOTA-TSP-A01, TSP-A02, and DOTA-TSP-A02 were 0.22, 0.28, 0.17, and 0.22 nM, respectively. 111In-TSP-A01 was highly accumulated in tumors, especially in MIAPaCa-2, but this was not true of 111In-TSP-A02. The absorbed dose for 90Y-TSP-A01 was estimated to be 8.3 Gy/MBq to BxPC-3 and 12.4 Gy/MBq to MIAPaCa-2. MIAPaCa-2 tumors treated with 3.7 MBq of 90Y-TSP-A01 had almost completely disappeared around 3 weeks after injection and regrowth was not observed. Growth of BxPC-3 tumors was inhibited by 3.7 MBq of 90Y-TSP-A01, but the tumor size was not reduced.90Y-TSP-A01 treatment achieved an almost complete response in MIAPaCa-2 tumors, whereas it merely inhibited the growth of BxPC-3 tumors. 90Y-TSP-A01 is a promising RIT agent for pancreatic cancer, although further

  11. Transferrin-bearing maghemite nano-constructs for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraux, H.; Hai, J.; Gaudisson, T.; Ammar, S.; Gazeau, F.; El Hage Chahine, J. M.; Hémadi, M.

    2015-05-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in biomedicine for hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imagery. Targeting them to specific cancerous cells is, therefore, of a great value for therapy and diagnostic. Transferrin and its receptor constitute the major iron-acquisition system in human. The former crosses the plasma membrane within a few minutes by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Thus, transferrin can be a valuable vector for the delivery of NPs to specific cells and across the blood brain barrier. For such a purpose, three different sizes of maghemite NPs (5, 10, and 15 nm) were synthesized by the polyol method, coated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, and coupled to transferrin by amide bonds. The number of transferrins per nanoparticle was determined. Raw nanoparticles and the "transferrin-nanoparticle" constructs were characterized. The magnetic properties and the colloidal stability of raw NPs and transferrin-NP constructs were measured and analyzed in relation to their inorganic core size variation. They all proved to be good candidates for nanoparticle targeting for biomedical application.

  12. Escape from bacterial iron piracy through rapid evolution of transferrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Matthew F.; Elde, Nels C.

    2015-01-01

    Iron sequestration provides an innate defense termed nutritional immunity, leading pathogens to scavenge iron from hosts. Although the molecular basis of this battle for iron is established, its potential as a force for evolution at host-pathogen interfaces is unknown. We show that the iron transport protein transferrin is engaged in ancient and ongoing evolutionary conflicts with TbpA, a transferrin surface receptor from bacteria. Single substitutions in transferrin at rapidly evolving sites reverse TbpA binding, providing a mechanism to counteract bacterial iron piracy among great apes. Furthermore, the C2 transferrin polymorphism in humans evades TbpA variants from Haemophilus influenzae, revealing a functional basis for standing genetic variation. These findings identify a central role for nutritional immunity in the persistent evolutionary conflicts between primates and bacterial pathogens. PMID:25504720

  13. Decreased expression of serum and microvascular vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in meningococcal sepsis*.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flier, M. van der; Baerveldt, E.M.; Miedema, A.; Hartwig, N.G.; Hazelzet, J.A.; Emonts, M.; Groot, R. de; Prens, E.P.; Vught, A.J. van; Jansen, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the skin microvessel expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and serum-soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 levels in children with meningococcal sepsis. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Two tertiary academic children hospital PICUs.

  14. Changes in transferrin are related to changes in insulin resistance: the SLIM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumen, C.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Jansen, E.H.; Saris, W.H.; Blaak, E.E.

    2008-01-01

    Aims To determine the effect of a lifestyle intervention on serum transferrin and ferritin levels and the relationship between changes in transferrin and ferritin and changes in glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Methods Randomized controlled lifestyle intervention directed at a healthy diet

  15. Evaluating Serum Markers for Hormone Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèl Schummer

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in females worldwide. Death rates have been declining, largely as a result of early detection through mammography and improved treatment, but mammographic screening is controversial because of over-diagnosis of breast disease that might not require treatment, and under-diagnosis of cancer in women with dense breasts. Breast cancer screening could be improved by pairing mammography with a tumor circulating marker, of which there are currently none. Given genomic similarities between the basal breast cancer subtype and serous ovarian cancer, and given our success in identifying circulating markers for ovarian cancer, we investigated the performance in hormone receptor-negative breast cancer detection of both previously identified ovarian serum markers and circulating markers associated with transcripts that were differentially expressed in breast cancer tissue compared to healthy breast tissue from reduction mammaplasties.We evaluated a total of 15 analytes (13 proteins, 1 miRNA, 1 autoantibody in sera drawn at or before breast cancer surgery from 43 breast cancer cases (28 triple-negative-TN-and 15 hormone receptor-negative-HRN-/ HER2-positive and 87 matched controls.In the analysis of our whole cohort of breast cancer cases, autoantibodies to TP53 performed significantly better than the other selected 14 analytes showing 25.6% and 34.9% sensitivity at 95% and 90% specificity respectively with AUC: 0.7 (p<0.001. The subset of 28 TN cancers showed very similar results. We observed no correlation between anti-TP53 and the 14 other markers; however, anti-TP53 expression correlated with Body-Mass-Index. It did not correlate with tumor size, positive lymph nodes, tumor stage, the presence of metastases or recurrence.None of the 13 serum proteins nor miRNA 135b identified women with HRN or TN breast cancer. TP53 autoantibodies identified women with HRN breast

  16. Urokinase receptor forms in serum from non-small cell lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almasi, Charlotte Elberling; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    To study the prognostic impact of the different forms of the receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) in serum from 171 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.......To study the prognostic impact of the different forms of the receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) in serum from 171 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients....

  17. Iron piracy: acquisition of transferrin-bound iron by bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, C N; Sparling, P F

    1994-12-01

    The mechanism of iron utilization from transferrin has been most extensively characterized in the pathogenic Neisseria species and Haemophilus species. Two transferrin-binding proteins, Tbp1 and Tbp2, have been identified in these pathogens and are thought to be components of the transferrin receptor. Tbp1 appears to be an integral, TonB-dependent outer membrane protein while Tbp2, a lipoprotein, may be peripherally associated with the outer membrane. The relative contribution of each of these proteins to transferrin binding and utilization is discussed and a model of iron uptake from transferrin is presented. Sequence comparisons of the genes encoding neisserial transferrin-binding proteins suggest that they are probably under positive selection for variation and may have resulted from inter-species genetic exchange.

  18. Progesterone receptor content in endometrial carcinoma correlates with serum levels of free estradiol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Lyndrup, J

    1993-01-01

    between estrogen receptor content and any of the serum sex hormones. The progesterone/estrogen receptor ratio, calculated from the biochemical values, correlated positively (p levels of free estradiol. This relation was not affected by tumor histologic grade or stage. Furthermore......OBJECTIVE. To study a possible relationship between serum levels of estrogens and androgens and the tumor content of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors in endometrial cancer. STUDY DESIGN. Fifty postmenopausal patients were included. Receptors were determined biochemically in tissue...... cytosol by dextran charcoal-coated assay and immunohistochemically on frozen sections. Serum sex hormones were measured by radioimmunoassays. MAIN FINDINGS. Tumor biochemical progesterone receptor content correlated positively (p levels. No correlations were observed...

  19. Progesterone receptor content in endometrial carcinoma correlates with serum levels of free estradiol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Lyndrup, J

    1993-01-01

    cytosol by dextran charcoal-coated assay and immunohistochemically on frozen sections. Serum sex hormones were measured by radioimmunoassays. MAIN FINDINGS. Tumor biochemical progesterone receptor content correlated positively (p

  20. Serum metabolites predict response to angiotensin II receptor blockers in patients with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena, Michelle J; Heinzel, Andreas; Rossing, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individual patients show a large variability in albuminuria response to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). Identifying novel biomarkers that predict ARB response may help tailor therapy. We aimed to discover and validate a serum metabolite classifier that predicts albuminuria response...

  1. Disaggregation of amyloid plaque in brain of Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice with daily subcutaneous administration of a tetravalent bispecific antibody that targets the transferrin receptor and the Abeta amyloid peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbria, Rachita K; Hui, Eric Ka-Wai; Lu, Jeff Zhiqiang; Boado, Ruben J; Pardridge, William M

    2013-09-03

    Anti-amyloid antibodies (AAA) are under development as new therapeutics that disaggregate the amyloid plaque in brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the AAAs are large molecule drugs that do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), in the absence of BBB disruption. In the present study, an AAA was re-engineered for receptor-mediated transport across the BBB via the endogenous BBB transferrin receptor (TfR). A single chain Fv (ScFv) antibody form of an AAA was fused to the carboxyl terminus of each heavy chain of a chimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the mouse TfR, and this produced a tetravalent bispecific antibody designated the cTfRMAb-ScFv fusion protein. Unlike a conventional AAA, which has a plasma half-time of weeks, the cTfRMAb-ScFv fusion protein is cleared from plasma in mice with a mean residence time of about 3 h. Therefore, a novel protocol was developed for the treatment of one year old presenilin (PS)-1/amyloid precursor protein (APP) AD double transgenic PSAPP mice, which were administered daily subcutaneous (sc) injections of 5 mg/kg of the cTfRMAb-ScFv fusion protein for 12 consecutive weeks. At the end of the treatment, brain amyloid plaques were quantified with confocal microscopy using both Thioflavin-S staining and immunostaining with the 6E10 antibody against Abeta amyloid fibrils. Fusion protein treatment caused a 57% and 61% reduction in amyloid plaque in the cortex and hippocampus, respectively. No increase in plasma immunoreactive Abeta amyloid peptide, and no cerebral microhemorrhage, was observed. Chronic daily sc treatment of the mice with the fusion protein caused no immune reactions and only a low titer antidrug antibody response. In conclusion, re-engineering AAAs for receptor-mediated BBB transport allows for reduction in brain amyloid plaque without cerebral microhemorrhage following daily sc treatment for 12 weeks.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of human transferrin-stabilized gold nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guevel, Xavier; Schneider, Marc [Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Saarland University, Saarbruecken (Germany); Daum, Nicole, E-mail: Marc.Schneider@mx.uni-saarland.de [Drug Delivery, Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS), Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2011-07-08

    Human transferrin has been biolabelled with gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) using a simple, fast and non-toxic method. These nanocrystals (<2 nm) are stabilized in the protein via sulfur groups and have a high fluorescence emission in the near infrared region (QY = 4.3%; {lambda}{sub em} = 695 nm). Structural investigation and photophysical measurements show a high population of clusters formed of 22-33 gold atoms covalently bound to the transferrin. In solutions with pH ranging from 5 to 10 and in buffer solutions (PBS, HEPES), those biolabelled proteins exhibit a good stability. No significant quenching effect of the fluorescent transferrin has been detected after iron loading of iron-free transferrin (apoTf) and in the presence of a specific polyclonal antibody. Additionally, antibody-induced agglomeration demonstrates no alteration in the protein activity and the receptor target ability. MTT and Vialight Plus tests show no cytotoxicity of these labelled proteins in cells (1 {mu}g ml{sup -1}-1 mg ml{sup -1}). Cell line experiments (A549) indicate also an uptake of the iron loaded fluorescent proteins inside cells. These remarkable data highlight the potential of a new type of non-toxic fluorescent transferrin for imaging and targeting.

  3. Genetic polymorphisms in bovine transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) and solute carrier family 40 (iron-regulated transporter), member 1 (SLC40A1) genes and their association with beef iron content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Q; Tait, R G; Mayes, M S; Garrick, D J; Liu, Q; Van Eenennaam, A L; Mateescu, R G; Van Overbeke, D L; Garmyn, A J; Beitz, D C; Reecy, J M

    2012-04-01

    Beef is considered to be an excellent source of dietary iron. However, little is known about the genetic control of beef iron content. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) and solute carrier family 40 (iron-regulated transporter), member 1 (SLC40A1) could influence skeletal muscle iron content. The objective of this study was to use Angus cattle to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exons and flanking regions of the bovine TFR2 and SLC40A1 genes and to evaluate the extent to which genetic variation in them was associated with bovine longissimus dorsi muscle iron content. Ten novel SNPs were identified in TFR2, of which one SNP tended to be associated (P  0.99), from which two haplotypes, TGC and CAT, were defined. Beef from individuals that were homozygous for the TGC haplotype had significantly (P < 0.001) higher iron content than did beef from CAT homozygous or heterozygous individuals. The estimated size of effect of the identified haplotypes was 0.3% of the phenotypic variance. In conclusion, our study provides evidence for genetic control of beef iron concentration. Moreover, SNPs identified in SLC40A1, rs134388440, rs136347850 and rs137555693 might be useful markers for the selection of Angus cattle for altered iron content. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  4. Effects of transferrin on aromatase activity in porcine granulosa cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Duda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferating cells have an absolute requirement for iron, which is delivered by transferrin with subsequent intracellular transport via the transferrin receptor. Recent studies have reported that transferrin plays a crucial role in the local regulation of ovarian function, apart from its iron-binding characteristic. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the possible role of transferrin in porcine granulosa cells function by examining its influence on aromatase activity, the most important indicator of follicular cell differentiation. In the first series of studies, pig granulosa cells isolated from small, immature follicles were cultured in the presence of transferrin alone (10 microg/ml or 100 microg/ml or with the addition of FSH (100ng/ml. The second series of studies was undertaken to determine transferrin-stimulated granulosa cells ability to aromatize exogenous testosterone (1x10(-7M. One hour after the establishment of cultures an aromatase inhibitor CGS16949A was added to test its influence on estradiol production. After 48 hours, cultures were terminated and cells were processed for immunocytochemical staining of aromatase. Media were frozen for further estradiol level analysis. Positive immunostaining for aromatase was found in all granulosa cell cultures. The intensity of immunostaining was always stronger in cultures supplemented with FSH whereas the addition of transferrin had no effect. Granulosa cells in vitro synthesized the highest amount of estradiol after the addition of FSH and exogenous testosterone as measured radioimmunologically. Concomitant treatment with FSH and transferrin caused an inhibition of FSH-stimulated aromatase activity. The production of estradiol also declined in the presence of FSH, testosterone and transferrin. This study demonstrates that transferrin had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on FSH-stimulated aromatase activity, which was confirmed by radioimmunoassay. Our results indicate

  5. Polymorphism, selection and tandem duplication of transferrin genes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua - Conserved synteny between fish monolobal and tetrapod bilobal transferrin loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooming-Klunderud Ave

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The two homologous iron-binding lobes of transferrins are thought to have evolved by gene duplication of an ancestral monolobal form, but any conserved synteny between bilobal and monolobal transferrin loci remains unexplored. The important role played by transferrin in the resistance to invading pathogens makes this polymorphic gene a highly valuable candidate for studying adaptive divergence among local populations. Results The Atlantic cod genome was shown to harbour two tandem duplicated serum transferrin genes (Tf1, Tf2, a melanotransferrin gene (MTf, and a monolobal transferrin gene (Omp. Whereas Tf1 and Tf2 were differentially expressed in liver and brain, the Omp transcript was restricted to the otoliths. Fish, chicken and mammals showed highly conserved syntenic regions in which monolobal and bilobal transferrins reside, but contrasting with tetrapods, the fish transferrin genes are positioned on three different linkage groups. Sequence alignment of cod Tf1 cDNAs from Northeast (NE and Northwest (NW Atlantic populations revealed 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP causing the replacement of 16 amino acids, including eight surface residues revealed by the modelled 3D-structures, that might influence the binding of pathogens for removal of iron. SNP analysis of a total of 375 individuals from 14 trans-Atlantic populations showed that the Tf1-NE variant was almost fixed in the Baltic cod and predominated in the other NE Atlantic populations, whereas the NW Atlantic populations were more heterozygous and showed high frequencies of the Tf-NW SNP alleles. Conclusions The highly conserved synteny between fish and tetrapod transferrin loci infers that the fusion of tandem duplicated Omp-like genes gave rise to the modern transferrins. The multiple nonsynonymous substitutions in cod Tf1 with putative structural effects, together with highly divergent allele frequencies among different cod populations, strongly suggest

  6. Polymorphism, selection and tandem duplication of transferrin genes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)--conserved synteny between fish monolobal and tetrapod bilobal transferrin loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Øivind; De Rosa, Maria Cristina; Pirolli, Davide; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Petersen, Petra E; André, Carl

    2011-05-25

    The two homologous iron-binding lobes of transferrins are thought to have evolved by gene duplication of an ancestral monolobal form, but any conserved synteny between bilobal and monolobal transferrin loci remains unexplored. The important role played by transferrin in the resistance to invading pathogens makes this polymorphic gene a highly valuable candidate for studying adaptive divergence among local populations. The Atlantic cod genome was shown to harbour two tandem duplicated serum transferrin genes (Tf1, Tf2), a melanotransferrin gene (MTf), and a monolobal transferrin gene (Omp). Whereas Tf1 and Tf2 were differentially expressed in liver and brain, the Omp transcript was restricted to the otoliths. Fish, chicken and mammals showed highly conserved syntenic regions in which monolobal and bilobal transferrins reside, but contrasting with tetrapods, the fish transferrin genes are positioned on three different linkage groups. Sequence alignment of cod Tf1 cDNAs from Northeast (NE) and Northwest (NW) Atlantic populations revealed 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) causing the replacement of 16 amino acids, including eight surface residues revealed by the modelled 3D-structures, that might influence the binding of pathogens for removal of iron. SNP analysis of a total of 375 individuals from 14 trans-Atlantic populations showed that the Tf1-NE variant was almost fixed in the Baltic cod and predominated in the other NE Atlantic populations, whereas the NW Atlantic populations were more heterozygous and showed high frequencies of the Tf-NW SNP alleles. The highly conserved synteny between fish and tetrapod transferrin loci infers that the fusion of tandem duplicated Omp-like genes gave rise to the modern transferrins. The multiple nonsynonymous substitutions in cod Tf1 with putative structural effects, together with highly divergent allele frequencies among different cod populations, strongly suggest evidence for positive selection and local adaptation in

  7. Polymorphism, selection and tandem duplication of transferrin genes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) - Conserved synteny between fish monolobal and tetrapod bilobal transferrin loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The two homologous iron-binding lobes of transferrins are thought to have evolved by gene duplication of an ancestral monolobal form, but any conserved synteny between bilobal and monolobal transferrin loci remains unexplored. The important role played by transferrin in the resistance to invading pathogens makes this polymorphic gene a highly valuable candidate for studying adaptive divergence among local populations. Results The Atlantic cod genome was shown to harbour two tandem duplicated serum transferrin genes (Tf1, Tf2), a melanotransferrin gene (MTf), and a monolobal transferrin gene (Omp). Whereas Tf1 and Tf2 were differentially expressed in liver and brain, the Omp transcript was restricted to the otoliths. Fish, chicken and mammals showed highly conserved syntenic regions in which monolobal and bilobal transferrins reside, but contrasting with tetrapods, the fish transferrin genes are positioned on three different linkage groups. Sequence alignment of cod Tf1 cDNAs from Northeast (NE) and Northwest (NW) Atlantic populations revealed 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) causing the replacement of 16 amino acids, including eight surface residues revealed by the modelled 3D-structures, that might influence the binding of pathogens for removal of iron. SNP analysis of a total of 375 individuals from 14 trans-Atlantic populations showed that the Tf1-NE variant was almost fixed in the Baltic cod and predominated in the other NE Atlantic populations, whereas the NW Atlantic populations were more heterozygous and showed high frequencies of the Tf-NW SNP alleles. Conclusions The highly conserved synteny between fish and tetrapod transferrin loci infers that the fusion of tandem duplicated Omp-like genes gave rise to the modern transferrins. The multiple nonsynonymous substitutions in cod Tf1 with putative structural effects, together with highly divergent allele frequencies among different cod populations, strongly suggest evidence for positive

  8. The serum concentration of soluble interleukin-2 receptor in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraura, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Minami, Takaomi; Takeshima, Taro; Shimooki, Osamu; Kajii, Eiji

    2017-03-01

    Kawasaki disease is a febrile disease of childhood that is associated with increased inflammatory cytokines and immunoregulatory abnormalities. While the serum concentrations of soluble IL-2 receptor can change under such pathologies, the relevance of the soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with Kawasaki disease has not been specified. We aimed to summarize the existing studies that reported the soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations in patients with Kawasaki disease. Original articles that were published up to July 2016 were collected using a PubMed/Medline-based search engine. A total of nine articles that reported the serum soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations in acute-phase Kawasaki disease were eligible. All of the articles described a high soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with Kawasaki disease relative to the level of controls or the reference range. Two of five articles on patients with coronary artery aneurysms described a significantly higher soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with coronary artery aneurysms than patients without. Two articles on patients with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy described a significant decrease of the soluble IL-2 receptor concentration after the therapy. Accordingly, the serum soluble IL-2 receptor can be a potent marker of disease activity and therapeutic effects in patients with Kawasaki disease; further studies are thus warranted for its use in the clinical setting.

  9. Iron metabolism in BeWo chorion carcinoma cells. Transferrin-mediated uptake and release of iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ende, A.; du Maine, A.; Simmons, C. F.; Schwartz, A. L.; Strous, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    Growing human choriocarcinoma BeWo b24 cells contain 1.5 X 10(6) functional cell surface transferrin binding sites and 2.0 X 10(6) intracellular binding sites. These cells rapidly accumulate iron at a rate of 360,000 iron atoms/min/cell. During iron uptake the transferrin and its receptor recycle at

  10. Serum calcium, tumor size, and hormone receptor status in women with untreated breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaw, Sunn Sunn H; Sahmoun, Abe; Schwartz, Gary G

    2012-05-01

    Elevated serum levels of calcium are frequently observed in advanced breast cancer, but data on serum calcium and breast cancer characteristics at the time of breast cancer diagnosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 555 women with newly-diagnosed, untreated breast cancer in North Dakota. We examined the relationship between tumor size, serum calcium and other clinical characteristics of breast tumors, including age and hormone receptor status, using multiple linear regressions. Tumors that were estrogen receptor negative tended to be associated with higher serum calcium levels (p = 0.07). We observed a significant positive correlation between tumor volume and serum calcium levels (adjusted for patient age, body mass index, hormonal receptors, stage at diagnosis, and grade). The association between tumor volume and serum calcium was limited to post-menopausal women. Our finding that postmenopausal women with larger breast tumors had significantly higher serum calcium levels is consistent with a calciotropic effect of early breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

  11. Relevance of Serum Leptin and Leptin-Receptor Concentrations in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Koch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The adipocyte-derived cytokine leptin was implicated to link inflammation and metabolic alterations. We investigated the potential role of leptin components in critically ill patients, because systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia are common features of critical illness. Upon admission to Medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU, free leptin and soluble leptin-receptor serum concentrations were determined in 137 critically ill patients (95 with sepsis, 42 without sepsis and 26 healthy controls. Serum leptin or leptin-receptor did not differ between patients or controls and were independent of sepsis. However, serum leptin was closely associated with obesity and diabetes and clearly correlated with markers of metabolism and liver function. Leptin-receptor was an unfavourable prognostic indicator, associated with mortality during three years follow-up. Our study indicates a functional role of leptin in the pathogenesis of severe illness and emphasizes the impact of complex metabolic alterations on the clinical outcome of critically ill patients.

  12. Transferrin trojan horses as a rational approach for the biological delivery of therapeutic peptide domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S A; Joao, H C; Hammerschmid, F; Eder, J; Steinkasserer, A

    1999-08-20

    One novel approach for the biological delivery of peptide drugs is to incorporate the sequence of the peptide into the structure of a natural transport protein, such as human serum transferrin. To examine whether this is feasible, a peptide sequence cleavable by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease (VSQNYPIVL) was inserted into various regions of human serum transferrin, and the resultant proteins were tested for function. Experimentally, molecular modeling was used to identify five candidate insertion sites in surface exposed loops of human serum transferrin that were distant from biologically active domains. These insertions were cloned using polymerase chain reaction mutagenesis, and the proteins were expressed using a baculovirus expression vector system. Analysis of the mutant proteins provided a number of important findings: (a) they retained native human serum transferrin function, (b) the inserted peptide sequence was surface exposed, and most importantly, (c) two of these mutants could be cleaved by human immunodeficiency virus-1 protease. In conclusion, this investigation has validated the use of human serum transferrin as a carrier protein for functional peptide domains introduced into its structure using protein engineering. These findings will be useful for developing a novel class of therapeutic agents for a broad spectrum of diseases.

  13. Rational Design of a Transferrin-Binding Peptide Sequence Tailored to Targeted Nanoparticle Internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Melissa; Maccari, Giuseppe; Mereghetti, Paolo; Voliani, Valerio; Rocchiccioli, Silvia; Ucciferri, Nadia; Luin, Stefano; Signore, Giovanni

    2017-02-15

    The transferrin receptor (TfR) is a promising target in cancer therapy owing to its overexpression in most solid tumors and on the blood-brain barrier. Nanostructures chemically derivatized with transferrin are employed in TfR targeting but often lose their functionality upon injection in the bloodstream. As an alternative strategy, we rationally designed a peptide coating able to bind transferrin on suitable pockets not involved in binding to TfR or iron by using an iterative multiscale-modeling approach coupled with quantitative structure-activity and relationship (QSAR) analysis and evolutionary algorithms. We tested that selected sequences have low aspecific protein adsorption and high binding energy toward transferrin, and one of them is efficiently internalized in cells with a transferrin-dependent pathway. Furthermore, it promotes transferrin-mediated endocytosis of gold nanoparticles by modifying their protein corona and promoting oriented adsorption of transferrin. This strategy leads to highly effective nanostructures, potentially useful in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, which exploit (and do not suffer) the protein solvation for achieving a better targeting.

  14. [Effect of atopy on serum glucocorticoid receptor levels in children with bronchiolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Huan-Yin; Liu, Wei-Rong; Zhang, Hang-Hu; Li, Hua-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Xian; Liu, Shu-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Hong

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of atopy on the expression of glucocorticoid receptors in children with bronchiolitis. ELISA was used to measure the changes in the serum levels of glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) and glucocorticoid receptor β (GRβ) in the bronchiolitis group (77 children, including 34 children with atopy) and pneumonia group (68 children). Thirty-eight children who were prepared to undergo surgeries for non-infectious diseases and had no atopy or family history of allergic diseases were enrolled as the control group. The bronchiolitis group and the pneumonia group had significant increases in the serum levels of GRα and GRβ compared with the control group (Pbronchiolitis group had significant increases in these levels compared with the pneumonia group (Pbronchiolitis group had a significant increase in the GRα/GRβ ratio (Pbronchiolitis group had significant increases in the serum levels of GRα and GRβ (Pbronchiolitis group had a significant increase in the serum level of GRβ compared with the atopic children (Pbronchiolitis group had a significant increase in the GRα/GRβ ratio compared with the control group and non-atopic children in the bronchiolitis group (Pbronchiolitis have increased serum levels of GRα and GRβ. The children with atopy have an increased GRα/GRβ ratio, suggesting that the atopic children with bronchiolitis are highly sensitive to glucocorticoids.

  15. Serum levels of Interleukin-33 and its soluble receptor ST2 in asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensaf A. Azazi

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The serum levels of IL-33 and its receptor sST2 were markedly elevated in patients with bronchial asthma and this supports the concept of sST2 and Interleukin-33 as a therapeutic target in asthma.

  16. The effect of serum angiotensin II and angiotensin II type 1 receptor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To measure serum Ang II and the frequency of AT1 receptor CC genotype among a group of Egyptian patients with pediatric onset lupus nephritis (pLN). Methods: This is a case-control cross sectional study which included 24 patients with pLN and 24 age and sex-matched healthy subjects as controls. Clinical ...

  17. Nutritional immunity. Escape from bacterial iron piracy through rapid evolution of transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Matthew F; Elde, Nels C

    2014-12-12

    Iron sequestration provides an innate defense, termed nutritional immunity, leading pathogens to scavenge iron from hosts. Although the molecular basis of this battle for iron is established, its potential as a force for evolution at host-pathogen interfaces is unknown. We show that the iron transport protein transferrin is engaged in ancient and ongoing evolutionary conflicts with TbpA, a transferrin surface receptor from bacteria. Single substitutions in transferrin at rapidly evolving sites reverse TbpA binding, providing a mechanism to counteract bacterial iron piracy among great apes. Furthermore, the C2 transferrin polymorphism in humans evades TbpA variants from Haemophilus influenzae, revealing a functional basis for standing genetic variation. These findings identify a central role for nutritional immunity in the persistent evolutionary conflicts between primates and bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. TREM-2 Receptor Expression Increases with 25(OHD Vitamin Serum Levels in Patients with Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bucova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TREM-1 and TREM-2 molecules are members of the TREM transmembrane glycoproteins. In our previous study we identified increased expressions of TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptors in pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS. Only a few studies concerning the association between vitamin D and TREM receptor expression can be found. The aim of our current study was to determine the association between the levels of an inactive form of 25(OHD vitamin and TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptor expressions. We have detected low levels of 25(OHD vitamin in 79% of PS patients. Only 21% of patients had normal serum level of 25(OHD vitamin with values clustered within the low-normal range. The most striking findings were the increased TREM-2 expressions on myeloid cells surfaces in BALF of PS patients with normal 25(OHD vitamin serum levels compared with those with its decreased levels. The total number of TREM-2 positive cells was 5.7 times higher and the percentage of TREM-2 positive cells was also significantly increased in BALF of PS patients with normal compared to PS patients with low 25(OHD vitamin serum levels. A significant correlation between total TREM-2 expression and vitamin D levels has been detected too. However, we have not detected similar differences in TREM-1expression and 25(OHD vitamin serum levels.

  19. HPLC and mass spectrometric characterization of a candidate reference material for the alcohol biomarker carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberrauch, Walter; Bergman, Ann-Charlotte; Helander, Anders

    2008-09-01

    Measurement of the alcohol-induced change of the serum transferrin glycoform pattern, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), is used as a biomarker for heavy drinking. This study characterized a candidate reference material for CDT measurement derived from isolated human transferrin glycoforms. Four transferrin glycoforms were separated from human plasma by standard methods. The identity and purity of the fractions was evaluated by HPLC, using specific absorbance measurement of the iron-transferrin complex at 470 nm, and by mass spectrometry, using ESI Q-Tof MS. A primary candidate reference material was prepared by mixing isolated fractions in transferrin-free plasma in a proportion similar to that in serum and with 0-12% disialotransferrin. A secondary candidate reference material was prepared by spiking a serum pool with 1-9% disialotransferrin. Initial identification of the isolated transferrin fractions as disialo-, trisialo-, tetrasialo- and pentasialotransferrin was based on agreement with established HPLC retention times for authentic serum samples (RRT 0.998-1.004). The presence of single symmetric peaks suggested that the fractions were sufficiently pure. The identity and purity was further based on MS agreement of observed with theoretical molecular masses (Delta(m)material showed good correlation with the measured results by an HPLC candidate reference method (r(2)=0.999). The separated human transferrin fractions used to prepare the CDT candidate reference material were indicated to contain distinct glycoforms. Having access to a CDT reference material in serum matrix will facilitate comparison of results between different methods and aid in the standardization process.

  20. Serum Soluble (ProRenin Receptor Levels in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Amari

    Full Text Available The (prorenin receptor [(PRR] is cleaved by furin to generate soluble (PRR [s(PRR], which reflects the status of the tissue renin-angiotensin system. Hemodialysis patients have advanced atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between serum s(PRR levels and background factors, including indices of atherosclerosis, in hemodialysis patients. Serum s(PRR levels were measured in hemodialysis patients and clearance of s(PRR through the membrane of the dialyzer was examined. Furthermore, relationships between serum s(PRR levels and background factors were assessed. Serum s(PRR levels were significantly higher in hemodialysis patients (30.4 ± 6.1 ng/ml, n = 258 than those in subjects with normal renal function (21.4 ± 6.2 ng/ml, n = 39, P < 0.0001. Clearance of s(PRR and creatinine were 56.9 ± 33.5 and 147.6 ± 9.50 ml/min, respectively. Serum s(PRR levels were significantly higher in those with ankle-brachial index (ABI of < 0.9, an indicator of severe atherosclerosis, than those with ABI of ≥ 0.9 (32.2 ± 5.9 and 30.1 ± 6.2 ng/ml, respectively, P < 0.05. An association between low ABI and high serum s(PRR levels was observed even after correction for age, history of smoking, HbA1c, and LDL-C. Serum s(PRR levels were significantly higher in hemodialysis patients when compared with subjects with normal renal function, although s(PRR is dialyzed to some extent, but to a lesser extent than creatinine. High serum s(PRR levels may be associated with atherosclerosis independent of other risk factors, suggesting that serum s(PRR could be used as a marker for atherosclerotic conditions in hemodialysis patients.

  1. Serum Soluble (Pro)Renin Receptor Levels in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Yoshifumi; Morimoto, Satoshi; Nakajima, Fumitaka; Ando, Takashi; Ichihara, Atsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] is cleaved by furin to generate soluble (P)RR [s(P)RR], which reflects the status of the tissue renin-angiotensin system. Hemodialysis patients have advanced atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between serum s(P)RR levels and background factors, including indices of atherosclerosis, in hemodialysis patients. Serum s(P)RR levels were measured in hemodialysis patients and clearance of s(P)RR through the membrane of the dialyzer was examined. Furthermore, relationships between serum s(P)RR levels and background factors were assessed. Serum s(P)RR levels were significantly higher in hemodialysis patients (30.4 ± 6.1 ng/ml, n = 258) than those in subjects with normal renal function (21.4 ± 6.2 ng/ml, n = 39, P ankle-brachial index (ABI) of hemodialysis patients when compared with subjects with normal renal function, although s(P)RR is dialyzed to some extent, but to a lesser extent than creatinine. High serum s(P)RR levels may be associated with atherosclerosis independent of other risk factors, suggesting that serum s(P)RR could be used as a marker for atherosclerotic conditions in hemodialysis patients.

  2. SERUM ADIPOKINES AND ADIPOKINE RECEPTORS IN COLON CANCER PATIENTS WITH METABOLOC SYNDROM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Yunusova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study serum adipokine levels and AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and sOb-R expressions with respect to clinical-morphological parameters and the evidence of metaboloc syndrome (MS in patients with stage I–III colon cancer.Materials and methods. The study included 31 colon cancer patients having metabolic syndrome and patients having no metabolic syndrome. Serum levels of leptin, adiponektin, AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and soluble form of the leptin receptor was assessed by ELISA.Results and conclusion. The incidence of MS in colon cancer patients was 71 %. The relationship between the serum leptin level and gender and disease stage was revealed. The tendency toward increase in the leptin level in patients with MS was shown. The Ob-R level was higher in patients having no MS. The levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were significantly higher in female colon cancer patients. Adiponectin receptors tended to increase in colon cancer patients with MS.

  3. Transferrin Impacts Bacillus thuringiensis Biofilm Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Garner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of transferrin on Bacillus thuringiensis biofilms. Three commercial strains, an environmental strain (33679, the type strain (10792, and an isolate from a diseased insect (700872, were cultured in iron restricted minimal medium. All strains produced biofilm when grown in vinyl plates at 30°C. B. thuringiensis 33679 had a biofilm biomass more than twice the concentration exhibited by the other strains. The addition of transferrin resulted in slightly increased growth yields for 2 of the 3 strains tested, including 33679. In contrast, the addition of 50 μg/mL of transferrin resulted in an 80% decrease in biofilm levels for strain 33679. When the growth temperature was increased to 37°C, the addition of 50 μg/mL of transferrin increased culture turbidity for only strain 33679. Biofilm levels were again decreased in strain 33679 at 37°C. Growth of B. thuringiensis cultures in polystyrene resulted in a decrease in overall growth yields at 30°C, with biofilm levels significantly decreased for 33679 in the presence of transferrin. These findings demonstrate that transferrin impacts biofilm formation in select strains of B. thuringiensis. Identification of these differences in biofilm regulation may be beneficial in elucidating potential virulence mechanisms among the differing strains.

  4. Relationship of Liver X Receptors α and Endoglin Levels in Serum and Placenta with Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Dong, Xing; Wu, Hong-Yan; Wu, Nan; Zhang, Xue-Jun; Wang, Xin; Shang, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) and endoglin have been postulated to play roles in trophoblast invasion and lipid metabolic disturbances. However, the relationship between LXRα and endoglin levels in serum and placenta of patients with preeclampsia remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify correlations between LXRα, endoglin and preeclampsia and provide new feasible methods of clinical prediction and treatment for preeclampsia. We enrolled 45 patients with preeclampsia (24 with moderate preeclampsia and 21 with severe preeclampsia) and 15 normal pregnant women (control group) who were admitted to the Department of Obstetrics of the General Hospital of Beijing Command between October 2012 and July 2013 in this study. Serum and placental LXRα and endoglin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time quantitative PCR, tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. Serum and placental LXRα and endoglin levels were significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia than those in control group (Ppreeclampsia displayed significantly higher LXRα and endoglin levels than those with moderate preeclampsia (Ppreeclampsia were positively correlated (serum: r = 0.486, Ppreeclampsia pathogenesis and development and could be used as potential predictors for this disorder.

  5. Hypophysectomy eliminates and growth hormone (GH) maintains the midpregnancy elevation in GH receptor and serum binding protein in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Jimenez, F.; Fielder, P.J.; Martinez, R.R.; Smith, W.C.; Talamantes, F. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (USA))

    1990-02-01

    ({sup 125}I)Iodomouse GH (({sup 125}I)iodo-mGH) binding to samples of serum and hepatic microsomal membranes was measured in hypophysectomized pregnant, sham-operated pregnant, intact pregnant, and intact adult virgin mice. Surgeries were carried out on day 11 of pregnancy, and the animals were killed on day 14. The binding of mGH to both serum and hepatic microsomal membranes of intact virgin mice was much lower than to those of intact pregnant mice. In hypophysectomized mice, the mGH-binding capacity of both serum and hepatic microsomes decreased to values similar to those of nonpregnant mice. No significant differences were observed between intact and sham-operated pregnant animals in the maternal serum mGH concentration, the serum GH-binding protein concentration, or the hepatic GH receptor concentration. GH receptor and binding protein-encoding mRNAs were also higher in intact and sham-operated pregnant mice than in virgin and hypophysectomized mice. Hypophysectomized mice were treated with 200 micrograms/day bovine GH, administered by osmotic minipump; after 3 days of treatment, a significant elevation of hepatic GH receptor and serum GH-binding protein levels was observed. These results demonstrate an up-regulation of hepatic GH receptors and serum GH-binding protein by GH during pregnancy in the mouse.

  6. Geographical Distribution of Twelve Transferrin Alleles in Black Rats of Asia and Oceania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Kazuo; Kato, Hatao; Imai, Hirotami; Tsuchiya, Kimiyuki; Yosida, Tosihide

    1975-01-01

    About 450 black rats (Rattus rattus) were collected from 25 localities in Asia and Oceania. Their serum transferrins were analyzed by a newly developed thin layer acrylamide gel electrophoresis accompanied with acrinol pretreatment, exhibiting 12 transferrin bands. Generally, Asian type rats (2N=42) had fast-moving transferrins (R-series), Ceylon type (2N=40) moderately moving ones and Oceanian type (2N=38) slowly moving ones (C-series). Exceptionally, in northern India and Pakistan all Asian-type rats had C-series Tf. The possibility that divergence of R-series Tf and C-series Tf had preceded the karyotypic differentiation from 42 to 38 is proposed. In combination with the previous molecular data, the time of the divergence is roughly estimated between the order of a million years and ten thousand years. PMID:1132680

  7. Determination of terminal sugars in transferrin by radio-lectin immunoassay (RLIA)-a new microanalytical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervén, C; Stibler, H; Borg, S

    1981-01-01

    A new method for the determination of terminal sugars in immunologically defined glycoproteins with microheterogeneity in the sugar residue has been developed. The method has been elaborated for transferrin and involves the following three steps: 1. Binding of antitransferrin antibodies to cyanogen bromide activated Sepharose. 2. Adsorption to the antitransferrin gel of transferrin from serum or from standard solutions of defined composition of terminal glycoprotein sugars. 3. Adsorption of a 125I - labelled lectin to the Sepharose-antitransferrin-transferrin complex. A galactose-binding lectin from Crotalaria juncea and a sialic acid-binding lectin from Limulus polyphemus have been successfully labelled with the Bolton-Hunter reagent and used in the radio-lectin immunoassay determinations. Care must be taken that significant amounts of lectins are not lost from the transferrin complex during washing. The resolving power of the method was at best 20 pmoles of asialotransferrin, a figure that probably can be improved significantly by optimizing the assay conditions.

  8. Serum lipoproteins attenuate macrophage activation and Toll-Like Receptor stimulation by bacterial lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis was previously shown to express a lipoprotein, the macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip), exposed at the bacterial surface, and able to stimulate human primary monocytes/macrophages through Toll Like Receptor (TLR)2/TLR1/TLR6, and CD14. In PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells the proinflammatory activity of Mip was significantly higher in the absence than in the presence of serum. The present study aims to investigate the ability of different serum factors to attenuate Mip proinflammatory activity in PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells and in primary human differentiated macrophages. The study was also extend to another lipoprotein, the Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein (Osp)A. The proinflammatory activity was studied through Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin (IL)-8 release. Finally, TLR1/2 human embryonic kidney-293 (HEK-293) transfected cells were used to test the ability of the serum factors to inhibit Mip and OspA proinflammatory activity. Results In the absence of any serum and in the presence of 10% delipidated FBS, production of Mip-induced TNF-α and IL-8 in PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells were similar whereas they were significantly decreased in the presence of 10% FBS suggesting an inhibiting role of lipids present in FBS. In the presence of 10% human serum, the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-8 were 2 to 5 times lower than in the presence of 10% FBS suggesting the presence of more potent inhibitor(s) in human serum than in FBS. Similar results were obtained in primary human differentiated macrophages. Different lipid components of human serum were then tested (total lipoproteins, HDL, LDL, VLDL, triglyceride emulsion, apolipoprotein (apo)A-I, B, E2, and E3). The most efficient inhibitors were LDL, VLDL, and apoB that reduced the mean concentration of TNF-α release in Mip-induced macrophages to 24, 20, and 2%, respectively (p lipoproteins and suggested that serum lipoproteins interact with acyl chains

  9. Structural consequences of binding of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} to apo-transferrin: Can this protein account for entry of uranium into human cells?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidaud, C [CEA Valrho, DSV, DIEP, Service de Biochimie Post Genomique and Toxicologie Nucleaire, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France); Vidaud, C.; Gourion-Arsiquaud, S; Rollin-Genetet, F; Torne-Celer, C; Plantevin, S; Pible, O; Quemeneur, E; Berthomieu, C. [CEA Cadarache, Laboratoire de Bioenergetique Cellulaire and Laboratoire des Interactions Proteine-Metal, DSV/DEVM, UMR 6191 CNRS-CEA-Universite Aix-Marseille II, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2007-02-15

    It has been established that transferrin binds a variety of metals. These include toxic uranyl ions which form rather stable uranyl-transferrin derivatives. We determined the extent to which the iron binding sites might accommodate the peculiar topographic profile of the uranyl ion and the consequences of its binding on protein conformation. Indeed, metal intake via endocytosis of the transferrin/transferrin receptor depends on the adequate coordination of the metal in its site, which controls protein conformation and receptor binding. Using UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy coupled to a micro-dialysis system, we showed that at both metal binding sites two tyrosines are uranyl ligands, while histidine does not participate with its coordination sphere. Analysis by circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed major differences between structural changes associated with interactions of iron or uranyl with apo-transferrin. Uranyl coordination reduces the level of protein stabilization compared to iron, but this may be simply related to partial lobe closure. The lack of interaction between uranyl-TF and its receptor was shown by flow cytometry using Alexa 488-labeled holo-transferrin. We propose a structural model summarizing our conclusion that the uranyl-TF complex adopts an open conformation that is not appropriate for optimal binding to the transferrin receptor. (authors)

  10. Familial breast cancer. Part II: Relationships with histology, staging, steroid receptors and serum tumor markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, I; Nacheva, M; Tzingilev, D

    2002-01-01

    To identify differences in clinical characteristics, histological features, hormone receptor status, and tumor marker expression between patients with sporadic and familial breast cancer. As in the previous Part I of this study, two groups of women with breast cancer were compared. The first group (group I) included 504 patients with a family history of breast cancer. The second (control) group (group II) consisted of 300 patients not reporting such a history in their relatives. The examined parameters in this report were stage and axillary lymph node involvement at the time of the initial diagnosis, treatment methods, hormone receptor status, and serum levels of the tumor markers CEA and CA 15.3. The data were processed and analysed using the SPSS statistical package. The statistical significance of differences between groups and subgroups was evaluated by x(2) Pearson's test and Student's paired t-test. Compared to sporadic cases, patients with familial breast cancer were more often diagnosed at an advanced III or IV stage; metastatic involvement of the regional lymph nodes was more frequent in group I patients. In the same group more radical surgical procedures combined with chemotherapy and local irradiation were performed. In group I the percentage of negative hormone receptors was higher (35.3% versus 22.6%; p result of their particular characteristics, these patients require more radical surgical techniques combined with pre- or postoperative local radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy.

  11. The effect of four weeks restricted diet on serum soluble leptin receptor levels and adipocyte leptin receptor density in normoweight rattus norvegicus strain Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Indra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the five possible mechanisms of leptin resistance in human obesity is the defect in the leptin receptor (Ob-R. Evidence has accumulated that leptin-binding activity in human serum is related to a soluble form of the leptin receptor, and restriction of energy intake resulted a decrease in circulating leptin levels. Aim of this study is to examine the difference of serum soluble leptin receptor level and leptin receptor density in rat adipose tissue of adventitial aorta after four weeks treated with different restricted diets. Soluble leptin receptor level was measured by ELISA and leptin receptor density by using immuno-histochemistry. The soluble leptin receptor in group treated with 40% of normal daily calori diet was found significantly lower than control (p = 0.02. There were no any significant differences among group treated with 40 % of normal daily calori diet, “1 day fast-1day eat”, and ”1day fast-2 days eat” groups, and among 1 day fast-1 day eat”, ”day fast - 2 days eat” and control groups as well. On the other hand, leptin receptor density in adipose tissues was higher in restricted diet group than control. Diet of 40 % normal daily calorie for 4 weeks decreased soluble leptin receptor level, but increased adipocyte leptin receptor density of the adipose tissue of rat adventitial aorta. These changes may be resulted from an up regulation mechanism in relation with homeostatic maintenance. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:145-50 Keywords: restricted diet, leptin receptor, soluble leptin receptor, adipocyte, obesity

  12. Relation between serum xenobiotic induced receptor activities and sperm DNA damage and sperm apoptotic markers in European and Inuit populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Stronati, Alessanda; Bizzaro, Davide

    2007-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can interfere with hormone activities and are suspected as endocrine disrupters involved in disorders, e.g. reproductive disorders. We investigated the possible relation between the actual integrated serum xenoestrogenic, xenoandrogenic and aryl hydrocarbon...... receptor (AhR) activities, and the sperm DNA damage and sperm apoptotic markers of 262 adult males (54 Inuits from Greenland, 69 from Warsaw (Poland), 81 from Sweden, and 58 from Kharkiv (Ukraine)) exposed to different levels of POPs. Xenobiotic-induced receptor activities were determined by receptor......-mediated luciferase reporter gene expression. Sperm DNA damage was measured using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-driven dUTP nick labeling assay (TUNEL) and pro- (Fas) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-xL) markers were determined by immune methods. Different features of xenobiotic-induced receptor activity in serum...

  13. Experimental meningococcal sepsis in congenic transgenic mice expressing human transferrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Szatanik

    Full Text Available Severe meningococcal sepsis is still of high morbidity and mortality. Its management may be improved by an experimental model allowing better understanding of its pathophysiology. We developed an animal model of meningococcal sepsis in transgenic BALB/c mice expressing human transferrin. We studied experimental meningococcal sepsis in congenic transgenic BALB/c mice expressing human transferrin by transcriptional profiling using microarray analysis of blood and brain samples. Genes encoding acute phase proteins, chemokines and cytokines constituted the largest strongly regulated groups. Dynamic bioluminescence imaging further showed high blood bacterial loads that were further enhanced after a primary viral infection by influenza A virus. Moreover, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-3 (IRAK-3 was induced in infected mice. IRAK-3 is a negative regulator of Toll-dependant signaling and its induction may impair innate immunity and hence result in an immunocompromised state allowing bacterial survival and systemic spread during sepsis. This new approach should enable detailed analysis of the pathophysiology of meningococcal sepsis and its relationships with flu infection.

  14. Serum metabolites predict response to angiotensin II receptor blockers in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Michelle J; Heinzel, Andreas; Rossing, Peter; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Dallmann, Guido; Rossing, Kasper; Andersen, Steen; Mayer, Bernd; Heerspink, Hiddo J L

    2016-07-05

    Individual patients show a large variability in albuminuria response to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). Identifying novel biomarkers that predict ARB response may help tailor therapy. We aimed to discover and validate a serum metabolite classifier that predicts albuminuria response to ARBs in patients with diabetes mellitus and micro- or macroalbuminuria. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics was performed on serum samples. Data from patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria (n = 49) treated with irbesartan 300 mg/day were used for discovery. LASSO and ridge regression were performed to develop the classifier. Improvement in albuminuria response prediction was assessed by calculating differences in R(2) between a reference model of clinical parameters and a model with clinical parameters and the classifier. The classifier was externally validated in patients with type 1 diabetes and macroalbuminuria (n = 50) treated with losartan 100 mg/day. Molecular process analysis was performed to link metabolites to molecular mechanisms contributing to ARB response. In discovery, median change in urinary albumin excretion (UAE) was -42 % [Q1-Q3: -69 to -8]. The classifier, consisting of 21 metabolites, was significantly associated with UAE response to irbesartan (p diabetes mellitus.

  15. Elevated transferrin saturation and risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik Ullits

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that elevated transferrin saturation is associated with an increased risk of any form of diabetes, as well as type 1 or type 2 diabetes separately. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used two general population studies, The Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS, N = 9...

  16. Maintenance of transferrin polymorphism in pigeons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frelinger, J.A.

    1972-02-01

    Transferrin, a nonheme iron-binding protein, is polymorphic in most vertebrate species that have been examined. In pigeons, it is controlled by an autosomal gene, with two known codominant alleles, Tf/sup A/ and Tf/sup B/. The two alleles are found in nearly equal frequencies and the three genotypes are at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all populations studied. This report shows that ovotransferrins from heterozygous females inhibit microbial growth, by use of yeast as an assay organism, better than ovetransferrins from either of the homozygous types, or those from a mixture of homozygous types. Heterozygous females hatch a larger percentage of their eggs than homozygous females. This difference is probably accounted for by the transferrin effect. The failure of the mixture of the homozygous types to act like the heterozygous type calls into question the currently accepted structure of transferrin as a monomeric protein. The greater fecundity of heterozygous females can account for the maintenance of transferrin polymorphism in pigeons.

  17. Androgen receptors and serum testosterone levels identify different subsets of postmenopausal breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secreto Giorgio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen receptors (AR are frequently expressed in breast cancers, but their implication in cancer growth is still controversial. In the present study, we further investigated the role of the androgen/AR pathway in breast cancer development. Methods AR expression was evaluated by immunochemistry in a cohort of 528 postmenopausal breast cancer patients previously examined for the association of serum testosterone levels with patient and tumor characteristics. AR expression was classified according to the percentage of stained cells: AR-absent (0% and AR-poorly (1%-30%, AR-moderately (>30%-60%, and AR-highly (>60% positive. Results Statistical analysis was performed in 451 patients who experienced natural menopause. AR-high expression was significantly related with low histologic grade and estrogen receptor (ER- and progesterone receptor (PR-positive status (P trendP=0.022, although a trend across the AR expression categories was not present. When women defined by ER status were analyzed separately, regression analysis in the ER-positive group showed a significant association of high testosterone levels with AR-highly-positive expression (OR 1.86; 95% CI, 1.10-3.16, but the association was essentially due to patients greater than or equal to 65 years (OR 2.42; 95% CI, 1.22-4.82. In ER-positive group, elevated testosterone levels appeared also associated with AR-absent expression, although the small number of patients in this category limited the appearance of significant effects (OR 1.92; 95% CI, 0.73–5.02: the association was present in both age groups ( Conclusions The findings in the present study confirm that testosterone levels are a marker of hormone-dependent breast cancer and suggest that the contemporary evaluation of ER status, AR expression, and circulating testosterone levels may identify different subsets of cancers whose growth may be influenced by androgens.

  18. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), lymphotoxin and TNF receptor levels in serum from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónasdóttir, O; Petersen, J; Bendtzen, K

    2001-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a systemic inflammatory disease with vasculitis as the key feature. Abnormal expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is considered of prime pathogenic importance in several inflammatory diseases. The effects of TNFa are mediated by TNF receptors (TNF......-R), and these receptors are often found in soluble forms (sTNF-R), which can modulate TNFalpha actions. To evaluate the clinical importance of the TNF family of cytokines, the serum levels of TNFalpha, TNFbeta, now termed lymphotoxin (LTalpha), and sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were measured by ELISA in 8 patients with WG during...... of the relative amounts of TNFalpha and sTNF-R indicated that TNFalpha was mostly bound to its soluble receptors. In WG, the serum levels of sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were dramatically increased (p...

  19. Theranostic vitamin E TPGS micelles of transferrin conjugation for targeted co-delivery of docetaxel and ultra bright gold nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Madaswamy S; Kutty, Rajaletchumy Veloo; Luo, Zhentao; Xie, Jianping; Feng, Si-Shen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an advanced theranostic micelles of D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), which are conjugated with transferrin for targeted co-delivery of docetaxel (DTX) as a model drug and ultra bright gold clusters (AuNC) as a model imaging agent for simultaneous cancer imaging and therapy. The theranostic micelles with and without transferrin conjugation were prepared by the solvent casting method and characterized for their particle size, polydispersity, surface chemistry, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and cellular uptake efficiency. Transferrin receptors expressing MDA-MB-231-luc breast cancer cells and NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells (control cells without transferrin receptor expression) were employed as an in vitro model to access cytotoxicity of the formulations. The overexpression of transferrin receptor on the surface of MDA-MB-231-luc cells was confirmed by flow cytometry. The biodistribution study and theranostic efficacy of the micelles were investigated by using the Xenogen IVIS(®) Spectrum imaging system, which includes AuNC based fluorescence imaging and luciferase induced bioluminescence imaging on MDA-MB-231-luc tumor bearing SCID mice. The IC50 values demonstrated that the non-targeted and targeted micelles could be 15.31 and 71.73 folds more effective than Taxotere(®) after 24 h treatment with the MDA-MB-231-luc cells. Transferrin receptor targeted delivery of such micelles was imaged in xenograft model and showed their great advantages for real-time tumor imaging and inhibition of tumor growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transferrin liposomes of docetaxel for brain-targeted cancer applications: formulation and brain theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonali; Singh, Rahul Pratap; Singh, Nitesh; Sharma, Gunjan; Vijayakumar, Mahalingam R; Koch, Biplob; Singh, Sanjay; Singh, Usha; Dash, Debabrata; Pandey, Bajarangprasad L; Muthu, Madaswamy S

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis and therapy of brain cancer was often limited due to low permeability of delivery materials across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and their poor penetration into the brain tissue. This study explored the possibility of utilizing theranostic d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate mono-ester (TPGS) liposomes as nanocarriers for minimally invasive brain-targeted imaging and therapy (brain theranostics). The aim of this work was to formulate transferrin conjugated TPGS coated theranostic liposomes, which contain both docetaxel and quantum dots (QDs) for imaging and therapy of brain cancer. The theranostic liposomes with and without transferrin decoration were prepared and characterized for their particle size, polydispersity, morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, in-vitro release study and brain theranostics. The particle sizes of the non-targeted and targeted theranostic liposomes were found below 200 nm. Nearly, 71% of drug encapsulation efficiency was achieved with liposomes. The drug release from transferrin conjugated theranostic liposomes was sustained for more than 72 h with 70% of drug release. The in-vivo results indicated that transferrin receptor-targeted theranostic liposomes could be a promising carrier for brain theranostics due to nano-sized delivery and its permeability which provided an improved and prolonged brain targeting of docetaxel and QDs in comparison to the non-targeted preparations.

  1. Kinetic analyses of changes in serum TSH receptor antibody values after total thyroidectomy in patients with Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Waka; Miyauchi, Akira; Ito, Mitsuru; Kudo, Takumi; Tamai, Hidekazu; Nishihara, Eijun; Kihara, Minoru; Miya, Akihiro; Amino, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    We often recommend total thyroidectomy for patients with Graves' disease who wish to have a child in the near future in order to prevent fetal or neonatal hyperthyroidism, especially if the patients' serum thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) values are high. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in serum TRAb values using a quantitative third-generation assay after total thyroidectomy and the half-lives of serum TRAb values to estimate the postoperative time needed to achieve the safe TRAb value for mothers. We retrospectively examined the records of 45 Graves' disease patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy and had high serum TRAb values. We also evaluated factors that prolonged the postoperative reduction of serum TRAb values. The serum TRAb values decreased rapidly in most of the patients, especially within the early postoperative (3-month) period. The presence of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) (p=0.001), smoking (p=0.004), and serum thyroglobulin values > 0.5 ng/mL at postoperative 12 months (p=0.039) were significantly associated with prolonged half-lives of the serum TRAb values. The median TRAb value half-life was 93.5 days in the patients without GO or smoking, 162.5 days in the patients with GO or smoking, and 357.4 days in the patients with both GO and smoking. Our findings indicate that using the half-life of patients' serum TRAb values determined by this third-generation assay would be effective to evaluate the reduction of serum TRAb values after total thyroidectomy and to estimate the postoperative time needed to achieve the maternal safe value.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of non-transferrin-bound and transferring-bound iron uptake in primary hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Changyi; Kosman, Daniel J

    2015-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms of iron trafficking in neurons have not been elucidated. In this study, we characterized the expression and localization of ferrous iron transporters Zip8, Zip14 and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), and ferrireductases Steap2 and stromal cell-derived receptor 2 in primary rat hippocampal neurons. Steap2 and Zip8 partially co-localize, indicating these two proteins may function in Fe(3+) reduction prior to Fe(2+) permeation. Zip8, DMT1, and Steap2 co-localize with the transferrin receptor/transferrin complex, suggesting they may be involved in transferrin receptor/transferrin-mediated iron assimilation. In brain interstitial fluid, transferring-bound iron (TBI) and non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) exist as potential iron sources. Primary hippocampal neurons exhibit significant iron uptake from TBI (Transferrin-(59) Fe(3+)) and NTBI, whether presented as (59) Fe(2+) -citrate or (59) Fe(3+) -citrate; reductase-independent (59) Fe(2+) uptake was the most efficient uptake pathway of the three. Kinetic analysis of Zn(2+) inhibition of Fe(2+) uptake indicated that DMT1 plays only a minor role in the uptake of NTBI. In contrast, localization and knockdown data indicate that Zip8 makes a major contribution. Data suggest also that cell accumulation of (59) Fe from TBI relies at least in part on an endocytosis-independent pathway. These data suggest that Zip8 and Steap2 play a major role in iron accumulation from NTBI and TBI by hippocampal neurons. Analysis of the expression and localization of known iron uptake transporters demonstrated that Zip8 makes a major contribution to iron accumulation in primary cultures of rat embryonic hippocampal neurons. These cells exhibit uptake pathways for ferrous and ferric iron (non-transferrin-bound iron, NTBI in figure) and for transferrin-bound iron; the ferrireductases Steap2 and SDR2 support the uptake of ferric iron substrates. Zip8 and Steap2 are strongly expressed in the plasma membrane of both soma

  3. TREM-2 Receptor Expression Increases with 25(OH)D Vitamin Serum Levels in Patients with Pulmonary Sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucova, Maria; Suchankova, Magda; Tibenska, Elena; Tedlova, Eva; Demian, Juraj; Majer, Ivan; Novosadova, Helena; Tedla, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    TREM-1 and TREM-2 molecules are members of the TREM transmembrane glycoproteins. In our previous study we identified increased expressions of TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptors in pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS). Only a few studies concerning the association between vitamin D and TREM receptor expression can be found. The aim of our current study was to determine the association between the levels of an inactive form of 25(OH)D vitamin and TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptor expressions. We have detected low levels of 25(OH)D vitamin in 79% of PS patients. Only 21% of patients had normal serum level of 25(OH)D vitamin with values clustered within the low-normal range. The most striking findings were the increased TREM-2 expressions on myeloid cells surfaces in BALF of PS patients with normal 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels compared with those with its decreased levels. The total number of TREM-2 positive cells was 5.7 times higher and the percentage of TREM-2 positive cells was also significantly increased in BALF of PS patients with normal compared to PS patients with low 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels. A significant correlation between total TREM-2 expression and vitamin D levels has been detected too. However, we have not detected similar differences in TREM-1expression and 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels.

  4. Immune response deviation and enhanced expression of chemokine receptor CCR4 in TBI patients due to unknown serum factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadosch, Dieter; Al-Mushaiqri, Mohamed S; Gautschi, Oliver P; Chan, Erwin; Jung, Florian J; Skirving, Allan P; Filgueira, Luis

    2010-06-01

    Severe brain trauma leads to an activation of the immune system. To this date, neither the exact perturbation of the specific immune reaction induced by the traumatic brain injury (TBI), nor the interactions leading to the infiltration of peripheral immune cells into the brain are fully understood. Serum was collected from 17 patients with TBI and a long bone fracture, 24 patients with an isolated long bone fracture and from healthy individuals. The effect of the serum on normal human monocytes and T-lymphocytes was tested in vitro by assessing proliferation and expression of surface markers, chemokine receptors and cytokines. Serum collected from patients with a TBI and a long bone fracture increased the expression of the chemokine receptor CCR4 in monocytes when compared to patients with an isolated long bone fracture. Extending this comparison to T-lymphocytes, the serum from TBI patients induced lower proliferation rates and decreased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha, while simultaneously increasing the secretion of immune-modulatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-beta) (p<0.05). Patients with a TBI release currently unknown soluble factors into the circulating blood that up regulate expression of chemokine receptor CCR4 in peripheral blood monocytes whilst concurrently inducing expression of immunosuppressive cytokines by activated T-lymphocytes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum soluble receptor of advanced glycation end products and risk of metabolic syndrome in Egyptian obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Moushira; Kamal, Sanaa; Kholousi, Shams; El-Bassyouni, Hala T; Yousef, Walaa; Reyad, Hanaa; Mohamed, Ramy; Basha, Walaa A

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is one of the diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome (MS). It is correlated with insulin resistance (IR) and high vascular risk as well. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) play an important role in abnormal metabolic components in obese women. This study aimed to explore the serum levels of sRAGE in Egyptian obese women and compare with healthy non-obese controls and investigate the relationship between serum sRAGE, metabolic parameters, and obesity complications. The soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), anthropometry, metabolic and biochemical biomarkers were measured in 100 obese women and 100 age-matched healthy control non-obese women. The homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) has been determined from serum insulin and glucose values. Serum sRAGE levels were significantly lower in obese cases than controls and inversely correlated with obesity and metabolic parameters. Results of univariate and multivariate analyses for determinants of serum sRAGE levels in obese cases showed that parameters statistically and significantly related were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), LDL-C, TG, BP, HOMA-IR, ALT and AST. sRAGE is a novel biomarker for metabolic dysfunction in Egyptian obese women and might predict the future cardio-metabolic events.

  6. Reference measurement procedures for the iron saturation in human transferrin based on IDMS and Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Claudia; Rienitz, Olaf; Jährling, Reinhard; Schiel, Detlef; Zakel, Sabine

    2012-12-01

    Two reference measurement procedures are presented here that allow the determination of the iron saturation in human transferrin, based on different molecular properties. The results, directly derived from the number of ions bound to the protein molecule, are traceable to the SI. Up to now, the iron saturation has only been deduced indirectly from the amount-of-substance ratio of serum iron to transferrin in serum. Interlaboratory tests have shown the need for more accurate methods, as the results from many participant test samples for both parameters do not lie within the acceptable range of deviation given by relevant guidelines when different methods or kits are applied. Using isotope dilution, an HPLC ICP-MS procedure was developed in compliance with the requirements of a primary reference measurement procedure. In this manner, the iron saturation was measured with an associated relative expanded measurement uncertainty of 4%. Based on the results, a straightforward Raman procedure was evolved, which allows the determination of the iron saturation in transferrin with an associated relative expanded uncertainty of 7%.

  7. Epidermal growth factor receptor detection in serum and saliva as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Laura; Paderno, Alberto; Piazza, Cesare; Pagan, Eleonora; Bignotti, Eliana; Romani, Chiara; Bandiera, Elisabetta; Calza, Stefano; Del Bon, Francesca; Nicolai, Piero; Ravaggi, Antonella

    2017-11-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein that is overexpressed in a wide variety of malignancies, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Our objective was to assess the EGFR diagnostic and prognostic value in OSCC by investigating its expression in serum and saliva of patients in comparison with healthy subjects. Prospective case-control study. Serum and saliva samples were collected from a cohort of 63 treatment-naïve OSCC patients before surgery and a matched group of 60 healthy subjects. EGFR concentrations in serum and saliva were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. OSCC patients showed lower values of serum EGFR compared with controls (P = .0002). Conversely, saliva EGFR concentrations were higher in OSCC patients than in controls (P = .0014). Saliva EGFR levels were also increased in patients with higher T category (pT4 vs. pT saliva EGFR had worse prognosis in terms of overall survival (P = .04). Conversely, no association was found between serum EGFR and clinical outcomes in OSCC patients. Saliva EGFR can be considered as a potential tumor marker for OSCC with both diagnostic and prognostic values. Serum EGFR levels, on the other hand, were lower in OSCC patients, but did not show any prognostic impact. Saliva EGFR levels are worthy of further investigation as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for OSCC. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:E408-E414, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Effect of serum interleukin-1 receptor antagonist level on survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Murat; Değirmencioğlu, Serkan; Ugurlu, Erhan; Yaren, Arzu

    2017-05-01

    Due to poor prognosis in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), new effective markers are required in the monitoring of the disease. The present study aimed to investigate the association between the serum IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) level, overall survival (OS), and treatment response in NSCLC, and to evaluate the usefulness of the serum IL-1Ra level as a prognostic marker for NSCLC. Eighty patients (72 men and 8 women) and 40 healthy volunteers (13 men and 27 women) were included in the present study. The median progression-free survival was 16 weeks for patients with high serum IL-1Ra levels, and 35 weeks for patients with low serum IL-1Ra levels (P=0.027). The median OS was 38 weeks in patients with a high serum IL-1Ra level, and 62 weeks in patients with a low serum IL-1Ra level (P=0.065). The results of the present study have demonstrated that there was a significant correlation between IL-1Ra levels and NSCLC progression and survival, although the correlation between IL-1Ra levels and the response to treatment was not statistically significant. Therefore, the pre-treatment IL-1Ra level has been identified as a putative prognostic factor for NSCLC.

  9. Altered Rhythm of Adrenal Clock Genes, StAR and Serum Corticosterone in VIP Receptor 2-Deficient Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Georg, Birgitte; Hannibal, Jens

    2012-01-01

    RNA expression and serum corticosterone concentration. Double immunohistochemistry showed that the PER1 protein and StAR were co-localised in the same steroidogenic cells. Circulating corticosterone plays a role in the circadian timing system and the misaligned corticosterone rhythm in the VPAC2 receptor......The circadian time-keeping system consists of clocks in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and in peripheral organs including an adrenal clock linked to the rhythmic corticosteroid production by regulating steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Clock cells contain an autonomous molecular......) the adrenal Star mRNA and (3) the serum corticosterone concentration both during a light/dark (L/D) cycle and at constant darkness in wild type (WT) and VPAC2 receptor-deficient mice (VPAC2-KO). We also examined if PER1 and StAR were co-localised in the adrenal steroidogenic cells. Per1 and Bmal1 mRNA showed...

  10. Frequency in Japanese of genetic variants of 22 proteins. I. Albumin, ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, and transferrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, R.E. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor); Ueda, N.; Satoh, C.; Tanis, R.J.; Neel, J.V.; Hamilton, H.B.; Inamizu, T.; Baba, K.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an electrophoretic survey of approximately 4000 individuals from the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, for four serum proteins: albumin, ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin and transferrin. The haptoglobin gene frequencies obtained for the HP/sup 1/--HP/sup 2/ polymorphism are in agreement with earlier reports. Rare electrophoretic variants of albumin, ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin occur with frequencies of 2.48, 0.50, and 0.58 per 1000 determinations, respectively. The noteworthy finding of 8 distinct transferrin variants in these populations, with a combined frequency of 20.90 per 1000 determinations, is also presented. Four of these variants (D/sub Chi,/ B/sub 1/, B/sub 3/, and D/sub HIR 2/ which corresponds electrophoretically to D/sub 4/) have been reported in other populations in Japan, but the other five have not previously been differentiated.

  11. Soluble tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor levels in serum as markers of anti-viral host reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, C; Nansen, A; Marker, O

    1999-01-01

    The role of soluble receptors for TNF-alpha (sTNF-Rs) as markers of virus-induced host responses was studied by the use of murine model infections. A marked elevation in serum levels of sTNF-R75, but not sTNF-R55, was found 1 day after infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). In mice......TNF-R75 into serum early after VSV infection was independent of T cells, whereas interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta seemed to be a major mediator. In contrast, increased release of sTNF-R75 into serum 8 days post-LCMV infection was mediated via T cells but independently of both CD40 ligand and IFN...

  12. The Serum Concentrations of Chemokine CXCL12 and Its Specific Receptor CXCR4 in Patients with Esophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Łukaszewicz-Zając

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Recent investigations have suggested that upregulated levels of inflammatory biomarkers, such as chemokines, may be associated with development of many malignancies, including esophageal cancer (EC. Based on our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the serum concentration of chemokine CXCL12 and its specific receptor CXCR4 in the diagnosis of EC patients. Material and Methods. The present study included 79 subjects: 49 patients with EC and 30 healthy volunteers. The serum concentrations of CXCL12 and CXCR4 and classical tumor markers such as carcinoembryonal antigen (CEA and squamous cell cancer antigen (SCC-Ag were measured using immunoenzyme assays, while C-reactive protein (CRP levels were assessed by immunoturbidimetric method. Moreover, diagnostic criteria of all proteins tested and the survival of EC patients were assessed. Results. The serum concentrations of CXCL12 were significantly higher, while those of its receptor CXCR4 were significantly lower in EC patients compared to healthy controls. The diagnostic sensitivity, negative predictive value, and accuracy of CXCR4 were the highest among all analyzed proteins and increased for combined analysis with classical tumor markers and CRP levels. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that serum CXCR4 may improve the diagnosis of EC patients, especially in combination with classical tumor markers.

  13. Effect of exercise on serum vitamin D and tissue vitamin D receptors in experimentally induced type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosria E. Aly

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the effect of swimming exercise on serum vitamin D level and tissue vitamin D receptors in experimentally induced type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Sixty adult male rats were divided into control and diabetic groups. Each was further subdivided into sedentary and exercised subgroups. Diabetes Mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg dissolved in cold 0.01 M citrate buffer (pH 4.5. The exercised subgroups underwent swimming for 60 min, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. Serum glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, lipids, vitamin D and tissue Vitamin D receptors (VDR were evaluated. Significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein (LDL levels in sedentary diabetic rats was detected. On the other hand, high density lipoprotein (HDL, free fatty acids, serum vitamin D and pancreatic, adipose, and muscular VDR showed a significant decrease in the same group. It is evident that all these parameters were reversed by swimming exercise indicating its beneficial role in type 2 Diabetes. In diabetic groups; serum vitamin D was found to be correlated negatively with serum glucose, insulin, HOMA, cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL and positively correlated with HDL and tissue VDR. In conclusion, Disturbed vitamin D is associated with metabolic impairments in sedentary diabetic rats. Moderate swimming exercise is beneficial in improving these consequences through modulation of vitamin D status. Future studies could be designed to investigate the effect of the combination of vitamin D intake with exercise in diabetic patients.

  14. Effects of prednisolone on serum and tissue fluid IGF-I receptor activation and post-receptor signaling in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramshanker, Nilani; Aagaard, Maiken; Hjortebjerg, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    Context: Short-term glucocorticoid exposure increases serum IGF-I concentrations, but antagonizes IGF-I tissue signaling. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Objective: To identify at which levels glucocorticoid inhibits IGF-I signaling. Design and methods: Nineteen healthy males received...... prednisolone (37.5 mg daily) and placebo for 5 days in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Serum was collected on day 1, 3 and 5, abdominal skin suction blister fluid (SBF; ≈interstitial fluid) on day 5 (n=9) together with muscle biopsies (n=19). The ability of serum and SBF......-A (PAPP-A). Concomitantly, prednisolone increased SBF levels of stanniocalcin-2 (STC2) (P=0.02) when compared to serum. STC2 blocks PAPP-A from cleaving IGFBP-4. Finally, prednisolone suppressed post-IGF-IR signaling pathways at the level of IRS-1(P

  15. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Promotes the Endocytosis of Transferrin in the African Trypanosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyett, Paul J; Xia, Shuangluo; Swinney, David C; Pollastri, Michael P; Mensa-Wilmot, Kojo

    2016-07-08

    Human parasite Trypanosoma brucei proliferates in the blood of its host, where it takes up iron via receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin (Tf). Mechanisms of Tf endocytosis in the trypanosome are not fully understood. Small molecule lapatinib inhibits Tf endocytosis in T. brucei and associates with protein kinase GSK3β (TbGSK3β). Therefore, we hypothesized that Tf endocytosis may be regulated by TbGSK3β, and we used three approaches (both genetic and small molecule) to test this possibility. First, the RNAi knock-down of TbGSK3β reduced Tf endocytosis selectively, without affecting the uptake of haptaglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) or bovine serum albumin (BSA). Second, the overexpression of TbGSK3β increased the Tf uptake. Third, small-molecule inhibitors of TbGSK3β, TWS119 (IC50 = 600 nM), and GW8510 (IC50 = 8 nM) reduced Tf endocytosis. Furthermore, TWS119, but not GW8510, selectively blocked Tf uptake. Thus, TWS119 phenocopies the selective endocytosis effects of a TbGSK3β knockdown. Two new inhibitors of TbGSK3β, LY2784544 (IC50 = 0.6 μM) and sorafenib (IC50 = 1.7 μM), were discovered in a focused screen: at low micromolar concentrations, they prevented Tf endocytosis as well as trypanosome proliferation (GI50's were 1.0 and 3.1 μM, respectively). These studies show that (a) TbGSK3β regulates Tf endocytosis, (b) TWS119 is a small-molecule tool for investigating the endocytosis of Tf, (c) endocytosis of GPI-anchored TfR and HpHbR are differentially regulated, and (d) the imidazopyridazine aminopyrazole scaffold of LY2784544 is attractive for a hit-to-lead optimization program in antitrypanosome drug discovery.

  16. Toll-like receptor 2 activation and serum amyloid A regulate smooth muscle cell extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Stephanie E; Pessolano, Lawrence G; Bishop, Christopher A; Best, Michael; Rich, Celeste B; Stone, Phillip J; Schreiber, Barbara M

    2017-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells contribute to extracellular matrix remodeling during atherogenesis. De-differentiated, synthetic smooth muscle cells are involved in processes of migration, proliferation and changes in expression of extracellular matrix components, all of which contribute to loss of homeostasis accompanying atherogenesis. Elevated levels of acute phase proteins, including serum amyloid A (SAA), are associated with an increased risk for atherosclerosis. Although infection with periodontal and respiratory pathogens via activation of inflammatory cell Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 has been linked to vascular disease, little is known about smooth muscle cell TLR2 in atherosclerosis. This study addresses the role of SAA and TLR2 activation on smooth muscle cell matrix gene expression and insoluble elastin accumulation. Cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells were treated with SAA or TLR2 agonists and the effect on expression of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) and tropoelastin studied. SAA up-regulated MMP9 expression. Tropoelastin is an MMP9 substrate and decreased tropoelastin levels in SAA-treated cells supported the concept of extracellular matrix remodeling. Interestingly, SAA-induced down-regulation of tropoelastin was not only evident at the protein level but at the level of gene transcription as well. Contributions of proteasomes, nuclear factor κ B and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β on regulation of MMP9 vs. tropoleastin expression were revealed. Effects on Mmp9 and Eln mRNA expression persisted with long-term SAA treatment, resulting in decreased insoluble elastin accumulation. Interestingly, the SAA effects were TLR2-dependent and TLR2 activation by bacterial ligands also induced MMP9 expression and decreased tropoelastin expression. These data reveal a novel mechanism whereby SAA and/or infection induce changes in vascular elastin consistent with atherosclerosis.

  17. Effects of exercise on the markers of iron status in serum of cross-country skiers

    OpenAIRE

    Malczewska-Lenczowska, J; R Stupnicki; T Gabryś

    2010-01-01

    The study aim was to assess the within-subject, day-to-day variability for ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations in serum of 6 female and 8 male cross-country skiers aged 16-18 years under a regular training regimen throughout 8 consecutive days. The concentrations of iron status variables and creatine kinase (CK) activities were adjusted to plasma volume changes. Mean ferritin concentrations were 30.6 • 1.142[sup]±1[/sup] and 22.6 • 1.167[sup]±1[/sup] μg/l for men a...

  18. [Non-transferrin-bound iron: a promising biomarker in iron overload disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Roderick P P W M; Voets, Philip J G M; de Swart, Louise; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2013-01-01

    Iron overload disorders are common and, if left untreated, severe systemic diseases that can have both genetic and acquired causes. Hereditary haemochromatosis, β-thalassaemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and sickle cell disease are among the most important examples. Iron that is not bound to transferrin, haem or ferritin (non-transferrin-bound iron, NTBI) seems to play a key role in the pathophysiology of these disorders. NTBI is a heterogeneous group of potentially toxic iron complexes in plasma which are generated almost exclusively under pathological conditions. Cellular uptake of NTBI contributes to its toxicity and is mediated by several organ-specific transporters and receptors. NTBI-induced toxicity is the result of oxidative damage to various macromolecules by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the near future, we hypothesize that NTBI will have important implications for both diagnosis and treatment of iron overload disorders. However, before NTBI can be applied to patient care, the currently available assays need further clinical and analytical validation.

  19. Increased serum levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (sTNFR2 in patients with active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Fontes Bessa

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the serum levels of the cytokine TNF-α and its soluble receptors (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 in patients with toxoplasmosis retinochoroidits (TR and controls. 37 patients with TR and 30 subjects with positive serology for toxoplasmosis but without history and signs of uveitis were included in this study. Serum concentrations of TNF-α, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 were determined by ELISA. Serum concentrations of TNF-α and sTNFR1 were similar in controls (mean ± SD median values; 56.57 ± 141.96 and 504.37 ± 163.87, respectively and TR patients (mean ± SD values, 121.62 ± 217.56 and 511.15 ± 189.30, respectively. Serum concentrations of sTNFR2 were higher in the uveitis group when compared to the control group (respectively, mean ± SD values, 1734.84 ± 379.32 and 1442.75 ± 309.47; p=0.002. There was no association between the serum levels of the molecules and the time of first symptoms, severity of vitreous haze, size or localization of active lesions, levels of visual acuity, and presence of vasculitis. These results suggest that TR is associated with changes in the circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers, but they are not correlated with local/ocular signs.

  20. Increased serum levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (sTNFR2 in patients with active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Fontes Bessa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the serum levels of the cytokine TNF-α and its soluble receptors (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 in patients with toxoplasmosis retinochoroidits (TR and controls. 37 patients with TR and 30 subjects with positive serology for toxoplasmosis but without history and signs of uveitis were included in this study. Serum concentrations of TNF-α, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 were determined by ELISA. Serum concentrations of TNF-α and sTNFR1 were similar in controls (mean ± SD median values; 56.57 ± 141.96 and 504.37 ± 163.87, respectively and TR patients (mean ± SD values, 121.62 ± 217.56 and 511.15 ± 189.30, respectively. Serum concentrations of sTNFR2 were higher in the uveitis group when compared to the control group (respectively, mean ± SD values, 1734.84 ± 379.32 and 1442.75 ± 309.47; p=0.002. There was no association between the serum levels of the molecules and the time of first symptoms, severity of vitreous haze, size or localization of active lesions, levels of visual acuity, and presence of vasculitis. These results suggest that TR is associated with changes in the circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers, but they are not correlated with local/ocular signs.

  1. Elevation of serum insulin concentration during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies leads to similar activation of insulin receptor kinase in skeletal muscle of subjects with and without NIDDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, H H; Vestergaard, H; Kotzke, G

    1995-01-01

    The role of skeletal muscle insulin receptor kinase in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was investigated. Muscle biopsies from 13 patients with NIDDM and 10 control subjects at fasting serum insulin concentrations and approximately 1,000 pmol/l steady-state serum...... insulin during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps were immediately frozen. The biopsies were then solubilized, and the receptors were immobilized to anti-insulin receptor antibody-coated microwells. Receptor kinase and binding activities were consecutively measured in these wells. The increase in serum...... insulin concentration (73 +/- 14 to 1,004 +/- 83 and 45 +/- 7 to 1,07 +/- 77 pmol/l in the NIDDM and control groups, respectively) had similar effects on receptor kinase activity in both study groups (12 +/- 1 to 42 +/- 5 and 12 +/- 2 to 47 +/- 5 amol P.fmol binding activity-1. min-1 in the NIDDM...

  2. Plasma ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations and body iron stores identify similar risk factors for iron deficiency but result in different estimates of the national prevalence of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia among women and children in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle-Stone, Reina; Nankap, Martin; Ndjebayi, Alex O; Erhardt, Juergen G; Brown, Kenneth H

    2013-03-01

    Available iron status indicators reflect different aspects of metabolism. We compared the prevalence and distribution of iron deficiency (ID) and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) among Cameroonian women and children, as measured by plasma ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations, body iron stores (BIS), and hemoglobin, and evaluated the impact of adjustments for inflammation on these measures. In a nationally representative survey, we randomly selected 30 clusters in each of 3 zones (north, south, and large cities) and 10 households/ cluster, each with a child aged 12-59 mo and a woman 15-49 y. Ferritin and BIS were mathematically adjusted for inflammation, using plasma C-reactive protein and α(1)-acid glycoprotein both as continuous and categorical variables. Inflammation was present in 48.0% of children and 20.8% of women and anemia was diagnosed in 57.6% of children and 38.8% of women. Depending on the iron status indicator applied, the prevalence of ID ranged from 14.2 to 68.4% among children and 11.5 to 31.8% among women, and the prevalence of IDA ranged from 12.0 to 47.4% among children and 9.0 to 19.4% among women; the proportion of anemia associated with ID ranged from 20.8 to 82.3% among children and 23.2 to 50.0% among women. The different iron indicators generally identified similar groups at greatest risk of deficiency, using both conventional and derived cutoffs: younger children, pregnant women, and women and children in the north and rural areas. Research is needed to clarify the relationships between iron status indicators, particularly in the presence of inflammation, to harmonize global data on prevalence of ID.

  3. Biochemical exploration of azoospermia: interest of the seminal transferrin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadoun, C; Guiton, P; Dubuc, P D; Bastit, P; Sauger, F; Dadoun, D; Bisson, J P; Maitrot, B

    1989-04-01

    Seminal transferrin is considered a good index of Sertoli cell function. In this study, including 19 control subjects, four vasectomized subjects and 65 non-vasectomized subjects with azoospermia, transferrin was measured concomitantly with other classical biochemical seminal markers such as L-carnitine, fructose and zinc. This parameter should provide additional information for differentiation between obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia. A threshold value of 85 micrograms/ejaculate for transferrin was defined in the control and the vasectomized groups. The 65 subjects with azoospermia were divided into five groups according to L-carnitine and transferrin threshold values; the nature of azoospermia (obstructive or non-obstructive) was considered in each group. In the biological investigation of sterility, the measurement of transferrin provided information as to the aetiology of azoospermia. However, the determination of L-carnitine and fructose remains important in the localization of any obstruction.

  4. Serum Concentrations of TNF α and Its Soluble Receptors in Patients with Adrenal Tumors Treated by Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Komorowski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The peripheral blood levels of TNF α and its soluble receptors were studied in 39 patients with malignant and benign adrenal tumors treated by adrenalectomy. The concentrations of TNF α were significantly elevated in patients with malignant tumors of the adrenal cortex and in patients with Conn's syndrome compared to control. In patients with non-functioning adenomas and pheochromocytomas, TNF α levels were similar to those detected in the control. In subjects with myelolipomas, the serum concentration of TNF α was lower compared to the control. After adrenalectomy, the levels of TNF α were decreased in patients with malignant tumors and in patients with Conn's syndrome, non-functioniong adenomas and pheochromocytomas compared to the concentration before surgery. The serum concentrations of soluble receptors of TNF α did not differ among different patient groups and compared to the control. After adrenalectomy, the blood concentrations of TNF α R1 and TNF α R2 were decreased in patients with Conn's syndrome. However, to confirm practicality of the evaluation of TNF α and its soluble receptors in differential diagnosis in patients with adrenal tumors, a larger study group is needed.

  5. Risk assessment in sepsis: a new prognostication rule by APACHE II score and serum soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Mylona, Vassiliki; Savva, Athina; Tsangaris, Iraklis; Dimopoulou, Ioanna; Mouktaroudi, Maria; Raftogiannis, Maria; Georgitsi, Marianna; Linnér, Anna; Adamis, George; Antonopoulou, Anastasia; Apostolidou, Efterpi; Chrisofos, Michael; Katsenos, Chrisostomos; Koutelidakis, Ioannis; Kotzampassi, Katerina; Koratzanis, George; Koupetori, Marina; Kritselis, Ioannis; Lymberopoulou, Korina; Mandragos, Konstantinos; Marioli, Androniki; Sundén-Cullberg, Jonas; Mega, Anna; Prekates, Athanassios; Routsi, Christina; Gogos, Charalambos; Treutiger, Carl-Johan; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Dimopoulos, George

    2012-08-08

    Early risk assessment is the mainstay of management of patients with sepsis. APACHE II is the gold standard prognostic stratification system. A prediction rule that aimed to improve prognostication by APACHE II with the application of serum suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) is developed. A prospective study cohort enrolled 1914 patients with sepsis including 62.2% with sepsis and 37.8% with severe sepsis/septic shock. Serum suPAR was measured in samples drawn after diagnosis by an enzyme-immunoabsorbent assay; in 367 patients sequential measurements were performed. After ROC analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis a prediction rule for risk was developed. The rule was validated in a double-blind fashion by an independent confirmation cohort of 196 sepsis patients, predominantly severe sepsis/septic shock patients, from Sweden. Serum suPAR remained stable within survivors and non-survivors for 10 days. Regression analysis showed that APACHE II ≥ 17 and suPAR ≥ 12 ng/ml were independently associated with unfavorable outcome. Four strata of risk were identified: i) APACHE II APACHE II APACHE II ≥ 17 and suPAR APACHE II ≥ 17 and suPAR ≥ 12 ng/ml with mortality 51.7%. This prediction rule was confirmed by the Swedish cohort. A novel prediction rule with four levels of risk in sepsis based on APACHE II score and serum suPAR is proposed. Prognostication by this rule is confirmed by an independent cohort.

  6. The role of vitamin D, estrogen, calcium sensing receptor genotypes and serum calcium in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szendroi, Attila; Speer, Gabor; Tabak, Adam; Kosa, Janos P; Nyirady, Peter; Majoros, Attila; Romics, Imre; Lakatos, Peter

    2011-06-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among men in developed countries. Estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), partly through their effects on calcium levels are implicated in the proliferation and carcinogenesis in the prostate gland. VDR, ER-α and CaSR genes show polymorphisms in humans that appear to have clinical significance in many pathological conditions, such as prostate cancer. Our aim was to evaluate the role of ER-α (PvuII, XbaI), VDR (BsmI) and CaSR (A986S) gene polymorphisms and serum calcium levels in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. Two hundred four patients with prostate cancer and 102 healthy controls were recruited into a hospital-based case control study. After genotyping, the relationship between the individual genotypes and prostate cancer was investigated. Both the ER-α XbaI and the VDR BsmI polymorphisms were significantly related to the risk of prostate cancer. An age adjusted logistic regression limited to controls and patients not receiving bisphosphonate therapy showed that higher corrected serum calcium and the VDR Bb/BB genotypes independently increased the risk of prostate cancer. ER-α XbaI and VDR BsmI genetic polymorphisms had a significant association with the risk of prostate cancer. Both VDR BsmI genotypes and serum calcium levels were independently related to the risk of prostate cancer, suggesting an influence of VDR on the development of this malignancy.

  7. Four variants in transferrin and HFE genes as potential markers of iron deficiency anaemia risk: an association study in menstruating women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo-Pardo Eduardo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anaemia is a worldwide health problem in which environmental, physiologic and genetic factors play important roles. The associations between iron status biomarkers and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs known to be related to iron metabolism were studied in menstruating women. Methods A group of 270 Caucasian menstruating women, a population group at risk of iron deficiency anaemia, participated in the study. Haematological and biochemical parameters were analysed and 10 selected SNPs were genotyped by minisequencing assay. The associations between genetic and biochemical data were analysed by Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA test and decision trees. Dietary intake of a representative subgroup of these volunteers (n = 141 was assessed, and the relationship between nutrients and iron biomarkers was also determined by linear regression. Results Four variants, two in the transferrin gene (rs3811647, rs1799852 and two in the HFE gene (C282Y, H63D, explain 35% of the genetic variation or heritability of serum transferrin in menstruating women. The minor allele of rs3811647 was associated with higher serum transferrin levels and lower transferrin saturation, while the minor alleles of rs1799852 and the C282Y and H63D mutations of HFE were associated with lower serum transferrin levels. No association between nutrient intake and iron biomarkers was found. Conclusions In contrast to dietary intake, these four SNPs are strongly associated with serum transferrin. Carriers of the minor allele of rs3811647 present a reduction in iron transport to tissues, which might indicate higher iron deficiency anaemia risk, although the simultaneous presence of the minor allele of rs1799852 and HFE mutations appear to have compensatory effects. Therefore, it is suggested that these genetic variants might potentially be used as markers of iron deficiency anaemia risk.

  8. Serum decoy receptor 3 is a biomarker for disease severity in nonatopic asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Han Chen

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: High serum DcR3 levels are associated with disease severity in nonatopic asthma patients, which suggests that DcR3 is a potential biomarker that can be used to predict the severity of nonatopic asthma.

  9. Association between serum soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor and atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Ichihara

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Serum suPAR was associated with AF, particularly NPAF, as demonstrated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Whether suPAR promotes or maintains AF should be investigated in further studies.

  10. Actinide uptake by transferrin and ferritin metalloproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Auwer, C.; Llorens, I.; Moisy, Ph. [CEA Marcoule DEN/DRCP/SCPS, Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Vidaud, C. [CEA Marcoule DSV/DIEP/SBTN, Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Goudard, F.; Barbot, C. [Univ. de Nantes, Faculte des Sciences, Biochim., Nantes (France); Solari, P.L. [BM29, ESRF, Grenoble (France); Funke, H. [FZR, Rossendorf beamline (BM20), ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    In order to better understand the mechanisms of actinide uptake by specific biomolecules, it is essential to explore the intramolecular interactions between the cation and the protein binding site. Although this has long been done for widely investigated transition metals, very few studies have been devoted to complexation mechanisms of actinides by active chelation sites of metalloproteins. In this field, X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been extensively used as a structural and electronic metal cation probe. The two examples that are presented here are related to two metalloproteins in charge of iron transport and storage in eukaryote cells: transferrin and ferritin. U(VI)O{sub 2}{sup 2+}, Np(IV) and Pu(IV) have been selected because of their possible role as contaminant from the geosphere. (orig.)

  11. Correlation of Serum Soluble Interleukin-7 Receptor and Anti-C1q Antibody in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhong Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Serum concentrations of soluble interleukin-7 receptor (sIL-7R and anti-C1q antibody have recently been identified as unique serological markers for lupus nephritis (LN in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. In this study, we evaluated the correlation of serum sIL-7R and anti-C1q in SLE patients. Methods. Sera from 134 patients with SLE and 84 healthy cohorts were tested for levels of sIL-7R and anti-C1q antibodies in terms of ELISA. Correlations of the sIL-7R and anti-C1q autoantibodies were evaluated. Results. The serum concentrations of sIL-7R and anti-C1q antibodies were significantly higher in SLE patients and LN patients in comparison with healthy individuals/controls and SLE patients with non-LN, respectively. In addition, both sIL-7R and anti-C1q concentrations were found to significantly correlate with the SLE disease activity as evaluated by SLEDAI scores. Interestingly, the serum sIL-7R concentration was strongly correlated with the level of anti-C1q antibodies (r=0.2871, p=0.0008 but not statistically correlated with other serological markers, including the anti-dsDNA and complements C3 and C4 concentrations in SLE patients. Conclusion. Both serum sIL-7R and anti-C1q antibodies were strongly associated with disease activity and LN in SLE patients, suggesting that they may be reliable serological markers for identification of SLE patients with active diseases and LN.

  12. N-glycan structures of human transferrin produced by Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)cells using the LdMNPV expression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Choi; Noboru Tomiya; Jung H. Kim; James M. Slavicek; Michael J. Betenbaugh; Yuan C. Lee

    2003-01-01

    N-glycan structures of recombinant human serum transferrin (hTf) expressed by Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) 652Y cells were determined. The gene encoding hTf was incorporated into a Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. This virus was then...

  13. {sup 125}I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding and serum corticosterone level during psychological stress in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi E-mail: GZL13162@nifty.ne.jp; Ogi, Shigeyuki; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka

    2004-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that benzodiazepine receptor density decreases in response to stress, we correlated {sup 125}I-iomazenil ({sup 125}I-IMZ) binding with serum corticosterone levels in a rat model. Wistar male rats were divided into four groups; control group (CON, 10 rats), no physical or psychological stress; and one-, three-, and five-day stress groups of 12 rats each (1-DAY, 3-DAY, and 5-DAY, respectively), receiving psychological stress for the given number of days. Psychological stress were given to rats with a communication box. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of {sup 125}I-iomazenil of the 3-DAY and 5-DAY showed that {sup 125}I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding was significantly reduced in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen (p<0.05). Serum corticosterone level ratio appeared to be slightly elevated in 3-DAY and 5-DAY, although this elevation was not significant. These data suggest that {sup 125}I-IMZ is a useful radioligand to reflect received stress and its binding in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen is strongly affected by psychological stress.

  14. Serum levels of interleukin-6 type cytokines and soluble interleukin-6 receptor in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Robak

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and two IL-6 family of cytokines (leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF as well as IL-6 soluble receptor (sIL-6R using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in 66 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and 24 healthy controls. We examined a possible association between the serum levels of these peptides and RA activity according to the Mallya and Mace scoring system and Ritchie's index. We also evaluated the correlation between the serum levels of IL-6, LIF, CNTF and sIL-6R and duration of the disease and calculated sIL-6R/IL-6 ratio in RA patients and in the control group. IL-6 and sIL-6R were detectable in all 66 patients with RA and 24 normal individuals. LIF was also found in the serum of all patients with RA and in 16 (66.7% normal individuals. In contrast CNTF was measurable only in 15 (22.7% patients with RA and 24 (33.3% normal individuals. The highest IL-6 and sIL-6R levels were found in the patients with Stages 3 and 4 of RA activity and the lowest in the control group. In contrast there were no statistically significant diferences between the LIF and CNTF levels in RA patients and normal individuals. We found positive correlation between IL-6 and sIL-6R concentrations and Ritchie's index and a lack of such correlation with LIF and CNTF. IL-6 serum level correlated positively with the disease duration, but sIL-6R, LIF and CNTF did not. Serum sIL-6R/IL-6 ratio was significantly lower in RA patients than in healthy controls. In conclusion, an increase in the serum levels of IL-6 and sIL-6R, but not LIF and CNTF concentrations, may be useful markers for RA activity.

  15. Association of estrogen receptor beta variants and serum levels of estradiol with risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Huanlei

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endogenous estrogens may play a vital role in colorectal tumorigenesis. Estrogen receptor beta is the predominant subtype which mediates the biological effect of estrogens, while loss of expression of estrogen receptor beta has been indicated as a common step in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC. Epidemiological studies have revealed several functional polymorphisms of estrogen receptor beta (ESR2 for cancer risk, but relevant study in CRC is limited, particularly in men. This study aimed to investigate the association of circulating estradiol and variations of ESR2 with CRC risk in men. Methods We initiated a case–control study consisting of 390 patients with CRC and 445 healthy controls in men only. We genotyped ESR2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs1256049 and rs4986938 and measured serum estradiol concentration using chemilluminescence immunoassay. Multivariable logistic regression model was performed to evaluate the associations between these variables and CRC risk. Results ESR2 rs1256049 CT/TT genotypes were associated with reduced risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR], 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5–1.0, while rs4986938 CT/TT genotypes were associated with increased risk of CRC (OR, 1.5, 95% CI, 1.0–2.1. In addition, the CRC risk increased with the number of risk genotypes of these two SNPs in a dose–response manner (Ptrend, 0.003. Specifically, subjects carrying risk genotypes of both SNPs had the highest risk of CRC (OR, 2.0, 95% CI, 1.3–3.3.. Moreover, serum estradiol concentration alone was associated with risk of CRC in men (OR, 1.2, 95% CI, 1.0–1.3. However, individuals presenting both rs4986938 CT/TT genotypes and high level of serum estradiol had a high risk of CRC (OR, 2.3, 95% CI, 1.4–3.9, compared with those presenting CC genotype and low level of serum estradiol. The similar joint results were not observed for SNP rs1256049. Conclusions These results suggest that endogenous

  16. Elevated levels of soluble urokinase receptor in serum from mycobacteria infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Ravn, P; Hoyer-Hansen, G

    2006-01-01

    In search for a serological marker, which may be used to monitor treatment efficacy in patients with extra-pulmonary mycobacterial infections, serum samples were collected prospectively from patients during a 6-months treatment period. The levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator......). suPAR levels were elevated to more than double (median 7.7 ng/ml, range 5.6-25.8) compared to levels previously reported for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. The serum suPAR levels however remained high during the entire treatment period. This may reflect that significant inflammatory activity...

  17. Changes in iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation in race horses, before and after of physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Abramovitc

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Abramovitc G., Parra A.C. & Fernandes W.R. [Changes in iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation in race horses, before and after of physical exercise]. Variação de níveis séricos de ferro, da capacidade total de ligação do ferro e da saturação da transferrina em equinos de corrida, antes e após exercício físico. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:289-293, 2014. Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva 87, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508-270, Brasil. Email: wilsonrf@usp.br The preparation of the horse for physical activities in competition is directly related to important factors such as nutrition, muscle adaptation and blood profile, related to the concentration of serum iron, total capacity total iron binding capacity (TIBC and saturation of transferrin. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of exercise in iron levels, the total iron and transferrin saturation in race horses. One hundred and eleven samples of blood serum were collected from Thoroughbred horses, from the Jockey Club of São Paulo, aged between 3 and 4 years old, male and female, clinically healthy, practitioners turf competition, in sand or grass. The samples were obtained before exercise (control time and 30 minutes after exercise (post exercise. These animals were submitted to gallop training, of high intensity and short duration for this research. As a result, it was observed that the serum concentration of iron (Fe showed a statistically significant lowering post-exercise, due to organic re-balance of iron, while TIBC (total iron binding capacity showed a clear and significant increase in their serum levels due to increased needs of iron during and after exercise. The percentage of transferrin saturation in serum was shown to be lower post-exercise, probably due to the recruitment of

  18. Benzodiazepine effect of {sup 125}I-iomazenil-benzodiazepine receptor binding and serum corticosterone level in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaragi, 305-8575 (Japan)]. E-mail: gzl13162@nifty.ne.jp; Ogi, Shigeyuki [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 105-8461 (Japan); Uchiyama, Mayuki [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 105-8461 (Japan); Mori, Yutaka [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 105-8461 (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    To test the change in free or unoccupied benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) density in response to diazepam, we investigated {sup 125}I-iomazenil ({sup 125}I-IMZ) binding and serum corticosterone levels in a rat model. Wistar male rats, which received psychological stress using a communication box for 5 days, were divided into two groups according to the amount of administered diazepam: no diazepam [D (0)] group and 10 mg/kg per day [D (10)] group of 12 rats each. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of {sup 125}I-IMZ of the D (10) group were significantly lower (P<.05) than those of the D (0) group in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus. The serum corticosterone level ratio in the D (10) group was significantly lower than that in the D (0) group (P<.05). From the change in serum corticosterone levels, diazepam attenuated the psychological stress produced by the physical stress to animals in adjacent compartments. From the reduced binding of {sup 125}I-IMZ, it is clear that diazepam competed with endogenous ligand for the free BZR sites, and the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus are important areas in which {sup 125}I-IMZ binding is strongly affected by administration of diazepam.

  19. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor and soluble CD8 molecules in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, P B; Soscia, E; Iacovitti, B; Pellicano, M; D'Antonio, A; Provitera, V; Perrella, O

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and soluble CD8 (sCD8) molecules in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of 18 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) and of 16 with noninflammatory neurologic diseases (NIND). All MS patients suffered from an exacerbation of the relapsing-remitting form of the disease within one month before examination. The mean serum levels of sIL-2R and sCD8 in the MS patients were not significantly different from those of NIND patients. Only one patient with MS had detectable sIL-2R in the CSF. CSF sCD8 was detectable in 10 of 18 MS patients and in 1 of 16 NIND patients. Our data indicate that the CSF and serum sIL-2R concentrations do not correlate with the disease activity. Conversely, increased levels of sCD8 only in the CSF of MS patients support the hypothesis of an intrathecal activation of CD8+ cells in MS. We think that CSF sCD8 can be a useful marker for the presence of activated T cells in the central nervous system.

  20. Association between Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphism and Serum Vitamin D Levels in Children with Low-Energy Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiński, Michal; Galicka, Anna; Milewski, Robert; Popko, Janusz; Badmaev, Vladimir; Stohs, Sidney J

    2017-01-01

    Fractures of bones, especially forearm fractures, are very common in children and their number is increasing. This study was designed to determine the impact of vitamin D serum levels and vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms on the occurrence of low-energy fractures in children. The study group consisted of 100 children with clinically relevant bone fractures and a control group consisted of 127 children without fractures. Total vitamin D [25(OH)D3 plus 25(OH)D2] serum concentrations were evaluated in every patient. Genotypes for 4 restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene (FokI, ApaI, TaqI, and BsmI) were determined by standard polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques. Differences in concentrations of vitamin D were observed between the group with bone fractures (median = 12 ng/ml) and the control group (median = 16 ng/ml; p = 0.000044). Higher levels of vitamin D reduced the risk of fracture by 1.06 times (p = 0.0005). No impact of particular VDR polymorphism on the occurrence of low-energy fractures in children was detected. However, there were significant differences in the prevalence of FokI polymorphism genotypes between the fracture and control groups (p = 0.05). Furthermore, the recessive "aa" genotype of ApaI polymorphism and the dominant "TT" genotype of TaqI polymorphism were associated with higher levels of vitamin D (p = 0.005 and p = 0.036, respectively). Vitamin D deficiency is an independent risk factor for fractures in children. ApaI polymorphism recessive "aa" and TaqI polymorphism dominant "TT" genotypes are associated with higher levels of vitamin D in serum.

  1. Meningococcal Transferrin-Binding Proteins A and B Show Cooperation in Their Binding Kinetics for Human Transferrin

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Russell H.; Oakhill, Jonathan S; Joannou, Christopher L.; Gorringe, Andrew R.; Evans, Robert W

    2005-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis, a causative agent of bacterial meningitis and septicemia, obtains transferrin-bound iron by expressing two outer membrane-located transferrin-binding proteins, TbpA and TbpB. A novel system was developed to investigate the interaction between Tbps and human transferrin. Copurified TbpA-TbpB, recombined TbpA-TbpB, and individual TbpA and TbpB were reconstituted into liposomes and fused onto an HPA chip (BIAcore). All preparations formed stable monolayers, which, with th...

  2. TGF-β1 serum concentrations and receptor expressions in the lens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tissue fibrosis as complication of diabetes mellitus is known in humans. Because TGF-β1induces fibrosis and is elevated in humans suffering from diabetes mellitus we measured this growth factor in serum of dogs with diabetes mellitus and compared it with healthy dogs and those with fibrotic diseases. Further we ...

  3. Serum enterolactone and postmenopausal breast cancer risk by estrogen, progesterone and herceptin 2 receptor status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaineddin, A.K.; Vrieling, A.; Buck, K.; Becker, S.; Linseisen, J.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Kaaks, R.; Chang-Claude, J.

    2012-01-01

    Lignans are a group of estrogenic compounds present in plants. Several epidemiological studies proposed that lignans may protect against breast cancer by exerting anticarcinogenic activity. Levels of enterolactone were determined in serum samples of 1,250 cases and 2,164 controls from a large

  4. Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ha Young, E-mail: hayoung@skku.edu [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Doo [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Suk-Hwan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joon Hyuk [Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Hyun [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Zabel, Brian A. [Palo Alto Institute for Research and Education, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Bae, Yoe-Sik, E-mail: yoesik@skku.edu [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. ► SAA stimulated upregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1). ► SAA-induced LOX1 expression and foam cell formation is mediated by JNK/NF-κB signaling. ► HDL-conjugated SAA also stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 upregulation. ► The finding reveals a novel mechanism of action of SAA in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foam cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis.

  5. First trimester serum levels of the soluble transcobalamin receptor, holo-transcobalamin, and total transcobalamin in relation to preeclampsia risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuyaman, Omar; Torring, Niels; Obeid, Rima; Nexo, Ebba

    2016-12-01

    Human placenta expresses CD320, a receptor that ensures the uptake of holo-transcobalamin (holoTC). Soluble CD320 (sCD320) is present in the circulation and its concentration increases during pregnancy. To investigate a possible association of sCD320, holoTC and total transcobalamin (TC) with the risk of subsequent preeclampsia using serum samples from asymptomatic first trimester pregnant women. Moreover, we aimed to establish reference intervals of the aforementioned biomarkers for first trimester pregnant women who remained healthy throughout pregnancy. This study was a retrospective case-control study that we performed on biobank serum samples. Cases (n = 50) and controls (n = 198) (matched for gestational age and date of sample collection) were asymptomatic women in early pregnancy [median (range) gestational age = 10 (8-12) weeks]. Cases developed preeclampsia while the controls remained normotensive throughout pregnancy. We measured the serum concentration of sCD320, holoTC, and total TC by using in-house ELISA methods. First trimester median concentrations of sCD320, holoTC and total TC were not significantly different between cases and controls. The odd ratio for developing preeclampsia based on exposure to low or high levels of sCD320, holoTC or total TC at first trimester was not significant. The reference intervals (2.5-97.5% percentiles (median)) derived from the controls were 50-170 (90) pmol\\L for sCD320, 20-140 (70) pmol\\L for holoTC and 560-1300 (810) pmol\\L for total TC. The risk of preeclampsia is not predicted by first trimester serum concentrations of sCD320, holoTC or total TC. The first trimester reference intervals for the three parameters is reported.

  6. Serum folate receptor alpha as a biomarker for ovarian cancer: Implications for diagnosis, prognosis and predicting its local tumor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaki, Akira; Hasegawa, Kosei; Kato, Tomomi; Abe, Kenji; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Miyara, Akiko; O'Shannessy, Daniel J; Somers, Elizabeth B; Yasuda, Masanori; Sekino, Tetsuo; Fujiwara, Keiichi

    2016-04-15

    Folate receptor alpha (FRA) is a GPI-anchored glycoprotein and encoded by the FOLR1 gene. High expression of FRA is observed in specific malignant tumors of epithelial origin, including ovarian cancer, but exhibits very limited normal tissue expression, making it as an attractive target for the ovarian cancer therapy. FRA is known to shed from the cell surface into the circulation which allows for its measurement in the serum of patients. Recently, methods to detect the soluble form of FRA have been developed and serum FRA (sFRA) is considered a highly promising biomarker for ovarian cancer. We prospectively investigated the levels of sFRA in patients clinically suspected of having malignant ovarian tumors. A total of 231 patients were enrolled in this study and analyzed for sFRA as well as tumor expression of FRA by immunohistochemistry. High sFRA was predominantly observed in epithelial ovarian cancer patients, but not in patients with benign or borderline gynecological disease or metastatic ovarian tumors from advanced colorectal cancers. Levels of sFRA were highly correlated to clinical stage, tumor grade and histological type and demonstrated superior accuracy for the detection of ovarian cancer than did serum CA125. High sFRA was significantly associated with shorter progression-free survival in both early and advanced ovarian cancer patients. Finally, tumor FRA expression status was strongly correlated with sFRA levels. Taken together, these data suggest that sFRA might be a useful noninvasive serum biomarkers for future clinical trials assessing FRA-targeted therapy. © 2015 UICC.

  7. Interaction of lipocalin 2, transferrin, and siderophores determines the replicative niche of Klebsiella pneumoniae during pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Michael A; Lenio, Steven; Schmidt, Lindsay; Oyler, Jennifer E; Weiser, Jeffrey N

    2012-11-20

    Pathogenic bacteria require iron for replication within their host. Klebsiella pneumoniae and other Gram-negative pathogens produce the prototypical siderophore enterobactin (Ent) to scavenge iron in vivo. In response, mucosal surfaces secrete lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), an innate immune protein that binds Ent to disrupt bacterial iron acquisition and promote acute inflammation during colonization. A subset of K. pneumoniae isolates attempt to evade Lcn2 by producing glycosylated Ent (Gly-Ent, salmochelin) or the alternative siderophore yersiniabactin (Ybt). However, these siderophores are not functionally equivalent and differ in their abilities to promote growth in the upper respiratory tract, lungs, and serum. To understand how Lcn2 exploits functional differences between siderophores, isogenic mutants of an Ent(+) Gly-Ent(+) Ybt(+) K. pneumoniae strain were inoculated into Lcn2(+/+) and Lcn2(-/-) mice, and the pattern of pneumonia was examined. Lcn2 effectively protected against the iroA ybtS mutant (Ent(+) Gly-Ent(-) Ybt(-)). Lcn2(+/+) mice had small foci of pneumonia, whereas Lcn2(-/-) mice had many bacteria in the perivascular space. The entB mutant (Ent(-) Ybt(+) Gly-Ent(-)) caused moderate bronchopneumonia but did not invade the transferrin-containing perivascular space. Accordingly, transferrin blocked Ybt-dependent growth in vitro. The wild type and the iroA mutant, which both produce Ent and Ybt, had a mixed phenotype, causing a moderate bronchopneumonia in Lcn2(+/+) mice and perivascular overgrowth in Lcn2(-/-) mice. Together, these data indicate that Lcn2, in combination with transferrin, confines K. pneumoniae to the airways and prevents invasion into tissue containing the pulmonary vasculature. Gram-negative bacteria are a common cause of severe hospital-acquired infections. To cause disease, they must obtain iron and secrete the small molecule enterobactin to do so. Animal models of pneumonia using Klebsiella pneumoniae indicate that enterobactin promotes

  8. Serum proteinase inhibitors and other serum proteins in protein-energy malnutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelp, F.P.; Migasena, P.; Pongpaew, P.; SCHREURS W.H.P

    1977-01-01

    1. The concentrations of serum protein albumin, prealbumin and transferrin were determined in twenty-eight cases of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) with infection, together with the levels of serum proteinase inhibitors (PI), alpha1-antitrypsin (AT), alpha1-antichymotrypsin (Ach),

  9. Acquisition of iron from transferrin regulates reticulocyte heme synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponka, P.; Schulman, H.M.

    1985-11-25

    Fe-salicylaldehyde isonicotinoylhydrazone (SIH), which can donate iron to reticulocytes without transferrin as a mediator, has been utilized to test the hypothesis that the rate of iron uptake from transferrin limits the rate of heme synthesis in erythroid cells. Reticulocytes take up VZFe from (VZFe)SIH and incorporate it into heme to a much greater extent than from saturating concentrations of (VZFe)transferrin. Also, Fe-SIH stimulates (2- UC)glycine into heme when compared to the incorporation observed with saturating levels of Fe-transferrin. In addition, delta-aminolevulinic acid does not stimulate VZFe incorporation into heme from either (VZFe)transferrin or (VZFe)SIH but does reverse the inhibition of VZFe incorporation into heme caused by isoniazid, an inhibitor of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. Taken together, these results suggest the hypothesis that some step(s) in the pathway of iron from extracellular transferrin to intracellular protoporphyrin limits the overall rate of heme synthesis in reticulocytes.

  10. Gonococcal transferrin-binding protein 2 facilitates but is not essential for transferrin utilization.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, J. E.; Sparling, P F; Cornelissen, C N

    1994-01-01

    Pathogenic Neisseria species have been shown to scavenge iron from transferrin (Tf), although the mechanism is not yet fully understood. Two iron-repressible proteins that exhibit Tf-binding activity have been identified. This work describes the cloning and sequencing of tbpB, a 2.1-kb gene in N. gonorrhoeae that encodes Tbp2, an 85-kDa iron-repressible lipoprotein. Transcriptional interruption of tbpB had a strong polar effect on tbpA, the structural gene for Tbp1 that is located immediately...

  11. Regulation of transferrin receptor 2 in human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, Alessia; Finisguerra, Veronica; Oliviero, Isabella; Deaglio, Silvia; Mariani, Gualtiero; Malavasi, Fabio; Testa, Ugo

    2009-01-01

    In a recent study we have explored TfR2 expression in a panel of cancer cell lines and we observed that about 40% of these cell lines clearly express TfR2. Taking advantage of this observation and considering the frequent overexpression of c-Myc in cancer cells we have explored the existence of a possible relationship between c-Myc and TfR2 in these cell lines. Our results provided evidence that TfR2(+) cell lines express low c-Myc levels and low TfR1 levels, while TfR2(-) cell lines express high c-Myc and TfR1 levels. Using the erythroleukemic K562 TfR2(+) cells as a model, we observed that agents that enhance c-Myc expression, such as iron, determine a decrease of TfR2 expression, while molecules that induce a decreased c-Myc expression, such as the iron chelator desferoxamine or the kinase inhibitor ST 1571, induce an enhanced TfR2 expression. On the other hand, we have evaluated a possible effect of hypoxia and nitric oxide on TfR2 expression in erythroleukemia K526 and hepatoma HepG2 cells, providing evidence that: (i) agents inducing cellular hypoxia, such as CoCl(2), elicited a marked upmodulation of TfR1, but a downmodulation of TfR2 expression; (ii) NO(+) donors, such as sodium nitroprusside (SNP), induced a moderate decrease of TfR1, associated with a marked decline of TfR2 expression; (iii) NO donors, such as S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), induced a clear increase of TfR1, associated with a moderate upmodulation of TfR2 expression. The ensemble of these observations suggests that in cancer cell lines TfR2 expression can be modulated through stimuli similar to those known to act on TfR1 and these findings may have important implications for our understanding of the role of TfR2 in the regulation of iron homeostasis.

  12. Nonbinding site-directed mutants of transferrin binding protein B exhibit enhanced immunogenicity and protective capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandoloso, Rafael; Martínez-Martínez, Sonia; Calmettes, Charles; Fegan, Jamie; Costa, Estela; Curran, Dave; Yu, Rong-Hua; Gutiérrez-Martín, César B; Rodríguez-Ferri, Elías F; Moraes, Trevor F; Schryvers, Anthony B

    2015-03-01

    Host-adapted Gram-negative bacterial pathogens from the Pasteurellaceae, Neisseriaceae, and Moraxellaceae families normally reside in the upper respiratory or genitourinary tracts of their hosts and rely on utilizing iron from host transferrin (Tf) for growth and survival. The surface receptor proteins that mediate this critical iron acquisition pathway have been proposed as ideal vaccine targets due to the critical role that they play in survival and disease pathogenesis in vivo. In particular, the surface lipoprotein component of the receptor, Tf binding protein B (TbpB), had received considerable attention as a potential antigen for vaccines in humans and food production animals but this has not translated into the series of successful vaccine products originally envisioned. Preliminary immunization experiments suggesting that host Tf could interfere with development of the immune response prompted us to directly address this question with site-directed mutant proteins defective in binding Tf. Site-directed mutants with dramatically reduced binding of porcine transferrin and nearly identical structure to the native proteins were prepared. A mutant Haemophilus parasuis TbpB was shown to induce an enhanced B-cell and T-cell response in pigs relative to native TbpB and provide superior protection from infection than the native TbpB or a commercial vaccine product. The results indicate that binding of host transferrin modulates the development of the immune response against TbpBs and that strategies designed to reduce or eliminate binding can be used to generate superior antigens for vaccines. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Serum amyloid A induces interleukin-6 in dermal fibroblasts via Toll-like receptor 2, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 and nuclear factor-κB

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Steven; Cant, Rachel; Ciechomska, Marzena; Finnigan, James; Oakley, Fiona; Hambleton, Sophie; van Laar, Jacob M

    2014-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune idiopathic connective tissue disease, characterized by vasculopathy, inflammation and fibrosis. There appears to be a link between inflammation and fibrosis, although the exact nature of the relationship is unknown. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute-phase protein that is elevated up to 1000-fold in times of infection or inflammation. This acute-phase reactant, as well as being a marker of inflammation, may initiate signals in a cytokine-like manner, possibly through toll-like receptors (TLRs) promoting inflammation. This study addressed the role of SAA in initiating interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in dermal fibroblasts and the role of TLR2 in this system. We show that SAA induces IL-6 secretion in healthy dermal fibroblasts and that blockade of TLR2 with a neutralizing antibody to TLR2 or specific small interfering RNA attenuated the SAA-induced IL-6 secretion and that this was also mediated through the TLR adaptor protein IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4. The effect is nuclear factor-κB-mediated because blockade of nuclear factor-κB reduced the induction. We also demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts express TLR2; this is functional and over-expressed in the fibroblasts of patients with systemic sclerosis. Taken together these data suggest that SAA is a danger signal that initiates IL-6 signalling in systemic sclerosis via enhanced TLR2 signalling. PMID:24476318

  14. Serum levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is associated with parasitemia in children with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch, M; Kofoed, Pe; Fischer, Torge

    2004-01-01

    Serum levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) are significantly elevated and of prognostic value in patients suffering from serious infectious diseases such as HIV and tuberculosis. Our objective was to investigate suPAR levels during symptomatic malaria infection and 7...... days after treatment. Children younger than 6 years who presented with fever or other symptoms compatible with malaria were enrolled. Blood films and samples were collected on day 0 and day 7. Twenty-five children were allocated to each of three groups according to the amount of Plasmodium falciparum...... detected in their initial blood film. Children in group 1 had parasite densities in excess of 20 parasites per 200 leucocytes. The median plasma suPAR level was 6.49 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR]: 4.90-7.61) and correlated to parasitemia (Spearman 0.43, P

  15. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Wild Type Homozygozity of Polymorphisms +896 and +1196 Is Associated with High Gastrin Serum Levels and Peptic Ulcer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjanen, Vesa-Matti; Koivurova, Olli-Pekka; Huhta, Heikki; Helminen, Olli; Mäkinen, Johanna M; Karhukorpi, Jari M; Joensuu, Tapio; Koistinen, Pentti O; Valtonen, Jarno M; Niemelä, Seppo E; Karttunen, Riitta A; Karttunen, Tuomo J

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 is a part of the innate immune system and recognizes Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide. The goal of this study was to analyze the role of Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms +896 (rs4986790) and +1196 (rs4986791) in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori related gastroduodenal diseases in relation to gastric secretion and inflammation. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms, serum gastrin-17 and pepsinogen I and II concentrations were determined, and gastroscopies with histopathological analyses were performed to 216 dyspeptic patients. As genotype controls, 179 controls and 61 gastric cancer patients were studied. In our study, the Toll-like receptor 4 +896 and +1196 polymorphisms were in total linkage disequilibrium. The homozygous wild types displayed higher gastrin-17 serum concentrations than the mutants (p = 0.001) and this effect was independent of Helicobacter pylori. The homozygous wild types also displayed an increased risk for peptic ulcers (OR: 4.390). Toll-like receptor 4 genotypes did not show any association with Helicobacter pylori positivity or the features of gastric inflammation. Toll-like receptor 4 expression was seen in gastrin and somatostatin expressing cells of antral mucosa by immunohistochemistry. Our results suggest a role for Toll-like receptor 4 in gastric acid regulation and that the Toll-like receptor 4 +896 and +1196 wild type homozygozity increases peptic ulcer risk via gastrin secretion.

  16. Toll-like Receptor-4 Polymorphisms and Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Newly Diagnosed Patients With Calcified Neurocysticercosis and Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachuriya, Gaurav; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Jain, Amita; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Jain, Bhawna; Kumar, Neeraj; Verma, Rajesh; Sharma, Praveen Kumar

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated seizure profile, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 polymorphisms, and serum matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in patients with calcified neurocysticercosis.One-hundred nine patients with calcified neurocysticercosis with newly diagnosed seizures and 109 control subjects were enrolled. TLR-4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms and serum MMP-9 levels were evaluated. The patients were followed for 1 year.Asp/Gly (P = 0.012) and Thr/Ile (P = 0.002), Gly (Asp/Gly plus Gly/Gly) (P = 0.008) and Ile (Thr/Ile plus Ile/Ile) (P = 0.003) genotypes were significantly associated with calcified neurocysticercosis compared with controls. Gly/Gly and Ile/Ile genotypes were not significantly associated (P = 0.529 for Gly/Gly, P = 0.798 for Ile/Ile) with either group. The levels of MMP-9 were higher in calcified neurocysticercosis (P =  neurocysticercosis compared with single calcified neurocysticercosis (P =  10 mm (P = 0.001), and perilesional edema (P =  neurocysticercosis leading to an increase in perilesional edema and provocation of seizures.

  17. Preoperative serum levels of epidermal growth factor receptor, HER2, and vascular endothelial growth factor in malignant and benign ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Steffensen, Karina; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Jeppesen, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    Background: Epidermal growth factor receptors ([EGFRs]; EGFR/HER1 and ErbB2/HER2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are essential to tumor growth and angiogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the serum levels of these potential biomarkers in benign, borderline...

  18. Decreased serum level of soluble-leptin-receptor in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, K; Ebadi, P; Naeimi, S

    2012-09-01

    There is some evidence suggesting that leptin and its negative regulator, soluble-leptinreceptor (SLR) may be able to influence inflammatory and autoimmune processes. In this study, several variables including socio-demographics, health-related habits, depression score, serum molecules and blood parameters besides the SLR level were evaluated in patients with SLE (SLE-patients) and healthy controls. The patients had significantly lower SLR level and higher depression score than the controls and both of these variables have a significant association with the occurrence of disease in logistic regression model. Moreover, the results of Pearson correlation analysis showed that patients' SLR level was negatively correlated with their weights and BDI scores. For the first time, this study indicated a lower level of SLR in SLE-patients and suggested that lower concentrations of SLR in these patients may be implicated in the pathogenesis of SLE.

  19. Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor level at diagnosis predicts transformation in patients with follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umino, Kento; Fujiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Ito, Shoko; Mashima, Kiyomi; Minakata, Daisuke; Nakano, Hirofumi; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Kawasaki, Yasufumi; Sugimoto, Miyuki; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Hatano, Kaoru; Okazuka, Kiyoshi; Sato, Kazuya; Oh, Iekuni; Ohmine, Ken; Suzuki, Takahiro; Muroi, Kazuo; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated 121 patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) and analyzed the association between the soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) level at diagnosis and the cumulative incidence of transformation. By a receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we determined a cutoff value of sIL-2R for transformation at 4360 U/mL to classify patients into two groups. Patients in the high sIL-2R group showed a shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and shorter disease-specific survival (DSS) (p transformation in the high sIL-2R group was higher than that in the low sIL-2R group (40.9% vs. 7.3% at 5 years, p transformation (HR 7.42, 95% CI: 2.75-20.0, p transformation, PFS, and DSS in patients with FL.

  20. Effect of Serum from Chickens Treated with Clenbuterol on Myosin Accumulation, Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population, and Cyclic AM Synthesis in Embryonic Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Wuethrich, A. J.; Hancock, D. L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Broiler chickens at 35 days of age were fed 1 ppm clenbuterol for 14 days. This level of dietary clenbuterol led to 5-7% increases in weights of leg and breast muscle tissue. At the end of the 14-day period, serum was prepared from both control and clenbuterol-treated chickens and was then employed as a component of cell culture media at a final concentration of 20% (v/v). Muscle cell cultures were prepared from both the leg and breast muscle groups of twelve-day chick embryos. Treatment groups included control chicken serum to which 10 nM, 50 nM, and 1 micron clenbuterol had been added, as well as cells grown in media containing 10% horse serum. Cultures were subjected to each treatment for 3 days beginning on the seventh day in culture. Neither the percent fusion nor the number of nuclei in myotubes were significantly affected by any of the treatments. The quantity of MHC was not increased by serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens in either breast and leg muscle cultures; however, MHC quantity was 50- 100% higher in cultures grown in control chicken serum to which 10 nM and 50 nM clenbuterol had also been added. The Beta-AR population was 4,000-7,000 Beta-AR per cell in cultures grown in chicken serum, with leg muscle cultures having approximately 25-30% more receptors than breast muscle cultures. Receptor population was not significantly affected by the presence of clenbuterol or by the presence of serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens. In contrast, the Beta-AR population in leg and breast muscle cultures grown in the presence of 10% horse serum was 18,000-20,000 Beta-AR per cell. Basal concentration of cAMP was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. When cultures grown in chicken serum were stimulated for 10 min with 1 micron isoproterenol, limited increases of 12-20% in cAMP concentration above basal levels were observed. However, when cultures grown in the presence of horse serum were stimulated with 1 micron isoproterenol, increases of 600

  1. Laminin-1 induces endocytosis of 67KDa laminin receptor and protects Neuroscreen-1 cells against death induced by serum withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishna, Rayudu; Gundimeda, Usha; Zhou, Sarah; Bui, Helena; Davis, Andrew; McNeill, Thomas; Mack, William

    2018-01-01

    Although the function of laminin in the basement membrane is known, the function of soluble "neuronal" laminin is unknown. Since laminin is neuroprotective, we determined whether the soluble laminin-1 induces signaling for neuroprotection via its 67KDa laminin-1 receptor (67LR). Treatment of Neuroscreen-1 (NS-1) cells with laminin-1 or YIGSR peptide, which corresponds to a sequence in laminin-1 β1 chain that binds to 67LR, induced a decrease in the cell-surface expression of 67LR and caused its internalization. Furthermore, intracellular cAMP-elevating agents, dibutyryl-cAMP, forskolin, and rolipram, also induced this internalization. Both soluble laminin-1 and YIGSR induced a sustained elevation of intracellular cAMP under defined conditions, suggesting a causal role of cAMP in the endocytosis of 67LR. This endocytosis was not observed in cells deficient in protein kinase A (PKA) nor in cells treated with either SQ 22536, an inhibitor for adenylyl cyclase, or ESI-09, an inhibitor for the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac). In addition, when internalization occurred in NS-1 cells, 67LR and adenylyl cyclase were localized in early endosomes. Under conditions in which endocytosis had occurred, both laminin-1 and YIGSR protected NS-1 cells from cell death induced by serum withdrawal. However, under conditions in which endocytosis did not occur, neither laminin-1 nor YIGSR protected these cells. Conceivably, the binding of laminin-1 to 67LR causes initial signaling through PKA and Epac, which causes the internalization of 67LR, along with signaling enzymes, such as adenylyl cyclase, into early endosomes. This causes sustained signaling for protection against cell death induced by serum withdrawal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Entamoeba histolytica: comparison of the role of receptors and filamentous actin among various endocytic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, B H; Powell, R R; Laughlin, R C; McGugan, G C; Bonner, M; King, A; Temesvari, L A

    2006-06-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amoebic dysentery. Uptake of iron is critical for E. histolytica growth and iron-bound human transferrin (holo-transferrin) has been shown to serve as an iron source in vitro. Although a transferrin-binding protein has been identified in E. histolytica, the mechanism by which this iron source is taken up by this pathogen is not well understood. To gain insight into this process, the uptake of fluorescent-dextran, -holo-transferrin, and human red blood cells (hRBCs) was compared. Both dextran and transferrin were taken up in an apparent receptor-independent fashion as compared to hRBCs, which were taken up in a receptor-mediated fashion. Interestingly, the uptake of FITC-dextran and FITC-holo-transferrin differentially relied on an intact actin cytoskeleton suggesting that their internalization routes may be regulated independently.

  3. Glucocorticoid-like effects of antihepatocarcinogen Rotenone are mediated via enhanced serum corticosterone levels: Molecular Fitting and Receptor Activation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Mostafa

    2003-01-01

    diminished similarity with a value of 1 or higher excluding any such similarities. Results Although the stimulatory effect exerted by rotenone on hepatocellular apoptosis was in the opposite direction of that produced by the glucocorticoid antagonist RU 486, data suggested that rotenone does not directly activate the glucocorticoid receptor. Molecular fitting of rotenone to glucocorticoid receptor agonists and antagonists as well as examination of the transcriptional activation of a glucocorticoid-responsive reporter gene (Mouse MammaryTumorVirus in response to rotenone indicated that it is highly unlikely that rotenone interacts directly with the glucocorticoid receptor. However, feeding male B6C3F1 mice a diet containing rotenone (600 ppm for 7 days resulted in a 3-fold increase in serum levels of corticosterone relative to control animals. Corticosterone is the major glucocorticoid in rodents. Conclusion Rotenone does not interact directly with the glucocorticoid receptor. Elevation of serum corticosterone levels in response to rotenone may explain the glucocorticoid-like effects of this compound, and may play a role in its anti-hepatocarcinogenic effect.

  4. Glucocorticoid-like effects of antihepatocarcinogen Rotenone are mediated via enhanced serum corticosterone levels: Molecular Fitting and Receptor Activation Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Jihan; Elbi, Cem; Warren, Barbour; Yourtee, David; Nagarur, Raghavendra; Molteni, Agostino; Cunningham, Michael L; Badr, Mostafa

    2003-02-14

    diminished similarity with a value of 1 or higher excluding any such similarities. RESULTS: Although the stimulatory effect exerted by rotenone on hepatocellular apoptosis was in the opposite direction of that produced by the glucocorticoid antagonist RU 486, data suggested that rotenone does not directly activate the glucocorticoid receptor. Molecular fitting of rotenone to glucocorticoid receptor agonists and antagonists as well as examination of the transcriptional activation of a glucocorticoid-responsive reporter gene (Mouse MammaryTumorVirus) in response to rotenone indicated that it is highly unlikely that rotenone interacts directly with the glucocorticoid receptor. However, feeding male B6C3F1 mice a diet containing rotenone (600 ppm for 7 days) resulted in a 3-fold increase in serum levels of corticosterone relative to control animals. Corticosterone is the major glucocorticoid in rodents. CONCLUSION: Rotenone does not interact directly with the glucocorticoid receptor. Elevation of serum corticosterone levels in response to rotenone may explain the glucocorticoid-like effects of this compound, and may play a role in its anti-hepatocarcinogenic effect.

  5. Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, albumin and transferrin for nutritional assessment of gastrostomy fed head or neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correira Pereira, Marta Alexandra; Santos, Carla Adriana; Almeida Brito, José; Fonseca, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Gastrostomy fed head or neck cancer patients frequently have impaired speech capacities. Enteral feeding teams frequently depend on laboratorial or anthropometrical parameters for nutritional assessment. In these patients, this study aimed to evaluate: (1) the practicability of Scored - Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA); (2) their nutritional status using the Scored-PG-SGA; (3) association of serum albumin and transferrin values to the nutritional status rating using PG-SGA. On adult outpatients with head or neck cancer under prolonged (> 1 month) gastrostomy feeding, Scored-PGSGA, albumin and transferrin were evaluated during the same appointment. Scored-PG-SGA was easily feasible in 42 patients, even in patients with speech difficulties. Twenty-five patients were moderately/severely undernourished (PG-SGA/B+C). Scored-PG-SGA rated 41 patients as ≥ 2, thus needing nutritional/ pharmacologic intervention. Albumin was low in 13 patients. Transferrin was low in 19 patients. Average albumin and transferrin in moderately/severely undernourished patients (PG-SGA/B+C) was significantly lower than in well-nourished (PG-SGA/A). There was association between Scored- PG-SGA rating, albumin and transferrin. In PEG fed head or neck cancer patients, PGSGA was practicable and useful, even in patients with impaired speaking skills. Most patients displayed moderate/severe malnutrition (PG-SGA/B+C). Scored-PG-SGA rated 41 patients as needing for nutritional/pharmacological intervention. Scored-PG-SGA should be systematically included in the evaluation of these patients. In these patients, albumin and transferrin levels showed relation with Scored-PG-SGA and should be considered as nutritional biomarkers. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. On the transfer of serum proteins to the rat intestinal juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Hansen, G H; Olsen, J

    1994-01-01

    The in vivo pattern of serum proteins in the rat small-intestinal juice was characterized by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Immunoglobulins and albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, transferrin, and orosomucoid were present. Larger serum proteins were absent (ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, alpha-1-macroglob......The in vivo pattern of serum proteins in the rat small-intestinal juice was characterized by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Immunoglobulins and albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, transferrin, and orosomucoid were present. Larger serum proteins were absent (ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, alpha-1...... proteins in the intestinal juice is a selective passage through the capillary wall followed by passive intercellular transport via delivery of the serum in the interstitial space during disintegration of the enterocytes....

  7. Primary care requests for anaemia chemistry tests in Spain: potential iron, transferrin and folate over-requesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2017-09-01

    To study the regional variability of requests for anaemia chemistry tests in primary care in Spain and the associated economic costs of potential over-requesting. Requests for anaemia tests were examined in a cross-sectional study. Clinical laboratories from different autonomous communities (AACCs) were invited to report on primary care anaemia chemistry tests requested during 2014. Demand for iron, ferritin, vitamin B12 and folate tests per 1000 inhabitants and the ratios of the folate/vitamin B12 and transferrin/ferritin requests were compared between AACCs. We also calculated reagent costs and the number of iron, transferrin and folate tests and the economic saving if every AACC had obtained the results achieved by the AACC with best practice. 110 laboratories participated (59.8% of the Spanish population). More than 12 million tests were requested, resulting in reagent costs exceeding €16.5 million. The serum iron test was the most often requested, and the ferritin test was the most costly (over €7 million). Close to €4.5 million could potentially have been saved if iron, transferrin and folate had been appropriately requested (€6 million when extrapolated to the whole Spanish population). The demand for and expenditure on anaemia chemistry tests in primary care in Spain is high, with significant regional differences between different AACCs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Therapeutic use of transferrin to modulate anemia and conditions of iron toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, M.; van der Ploeg, K.; von Bonsdorff, L.; Biemond, B. J.; Zeerleder, S. S.; van Bruggen, R.; Juffermans, N. P.

    2017-01-01

    As the main iron transporter, transferrin delivers iron to target tissues like the bone marrow for erythropoiesis. Also, by binding free iron, transferrin prevents formation of reactive oxygen species. Transferrin deficiency due to congenital hypotransferrinemia is characterized by anemia as well as

  9. Transferrin functionalized chitosan-PEG nanoparticles for targeted delivery of paclitaxel to cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Mukesh; Gajbhiye, Virendra; Kesharwani, Prashant; Jain, Narendra K

    2016-12-01

    The present investigation was aimed to utilize the stealth property of polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) and active targeting function of transferrin (Tf) by transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis to promote drug delivery to cancer cells. Paclitaxel (PTX) loaded nanoparticles (PTX-NP) were prepared by solvent evaporation method; PEGylation was carried out by coupling amine group present on the surface of NPs with hydroxyl group present on the PEG (NP-PEG). Tf conjugation was carried out by coupling carboxylic group present on the surface of ligand and hydroxyl group present on the PEG (NP-PEG-Tf). The uptake of NP-PEG-Tf into cancer cells was found to be higher as compared to non-targeted NPs. Compared with free PTX, PTX-NPs and PTX-NPs-PEG, the PTX-NPs-PEG-Tf demonstrated higher cytotoxicity to human Non-Small Cell Lung cancer cell lines (HOP-62), higher intracellular uptake especially in nuclei and lower hemolytic toxicity. Tf conjugated NPs showed increased retention time in the lungs as well as in blood. These findings indicate that Tf conjugated PEGylated nanoparticles are promising nanoconstructs for the delivery of anti-cancer drugs to cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Distinct effects of Disabled-2 on transferrin uptake in different cell types and culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-Chun; Tseng, Wei-Lien; Lee, Hsing-Ying; Cheng, Ju-Chien; Chang, Shy-Shin; Yung, Benjamin Yat-Ming; Tseng, Ching-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Iron uptake by the transferrin (Tf)-transferrin receptor (TfR) complex is critical for erythroid differentiation. The mechanisms of TfR trafficking have been examined, but the adaptor proteins involved in this process are not fully elucidated. We have investigated the role of the adaptor protein, Disabled-2 (Dab2), in erythroid differentiation and Tf uptake in the cells of hematopoietic lineage. Dab2 was upregulated in a time-dependent manner during erythroid differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells and human K562 erythroleukemic cells. Attenuating Dab2 expression in K562 cells diminished TfR internalization and increased surface levels of TfR concomitantly with a decrease in Tf uptake and erythroid differentiation. Dab2 regulated Tf uptake of the suspended, but not adherent, cultures of K562 cells. In contrast, Dab2 is not involved in TfR trafficking in the HeLa cells with epithelial origin. These differential effects are Dab2-specific because attenuating the expression of adaptor protein 2 μ subunit inhibited the uptake of Tf regardless of culture condition. We offer novel insight of Dab2 function in iron uptake and TfR internalization for the suspended culture of hematopoietic lineage cells. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  11. Acute phase serum amyloid A induces proinflammatory cytokines and mineralization via toll-like receptor 4 in mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Ebert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of serum amyloid A (SAA proteins, which are ligands for toll-like receptors, was analyzed in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs and their osteogenic offspring with a focus on senescence, differentiation and mineralization. In vitro aged hMSC developed a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP, resulting in enhanced SAA1/2, TLR2/4 and proinflammatory cytokine (IL6, IL8, IL1β, CXCL1, CXCL2 expression before entering replicative senescence. Recombinant human SAA1 (rhSAA1 induced SASP-related genes and proteins in MSC, which could be abolished by cotreatment with the TLR4-inhibitor CLI-095. The same pattern of SASP-resembling genes was stimulated upon induction of osteogenic differentiation, which is accompanied by autocrine SAA1/2 expression. In this context additional rhSAA1 enhanced the SASP-like phenotype, accelerated the proinflammatory phase of osteogenic differentiation and enhanced mineralization. Autocrine/paracrine and rhSAA1 via TLR4 stimulate a proinflammatory phenotype that is both part of the early phase of osteogenic differentiation and the development of senescence. This signaling cascade is tightly involved in bone formation and mineralization, but may also propagate pathological extraosseous calcification conditions such as calcifying inflammation and atherosclerosis.

  12. 21 CFR 866.5880 - Transferrin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transferrin immunological test system. 866.5880 Section 866.5880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... disorders, such as iron deficiency anemia. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ...

  13. Monocyte transferrin-iron uptake in hereditary hemochromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizemore, D.J.; Bassett, M.L.

    1984-05-01

    Transferrin-iron uptake by peripheral blood monocytes was studied in vitro to test the hypothesis that the relative paucity of mononuclear phagocyte iron loading in hereditary hemochromatosis results from a defect in uptake of iron from transferrin. Monocytes from nine control subjects and 17 patients with hemochromatosis were cultured in the presence of 59Fe-labelled human transferrin. There was no difference in 59Fe uptake between monocytes from control subjects and monocytes from patients with hemochromatosis who had been treated by phlebotomy and who had normal body iron stores. However, 59Fe uptake by monocytes from iron-loaded patients with hemochromatosis was significantly reduced compared with either control subjects or treated hemochromatosis patients. It is likely that this was a secondary effect of iron loading since iron uptake by monocytes from treated hemochromatosis patients was normal. Assuming that monocytes in culture reflect mononuclear phagocyte iron metabolism in vivo, this study suggests that the relative paucity of mononuclear phagocyte iron loading in hemochromatosis is not related to an abnormality in transferrin-iron uptake by these cells.

  14. Total mortality by elevated transferrin saturation in patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Andersen, Henrik Ullits; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    It is not known to what extent iron overload predicts prognosis in patients with diabetes after diagnosis or whether iron overload is a risk factor independent of the HFE genotype. We investigated total and cause-specific mortality according to increased transferrin saturation (≥ 50 vs....

  15. The soluble receptor for vitamin B12 uptake (sCD320) increases during pregnancy and occurs in higher concentration in urine than in serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abuyaman, Omar; Andreasen, Birgitte H; Kronborg, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cellular uptake of vitamin B12 (B12) demands binding of the vitamin to transcobalamin (TC) and recognition of TC-B12 (holoTC) by the receptor CD320, a receptor expressed in high quantities on human placenta. We have identified a soluble form of CD320 (sCD320) in serum and here we...... gestational weeks 17-41. sCD320, holoTC, total TC and complex formation between holoTC and sCD320 were measured by in-house ELISA methods, while creatinine was measured on the automatic platform Cobas 6000. Size exclusion chromatography was performed on a Superdex 200 column. RESULTS: Median (range) of serum...

  16. Effects of active immunization against cholecystokinin 8 on performance, contents of serum hormones, and expressions of CCK gene and CCK receptor gene in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keying; Yuan, Zhongbiao; Bing, Yu; Chen, Xiaoling; Ding, Xuemei; Chen, Daiwen

    2007-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of active immunization against cholecystokinin 8 (CCK(8)) on the content of serum CCK, expression of CCK, and CCK receptor gene in pigs. The subjects for this experiment were 15 pigs divided into three groups (5 pigs per group). The treated groups were immunized with CCK(8) conjugated to human serum albumin (HSA). The control group was immunized with same dosage of HSA. The average daily gain of pig fed with 250 microg CCK was significantly increased (P active immunization against CCK(8) could increase the content of CCK antibody and suppress CCK gene and CCK receptor gene expressions and in result improve feed intake and growth performance of pigs.

  17. Serum Soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 and Procalcitonin Can Reflect Sepsis Severity and Predict Prognosis: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the prognostic significance of serum soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1, procalcitonin (PCT, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP, C-reactive protein (CRP, cytokines, and clinical severity scores in patients with sepsis. Methods. A total of 102 patients with sepsis were divided into survival group (n=60 and nonsurvival group (n=42 based on 28-day mortality. Serum levels of biomarkers and cytokines were measured on days 1, 3, and 5 after admission to an ICU, meanwhile the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA scores were calculated. Results. Serum sTREM-1, PCT, and IL-6 levels of patients in the nonsurvival group were significantly higher than those in the survival group on day 1 (P<0.01. The area under a ROC curve for the prediction of 28 day mortality was 0.792 for PCT, 0.856 for sTREM-1, 0.953 for SOFA score, and 0.923 for APACHE II score. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that serum baseline sTREM-1 PCT levels and SOFA score were the independent predictors of 28-day mortality. Serum PCT, sTREM-1, and IL-6 levels showed a decrease trend over time in the survival group (P<0.05. Serum NT-pro-BNP levels showed the predictive utility from days 3 and 5 (P<0.05. Conclusion. In summary, elevated serum sTREM-1 and PCT levels provide superior prognostic accuracy to other biomarkers. Combination of serum sTREM-1 and PCT levels and SOFA score can offer the best powerful prognostic utility for sepsis mortality.

  18. The role of serum osteoprotegerin and receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand in metabolic bone disease of women after obesity surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, José A; Lafuente, Christian; Gómez-Martín, Jesús M; Galindo, Julio; Peromingo, Roberto; García-Moreno, Francisca; Rodriguez-Velasco, Gloria; Martínez-Botas, Javier; Gómez-Coronado, Diego; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Botella-Carretero, José I

    2016-11-01

    Metabolic bone disease may appear as a complication of obesity surgery. Because an imbalance in the osteoprotegerin and receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand system may underlie osteoporosis, we aimed to study this system in humans in the metabolic bone disease occurring after obesity surgery. In this study we included sixty women with a mean age of 47 ± 10 years studied 7 ± 2 years after bariatric surgery. The variables studied were bone mineral density, β-isomer of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen cross-links (a bone resorption marker), the bone formation markers osteocalcin and N-terminal propeptide of procollagen 1, serum osteoprotegerin and receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. Serum osteoprotegerin inversely correlated with the bone remodeling markers osteocalcin, β-isomer of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen cross-links and N-terminal propeptide of procollagen 1. The osteoprotegerin and receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand ratio also correlated inversely with serum parathormone and osteocalcin. Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine was associated with age (β = -0.235, P = 0.046), percentage of weight loss (β = 0.421, P = 0.001) and osteoprotegerin and receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand ratio (β = 0.259, P = 0.029) in stepwise multivariate analysis (R 2  = 0.29, F = 7.49, P osteoprotegerin and receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand system is associated with bone markers and bone mineral density at the lumbar spine after obesity surgery.

  19. Preoperative serum soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin predict postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing cardiac valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hailong; Zhou, Qing; Wu, Yanhu; Li, Qingguo; Røe, Oluf Dimitri; Chen, Yijiang; Wu, Zhong; Wang, Dongjin

    2013-09-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF), a frequent complication after cardiac surgery, causes morbidity and prolongs hospitalization. A significant association between circulating osteoprotegerin concentration and atrial fibrillation incidence had been identified. Osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) axis may also contribute to the development and progression of AF. Herein we sought to determine whether preoperative serum soluble RANKL and osteoprotegerin and soluble RANKL/osteoprotegerin ratio are associated with the incidence of POAF in cardiac surgery patients. We enrolled 154 patients with preoperative sinus rhythm undergoing isolated cardiac valve surgery. Preoperative venous blood samples were obtained for measurement of serum soluble RANKL and osteoprotegerin. The POAF was defined as the characteristic arrhythmia lasting for at least 30 seconds before discharge. Comparison was made between patients without episode of POAF (sinus rhythm group, n=93) and patients experiencing POAF (atrial fibrillation group, n=61). Serum levels of soluble RANKL and osteoprotegerin and soluble RANKL/osteoprotegerin ratio were significantly higher in the atrial fibrillation group than the sinus rhythm group. In multivariate survival regression, C-reactive protein, ejection fraction, left and right atrial diameters, preoperative use of beta-blocker, duration of ventilation, particularly serum soluble RANKL level, and soluble RANKL/osteoprotegerin ratio independently predicted POAF. According to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the best threshold values of serum soluble RANKL level and soluble RANKL/osteoprotegerin ratio for predicting POAF were 3.62 pmol/L and 0.51, respectively. Elevated preoperative serum soluble RANKL level and soluble RANKL/osteoprotegerin ratio are independent predictors for POAF in patients undergoing cardiac valve surgery. These findings have important

  20. Transferrin variation and genetic structure of reindeer populations in Scandinavia

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    Knut H. Røed

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to analyse transferrin variation in herds of semi-domestic reindeer from Scandinavia. The results are compared with previously reported values for other populations of both semi-domestic and wild reindeer using the same techniques as in the present study. In all populations the number of alleles was high, ranging from seven to eleven, and the heterozygosity was correspondingly high, with a mean of 0.749. This high genetic variation in all populations suggests that inbreeding is not widespread among Scandinavian reindeer. The pattern of allele frequency distribution indicates a high degree of genetic heterogeneity in the transferrin locus, both between the different semi-domestic herds and between the different wild populations. The mean value of genetic distance was 0.069 between semi-domestic herds and 0.091 between wild populations. Between semi-domestic and wild populations the genetic distance was particularly high, with a mean of 0.188. This high value was mainly due to a different pattern in the distribution of the two most common transferrin alleles: Tfu was most common among semi-domestic herds, while TfEI was most common among wild populations. These differences in transferrin allele distribution are discussed in relation to possible different origins of semi-domestic and wild reindeer in Scandinavia, or alternatively, to different selection forces acting on transferrin genotypes in semi-domestic and wild populations.Transferrin-variasjon og genetisk struktur hos rein i Skandinavia.Abstact in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Transferrin-variasjon i tamreinflokker ble analysert ved hjelp av polyacrylamid gel elektroforese. Resultatene er sammenlignet med verdier som tidligere er beskrevet for både tamrein og villrein hvor det ble benyttet samme metode som i denne undersøkelsen. I alle populasjonene ble det registrert et høyt antall alleler (7-11 og heterozygositeten var tilsvarende høy med en

  1. Effect of Serum from Chickens Treated with Clenbuterol on Myosin Accumulation, Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population, and Cyclic AMP Synthesis in Embryonic Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ronald B.; Bridge, Kristin Y.; Wuethrich, Andrew J.; Hancock, Deana L.

    2002-01-01

    Broiler chickens at 35 d of age were fed 1 ppm clenbuterol for 14 d. This level of dietary clenbuterol led to 5-7% increases in the weights of leg and breast muscle tissue. At the end of the 14-d period, serum was prepared from both control and clenbuterol-treated chickens, and was then employed as a component of cell culture media at a final concentration of 20% (v/v). Muscle cell cultures were prepared from both the leg and the breast muscle groups of 12-d chick embryos. Treatment groups included control chicken serum to which 10 nM, 50 nM, and 1 uM clenbuterol had been added, as well as cells grown in media containing 10% horse serum. Cultures were subjected to each treatment for 3 d, beginning on the seventh d in culture. Neither the percent fusion nor the number of nuclei in myotubes was significantly affected by any of the treatments. The quantity of myosin heavy chains (MHCs) was not increased by serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens in either breast or leg muscle cultures; however, the MHC quantity was 50-150% higher in cultures grown in control chicken serum to which 10 and 50 nM clenbuterol had also been added. The B-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) population was 4000-7000 betaARs per cell in cultures grown in chicken serum with leg muscle cultures having approximately 25-30% more receptors than breast muscle Culture. Receptor population was not significantly affected by the presence of clenbuterol or by the presence of serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens. In contrast, the betaAR Population in leg and breast muscle cultures grown in the presence of 10% horse serum was 16,000-18,000 betaARs per cell. Basal concentration of cyclic adenosine 3':5'monophosphate (cAMP) was not significantly affected by the treatments. When cultures grown in chicken serum were stimulated for 10 min with 1 uM isoproterenol, limited increases of 12-20% in cAMP Concentration above the. basal levels were observed. However, when cultures grown in the presence of horse serum were

  2. N-Glycan profile analysis of transferrin using a microfluidic compact disc and MALDI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Alessandro; Sroka-Bartnicka, Anna; Tengstrand, Erik; Thorsén, Gunnar

    2016-07-01

    It has been known for a long time that diseases can be associated with changes to the glycosylation of specific proteins. This has been shown for cancer, immunological disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. The possibility of using the glycosylation patterns of proteins as biomarkers for disease would be a great asset for clinical research or diagnosis. There is at present a lack of rapid, automated, and cost-efficient analytical techniques for the determination of the glycosylation of specific serum proteins. We have developed a method for determining the glycosylation pattern of proteins based on the affinity capture of a specific serum protein, the enzymatic release of the N-linked glycans, and the analysis of the glycan pattern using MALDI-MS. All sample preparation is performed in a disposable centrifugal microfluidic disc. The sample preparation is miniaturized, requiring only 1 μL of sample per determination, and automated with the possibility of processing 54 samples in parallel in 3.5 h. We have developed a method for the glycosylation pattern analysis of transferrin. The method has been tested on serum samples from chronic alcohol abusers and a control group. Also, a SIMCA model was created and evaluated to discriminate between the two groups.

  3. Serum Levels of IL-6 Type Cytokines and Soluble IL-6 Receptors in Active B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and in Cladribine Induced Remission

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    T. Robak

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and two IL-6 family cytokines-oncostatin M (OSM and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF-in 63 patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL and 17 healthy controls using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Simultaneously, we measured the serum levels of the soluble forms of two subunits of the IL-6 receptor complex-ligand binding glycoprotein 80 (sIL-6R and glycoprotein 130 (sgp130. The cytokines and receptors were evaluated in 25 untreated patients and 38 patients treated with cladribine (2-CdA, as well as in 17 healthy controls. We have correlated the serum levels of these proteins with Rai's clinical stage of the disease, the response to 2-CdA treatment and some hematological parameters. We have also evaluated the correlation of the IL-6 serum level with the concentration of OSM and IL-6 soluble receptors. IL-6 was measurable in 62/63 (98.4%, OSM in 20/25 (80% of untreated and 14/38 (37.8% of the treated patients. sIL-6R and sgp130 were detectable in all 63 patients and LIF in none of the CLL patients. IL-6 serum level in untreated patients was not significantly different as compared to its concentration in the control group (P>0.05. However, in the patients treated with 2-CdA the IL-6 level was significantly lower (P0.05. We have found significant positive correlation between the levels of sIL6R and the lymphocytes count in CLL patients (Ρ=0.423; P<0.001. In addition, sIL-6R and OSM serum concentrations correlated also with CLL Rai stage. In conclusion, the serum level of IL-6, OSM and sIL-6R, but not LIF and sgp130, are useful indicators of CLL activity.

  4. Time-course analysis of serum hepcidin, iron and cytokines in a C282Y homozygous patient with Schnitzler's syndrome treated with IL-1 receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deuren, Marcel; Kroot, Joyce J C; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2009-09-01

    It is currently unknown if the increase of the hepatic iron regulatory hormone hepcidin during inflammation in man depends on an intact HFE-protein. Here we describe the temporal relationship of serum hepcidin, serum iron and cytokines in a patient with HFE-related (C282Y homozygous) hereditary hemochromatosis who was treated for an auto-inflammatory condition, i.e. variant Schnitzler's syndrome, with the potent anti-inflammatory cytokine inter-leukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, anakinra). The patient had bouts of fever with peaking serum IL-6 concentrations followed by peaking serum hepcidin levels, while serum iron was low. Upon treatment, these peaks disappeared and hepcidin levels became non-detectable, consistent with HFE deficiency. In conclusion, this in vivo human model: i) supports the importance of an HFE-independent IL-6-hepcidin axis in the development of hypoferremia and anemia of inflammation; and ii) suggests that chronic inflammation protects patients with HFE-related hereditary hemochromatosis from iron accumulation.

  5. Time-course analysis of serum hepcidin, iron and cytokines in a C282Y homozygous patient with Schnitzler’s syndrome treated with IL-1 receptor antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deuren, Marcel; Kroot, Joyce J. C.; Swinkels, Dorine W.

    2009-01-01

    It is currently unknown if the increase of the hepatic iron regulatory hormone hepcidin during inflammation in man depends on an intact HFE-protein. Here we describe the temporal relationship of serum hepcidin, serum iron and cytokines in a patient with HFE-related (C282Y homozygous) hereditary hemochromatosis who was treated for an auto-inflammatory condition, i.e. variant Schnitzler’s syndrome, with the potent anti-inflammatory cytokine inter-leukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, anakinra). The patient had bouts of fever with peaking serum IL-6 concentrations followed by peaking serum hepcidin levels, while serum iron was low. Upon treatment, these peaks disappeared and hepcidin levels became non-detectable, consistent with HFE deficiency. In conclusion, this in vivo human model: i) supports the importance of an HFE-independent IL-6-hepcidin axis in the development of hypoferremia and anemia of inflammation; and ii) suggests that chronic inflammation protects patients with HFE-related hereditary hemochromatosis from iron accumulation. PMID:19608676

  6. Identification of a common variant in the TFR2 gene implicated in the physiological regulation of serum iron levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Irene; Minelli, Cosetta; Sanna, Serena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Schwienbacher, Christine; Naitza, Silvia; Porcu, Eleonora; Pattaro, Cristian; Busonero, Fabio; Zanon, Alessandra; Maschio, Andrea; Melville, Scott A; Grazia Piras, Maria; Longo, Dan L; Guralnik, Jack; Hernandez, Dena; Bandinelli, Stefania; Aigner, Elmar; Murphy, Anthony T; Wroblewski, Victor; Marroni, Fabio; Theurl, Igor; Gnewuch, Carsten; Schadt, Eric; Mitterer, Manfred; Schlessinger, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Witcher, Derrick R; Hicks, Andrew A; Weiss, Günter; Uda, Manuela; Pramstaller, Peter P

    2011-03-15

    The genetic determinants of variation in iron status are actively sought, but remain incompletely understood. Meta-analysis of two genome-wide association (GWA) studies and replication in three independent cohorts was performed to identify genetic loci associated in the general population with serum levels of iron and markers of iron status, including transferrin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and sTfR-ferritin index. We identified and replicated a novel association of a common variant in the type-2 transferrin receptor (TFR2) gene with iron levels, with effect sizes highly consistent across samples. In addition, we identified and replicated an association between the HFE locus and ferritin and confirmed previously reported associations with the TF, TMPRSS6 and HFE genes. The five replicated variants were tested for association with expression levels of the corresponding genes in a publicly available data set of human liver samples, and nominally statistically significant expression differences by genotype were observed for all genes, although only rs3811647 in the TF gene survived the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. In addition, we measured for the first time the effects of the common variant in TMPRSS6, rs4820268, on hepcidin mRNA in peripheral blood (n = 83 individuals) and on hepcidin levels in urine (n = 529) and observed an association in the same direction, though only borderline significant. These functional findings require confirmation in further studies with larger sample sizes, but they suggest that common variants in TMPRSS6 could modify the hepcidin-iron feedback loop in clinically unaffected individuals, thus making them more susceptible to imbalances of iron homeostasis.

  7. High-MET status in non-small cell lung tumors correlates with receptor phosphorylation but not with the serum level of soluble form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copin, Marie-Christine; Lesaffre, Marie; Berbon, Mélanie; Doublet, Louis; Leroy, Catherine; Tresch, Emmanuelle; Porte, Henri; Vicogne, Jérôme; B Cortot, Alexis; Dansin, Eric; Tulasne, David

    2016-11-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase MET is essential to embryonic development and organ regeneration. Its deregulation is associated with tumorigenesis. While MET gene amplification and mutations leading to MET self-activation concern only a few patients, a high MET level has been found in about half of the non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) tested. How this affects MET activation in tumors is unclear. Also uncertain is the prognostic value, in cancer, of a phenomenon well described in cell models: MET shedding, i.e. its cleavage by membrane proteases leading to release of a soluble fragment into the medium. A prospective cohort of 39 NSCLC patients was constituted at diagnosis or soon after. Normal tissues, tumor tissues, and blood samples were obtained. This allowed, for the same patient, synchronous determination of (i) the MET level in the tumor, (ii) receptor phosphorylation, and (iii) the concentration of soluble MET fragment (sMET) in the serum. After confirming the adequacy of an ELISA for measuring the serum level of sMET, we found no correlation between this level and the concentration of MET in tumors, as evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Nevertheless, all but one tumor displaying a high MET level also displayed receptor phosphorylation, restricted to a small number of tumor cells. Our results thus demonstrate that the serum level of sMET is not indicative of the amount of MET present in the tumor cells and cannot be used as a biomarker for therapeutic purposes. However, MET scoring of tumor biopsies could be a first step prior to determination of MET receptor activation in high-MET tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple Soluble TGF-β Receptors in Addition to Soluble Endoglin Are Elevated in Preeclamptic Serum and They Synergistically Inhibit TGF-β Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Chen, Qi; Zhao, Min; Walton, Kelly; Harrison, Craig; Nie, Guiying

    2017-08-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) can be classified into early-onset (34 weeks of gestation) subtypes. Soluble endoglin, an auxiliary receptor for transforming growth factor (TGF)-β ligands, is increased in PE circulation and believed to inhibit TGF-β action by sequestering the ligands. However, soluble endoglin, with a low affinity to TGF-β ligands, has been demonstrated to have little effect by itself on TGF-β action. We examined whether multiple soluble TGF-β receptors are elevated in PE circulation and whether they synergistically block TGF-β signaling. TGF-β receptors were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera collected from preeclamptic pregnancies and gestation-age-matched controls. TGF-β signaling was assessed using an in vitro bioassay and a tube formation assay. TGF-β type I, II, and III receptors were all identified in pregnant serum; all were substantially elevated in early-onset but not late-onset PE. Endoglin was increased in both subtypes. At the greatest concentrations detected in PE, none of these soluble TGF-β receptors alone, including endoglin, inhibited TGF-β signaling. However, when all four soluble receptors were present, signaling of both TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 was substantially reduced. Removal of any one of these soluble receptors alleviated TGF-β1 inhibition; however, removal of soluble TGFβRIII was necessary to relieve TGF-β2 inhibition. Multiple soluble TGF-β receptors are present in pregnant circulation and elevated in early-onset PE; they synergistically inhibit TGF-β signaling, which might be more likely to occur in early-onset than late-onset PE. Reducing soluble TGFβRIII, rather than endoglin, would be more effective in alleviating the inhibition of both TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 signaling in PE.

  9. Regulation of hepcidin: insights from biochemical analyses on human serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemna, Erwin H J M; Kartikasari, April E R; van Tits, Lambertus J H; Pickkers, Peter; Tjalsma, Harold; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of hepcidin regulation is foremost gained by in vitro studies. We aimed to translate this knowledge into the human in vivo situation. Therefore, we measured serum markers as transferrin saturation (TS), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in parallel with hepcidin and prohepcidin in patients with iron metabolism disorders and controls. To assess sTfR as erythropoietic activity-associated factor in hepcidin regulation, we studied its influence on hepcidin expression in HepG2 cells. Results showed that sTfR highly associates with erythropoietic activity that strongly interfered with the iron store regulation of hepcidin. HepG2 expression results display an inverse association between hepcidin and sTfR. Inflammation was strongly related to increased hepcidin levels regardless of the iron store and erythropoietic activity status. In contrast, prohepcidin failed to correlate to any other parameter. In conclusion, these studies verify that previous conclusions based on in vitro studies on hepcidin regulation are also likely to apply to human patients. This is underscored by a simple algorithm, based on parameters reflecting the main regulating pathways, that accurately predict the actual measured hepcidin levels. Future studies are needed to validate the combined utility of this predictive algorithm together with actual measured hepcidin levels in clinical diagnosis.

  10. Endocrine control of canine mammary neoplasms: serum reproductive hormone levels and tissue expression of steroid hormone, prolactin and growth hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerri, Michèle; Guscetti, Franco; Hartnack, Sonja; Boos, Alois; Oei, Christine; Balogh, Orsolya; Nowaczyk, Renata M; Michel, Erika; Reichler, Iris M; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2015-09-15

    Neoplasms of the mammary gland are among the most common diseases in female domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). It is assumed that reproductive hormones influence tumorigenesis in this species, although the precise role of the endocrine milieu and reproductive state is subject to continuing discussion. In line with this, a recent systematic review of available data on the development of mammary neoplasms revealed weak evidence for risk reduction after neutering and an effect of age at neutering. Investigation of several hormone receptors has revealed decreased expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα, ESR1), progesterone (P4) receptor (PGR), prolactin (PRL) receptor (PRLR) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) associated with neoplastic differentiation of mammary tissues. In other studies, increased levels of estrogens, progesterone and prolactin were found in serum and/or tissue homogenates of dogs with malignant neoplasms. However, the association between these entities within one animal population was never previously examined. Therefore, this study investigated the association between circulating serum concentrations of estradiol-17β, progesterone and prolactin, and gene expression of ERα (ESR1), ERβ (ESR2), PGR, PRLR, PRL and GHR, with respect to reproductive state (spayed vs. intact) and cycle stage (anestrus vs. diestrus). Additionally, the expression of E-cadherin (CDH-1) was evaluated as a possible indicator of metastatic potential. For all receptors, the lowest gene expression was found in malignant tumors compared to normal tissues of affected dogs. Steroid levels were not influenced by their corresponding receptor expression in mammary neoplasms, but increased PRL levels were negatively associated with low PRLR gene expression in malignant tumors. The expression of CDH-1 was influenced by tumor malignancy and cycle stage, i.e., the highest gene expression was found in benign mammary tumors in diestrous dogs compared to normal and malignant mammary

  11. CD8+CD28-lymphocytes in peripheral blood and serum concentrations of soluble interleukin 6 receptor are increased in patients with Graves' orbitopathy and correlate with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowik, Miroslaw; Urbaniak-Kujda, Donata; Bohdanowicz-Pawlak, Anna; Kapelko-Slowik, Katarzyna; Dybko, Jaroslaw; Wolowiec, Dariusz; Jazwiec, Bozena; Daroszewski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    The extrathyroid, orbital manifestation of Graves' disease (GD)--Graves' orbitopathy (GO)--presents a difficult clinical problem. The immunological status of GO patients is still under investigation. The aim of this study was to assess the serum concentration of interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble interleukin 6 receptor (sIL-6R), and CD8+CD28- lymphocytes in GO patients and to evaluate if these parameters were associated with disease activity. Thirty-nine patients (29 women and 10 men, aged 24-71, mean 50.18) with newly diagnosed GD were enrolled in the study. Active GO was diagnosed in 20 patients. The control group included 12 healthy individuals. Serum concentrations of IL-6 and sIL-6R were estimated by ELISA. Percentages of CD8+CD28- lymphocytes in peripheral blood were assessed by flow cytometry. Mean serum IL-6 and sIL-6R concentrations were significantly higher in all GD patients and in GO and non-GO patients than in normal controls. In all GD patients and the non-GO group, serum IL-6 and sIL-6R concentrations were significantly reduced after efficient treatment. In GO patients, only serum sIL-6R concentration was significantly lower after efficient treatment. In all GD patients, the mean percentage of CD8+CD28- lymphocytes was significantly lower after efficient treatment. In GO patients, the mean percentage of CD8+CD28- lymphocytes was significantly higher than in the non-GO group or in normals. Moreover, in the GO group, the mean percentage of CD8+CD28- lymphocytes was significantly lower after treatment. Our results have shown that CD8+CD28- lymphocyte percentage in peripheral blood and serum concentration of sIL-6R are increased in GO patients and correlate with disease activity.

  12. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense group 1 is distinguished by a unique amino acid substitution in the HpHb receptor implicated in human serum resistance.

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    Rebecca E Symula

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (Tbr and T. b. gambiense (Tbg, causative agents of Human African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness in Africa, have evolved alternative mechanisms of resisting the activity of trypanosome lytic factors (TLFs, components of innate immunity in human serum that protect against infection by other African trypanosomes. In Tbr, lytic activity is suppressed by the Tbr-specific serum-resistance associated (SRA protein. The mechanism in Tbg is less well understood but has been hypothesized to involve altered activity and expression of haptoglobin haemoglobin receptor (HpHbR. HpHbR has been shown to facilitate internalization of TLF-1 in T.b. brucei (Tbb, a member of the T. brucei species complex that is susceptible to human serum. By evaluating the genetic variability of HpHbR in a comprehensive geographical and taxonomic context, we show that a single substitution that replaces leucine with serine at position 210 is conserved in the most widespread form of Tbg (Tbg group 1 and not found in related taxa, which are either human serum susceptible (Tbb or known to resist lysis via an alternative mechanism (Tbr and Tbg group 2. We hypothesize that this single substitution contributes to reduced uptake of TLF and thus may play a key role in conferring serum resistance to Tbg group 1. In contrast, similarity in HpHbR sequence among isolates of Tbg group 2 and Tbb/Tbr provides further evidence that human serum resistance in Tbg group 2 is likely independent of HpHbR function.

  13. Transferrin serves as a mediator to deliver organometallic ruthenium(II) anticancer complexes into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Luo, Qun; Li, Xianchan; Zhao, Yao; Xiong, Shaoxiang; Wang, Fuyi

    2013-05-06

    We report herein a systematic study on interactions of organometallic ruthenium(II) anticancer complex [(η(6)-arene)Ru(en)Cl](+) (arene = p-cymene (1) or biphenyl (2), en = ethylenediamine) with human transferrin (hTf) and the effects of the hTf-ligation on the bioavailability of these complexes with cisplatin as a reference. Incubated with a 5-fold excess of complex 1, 2, or cisplatin, 1 mol of diferric hTf (holo-hTf) attached 0.62 mol of 1, 1.01 mol of 2, or 2.14 mol of cisplatin. Mass spectrometry revealed that both ruthenium complexes coordinated to N-donors His242, His273, His578, and His606, whereas cisplatin bound to O donors Tyr136 and Tyr317 and S-donor Met256 in addition to His273 and His578 on the surface of both apo- and holo-hTf. Moreover, cisplatin could bind to Thr457 within the C-lobe iron binding cleft of apo-hTf. Neither ruthenium nor platinum binding interfered with the recognition of holo-hTf by the transferrin receptor (TfR). The ruthenated/platinated holo-hTf complexes could be internalized via TfR-mediated endocytosis at a similar rate to that of holo-hTf itself. Moreover, the binding to holo-hTf well preserved the bioavailability of the ruthenium complexes, and the hTf-bound 1 and 2 showed a similar cytotoxicity toward the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 to those of the complexes themselves. However, the conjugation with holo-hTf significantly reduced the cellular uptake of cisplatin and the amount of platinated DNA adducts formed intracellularly, leading to dramatic reduction of cisplatin cytotoxicity toward MCF-7. These findings suggest that hTf can serve as a mediator for the targeting delivery of Ru(arene) anticancer complexes while deactivating cisplatin.

  14. Serum testosterone levels and androgen receptor CAG polymorphism correlate with hepatitis B virus (HBV-related acute liver failure in male HBV carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Yan Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Augmentation of androgen/androgen receptor (AR pathway may influence chronic hepatitis B (CHB more likely in males. AR activity is modulated by a polymorphic CAG repeat sequence in AR exon 1. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum testosterone levels, CAG repeat numbers and hepatitis B virus (HBV-related acute liver failure (ALF. METHODS: Three hundred and seventy eight male CHB patients with ALF and 441 asymptomatic HBV carriers (AsCs were recruited. AR CAG repeats numbers were analyzed. The serum testosterone levels of AsCs, ALFs and patients with hepatitis B flare groups, and sequential serum samples, were assessed quantitatively. RESULTS: The median CAG repeat (M-CAG frequency was significantly higher in ALF patients than AsCs (P<0.001. Patients with M-CAG alleles (P<0.001, OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.1-4.2 had the highest risk for ALF. Serum testosterone levels were significantly higher (P<0.001 at hepatitis flare point (8.2 ± 3.0 ng/mL than inactive phase (6.4 ± 2.0 ng/mL. CHB (8.30 ± 2.71 ng/mL, P = 7.6 × 10(-6 and ALF group (2.61 ± 1.83 ng/mL, P = 1.7 × 10(-17 had significantly different levels of testosterone in comparison with AsCs group (6.56 ± 2.36 ng/mL. The serum testosterone levels sharply decreased from hepatitis flare phase to liver failure phase, and tended to be normal at the recovery phase. Male AsCs with M-CAG alleles had significantly lower serum testosterone levels (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: There was a serum testosterone fluctuation during hepatitis B flare and HBV-related ALF, and the median CAG repeats in AR gene exon 1 were associated with lower serum testosterone levels in asymptomatic HBV carriers and an increased susceptibility to HBV-related ALF.

  15. Relationship between serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and epidermal growth factor receptor mutations with the influence on the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai ZX

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zuxun Cai Department of Thoracic Surgery, Henan Provincial Chest Hospital, Zhengzhou City, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA level and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients and to analyze the influence of CEA level on postoperative survival time in lung cancer patients. Methods: A total of 296 patients who were treated in Thoracic Surgery Department of Henan Provincial Chest Hospital from September 2011 to September 2013 were recruited. The level of tumor markers, such as CEA, was determined before the surgery, and EGFR gene mutations were detected after surgery. Thereby, the relationship between tumor makers, including CEA, and EGFR mutation and its influence on prognosis could be investigated. Results: Among 296 patients, the positive rate of EGFR gene mutation was 37.84% (112/296; the mutation occurred more frequently in nonsmokers, adenocarcinoma patients, women, and patients aged <60 years (P<0.05. Both tumor markers and chemosensitivity indicators were related to the profile of EGFR mutations. Elevated squamous cell carcinoma and Cyfra21-1 as well as positively expressed ERCC1 were more common in patients with wild-type EGFR (P<0.05, whereas increased CEA level was observed more frequently in patients with EGFR gene mutation (P=0.012. The positive rate of EGFR gene mutations was higher as the serum CEA level increased, that is, the positive rate in patients with serum CEA level <5, 5–20, and >20 µg/L was 39.81%, 45.32%, and 65.47%, respectively (P=0.004. Logistic regression analysis showed that CEA level was an independent factor in predicting EGFR gene mutations, and serum CEA level was also an independent factor in affecting the prognosis of NSCLC patients, as the overall 2-year survival rate was 73.86% in elevated CEA group and 86.43% in normal group (P<0.01. Conclusion: The prognosis of

  16. Serum calcium and the calcium-sensing receptor polymorphism rs17251221 in relation to coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and mortality: the Tromsø Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, Rolf; Schirmer, Henrik; Njølstad, Inger; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Bøgeberg Mathiesen, Ellisiv; Kamycheva, Elena; Figenschau, Yngve; Grimnes, Guri

    2013-07-01

    Serum calcium measured in 27,158 subjects in 1994 and the calcium-sensing receptor polymorphism rs17251221 genotyped in 9,404 subjects were related to cardiovascular risk factors, incident myocardial infarction (MI), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cancer and death during follow-up until 2008-2010. In a Cox regression model with adjustment for age, gender, smoking and body mass index, subjects with serum calcium 2.50-2.60 mmol/L had a significantly increased risk of incident MI [n = 1,802, hazards ratio (HR) 1.40, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.18, 1.66] and T2DM (n = 705, HR 1.49, 95 % CI 1.15, 1.94) and a significantly reduced risk of cancer (n = 2,222, HR 0.73, 95 % CI 0.62, 0.86) as compared to subjects with serum calcium 2.20-2.29 mmol/L. For rs17251221 there was a mean difference in serum calcium of 0.05 mmol/L between major and minor homozygote genotypes. No consistent, significant relation between rs17251221 and risk factors or the major hard endpoints were found. The minor homozygote genotype (high serum calcium) had a significant twofold increased risk (HR 2.32, 95 % CI 1.24, 4.36) for prostate cancer, as compared to the major homozygote. This may be clinically important if confirmed in other cohorts.

  17. Noninvasive 89Zr-Transferrin PET Shows Improved Tumor Targeting Compared with 18F-FDG PET in MYC-Overexpressing Human Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kelly E; Dilling, Thomas R; Abdel-Atti, Dalya; Edwards, Kimberly J; Evans, Michael J; Lewis, Jason S

    2018-01-01

    The current standard for breast PET imaging is 18F-FDG. The heterogeneity of 18F-FDG uptake in breast cancer limits its utility, varying greatly among receptor status, histopathologic subtypes, and proliferation markers. 18F-FDG PET often exhibits nonspecific internalization and low specificity and sensitivity, especially with tumors smaller than 1 cm3 MYC is a protein involved in oncogenesis and is overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Increased surface expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) is a downstream event of MYC upregulation and has been validated as a clinically relevant target for molecular imaging. Transferrin labeled with 89Zr has successfully identified MYC status in many cancer subtypes preclinically and been shown to predict response and changes in oncogene status via treatment with small-molecule inhibitors that target MYC and PI3K signaling pathways. We hypothesized that 89Zr-transferrin PET will noninvasively detect MYC and TfR and improve upon the current standard of 18F-FDG PET for MYC-overexpressing TNBC. Methods: In this study, 89Zr-transferrin and 18F-FDG imaging were compared in preclinical models of TNBC. TNBC cells (MDA-MB-157, MDA-MB-231, and Hs578T) were treated with bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) inhibitors JQ1 and OTX015 (0.5-1 μM). Cell proliferation, gene expression, and protein expression were assayed to explore the effects of these inhibitors on MYC and TfR. Results: Head-to-head comparison showed that 89Zr-transferrin targets TNBC tumors significantly better (P PET imaging and biodistribution studies in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 xenografts and a patient-derived xenograft model of TNBC. c-Myc and TfR gene expression was decreased upon treatment with BRD4 inhibitors and c-MYC small interfering RNA (P PET imaging and biodistribution studies. 89Zr-transferrin is a useful tool to interrogate MYC via TfR-targeted PET imaging in TNBC. © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  18. Low Levels of Serum Soluble Receptors for Advanced Glycation End Products, Biomarkers for Disease State: Myth or Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Kailash

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) interact with the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) on the membrane and induce deleterious effects via activation of nuclear factor kappa-B, and increased oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators. AGEs also combine with circulating soluble receptors (endogenous secretory RAGE [esRAGE] and soluble receptor for RAGE [sRAGE]) and sequester RAGE ligands and act as a cytoprotective agent. esRAGE is secreted from the cells and is a spliced variant of RAGE. The sRAGE...

  19. The effect of glycosylation on the transferrin structure: A molecular dynamic simulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Z; Housaindokht, M R; Bozorgmehr, M R; Izadyar, M

    2016-09-07

    Transferrins have been defined by the highly cooperative binding of iron and a carbonate anion to form a Fe-CO3-Tf ternary complex. As such, the layout of the binding site residues affects transferrin function significantly; In contrast to N-lobe, C-lobe binding site of the transferrin structure has been less characterized and little research which surveyed the interaction of carbonate with transferrin in the C-lobe binding site has been found. In the present work, molecular dynamic simulation was employed to gain access into the molecular level understanding of carbonate binding site and their interactions in each lobe. Residues responsible for carbonate binding of transferrin structure were pointed out. In addition, native human transferrin is a glycoprotein that two N-linked complex glycan chains located in the C-lobe. Usually, in the molecular dynamic simulation for simplifying, glycan is removed from the protein structure. Here, we explore the effect of glycosylation on the transferrin structure. Glycosylation appears to have an effect on the layout of the binding site residue and transferrin structure. On the other hand, sometimes the entire transferrin formed by separated lobes that it allows the results to be interpreted in a straightforward manner rather than more parameters required for full length protein. But, it should be noted that there are differences between the separated lobe and full length transferrin, hence, a comparative analysis by the molecular dynamic simulation was performed to investigate such structural variations. Results revealed that separation in C-lobe caused a significant structural variation in comparison to N-lobe. Consequently, the separated lobes and the full length one are different, showing the importance of the interlobe communication and the impact of the lobes on each other in the transferrin structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-α and its soluble receptors in the serum of teenagers with atherosclerosis risk factors: obesity or obesity combined with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchowicz, Anna; Kniażewska, Maria; Zmudzińska-Kitczak, Joanna; Urban, Katarzyna; Gonciarz-Majda, Anna

    2014-11-01

    Obesity and hypertension are recognised risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis. It has not been proven whether their co-existence increases the synthesis of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and what the levels of soluble receptors of this cytokine (sTNF-R) are. This study is aimed to investigate whether there exists a relationship between TNF-α and sTNF-R concentrations in blood serum with the occurrence of obesity or obesity combined with primary hypertension in teenagers. 68 persons, aged 9-17, including 32 persons with primary obesity (Group I) and 36 with primary obesity combined with primary hypertension (Group II). TNF-α (pg/mL) and sTNF-R (ng/mL) concentrations were determined in serum samples using the ELISA method with sets of reagents manufactured by Bender Med Systems GmbH. No significant differences in TNF-α, sTNF-R, glucose or insulin concentrations were found between Group I and Group II. These concentrations were not correlated with the age and the nutritional status of the patients or with each other in either of the groups. Both obese teenagers and teenagers exhibiting obesity combined with hypertension (as two atherosclerosis risk factors) are characterised by comparable concentrations of TNF-α and its soluble receptors.

  1. Serum vitamin D levels of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and expression of vitamin D receptor in oral precancerous lesions and OSCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Martin; Cetindis, Marcel; Biegner, Thorsten; Lehman, Max; Munz, Adelheid; Teriete, Peter; Reinert, Siegmar

    2015-03-01

    Resistance to programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a crucial factor for the carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Vitamin D (calcitriol) may overcome apoptosis resistance in tumor cells of OSCC. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression in oral precancerous lesions of OSCC has not been analyzed and serum vitamin D level seems to be a predictor of cancer development. Expression of VDR was analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen (n=42) by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Moreover, serum vitamin D levels were measured by 25(OH)D3 (calcidiol) in patients with OSCC (n=42) and correlated with IHC results. Expression of VDR was significantly increased in precancerous and OSCC compared with normal tissue. Compared with SIN I-III lesions VDR expression significantly decreased in OSCC. Severe vitamin D deficiency was detected in our OSCC patient cohort but there was no significant correlation analyzed between serum vitamin D levels and corresponding immunohistochemically detected VDR expression in OSCC. Our survey provides the first evidence of VDR expression in precancerous lesions of OSCC. Apoptosis induction of VDR+ cells in oral precancerous lesions and OSCC by natural vitamin D or synthetic vitamin D compounds could be useful for chemoprevention. Moreover, systemically and/or locally applied, these compounds may act as sensitizers for apoptosis mediated by radio-, and chemotherapy treatment in OSCC.

  2. Comparison of colorimetry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy for the quantification of non-transferrin bound iron in human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittangprasert, Piyada; Wilairat, Prapin; Pootrakul, Pensri

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes a comparison of two analytical techniques, one employing bathophenanthrolinedisulfonate (BPT), a most commonly-used reagent for Fe (II) determination, as chromogen and an electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS) for the quantification of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) in sera from thalassemic patients. Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) was employed as the ligand for binding iron from low molecular weight iron complexes present in the serum but without removing iron from the transferrin protein. After ultrafiltration the Fe (III)-NTA complex was then quantified by both methods. Kinetic study of the rate of the Fe (II)-BPT complex formation for various excess amounts of NTA ligand was also carried out. The kinetic data show that a minimum time duration (> 60 minutes) is necessary for complete complex formation when large excess of NTA is used. Calibration curves given by colorimetric and ETAAS methods were linear over the range of 0.15-20 microM iron (III). The colorimetric and ETAAS methods exhibited detection limit (3sigma) of 0.13 and 0.14 microM, respectively. The NTBI concentrations from 55 thalassemic serum samples measured employing BPT as chromogen were statistically compared with the results determined by ETAAS. No significant disagreement at 95% confidence level was observed. It is, therefore, possible to select any one of these two techniques for determination of NTBI in serum samples of thalassemic patients. However, the colorimetric procedure requires a longer analysis time because of a slow rate of exchange of NTA ligand with BPT, leading to the slow rate of formation of the colored complex.

  3. Fetal bovine serum and human constitutive androstane receptor: Evidence for activation of the SV23 splice variant by artemisinin, artemether, and arteether in a serum-free cell culture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Aik Jiang; Chang, Thomas K.H., E-mail: thomas.chang@ubc.ca

    2014-06-01

    The naturally occurring SV23 splice variant of human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR-SV23) is activated by di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), which is detected as a contaminant in fetal bovine serum (FBS). In our initial experiment, we compared the effect of dialyzed FBS, charcoal-stripped, dextran-treated FBS (CS-FBS), and regular FBS on the basal activity and ligand-activation of hCAR-SV23 in a cell-based reporter gene assay. In transfected HepG2 cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% FBS, basal hCAR-SV23 activity varied with the type of FBS (regular > dialyzed > CS). DEHP increased hCAR-SV23 activity when 10% CS-FBS, but not regular FBS or dialyzed FBS, was used. With increasing concentrations (1–10%) of regular FBS or CS-FBS, hCAR-SV23 basal activity increased, whereas in DEHP-treated cells, hCAR-SV23 activity remained similar (regular FBS) or slightly increased (CS-FBS). Subsequent experiments identified a serum-free culture condition to detect DEHP activation of hCAR-SV23. Under this condition, artemisinin, artemether, and arteether increased hCAR-SV23 activity, whereas they decreased it in cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% regular FBS. By comparison, FBS increased the basal activity of the wild-type isoform of hCAR (hCAR-WT), whereas it did not affect the basal activity of the SV24 splice variant (hCAR-SV24) or ligand activation of hCAR-SV24 and hCAR-WT by 6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime (CITCO). The use of serum-free culture condition was suitable for detecting CITCO activation of hCAR-WT and hCAR-SV24. In conclusion, FBS leads to erroneous classification of pharmacological ligands of hCAR-SV23 in cell-based assays, but investigations on functional ligands of hCAR isoforms can be conducted in serum-free culture condition. - Highlights: • FBS leads to erroneous pharmacological classification of hCAR-SV23 ligands. • Artemisinin, artemether, and arteether activate h

  4. Transferrin synthesis is increased in nephrotic patients insufficiently to replace urinary losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, BHCMT; De Sain-Van der Velden, MGM; Kaysen, GA; Straver, HWHC; Van Rijn, HJM; Stellaard, F; Berger, R; Rabelink, TJ

    The urinary loss of transferrin is sufficient to reduce plasma transferrin concentrations in the nephrotic syndrome. Hypotransferrinemia may lead to iron loss and microcytic anemia. The mechanism responsible for the hypotransferrinemia in the nephrotic syndrome is, however, unknown. In the present

  5. Transferrin variation and evolution of Canadian barren-ground caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut H. Røed

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were obtained from 95 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus of the Beverly herd in Northwest Territories, Canada. Polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis was used to score for genetic variation in the locus coding for transferrin. The pattern of allele frequency distribution are compared with previously reported values of Eurasian tundra reindeer (R.t. tarandus, Alaska caribou (R.t. granti, Peary caribou (R.t. pearyi, and Svalbard reindeer (R.t. platyrhynchus. In the Beverly herd a total of 21 different transferrin alleles were detected. The amount of genetic variation was higher in the Canadian barren-ground caribou than what has been detected in other subspecies of reindeer/caribou. Highly gene-tical differences in the allele frequencies were detected between the Canadian barren-ground caribou and the other subspecies. The genetic identity analyses indicates approximately the same amount of genetic differentiation when the Canadian barren-ground caribou are compared with Alaska caribou as with the Peary caribou. The allele frequency pattern could be explained by a possible origin of the Canadian barren-ground caribou from an ancestral population which was genetical influenced by animals surviving the We-ichselian glaciation in refugia both in high Arctic, in Beringia, and south of the ice sheet.

  6. Relationship between circulating serum osteoprotegerin and total receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand levels, triglycerides, and coronary calcification in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poornima, Indu G; Mackey, Rachel H; Buhari, Alhaji M; Cauley, Jane A; Matthews, Karen A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluates the relationship of blood osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand (RANKL) levels with coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cardiovascular risk factors in two studies of postmenopausal women. OPG, a marker of bone turnover, and its ligand, RANKL, may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. We tested the hypothesis that serum OPG and RANKL levels were associated with CAC and cardiovascular disease risk factors among postmenopausal women in the Women On the Move through Activity and Nutrition Study (WOMAN Study; n = 86; mean [SD], age 58 [2.9] y) and replicated our findings in the Healthy Women Study (HWS; n = 205; mean [SD] age, 61 [2.3] y). Serum OPG, total RANKL, and CAC were measured at baseline and 48 months in the WOMAN Study and on the eighth postmenopausal visit in the HWS. In the WOMAN Study, higher OPG was associated with higher CAC, and higher total RANKL was associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In the HWS, higher total RANKL was also associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In logistic regression models adjusted for body mass index and triglycerides, the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in OPG were 1.78 (1.17-2.73) for the WOMAN Study and 1.02 (0.84-1.24) for the HWS, and the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in log total RANKL were 0.86 (0.64-1.17) for the WOMAN Study and 0.83 (0.72-0.96) for the HWS. The inverse association of total RANKL with CAC and triglycerides is a new finding and may have important implications given the increasing use of drugs that modify total RANKL and its receptor, receptor activator of nuclear κ-B.

  7. Risk Factors Associated with Serum Levels of the Inflammatory Biomarker Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor in a General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haupt, Thomas H; Kallemose, Thomas; Ladelund, Steen

    2014-01-01

    .001). An unhealthy diet and alcohol abstinence in men were also associated with higher suPAR levels. Physical activity in leisure time had a modest impact on suPAR levels in univariate analysis, but not in the final adjusted model. In conclusion, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher serum...

  8. Mathematical modeling of mutant transferrin-CRM107 molecular conjugates for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dennis J; Chen, Kevin Y; Lopes, André M; Pan, April A; Shiloach, Joseph; Mason, Anne B; Kamei, Daniel T

    2017-03-07

    The transferrin (Tf) trafficking pathway is a promising mechanism for use in targeted cancer therapy due to the overexpression of transferrin receptors (TfRs) on cancerous cells. We have previously developed a mathematical model of the Tf/TfR trafficking pathway to improve the efficiency of Tf as a drug carrier. By using diphtheria toxin (DT) as a model toxin, we found that mutating the Tf protein to change its iron release rate improves cellular association and efficacy of the drug. Though this is an improvement upon using wild-type Tf as the targeting ligand, conjugated toxins like DT are unfortunately still highly cytotoxic at off-target sites. In this work, we address this hurdle in cancer research by developing a mathematical model to predict the efficacy and selectivity of Tf conjugates that use an alternative toxin. For this purpose, we have chosen to study a mutant of DT, cross-reacting material 107 (CRM107). First, we developed a mathematical model of the Tf-DT trafficking pathway by extending our Tf/TfR model to include intracellular trafficking via DT and DT receptors. Using this mathematical model, we subsequently investigated the efficacy of several conjugates in cancer cells: DT and CRM107 conjugated to wild-type Tf, as well as to our engineered mutant Tf proteins (K206E/R632A Tf and K206E/R534A Tf). We also investigated the selectivity of mutant Tf-CRM107 against non-neoplastic cells. Through the use of our mathematical model, we predicted that (i) mutant Tf-CRM107 exhibits a greater cytotoxicity than wild-type Tf-CRM107 against cancerous cells, (ii) this improvement was more drastic with CRM107 conjugates than with DT conjugates, and (iii) mutant Tf-CRM107 conjugates were selective against non-neoplastic cells. These predictions were validated with in vitro cytotoxicity experiments, demonstrating that mutant Tf-CRM107 conjugates is indeed a more suitable therapeutic agent. Validation from in vitro experiments also confirmed that such whole

  9. High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) and serum soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) in children affected by vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Anna Maria; Zicari, Alessandra; Nebbioso, Marcella; Mari, Emanuela; Celani, Camilla; Lollobrigida, Valeria; Cesoni Marcelli, Azzurra; Occasi, Francesca; Duse, Marzia

    2014-02-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic disease affecting conjunctiva even though the immunopathogenetic mechanisms underlying this inflammation are unclear. The aim of our study is to investigate serum levels of HMGB1 and circulating sRAGE in children affected by VKC before and after treatment with cyclosporine A (CsA) eye drops and in a group of healthy children. Twenty-four children affected by VKC aged between 5 and 12 yrs of life were enrolled at the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, 'Sapienza' University of Rome. Twenty-four healthy children without atopy, ocular, and systemic disease, cross-matched for sex and age to patients affected by VKC, represented the controls. All children affected by VKC were treated with CsA 1% eye drops for 4 wks, and blood samples were collected before and 2 wks after the end of treatment while the controls underwent to a single blood sample at the time of enrollment. Serum basal levels of HMGB1 and sRAGE were higher in children with VKC when compared with controls while, in patients affected by VKC, no difference was detected between atopic and non-atopic, and between ANA-positive and ANA-negative children. A significant reduction in serum HMGB1 and sRAGE levels was detected after the therapy while CsA serum levels were negative. Our study gives a support to the definition of VKC as a systemic inflammation in which HMGB1 and its soluble receptors could play a role. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A novel transferrin/TfR2-mediated mitochondrial iron transport system is disrupted in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroberardino, Pier Giorgio; Hoffman, Eric K; Horowitz, Maxx P; Betarbet, Ranjita; Taylor, Georgia; Cheng, Dongmei; Na, Hye Mee; Gutekunst, Claire-Anne; Gearing, Marla; Trojanowski, John Q; Anderson, Marjorie; Chu, Charleen T; Peng, Junmin; Greenamyre, J Timothy

    2009-06-01

    More than 80 years after iron accumulation was initially described in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are still unknown. Similarly, how iron is delivered to its major recipients in the cell - mitochondria and the respiratory complexes - has yet to be elucidated. Here, we report a novel transferrin/transferrin receptor 2 (Tf/TfR2)-mediated iron transport pathway in mitochondria of SN dopamine neurons. We found that TfR2 has a previously uncharacterized mitochondrial targeting sequence that is sufficient to import the protein into these organelles. Importantly, the Tf/TfR2 pathway can deliver Tf bound iron to mitochondria and to the respiratory complex I as well. The pathway is redox-sensitive and oxidation of Tf thiols to disulfides induces release from Tf of highly reactive ferrous iron, which contributes to free radical production. In the rotenone model of PD, Tf accumulates in dopamine neurons, with much of it accumulating in the mitochondria. This is associated with iron deposition in SN, similar to what occurs in PD. In the human SN, TfR2 is also found in mitochondria of dopamine neurons, and in PD there is a dramatic increase of oxidized Tf in SN. Thus, we have discovered a novel mitochondrial iron transport system that goes awry in PD, and which may provide a new target for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Predictive value of soluble haemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 serum levels for survival in verified tuberculosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T B; Gustafson, P; Kronborg, G

    2005-01-01

    Pre-treatment serum levels of sCD163 were measured in a cohort of 236 suspected tuberculosis (TB) cases from Guinea-Bissau, with a median follow-up period of 3.3 years (range 0-6.4 years). In 113 cases, the diagnosis of TB was verified by positive sputum microscopy and/or culture. Among the verif......Pre-treatment serum levels of sCD163 were measured in a cohort of 236 suspected tuberculosis (TB) cases from Guinea-Bissau, with a median follow-up period of 3.3 years (range 0-6.4 years). In 113 cases, the diagnosis of TB was verified by positive sputum microscopy and/or culture. Among...

  12. First trimester serum levels of the soluble transcobalamin receptor, holo-transcobalamin, and total transcobalamin in relation to preeclampsia risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abuyaman, Omar; Torring, Niels; Obeid, Rima

    2016-01-01

    transcobalamin (TC) with the risk of subsequent preeclampsia using serum samples from asymptomatic first trimester pregnant women. Moreover, we aimed to establish reference intervals of the aforementioned biomarkers for first trimester pregnant women who remained healthy throughout pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN...... preeclampsia while the controls remained normotensive throughout pregnancy. We measured the serum concentration of sCD320, holoTC, and total TC by using in-house ELISA methods. RESULTS: First trimester median concentrations of sCD320, holoTC and total TC were not significantly different between cases...... and controls. The odd ratio for developing preeclampsia based on exposure to low or high levels of sCD320, holoTC or total TC at first trimester was not significant. The reference intervals (2.5-97.5% percentiles (median)) derived from the controls were 50-170 (90) pmol\\L for sCD320, 20-140 (70) pmol...

  13. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), lymphotoxin and TNF receptor levels in serum from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónasdóttir, O; Petersen, J; Bendtzen, K

    2001-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a systemic inflammatory disease with vasculitis as the key feature. Abnormal expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is considered of prime pathogenic importance in several inflammatory diseases. The effects of TNFa are mediated by TNF receptors (TNF...

  14. Receptor research on xenohormone effects of human serum extracts containing the actual mixture of perfluorinated alkyl acids: a short review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Olesen, Christian; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    risk of breast cancer and other adverse health effects such as lower birth weight and longer time to pregnancy which might be related to disruptions of various hormonal systems. For instance, direct cell exposure studies in vitro suggest that some PFAAs can transactivate the estrogen receptor (ER...

  15. Enhanced discrimination of benign from malignant prostatic disease by selective measurements of cleaved forms of urokinase receptor in serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piironen, Timo; Haese, Alexander; Huland, Hartwig

    2006-01-01

    PAR(II-III) were higher in PCa than in benign disease. In men with tPSA between 2 and 10 microg/L, the combination of %fPSA with the ratio uPAR(I)/uPAR(I-III) had a greater area under the ROC curve (0.73) than did %fPSA (0.68). CONCLUSIONS: Specific measurements of different uPAR forms in serum improve...

  16. A Molecular Dynamics Approach to Ligand-Receptor Interaction in the Aspirin-Human Serum Albumin Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, H. Ariel; McCarthy, Andrés N.; Grigera, J. Raúl

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a study of the interaction between human serum albumin (HSA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, C9H8O4) by molecular dynamics simulations (MD). Starting from an experimentally resolved structure of the complex, we performed the extraction of the ligand by means of the application of an external force. After stabilization of the system, we quantified the force used to remove the ASA from its specific site of binding to HSA and calculated the mechanical nonequilibrium exter...

  17. Transferrin-conjugated polymeric nanomedicine to enhance the anticancer efficacy of edelfosine in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Sun, Zhong-Liang

    2016-10-01

    In this study, transferrin (Tf)-conjugated polyethylene glycol (PEG)-poly-l-lysine (PLL)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (PEG-PLL-PLGA)-based micellar formulations were successfully prepared for the delivery of edelfosine (EDS) in leukemia treatment. The micelles were nanosized and presented spherical shaped particles. Our in vitro data suggest that the nanoformulations maintain the biological activity of drugs for longer periods and lead to a continuous release of active drug. The enhanced cellular uptake of EDS-TM resulted in significantly higher cytotoxic effect in K562 leukemia cells. Cell cycle analysis further demonstrated the significantly higher G2/M phase arrest of cancer cells. Immunoblot analysis clearly revealed the potential of EDS-TM in inducing apoptosis of cancer cells which could improve the anticancer efficacy in leukemia. Importantly, EDS-M and EDS-TM significantly prolonged the circulation profile of EDS throughout until 24h, indicating the potential of targeted nanoparticulate delivery system. The prolonged blood circulation potential of micellar formulations might improve the therapeutic potential of drug by increasing its bioavailability in the serum. It would be worthwhile evaluating the effects of the EDS-loaded micelles on cancer cells in vivo for clinical application. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Immune response to dna vaccine expressing transferrin binding protein a gene of Pasteurella multocida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satparkash Singh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS, an acute and fatal disease of cattle and buffalo is primarily caused by serotype B:2 or E:2 of Pasteurella multocida. The transferrin binding protein A (TbpA has been found to act as immunogen and potent vaccine candidate in various Gram negative bacteria including P. multocida. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of this antigen as a DNA vaccine against HS in mice model. The tbpA gene of P. multocida serotype B:2 was cloned in a mammalian expression vector alone and along with murine IL2 gene as immunological adjuvant to produce monocistronic and bicistronic DNA vaccine constructs, respectively. The immune response to DNA vaccines was evaluated based on serum antibody titres and lymphocyte proliferation assay. A significant increase in humoral and cell mediated immune responses was observed in mice vaccinated with DNA vaccines as compared to non immunized group. Additionally, the bicistronic DNA vaccine provided superior immune response and protection level following challenge as compared to monocistronic construct. The study revealed that DNA vaccine presents a promising approach for the prevention of HS.

  19. First objective association between elevated carbohydrate-deficient transferrin concentrations and alcohol-related traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, Federica; Micciolo, Rocco; Canal, Luisa; Tagliaro, Franco

    2015-11-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a well-recognized highly specific marker of chronic alcohol abuse. The association of CDT with alcohol-related traffic accidents was evaluated to objectively validate the use of this marker for certifying the physical fitness for driving license regranting after its confiscation for drunk driving. The study was carried out on 468 injured drivers (InjDr), who underwent mandatory blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and drug analysis in biological fluids. The InjDr group was divided into 2 subgroups on the basis of BAC legal limit adopted in Italy (BAC ≤ 0.5 g/l: InjDr1 ; BAC >0.5 g/l: InjDr2 ). The control group (CntDr) included 236 subjects holding safety-sensitive job positions and undergoing mandatory toxicological analyses. The determination of BAC in blood and CDT in serum were performed using validated analytical methods based on head-space gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The evaluation of CDT distribution in the 3 groups (CntDr, InjDr1 , InjDr2 ) showed that CDT distribution in the InjDr1 group was similar to that observed in the CntDr group (p = 0.159) and different from that observed in the InjDr2 group (p accident while driving under the influence of alcohol. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug allergy - serum sickness; Allergic reaction - serum sickness; Allergy - serum sickness ... symptoms of serum sickness. Certain medicines (such as penicillin, cefaclor, and sulfa) can cause a similar reaction. ...

  1. Spectroscopic studies of the interaction mechanisms between mono-caffeoylquinic acids and transferrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yanqing; Dong, Jing; Chen, Shizhong; Liu, Meixian; Wang, Daidong; Zhang, Xiaotian; Wang, Hong; Lin, Zongtao

    2017-06-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is an important protein responsible for circulating and transporting iron into cytoplasm. Tf can be taken into cells through endocytosis mediated by Tf receptor, which usually overexpresses in cancer cells. The Tf-Tf receptor pathway opens a possible avenue for novel targeted cancer therapy by utilizing Tf-binding active compounds. Among which, anti-cancer active caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) were recently found to be promising Tf-binders by our group. For better understanding the anti-cancer activities of CQAs, it is important to unveil the binding mechanisms between CQAs and Tf. In this study, the fluorescence quenching, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), circular dichroism (CD) and molecular docking were used to investigate the interactions between CQA and Tf. The results showed that the calculated apparent association constants of interactions between 1-, 3-, 4- and 5-CQA and Tf at 298 K were 7.97 × 105 M- 1, 4.36 × 107 M- 1, 6.58 × 105 M- 1 and 4.42 × 106 M- 1, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the interaction between 1-, 3-, 5-CQA and Tf is due to H-bonding, and electrostatic interactions were likely involved in the binding of 4-CQA and Tf. The CD results indicated that bindings of 1-CQA, 4-CQA and 5-CQA with Tf resulted in more stretched β-turn and random coil translated from β-sheet. In contrast, 3-CQA led to more stable a-helix conformation. Molecular docking studies of CQAs with Tf further displayed that CQAs were able to interact with residues near Fe3 + binding site. The spectroscopic studies revealed the action mechanisms, thermodynamics and interacting forces between CQAs and Tf, and thus are helpful for future design and discovery of Tf-binders for targeted cancer therapy applying Tf-Tf receptor pathway.

  2. Serum levels of TWEAK and scavenger receptor CD163 in type 1 diabetes mellitus: relationship with cardiovascular risk factors. a case-control study.

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    Gemma Llauradó

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the usefulness of serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK and soluble scavenger receptor CD163 (sCD163 as markers of subtle inflammation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM without clinical cardiovascular (CV disease and to evaluate their relationship with arterial stiffness (AS. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with T1DM and 68 age and sex-matched, healthy subjects were evaluated. Anthropometrical variables and CV risk factors were recorded. Serum concentrations of sTWEAK and sCD163 were measured. AS was assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV. All statistical analyses were stratified by gender. RESULTS: T1DM patients showed lower serum concentrations of sTWEAK (Men: 1636.5 (1146.3-3754.8 pg/mL vs. 765.9 (650.4-1097.1 pg/mL; p<0.001. Women: 1401.0 (788.0-2422.2 pg/mL vs. 830.1 (562.6-1175.9 pg/mL; p = 0.011 compared with their respective controls. Additionally, T1DM men had higher serum concentrations of sCD163 (285.0 (247.7-357.1 ng/mL vs. 224.8 (193.3-296.5 ng/mL; p = 0.012 compared with their respective controls. sTWEAK correlated negatively with aPWV in men (r = -0.443; p<0.001. However, this association disappeared after adjusting for potential confounders. In men, the best multiple linear regression model showed that the independent predictors of sTWEAK were T1DM and WHR (R(2 = 0.640; p<0.001. In women, T1DM and SBP were the independent predictors for sTWEAK (R(2 = 0.231; p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: sTWEAK is decreased in T1DM patients compared with age and sex-matched healthy subjects after adjusting for classic CV risk factors, although sTWEAK levels may be partially influenced by some of them. Additionally, T1DM men have higher serum concentrations of sCD163. These results point out an association between the inflammatory system and CV risk in T1DM.

  3. High Throughput ELISAs to Measure a Unique Glycan on Transferrin in Cerebrospinal Fluid: A Possible Extension toward Alzheimer's Disease Biomarker Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiro Shirotani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have established high-throughput lectin-antibody ELISAs to measure different glycans on transferrin (Tf in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF using lectins and an anti-transferrin antibody (TfAb. Lectin blot and precipitation analysis of CSF revealed that PVL (Psathyrella velutina lectin bound an unique N-acetylglucosamine-terminated N-glycans on “CSF-type” Tf whereas SSA (Sambucus sieboldiana agglutinin bound α2,6-N-acetylneuraminic acid-terminated N-glycans on “serum-type” Tf. PVL-TfAb ELISA of 0.5 μL CSF samples detected “CSF-type” Tf but not “serum-type” Tf whereas SSA-TfAb ELISA detected “serum-type” Tf but not “CSF-type” Tf, demonstrating the specificity of the lectin-TfAb ELISAs. In idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH, a senile dementia associated with ventriculomegaly, amounts of the SSA-reactive Tf were significantly higher than in non-iNPH patients, indicating that Tf glycan analysis by the high-throughput lectin-TfAb ELISAs could become practical diagnostic tools for iNPH. The lectin-antibody ELISAs of CSF proteins might be useful for diagnosis of the other neurological diseases.

  4. Transferrin-appended PEGylated nanoparticles for temozolomide delivery to brain: in vitro characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Aviral; Chasoo, Gousia; Singh, Shashank K; Saxena, Ajit K; Jain, Sanjay K

    2011-01-01

    Polymer-based nanotechnologies are proposed to be an alternative for drug administration, delivery and targeting to those of conventional formulations. The blood brain barrier is frequently a rate-limiting factor in determining permeation of a drug into brain. In this study, the surface-engineered long-circulating PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) were assessed for brain-specific delivery. Long circulating NPs of PLGA- and PEG-synthesised copolymer were prepared by emulsification solvent evaporation method. Further, the surface of PEGylated NPs was modified by anchoring transferrin (Tf) ligand for receptor-mediated targeting to brain. NPs were characterised for shape and size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. In vitro cytotoxicity studies were performed on human cancer cell lines. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy studies show the enhanced uptake of Tf-appended PEGylated NPs and their localisation in the brain tissues. Hence, the specific role of Tf ligand on PEGylated NPs for brain delivery was confirmed.

  5. Transferrin-navigation Nano Artificial Antibody Fluorescence Recognition of Circulating Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jiaoyang; Li, Ping; Wu, Chuanchen; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Hui; Tang, Bo

    2017-08-31

    Specific recognition of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is of great significance for cancer diagnosis and personalized therapy. The antibodies and aptamer are commonly used for recognition of CTCs, but they often suffer from low stability and high cost. Therefore, chemically stable and low-cost artificial recognition elements are still highly demanded. Herein, we prepared nano artificial antibody based on molecular imprinting and applied for fluorescence recognition of CTCs. Surface imprinting was employed to construct a transferrin (TRA)-imprinted layer on the surface of rhodamine doped silica nanoparticles. Take advantage of the specific interaction between TRA and TRA receptor (overexpressed on cancer cells), the as-prepared TRA-imprinted artificial antibody was allowed for specific targeting cancer cells mediated by TRA. And the average recognition efficiency of the artificial antibody for the cancer cells was 88% through flow cytometry. Finally, the nano artificial antibody was successfully applied to specific identify mimetic CTCs, under the same conditions, the recognition ability of artificial antibody for CTCs was 8 times higher than the white blood cells.

  6. A Two-pronged Binding Mechanism of IgG to the Neonatal Fc Receptor Controls Complex Stability and IgG Serum Half-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Schoch, Angela; Larraillet, Vincent; Hilger, Maximiliane; Schlothauer, Tilman; Emrich, Thomas; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2017-03-01

    The success of recombinant monoclonal immunoglobulins (IgG) is rooted in their ability to target distinct antigens with high affinity combined with an extraordinarily long serum half-life, typically around 3 weeks. The pharmacokinetics of IgGs is intimately linked to the recycling mechanism of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). For long serum half-life of therapeutic IgGs, the highly pH-dependent interaction with FcRn needs to be balanced to allow efficient FcRn binding and release at slightly acidic pH and physiological pH, respectively. Some IgGs, like the antibody briakinumab has an unusually short half-life of ∼8 days. Here we dissect the molecular origins of excessive FcRn binding in therapeutic IgGs using a combination of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and FcRn affinity chromatography. We provide experimental evidence for a two-pronged IgG-FcRn binding mechanism involving direct FcRn interactions with both the Fc region and the Fab regions of briakinumab, and correlate the occurrence of excessive FcRn binding to an unusually strong Fab-FcRn interaction. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Association between serum endogenous secretory receptor for advanced glycation end products and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus with combined depression in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Wu, Yulian; Wang, Tao; Liang, Jixing; Lin, Wei; Li, Liantao; Wen, Junping; Lin, Lixiang; Huang, Huibin

    2012-10-01

    The role of the endogenous secretory receptor for advanced glycation end products (esRAGE) in depression of diabetes patients and its clinical significance are unclear. This study investigated the role of serum esRAGE in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with depression in the Chinese population. One hundred nineteen hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited at Fujian Provincial Hospital (Fuzhou, China) from February 2010 to January 2011. All selected subjects were assessed with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). Among them, 71 patients with both type 2 diabetes and depression were included. All selected subjects were examined for the following: esRAGE concentration, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood lipids, C-reactive protein, trace of albumin in urine, and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Association between serum esRAGE levels and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus with depression was also analyzed. There were statistically significant differences in gender, age, body mass index, waist circumference, and treatment methods between the group with depression and the group without depression (PMultiple linear regression analysis showed that HAMD scores were negatively correlated with esRAGE levels (standard regression coefficient -0.270, Pregression coefficient 0.183, Pregression coefficient 0.314, Pdiabetes mellitus with combined depression in the Chinese population. Inflammation and atherosclerosis play an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. esRAGE is a protective factor of depression among patients who have type 2 diabetes.

  8. Artesunate Reduces Serum Lipopolysaccharide in Cecal Ligation/Puncture Mice via Enhanced LPS Internalization by Macrophages through Increased mRNA Expression of Scavenger Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate immunity is the first line of defense in human beings against pathogen infection; monocytes/macrophages are the primary cells of the innate immune system. Recently, macrophages/monocytes have been discovered to participate in LPS clearance, and the clearance efficiency determines the magnitude of the inflammatory response and subsequent organ injury. Previously, we reported that artesunate (AS protected sepsis mice against heat-killed E. coli challenge. Herein, we further confirmed that AS protected cecal ligation/puncture (CLP sepsis mice. Its protection on sepsis mice was related to not only reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and serum LPS levels but also improvement of liver function. Based on the fact that AS did not directly bind and neutralize LPS, we hypothesized that the reduction of serum LPS level might be related to enhancement of LPS internalization and subsequent detoxification. Our results showed that AS increased FITC-LPS internalization by peritoneal macrophage and liver Kupffer cell, but enhancement of LPS internalization by AS was not related to the clathrin-dependent pathway. However, AS induced mRNA expression of important scavenger receptors (SRs; SR-A and MARCO mRNA expression was upregulated, suggesting that AS enhancement of LPS internalization and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines was related to changes in mRNA expression of SRs.

  9. Elevated serum interleukin-1β levels and interleukin-1β-to-interleukin-1 receptor antagonist ratio 1 week after embryo transfer are associated with ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekovich, Jovana; Witkin, Steven S; Doulaveris, Georgios; Orfanelli, Theofano; Shulman, Brittney; Pereira, Nigel; Rosenwaks, Zev; Spandorfer, Steven D

    2015-11-01

    To investigate whether interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) serum levels in the early luteal phase differ in IVF cycles that result in an ectopic pregnancy (EP) when compared with other outcomes. Retrospective cohort. Not applicable. A total of 307 women whose serum samples were available, with the following IVF outcomes: 103 live births, 80 negative pregnancy tests, 52 biochemical pregnancies, 47 EPs, and 25 miscarriages. Serum samples were obtained on cycle days 24 and 28 (cycle day 14 = day of egg retrieval). Levels of IL-1β and IL-1RA were determined by quantitative ELISA performed by blinded personnel. IL-1β and IL-1RA levels, IL-1β-to-IL-1RA ratio versus cycle outcome. The IL-1β levels were predictive of an EP. At cycle days 24 and 28 the mean IL-1β levels were higher in patients with an EP (127.1 pg/mL and 166.9 pg/mL, respectively) than in women with any other IVF outcome (15.8-55.3 pg/mL and 14.8-75.5 pg/mL, respectively). At cycle day 24 the IL-1β-to-IL-1RA ratio was 0.18 in the ectopic group versus 0.01-0.09 in the other groups. Elevated IL-1β levels and IL-1β-to-IL-1RA ratio as early as 4 days before the first pregnancy test are associated with an EP. If confirmed by prospective studies, clinical application of these findings could potentially improve EP detection. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Velcalcetide (AMG 416), a novel peptide agonist of the calcium-sensing receptor, reduces serum parathyroid hormone and FGF23 levels in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kevin J; Bell, Gregory; Pickthorn, Karen; Huang, Saling; Vick, Andrew; Hodsman, Peter; Peacock, Munro

    2014-02-01

    Velcalcetide, also known as AMG 416, is a novel, long-acting selective peptide agonist of the calcium sensing receptor. It is being developed as an intravenous treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder. To assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of velcalcetide in healthy male volunteers. The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-dose, dose-escalation study in healthy males aged 18-45 years conducted at a single center. Each cohort included eight subjects randomized 6:2 to velcalcetide or placebo. Velcalcetide at 0.5, 2, 5 and 10 mg or placebo was administered intravenously. Measurements included plasma ionized calcium (iCa), serum total calcium, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), phosphorus and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, calcitonin and urine creatinine, calcium and phosphorus and plasma pharmacokinetics for velcalcetide. Vital signs, safety biochemical and hematological indices, and adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Intravenous administration of velcalcetide was well tolerated with no adverse reaction of nausea, vomiting or diarrhea reported. Velcalcetide mediated dose-dependent decreases in serum iPTH at 30 min, FGF23 at 24 h and iCa at 12 h post dose (P<0.05) and in urine fractional excretion of phosphorus and increases in tubular reabsorption of phosphorus. Velcalcetide plasma exposure increased in a dose-related manner and the terminal elimination of half-life was comparable across the dose range evaluated and ranged from 18.4 to 20.0 h. Single IV doses of velcalcetide were well tolerated and associated with rapid, sustained, dose-dependent reductions in serum PTH. The results support further evaluation of velcalcetide as a treatment for SHPT in hemodialysis patients.

  11. Combined use of serum adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 levels was comparable to 2-hour post-load glucose in diabetes prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cho Woo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue inflammation and dysregulated adipokine secretion are implicated in obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the use of serum adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, and several proinflammatory adipokines, as biomarkers of diabetes risk and whether they add to traditional risk factors in diabetes prediction. METHODS: We studied 1300 non-diabetic subjects from the prospective Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS. Serum adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 (TNF-α R2, interleukin-6 (IL-6, adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP were measured in baseline samples. RESULTS: Seventy-six participants developed diabetes over 5.3 years (median. All five biomarkers significantly improved the log-likelihood of diabetes in a clinical diabetes prediction (CDP model including age, sex, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity, hypertension, waist circumference, fasting glucose and dyslipidaemia. In ROC curve analysis, "adiponectin + TNF-α R2" improved the area under ROC curve (AUC of the CDP model from 0.802 to 0.830 (P = 0.03, rendering its performance comparable to the "CDP + 2-hour post-OGTT glucose" model (AUC = 0.852, P = 0.30. A biomarker risk score, derived from the number of biomarkers predictive of diabetes (low adiponectin, high TNF-α R2, had similar performance when added to the CDP model (AUC = 0.829 [95% CI: 0.808-0.849]. CONCLUSIONS: The combined use of serum adiponectin and TNF-α R2 as biomarkers provided added value over traditional risk factors for diabetes prediction in Chinese and could be considered as an alternative to the OGTT.

  12. Character of changes in the serum proteins of continuously irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlebovska, K.; Praslicka, M.; Chlebovsky, O. (Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie)

    1981-12-01

    Using quantitative two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, the authors studied, at various intervals, changes in the serum prealbumin, albumin, A/sub 1/-globulin, A/sub 1/-macroglobulin (A/sub 1/M), haptoglobin, haemopexin, transferrin, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and C/sub 3/ component of the complement in rats irradiated continuously with daily doses of 957 mGy, 1914 mGy and 3828 mGy up to the lethal dose. During irradiation with these doses the prealbumin, albumin, A/sub 1/-globulin, A/sub 1/M, transferrin, IgG and C/sub 3/ levels decreased while the serum haptoglobin and haemopexin concentrations increased.

  13. Cytokines and Bone Loss in a 5-Year Longitudinal Study—Hormone Replacement Therapy Suppresses Serum Soluble Interleukin-6 Receptor and Increases Interleukin-1-Receptor Antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B.; Bonnevie-Nielsen, V.; Ebbesen, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and IL-6 may play a central role in the acceleration of postmenopausal bone loss, but observational studies have led to contradictory results. Estrogen-dependent changes in the production of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra...... observed in the control group. IL-1ra was inversely correlated with bone loss at the ultradistal forearm (r = 0.29; p bone loss at the ultradistal forearm (r = 0.26; p ....05). High IL-6 levels were associated with slower bone loss (spine r = 0.31, p bone loss at the femoral neck (r = -0.29; p bone loss in the spine (r = -0...

  14. Correlation of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Serum Levels and White Blood Cells Gene Expression of Nuclear Receptors in a Population of Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Caserta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant evidence supports that many endocrine disrupting chemicals could affect female reproductive health. Aim of this study was to compare the internal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA, perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, and di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP in serum samples of 111 infertile women and 44 fertile women. Levels of gene expression of nuclear receptors (ERα, ERβ, AR, AhR, PXR, and PPARγ were also analyzed as biomarkers of effective dose. The percentage of women with BPA concentrations above the limit of detection was significantly higher in infertile women than in controls. No statistically significant difference was found with regard to PFOS, PFOA, MEHP and DEHP. Infertile patients showed gene expression levels of ERα, ERβ, AR, and PXR significantly higher than controls. In infertile women, a positive association was found between BPA and MEHP levels and ERα, ERβ, AR, AhR, and PXR expression. PFOS concentration positively correlated with AR and PXR expression. PFOA levels negatively correlated with AhR expression. No correlation was found between DEHP levels and all evaluated nuclear receptors. This study underlines the need to provide special attention to substances that are still widely present in the environment and to integrate exposure measurements with relevant indicators of biological effects.

  15. [Correlation of the expressions of advanced glycation end products and its receptor in serum and placenta with the pathogenesis of preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Na; Chen, Weiping; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Ning; Ye, Yuanhua

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the correlation of the expressions of advanced glycation end products (AGE) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in serum and placenta with the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. From December 2013 to June 2014, 32 women with severe preeclampsia who received cesarean section in the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University were recruited in the study, defined as the severe preeclampsia group. 30 healthy pregnant women who received cesarean section in the same hospital were recruited as the control group. ELISA was used to measure the maternal serum AGE, soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in these women. Furthermore, ELISA was also used to measure AGE and TNF-α in the placenta. The localizations of AGE and RAGE protein in placentas were detected by immunohistochemical SP method. RAGE and TNF-α mRNA expression in placentas were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. AGE, RAGE and TNF-α protein expression in placentas were measured by western blot, respectively. (1) The serum levels of AGE, sRAGE and TNF-α in the severe preeclampsia group were (538 ± 75), (367 ± 86) and (322 ± 40) ng/L, respectively. They were significantly higher than those in the control group [(454 ± 50), (286 ± 35) and (270 ± 35) ng/L, respectively] (P 0.05). (2) In the severe preeclampsia group, the levels of AGE and TNF-α in placentas were (500 ± 82) and (334 ± 57) ng/L, which were higher than those in the control group [(431 ± 74) and (263 ± 46) ng/L, respectively] (P preeclampsia group were 12.6 ± 4.6 and 10.4 ± 2.4, which were significantly higher than those in the control group (0.9 ± 0.4 and 3.5 ± 0.9, P preeclampsia group were 0.68 ± 0.06, 0.82 ± 0.08 and 0.76 ± 0.08. All were significantly higher than those of the control group (0.46 ± 0.05, 0.42 ± 0.09 and 0.52 ± 0.07; P preeclampsia group, and the expression of TNF-α also elevated. These indicated that AGE and RAGE

  16. Self-assembly and characterization of transferrin-gold nanoconstructs and their interaction with bio-interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, Birgitte H.; Volden, Sondre; Lystvet, Sina M.; Singh, Gurvinder; Ese, Marit-Helen G.; Ryan, Joseph A.; Lindgren, Mikael; Sandvig, Axel; Sandvig, Ioanna; Glomm, Wilhelm R.

    2015-04-01

    Transferrin (Tf) conjugated to gold nanoparticles and clusters combine the protein's site-specific receptor targeting capabilities with the optical properties imparted by the nano-sized gold. We have described two different synthesis protocols, one yielding fluorescent Tf-stabilized gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) and one yielding Tf-stabilized gold nanoparticles that exhibit localized surface plasmon resonance. We demonstrate that the synthetic route employed has a large influence both on the gold nanostructure formed, and also on the structural integrity of the protein. A slight protein unfolding allows stronger interaction with lipids, and was found to significantly perturb lipid monolayers. Interactions between the protein-gold nanostructures and three different cell types were also assessed, indicating that the enhanced membrane affinity may be attributed to intercellular membrane differences.

  17. The Impact of LEP G-2548A and LEPR Gln223Arg Polymorphisms on Adiposity, Leptin, and Leptin-Receptor Serum Levels in a Mexican Mestizo Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria-Avila, Efraín; Gomez-Bañuelos, Eduardo; Ruiz-Quezada, Sandra-Luz; Castro-Albarran, Jorge; Sánchez-López, Lizeth; Martín-Marquez, Beatriz Teresita; Navarro-Hernández, Rosa-Elena

    2015-01-01

    The polymorphisms in leptin (LEP G-2548A) and leptin-receptor (LEPR Gln223Arg) seem to influence obesity and lipid metabolism among others. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on adiposity, leptin (sLeptin), and leptin-receptor (sLeptin-receptor) serum concentrations as well as inflammation markers. We included 382 adults originally from Western Mexico. They were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Obese individuals showed higher sLeptin (58.2 ± 31.35 ng/mL) but lower sLeptin-receptor (12.6 ± 3.74 ng/mL) levels than normal weight ones (17.6 ± 14.62 ng/mL, 17.4 ± 4.62 ng/mL, resp.), P < 0.001. Obese subjects carriers of Arg/Arg genotype had more (P = 0.016) sLeptin-receptor (14.7 ± 4.96 ng/mL) and less (P = 0.004) sLeptin (44.0 ± 28.12 ng/mL) levels than Gln/Gln genotype (11.0 ± 2.92 ng/mL, 80.3 ± 33.24 ng/mL, resp.). Body fat mass was lower (P from 0.003 to 0.045) for A/A (36.5% ± 6.80) or Arg/Arg (36.8% ± 6.82) genotypes with respect to G/G (41.3% ± 5.52) and G/A (41.6% ± 5.61) or Gln/Gln (43.7% ± 4.74) and Gln/Arg (41.0% ± 5.52) genotypes carriers. Our results suggest that LEP -2548A and LEPR 223Arg could be genetic markers of less body fat mass accumulation in obese subjects from Western Mexico. PMID:26064921

  18. [Influence of zinc administered by total parenteral nutrition on plasmatic zinc levels, on reactive C protein, on serum interleukin-6 and on serum interleukin-6 soluble receptor, in critical patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, A M; De Portela, M L; Weisstaub, A; Montemerlo, H; Guidoni, M E; Rusí, F; Zeni, S

    2009-01-01

    To study the interrelationship between serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6), serum Interleukin-6 soluble Receptor (IL-6 sR), C-Reactive Protein (C-RP), plasmatic Zinc levels (PlZn) and their response in relation to Zn administered by TPN, in critical patients. 17 patients, receiving TPN as a consequence of acute pancreatitis (n = 4) or after a major abdominal surgery due to intestinal cancer (n = 7), intestinal fístula (n = 3), intestinal obstruction (n = 2) or intestinal íleus (n = 1) were studied. At the beginning (To) and at the end of the TPN administration (6-21 days) serum IL-6 and IL-6 sR were determined by ELISA; C-RP ultrasensitive (C-RP us) by inmunoturbidimetric method; Zn was determined in TPN and in plasma by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Characteristics of the patients were (mean +/- SD and ranges): age: 60.6 +/- 11.7 (37-77) years; BMI (kg/m(2)): 26.0 +/- 3.4 (19.9-34.0). The results (mean +/- standard deviation and ranges) were: Zn provided by TPN (mg/d): 6.1 +/- 2.0 (range 2.8 to 10.8). Biochemical levels were, at To and Tf, respectively: (mean+/-SD and ranges) were at To y Tf, respectively: Zn Pl (microg/dl): 104 +/- 46 (35-177); 120 +/- 55 (52-229); IL-6 (pg/mL) 93 +/- 74 (10-262); 117 +/- 180 (7-761); IL6sR (pg/mL): 1,012 +/- 322 (589-1855); 1,269 +/- 451 (631-2195); C-RP us (mg/L): 71 +/- 63 (2-196); 65 +/- 43 (0-137). There was no correlation between variations of IL6, IL6sR, C-RP, PlZn levels and the daily amount of Zn administered in the TPN mixtures. Two patients presented a bad evolution; they received 4.2 and 5.2 md/d of Zn and showed an increase of IL6 levels, maintained high levels of IL6sR but C-RP levels decreased. the range of 2.8 to 10.8 mg/d of Zn administered in TPN mixtures did not exacerbate the inflammatory response.

  19. A role for the high-density lipoprotein receptor SR-B1 in synovial inflammation via serum amyloid-A.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullan, Ronan Hugh

    2012-02-01

    Acute phase apoprotein Serum Amyloid A (A-SAA), which is strongly expressed in rheumatoid arthritis synovial membrane (RA SM), induces angiogenesis, adhesion molecule expression, and matrix metalloproteinase production through the G-coupled receptor FPRL-1. Here we report alternative signaling through the high-density lipoprotein receptor scavenger receptor-class B type 1 (SR-B1). Quantitative expression\\/localization of SR-B1 in RA SM, RA fibroblast-like cells (FLCs), and microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) was assessed by Western blotting and immunohistology\\/fluorescence. A-SAA-mediated effects were examined using a specific antibody against SR-B1 or amphipathic alpha-Helical Peptides (the SR-B1 antagonists L-37pA and D-37pA), in RA FLCs and ECs. Adhesion molecule expression and cytokine production were quantified using flow cytometry and ELISA. SR-B1 was strongly expressed in the RA SM lining layer and endothelial\\/perivascular regions compared with osteoarthritis SM or normal control synovium. Differential SR-B1 expression in RA FLC lines (n = 5) and ECs correlated closely with A-SAA, but not tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 upregulation. A-SAA-induced interleukin-6 and -8 production was inhibited in the presence of anti-SR-B1 in human microvascular endothelial cells and RA FLCs. Moreover, D-37pA and L-37pA inhibited A-SAA-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule expression from ECs in a dose-dependent manner. As SR-B1 is expressed in RA synovial tissue and mediates A-SAA-induced pro-inflammatory pathways, a better understanding of A-SAA-mediated inflammatory pathways may lead to novel treatment strategies for RA.

  20. Serum proteins behavior in the urban population from a center with a lead-polluted atmospheric environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casin, I.; Ghelberg, N.W.

    1974-01-01

    Serum protein behavior was determined in an urban population from a center with a lead polluted atmospheric environment. The following increased amounts of serum proteins are found in 94 adult subjects: haptoglobin 75 percent; ceruloplasmin and transferrin 55 percent; IgA (immunoglobulin A) and IgG 40 percent; Igm and beta lc proteins 25 percent.

  1. The Expression of Serum Antibodies against Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH1, Progonadoliberin-2, Luteinizing Hormone (LH, and Related Receptors in Patients with Gastrointestinal Dysfunction or Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Roth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH 1 and 2 and luteinizing hormone (LH receptors have been described in the gastrointestinal tract. We have previously demonstrated antibodies in serum against GnRH1 in patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction and diabetes mellitus, and antibodies against GnRH receptor, LH, and LH receptor in patients with infertility. The aim of this study was to search for the expression of serum antibodies against GnRH1 with an improved enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA, and antibodies against progonadoliberin-2, GnRH2, GnRH receptor, LH, and LH receptor with newly developed ELISAs, in patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction or diabetes mellitus. Healthy blood donors served as controls. Medical records were scrutinized. Our conclusion was that IgM antibodies against GnRH1, progonadoliberin-2, and/or GnRH receptors were more prevalent in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders, gastrointestinal dysmotility, and/or diabetes mellitus, whereas IgG antibodies against these peptides, and LH- and LH receptor antibodies, were expressed in the same magnitude as in controls.

  2. Quantification of receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettey, Frank R; Jackson, Antony P

    2006-01-01

    This method allows measuring of the receptor-mediated internalization of 125I-labeled conalbumin, the chicken egg white isoform of transferrin. Kinetic data, i.e. the rate constant k(i) for the initial internalization process, can be extracted from the data by linear curve fitting using an In/Sur plot (intracellular label/cell surface label over time).

  3. Transferrin saturation ratio and risk of total and cardiovascular mortality in the general population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, A G

    2014-08-01

    The transferrin saturation (TSAT) ratio is a commonly used indicator of iron deficiency and iron overload in clinical practice but precise relationships with total and cardiovascular mortality are unclear.

  4. TRANSFERRIN POLYMORPHISM IN FOUR LOCAL BREEDS OF GOAT IN CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kurnianto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the gene frequency and individual heterozygosity of transferrin in four local breeds of goat in Central Java-Indonesia. The number of blood samples were taken from 96 heads of goat, in which each of breeds were 24 samples, those were Kejobong (Purbalingga regency, Ettawa Grade (Purworejo regency, Kacang (Grobogan regency and Jawarandu (Pemalang regency. Polyacrilamide Gel Electrophoresis was performed to detect the bands of blood plasm protein. Gen frequency was calculated using general formula of population genetics. Estimated heterozygosity and individual heterosizygosity were calculated to analysis the equilibrium condition of transferrin. Result showed there was two allele of transferrin, namely TfA and TfB. Gene frequency of TfA was higher than that of TfB. Transferrin gene and genotypes were in disequilibrium of Hardy-Weinberg Law.

  5. Binding of Chromium(III) to Transferrin Could Be Involved in Detoxification of Dietary Chromium(III) Rather than Transport of an Essential Trace Element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Aviva; Pham, T H Nguyen; Lay, Peter A

    2016-07-04

    Cr(III) binding to transferrin (Tf; the main Fe(III) transport protein) has been postulated to mediate cellular uptake of Cr(III) to facilitate a purported essential role for this element. Experiments using HepG2 (human hepatoma) cells, which were chosen because of high levels of the transferrin receptor, showed that Cr(III) binding to vacant Fe(III) -binding sites of human Tf effectively blocks cellular Cr(III) uptake. Through bio-layer interferometry studies of the Tf cycle, it was found that both exclusion and efflux of Cr2 (III) Tf from cells was caused by 1) relatively low Cr2 Tf affinity to cell-surface Tf receptors compared to Fe2 Tf, and 2) disruption of metal release under endosomal conditions and post-endosomal Tf dissociation from the receptor. These data support mounting evidence that Cr(III) is not essential and that Tf binding is likely to be a natural protective mechanism against the toxicity and potential genotoxicity of dietary Cr through blocking Cr(III) cellular accumulation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and their soluble receptors (sTNF-α-Rp55 and slL-6R serum levels in systemic lupus erythematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Robak

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a possible association between serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and their soluble receptors (sTNF-α-Rp55 and sIL-6R using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in 55 patients with systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE and 16 healthy controls. We also examined a possible association between the serum levels of these peptides and SLE activity, as well as TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations and the levels of their soluble receptors. The median concentrations of TNF-α, sTNF-α-Rp55 and IL-6 were significantly higher in SLE patients than in normal individuals. In contrast, there was no difference between the serum level of sIL-6R in both groups. We found positive correlations between the serum concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 as well as their soluble receptors and disease activity. There were also correlations between TNF-α and sTNF-α-Rp55 as well as IL-6 and sIL-6R serum levels in SLE patients but there were no such correlations in the normal control group. In conclusion, an increase in the serum levels of TNF-α, sTNF-α-Rp55 and IL-6 may become useful markers for SLE activity. Patients with SLE have sIL-6R serum concentration similar to that as in normal individuals. However, it correlates with disease activity and the level of IL-6.

  7. Effects of transferrin conjugated multi-walled carbon nanotubes in lung cancer delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rahul Pratap [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Sharma, Gunjan [Genotoxicology and Cancer Biology Lab, Department of Zoology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Sonali [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Singh, Sanjay [Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi 221005 (India); Patne, Shashikant C.U. [Department of Pathology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Pandey, Bajarangprasad L. [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Koch, Biplob, E-mail: kochbiplob@gmail.com [Genotoxicology and Cancer Biology Lab, Department of Zoology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Muthu, Madaswamy S., E-mail: muthubits@rediffmail.com [Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi 221005 (India); Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) which were covalently conjugated with transferrin by carbodiimide chemistry and loaded with docetaxel as a model drug for effective treatment of lung cancer in comparison with the commercial docetaxel injection (Docel™). D-Alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was used as amphiphilic surfactant to improve the aqueous dispersity and biocompatibility of MWCNT. Human lung cancer cells (A549 cells) were employed as an in-vitro model to access cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, cellular apoptosis, cell cycle analysis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of the docetaxel/coumarin-6 loaded MWCNT. The cellular uptake results of transferrin conjugated MWCNT showed higher efficiency in comparison with free C6. The IC{sub 50} values demonstrated that the transferrin conjugated MWCNT could be 136-fold more efficient than Docel™ after 24 h treatment with the A549 cells. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that cancerous cells appeared significantly (P < 0.05) in the sub-G1 phase for transferrin conjugated MWCNT in comparison with Docel™. Results of transferrin conjugated MWCNT have showed better efficacy with safety than Docel™. - Highlights: • It shows the development of transferrin conjugated MWCNT formulation of DTX for the effective treatment of lung cancer. • Evaluated the cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, cellular apoptosis, cell cycle, and ROS level of the DTX/C6 loaded MWCNT. • The IC{sub 50} values demonstrated that the transferrin conjugated MWCNT could be 136-fold more effective than Docel™. • Safety of the DTX formulations were studied by the measurements of ALP, LDH and total protein count levels in BAL fluid. • Results of transferrin conjugated MWCNT have showed better efficacy with safety than Docel™ in lung cancer delivery.

  8. A Molecular Dynamics Approach to Ligand-Receptor Interaction in the Aspirin-Human Serum Albumin Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ariel Alvarez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a study of the interaction between human serum albumin (HSA and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, C9H8O4 by molecular dynamics simulations (MD. Starting from an experimentally resolved structure of the complex, we performed the extraction of the ligand by means of the application of an external force. After stabilization of the system, we quantified the force used to remove the ASA from its specific site of binding to HSA and calculated the mechanical nonequilibrium external work done during this process. We obtain a reasonable value for the upper boundary of the Gibbs free energy difference (an equilibrium thermodynamic potential between the complexed and noncomplexed states. To achieve this goal, we used the finite sampling estimator of the average work, calculated from the Jarzynski Equality. To evaluate the effect of the solvent, we calculated the so-called “viscous work,” that is, the work done to move the aspirin in the same trajectory through the solvent in absence of the protein, so as to assess the relevance of its contribution to the total work. The results are in good agreement with the available experimental data for the albumin affinity constant for aspirin, obtained through quenching fluorescence methods.

  9. Folate receptor mediated in vivo targeted delivery of human serum albumin coated manganese ferrite magnetic nanoparticles to cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidan, A.; Ilhami, F.; Fahmi, M. Z.; Purwanto, B.; Kharisma, R. Z.

    2017-05-01

    Manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MnFe2O4) have received increasing attention due to their remarkable magnetic properties and have been used for various biomedical applications. They have potential applications in magnetic resonance imaging and hyperthermia for cancer. Both novel applications require a delivery system that will allow nanoparticle to move easily and localization of nanoparticle to the target tissue. In our work, we developed human serum albumin coated manganese ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (HSA-MF NPs). The nanoparticles were prepared using solvothermal method and modified with folic acid for targeted delivery. Structure and morphology of manganese ferrite nanoparticle were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size of folic acid conjugated HSA-MF NPs (HSA-MF-FA NPs) were studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS). In the in vivo study, we used benzopyrene-induced cancer in mice. We successfully delivered HSA-MF-FA NPs through intravenous tail injection after induction of the tumour. We found that 54% of initial HSA-MF-FA NPs which previously injected localize in the target tissue. While obtained p-value from independent T-test is 0.013 which shows that there is a difference between the control group (HSA-MF NPs) and the treated group (HSA-MF-FA NPs)

  10. Differential transferrin expression in placentae from normal and abnormal pregnancies: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukovsky Antonin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The placenta is an important site for iron metabolism in humans. It transfers iron from the mother to the fetus. One of the major iron transport proteins is transferrin, which is a blood plasma protein crucial for iron uptake. Its localization and expression may be one of the markers to distinguish placental dysfunction. Methods In the experimental study we used antibody preparation, mass spectrometric analysis, biochemical and immunocytochemical methods for characterization of transferrin expression on the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR (JAR cells, placental lysates, and cryostat sections. Newly designed monoclonal antibody TRO-tf-01 to human transferrin was applied on human placentae from normal (n = 3 and abnormal (n = 9 pregnancies. Results Variations of transferrin expression were detected in villous syncytiotrophoblast, which is in direct contact with maternal blood. In placentae from normal pregnancies, the expression of transferrin in the syncytium was significantly lower (p Conclusion These observations suggest that in the case of abnormal pregnancies, the fetus may require higher levels of transferrin in order to prevent iron depletion due to the stress from the placental dysfunction.

  11. Definition of the residues required for the interaction between glycine-extended gastrin and transferrin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Suzana; Ferrand, Audrey; Estève, Jean-Pierre; Mason, Anne B; Baldwin, Graham S

    2009-09-01

    Transferrin is the main iron transport protein found in the circulation, and the level of transferrin saturation in the blood is an important indicator of iron status. The peptides amidated gastrin(17) (Gamide) and glycine-extended gastrin(17) (Ggly) are well known for their roles in controlling acid secretion and as growth factors in the gastrointestinal tract. Several lines of evidence, including the facts that transferrin binds gastrin, that gastrins bind ferric ions, and that the level of expression of gastrins positively correlates with transferrin saturation, suggest the possible involvement of the transferrin-gastrin interaction in iron homeostasis. In the present work, the interaction between gastrins and transferrin has been characterized by surface plasmon resonance and covalent crosslinking. First, an interaction between iron-free apo-transferrin and Gamide or Ggly was observed. The fact that no interaction was observed in the presence of the chelator EDTA suggested that the gastrin-ferric ion complex was the interacting species. Moreover, removal of ferric ions with EDTA reduced the stability of the complex between apo-transferrin and gastrins, and no interaction was observed between Gamide or Ggly and diferric transferrin. Second, some or all of glutamates at positions 8-10 of the Ggly molecule, together with the C-terminal domain, were necessary for the interaction with apo-transferrin. Third, monoferric transferrin mutants incapable of binding iron in either the N-terminal or C-terminal lobe still bound Ggly. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that gastrin peptides bind to nonligand residues within the open cleft in each lobe of transferrin and are involved in iron loading of transferrin in vivo.

  12. receptores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Regina Daronco Benetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio etnográfico, que tuvo lo objetivo de interpretar el sistema de conocimiento y del significado atribuidos a la sangre referente a la transfusión sanguínea por los donadores y receptores de un banco de sangre. Para la colecta de las informaciones se observaron los participantes y la entrevista etnográfica se realizó el análisis de dominio, taxonómicos y temáticos. Los dominios culturales fueron: la sangre es vida: fuente de vida y alimento valioso; creencias religiosas: fuentes simbólicas de apoyos; donación sanguínea: un gesto colaborador que exige cuidarse, gratifica y trae felicidad; donación sanguínea: fuente simbólica de inseguridad; estar enfermo es una condición para realizar transfusión sanguínea; transfusión sanguínea: esperanza de vida; Creencias populares: transfusión sanguínea como riesgo para la salud; donadores de sangre: personas benditas; donar y recibir sangre: como significado de felicidad. Temática: “líquido precioso que origina, sostiene, modifica la vida, provoca miedo e inseguridad”.

  13. Role of Insulin-Transferrin-Selenium in Auricular Chondrocyte Proliferation and Engineered Cartilage Formation in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to determine the effects of Insulin-Transferrin-Selenium (ITS on proliferation of auricular chondrocytes and formation of engineered cartilage in vitro. Pig auricular monolayer chondrocytes and chondrocyte pellets were cultured in media containing 1% ITS at different concentrations of fetal bovine serum (FBS, 10%, 6%, 2%, 0%, or 10% FBS alone as a control for four weeks. Parameters including cell proliferation in monolayer, wet weight, collagen type I/II/X (Col I, II, X and glycosaminoglycan (GAG expression, GAG content of pellets and gene expression associated with cartilage formation/dedifferentiation (lost cartilage phenotype/hypertrophy within the chondrocyte pellets were assessed. The results showed that chondrocytes proliferation rates increased when FBS concentrations increased (2%, 6%, 10% FBS in ITS supplemented groups. In addition, 1% ITS plus 10% FBS significantly promoted cell proliferation than 10% FBS alone. No chondrocytes grew in ITS alone medium. 1% ITS plus 10% FBS enhanced cartilage formation in terms of size, wet weight, cartilage specific matrices, and homogeneity, compared to 10% FBS alone group. Furthermore, ITS prevented engineered cartilage from dedifferentiation (i.e., higher index of Col II/Col I mRNA expression and expression of aggrecan and hypertrophy (i.e., lower mRNA expression of Col X and MMP13. In conclusion, our results indicated that ITS efficiently enhanced auricular chondrocytes proliferation, retained chondrogenic phenotypes, and promoted engineered cartilage formation when combined with FBS, which is potentially used as key supplementation in auricular chondrocytes and engineered cartilage culture.

  14. The effect of trypsin digestion on the structure and iron-donating properties of transferrins from several species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, I; Brock, J H

    1980-04-25

    The effect of trypsin digestion on iron-saturated and iron-free (apo) human, rabbit, bovine, pig and horse tranferrins has been studied. Iron-binding fragments were produced only from iron-saturated pig and bovine transferrins although some cleavage of the polypeptide chain occurred in all cases. The apo-transferrins were generally degraded to a greater extent than the corresponding iron-saturated proteins. The ability of the different transferrins to donate iron to rabbit reticulocytes varied in the order rabbit approximately pig greater than human approximately horse greater than bovine. Trypsin digestion considerably reduced the ability of pig and bovine transferrins to donate iron to rabbit reticulocytes, slightly reduced the iron-donating ability of rabbit transferrin, and had almost no effect on that of human or horse transferrins.

  15. [Value of soluble urokinase receptor serum levels in the differential diagnosis between idiopathic and secondary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Alfons; Jatem, Elías; Quiles, M Teresa; Arbós, M Antonia; Ostos, Helena; Valtierra, Naiara; Carnicer, Clara; Salcedo, M Teresa

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that the circulating level of the soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) could be useful for distinguishing idiopathic from secondary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, but the results published are conflicting. In this study, we analyse the intraindividual variability and clinical and anatomopathological variables associated with the suPAR levels and if circulating suPAR levels allow the different forms of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) to be distinguished, i.e., idiopathic forms from secondary FSGS, regardless of the presence of nephrotic syndrome and the activity phase. We studied 35 patients affected by idiopathic FSGS and 48 with secondary FSGS (83 in total). We carried out measurements of circulating suPAR at the time of diagnosis and/or after remission and we analysed correlations between suPAR levels and demographic, clinical and biochemical variables. The ability of suPAR to distinguish between both forms of FSGS was analysed by ROC curves and logistic regression analysis. In both forms of FSGS, suPAR levels were independent of proteinuria and the histopathological subtype of FSGS and they were significantly associated with age and renal function. After adjusting for both variables, suPAR levels were significantly higher in patients with idiopathic FSGS, both in the nephrotic syndrome phase and in partial or complete remission. The most sensitive suPAR level (80%) and the most specific (73%) for discriminating between idiopathic and secondary forms was 3443.6 pg/ml (area below curve [ABC] 0.78 ± 0.083, Pdiagnosis of idiopathic FSGS, but the model was poorly adjusted for low risk categories in which it tended to classify primary forms as secondary forms (χ(2) = 11.2 p=.027). SuPAR levels lack sensitivity for differentiating between idiopathic and secondary FSGS. However, suPAR values greater than 4000 ng/ml are highly specific to primary FSGS, and as such, with a morphological FSGS pattern associated with non

  16. Serum level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha correlates with the clinical course and activity of Wilms' tumour and soft tissue sarcomas in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, E; Balcerska, A; Kuchta, G

    2007-01-01

    Wilms' tumour (WT) and soft tissue sarcomas (SA) in children lack reliable biochemical markers. This study was carried out to determine the clinical significance of serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2Ralpha) in the diagnostics and treatment monitoring of children with WT and SA. The study included 48 children: ten with WT, eight with SA and 30 healthy controls. The sIL-2Ralpha levels (ELISA) and rates of elevated sIL-2Ralpha values were estimated prospectively at diagnosis and in complete remission during treatment and after therapy. As the dependence on age was determined, the levels of sIL-2Ralpha were expressed as multiplications of the upper value of the normal range for a particular age ( xN). Median pretreatment levels of sIL-2Ralpha in patients exceeded those of healthy controls (1.79 xN for WT and 1.53 for SA vs. 0.61 for controls; p < 0.001) as did the rates of elevated sIL-2Ralpha values (80% of WTand 87.5% of SA patients vs. 0% of controls). Good response to therapy was paralleled by a significant decline of pretreatment sIL-2Ralpha levels and its elevated rates. Thus, sIL-2Ralpha determination may be of some value in the diagnostics and treatment monitoring of childhood WT and SA.

  17. Secretoglobin and Transferrin Expression in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Horses with Chronic Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskovic Feutz, M; Couetil, L L; Riley, C P; Zhang, X; Adamec, J; Raskin, R E

    2015-01-01

    Lower expression of secretoglobin and transferrin has been found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of a small number of horses with experimentally induced signs of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) compared to healthy controls. Secretoglobin and transferrin BALF expression will be similarly decreased in horses with naturally occurring clinical signs of RAO and in horses with experimentally induced clinical signs of RAO as compared to healthy controls and intermediate in horses with inflammatory airway disease (IAD). Recurrent airway obstruction-affected and control horses were subjected to an experimental hay exposure trial to induce signs of RAO. Client-owned horses with a presumptive diagnosis of RAO and controls from the same stable environments were recruited. Pulmonary function and BALF were evaluated from control and RAO-affected research horses during an experimental hay exposure trial (n = 5 in each group) and from client-owned horses (RAO-affected horses, n = 17; IAD-affected horses, n = 19; healthy controls, n = 5). The concentrations of secretoglobin and transferrin in BALF were assessed using Western blots. Naturally occurring and experimentally induced RAO horses had similar decreases in BALF transferrin expression, but secretoglobin expression was most decreased in naturally occurring RAO. Secretoglobin and transferrin expression were both lower in BALF of RAO-affected horses than in IAD-affected and control horses. Secretoglobin and transferrin expression is decreased in BALF of RAO-affected horses after both experimental and natural exposure. Secretoglobin and transferrin likely play clinically relevant roles in the pathophysiology of RAO, and may thus be used as biomarkers of the disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. PEG-transferrin conjugated TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) for therapeutic tumor targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyung; Jo, Young Gi; Jiang, Hai Hua; Lim, Sung Mook; Youn, Yu Seok; Lee, Seulki; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Byun, Youngro; Lee, Kang Choon

    2012-09-10

    Transferrin (Tf) is considered an effective tumor-targeting agent, and PEGylation effectively prolongs in vivo pharmacokinetics by delaying excretion via the renal route. The authors describe the active tumor targeting of long-acting Tf-PEG-TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand conjugate (Tf-PEG-TRAIL) for effective cancer therapy. Tf-PEG-TRAIL was prepared using a two-step N-terminal specific PEGylation procedure using different PEGs (Mw: 3.4, 5, 10 kDa). Eventually, only 10 kDa PEG was linked to Tf and TRAIL because TRAIL (66 kDa) and Tf (81 kDa) were too large to link to 3.4 and 5 kDa PEG. The final conjugate Tf-PEG(10K)-TRAIL was successfully purified and characterized by SDS-PAGE, western blotting. To determine the specific binding of Tf-PEG(10K)-TRAIL to Tf receptor, competitive receptor binding assays were performed on K 562 cells. The results obtained demonstrate that the affinity of Tf-PEG(10K)-TRAIL for Tf receptor is similar to that of native Tf. In contrast, PEG(10K)-TRAIL demonstrated no specificity. Biodistribution patterns and antitumor effects were investigated in C57BL6 mice bearing B16F10 murine melanomas and BALB/c athymic mice bearing HCT116. Tumor accumulation of Tf-PEG(10K)-TRAIL was 5.2 fold higher (at 2 h) than TRAIL, because Tf-PEG(10K)-TRAIL has both passive and active tumor targeting ability. Furthermore, the suppression of tumors by Tf-PEG(10K)-TRAIL was 3.6 and 1.5 fold those of TRAIL and PEG(10K)-TRAIL, respectively. These results suggest that Tf-PEG(10K)-TRAIL is a superior pharmacokinetic conjugate that potently targets tumors and that it should be viewed as a potential cancer therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Coating Nanoparticles with Plant-Produced Transferrin-Hydrophobin Fusion Protein Enhances Their Uptake in Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Lauri J.; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Makila, Ermei M.

    2017-01-01

    to a surfactant phase in an aqueous two-phase system, and the transferrin moiety was able to reversibly bind iron. Coating porous silicon nanoparticles with the fusion protein resulted in uptake of the nanoparticles in human cancer cells. This study provides a proof-of concept for the functionalization......The encapsulation of drugs to nanoparticles may offer a solution for targeted delivery. Here, we set out to engineer a self assembling targeting ligand by combining the functional properties of human transferrin and fungal hydrophobins in a single fusion protein. We showed that human transferrin...... of hydrophobin coatings with transferrin as a targeting ligand....

  20. Clinical significance of pretreatment serum levels of VEGF and its receptors, IL- 8, and their prognostic value in type I and II endometrial cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kotowicz

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the usefulness of the determination of cytokines: IL-8, VEGF and its soluble receptors: VEGF-R1, VEGF-R2 in patients with endometrial cancer (EC.The study group consisted of 118 patients with EC subjected to surgical treatment. Before the treatment we determined the serum levels of cytokines IL-8, and VEGF as well as VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 receptors. For comparison, the concentration of CA 125 was also measured. VEGFR1 and CA 125 were determined in the COBAS e601 system using Roche Diagnostics kits, while IL-8, VEGF and VEGFR2 were measured by ELISA assay using R&D Systems kits.The concentrations of IL-8, VEGF, VEGFR1 and CA 125 allowed to distinguish patients for the control group. The highest diagnostic sensitivity has been shown for the concentrations of VEGF (AUC = 0.904 and IL-8 (AUC = 0.818. Among all studied parameters only CA125 concentrations increased with the clinical stage; being significantly higher in patients in FIGO III-IV, than FIGO I-IB. In patients at the FIGO stage I-IB, complementary determinations of CA 125 and VEGF resulted in the largest increase of diagnostic sensitivity. Patients with metastases to the para-aortic lymph nodes had significantly higher levels of VEGF compared to subjects without such lesions. The concentrations of IL-8 were an independent prognostic factor in the assessment of overall survival in patients with type I endometrial cancer, while the concentrations of VEGFR2 in those with type II.In patients with endometrial cancer, the clinical usefulness of IL-8 and VEGFR2 measurements as the potential prognostic factors has been demonstrated. In type I, the concentrations of IL-8 determined before treatment can be helpful in predicting overall survival. In patients qualified to type II EC, the concentrations of VEGFR2 have the value of an independent prognostic factor for overall survival, this requires research on larger groups of patients. The increased levels of VEGF may be useful

  1. Relationship between serum tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 concentration and periodontal destruction in patients with type 2 diabetes: Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić-Petrović Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The role of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα is well documented in pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis (CP and type 2 diabetes (T2D. Considering short half-life of TNFα, tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (TNFR2 is used as prosperous surrogate marker of TNFα activity. Objective. The aim was to detect TNFR2 serum concentration and correlate it with periodontal destruction in patients with diagnosed T2D and nondiabetics. Methods. The study included 85 patients divided into three groups: T2D + CP (group T2D, n = 34; nondiabetics + CP (Group PD, n = 27; and healthy controls (group HC, n = 24. T2D was diagnosed according to WHO criteria (2013 and periodontitis was diagnosed using International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions criteria (1999. TNFR2 level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. There was no difference in TNFR2 level among the groups (Kruskal-Wallis, p = 0.482. Significant correlation (Pearson’s correlation coefficient was observed between clinical attachment loss (CAL and TNFR2 concentration in PD group (rp = -0.460, p = 0.016. In T2D group, correlations were observed between TNFR2 concentration and CAL (rp = 0.363, p = 0.005 and periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA (rp = 0.345, p = 0.046 and periodontal epithelial surface area (PESA (rp = 0.578, p = 0.000. Conclusion. Higher concentration of TNFR2 was associated with higher CAL, PESA, and PISA scores in T2D group. Contrary to that, nondiabetics with higher values of CAL exhibited lower concentration of TNFR2, presenting potential protective effect on periodontal destruction. These results imply that diabetes may alter TNFR2 secretion originated from periodontium. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41008

  2. Increased serum IL-6 level time-dependently regulates hyperalgesia and spinal mu opioid receptor expression during CFA-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekieh, E; Zaringhalam, Jalal; Manaheji, H; Maghsoudi, N; Alani, B; Zardooz, H

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is known to cause pro- and anti-inflammatory effects during different stages of inflammation. Recent therapeutic investigations have focused on treatment of various inflammatory disorders with anti-cytokine substances. As a result, the aim of this study was to further elucidate the influence of IL-6 in hyperalgesia and edema during different stages of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis (AA) in male Wistar rats. AA was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of CFA into the rats' hindpaw. Anti-IL-6 was administered either daily or weekly during the 21 days of study. Spinal mu opioid receptor (mOR) expression was detected by Western blotting. Daily and weekly treatment with an anti-IL-6 antibody significantly decreased paw edema in the AA group compared to the AA control group. Additionally, daily and weekly anti-IL-6 administration significantly reduced hyperalgesia on day 7 in the AA group compared to the AA control group; however, there were significant increases in hyperalgesia in the antibody-treated group on days 14 and 21 compared to the AA control group. IL-6 antibody-induced increases in hyperalgesia on the 14th and 21st days after CFA injection correlated with a time-dependent, significant reduction in spinal mOR expression during anti-IL-6 treatment. Our study confirmed the important time-dependent relationship between serum IL-6 levels and hyperalgesia during AA. These results suggest that the stages of inflammation in AA must be considered for anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory interventions via anti-IL-6 antibody treatment.

  3. Genetic Variability of the High-affinity IgE Receptor α Subunit (Fc ε RI α is Related to Total Serum IgE levels in Allergic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Sanak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Known susceptibility genes to atopy and asthma have been identified by linkage or associations with clinical phenotypes, including total serum IgE levels. IgE-mediated sensitivity reactions require a high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI, which immobilizes the immunoglobulin on the surface of the effector cells, mostly mast cells and basophils. In this mini-review, recent findings are presented on genetic variation of this receptor, as related to atopy. Transcription of FCER1A gene encoding the receptor α subunit can be initiated from two separate promoters, the proximal one and the distal one, which results in a transcript containing two novel untranslated exons (1A, 2A. Our knowledge on the role of this mechanism in allergic diseases is still at an infancy stage. Within regulatory elements of FCER1A some common single nucleotide polymorphisms have functional associations, which were recently reported and replicated in different ethnical groups. Interestingly, these associations do not confer susceptibility to allergic diseases, but rather modulate serum concentrations of IgE. Similarly to the previously investigated β subunit of the receptor, FCER1A is a good candidate for a quantitative trait locus (QTL in allergic diseases, and appears to participate in the systemic regulation of IgE levels.

  4. A unique glycan-isoform of transferrin in cerebrospinal fluid: A potential diagnostic marker for neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Kyoka; Matsumoto, Yuka; Ito, Hiromi; Saito, Kiyoshi; Honda, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro

    2017-10-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is sequestered from blood by the blood-brain barrier and directly communicates with brain parenchymal interstitial fluid, leading to contain specific biomarkers of neurological diseases. CSF contains glycan isoforms of transferrin (Tf): one appears to be derived from the brain and the other from blood. CSF contains two glycan-isoforms; brain-type Tf and serum-type Tf. Glycan analysis and immunohistochemistry suggest that serum-type Tf having α2, 6sialylated glycans is derived from blood whereas brain-type Tf having GlcNAc-terminated glycans is derived from the choroid plexus, CSF producing tissue. The ratio of serum-type/brain-type Tf differentiates Alzheimer's disease from idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, which is an elderly dementia caused by abnormal metabolism of CSF. The ratios in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients were higher than those of controls and did not appear to be normally distributed. Indeed, detrended normal Quantile-Quantile plot analysis reveals the presence of an independent subgroup showing higher ratios in PD patients. The subgroup of PD shows higher levels of CSF α-synuclein than the rest, indicating that PD includes two subgroups, which differ in levels of brain-type Tf and α-synuclein. Glycosylation in central nervous system appears to be unique. The unique glycan may be a tag for glycoprotein, which is biosynthesized in the central nervous system. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Neuro-glycoscience, edited by Kenji Kadomatsu and Hiroshi Kitagawa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  6. Coating Nanoparticles with Plant-Produced Transferrin-Hydrophobin Fusion Protein Enhances Their Uptake in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Lauri J; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Salonen, Jarno J; Saberianfar, Reza; Menassa, Rima; Santos, Hélder A; Joensuu, Jussi J; Ritala, Anneli

    2017-06-21

    The encapsulation of drugs to nanoparticles may offer a solution for targeted delivery. Here, we set out to engineer a self-assembling targeting ligand by combining the functional properties of human transferrin and fungal hydrophobins in a single fusion protein. We showed that human transferrin can be expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants as a fusion with Trichoderma reesei hydrophobins HFBI, HFBII, or HFBIV. Transferrin-HFBIV was further expressed in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells. Both partners of the fusion protein retained their functionality; the hydrophobin moiety enabled migration to a surfactant phase in an aqueous two-phase system, and the transferrin moiety was able to reversibly bind iron. Coating porous silicon nanoparticles with the fusion protein resulted in uptake of the nanoparticles in human cancer cells. This study provides a proof-of-concept for the functionalization of hydrophobin coatings with transferrin as a targeting ligand.

  7. The hereditary hemochromatosis protein, HFE, specifically regulates transferrin-mediated iron uptake in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, C N; Penny, D M; Feder, J N; Enns, C A

    1999-03-26

    HFE is the protein product of the gene mutated in the autosomal recessive disease hereditary hemochromatosis (Feder, J. N., Gnirke, A., Thomas, W., Tsuchihashi, Z., Ruddy, D. A., Basava, A., Dormishian, F., Domingo, R. J., Ellis, M. C., Fullan, A., Hinton, L. M., Jones, N. L., Kimmel, B. E., Kronmal, G. S., Lauer, P., Lee, V. K., Loeb, D. B., Mapa, F. A., McClelland, E., Meyer, N. C., Mintier, G. A., Moeller, N., Moore, T., Morikang, E., Prasss, C. E., Quintana, L., Starnes, S. M., Schatzman, R. C., Brunke, K. J., Drayna, D. T., Risch, N. J., Bacon, B. R., and Wolff, R. R. (1996) Nat. Genet. 13, 399-408). At the cell surface, HFE complexes with transferrin receptor (TfR), increasing the dissociation constant of transferrin (Tf) for its receptor 10-fold (Gross, C. N., Irrinki, A., Feder, J. N., and Enns, C. A. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 22068-22074; Feder, J. N., Penny, D. M., Irrinki, A., Lee, V. K., Lebron, J. A., Watson, N. , Tsuchihashi, Z., Sigal, E., Bjorkman, P. J., and Schatzman, R. C. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 95, 1472-1477). HFE does not remain at the cell surface, but traffics with TfR to Tf-positive internal compartments (Gross et al., 1998). Using a HeLa cell line in which the expression of HFE is controlled by tetracycline, we show that the expression of HFE reduces 55Fe uptake from Tf by 33% but does not affect the endocytic or exocytic rates of TfR cycling. Therefore, HFE appears to reduce cellular acquisition of iron from Tf within endocytic compartments. HFE specifically reduces iron uptake from Tf, as non-Tf-mediated iron uptake from Fe-nitrilotriacetic acid is not altered. These results explain the decreased ferritin levels seen in our HeLa cell system and demonstrate the specific control of HFE over the Tf-mediated pathway of iron uptake. These results also have implications for the understanding of cellular iron homeostasis in organs such as the liver, pancreas, heart, and spleen that are iron loaded in hereditary hemochromatotic

  8. The Effects of Initial Periodontal Therapy on the Serum Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κβ Ligand/Osteoprotegerin System in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing Ling; Meng, Huan Xin; He, Lu; Wang, Xian E; Zhang, Lin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the serum receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its changes after periodontal intervention. Thirty-five patients with CP + T2DM, 35 systemically healthy patients with CP, and 35 healthy controls were enrolled, and serum levels of RANKL and OPG were measured at baseline. Then the CP + T2DM group was divided into a well-controlled subgroup and a poorly controlled subgroup according to their hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and initial periodontal therapy was performed. After 3 months, patients in both subgroups were recalled, and serum RANKL and OPG levels were tested again and compared with the baseline. At baseline, serum levels of OPG in the T2DM + CP group were much lower than in the CP group and healthy controls (197.41 ± 57.05 pg/mL versus 232.60 ± 70.85 pg/mL [CP group] or 244.96 ± 85.13 pg/mL [healthy controls], P periodontal parameters. After periodontal intervention, both the well-controlled and poorly controlled subgroups exhibited significant increases in OPG and decreases in RANKL in serum, and the R/O ratio was also notably reduced. Additionally, the poorly controlled subgroup exhibited a greater reduction in HbA1c and a greater increase in OPG than the well-controlled subgroup. The changing trend in the serum RANKL/OPG system in patients with T2DM + CP was similar to that seen in CP patients and may be even more pronounced. Periodontal intervention effectively improved glucose metabolism and changed the serum RANKL/OPG system regardless of whether patients' HbA1c was well-controlled or poorly controlled over the 3-month observation period.

  9. Toward standardization of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) measurements: II. Performance of a laboratory network running the HPLC candidate reference measurement procedure and evaluation of a candidate reference material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Anders; Wielders, Jos P M; Jeppsson, Jan-Olof; Weykamp, Cas; Siebelder, Carla; Anton, Raymond F; Schellenberg, François; Whitfield, John B

    2010-11-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a descriptive term used for a temporary change in the transferrin glycosylation profile caused by alcohol, and used as a biomarker of chronic high alcohol consumption. The use of an array of methods for measurement of CDT in various absolute or relative amounts, and sometimes covering different transferrin glycoforms, has complicated the comparability of results and caused confusion among medical staff. This situation prompted initiation of an IFCC Working Group on CDT standardization. This second publication of the WG-CDT covers the establishment of a network of reference laboratories running a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) candidate reference measurement procedure, and evaluation of candidate secondary reference materials. The network laboratories demonstrated good and reproducible performance and thus can be used to assign target values for calibrators and controls. A candidate secondary reference material based on native human serum lyophilized with a cryo-/lyoprotectant to prevent protein denaturation was found to be commutable and stable during storage. A proposed strategy for calibration of different CDT methods is also presented. In an external quality assurance study involving 66 laboratories and covering the current routine CDT assays (HPLC, capillary electrophoresis and immunoassay), recalculation of observed results based on the nominal values for the candidate calibrator reduced the overall coefficient of variation from 18.9% to 5.5%. The logistics for distribution of reference materials and review of results were found to be functional, indicating that a full reference system for CDT may soon be available.

  10. A new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based method to quantitate exogenous recombinant transferrin in cerebrospinal fluid: a potential approach for pharmacokinetic studies of transferrin-based therapeutics in the central nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunhai; Bobst, Cedric E; Kaltashov, Igor A

    2015-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is an 80 kDa iron-binding protein that is viewed as a promising drug carrier to target the central nervous system as a result of its ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Among the many challenges during the development of Tf-based therapeutics, the sensitive and accurate quantitation of the administered Tf in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) remains particularly difficult because of the presence of abundant endogenous Tf. Herein, we describe the development of a new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based method for the sensitive and accurate quantitation of exogenous recombinant human Tf in rat CSF. By taking advantage of a His-tag present in recombinant Tf and applying Ni affinity purification, the exogenous human serum Tf can be greatly enriched from rat CSF, despite the presence of the abundant endogenous protein. Additionally, we applied a newly developed (18)O-labeling technique that can generate internal standards at the protein level, which greatly improved the accuracy and robustness of quantitation. The developed method was investigated for linearity, accuracy, precision, and lower limit of quantitation, all of which met the commonly accepted criteria for bioanalytical method validation.

  11. Acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (EhADH2) and clathrin are involved in internalization of human transferrin by Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-López, Magda; Bermúdez-Cruz, Rosa María; Avila, Eva E; de la Garza, Mireya

    2011-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a host glycoprotein capable of binding two ferric-iron ions to become holotransferrin (holoTf), which transports iron in to all cells. Entamoeba histolytica is a parasitic protozoan able to use holoTf as a sole iron source in vitro. The mechanism by which this parasite scavenges iron from holoTf is unknown. An E. histolytica holoTf-binding protein (EhTfbp) was purified by using an anti-human transferrin receptor (TfR) monoclonal antibody. EhTfbp was identified by MS/MS analysis and database searches as E. histolytica acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (EhADH2), an iron-dependent enzyme. Both EhTfbp and EhADH2 bound holoTf and were recognized by the anti-human TfR antibody, indicating that they correspond to the same protein. It was found that the amoebae internalized holoTf through clathrin-coated pits, suggesting that holoTf endocytosis could be important for the parasite during colonization and invasion of the intestinal mucosa and liver.

  12. A Polyethylenimine-Containing and Transferrin-Conjugated Lipid Nanoparticle System for Antisense Oligonucleotide Delivery to AML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited success of antisense oligonucleotides (ASO in clinical anticancer therapy calls for more effective delivery carriers. The goal of this study was to develop a nanoparticle system for delivery of ASO G3139, which targets mRNA of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, to acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells. The synthesized nanoparticle Tf-LPN-G3139 contained a small molecular weight polyethylenimine and two cationic lipids as condensing agents, with transferrin on its surface for selective binding and enhanced cellular uptake. The optimized nitrogen to phosphate (N/P ratio was 4 to achieve small particle size and high G3139 entrapment efficiency. The Tf-LPN-G3139 exhibited excellent colloidal stability during storage for at least 12 weeks and remained intact for 4 hours in nuclease-containing serum. The cellular uptake results showed extensive internalization of fluorescence-labelled G3139 in MV4-11 cells through Tf-LPN. Following transfection, Tf-LPN-G3139 at 1 µM ASO level induced 54% Bcl-2 downregulation and >20-fold apoptosis compared to no treatment. When evaluated in mice bearing human xenograft AML tumors, Tf-LPN-G3139 suppressed tumor growth by ~60% at the end of treatment period, accompanied by remarkable pharmacological effect of Bcl-2 inhibition in tumor. In conclusion, Tf-LPN-G3139 is a promising nanoparticle system for ASO G3139 delivery to AML and warrants further investigations.

  13. Transferrin Family Genes in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Response to Three Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shun-Fan; Li, Jian; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Cong-Fen

    2017-12-19

    Transferrins are involved in iron metabolism, immunity, xenobiotics tolerance, and development in eukaryotic organisms including insects. However, little is known about the relationship between transferrins and insecticide toxicology and resistance. Three transferrin family genes, NlTsf1, NlTsf2, and NlTsf3, of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)a major insect pest of rice field in Asia, had been identified and characterized in this study. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that NlTsf1 was significantly higher than the other two genes in different tissues. All of them were expressed at higher levels in abdomen and head than in antenna, leg, stylet, and thorax. Compared with the control, the expression of three N. lugens transferrin family genes decreased dramatically 24 h after treatment with buprofezin, pymetrozine and imidacloprid. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Effect of Lys656Asn Polymorphism of Leptin Receptor Gene on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Serum Adipokine Levels after a High Polyunsaturated Fat Diet in Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Gonzalez Sagrado, M; Conde, R; de la Fuente, B; Primo, D

    2015-11-01

    Human obesity is characterized by high levels of leptin, and leptin levels may change with weight loss and dietary restriction. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of Lys656Asn polymorphism in the leptin receptor gene on cardiovascular risk factors, weight loss, and serum leptin levels to a high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) hypocaloric diet in obese patients. A sample of 132 obese patients was analyzed in a prospective way with a dietary intervention. The enriched PUFAs hypocaloric intervention consisted in a diet of 1,459 kcal, 45.7% of carbohydrates, 34.4% of lipids, and 19.9% of proteins. In wild-type group, BMI (-1.9 ± 1.4 kg/m(2) ), weight (-4.4 ± 3.2 kg), fat mass (-4.2 ± 3.8 kg), waist circumference (-4.1 ± 3.1 cm), systolic blood pressure (-7.0 ± 12.1 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (-3.9 ± 6.8 mmHg), insulin (-1.8 ± 5.6 MUI/l) and HOMA-IR (-0.5 ± 1.5 Units) decreased. In mutant genotype group, BMI (-2.0 ± 2.1 kg/m(2) ), weight (-3.6 ± 4.1 kg), waist circumference (-3.1 ± 4.1 cm), total cholesterol (-25.2 ± 19.6 mg/dl), LDL cholesterol (-16.6 ± 25.6 mg/dl), and tryglicerides (-26.6 ± 39.1 mg/dl) decreased. Only leptin levels have a significant decrease in wild genotype group (-6.6 ± 10.2 ng/ml) (25.1%). Carriers of ASn656 allele have a different response than wild-type obese, with a lack of decrease in insulin levels, leptin levels, and HOMA-IR. However, obese patients with this mutant allele have a better lipid profile after weight loss. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Prescriptions for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and monitoring of serum creatinine and potassium in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Tzu Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs are commonly used in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We studied the status of ACEI/ARB prescriptions and serum creatinine (Scr and potassium monitoring in CKD patients. A retrospective observational study was conducted on patients who had at least two sets of Scr data at outpatient visit. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR based on the second Scr value was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease four-variable equation. CKD was defined and staged according to the National Kidney Foundation Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative Guideline. Patients with diabetes and/or hypertension with an eGFR over 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and without proteinuria were defined as the CKD-at-risk group. The percentages and factors associated with ACEI/ARB prescription and Scr and potassium monitoring were calculated and analyzed by logistic regression. Among the 5714 subjects included, ACEIs/ARBs were prescribed to over 50% of patients in the CKD-at-risk group and in CKD stages 1–5. After adjusting for age, sex, potassium level, eGFR, and co-morbidities, the odds ratios for prescriptions of ACEIs/ARBs were 1.66 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.44–1.91, p < 0.001 and 2.80 (95% CI 2.12–3.70, p < 0.001 in CKD stage 3, and stages 4 and 5, respectively, compared with the reference group (eGFR≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2. During the year of ACEI/ARB treatment, Scr was monitored in 91.6% of ACEI/ARB-treated patients, while potassium was monitored in only 38.1%. Renal function status was the independent factor for monitoring of Scr and potassium. In conclusion, prescription of ACEIs/ARBs was common in all stages of CKD. Most patients underwent Scr monitoring, but potassium monitoring was less frequent, and this should be improved in clinical practice.

  16. The Transferrin Receptor at the Blood-Brain Barrier - exploring the possibilities for brain drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Corine

    2005-01-01

    There are many diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), like Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy, migraine headache, and HIV infection in the brain. However, treatment is difficult since many drugs cannot reach the brain in sufficient quantities due to

  17. Transferrin receptor-1 and ferritin heavy and light chains in astrocytic brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosager, Ann Mari; Sørensen, Mia D; Dahlrot, Rikke H

    2017-01-01

    /macrophage morphology. Neither FTH nor FTL increased with malignancy grade, but low FTH expression by both tumor cells (p = 0.03) and microglia/macrophages (p = 0.01) correlated with shorter survival in patients anaplastic astrocytoma. FTL-positive microglia/macrophages were frequent in glioblastomas, and high FTL...... levels correlated with shorter survival in the whole cohort (p = 0.01) and in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (p = 0.02). Double-immunofluorescence showed that TfR1, FTH, and FTL were co-expressed to a limited extent with the stem cell-related marker CD133. FTH and FTL were also co-expressed by IBA...... in anaplastic astrocytomas, while high amounts of FTL-positive microglia/macrophages had a negative prognostic value. The results suggest that regulation of the iron metabolism in astrocytic brain tumors is complex involving both autocrine and paracrine signaling....

  18. [Expression of transferrin receptor 2 in mononuclear cells from children with acute leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ling-Li; Gao, Ju; Chen, Ting-Ting; Ma, Zhi-Gui; Guo, Xia; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Li, Qiang; Yuan, Li-Xing

    2009-01-01

    To study the expression of TFR2 mRNA in mononuclear cells of bone marrow and peripheral blood from children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and to explore possible correlations between TFR2 expression and a panel of prognostic/risk factors. Bone marrow or peripheral mononuclear cells were isolated from 56 children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 15 normal children as control. TFR2 mRNA expression level in mononuclear cell was determined by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. Relative expression level of TFR2 mRNA in prednisone good responders (median: 0.0848) was significantly higher than that in prednisone poor responders (median: 0.0126) (P = 0.038). The medians of TFR2 mRNA expression levels in low-risk, moderate-risk and high-risk ALL were 0.1677, 0.0728 and 0.0125 respectively (P = 0.003). The medians of TFR2 mRNA expression levels in three ALL groups with initial WBC counts less than 50 x 10(9)/L, from 50 x 10(9)/L to 100 x 10(9)/L and more than 100 x 10(9)/L were 0.0974, 0.0294 and 0.0078 (P = 0. 013). In addition, the relative TFR2 mRNA level in B-lineage ALL was significantly higher than that in T-ALL, with medians of 0.0636 and 0.0065 respectively (P = 0.004). Ranked correlation analysis revealed that TFR2 expression was negatively correlated to initial white blood cell count, percentage of blast cells and absolute numbers of blasts in peripheral blood, with ranked correlation coefficients of -0.398, -0.307 and 0.421 respectively (correponding P values were 0.003, 0.022 and 0.001). TFR2 might be a novel prognostic factor for ALL.

  19. In Vitro Mouse and Human Serum Stability of a Heterobivalent Dual-Target Probe That Has Strong Affinity to Gastrin-Releasing Peptide and Neuropeptide Y1 Receptors on Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arijit; Raju, Natarajan; Tweedle, Michael; Kumar, Krishan

    2017-02-01

    Receptor-targeting radiolabeled molecular probes with high affinity and specificity are useful in studying and monitoring biological processes and responses. Dual- or multiple-targeting probes, using radiolabeled metal chelates conjugated to peptides, have potential advantages over single-targeting probes as they can recognize multiple targets leading to better sensitivity for imaging and radiotherapy when target heterogeneity is present. Two natural hormone peptide receptors, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and Y1, are specifically interesting as their expression is upregulated in most breast and prostate cancers. One of our goals has been to develop a dual-target probe that can bind both GRP and Y1 receptors. Consequently, a heterobivalent dual-target probe, t-BBN/BVD15-DO3A (where a GRP targeting ligand J-G-Abz4-QWAVGHLM-NH2 and Y1 targeting ligand INP-K [ɛ-J-(α-DO3A-ɛ-DGa)-K] YRLRY-NH2 were coupled), that recognizes both GRP and Y1 receptors was synthesized, purified, and characterized in the past. Competitive displacement cell binding assay studies with the probe demonstrated strong affinity (IC50 values given in parentheses) for GRP receptors in T-47D cells (18 ± 0.7 nM) and for Y1 receptors in MCF7 cells (80 ± 11 nM). As a further evaluation of the heterobivalent dual-target probe t-BBN/BVD15-DO3A, the objective of this study was to determine its mouse and human serum stability at 37°C. The in vitro metabolic degradation of the dual-target probe in mouse and human serum was studied by using a 153Gd-labeled t-BBN/BVD15-DO3A and a high-performance liquid chromatography/radioisotope detector analytical method. The half-life (t1/2) of degradation of the dual-target probe in mouse serum was calculated as 7 hours and only ∼20% degradation was seen after 6 hours incubation in human serum. The slow in vitro metabolic degradation of the dual-target probe can be compared with the degradation t1/2 of the corresponding monomeric probes, BVD15-DO3A

  20. Transferrin-conjugated, fluorescein-loaded magnetic nanoparticles for targeted delivery across the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng; Wang, Ying; He, Shenzhi; Ku, Shuting; Gu, Wei; Ye, Ling

    2013-10-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the delivery of many potentially important therapeutic agents for the treatment of brain disorders. An efficient strategy for brain targeted delivery is the utilization of the targeting ligand conjugated nanoparticles to trigger the receptor-mediated transcytosis. In this study, transferrin (Tf) was employed as a brain targeting ligand to functionalize the fluorescein-loaded magnetic nanoparticles (FMNs). The Tf conjugated FMNs (Tf-FMNs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Using fluorescein as an optical probe, the potential of Tf-FMNs as brain targeting drug carriers was explored in vivo. It was demonstrated that Tf-FMNs were able to cross the intact BBB, diffuse into brain neurons, and distribute in the cytoplasm, dendrites, axons, and synapses of neurons. In contrast, magnetic nanoparticles without Tf conjugation cannot cross the BBB efficiently under the same conditions. Therefore, Tf-FMNs hold great potential in serving as an efficient multifunctional platform for the brain-targeted theranostics.

  1. STUDY OF SERUM HAPTOGLOBIN LEVEL AND ITS RELATION TO ERYTHROPOIETIC ACTIVITY IN BETA THALASSEMIA CHILDREN .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seham Ragab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background  :Serum haptoglobin (Hp is a reliable marker for hemolysis regardless the inflammatory state.  Objective: We investigated the possible relation between Hp depletion and hemolysis severity, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and iron load in β-thalassemia children. Methods: Twenty  two β-thalassemia major (TM ,20 β-thalassemia  intermedia (TI children with 20 age and sex matched healthy controls were involved. Pre-transfusion hemoglobin level was considered . Serum ferritin , Hp  and transferrin receptor  levels (sTfR  (by ELISA , alanine aminotransferase (ALT and  aspartate aminotransferase (AST  (by colorimetric method were assayed. Markers of hepatitis C virus  (HCV  were done by PCR. Results:  The mean Hp levels among the studied groups were as follows; 8.02 ± 0.93 (mg/dl , 8.6 ±0.72 (mg/dl  and 122  ± 18.5(mg/dl   for TM ,TI and the controls respectively . Both patient groups had significantly lower Hp level compared to the controls (P<0.0001  with significant lower level in TM compared to TI  children ( P= 0.034  .Significant inverse correlations were  found between serum Hp and sTfR levels in thalassemia children combined and in each group (TM and TI as well as among HCV infected children. STfR   was the only significant independent predictor for  serum Hp level (t= -5.585 , P<0.0001 . Among  HCV infected patients , no significant correlation was found between serum Hp and serum transaminases  .Conclusion:  Serum Hp depletion in thalassemia had significant relation to disease severity and correlated   well with their erythropoietic activity, as assessed by the measurement of  sTfR without significant relation  HCV infection . Large sample  multicenter studies are  recommended.

  2. G-protein coupled receptor 56 promotes myoblast fusion through serum response factor- and nuclear factor of activated T-cell-mediated signalling but is not essential for muscle development in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Melissa P; Doyle, Jamie R; Barry, Brenda; Beauvais, Ariane; Rozkalne, Anete; Piao, Xianhua; Lawlor, Michael W; Kopin, Alan S; Walsh, Christopher A; Gussoni, Emanuela

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian muscle cell differentiation is a complex process of multiple steps for which many of the factors involved have not yet been defined. In a screen to identify the regulators of myogenic cell fusion, we found that the gene for G-protein coupled receptor 56 (GPR56) was transiently up-regulated during the early fusion of human myoblasts. Human mutations in the gene for GPR56 cause the disease bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria; however, the consequences of receptor dysfunction on muscle development have not been explored. Using knockout mice, we defined the role of GPR56 in skeletal muscle. GPR56(-/-) myoblasts have decreased fusion and smaller myotube sizes in culture. In addition, a loss of GPR56 expression in muscle cells results in decreases or delays in the expression of myogenic differentiation 1, myogenin and nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT)c2. Our data suggest that these abnormalities result from decreased GPR56-mediated serum response element and NFAT signalling. Despite these changes, no overt differences in phenotype were identified in the muscle of GPR56 knockout mice, which presented only a mild but statistically significant elevation of serum creatine kinase compared to wild-type. In agreement with these findings, clinical data from 13 bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria patients revealed mild serum creatine kinase increase in only two patients. In summary, targeted disruption of GPR56 in mice results in myoblast abnormalities. The absence of a severe muscle phenotype in GPR56 knockout mice and human patients suggests that other factors may compensate for the lack of this G-protein coupled receptor during muscle development and that the motor delay observed in these patients is likely not a result of primary muscle abnormalities. © 2013 FEBS.

  3. Superiority of dietary safflower oil over olive oil in lowering serum cholesterol and increasing hepatic mRnas for the LDL receptor and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase in exogenously hypercholesterolemic (exHC) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M; Yoshida, S; Nagao, K; Imaizumi, K

    2000-06-01

    The exogenously hypercholesterolemic (ExHC) rat is a strain segregated from SD rats with a high response to dietary cholesterol. To understand the underlying mechanism(s) for this hypercholesterolemia, the interactive effects of dietary fatty acid and the susceptibility of rats to dietary cholesterol on the serum cholesterol concentration and hepatic mRNA abundance of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (7alpha-hydroxylase) and 3-hydroxyl-3methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA reductase were examined. Both strains were fed on a diet supplemented with 10% each of olive, safflower or coconut oil with or without the addition of 1% cholesterol for one week. The ExHC rats fed on olive, safflower and coconut oil in combination with cholesterol respectively resulted in a 3.5-, 2.0- and 2.1-fold higher serum cholesterol concentration than that in the animals fed on the corresponding dietary fats without any supplementation of cholesterol (p cholesterol or type of fat). The dietary cholesterol dependent-elevation of serum cholesterol in the SD rats was less than 1.5-fold (poil-containing diet supplemented with cholesterol resulted in a higher mRNA abundance of the LDL receptor and 7alpha-hydroxylase than in the corresponding fat-fed rats without cholesterol (pcholesterol-dependent change of mRNA abundance in either strain fed on olive or coconut oil, except for a decreased abundance of HMG CoA reductase mRNA in the olive oil-fed ExHC rats and coconut oil-fed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (pcholesterol and a fatty acid and suggest that a linoleic acid-rich diet may alleviate exogenous hypercholesterolemia by activating the process involved in the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of serum cholesterol.

  4. Association between Serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D Concentration and TaqI Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism among Jordanian Females with Breast Cancer

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    Manar Fayiz Atoum

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: An inverse association was found between 25(OHD serum level and breast cancer risk. Statistical difference was also found between different VDR TaqI genotypes and circulating levels of 25(OHD among Jordanian females with breast cancer.

  5. Association of PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms on estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1 gene to changes into serum lipid profile of post-menopausal women: Effects of aging, body mass index and breast cancer incidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Felix Gomes-Rochette

    Full Text Available Estrogen is a steroidal hormone involved in several physiological functions in the female body including regulation of serum lipid metabolism and breast cancer (BC. Estrogen actions on serum lipids mostly occur through its binding to intracellular Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERalpha isoform, expressed in most of tissues. This gene (ESR1 exhibit many polymorphic sites (SNPs located either on translated and non-translated regions that regulate ERalpha protein expression and function. This paper aimed to investigate the association of two intronic SNPs of ESR1 gene, namely c454-397T>C (PvuII and c454-351A>G (XbaI to alterations in serum levels of total cholesterol (T-chol, total lipid (TL, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and triglycerides (TG in a cohort of post-menopausal women. In addition, we aimed to associate presence of these SNPs to development of BC along 5 years period. To do so, a group of healthy 499, highly miscigenated, post-menopausal Brazilian women, were carried using PCR-FRLP technique and further confirmed by automatic sequence analysis as well followed through 5 years for BC incidence. Measurements of serum lipid profile by standard commercial methods were carried individually whereas Dual Energy X-ray Absorciometry (DXA measured Body Mass Indexes (BMI, Fat Mass (FM, Lean Body Mass (LBM, and Body Water Content (BWC. No effects of PvuII SNP on ESR1 gene were observed on patient´s serum T-chol, TL, LDL, HDL, and TG. However, c454-397T>C PvuII SNP is associated to lower body fat and higher levels of lean mass and body water and lower incidence of BC. On the other hand, statistically significant effect of XbaI c454-351A>G SNP on serum TG and TL levels. Patients homozygous for X allele were followed up from 2010-2015. They showed higher incidence of breast cancer (BC when compared to either heterozygous and any P allele combination. Moreover, the increasing of TG and TL serum concentrations

  6. Association of PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms on estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene to changes into serum lipid profile of post-menopausal women: Effects of aging, body mass index and breast cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Rochette, Neuza Felix; Souza, Letícia Soncini; Tommasi, Bruno Otoni; Pedrosa, Diego França; Eis, Sérgio Ragi; Fin, Irani do Carmo Francischetto; Vieira, Fernando Luiz Herkenhoff; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; Rangel, Letícia Batista Azevedo; Silva, Ian Victor

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen is a steroidal hormone involved in several physiological functions in the female body including regulation of serum lipid metabolism and breast cancer (BC). Estrogen actions on serum lipids mostly occur through its binding to intracellular Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERalpha) isoform, expressed in most of tissues. This gene (ESR1) exhibit many polymorphic sites (SNPs) located either on translated and non-translated regions that regulate ERalpha protein expression and function. This paper aimed to investigate the association of two intronic SNPs of ESR1 gene, namely c454-397T>C (PvuII) and c454-351A>G (XbaI) to alterations in serum levels of total cholesterol (T-chol), total lipid (TL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides (TG) in a cohort of post-menopausal women. In addition, we aimed to associate presence of these SNPs to development of BC along 5 years period. To do so, a group of healthy 499, highly miscigenated, post-menopausal Brazilian women, were carried using PCR-FRLP technique and further confirmed by automatic sequence analysis as well followed through 5 years for BC incidence. Measurements of serum lipid profile by standard commercial methods were carried individually whereas Dual Energy X-ray Absorciometry (DXA) measured Body Mass Indexes (BMI), Fat Mass (FM), Lean Body Mass (LBM), and Body Water Content (BWC). No effects of PvuII SNP on ESR1 gene were observed on patient´s serum T-chol, TL, LDL, HDL, and TG. However, c454-397T>C PvuII SNP is associated to lower body fat and higher levels of lean mass and body water and lower incidence of BC. On the other hand, statistically significant effect of XbaI c454-351A>G SNP on serum TG and TL levels. Patients homozygous for X allele were followed up from 2010-2015. They showed higher incidence of breast cancer (BC) when compared to either heterozygous and any P allele combination. Moreover, the increasing of TG and TL serum concentrations

  7. Increased brain uptake of targeted nanoparticles by adding an acid-cleavable linkage between transferrin and the nanoparticle core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew J; Davis, Mark E

    2015-10-06

    Most therapeutic agents are excluded from entering the central nervous system by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Receptor mediated transcytosis (RMT) is a common mechanism used by proteins, including transferrin (Tf), to traverse the BBB. Here, we prepared Tf-containing, 80-nm gold nanoparticles with an acid-cleavable linkage between the Tf and the nanoparticle core to facilitate nanoparticle RMT across the BBB. These nanoparticles are designed to bind to Tf receptors (TfRs) with high avidity on the blood side of the BBB, but separate from their multidentate Tf-TfR interactions upon acidification during the transcytosis process to allow release of the nanoparticle into the brain. These targeted nanoparticles show increased ability to cross an in vitro model of the BBB and, most important, enter the brain parenchyma of mice in greater amounts in vivo after systemic administration compared with similar high-avidity nanoparticles containing noncleavable Tf. In addition, we investigated this design with nanoparticles containing high-affinity antibodies (Abs) to TfR. With the Abs, the addition of the acid-cleavable linkage provided no improvement to in vivo brain uptake for Ab-containing nanoparticles, and overall brain uptake was decreased for all Ab-containing nanoparticles compared with Tf-containing ones. These results are consistent with recent reports of high-affinity anti-TfR Abs trafficking to the lysosome within BBB endothelium. In contrast, high-avidity, Tf-containing nanoparticles with the acid-cleavable linkage avoid major endothelium retention by shedding surface Tf during their transcytosis.

  8. TRANSFERRIN POLYMORPHISM IN FOUR LOCAL BREEDS OF GOAT IN CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA

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    E. Kurnianto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the gene frequency and individual heterozygosity oftransferrin in four local breeds of goat in Central Java-Indonesia. The number of blood samples weretaken from 96 heads of goat, in which each of breeds were 24 samples, those were Kejobong(Purbalingga regency, Ettawa Grade (Purworejo regency, Kacang (Grobogan regency and Jawarandu(Pemalang regency. Polyacrilamide Gel Electrophoresis was performed to detect the bands of bloodplasm protein. Gen frequency was calculated using general formula of population genetics. Estimatedheterozygosity and individual heterosizygosity were calculated to analysis the equilibrium condition oftransferrin. Result showed there was two allele of transferrin, namely TfA and TfB. Gene frequency ofTfA was higher than that of TfB. Transferrin gene and genotypes were in disequilibrium of Hardy-Weinberg Law.

  9. Transferrin: evidence for two common subtypes of the TfC allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnl, P; Spielmann, W

    1978-07-12

    Evidence is presented for an extended polymorphism of human transferrin (Tf). Three common phenotypes were observed among TfC individuals after isoelectric focusing of sera on polyacrylamide gels. They are explained in terms of two subtypes of the TfC allele, tentatively designated TfC1 and TfC2. The distribution of the phenotypes Tf C1, C2-1, and C2 provides a good fit to the Hardy-Weinberg equation. In our population sample (n = 942) the following frequencies were calculated: TfC1 = 0.8195, TfC2 = 0.1720, TfB2 = 0.0064, TfB1-2 = 0.0016, and TfD1 = 0.0005. Family studies (n = 112) indicate an autosomal codominant way of inheritance. The observed subheterogeneity is detectable in purified transferrin after isofocusing and subsequent immunofixation. The subtypes are still present after treatment of sera with neuraminidase.

  10. Association between GH receptor polymorphism (exon 3 deletion), serum IGF1, semen quality, and reproductive hormone levels in 838 healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, M; Jensen, Rikke Bodin; Jørgensen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    -binding globulin, and IGF1 were not associated with GHRd3 genotype. A twofold increase in serum IGF1 was associated with a 13% (4-23) increase in calculated free testosterone (P=0.004). By contrast IGF1 was inversely associated with serum inhibin-B (P=0.027), but showed no associations to semen quality. GHR......=467) GHRd3/d3 homozygous individuals (n=69) tended to have larger semen volume (3.2 (2.4-4.3) vs 3.6 (2.6-4.7) ml, P=0.053) and higher serum inhibin-B levels (208 pg/ml (158-257) vs 227 pg/ml (185-264), P=0.050). Semen quality, levels of gonadotropins, testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone...

  11. Transferrin hypoglycosylation in hereditary fructose intolerance: using the clues and avoiding the pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, M; Płoski, R; Rokicki, D; Morava, E; Gizewska, M; Mierzewska, H; Pollak, A; Lefeber, D J; Wevers, R A; Pronicka, E

    2007-06-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is caused by a deficiency of aldolase B due to mutations of the ALDOB gene. The disease poses diagnostic problems because of unspecific clinical manifestations. We report three cases of HFI all of whom had a chronic disease with neurological, nephrological or gastroenterological symptoms, whereas nutritional fructose intolerance, the pathognomonic sign of HFI, was apparent only in retrospect. In all patients a hypoglycosylated pattern of transferrin isoforms was found but was misinterpreted as a sign of CDG Ix. The correct diagnosis was achieved with marked delay (26, 36 and 24 months, respectively) by sequencing of the ALDOB gene two common mutations were identified on both alleles or on one (A150P/A175D, A150P/-, and A150P/A175D). The diagnosis was further supported by normalization of transferrin isoforms on a fructose-free diet. Data available in two patients showed that following the fructose restriction the type I pattern of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin detectable on fructose-containing diet disappeared after 3-4 weeks. These cases illustrate that in the first years of life HFI may show misleading variability in clinical presentation and that protein glycosylation analysis such as transferrin isofocusing may give important diagnostic clues. However, care should be taken not to misinterpret the abnormal results as CDG Ix as well as to remember that a normal profile does not exclude HFI due to the possibility of spontaneous fructose restriction in the diet. The presented data also emphasize the usefulness of ALDOB mutation screening for diagnosis of HFI.

  12. Interspecies variations in Bordetella catecholamine receptor gene regulation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickman, Timothy J; Suhadolc, Ryan J; Armstrong, Sandra K

    2015-12-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica can use catecholamines to obtain iron from transferrin and lactoferrin via uptake pathways involving the BfrA, BfrD, and BfrE outer membrane receptor proteins, and although Bordetella pertussis has the bfrD and bfrE genes, the role of these genes in iron uptake has not been demonstrated. In this study, the bfrD and bfrE genes of B. pertussis were shown to be functional in B. bronchiseptica, but neither B. bronchiseptica bfrD nor bfrE imparted catecholamine utilization to B. pertussis. Gene fusion analyses found that expression of B. bronchiseptica bfrA was increased during iron starvation, as is common for iron receptor genes, but that expression of the bfrD and bfrE genes of both species was decreased during iron limitation. As shown previously for B. pertussis, bfrD expression in B. bronchiseptica was also dependent on the BvgAS virulence regulatory system; however, in contrast to the case in B. pertussis, the known modulators nicotinic acid and sulfate, which silence Bvg-activated genes, did not silence expression of bfrD in B. bronchiseptica. Further studies using a B. bronchiseptica bvgAS mutant expressing the B. pertussis bvgAS genes revealed that the interspecies differences in bfrD modulation are partly due to BvgAS differences. Mouse respiratory infection experiments determined that catecholamine utilization contributes to the in vivo fitness of B. bronchiseptica and B. pertussis. Additional evidence of the in vivo importance of the B. pertussis receptors was obtained from serologic studies demonstrating pertussis patient serum reactivity with the B. pertussis BfrD and BfrE proteins. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Serum level of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor is a strong and independent predictor of survival in human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, N; Sier, C.F.M.; Ullum, H

    2000-01-01

    -Meier and Cox regression analyses, the serum suPAR levels were correlated to survival with AIDS-related death as the end point. High levels of serum suPAR (greater than median) were associated with poor overall survival, and Kaplan-Meier analysis on patients stratified by suPAR level demonstrated a continuous...... increase in mortality rates with higher suPAR levels. After adjustment for accepted prognostic markers-including Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-defined clinical stages, CD4 counts, viral load, beta2-microglobulin, and age-the prognostic strength of suPAR remained highly significant, indicating...

  14. The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, G; Hayashi, I

    1976-12-01

    The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media. (Reemplazo del suero por hormonas en el medio de cultivo de células). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 120-121, 1976. The serum used in cell culture media can be replaced by a mixture of hormones and some accesory blood factors. The pituitary cell line GH3 can be grown in a medium in which serum is replaced by triiodothyronine, transferrin, parathormone, tyrotrophin releasing hormone and somatomedins. Hela and BHK cell strains can also be grown in serum free medium supplemented with hormones. Each cell type appears to have different hormonal requirements yet it may found that some hormones are required for most cell types.

  15. Transferrin gene polymorphisms and population genetic studies of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua

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    Berhan Asmamaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the cod transferrin gene by comparing the sequences from Norwegian (North East Atlantic Ocean and Canadian (North West Atlantic Ocean specimen, and to quantify the genetic variation and differentiation in East and West Atlantic cod populations. Methods: cDNA sequences between individuals of Canadian (North West Atlantic Ocean and Norwegian (North East Atlantic Ocean origin were aligned. Allele frequencies of the SNPs were used to discriminate the different Atlantic cod populations in West/East Atlantic Ocean, and the Baltic Sea. Results: The sequence alignment detected 19 SNPs, of which 18 of them resulted in amino acid changes in the transferrin protein. Nonsynonymous to synonymous site substitution ratio (dn/ ds was by far greater than 1 providing an evidence for the existence of positive selection. The West Atlantic cod populations showed high values of heterozygosity and the Baltic populations were found to be inbred. Conclusions: This study identified and indicated transferrin gene polymorphisms that can be used for population differentiations.

  16. Fibroblast growth factor is associated to left ventricular mass index, anemia and low values of transferrin saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, Baris; Yayar, Ozlem; Buyukbakkal, Mehmet; Erdogan, Bulent; Ercan, Zafer; Merhametsiz, Ozgur; Haspulat, Ayhan; Oğuz, Ebru Gök; Dogan, İbrahim; Canbakan, Basol; Ayli, M Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is a phosphorus-regulating hormone. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), circulating FGF-23 levels are markedly elevated and independently associated with mortality. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a potent risk factor for mortality in CKD, and FGFs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of myocardial hypertrophy. In addition, the effect of anemia on CV disease and LVH is well known in CKD. A relation between iron and FGF-23 metabolism is mentioned in a few studies. The aim of this study was to test the association of FGF-23 levels with echocardiographic (ECHO) and iron parameters in peritoneal dialysis patients (PD). In this cross-sectional study, 61 subjects with PD (29 women and 32 men, mean age: 46.9±13.3 years, mean PD vintage: 69.5±39 months) underwent echocardiograms to assess left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Medical treatments and average values of the basic laboratory results of the last 6 months for all patients were recorded. Serum FGF-23 concentrations were measured using intact FGF-23 (iFGF-23) human enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELİSA) kit. According to the median levels of serum FGF-23 the patients were grouped into two (FGF-23 high and low groups). Significant positive correlation was recorded between serum FGF-23 levels and LVMI (P=0.023). There was also significant difference in terms of hemoglobin (12.1±2 versus 11.0±2, P=0.017), transferrin saturation (TSAT) (24.9±16.8 versus 19.5±10.8, P=0.042) between low and high FGF-23 group. Also in linear regression analysis the negative relation between FGF-23 and hemoglobin is persisted (r=0.199, P=0.045). FGF-23 is associated with LVMI, anemia and low TSAT in patients with PD. Whether increased FGF-23 is a marker or a potential mechanism of myocardial hypertrophy and anemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requires further study. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights

  17. Statin Treatment Is Associated with Reduction in Serum Levels of Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand and Neutrophil Activation in Patients with Severe Carotid Stenosis

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    Sébastien Lenglet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic and intraplaque biomarkers have been widely investigated in clinical cohorts as promising surrogate parameters of cardiovascular vulnerability. In this pilot study, we investigated if systemic and intraplaque levels of calcification biomarkers were affected by treatment with a statin in a cohort of patients with severe carotid stenosis and being asymptomatic for ischemic stroke. Patients on statin therapy had reduced serum osteopontin (OPN, RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG ratio, and MMP-9/pro-MMP-9 activity as compared to untreated patients. Statin-treated patients exhibited increased levels of collagen and reduced neutrophil infiltration in downstream portions of carotid plaques as compared to untreated controls. In upstream plaque portions, OPG content was increased in statin-treated patients as compared to controls. Other histological parameters (such as lipid, macrophage, smooth muscle cell, and MMP-9 content as well as RANKL, RANK, and OPG mRNA levels did not differ between the two patient groups. Serum RANKL/OPG ratio positively correlated with serum levels of neutrophilic products, intraplaque neutrophil, and MMP-9 content within downstream portions of carotid plaques. In conclusion, statin treatment was associated with improvement in serum RANKL levels and reduced neutrophil activity both systemically and in atherosclerotic plaques.

  18. Leptin receptor (Ob-R) mRNA expression and serum leptin concentration in patients with colorectal and metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkasap, N; Ozkurt, M; Erkasap, S; Yasar, F; Uzuner, K; Ihtiyar, E; Uslu, S; Kara, M; Bolluk, O

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of leptin on the progression of colorectal carcinoma to metastatic disease by analyzing the serum leptin concentration and Ob-R gene expression in colon cancer tissues. Tissue samples were obtained from 31 patients who underwent surgical resection for colon (18 cases) and metastatic colon (13 cases) cancer. Serum leptin concentration was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Ob-R mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for both groups. ELISA data were analyzed by the Student t-test and RT-PCR data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. RT-PCR results demonstrated that mRNA expression of Ob-R in human metastatic colorectal cancer was higher than in local colorectal cancer tissues. On the other hand, mean serum leptin concentration was significantly higher in local colorectal cancer patients compared to patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The results of the present study suggest a role for leptin in the progression of colon cancer to metastatic disease without weight loss. In other words, significantly increased Ob-R mRNA expression and decreased serum leptin concentration in patients with metastatic colon cancer indicate that sensitization to leptin activity may be a major indicator of metastasis to the colon tissue and the determination of leptin concentration and leptin gene expression may be used to aid the diagnosis.

  19. Leptin receptor (Ob-R mRNA expression and serum leptin concentration in patients with colorectal and metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Erkasap

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of leptin on the progression of colorectal carcinoma to metastatic disease by analyzing the serum leptin concentration and Ob-R gene expression in colon cancer tissues. Tissue samples were obtained from 31 patients who underwent surgical resection for colon (18 cases and metastatic colon (13 cases cancer. Serum leptin concentration was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Ob-R mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for both groups. ELISA data were analyzed by the Student t-test and RT-PCR data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. RT-PCR results demonstrated that mRNA expression of Ob-R in human metastatic colorectal cancer was higher than in local colorectal cancer tissues. On the other hand, mean serum leptin concentration was significantly higher in local colorectal cancer patients compared to patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The results of the present study suggest a role for leptin in the progression of colon cancer to metastatic disease without weight loss. In other words, significantly increased Ob-R mRNA expression and decreased serum leptin concentration in patients with metastatic colon cancer indicate that sensitization to leptin activity may be a major indicator of metastasis to the colon tissue and the determination of leptin concentration and leptin gene expression may be used to aid the diagnosis.

  20. Leptin receptor (Ob-R mRNA expression and serum leptin concentration in patients with colorectal and metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Erkasap

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of leptin on the progression of colorectal carcinoma to metastatic disease by analyzing the serum leptin concentration and Ob-R gene expression in colon cancer tissues. Tissue samples were obtained from 31 patients who underwent surgical resection for colon (18 cases and metastatic colon (13 cases cancer. Serum leptin concentration was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Ob-R mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for both groups. ELISA data were analyzed by the Student t-test and RT-PCR data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. RT-PCR results demonstrated that mRNA expression of Ob-R in human metastatic colorectal cancer was higher than in local colorectal cancer tissues. On the other hand, mean serum leptin concentration was significantly higher in local colorectal cancer patients compared to patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The results of the present study suggest a role for leptin in the progression of colon cancer to metastatic disease without weight loss. In other words, significantly increased Ob-R mRNA expression and decreased serum leptin concentration in patients with metastatic colon cancer indicate that sensitization to leptin activity may be a major indicator of metastasis to the colon tissue and the determination of leptin concentration and leptin gene expression may be used to aid the diagnosis.

  1. Leptin receptor (Ob-R) mRNA expression and serum leptin concentration in patients with colorectal and metastatic colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkasap, N.; Ozkurt, M. [Department of Physiology, Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey); Erkasap, S.; Yasar, F. [Department of General Surgery, Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey); Uzuner, K. [Department of Physiology, Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey); Ihtiyar, E. [Department of General Surgery, Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey); Uslu, S.; Kara, M. [Department of Biochemistry, Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey); Bolluk, O. [Department of Biostatistics, Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2013-03-19

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of leptin on the progression of colorectal carcinoma to metastatic disease by analyzing the serum leptin concentration and Ob-R gene expression in colon cancer tissues. Tissue samples were obtained from 31 patients who underwent surgical resection for colon (18 cases) and metastatic colon (13 cases) cancer. Serum leptin concentration was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Ob-R mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for both groups. ELISA data were analyzed by the Student t-test and RT-PCR data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. RT-PCR results demonstrated that mRNA expression of Ob-R in human metastatic colorectal cancer was higher than in local colorectal cancer tissues. On the other hand, mean serum leptin concentration was significantly higher in local colorectal cancer patients compared to patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The results of the present study suggest a role for leptin in the progression of colon cancer to metastatic disease without weight loss. In other words, significantly increased Ob-R mRNA expression and decreased serum leptin concentration in patients with metastatic colon cancer indicate that sensitization to leptin activity may be a major indicator of metastasis to the colon tissue and the determination of leptin concentration and leptin gene expression may be used to aid the diagnosis.

  2. Association of transferrin genotypes and production traits of Holstein-Friesian cows in Vojvodina

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    Dragomir Lukač

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify genotypes of transferrin, evaluate their frequency in popula¬tion of Holstein-Friesian cows, and to study association of transferrin genotypes with productivity of cows. Blood samples were collected from 249 healthy adult Holstein cows, daughters of 18 sires, reared at farm in Vojvodina. The nine transferrin (Tf genotypes were identified: three (transferrin AA, D1D1 and D2D2 of these were homozygous and the remaining six (transferrin AD1, AD2, AE, D1D2, D1E and D2E heterozygous. The frequencies of genotypes AD2, D1D2, D2D2 and AD1 were 0.29, 0.20, 0.17, and 0.11, respectively, while the other genotypes had frequencies below 0.11. The frequency of alleles A, D1, D2 and E, which was derived from the frequency of genotypes, was 0.30 for allele A, 0.19 for allele D1, 0.45 for allele D2 and 0.06 for allele E. In the analyzed population, cows Tf genotype D2E, AD2, D2D2, and D1D2 had the highest average of milk and milk fat yield in the first three standard lactation, while cows genotype AA, AD1 and D1E had the least amount. Analysis of variance showed that Tf genotype had a non-significant effect in the case of milk fat. However, cows which showed the highest performance for milk fat yield in three standard lactations were phenovarients Tf D2E, AD2, D2D2 and D1D2 in the analyzed population. Based on these results, the general conclusion can be made that the cows with Tf genotype AD2 recorded best results in all observed traits, and that cows which were heterozygous for Tf gene had higher milk yield and milk fat than the cows homozygous for Tf gene.

  3. Physiologic cold shock of Moraxella catarrhalis affects the expression of genes involved in the iron acquisition, serum resistance and immune evasion

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    Schaller André

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moraxella catarrhalis, a major nasopharyngeal pathogen of the human respiratory tract, is exposed to rapid downshifts of environmental temperature when humans breathe cold air. It was previously shown that the prevalence of pharyngeal colonization and respiratory tract infections caused by M. catarrhalis are greatest in winter. The aim of this study was to investigate how M. catarrhalis uses the physiologic exposure to cold air to upregulate pivotal survival systems in the pharynx that may contribute to M. catarrhalis virulence. Results A 26°C cold shock induces the expression of genes involved in transferrin and lactoferrin acquisition, and enhances binding of these proteins on the surface of M. catarrhalis. Exposure of M. catarrhalis to 26°C upregulates the expression of UspA2, a major outer membrane protein involved in serum resistance, leading to improved binding of vitronectin which neutralizes the lethal effect of human complement. In contrast, cold shock decreases the expression of Hemagglutinin, a major adhesin, which mediates B cell response, and reduces immunoglobulin D-binding on the surface of M. catarrhalis. Conclusion Cold shock of M. catarrhalis induces the expression of genes involved in iron acquisition, serum resistance and immune evasion. Thus, cold shock at a physiologically relevant temperature of 26°C induces in M. catarrhalis a complex of adaptive mechanisms that enables the bacterium to target their host cellular receptors or soluble effectors and may contribute to enhanced growth, colonization and virulence.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of tumor-targeted copolymer nanocarrier modified by transferrin

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    Liu R

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ran Liu,1,2 Yonglu Wang,1,3 Xueming Li,3 Wen Bao,1,2 Guohua Xia,1,2 Wei Chen,3 Jian Cheng,1,2 Yuanlong Xu,3 Liting Guo,1,2 Baoan Chen1,21Department of Hematology (Key Department of Jiangsu Medicine, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, 2Faculty of Oncology, Medical School, Southeast University, 3College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: To increase the encapsulation of hydrophilic antitumor agent daunorubicin (DNR and multidrug resistance reversal agent tetrandrine (Tet in the drug delivery system of nanoparticles (NPs, a functional copolymer NP composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA, poly-l-lysine (PLL, and polyethylene glycol (PEG was synthesized and then loaded with DNR and Tet simultaneously to construct DNR/Tet–PLGA–PLL–PEG-NPs using a modified double-emulsion solvent evaporation/diffusion method. And to increase the targeted antitumor effect, DNR/Tet–PLGA–PLL–PEG-NPs were further modified with transferrin (Tf due to its specific binding to Tf receptors (TfR, which is highly expressed on the surface of tumor cells. In this study, the influence of the diversity of formulation parameters was investigated systematically, such as drug loading, mean particle size, molecular weight, the concentration of PLGA–PLL–PEG–Tf, volume ratio of acetone to dichloromethane, the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA in the external aqueous phase, the volume ratio of the internal aqueous phase to the external aqueous phase, and the type of surfactants in the internal aqueous phase. Meanwhile, its possible effect on cell viability was evaluated. Our results showed that the regular spherical DNR/Tet–PLGA–PLL–PEG–Tf-NPs with a smooth surface, a relatively low polydispersity index, and a diameter of 213.0±12.0 nm could be produced. The encapsulation efficiency was 70.23%±1.91% for DNR and 86.5%±0.70% for Tet, the moderate drug loading was 3.63%±0.15% for DNR and 4

  5. Normalization of serum calcium by cinacalcet in a patient with hypercalcaemia due to a de novo inactivating mutation of the calcium-sensing receptor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Karperien, M.; Hamdy, N.A.; Boer, H. de; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Familial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH) results from a heterozygous inactivating mutation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) and is characterized by hypercalcaemia, hypocalciuria and inappropriately normal plasma levels of parathyroid hormone. In a minority of patients, a loss of

  6. Influence of corticosteroid pulse therapy on the serum levels of soluble interleukin 2 receptor, interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, H. R.; van Wijk, M. J.; Geertzen, R. G.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the influence of corticosteroid pulse (CP) therapy on soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty-five patients with active RA were studied before and after treatment with intravenous CP

  7. Detection of R576 interleukin-4 receptor αn allele gene, serum interleukin-4, and eosinophilic cationic protein in atopic dermatitis patients

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    Abdel-Mawla M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic pruritic skin disease. It results from a complex interplay between strong genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this work was to study some biochemical markers of the dermatosis. This included detection of R576 interleukin-4 receptor alpha allele gene. Twenty five patients with AD and 25 controls participated in this study.

  8. Lack of associations between serum leptin, a polymorphism in the gene for the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor and glucose tolerance in the Dutch population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, JAMJL; Koper, JW; Stolk, RP; Englaro, P; Uitterlinden, AG; Huang, Q; van Leeuwen, JPTM; Blum, WF; Attanasio, AMF; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE; de Jong, FH; Lamberts, SWJ

    BACKGROUND The associations between leptin levels and the prevalence of a polymorphism in the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor were studied in a cross-sectional analysis of 600 participants in a population-based study, which were stratified for glucose tolerance by an oral glucose tolerance test. METHODS

  9. Cinnamon intake reduces serum T3 level and modulates tissue-specific expression of thyroid hormone receptor and target genes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaique, Thaiane G; Lopes, Bruna P; Souza, Luana L; Paula, Gabriela S M; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C; Oliveira, Karen J

    2016-06-01

    Cinnamon has several effects on energy metabolism. However, no data exist on the impact of cinnamon intake on thyroid hormone serum concentrations and action, since thyroid hormones (THs) play a major role in metabolism. Male rats were treated with cinnamon water extract (400 mg kg(-1) body weight, 25 days). Cinnamon supplementation resulted in a lower serum total T3 level accompanied by normal serum T4 and TSH levels. The cinnamon-treated rats did not exhibit significant differences in TSHβ subunit, TRβ or deiodinase type 2 mRNA expression in the pituitary. In the liver, cinnamon did not change the TRβ protein expression or the deiodinase type 1 mRNA expression, suggesting that there were no changes in T3 signaling or metabolism in this organ. However, mitochondrial GPDH, a target gene for T3 in the liver, exhibited no changes in mRNA expression, although its activity level was reduced by cinnamon. In the cardiac ventricle, T3 action was markedly reduced by cinnamon, as demonstrated by the lower TRα mRNA and protein levels, reduced SERCA2a and RyR2 and increased phospholamban mRNA expression. This study has revealed that TH action is a novel target of cinnamon, demonstrating impairment of T3 signaling in the cardiac ventricles. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Skeletal Muscle Estrogen Receptor Activation in Response to Eccentric Exercise Up-Regulates Myogenic-Related Gene Expression Independent of Differing Serum Estradiol Levels Occurring during the Human Menstrual Cycle

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    Mackenzie Haines, Sarah K. McKinley-Barnard, Thomas L. Andre, Josh J. Gann, Paul S. Hwang, Darryn S. Willoughby

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine if the differences in serum estradiol we have previously observed to occur during the mid-follicular (MF and mid-luteal (ML phases of the female menstrual cycle could be attributed to estrogen-induced receptor activation and subsequent effects on myogenic-related genes which may otherwise impact muscle regeneration in response to eccentric exercise. Twenty-two physically-active females (20.9 ± 1.4 years, 63.5 ± 9.0 kg, 1.65 ± 0.08 m underwent an eccentric exercise bout of the knee extensors during the MF and ML phases of their 28-day menstrual cycle. Prior to (PRE, at 6 (6HRPOST, and 24 (24HRPOST hours post-exercise for each session, participants had muscle biopsies obtained. Skeletal muscle estradiol and estrogen receptor-α (ER-α content and ER-DNA binding were determined with ELISA. Real-time PCR was used to assess ER-α, Myo-D, and cyclin D1 mRNA expression. Data were analyzed utilizing a 2 x 3 repeated measures univariate analyses of variance (ANOVA for each criterion variable (p ≤ .05. Skeletal muscle estradiol levels were not significantly impacted by either menstrual phase (p > 0.05; however, both ER-α mRNA and protein were significantly increased during MF (p < 0.05. ER-DNA binding and Myo-D mRNA expression increased significantly in both menstrual phases in response to exercise but were not different from one another; however, cyclin D1 mRNA expression was significantly greater during MF. This study demonstrates that skeletal muscle ER-α activation in response to eccentric exercise up-regulates myogenic-related gene expression independent of serum estradiol levels occurring during the human menstrual cycle.

  11. Ankylosing Spondylitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: Serum Levels of TNF-α and Its Soluble Receptors during the Course of Therapy with Etanercept and Infliximab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the TNF-α blockers infliximab or etanercept on the levels of TNF-α, TNF-receptor 1 (TNF-R1), and TNF-receptor 2 (TNF-R2), as well as the levels of the inflammation markers CRP and IL-6, were measured in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients receiving treatment with either compound. We found that RA patients tend to have higher levels of TNF-α than both healthy individuals and AS patients prior to treatment (P etanercept patient groups during the course of treatment, while in the infliximab treated patients, the amount of TNF-α measured remained unchanged. Elevated TNF-α in the etanercept treated patients does not appear to be a significant risk factor for the spontaneous development of further autoimmune diseases in our study group. Increased levels of TNF-R1 were determined in both AS (P etanercept (P < 0.001). In contrast, the levels of this receptor remained unchanged in RA patients treated with either compound. PMID:24783218

  12. Oxidation by neutrophils-derived HOCl increases immunogenicity of proteins by converting them into ligands of several endocytic receptors involved in antigen uptake by dendritic cells and macrophages.

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    Rafał Biedroń

    Full Text Available The initiation of adaptive immune responses to protein antigens has to be preceded by their uptake by antigen presenting cells and intracellular proteolytic processing. Paradoxically, endocytic receptors involved in antigen uptake do not bind the majority of proteins, which may be the main reason why purified proteins stimulate at most weak immune responses. A shared feature of different types of adjuvants, capable of boosting immunogenicity of protein vaccines, is their ability to induce acute inflammation, characterized by early influx of activated neutrophils. Neutrophils are also rapidly recruited to sites of tissue injury or infection. These cells are the source of potent oxidants, including hypochlorous acid (HOCl, causing oxidation of proteins present in inflammatory foci. We demonstrate that oxidation of proteins by endogenous, neutrophils-derived HOCl increases their immunogenicity. Upon oxidation, different, randomly chosen simple proteins (yeast alcohol dehydrogenase, human and bovine serum albumin and glycoproteins (human apo-transferrin, ovalbumin gain the ability to bind with high affinity to several endocytic receptors on antigen presenting cells, which seems to be the major mechanism of their increased immunogenicity. The mannose receptor (CD206, scavenger receptors A (CD204 and CD36 were responsible for the uptake and presentation of HOCl-modified proteins by murine dendritic cells and macrophages. Other scavenger receptors, SREC-I and LOX-1, as well as RAGE were also able to bind HOCl-modified proteins, but they did not contribute significantly to these ligands uptake by dendritic cells because they were either not expressed or exhibited preference for more heavily oxidised proteins. Our results indicate that oxidation by neutrophils-derived HOCl may be a physiological mechanism of conferring immunogenicity on proteins which in their native forms do not bind to endocytic receptors. This mechanism might enable the immune system

  13. Effects of Glycyrrhizic Acid on Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ, Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL, Serum Lipid and HOMA-IR in Rats

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    Chia Yoke Yin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on ligand binding potential of glycyrrhizic acid, a potential agonist to PPARγ, displayed encouraging results in amelioration of metabolic syndrome. The regulation of gene cassettes by PPARγ affects glucose homeostasis, lipid, lipoprotein metabolism and adipogenesis. This study was performed to determine the effects of GA on total PPARγ and LPL expression levels, lipid parameters and HOMA-IR. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg GA for 24 hours resulted in an increase in insulin sensitivity with decreases in blood glucose, serum insulin and HOMA-IR. Improvement in serum lipid parameters was also observed with a decrease in triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and an elevation in HDL-cholesterol. GA administration also resulted in up-regulation of total PPARγ and LPL expression levels in the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, abdominal and quadriceps femoris muscles, as well as liver and kidney, with a significant up-regulation only in the visceral adipose tissue, abdominal and quadriceps femoris muscles. Thus, oral administration of 100 mg/kg GA for 24 hours improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles and induced upregulation of total PPARγ and LPL expression levels in all studied tissues.

  14. Human dental pulp stem cells cultured in serum-free supplemented medium

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    Virginie eBonnamain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence show that human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs could provide a source of adult stem cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative pathologies. In this study, DPSCs were expanded and cultured with a protocol generally used for the culture of neural stem/progenitor cells.Methodology: DPSC cultures were established from third molars. The pulp tissue was enzymatically digested and cultured in serum-supplemented basal medium for 12 hours. Adherent (ADH and non-adherent (non-ADH cell populations were separated according to their differential adhesion to plastic and then cultured in serum-free defined N2 medium with epidermal growth factor (EGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF. Both ADH and non-ADH populations were analyzed by FACS and/or PCR.Results: FACS analysis of ADH-DPSCs revealed the expression of the mesenchymal cell marker CD90, the neuronal marker CD56, the transferrin receptor CD71, and the chemokine receptor CXCR3, whereas hematopoietic stem cells markers CD45, CD133 and CD34 were not expressed. ADH-DPSCs expressed transcripts coding for the Nestin gene, whereas expression levels of genes coding for the neuronal markers β-III tubulin and NF-M, and the oligodendrocyte marker PLP-1 were donor dependent. ADH-DPSCs did not express the transcripts for GFAP, an astrocyte marker. Cells of the non-ADH population that grew as spheroids expressed Nestin, β-III tubulin, NF-M and PLP-1 transcripts. DPSCs migrated out of the spheroids exhibited an odontoblast-like morphology and expressed a higher level of DSPP and osteocalcin transcripts than ADH-DPSCs. Conclusion: Collectively, these data indicate that human DPSCs can be expended and cultured in serum-free supplemented medium with EGF and bFGF. ADH-DPSCs and non-ADH populations contained neuronal and/or oligodendrocyte precursors at different stages of commitment and interestingly, cells from spheroid structures seem to be more engaged into the odontoblastic lineage than the

  15. A Survey of the Relationship between Serum Testosterone Level and Expressions of Androgen, Progesterone and Estrogen Receptors and HER2 in Iranian Women with Breast Cancer

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    Reza Vojdani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer in women. This tumor is hormone dependent tumor and oncologists use estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and HER2 for treatment of this malignancy. Androgens like testosterone and their receptors (AR have a role in the pathophysiology of breast cancer but their clinical values are not clear. Method: AR expression was evaluated in 49 patients with breast cancers using immunohistochemistry. Testosterone was evaluated with ELISA. The relation of clinical characteristics and biomarkers with AR and testosterone were analyzed. According to the percentage of stained cells AR categorized to: AR-absent (0%, AR-poorly (1%-10%, AR-moderately (>10%-50%, and AR-highly (>50% positive. Results: Among 49 patients with breast cancer, 34% were AR-positive and 44% of ERpositive and 22% of ER negative patients were AR-positive. There was no significant association between mean of testosterone and AR, ER, PR and HER2. AR was positive more frequently but not significantly statistically in older patients and patients less than 45 years of age. Testosterone level was higher in ER positive patients than ER negative and lower in AR positive patients than AR negative patients, but these findings were not statistically significant. ten persent of breast cancers were triple negative and AR was negative in all of them. Conclusion: Androgens and AR have role in pathophysiology of breast cancer and in the future one can use the potency of this pathway for the treatment of breast cancer.

  16. Hypertension increases urinary excretion of immunoglobulin G, ceruloplasmin and transferrin in normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Hanyu, Osamu; Hirayama, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Osamu; Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Ito, Seiki; Sone, Hirohito

    2014-02-01

    Increased urinary excretion of certain plasma proteins, such as immunoglobulin G (IgG), ceruloplasmin and transferrin, with different molecular radii of 55 Å or less and different isoelectric points have been reported to precede development of microalbuminuria in patients who have diabetes mellitus with hypertension. We examined how hypertension affects these urinary proteins in a diabetic state. Excretion of IgG, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, albumin, α2-macroglobulin with a large molecular radius of 88 Å and N-acetylglucosaminidase in first-morning urine samples were measured in normoalbuminuric patients (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio hypertension and nondiabetes mellitus (group hypertension, n = 32), type 2 diabetes mellitus and normotension (group diabetes mellitus, n = 52) and type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension (group Both, n =45), and in age-matched controls (n = 72). Urinary IgG, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, albumin and N-acetylglucosaminidase and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were significantly elevated in groups diabetes mellitus and Both compared with controls. Furthermore, urinary IgG, ceruloplasmin and transferrin in group Both were significantly higher than those in group diabetes mellitus. These exhibited a positive and relatively strong association with eGFR compared with controls. No significant difference in urinary albumin or N-acetylglucosaminidase was found between the two diabetic groups. In contrast, group hypertension had elevated urinary transferrin without any changes in the other compounds. Urinary α2-macroglobulin did not differ among the four groups. These findings suggest that normoalbuminuric diabetic patients without hypertension have both glomerular hemodynamic changes such as increased intraglomerular hydraulic pressure and altered proximal tubules, and that hypertension increases intraglomerular hydraulic pressure. Increased urinary IgG, ceruloplasmin and transferrin may reflect an increase in

  17. Placental growth factor, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products, extracellular newly identified receptor for receptor for advanced glycation end products binding protein and high mobility group box 1 levels in patients with acute kidney injury: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiyanov, Oskar; Kriha, Vitezslav; Vachek, Jan; Zima, Tomas; Tesar, Vladimir; Kalousova, Marta

    2013-11-04

    Placental growth factor (PlGF), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), extracellular newly identified receptor for RAGE binding protein (EN-RAGE) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) are novel biomarkers in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, their clinical significance in acute kidney injury (AKI) is unknown. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether selected biomarkers are changed in AKI patients. Serum PlGF, PAPP-A, sRAGE, EN-RAGE and HMGB-1 levels were assessed in 40 patients with AKI, 42 CKD 5 patients, 31 haemodialysis patients (HD) and 39 age-matched healthy controls. PAPP-A was elevated in AKI (20.6 ± 16.9 mIU/L) compared with controls (9.1 ± 2.3 mIU/L, p PAPP-A levels were associated with transferrin (p PAPP-A, EN-RAGE and HMGB1 are elevated, but sRAGE and PlGF are not increased. Whereas PAPP-A correlates with markers of nutrition; PlGF, EN-RAGE and HMGB-1 are related to inflammatory parameters.

  18. [Effects of Electroaupuncture Stimulation of "Xiajuxu" (ST 39), etc. on Duodenal Mucosal Injury, Serum Pro-inflammatory Factors Levels and Duodenal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor alpha 7 Expression in Duodenal Ulcer Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xi; Zhang, Hong; Yi, Xi-qin; Wu, Jin-feng

    2016-04-01

    To observe the relatively specific effect of electroacupuncture (EA) of "Xiajuxu" (ST 39, the lower hesea paint of the small intestine), etc. on the level of serum TNF-alpha, lnterleukin-1 P (IL-1 P) and high mobility group protein B 1 (HMGB 1) contents, and duodenum a7 nicotinic acetyicholine receptor (nAchR) expression in duodenal ulcer rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improving duodenal ulcer. Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal control, model, Xiajuxu (ST 39), Zusanli (ST 36), Shangjuxu (ST 37) and Yanglingquan (GB 34). The duodenal ulcer model was established by subcutaneous injection of 10% Cysteamine Hydrochloride (300 mg/kg), following by giving the rats with access to water containing Cysteamine. EA (10 Hz/50 Hz, 1- 3 mA) was applied to bilateral ST 39, ST 36, ST 37 and GB 34 for 30 min, once daily for 10 days. The ulcer scores (0-5 points) of the duodenal mucosa were assessed according to modified Moraes' methods. Serum TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and HMGB 1 levels were assayed by ELISA and the expression of neuronal a7 nAchR in the duodenal tissue was detected by Western blot. After modeling, the ulcer score, serum TNF-alpha, IL-i p and HMGB 1 contents were significantly increased (PGB 34) groups, and the ulcer scores and IL-1 beta content of the Xiajuxu(ST 39), Zusanli (ST 36) and Shangjuxu (ST 37) groups were considerably reduced, and the expression of alpha7 nAchR in both Xiajuxu (ST 39) and Zusanli (ST 36) groups was evidently increased (PGB 34) group and a 7 nAchR expression in the Shangjuxu (ST 37) group in comparison with the model group (P>0.05). EA stimulation of ST 36, ST 37 and ST 39 can reduce ulcer injury in duodenal ulcer model rats, which may be associated with their effects in down-regulating serum TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and HMGB 1 contents and up-regulating alpha7 nAchR expression of the duodenal tissue, possibly by suppressing immune and inflammatory reactions and regulating nicotinic activity.

  19. Polymorphism of the Transferrin Gene in Eye Diseases: Keratoconus and Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy

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    Katarzyna A. Wójcik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of keratoconus (KC and Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD. Iron may promote the stress by the Fenton reaction, so its homeostasis should be strictly controlled. Transferrin is essential for iron homeostasis because it transports iron from plasma into cells. The malfunction of transferrin, which may be caused by variation in its gene (TF variation, may contribute to oxidative stress and change KC and FECD risk. To verify this hypothesis we investigated the association between three polymorphisms of the TF gene, g.3296G>A (rs8177178, g.3481A>G (rs8177179, and c.–2G>A (rs1130459, and KC and FECD occurrence. Genotyping was performed in blood lymphocytes in 216 patients with KC, 130 patients with FECD and 228 controls by PCR-RFLP. We studied also the influence of other risk factors. The A/A genotype and the A allele of the g.3296G>A polymorphism were associated with KC occurrence, while the G allele was negatively correlated with it. We observed a decrease in KC occurrence associated with the A/G genotype of the g.3481A>G polymorphism. We did not find any association between the c.–2G>A polymorphism and KC. No association was found between all three polymorphisms and FECD occurrence.

  20. Biocompatible transferrin-conjugated sodium hexametaphosphate-stabilized gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parab, Harshala J; Huang, Jing-Hong; Liu, Ru-Shi [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lai, Tsung-Ching; Jan, Yi-Hua; Wang, Jui-Ling; Hsiao, Michael; Chen, Chung-Hsuan [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Hwu, Yeu-Kuang [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Din Ping [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Shih-Yi; Pang, Jong-Hwei S, E-mail: rsliu@ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhsiao@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-30

    The feasibility of using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for biomedical applications has led to considerable interest in the development of novel synthetic protocols and surface modification strategies for AuNPs to produce biocompatible molecular probes. This investigation is, to our knowledge, the first to elucidate the synthesis and characterization of sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP)-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au-HMP) in an aqueous medium. The role of HMP, a food additive, as a polymeric stabilizing and protecting agent for AuNPs is elucidated. The surface modification of Au-HMP nanoparticles was carried out using polyethylene glycol and transferrin to produce molecular probes for possible clinical applications. In vitro cell viability studies performed using as-synthesized Au-HMP nanoparticles and their surface-modified counterparts reveal the biocompatibility of the nanoparticles. The transferrin-conjugated nanoparticles have significantly higher cellular uptake in J5 cells (liver cancer cells) than control cells (oral mucosa fibroblast cells), as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This study demonstrates the possibility of using an inexpensive and non-toxic food additive, HMP, as a stabilizer in the large-scale generation of biocompatible and monodispersed AuNPs, which may have future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  1. Biocompatible transferrin-conjugated sodium hexametaphosphate-stabilized gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parab, Harshala J; Huang, Jing-Hong; Lai, Tsung-Ching; Jan, Yi-Hua; Liu, Ru-Shi; Wang, Jui-Ling; Hsiao, Michael; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Hwu, Yeu-Kuang; Tsai, Din Ping; Chuang, Shih-Yi; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

    2011-09-30

    The feasibility of using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for biomedical applications has led to considerable interest in the development of novel synthetic protocols and surface modification strategies for AuNPs to produce biocompatible molecular probes. This investigation is, to our knowledge, the first to elucidate the synthesis and characterization of sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP)-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au-HMP) in an aqueous medium. The role of HMP, a food additive, as a polymeric stabilizing and protecting agent for AuNPs is elucidated. The surface modification of Au-HMP nanoparticles was carried out using polyethylene glycol and transferrin to produce molecular probes for possible clinical applications. In vitro cell viability studies performed using as-synthesized Au-HMP nanoparticles and their surface-modified counterparts reveal the biocompatibility of the nanoparticles. The transferrin-conjugated nanoparticles have significantly higher cellular uptake in J5 cells (liver cancer cells) than control cells (oral mucosa fibroblast cells), as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This study demonstrates the possibility of using an inexpensive and non-toxic food additive, HMP, as a stabilizer in the large-scale generation of biocompatible and monodispersed AuNPs, which may have future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  2. Neoplastic transformation of rat liver epithelial cells is enhanced by non-transferrin-bound iron

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    Messner Donald J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron overload is associated with liver toxicity, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. While most iron circulates in blood as transferrin-bound iron, non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI also becomes elevated and contributes to toxicity in the setting of iron overload. The mechanism for iron-related carcinogenesis is not well understood, in part due to a shortage of suitable experimental models. The primary aim of this study was to investigate NTBI-related hepatic carcinogenesis using T51B rat liver epithelial cells, a non-neoplastic cell line previously developed for carcinogenicity and tumor promotion studies. Methods T51B cells were loaded with iron by repeated addition of ferric ammonium citrate (FAC to the culture medium. Iron internalization was documented by chemical assay, ferritin induction, and loss of calcein fluorescence. Proliferative effects were determined by cell count, toxicity was determined by MTT assay, and neoplastic transformation was assessed by measuring colony formation in soft agar. Cyclin levels were measured by western blot. Results T51B cells readily internalized NTBI given as FAC. Within 1 week of treatment at 200 μM, there were significant but well-tolerated toxic effects including a decrease in cell proliferation (30% decrease, p Conclusion These results establish NTBI as a tumor promoter in T51B rat liver epithelial cells. Changes in cyclin proteins suggest cell cycle disregulation contributes to tumor promotion by NTBI in this liver cell model.

  3. Analysis of Serum proteom before and after Intravenous Injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

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    Tae-Sik Kang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe changes in the serum proteins before and after intravenous injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture and only the serum was centrifuged. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after running 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 803, 1505, 2205, 3105, 7104, 9001 spots, with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1302, 2013, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6706, 7103, 8006, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 3205, 5202, 6105. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1101 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAP1 protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein L1, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(C112gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, and Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with inflammatory response in the lungs, were increased by more than 200% after the administration of herbal acupuncture. 5

  4. Analysis of Serum Proteom after Intravenous Injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture

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    Dong-Hee,Lee

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe the changes in the serum proteins after intravenous injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture and only the serum was taken. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after carrying out 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 1302, 2205, 3105, 7104, 8006, spots with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1505, 2013, 2403, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6704, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 803, 3205, 5202, 6105, 6106, 7103, 9001, 9003. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1l01 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAPl protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein Ll, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(Cl12gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d(204, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, was increased by more than two-times after the administration of pharmacopuncture. 5. Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with

  5. SERUM LEVELS OF FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR-23, OSTEOPROTEGERIN, AND RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR KAPPA B LIGAND IN PATIENTS WITH PROLACTINOMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Muyesser Sayki; Sahin, Mustafa; Karakose, Melia; Tutal, Esra; Topaloglu, Oya; Ucan, Bekir; Demirci, Taner; Caliskan, Mustafa; Ozdemir, Seyda; Ozbek, Mustafa; Cakal, Erman

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study to was to evaluate the effect of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator nuclear κB ligand (RANKL), and vitamin D hormones on bone loss in patients with hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary prolactinoma. We recruited 46 premenopausal female patients with prolactinoma and age and sex-matched healthy controls (Group 3, n = 20) for this cross-sectional study. Prolactinoma patients were divided into 2 groups as patients newly diagnosed (Group 1, n = 26) and those under cabergoline treatment (Group 2, n = 20). Anthropometric and metabolic variables; hormonal profiles; and osteocalcin, deoxypyridinoline (DOP), and bone mineral density measurements were performed for all participants. FGF-23, OPG, and RANKL levels were analyzed in all groups. FGF-23, OPG, calcium, phosphorus, and parathormone levels were similar between all groups despite significantly higher levels in the control group in terms of vitamin D and RANKL levels than in patients. Bone loss was found more in Group 2, particularly observed in Z scores of femur and spinal bone (Posteoprotegerin in patients in remission (r = -0.73, P = .01). Our data indicated that FGF-23 and OPG levels do not play a critical role on the development of bone decrease in patients with hyperprolactinemia. However, further prospective studies in larger numbers of participants should be designed to clarify this issue. BFP = body fat percentage BMD = bone mineral density BMI = body mass index CV = coefficient of variation DOP = deoxypyridinoline ELISA = enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay FGF-23 = fibroblast growth factor-23 HOMA-IR = homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance OPG = osteoprotegerin RANKL = receptor activator nuclear κB ligand.

  6. Cross-protective efficacy of recombinant transferrin-binding protein A of Haemophilus parasuis in guinea pigs.

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    Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Yu; Fu, Yuguang; Ji, Yanhong; Lian, Kaiqi; Zheng, Haixue; Wei, Jianzhong; Cai, Xuepeng; Zhu, Qiyun

    2013-06-01

    The causative agent of Glasser's disease in swine is Haemophilus parasuis. Commercial bacterins are widely used for protection of the swine population. However, cross protection is limited because H. parasuis has more than 15 serovars. Transferrin-binding protein A has shown potential as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate against homologous and heterologous strains. Here we amplified the full-length tbpA gene from an H. parasuis serovar 13 isolate and cloned it into a pET-SUMO expression vector. We then expressed and purified the TbpA protein by Ni affinity chromatography. First, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the protein were evaluated in guinea pigs by two subcutaneous immunizations with different doses of Montanide IMS 206 VG adjuvant. The immunized guinea pigs were, respectively, challenged on week 3 after a booster immunization with homologous strain LJ3 (serovar 13) and heterologous strain FX1 (serovar 4), and vaccine-inoculated groups were compared with nonvaccinated controls. All immunized groups showed serum antibody titers higher than those of negative-control groups. Furthermore, the cytokine and chemokine levels were evaluated at the transcriptional level by the real-time PCR analysis of six cytokines and chemokines. Gamma interferon and interleukin-5 in groups immunized with 100 μg were elevated more than 15-fold over those in negative-control groups. The protection rates were 80 and 60% after a challenge with strains LJ3 and FX1, respectively, in the groups vaccinated with 100 μg of recombinant TbpA protein. Subsequently, the data showed that guinea pigs immunized with a single dose (100 μg) were protected at levels of 80, 80, and 60% against LJ3, FX1, and another heterologous strain, SZ (serovar 14), respectively. The results indicate for the first time that TbpA protein cross protects guinea pigs against serovars 13, 4, and 14 of H. parasuis. Taken together, these results suggest that the recombinant TbpA protein is a promising

  7. Measuring receptor recycling in polarized MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Luciana; Apodaca, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of proteins such as channels, pumps, and receptors is critical for epithelial cell function. In this chapter we present a method to measure receptor recycling in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells using an iodinated ligand. We describe a technique to iodinate