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Sample records for serum total cortisol

  1. Salivary Cortisol Can Replace Free Serum Cortisol Measurements in Patients With Septic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlander, Philip R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a renewed interest in adrenal function during severe sepsis. Most studies have used total serum cortisol levels; however, only free serum cortisol is biologically active. The aim of this study was to determine the validity of salivary cortisol levels as a surrogate for free serum cortisol levels during septic shock. Methods: Fifty-seven patients with septic shock were studied to determine the correlation between total serum cortisol and salivary cortisol to free serum cortisol levels. Thirty-eight patients were included in the salivary to free serum cortisol correlation. Salivary cortisol level was tested by enzyme immunoassay. Serum total cortisol, free cortisol, and cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) levels were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, equilibrium analysis, and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Results: The mean ± SD age was 56.6 ± 18.5 years. Fifty-seven percent were women. APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) II score median was 26, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II median was 61, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment median was 13. The correlation between salivary and free serum cortisol levels was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.63-0.89; P cortisol and total serum cortisol levels was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.78-0.92; P cortisol level was 2.27 ± 1.64 μg/dL. The mean ± SD salivary cortisol level was 2.60 ± 2.69 μg/dL. The mean ± SD total serum cortisol level was 21.56 ± 8.71 μg/dL. The mean ± SD CBG level was 23.54 ± 8.33 mg/dL. Conclusions: Salivary cortisol level can be used as a surrogate of free serum cortisol level in patients with septic shock with very good correlation. Salivary cortisol testing is noninvasive, easy to perform, and can be conducted daily. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00523198; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:21816912

  2. [Serum cortisol level variations in thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck-Gassama; Ndoye, O; Mbodj, M; Akala, A; Cisse, F; Niang, M; Ndoye, R

    2000-01-01

    This work studies the thyroid disorders impact on adrenals glands by measuring total cortisol. Radioimmunoassays of thyroid hormones and cortisol were performed in 108 subjects, aged 20-52 years, with thyroid diseases. Our results show low cortisol values (80.35 nmol/L) in 4.77% of hyperthyroids, high values in 3.57% of hyperthyroids (1348.18 nmol/L) and 12.5% of hypothyroids (969.05 nmol/L). In hyperthyroidism, thyroid hormone stimulates the secretion of 11 ceto metabolites biologically inactive, unable to slow pituitary activity, inducing an increased production of endogene cortisol. Excessive catabolism can lead to the exhausting of overstimulated adrenal glands, and therefore to a decreased cortisol. In hypothyroidism, high cortisol results of increase cortisol half life and decrease of metabolic clearance. Control mechanisms often allow normal cortisol values. These alterations in functional activity of adrenal glands, seen in nearly 10% of these subjects, sometimes command a specific attitude in diagnosis and therapy.

  3. A simplified ultrafiltration method for determination of serum free cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMahon, W.; Sgoutas, D.

    1983-01-01

    The authors describe the suitability of the Amicon MPS-1 centrifugal ultrafiltration device and the YMB membrane for measuring free cortisol in serum. The method combines two independent assays: total cortisol and the ultrafiltrate fraction of added [ 3 H]cortisol. The unbound fraction is determined in 0.25-0.30 ml of ultrafiltrate collected from 0.6 to 1 ml of serum that has been equilibrated with [ 3 H]cortisol at 37 0 C for 20 min. The assay is rapid (less than 1 h), practical (no more than 0.6 ml of serum is necessary) and repeatable (CV: 3.8% within-assay and 12.2% in different assays). Error introduced in free cortisol measurement due to dilution effects in dialysis is systematically defined, and the effect of tracer purity on the ultrafiltration method is examined. Dialyzed sera from normal men and women, from patients with Cushing's disease and adrenal insufficiency, and from pregnant women gave ultrafiltration results that accurately duplicated those obtained by previous dialysis. (Auth.)

  4. Body mass index and its effect on serum cortisol level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-21

    Aug 21, 2014 ... In Cushing's syndrome, serum cortisol level is elevated, and obesity is one of ... follows: A baseline blood sample for cortisol, fasting plasma glucose, full ... Continuous variables were expressed as means ± standard deviation.

  5. Effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health in servicemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hong-Tao; Sun, Xin-Yang; Yang, Ting-Shu; Zhang, Li-Yi; Yang, Jia-Lin; Bai, Jing

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health and explore the correlations between them in servicemen. A total of 149 out of the 207 Chinese servicemen were randomly selected to go through 24hour sleep deprivation, leaving the rest (58) as the control group, before and after which their blood samples were drawn for cortisol measurement. Following the procedure, all the participants were administered the Military Personnel Mental Disorder Prediction Scale, taking the military norm as baseline. The results revealed that the post-deprivation serum cortisol level was positively correlated with the factor score of mania in the sleep deprivation group (rSp=0.415, pSleep deprivation could significantly increase serum cortisol level and may affect mental health in servicemen. The increase of serum cortisol level is significantly related to mania disorder during sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Circadian variation in serum cortisol during hydrocortisone replacement is not attributable to changes in cortisol-binding globulin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, T T; Gunganah, K; Monson, J P; Drake, W M

    2016-04-01

    Patients taking hydrocortisone (HC) replacement for primary or secondary adrenal failure require individual adjustment of their dose. In addition to modifying the administered doses of HC for each patient, physicians are increasingly interested in variations in the bioavailability of glucocorticoid replacement. One potential determinant of the bioavailability of replaced HC is a variation in serum cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) concentration, which may, in turn, affect interpretation of cortisol profiles and individual dose selection for patients on hydrocortisone replacement therapy. To investigate the hypothesis that there is a circadian variation in CBG levels. A total of 34 male patients divided into 3 groups (10 patients with non-somatotroph structural pituitary disease on HC replacement, 11 patients with treated acromegaly on HC replacement and 13 patients with treated acromegaly not on HC replacement) and 10 healthy volunteers were included. Cortisol and CBG levels were measured at 6 time points (0800, 1100, 1300, 1500, 1700 and 1900). No significant circadian variation in CBG concentration was found in any of the 4 groups. Circadian variation in serum cortisol during hydrocortisone replacement is not attributable to changes in cortisol-binding globulin concentration. Changes in serum cortisol levels may thus be explained by other factors including 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity or circadian changes in the binding properties of CBG. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effects of obesity, total fasting and re-alimentation on L-thyroxine (T4), 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine (T3), 3,3',5'-L-triiodothyronine (rT3), thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), cortisol, thyrotrophin, cortisol binding globulin (CBG), transferrin, alpha 2-haptoglobin and complement C'3 in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, P C; Bauer, M; Emmert, D; Fateh-Moghadam, A; Hofmann, G G; Horn, K; Pickardt, C R

    1979-08-01

    The effects of total fasting for 31 +/- 10 days followed by re-alimentation with an 800 calorie diet on thyroid function, i.e. T4,T3,rT3,RT3U (resin T3 uptake), and TSH, and on TBG levels in serum were studied sequentially in obese hospitalized patients (N=18). Additionally, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin, parathyrin and free fatty acids were followed as hormonal and metabolic parameters, respectively. Further, CBG, transferrin, alpha 2-haptoglobin and complement C'3 were measured as representatives of other serum proteins. Results before fasting: T4, T3, TBG, cortisol, CBG, alpha 2-haptoglobin and complement C'3 of the obese patients were elevated when compared with healthy normal weight controls, whereas rT3, T4/TBG ratio, T3/TBG ratio, TSH, coritsol/cbg ratio, growth hormone, prolactin, parathyrin and transferrin of the obese group were normal. RT3U and fT4 index were decreased in the obese patients. Results during fasting: Significant decreases were observed during fasting for the following parameters -- T3, TBG, T3/TBG ratio, transferrin, alpha 2-haptoglobin complement C'3. rT3, T4/TBG ratio, RT3U, fT4 index and FFA increased. T4, tsh response to TRH stimulation, cortisol, CBG, cortisol/cbg ratio, parathyrin, growth hormone and prolactin did not change. Results during re-alimentation: T3, TBG, T3/TBG ratio, TSH response to TRH, transferrin, alpha 2-haptoglobin and complement C'3 increased. Conversely, fT3, RT3U, FFA, cortisol and cortisol/cbg ratio decreased whereas the other parameters did not change. 1) There is no evidence for primary hypothyroidism in obese patients during prolonged fasting and re-alimentation. 2) The rapid decrease of T3 and increase of RT3U after initiation of fasting are not fully explained by the observed slower decreases in TBG. 3) The alterations of T3, rT3 and RT3U resemble in their kinetics the changes in FFA levels. 4) Fasting reduced the levels of only certain serum proteins, interestingly TBG, transferrin, alpha 2

  8. The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stress is an extremely adaptive phenomenon in human beings and cortisol is a known stress hormone. Examination has been described as a naturalistic stressor capable of affecting human health. Objectives: To estimate the relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and ...

  9. Increased serum cortisol binding in chronic active hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbach, O.; Schussler, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    A high serum cortisol concentration, apparently due to increased cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), was found in a patient (index case) with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). We therefore performed further studies to determine whether increased cortisol binding is generally associated with CAH. Serum samples were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with long-term liver function test elevations but no evidence of cirrhosis, 15 normal subjects without a history of hepatitis, four healthy pregnant women, and 10 alcoholic patients with stigmata of cirrhosis. Serum cortisol binding was measured by an adaptation of a previously described charcoal uptake method. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined by radioimmunoassays. Charcoal uptake of 125I cortisol from sera of normal subjects and additional patients with CAH revealed that increased serum cortisol binding by a saturable site, presumably CBG, was associated with CAH. Cortisol binding was significantly correlated with immunoassayable TBG, suggesting that in CAH, similar mechanisms may be responsible for increasing the serum concentrations of CBG and TBG

  10. The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose and lipid profile of ..... stressor, neurons with cell bodies in the paraventricular nuclei of the ... metabolic changes that contribute to heart disease and other health problems21.

  11. Deconvolution of serum cortisol levels by using compressed sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose T Faghih

    Full Text Available The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R (2 above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders.

  12. An analysis of the relationship between serum cortisol and serum sodium in routine clinical patients

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    Eleanor McLaughlan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Adrenal insufficiency is an uncommon cause of hyponatraemia that should not be overlooked due to the severe consequences of an Addisonian crisis. Using the laboratory database of a large teaching hospital, we have explored the relationship between serum sodium and serum cortisol, and have estimated the frequency of hypoadrenalism in severely hyponatraemic patients. Design and methods: Data were gathered over a 23 month period from the Laboratory Information Management System at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust for instances where serum sodium and cortisol had been measured on a single sample. Data were also gathered over the same time period for all patients with severe hyponatraemia (serum sodium ≤120 mmol/L in order to determine the frequency of cortisol requesting and the incidence of adrenal insufficiency. Results: Analysis of the data (n=3268 patients revealed a trend showing higher cortisol concentrations in patients who were severely hypo- or hypernatraemic. The median cortisol concentration for patients with sodium ≤110 mmol/L was 856 nmol/L, and there was a gradual decrease in cortisol over the sodium range ≤110–150 mmol/L (Rs =−0.323, p<0.0001. Patients with sodium ≥151 mmol/L had a median cortisol of 725 nmol/L. 42% of the 978 patients with serum sodium ≤120 mmol/L had serum cortisol measured within two weeks, of whom 1.7% were diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency. Conclusions: This dataset shows rising cortisol in response to hypo- or hypernatraemia, in keeping with the stress response to illness. The data show that adrenal insufficiency is a rare cause of hyponatraemia which may be overlooked. Keywords: Serum, Sodium, Cortisol, Adrenal insufficiency

  13. Body mass index and its effect on serum cortisol level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeniyi, I A; Fasanmade, O A; Ogbera, A O; Ohwovoriole, A E

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol measurement is indicated in suspected over or under production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. The finding of low cortisol can create concern and initiate further investigations for the exclusion of adrenal insufficiency. Cushing's syndrome is frequently included in the differential diagnosis of obesity. Some literature describes reduced serum cortisol levels in obesity, however, this is not a well-recognized phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum cortisol levels. Seventy healthy participants agreed to take part in the study. The anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist and hip circumferences) were done. Exclusion criteria include those with a history of adrenal/pituitary disease or medications altering cortisol level. The basal cortisol (BC) sample was taken at 8 a.m. immediately before administration of an intravenous bolus injection of 250 μg adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). BMI categories were defined as normal and high if BMI was 18.5-24.99 kg/m² and ≥ 25 kg/m², respectively. Forty (57.1%) participants had normal BMI while 30 (42.9%) participants had BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² (P0 = 0.053). The mean BC level was lower in participants with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² but not significant. There was a negative correlation between BMI and BC level ( r = -0.205, P = 0.88) while a positive correlation existed between stimulated cortisol level and BMI (r = 0.009, P = 0.944). Persons with BMI above 25 kg/m² had lower BC level though not statistically significant, the trend was noticed. Subjecting people whose BMI is above 25 kg/m² to further stimulation with ACTH because of low BC is not advised because their response to ACTH stimulation was similar to those who have normal BMI.

  14. Deconvolution analysis of 24-h serum cortisol profiles informs the amount and distribution of hydrocortisone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Catherine J; Hill, Nathan; Dattani, Mehul T; Charmandari, Evangelia; Matthews, David R; Hindmarsh, Peter C

    2013-03-01

    Hydrocortisone therapy is based on a dosing regimen derived from estimates of cortisol secretion, but little is known of how the dose should be distributed throughout the 24 h. We have used deconvolution analysis of 24-h serum cortisol profiles to determine 24-h cortisol secretion and distribution to inform hydrocortisone dosing schedules in young children and older adults. Twenty four hour serum cortisol profiles from 80 adults (41 men, aged 60-74 years) and 29 children (24 boys, aged 5-9 years) were subject to deconvolution analysis using an 80-min half-life to ascertain total cortisol secretion and distribution throughout the 24-h period. Mean daily cortisol secretion was similar between adults (6.3 mg/m(2) body surface area/day, range 5.1-9.3) and children (8.0 mg/m(2) body surface area/day, range 5.3-12.0). Peak serum cortisol concentration was higher in children compared with adults, whereas nadir serum cortisol concentrations were similar. Timing of the peak serum cortisol concentration was similar (07.05-07.25), whereas that of the nadir concentration occurred later in adults (midnight) compared with children (22.48) (P = 0.003). Children had the highest percentage of cortisol secretion between 06.00 and 12.00 (38.4%), whereas in adults this took place between midnight and 06.00 (45.2%). These observations suggest that the daily hydrocortisone replacement dose should be equivalent on average to 6.3 mg/m(2) body surface area/day in adults and 8.0 mg/m(2) body surface area/day in children. Differences in distribution of the total daily dose between older adults and young children need to be taken into account when using a three or four times per day dosing regimen. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Serum cardiac troponin I in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol and TNF-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Krarup; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth; Christensen, Anders Fogh

    2004-01-01

    Serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a specific marker of myocardial injury related to in-patient fatality and cardiac injury in acute stroke. We investigated whether cTnI in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol, acute inflammatory response, and insular damage. We also investigated whether c...

  16. Study of the levels of serum cortisol and gastrin in dogs with vibration-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zikun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of levels of serum cortisol and gastrin in dogs with vibration-induced injury for providing better treatment regimen. Methods: In this experiment, 8 or 10 domestic dogs were placed on each of four sites away from explosion center about 0, 100, 200, 300 meters respectively. The dogs were standing uncontrolled or lying right side down under anesthesia. Serum cortisol and gastrin levels were detected with RIA both before and after explosion. Results: The levels of serum cortisol and gastrin began to fall about 24 hours after explosion. The serum levels of cortisol were still decreased significantly after 9 days and 17 days. Conclusion: The levels of the serum cortisol declined when the animals were injured by vibration. Detection of serum cortisol levels might lead to definitive diagnosis and supplemental treatment with cortical hormones for vibration-induced injury. (authors)

  17. Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogar Ö

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ö Skogar1,4, P-A Fall2, G Hallgren3, J Lökk4, B Bringer2, M Carlsson1, U Lennartsson3, H Sandbjork3, C-J Törnhage51Department of Geriatrics, Ryhov Hospital, Jonkoping, 2Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital, Linkoping, 3Department of Neurology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, 4Institute of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, 5Department of Pediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenBackground: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI, duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group.Methods: Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women and 24 men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. The reference group comprised healthy individuals matched for age, gender, BMI, and time point for sampling. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, and 8 pm, and 8 am the next day using cotton-based Salivette® tubes and analyzed using Spectria® Cortisol I125. A visual analog scale was used for estimation of pain.Results: The median cortisol concentration was 16.0 (5.8–30.2 nmol/L at 8 am, 5.8 (3.0–16.4 at 1 pm, 2.8 (1.6–8.0 at 8 pm, and 14.0 (7.5–28.7 at 8 am the next day. Total secretion and rate of cortisol secretion during the day (8 am–8 pm and the concentration of cortisol on the next morning were lower (12.5 nmol/L in the reference group. No significant correlations with age, gender, BMI, duration of PD, Hoehn and Yahr score, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III score, gait, pain, or cortisol concentrations were found.Conclusion: The neurodegenerative changes in PD does not seem to interfere with the

  18. Serum cortisol values, superior vena cava flow and illness severity scores in very low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Miletin, J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that high cortisol concentrations are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Neonatal illness severity and mortality risk scores are reliable in predicting morbidity and mortality. The objectives were (i) to assess the correlation between serum cortisol levels and clinical assessment of multi-organ dysfunction\\/illness severity scores (CRIB II, SNAPPE-II and neonatal multiple organ dysfunction score (NEOMOD)) in first 24 h in VLBW infants and (ii) to assess the relationship between surrogates of end organ blood flow and serum cortisol levels. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective observational cohort study. Neonates with birth weight <1500 g were eligible for enrollment. Echocardiography evaluation of superior vena cava (SVC) flow was carried out in the first 24 h life. Cortisol levels were measured simultaneously and appropriate clinical scores were calculated. RESULT: A total of 54 VLBW neonates were enrolled following parental consent. Two patients were excluded because of congenital malformations. In 14 babies the cortisol value was not simultaneously obtained. The mean birth weight was 1.08 kg, mean gestational age was 27.8 weeks. There was a significant correlation between cortisol and NEOMOD score (P=0.006). There was no correlation between cortisol and CRIB II score (P=0.34), SVC flow (P=0.49) and mean arterial blood pressure respectively (P=0.35). CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between SVC flow and cortisol values or between cortisol and mean blood pressure values. There was a significant correlation between cortisol levels and neonatal organ dysfunction score evaluated suggesting that stressed VLBW infants do mount a cortisol response.

  19. Radioimmunoassay for serum cortisol with 125I-labeled ligand: comparison of three methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.S.; Safa, A.M.; Deodhar, S.D.

    1976-01-01

    We evaluated a previously modified double-antibody radioimmunoassay for serum cortisol. It was compared with the conventional double-antibody method that includes the usual extraction step, and also with an antibody-coated tube method. In this modified method, cortisol was released from its binding globulin by enzymatic degradation rather than by extraction with ether, and a preincubated mixture of first and second antibody was used to separate antibody-bound cortisol from free. These two steps shortened total assay time significantly. Results still correlated well (r = 0.87) with results by the conventional method, but the antibody-coated tube method gave lower results (r = 0.61). Because of its good correlation with the conventional method, this method was thought to be more accurate. In 52 normal subjects, mean cotrtisol concentrations at 0800 and 1700 hours were 161 +/- 52 (SD) mug/liter and 91 +/-- 27 mug/liter, respectively. In 16 normal subjects, cortisol values before and after dexamethasone treatment (1 mg at midnight) were 134 +/-- 53 mug/liter and less than 20 mug/liter. In the same subjects, cortisol concentrations before and 30 min and 60 min after Cortrosyn (synthetic corticotropin 1-24, 0.25 mg) administration were 103 +/-- 25, 205 +/-- 45 and 223 +/-- 51 mug/liter, respectively

  20. INFLUENCE OF HIGH CORTISOL DOSES UPON THE SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Voja Pavlovic; Zoran Pavlovic

    2001-01-01

    The effects of Cortisol upon the serum immunoglobulin concentration areexamined. The experiment involved male guinea pigs of the body weight from 300 to400 g that were nonnally fed and lived under the common laboratory conditions. Theguinea pigs were divided into an experimental and a control group. The experimentalgroup's guinea pigs were given every day (in a 6 days' period) a subcutaneous dose of80 g of corti sol/kg/per day, while the control group ones were given only one ml ofthe physiol...

  1. Clinical significance of determination of serum cortisol and insulin levels in neonates with asphyxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yingfei; Chen Linxing; Chen Sihong; Zhang Jinchi; Huang Hua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of the changes of serum cortisol and insulin levels in neonates with asphyxia. Methods: Serum cortisol levels were determined with CLIA and serum insulin levels with RIA in 38 neonates with asphyxia (mild degree 20, advanced 18) and 30 controls. Results: 1) In mild cases, serum insulin levels were significantly higher than those in controls (p<0.01) and serum cortisol levels were very significantly higher (p<0.001). 2) In advanced cases, both serum insulin and cortisol levels were very significantly higher than those in the controls (p<0.001). Conclusion: Hypoxia in the neonates with asphyxia is a very severe stress and will induce hypersecretion of cortisol and hyperglycemia which is detrimental to the patients. However hypersecretion of insulin will result in hypoglycemia, which is also very damaging. Physicians in charge should be aware of these possibilities and deal with them appropriately

  2. Radioimmunological determination of cortisol in serum or plasma of cattle, swine, and sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratzsch, J.; Bier, H.; Leistner, E.; Hubald, J.; Forschungsinst. fuer Koerperkultur und Sport, Leipzig

    1987-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the determination of the glucocorticoid cortisol in serum or plasma of swine, cattle, and sheep was tested for its clinical validity. Specific antisera were obtained from rabbit, following immunization, using the immunogenic cortisol-3-0-(carboxymethyl)oxime bovine serum albumin. The sensitivity of the method is 6 pg per measured sample or 1.7 nmol/l serum. Cross reactivities of physiologically relevant hormones were below two per cent but for 11-deoxycortisol (9.1 per cent). The resulting high specificity of the RIA proved to enable high accuracy determination of cortisol under conditions of corticosterone or progesterone levels of about 100 per cent with regard to cortisol concentration, that is conditions likely to occur primarily during pregnancy of swine, cattle, and sheep. The cortisol concentrations recorded from serum or plasma of the above species provided a general picture of hormone concentrations and their dimensions which have to be expected under various physiological conditions. (author)

  3. Change in levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum cortisol in morbidly obese patients after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Oller, Inmaculada; Galindo, Isabel; Llavero, Carolina; Arroyo, Antonio; Calero, Alicia; Diez, María; Zubiaga, Lorea; Calpena, Rafael

    2013-06-01

    C-Reactive protein (CRP) has been associated with the macro- and microvascular effects of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Referring to serum cortisol, it has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, and it has been demonstrated that weight loss normalizes cortisol levels and improves insulin resistance. The aims of this study were to analyze CRP and cortisol levels pre- and postoperatively in morbidly obese patients undergoing a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and to correlate them with weight loss and parameters associated with cardiovascular risk. A prospective study of all the morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as bariatric procedure between October 2007 and May 2011 was performed. A total of 40 patients were included in the study. CRP levels decreased significantly 12 months after surgery (median reduction of 8.9 mg/l; p = 0.001). Serum cortisol levels decreased significantly 6 months after surgery (median reduction of 34.9 μg/dl; p = 0.001). CRP values reached the normal range (cortisol, a significant association was observed with the cardiovascular risk predictor (triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio) from the 6th month after surgery onward (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.559; p = 0.008). CRP levels are increased preoperatively and in the postoperative course up to 1 year after surgery. Serum cortisol levels remain elevated until the 6th month after surgery. From this moment onward, serum cortisol is associated with the cardiovascular risk predictor reflecting the cardiovascular risk decreasement during the weight loss.

  4. The effect of Ramadan fasting on maternal serum lipids, cortisol levels and fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikensoy, Ebru; Balat, Ozcan; Cebesoy, Bahar; Ozkur, Ayhan; Cicek, Hulya; Can, Gunay

    2009-02-01

    To determine the effects of fasting during the month of Ramadan on fetal development and maternal serum cortisol and lipid profile. This study was performed in Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Gaziantep University Hospital, between 23 September 2006 and 23 October 2006 (during the month of Ramadan). Thirty-six consecutive healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies of 20 weeks or more, who were fasting during Ramadan, were included in the study group (group 1). The control group (group 2) consisted of 29 healthy pregnant women, who were not fasting during the study period. For evaluating Ramadan's effect on fetus, Doppler ultrasonography was performed on all subjects in the beginning and then once a week until the end of Ramadan for the following measurements: increase of fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), increase of fetal femur length (FL), increase of estimated fetal body weight (EFBW), fetal biophysical profile (BPP), amniotic fluid index (AFI), and umbilical artery systole/diastole (S/D) ratio. Maternal serum cortisol, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and LDL/HDL ratio were also evaluated before and after Ramadan. No significant difference was found between the two groups for the fetal age, maternal weight gain (kilogram), estimated fetal weight gain (EFWG), fetal BPP, AFI, and umbilical artery S/D ratio. In the fasting group, the maternal serum cortisol levels on day 20 were significantly higher than the initial levels obtained 1 week prior to Ramadan (p Ramadan. HDL levels showed a slight increase, but LDL/HDL ratios were significantly decreased in fasting group (p Ramadan. No untoward effect of Ramadan was observed on intrauterine fetal development.

  5. Association between Serum Cortisol and DHEA-S Levels and Response to Antipsychotic Treatment in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoja Babinkostova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that alterations in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. AIM: To compare serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to evaluate their association with the response to antipsychotic treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this clinical prospective study were included 60 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy age and sex matched control subjects. Clinical evaluation of patients was performed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. A questionnaire for socio-demographic and clinical data collection was used. For the purposes of the study, the examined group was divided in two subgroups: responders and nonresponders. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels were measured at baseline in all participants and after 3 and 6 weeks of the antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia. RESULTS: Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels in comparison to the control group. Responders had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels compared with nonresponders. CONCLUSION: Elevated serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and they may be related to positive response to antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Changes of serum contents of cortisol and ACTH in patients after operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lianghong; Zhang Xinlu; Chen Guanghua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum contents of cortisol and ACTH after operation. Methods: Serum cortisol and ACTH levels were measured with RIA both before and ld, 3d post-operatively in 30 patients after Grade III operation and 15 patients after Grade IV operation. Results: On the first post-operative day, the serum cortisol and ACTH levels in both groups of patients were significantly higher than their respective pre-operative levels. Levels in Grade IV group were significantly higher than those in Grade III group. On the third post-operative day, the serum cortisol levels dropped markedly and were lower than their respective pre-operative levels. However, the serum ACTH levels continued to rise in both groups and were significantly higher than the respective levels pre-operatively as well as those on dl. The ACTH levels in the two groups were not significantly different on d3. Conclusion: Serum cortisol and ACTH levels increased in the early post-operative phase and the degree of increase of cortisol was correlated with the magnitude of the operation. (authors)

  7. Comparison of VIDAS and Radioimmunoassay Methods for Measurement of Cortisol Concentration in Bovine Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Proverbio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioimmunoassay (RIA is the “gold standard” method for evaluation of serum cortisol concentration. The VIDAS cortisol test is an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay designed for the MiniVidas system. The aim of this study was to compare the VIDAS method with RIA for measurement of bovine serum cortisol concentration. Cortisol concentrations were evaluated in 40 cows using both VIDAS and RIA methods, the latter as the reference method. A paired Student’s -test, Pearson’s correlation analysis, Bland-Altman plot, and Deming regression analysis were used to compare the two methods. There was no statistically significant difference between mean serum cortisol concentrations measured by VIDAS or RIA methods (. Both methods were able to detect significant differences in mean low and high cortisol concentrations ( RIA and VIDAS. The correlation coefficient was low, but a Bland-Altman plot and Deming regression analysis show neither constant nor proportional error. The VIDAS method produced slightly higher values than RIA, but the difference was small and in no case did the mean value move the normal range. Results suggest that VIDAS method is suitable for the determination of bovine serum cortisol concentration in studies of large numbers of animals.

  8. Serum cortisol and BDNF in patients with major depression-effect of yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, G H; Varambally, Shivarama; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Rao, Mukund; Christopher, Rita; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Depression is associated with low serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and elevated levels of serum cortisol. Yoga practices have been associated with antidepressant effects, increase in serum BDNF, and reduction in serum cortisol. This study examined the association between serum BDNF and cortisol levels in drug-naïve patients with depression treated with antidepressants, yoga therapy, and both. Fifty-four drug-naïve consenting adult outpatients with Major Depression (32 males) received antidepressants only (n = 16), yoga therapy only (n = 19), or yoga with antidepressants (n = 19). Serum BDNF andcortisol levels were obtained before and after 3 months using a sandwich ELISA method. One-way ANOVA, Chi-square test, and Pearson's correlation tests were used for analysis. The groups were comparable at baseline on most parameters. Significant improvement in depression scores and serum BDNF levels, and reduction in serum cortisol in the yoga groups, have been described in previous reports. A significant negative correlation was observed between change in BDNF (pre-post) and cortisol (pre-post) levels in the yoga-only group (r = -0.59, p = 0.008). In conclusion, yoga may facilitate neuroplasticity through stress reduction in depressed patients. Further studies are needed to confirm the findings and delineate the pathways for these effects.

  9. Inhibiting Endogenous Cortisol Blunts the Meal-Entrained Rise in Serum Leptin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laferrère, Blandine; Abraham, Cynthia; Awad, Marianne; Jean-Baptiste, Stephanie; Hart, Allison B.; Garcia-Lorda, Pilar; Kokkoris, Peter; Russell, Colleen D.

    2010-01-01

    Context Administration of glucocorticoids increases serum leptin levels in lean and obese individuals. A morning meal produces an increase in insulin, a cortisol peak, and an increase in leptin; these changes do not occur during fasting. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate whether inhibiting endogenous cortisol secretion with metyrapone decreases 24-h serum leptin levels and to determine whether a meal-related midmorning surge in cortisol is a prerequisite for the meal-entrained nocturnal rise in leptin. Design This was a randomized, cross-over study. Setting The study was performed at the General Clinical Research Center. Participants Lean males were studied. Intervention In study 1, seven lean men were studied for 24 h while their endogenous cortisol secretions were manipulated as follows: 1) CONTROL; 2) cortisol suppression by metyrapone (MET); and 3) MET and oral hydrocortisone (at 0900 h) (MET + CORT). Subjects were all fed a eucaloric diet (two meals at 1100 and 1700 h). In study 2, six men were studied without pharmacological intervention for 24 h on two occasions: once under a complete fast (FAST) and once in a feeding condition (one meal at 1100 h; FED). Main Outcome Measure The main outcome measure was serum leptin. Results MET significantly suppressed serum cortisol at 0800 h, midmorning, and over the 24-h period. As a result of cortisol suppression, 24-h serum leptin levels were decreased vs. control values despite similar insulin responses to meals. Administering a single dose of hydrocortisone to MET subjects potently stimulated serum leptin compared with the effect of MET alone. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that endogenous cortisol secretion is necessary for the maintenance of serum leptin levels over 24 h in lean, normally fed males. PMID:16537679

  10. Gender differences in serum testosterone and cortisol in patients with major depressive disorder compared with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaka, Hisashi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Kida, Sayaka; Kurita, Hirofumi; Shimano, Takahisa; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Baba, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone may have a role distinct from cortisol in the pathophysiology of depression. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis affects the functions of sex steroid hormones through interaction with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The objective of this study was to investigate differences in serum levels of testosterone and cortisol in male and female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants included 87 inpatients with MDD at Juntendo University Koshigaya Hospital. Serum levels of testosterone and cortisol were assessed at admission. Matched controls included 128 healthy individuals. Data from MDD patients and controls were compared separately for men and women. Correlations between serum hormone levels and scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) of patients were assessed by sex. Effects of various factors on testosterone and cortisol were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. In male patients with MDD, a significant negative correlation was seen between testosterone levels and the "retardation" score of HAM-D. However, serum testosterone levels were not significantly different in either male or female MDD patients compared with controls. Serum testosterone was negatively associated with the number of depressive episodes in male patients with MDD. Serum cortisol levels in female patients were significantly increased compared with female controls with no significant correlations between cortisol levels and HAM-D scores. The negative correlation between the sub-score of the HAM-D and testosterone may be associated with the biological pathophysiology of male depression. Findings of serum cortisol levels in women may suggest distinct characteristics of these hormones in men and women with MDD.

  11. Impact of emotional support on serum cortisol in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampoornam Webster

    2016-01-01

    Methods: The study was designed to compare the effectiveness of emotional support focused nurse directed intervention in terms of verbal, written and telephone basis on serum cortisol among breast cancer patients in Cancer Centre at Erode. Participants were randomly allocated by using Sequentially Numbered Opaque Sealed Envelope (SNOSE method. 2 ml of blood samples were collected from 30 breast cancer patients who were selected randomly by adopting random number table, 10 in each experimental arm during evening at 18 hour; radioimmunoassay method was used to measure the level of serum cortisol before and after intervention. The intervention was given twice in a week for the duration of 30-45 minutes, in which early 20-30 minutes spares to express thoughts and feelings of the participants and subsequent 10-15 minutes for rendering informational support and later follow up session for the period of 1 month. Results: Emotional support was effective in reducing serum cortisol level among breast cancer patients. There was no statistically significant difference between arms on serum cortisol levels. Conclusions: Marginal differences were noted between posttest mean scores of serum cortisol among verbal, written and telephone arms. Further emotional support can be rendered according to the preference of the breast cancer patients.

  12. Relationship between local cerebral glucose uptakes, serum prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol levels changes during epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingfang; Mao Xianghui; Tang Ganghua; Zhao Jun; Sun Aijun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relation of local cerebral FDG uptake value of glucose to the changes of prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol levels in serum during epilepsy. Methods: 76 epileptic patients with solitary epileptic focus were examined by 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F] fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and the FDG uptake value of epileptic foci were measured. Serum PRL, GH and cortisol levels of the patients were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) before and after seizures. Results: During ictal studies, all patients showed increased FDG uptake of epileptic foci compared with that in interictal phase. The serum PRL, GH and cortisol levels were significant higher after seizures. The changes of hormone levels correlated significantly with the lengths of seizure free intervals (SFIs) and with the types of seizures. But the variations of hormone levels had no relation with the site and FDG uptake of epileptic foci. In patients with absentia seizures, no significant increase was observed in serum PRL and cortisol levels. The changes of GH were not related with the types of seizures. Also, it was found that changes of hormone levels had significant relations to the lengths of SFIs. Conclusions: Serum PRL, GH and cortisol levels were significantly different before and after seizures. This study suggests that changes of postictal hormone levels correlated significantly with the types of seizures and lengths of SFIs, but the changes of hormone levels are not related with the site and FDG uptake of epileptic foci

  13. Correlations between serum cortisol and body mass index at old patients under balnear treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanciu Liliana Elena

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Glucocorticoids provide a significant resource of scientific progress in medical research, being studied in terms of molecules, genetics, physiopathology at the level of the human body, starting from animal models, with valuable recent discoveries regarding their implications in the human psychic level, stress reaction and the search of new possible therapeutic effects unknown until now. Our work are illustrated the correlations between serum cortisol and body mass index - BMI at old patients under balneal treatment with natural factors from Techirghiol lake. Material and methods. The study monitored 52 patients admitted in Balneal and Recovery Sanatorium of Techirghiol for complex balneal treatment, using mud baths (cold or warm, and physical treatments. The patients were grouped in two batches: batch of cold baths with mud- CMB (15 patients, 28.8%, 6 men and 9 women and batch of warm baths with mud-WMB (37 patients, 71.2%, 19 man and 18 women. The following issues were statistically analysed: BMI, respectively serum cortisol value variation for each batch studied, both at the time of admission and at the time of discharge; comparative analysis between the two moments for each batch; and the comparative analysis between the two study batches at the time of admission, respectively discharge and the BMI value variation in statistical relation with the serum cortisol values for each batch studies at the time of admission and at the time of discharge. Results. From statistical analysis of the correlation between the body mass index (BMI of patients included in research in the CMB batch at admission and discharge according to the variations of the serum cortisol level , the two variables (Serum cortisol / BMI both at admission and discharge are not correlated (r = -0.366; p = 0.180 > α = 0.05; r = -0.035; p = 0.901 > α = 0.05. Also, from statistical analysis of the correlation between the body mass index (BMI of patients included in

  14. Low morning serum cortisol levels in children with tonsillar hypertrophy and moderate-to-severe OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakasioti, Georgia; Alexopoulos, Emmanouel I; Varlami, Vasiliki; Chaidas, Konstantinos; Liakos, Nikolaos; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Kaditis, Athanasios G

    2013-09-01

    Hypertrophic tonsillar tissue in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has enhanced expression of glucocorticoid receptors, which may reflect low endogenous cortisol levels. We have evaluated the effect of the interaction between tonsillar hypertrophy and OSA severity on morning serum cortisol levels. Children with and without snoring underwent polysomnography, tonsillar size grading, and measurement of morning serum cortisol. Seventy children (2-13 years old) were recruited: 30 with moderate-to-severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 5 episodes/h), 26 with mild OSA (AHI > 1 and ≤ 5), and 14 controls (no snoring; AHI ≤ 1). Tonsillar hypertrophy was present in 56.7%, 53.8%, and 42.9% of participants in each group, respectively. Application of a general linear model demonstrated a significant effect of the interaction between severity of OSA and tonsillar hypertrophy on cortisol levels (P = 0.04), after adjustment for obesity, gender, and age. Among children with tonsillar hypertrophy, subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA (n = 17; AHI 14.7 ± 10.6), mild OSA (n = 14; AHI 2.3 ± 1.2), and control participants (n = 6; AHI 0.7 ± 0.2) were significantly different regarding cortisol levels (P = 0.02). Subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA had lower cortisol (16.9 ± 8.7 mcg/dL) than those with mild OSA (23.3 ± 4.2; P = 0.01) and those without OSA (controls) (23.6 ± 5.3 mcg/dL; P = 0.04). In contrast, children with normal-size tonsils and moderate-to-severe OSA, mild OSA, and controls did not differ in cortisol levels. Children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and the phenotype of hypertrophic tonsils have reduced morning serum cortisol levels and potentially decreased glucocorticoid inhibitory effects on tonsillar growth.

  15. Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium in emergency surgical patients in a tertiary hospital in Ghana. Robert Djagbletey, Brenda Phillips, Frank Boni, Christian Owoo, Ebenezer Owusu-Darkwa, Papa Kobina Gyakye deGraft-Johnson, Alfred E. Yawson ...

  16. 125I-labeled cortisol radioimmunoassay in which serum binding protein are enzymatically denatured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasler, M.J.; Painter, K.; Niswender, G.D.

    1976-01-01

    We report an iodine-125 radioimmunoassay for cortisol in biological fluids, in which interfering binding proteins are enzymatically denatured. An antiserum to cortisol-3-carboxymethyloxime-bovine serum albumin, extremely low cross-reacting with other corticosteroids, was raised in rabbits. A cortisol-3-carboxymethyloxime tyrosine methyl ester derivative was synthesized and labeled with iodine-125 by standard radioiodination techniques. To eliminate the need for extraction and recovery procedures, we digested interfering binding with a proteolytic enzyme, which then was heat-inactivated before adding the labeled derivative and the premixed, preincubated antiserum complex. There was quantitative analytical recovery of esogenous cortisol added to sera from a normal man, a normal woman, and a pregnant woman. Values for the same samples agreed after extraction and chromatographic purification and agreed well with values obtained by other techniques by independent reference laboratories. The five-step assay can be done in 6 h or less

  17. Serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels after balneotherapy and physical therapy in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiz, Esra A; Hizmetli, Sami; Semiz, Murat; Karadağ, Ahmet; Adalı, Merve; Tuncay, Mehmet S; Alim, Bulent; Hayta, Emrullah; Uslu, Ali U

    2016-05-01

    To investigated serum cortisol and serum dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S) levels between fibromyalgia (FMS) patients and a control group, and the effect of balneotherapy (BT) on these hormones.   Seventy-two patients with FMS and 39 healthy volunteers were included in the study. This prospective and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Medical Faculty, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Cumhuriyet University, Cumhuriyet, Turkey between June 2012 and June 2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups. There were 40 patients in the first group, consisting of BT and physical therapy (PT) administered patients. There were 32 FMS patients in the second group who were only administered PT. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers were enrolled as a control group.   Cortisol was observed to be lower in FMS patients compared with the controls  (10.10±4.08 µg/dL and 11.78±3.6 µg/dL; p=0.033). Serum DHEA-S level was observed to be lower in FMS patients compared with the controls (89.93±53.96 µg/dL and 143.15±107.92 µg/dL; p=0.015). Average serum cortisol levels of patients receiving BT were determined to be 9.95±3.20 µg/dL before treatment and 9.06±3.77µg/dL after treatment; while average serum DHEA-S levels were 77.60±48.05 µg/dL before treatment, and 76.84±48.71 µg/dL after treatment. No significant changes were determined in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels when measured again after BT and PT.   Low levels of serum cortisol and DHEA-S were suggested to be associated with the physiopathology of FMS.

  18. Analysis of serum cortisol levels by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for diagnosis of stress in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Campos Lemes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy is a technique with great potential for body fluids analyses. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of session training on cortisol concentrations in rugby players by means of infrared analysis of serum. Methods Blood collections were performed pre, post and 24 hours after of rugby training sessions. Serum cortisol was analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy and chemiluminescent immunoassay. Results There was a significant difference between the integrated area, in the region of 1180-1102 cm-1, of the spectra for pre, post and post 24 h serums. The cortisol concentration obtained by chemiluminescent immunoassay showed no significant difference between pre, post and post 24 h. Positive correlations were obtained between the techniques (r = 0.75, post (r = 0.83 and post 24 h (r = 0.73. Conclusion The results showed no increase in cortisol levels of the players after the training sessions, as well as positive correlations indicating that FT-IR spectroscopy have produced promising results for the analysis of serum for diagnosis of stress.

  19. Perioperative changes of serum cortisol and plasma angiotensin II levels in patients undergoing thoracotomy for malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Runhua; Lun Limin; Li Yusheng; Yu Yunyun; Li Xin; Zheng Chunxi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the perioperative changes of serum stress hormones cortisol and plasma angiotensin II in patients undergoing thoracotomy for malignancy. Methods: Serum cortisol and plasma angiotensin II levels were measured with RIA repeatedly in 35 thoracotomy patients operated for malignancy before operation, 1 h after starting operation, at the end of operation, and one day later, Heart rate and blood pressure were constantly monitored during operation. Results: The serum levels of cortisol and plasma angiotensin-II rose gradually during operation with significant differences among the measurements (P < 0. 001 -0.05), No age-difference for the measurements was observed except for a higher systolic pressure in patients over 60. Heart rates at 1 h were positively correlated with 1 h angiotensin-II levels. Heart rates at the end of operation were positively correlated with the cortisol and angiotensin-II levels at that time. Conclusion: The serum levels of these stress hormones rose significantly during the operation. Stress responses in older patients were adequate, yet the higher levels of stress hormones might bring more adverse effect in elderly people, especially cognition impairment. Smooth anaesthesia and adequate post-operative analgesia would lessen the stress effect, providing more ideal recovery, especially for the older patients. (authors)

  20. Serum cortisol level and its correlation to serum insulin and fasting blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jianzhong; Zhang Jun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of serum cortisol levels and its correlation to blood sugar and serum insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Blood sugar with oxidase method and serum cortisol insulin levels with RIA (8 AM fasting specimen) were measured in 26 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 30 controls. Results: The serum cortisol levels in the diabetic patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). The cortisol levels were positively correlated to the blood sugar levels (r=0.32, p<0.01), but not correlated to insulin levels. Conclusion: There were cortisol secretion disturbances in patients with type 2 diabetes

  1. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Total Cholesterol and Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most dangerous tropical diseases that complicates HIV infection in Nigeria to date. Over two million Nigerians are known to be infected with TB and many more are at risk of the infection. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol and total lipid of 117 female TB patients attending chest clinic at ...

  2. EFFECT OF FLOOR SPACE ON SERUM CORTISOL LEVEL OF OSMANABADI KIDS IN MUMBAI REGION OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameswar Panda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to find out the effect of different floor space allowance on serum cortisol level of Osmanabadi kids. For this study, eighteen Osmanabadi kids between the age group of 3-4 months were randomly selected irrespective of sex. The selected kids were divided and kept into three different groups with different floor space comprising of 6 kids in each group. GroupT0 (0.8m2 floor space/kid, Group T1 (0.7m2 /kid and Group T2 (0.6m2 /kid. The feeding and other management practices for all the three groups were similar. The blood sample was collected from each goat in fifteen days interval and the serum cortisol concentration (nM/l was determined with the help of Radio Immuno Assay (RIA kit. The average serum cortisol concentration were 12.66 ± 3.08, 10.85 ± 3.51 and 15.18 ± 3.88 nM/l in Group T0, T1 and T2 kids respectively. There was no significant effect (P<0.05 of floor space on cortisol concentration as a stress indicator in Osmanabadi kids.

  3. Detection of endogenous cortisol in equine tears and blood at rest and after simulated stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Caroline S; Hart, Kelsey A; Berghaus, Roy D; Norton, Natalie A; Moore, Phillip A; Myrna, Kathern E

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether cortisol is present in equine tears at rest and during simulated stress and compare tear cortisol to serum free and total cortisol. Fourteen healthy adult horses were included. Paired tear total cortisol and serum total and free cortisol concentrations were measured with ELISA, chemiluminescent immunoassay, and ultrafiltration methodology, respectively, in 10 horses at rest once daily for five consecutive days. In an additional four horses, paired tear and serum samples were collected for cortisol measurement before and after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation (cosyntropin, 1 μg/kg IV). Cortisol was detectable in equine tears at rest. Following ACTH stimulation, tear cortisol increased significantly from baseline at 60-120 min (P ≤ 0.001). Serum total and free cortisol also increased significantly at 30-180 min after ACTH stimulation (P ≤ 0.001). Both serum and tear cortisol returned to baseline concentrations by 360 min. Changes in tear cortisol were similarly associated with changes in serum total and free cortisol, although high tear cortisol concentrations suggest a portion of tear cortisol may be protein-bound. Cortisol is present in equine tears and increases in concert with serum cortisol following ACTH stimulation. Further study is needed to determine whether endogenous cortisol in tears contributes to ocular pathology. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  4. Influence of grooming on Rhipicephalus microplus tick infestation and serum cortisol rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferreira Pessoa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Grooming is an important factor on animal resistance to ticks. Rhipicephalus microplus is the most pathogenic cattle tick in Brazil causing death in susceptible animals. Cortisol is the hormone of stress. The influence of grooming on tick infestation and serum cortisol level was studied in 16 Holstein heifers from fifth to eight-month-old. They were infested with 10,000 larvae in June/20/2011. Half of them used a necklace made of wood strips and had an infestation chamber made by cotton cloth covering about 50 cm diameter of the shaved flank, fixed at the skin in both sides with adhesive to prevent larvae to escape from the infestation chamber and the amount of larvae was divided into the two chambers. Such artifacts had the purpose to avoid grooming. The heifers remained all the tick parasitic life cycle in individual pens inside a closed shed at Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa, São Paulo State. Tick females bigger than 4.5 mm were counted in the right side from day 20 to 22 after the artificial infestation. The tick recovery rate was calculated by adding and multiplying by two the number of ticks counted, assuming that 5,000 female larvae had infested the cattle. Immediately before infestation (day 0 and in day2, day8, and day17 after infestation, blood samples were collected using vacuum tubes, in the morning (8:30 – 10:00 A.M.. Cortisol was measured by immunoassay (EIA and the D.O. (optical density at 420 nm was converted in ng of cortisol/mL of serum sample. The experimental design was randomized with 8 replications. Data from serum cortisol were analyzed using the General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using the presence of the artifacts (necklace and chamber and sampling day as independent variables and serum cortisol as the dependent variable. In the analyse of tick recovery rate, the presence of artifacts was the independent variable and tick recovery rate the dependent variable. The presence of

  5. Serum levels of copeptin, C-reactive protein and cortisol in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study therefore determined the serum levels of copeptin, cortisol and CRP in adults with SCA in different severity groups. Sixty adults with sickle cell anaemia in steady state (27.1±6.3 years) and in vaso-occlusive crisis (24.9±4.9 years) were recruited into this cross-sectional study. Degree of severity (mild, moderate or ...

  6. Perception of academic examination stress: effects on serum leptin, cortisol, appetite and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Shireen, Erum; Haider, Saida; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2011-01-01

    Examination stress is a psychological stress that activate hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis to increase circulating levels of glucocorticoids. The fat derived hormone leptin is also released in response to stress-inducing condition. To workout the role of leptin and cortisol in response to perceived levels of examination stress and their effects on academic performance. The present study was designed to monitor the relationship of self reported perceived levels of examination stress on serum levels of cortisol and leptin in female students going to appear in university examination. Fifty-six female undergraduate students participated in the study. Examination stress, appetite levels were assessed by a questionnaire and blood samples were collected one hour before appearing in the examination. Performance was evaluated from the marks obtained in that particular examination. Serum cortisol levels increased with an increase in the intensity of perceived examination stress. Serum leptin levels increased only in the group under moderate stress while increases in mild and severe stress group were not significant. Mild to moderate stress enhanced performance but severe stress decreased it. The present study shows an inverted U-shaped relationship between self reported different levels of perceived examination stress and academic performance.

  7. Hair cortisol levels as a retrospective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary axis activity throughout pregnancy: Comparison to salivary cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; Ross, Randal G.; Natvig, Crystal L.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal/child outcomes. One potential biomarker of the maternal stress response is cortisol, a product of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study evaluated cortisol levels in hair throughout pregnancy as a marker of total cortisol release. Cortisol levels in hair have been shown to be easily quantifiable and may be representative of total cortisol release more than single saliva or serum measures. Hair corti...

  8. Elevated serum levels of malondialdehyde and cortisol are associated with major depressive disorder: A case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Reazul; Ahmed, Imtiaz; Moktadir, Abdullah Al; Nahar, Zabun; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Shahid, Shelina Fatema Binte; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul; Islam, Md Saiful; Hasnat, Abul

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Major depressive disorder is diagnosed on the basis of patient’s self-reported experiences, behavior reported by relatives, and a mental status examination, and yet we do not have any reliable biomarker for this. Mood-regulating pathways are affected by oxidative injury to lipids and cortisol is released into the blood due to stimulation of corticotrophin receptors in the adrenal cortex. Here, we aimed to determine serum levels of malondialdehyde and cortisol in major depressive disorder patients and controls. Methods: We collected blood samples from 247 major depressive disorder patients and 248 controls. Serum levels of malondialdehyde and cortisol were measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, respectively. Results: We found malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher in patients than controls, with mean ± standard deviation at 4.49 ± 1.37 and 2.87 ± 0.82 µmol/L, respectively, p < 0.001. Cortisol levels were also found significantly higher in patients than controls, with mean ± SD at 19.22 ± 1.64 and 17.37 ± 1.34 µg/dL, respectively, p < 0.001. Significant negative correlation was observed between serum levels of malondialdehyde and cortisol in patients (r =−0.170, p = 0.021). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed good diagnostic value for malondialdehyde and cortisol, with the area under the curve at 0.853 and 0.819, respectively. Conclusion: The present study suggests that increased serum levels of malondialdehyde and cortisol are strongly associated with major depressive disorder. We believe elevations of malondialdehyde and cortisol in serum level arise independently and they could serve as biomarkers for major depressive disorder. PMID:29770218

  9. Assessing adrenal insufficiency of corticosteroid secretion using free versus total cortisol levels in critical illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, N.; Groeneveld, A.B.J.; Dijstelbloem, H.M.; de Jong, M.F.C.; Girbes, A.R.J.; Heijboer, A.C.; Beishuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To study the value of free versus total cortisol levels in assessing relative adrenal insufficiency during critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. Methods: A prospective study in a mixed intensive care unit from 2004 to 2007. We consecutively included 49 septic and 63

  10. Assessing adrenal insufficiency of corticosteroid secretion using free versus total cortisol levels in critical illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, Nienke; Johan Groeneveld, A. B.; Dijstelbloem, Hilde M.; de Jong, Margriet F. C.; Girbes, Armand R. J.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Beishuizen, Albertus

    2011-01-01

    To study the value of free versus total cortisol levels in assessing relative adrenal insufficiency during critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. A prospective study in a mixed intensive care unit from 2004 to 2007. We consecutively included 49 septic and 63 non-septic patients with

  11. Bioavailability of Oral Hydrocortisone Corrected for Binding Proteins and Measured by LC-MS/MS Using Serum Cortisol and Salivary Cortisone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T N; Whitaker, M J; Keevil, B; Ross, R J

    2018-01-01

    The assessment absolute bioavailability of oral hydrocortisone is complicated by its saturable binding to cortisol binding globulin (CBG). Previous assessment of bioavailability used a cortisol radioimmunoassay which has cross reactivity with other steroids. Salivary cortisone is a measure of free cortisol and LC-MS/MS is the gold standard method for measuring steroids. We here report the absolute bioavailability of hydrocortisone calculated using serum cortisol and salivary cortisone measured by LC-MS/MS. 14 healthy male dexamethasone suppressed volunteers were administered 20 mg hydrocortisone either intravenously or orally by tablet. Samples of serum and saliva were taken and measured for cortisol and cortisone by LC-MS/MS. Serum cortisol was corrected for saturable binding using published data and pharmacokinetic parameters derived using the program WinNonlin. The mean (95% CI) bioavailability of oral hydrocortisone calculated from serum cortisol, unbound serum cortisol and salivary cortisone was 1.00 (0.89-1.14); 0.88 (0.75-1.05); and 0.93 (0.83-1.05), respectively. The data confirm that, after oral administration, hydrocortisone is completely absorbed. The data derived from serum cortisol corrected for protein binding, and that from salivary cortisone, are similar supporting the concept that salivary cortisone reflects serum free cortisol levels and that salivary cortisone can be used as a non-invasive method for measuring the pharmacokinetics of hydrocortisone.

  12. EFFECT OF FLOOR SPACE ON SERUM CORTISOL LEVEL OF OSMANABADI KIDS IN MUMBAI REGION OF INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rameswar Panda; P.P.Ghorpade; S.S.Chopade; A.H.Kodape; M.B.A Siddiqui; H.Y.Palampalle; N.R.Dagli

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to find out the effect of different floor space allowance on serum cortisol level of Osmanabadi kids. For this study, eighteen Osmanabadi kids between the age group of 3-4 months were randomly selected irrespective of sex. The selected kids were divided and kept into three different groups with different floor space comprising of 6 kids in each group. GroupT0 (0.8m2 floor space/kid), Group T1 (0.7m2 /kid) and Group T2 (0.6m2 /kid). The feedi...

  13. Indagation of serum and salivary reactive oxygen metabolite and cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis and stress-induced chronic periodontitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sudhakar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is not a conventional bacterial infection but is an inflammatory disease initiated by immune response against a group of microorganisms in susceptible hosts. There are many intriguing researches that unfold the secrets of chronic periodontitis. The current researches in chronic periodontitis are directed toward an approach that respects the scientific relationship between the various risk factors, the genetic factors, and the progression of the disease. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the cortisol and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM concentration in serum and to find out their association in periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods: In this study, totally thirty patients have been taken and divided into two groups of chronic periodontitis (Group I and stress-induced chronic periodontitis (Group II and evaluated the correlation between the ROM and cortisol levels in them. This is the first study, where both the levels of ROM and cortisol are checked in the serum and saliva. The analysis is done to check the association between them. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed using software program (SPSSV 16, Pearson correlation, and paired t-test. Results: Comparison of the mean ROM levels in Group I and Group II showed that mean ROM level in Group II is highly significant than Group I. Conclusion: Our study suggests that stress can have a role in the progression of periodontal disease by increasing the cortisol and ROM levels.

  14. Indagation of serum and salivary reactive oxygen metabolite and cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis and stress-induced chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, Uma; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Jeyapal, Bhagyameena; Jagadeesh, Sushuruthi; Jayakumar, Parvathee

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease is not a conventional bacterial infection but is an inflammatory disease initiated by immune response against a group of microorganisms in susceptible hosts. There are many intriguing researches that unfold the secrets of chronic periodontitis. The current researches in chronic periodontitis are directed toward an approach that respects the scientific relationship between the various risk factors, the genetic factors, and the progression of the disease. This study aims to evaluate the cortisol and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) concentration in serum and to find out their association in periodontal health and disease. In this study, totally thirty patients have been taken and divided into two groups of chronic periodontitis (Group I) and stress-induced chronic periodontitis (Group II) and evaluated the correlation between the ROM and cortisol levels in them. This is the first study, where both the levels of ROM and cortisol are checked in the serum and saliva. The analysis is done to check the association between them. The data were statistically analyzed using software program (SPSSV 16), Pearson correlation, and paired t -test. Comparison of the mean ROM levels in Group I and Group II showed that mean ROM level in Group II is highly significant than Group I. Our study suggests that stress can have a role in the progression of periodontal disease by increasing the cortisol and ROM levels.

  15. Development and evaluation of a simple, direct, solid-phase radioimmunoassay of serum cortisol from readily available reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConway, M.G.; Chapman, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, rapid solid-phase radioimmunoassay for serum cortisol was developed using cortisol antibody and commercially available radioiodinated cortisol ligand. The assay involves a 1-h incubation at ambient temperature, using the antibody covalently linked by the easily performed carbonyldiimidazole method, to microcrystalline cellulose. A detailed comparison of the accepted 0.125 mol/l citrate, pH 4.0, and an alternative 0.1 mol/l phosphate/8-anilinonaphthalene sulphonic acid, pH 7.4, diluent demonstrated similar precision and recovery. Phosphate, pH 7.4 diluent was adopted as the diluent of choice, since it was economical of antibody and maintained good precision over a wider working range of cortisol concentration. (Auth.)

  16. Evaluation of adrenal function in patients with hypothalamic and pituitary disorders : comparison of serum cortisol, urinary free cortisol and the human-corticotrophin releasing hormone test with the insulin tolerance test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, RPF; Pasterkamp, SH; Beentjes, JAM; Sluiter, WJ

    OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate the performance of screening tests (serum cortisol and 24-h urinary free cortisol) and the human-corticotrophin releasing hormone (h-CRH) test in the assessment of adrenal function in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders. DESIGN Summary receiver

  17. Relationships Between Temperament and Transportation With Rectal Temperature and Serum Concentrations of Cortisol and Epinephrine in Bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated whether temperament influences rectal temperature and serum concentrations of cortisol and epinephrine in response to transportation. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS) measured 28 days prior to weaning wit...

  18. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-09-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum levels of cortisol. Greater amounts of serum could be collected and lower serum levels of cortisol were present in fish euthanized with clove oil compared with equipotent dose of MS222. Euthanasia with clove oil did not blunt the expected elevation of serum cortisol levels elicited by an acute premortem stress. According to our findings, clove oil is a fast-acting agent that minimizes the cortisol response to euthanasia in zebrafish and allows the collection of large volumes of blood postmortem. These results represent a significant refinement in euthanasia methods for zebrafish.

  19. Changes of serum cortisol and plasma angiotensin-II (AT-II) levels in patients with open chest surgery during peri-operative stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yunyun; Tian Runhua; Zhao Huiyuan; Li Xiaoqin; Wang Ling

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the systemic stress reaction in patients with open chest surgery through measurement of the changes of serum cortisol and plasma AT-II levels during peri-operative stage. Methods: Serum cortisol and plasma AT-II levels were measured with RIA in 35 patients underwent open chest surgery both before and after the operative procedure. Results: The serum level of cortisol and plasma levels of AT-II were significantly higher after operation than those before operation ( P < 0.05 ). Also, the systolic pressure and heart rate were increased significantly (P<0.05). The post-operative heart rate was significantly positively correlated with both cortisol and AT-II levels (P<0.05). Conclusion: Stress reaction is evident in patients after open chest surgery with increase of serum cortisol and plasma AT-II levels. The stress reaction, if excessive, should be properly dealt with. (authors)

  20. Dynamics of postoperative serum cortisol after transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing's disease: implications for immediate reoperation and remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberg, Marc; Reintjes, Stephen; Patel, Anika; Moloney, Kelley; Mercado, Jennifer; Carlson, Alex; Scanlan, James; Broyles, Frances

    2017-12-22

    OBJECTIVE Successful transsphenoidal surgery for adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)-producing pituitary tumors is associated with subnormal postoperative serum cortisol levels, which may guide decisions regarding immediate reoperation. However, little is known about the detailed temporal course of changes in serum cortisol in the immediate postoperative period, and the relationship of postoperative cortisol dynamics to remission and late recurrence. METHODS A single-center retrospective cohort analysis was performed for all patients undergoing pituitary surgery from 2007 through 2015. Standardized diagnostic and treatment algorithms were applied to all patients with potential Cushing's disease (CD), including microsurgical transsphenoidal adenomectomy (TSA) by a single surgeon. All patients had serum cortisol levels drawn at 6-hour intervals for 72 hours after surgery, and were offered reoperation within 3 days for normal or supranormal postoperative cortisol levels. Primary outcomes were 6-month remission and late recurrence; secondary outcomes were persistent postoperative hypocortisolism and surgical morbidity. Discriminatory levels of postoperative serum cortisol for predicting remission were calculated at various intervals after surgery using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS Among 89 patients diagnosed with CD, 81 underwent initial TSA for a potentially curable lesion; 23 patients (25.8%) underwent an immediate second TSA. For the entire cohort, 6-month remission was achieved in 77.8% and late recurrences occurred in 9.5%, at a mean of 43.5 months. Compared with patients with a single surgery, those with an immediate second TSA had similar rates of remission (78.3% vs 77.6%) and late recurrence (5.6% vs 11.1%). The rate of hypocortisolism for patients with 2 surgeries (12/23, 52.2%) was significantly greater than that for patients with single surgeries (13/58, 22.4%; p surgery protocol. The temporal course of postoperative serum cortisol

  1. Effect of breed on plasma endothelin-1 concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, K.; Lequarré, A.-S.; Ljungvall, I.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are breed differences in several blood variables in healthy dogs. OBJECTIVE: Investigate breed variation in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration. ANIMALS: Five-hundred and thirty-one healthy dogs of 9 breeds examined...... at 5 centers (2-4 breeds/center). METHODS: Prospective observational study. Circulating concentrations of ET-1 and cortisol, and renin activity, were measured using commercially available assays. Absence of organ-related or systemic disease was ensured by thorough clinical investigations, including...

  2. Elevated serum levels of malondialdehyde and cortisol are associated with major depressive disorder: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Rabiul; Islam, Md Reazul; Ahmed, Imtiaz; Moktadir, Abdullah Al; Nahar, Zabun; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Shahid, Shelina Fatema Binte; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul; Islam, Md Saiful; Hasnat, Abul

    2018-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is diagnosed on the basis of patient's self-reported experiences, behavior reported by relatives, and a mental status examination, and yet we do not have any reliable biomarker for this. Mood-regulating pathways are affected by oxidative injury to lipids and cortisol is released into the blood due to stimulation of corticotrophin receptors in the adrenal cortex. Here, we aimed to determine serum levels of malondialdehyde and cortisol in major depressive disorder patients and controls. We collected blood samples from 247 major depressive disorder patients and 248 controls. Serum levels of malondialdehyde and cortisol were measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, respectively. We found malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher in patients than controls, with mean ± standard deviation at 4.49 ± 1.37 and 2.87 ± 0.82 µmol/L, respectively, p  depressive disorder. We believe elevations of malondialdehyde and cortisol in serum level arise independently and they could serve as biomarkers for major depressive disorder.

  3. Serum levels of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, and oxytocin in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder combined presentation with and without comorbid conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işık, Ümit; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Toker, Aysun; Kılınç, Ibrahim

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and oxytocin levels of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined presentation and those diagnosed with ADHD combined presentation and coexisting conduct disorder. A total of 74 drug-naive children with ADHD combined presentation alone, 32 children with ADHD combined presentation + conduct disorder, and 42 healthy controls were included. The severities of ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms were assessed via parent- and teacher-rated questionnaires. The severity of aggression, anxiety, and depression symptoms of the children were assessed by the self-report inventories. Independent of potential confounders, including age, sex, pubertal stage, and severity of depression and anxiety, serum oxytocin levels of the ADHD combined presentation + conduct disorder group were significantly lower than those of both the ADHD combined presentation alone and control groups. There was also a trend for the ADHD combined presentation + conduct disorder group to show lower serum DHEA levels than that of the ADHD combined presentation alone group. However, serum cortisol levels did not show significant alterations among the groups. These findings suggest that oxytocin and DHEA may play a role in the pathophysiology of conduct disorder, at least in the presence of ADHD combined presentation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Body mass index and its effect on serum cortisol level | Odeniyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cortisol measurement is indicated in suspected over or underproduction of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. The finding of low cortisol can create concern and initiate further investigations for the exclusion of adrenal insufficiency. Cushing's syndrome is frequently included in the differential diagnosis of obesity.

  5. Local preparation and evaluation of liquid phase radioimmunoassay for determination of human serum cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, Kh.M.; El-Bayoumy, A.S.A.; Ebeid, N.H.; Michael, E.; Zein, N.; Elfarargy, Ah.F.

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was the preparation of the primary reagents of cortisol radioimmunoassay (RIA) using liquid phase double antibody technique. Three basic components were prepared and characterized to obtain valid and accurate system. These components were polyclonal anti-cortisol antibody, "1"2"5I-cortisol RIA tracer and cortisol standards. Cortisol requires conjugation step to be real antigen. Therefore, in this study this mandatory conjugation step was performed & characterized. Then formulation, optimization and validation of this liquid phase RIA technique were carried out. This assay is precise, specific and sensitive enough for using as a diagnostic tool for the adrenal cortex status. (author)

  6. Effects of medetomidine and atipamezole on serum glucose and cortisol levels in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon M. Arnemo

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Serum concentrations of glucose and Cortisol were measured in five adult captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus at 24 h and 10 min before, and at 0.5, 1,2,4, 8, 12 and 24 h after, treatment with 60 p.g/kg of medetomidine i.v. followed by 300 jig/kg of atipamezole i.v. 60 min later. The experiments were performed in January and repeated in July-August. The animals were used as their own controls and treated with saline in July-August. The wash-out period between experiments in summer was 2 weeks or more. No obvious seasonal differences were observed. Mederomidine induced a 2.5-fold increase in glucose (mean ± standard error of the mean being 15.4 ± 0.6 mmol/1 at 1 h and a 3.5-fold increase Cortisol (349 ± 28 nmol/1 at 0.5 h. Serum glucose reached control levels within 12 h, and Cortisol declined to baseline levels within 4 h after injection og medetomidine. The use of blood concentrations of glucose and Cortisol to assess nutritonal status, body condition and stress may be significantly biased in animals chemically immobilized with medetomidine or other alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists.

  7. Cortisol Measures Across the Weight Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Melanie; Lawson, Elizabeth A; Dichtel, Laura E; Klibanski, Anne; Miller, Karen K

    2015-09-01

    There are conflicting reports of increased vs decreased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation in obesity; the most consistent finding is an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and morning cortisol. In anorexia nervosa (AN), a low-BMI state, cortisol measures are elevated. This study aimed to investigate cortisol measures across the weight spectrum. This was a cross-sectional study at a clinical research center. This study included 60 women, 18-45 years of age: overweight/obese (OB; N = 21); AN (N = 18); and normal-weight controls (HC; N = 21). HPA dynamics were assessed by urinary free cortisol, mean overnight serum cortisol obtained by pooled frequent sampling every 20 minutes from 2000-0800 h, 0800 h serum cortisol and cortisol-binding globulin, morning and late-night salivary cortisol, and dexamethasone-CRH testing. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Cortisol measures demonstrated a U-shaped relationship with BMI, nadiring in the overweight-class I obese range, and were similarly associated with visceral adipose tissue and total fat mass. Mean cortisol levels were higher in AN than OB. There were weak negative linear relationships between lean mass and some cortisol measures. Most cortisol measures were negatively associated with postero-anterior spine and total hip BMD. Cortisol measures are lowest in overweight-class I obese women-lower than in lean women. With more significant obesity, cortisol levels increase, although not to as high as in AN. Therefore, extreme underweight and overweight states may activate the HPA axis, and hypercortisolemia may contribute to increased adiposity in the setting of caloric excess. Hypercortisolemia may also contribute to decreased BMD and muscle wasting in the setting of both caloric restriction and excess.

  8. Slaughter value, meat quality, creatine kinase activity and cortisol levels in the blood serum of growing-finishing pigs slaughtered immediately after transport and after a rest period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiecińska, K; Denaburski, J; Sobotka, W

    2011-01-01

    The experimental materials comprised 44 hybrid [female (Polish Large White x Polish Landrace) x male Duroc] growing-finishing pigs. The animals were randomly divided into two groups: 24 pigs were slaughtered immediately after transport and 20 pigs were slaughtered after a 24-hour rest period in the lairage. The meat content of pork carcasses, carcass dressing percentage, the proximate chemical composition, physicochemical and sensory properties of meat and shear force values were determined. Serum creatine kinase activity and cortisol levels were determined in blood samples collected before transport and during carcass bleeding. Pigs slaughtered immediately after transport, compared with those slaughtered after a 24-hour rest period, were characterized by a higher meat content of the carcass and a higher carcass dressing percentage. Pre-slaughter handling had no effect on pork quality. The incidence of normal-quality meat, partially PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat and PSE meat was similar in both groups. Chemical analysis showed that the content of dry matter, total protein, fat and minerals in meat was comparable in both groups. As regards the functional properties of the pork, samples from the carcasses of pigs that had rested before slaughter had a higher contribution of the red color component. Meat from pigs slaughtered immediately after transport had more desirable sensory properties. Pre-slaughter resting had a significant effect on those analyzed physiological parameters which were found to be good indicators of pre-slaughter stress. Serum creatine kinase activity and cortisol levels were higher in blood samples collected after transport (during carcass bleeding) than in samples collected before transport, pointing to a strong stress response of animals to pre-slaughter treatment. The decrease in serum cortisol levels in blood samples collected during bleeding from the carcasses of pigs slaughtered after a 24-hour rest period, compared with samples

  9. Effects of Shugan Jieyuling self-made on behavior and levels of serum IL-2, IL-6 and cortisol in depression models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiubo; Yao Di; Zhang Ping; Li Youtian; Xu Dan; Jiang Sailin; Xu Caiyun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of Shugan Jieyuling self-made (SJSM) on behavior, levels of serum IL-2, IL-6 and cortisol in depression model mice. Methods: The adult mice separately raised and treated with chronic unpredictable middle stress stimulus were used to establish depression models. The curative effect of SJSM was observed in depression model mice. The changes of weight and behavior were detected in a period. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to examine the contents of serum IL-2, IL-6 and cortisol levels. Results: The increased weights of the depression model mice were declined compared with the normal mice before administration. The mental state and behavior of the depression mice were changed. The mice were starling, dreadful, helpless and immobile. At the same time the contents of serum IL-2, IL-6 and cortisol were obviously lower than those of the normal mice. SJSM (large and low doses) and Baiyoujie changed the increased weights and behaviors of the depression after administration for 21 d. The mental state was meliorated simultaneously, and the serum IL-2, IL-6 and cortisol levels in the depression model mice were decreased significantly compared with normal mice. Conclusion: The levels of serum IL-2, IL-6 and cortisol may be the guideline for the diagnosis of depression disease. SJSM can obviously improve both the symptoms of the depression models and the levels of serum IL-2, IL-6 and cortisol. (authors)

  10. In etanercept-treated psoriatic arthritis patients clinical improvement correlated with an increase of serum cortisol relative to other adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzeni, F; Sarzi-Puttini, P; DePortu, S; Cutolo, M; Carrabba, M; Straub, R H

    2008-01-01

    In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), long-term therapy with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies sensitizes the pituitary gland and improves adrenal androgen secretion in prednisolone-naïve patients. However, whether this is similar in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is not known. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 12 weeks of etanercept treatment upon the function of the HPA axis in patients with PsA. Eleven prednisolone-naïve patients (mean age 47.3+/-8.9 years) with PsA were included. We measured serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), cortisol, and androstenedione (ASD), at baseline and at 4 and 12 weeks after initiation of anti-TNF therapy (etanercept, 50 mg every week as a single dose by sc. injection). Clinical improvement was assessed using the Disease Activity Score-28 (DAS-28). Mean levels of serum ACTH, serum cortisol, serum 17OHP and serum ASD did not markedly change during 12 weeks of etanercept treatment. Similarly, the ratio of serum cortisol divided by serum ACTH did not change during 12 weeks of anti-TNF treatment. However, an increase of serum cortisol relative to serum 17OHP or ASD was related to clinical improvement. This indicates that improvement was linked to higher serum cortisol levels relative to others adrenal hormones. This is the first study to demonstrate baseline serum levels and the course of HPA axis-related hormones in patients with PsA. An increase of serum cortisol relative to others adrenocortical hormones (i.e., androstenedione and ACTH) was accompanied by clinical improvement.

  11. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Kim, Ji-Yung; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR) on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications). Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1%) moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05). Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05). No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  12. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Methods Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications. Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1% moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. Results No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05. Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05. No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Conclusion It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  13. Evaluation of Basal Serum Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Levels and Their Relationship with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Male Patients with Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The male IHH patients showed higher basal serum ACTH levels and lower cortisol levels than matched healthy controls. NAFLD was an independent associated factor for ACTH levels in male IHH patients. These preliminary findings provided evidence of the relationship between basal serum ACTH and NAFLD in male IHH patients.

  14. Reduced total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Schieffer

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD results in increased oxidative stress that damages the colonic microenvironment. Low levels of serum bilirubin, an endogenous antioxidant, have been associated with increased risk for Crohn's disease (CD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC. We identified a retrospective case-control population (n = 6,649 from a single tertiary care center, Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSU and a validation cohort (n = 1,996 from Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center (VCU. Cases were age- and sex-matched to controls (PSU: CD n = 254, UC n = 187; VCU: CD n = 233, UC n = 124. Total serum bilirubin levels were obtained from de-identified medical records and segregated into quartiles. Logistic regression analysis was performed on each quartile of total serum bilirubin compared to the last quartile (highest bilirubin levels to determine the association of total serum bilirubin with UC. Similar to CD patients, UC patients demonstrated reduced levels of total serum bilirubin compared to controls at PSU and VCU. The lowest quartile of total serum bilirubin was independently associated with UC for the PSU (OR: 1.98 [95% CI: 1.09-3.63] and VCU cohorts (OR: 6.07 [95% CI: 3.01-12.75]. Lower levels of the antioxidant bilirubin may reduce the capability of UC patients to remove reactive oxygen species leading to an increase in intestinal injury. Therapeutics that reduce oxidative stress may be beneficial for these patients.

  15. False high level in total bilirubin estimation in nonicteric serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    estimation of total bilirubin by DiaSys and Randox reagents along with simultaneous re-estimation by Roche reagents in ... been used mainly due to slightly lower cost in ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... air-conditioned laboratory overnight. ..... Elevated IgG causing spurious elevation in serum total bilirubin assay. Asia.

  16. Serum leptin and cortisol, related to acutely perceived academic examination stress and performance in female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Inam, Qurrat-Ul-Aen; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin, identified as an antiobesity hormone, also has important role in responses to stress and processing of memory. This study was designed to determine effects of academic examination stress-induced changes in serum leptin and its impact on academic performance. Eighty five healthy female students (age 19-21 years; BMI 21.9 ± 1.6) were recruited for the study. Serum leptin and cortisol were monitored at base line (beginning of academic session) and on the day of examination; using a standardized ELISA kit. Acute perception of academic examination stress was determined with the help of a questionnaire derived from Hamilton Anxiety Scale and self report of stress perception. Academic performance was evaluated by the percentage of marks obtained in the examination. Serum cortisol levels were positively correlated (p academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and academic performance. Leptin increased in all stress groups and correlated (p academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and circulating leptin. The findings suggest the peptide hormone, leptin, is a biomarker of stress perception and a mediator of facilitating effects of stress on cognition.

  17. Determination of steroid hormones in a human-serum reference material by isotope dilution--mass spectrometry: A candidate definitive method for cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, D.G.; Patterson, M.B.; Culbreth, P.H.; Fast, D.M.; Holler, J.S.; Sampson, E.J.; Bayse, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    We report a method, based on isotope dilution--mass spectrometry, for determining cortisol in a pooled specimen of human serum. Isotopically labeled cortisol is added to 5.0 mL of serum so that the molar concentrations of labeled cortisol and unlabeled cortisol are approximately equal. The specimen and two calibration standards are extracted with dichloromethane, and the extracted cortisol is converted to the methoxime-trimethylsilyl ether derivative. Samples and standards are analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry by monitoring the peak areas for m/z 605 and 608. The cortisol concentration is calculated by linear interpolation between the two bracketing standards. Variances of data collected during six weeks showed that the overall coefficient of variation (CV) was 0.69% (n . 32); the within-vial CV, 0.63%; the among-vial CV, 0.22%; and the among-day CV, 0.15% (means . 3.973 nmol/vial). Method specificity was demonstrated by liquid chromatographic as well as C 8 mini-column cleanup of samples before derivation, by alternative ion monitoring at m/z 636 and 639, and by negative-ion chemical ionization at m/z 459 and 462. Derivatives of all observed degradation products of cortisol under basic, neutral, and acidic conditions did not interfere

  18. Refractometric total protein concentrations in icteric serum from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aradhana; Stockham, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether high serum bilirubin concentrations interfere with the measurement of serum total protein concentration by refractometry and to assess potential biases among refractometer measurements. Evaluation study. Sera from 2 healthy Greyhounds. Bilirubin was dissolved in 0.1M NaOH, and the resulting solution was mixed with sera from 2 dogs from which food had been withheld to achieve various bilirubin concentrations up to 40 mg/dL. Refractometric total protein concentrations were estimated with 3 clinical refractometers. A biochemical analyzer was used to measure biuret assay-based total protein and bilirubin concentrations with spectrophotometric assays. No interference with refractometric measurement of total protein concentrations was detected with bilirubin concentrations up to 41.5 mg/dL. Biases in refractometric total protein concentrations were detected and were related to the conversion of refractive index values to total protein concentrations. Hyperbilirubinemia did not interfere with the refractometric estimation of serum total protein concentration. The agreement among total protein concentrations estimated by 3 refractometers was dependent on the method of conversion of refractive index to total protein concentration and was independent of hyperbilirubinemia.

  19. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety.

  20. Clinical significance of changes of serum NSE, cortisol, ADM, calcium, magnesium levels and platalet count in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Weihua; Huang Weiliang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum NSE, cortisol, ADM, Ca ++ , Mg ++ levels and platalet count in neonates with HIE. Methods: Serum NSE, ADM(with RIA), cortisol(with CLIA), Ca ++ and Mg ++ (with biochemistry) levels and platalet count were determined in 52 neonates with HIE(mild, n=26, moderate, n=16, advanced, n=10) and 30 controls. Results: In the neonates with mild HIE, the serum NSE and ADM levels were not significantly different from those in controls (P>0.05) but cortisol levels were significantly higher (P ++ and Mg ++ levels as well as decrease of platelet count, might reflect the severity of the disease process of HIE in neonates and might be of prognostic importance. (authors)

  1. Comparing Levels of Serum IgA, IgG, IgM and Cortisol in the Professional Bodybuilding Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hadi Naghib

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bodybuilding athlete's bodies are placed under much pressure in during the exercise, which is causing changes in the immune and hormone system in the long term. The purpose of this study was to compare levels of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG, immunoglobulin M (IgM and cortisol in the professional bodybuilding athletes (BA and the non-athletes (NA male. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytic and 29 volunteer subjects in the professional BA and NA men participated. Levels of serum IgA, IgG, IgM using Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID and levels of serum cortisol using Radioimmunoassay (RIA were measured with blood sampling from brachial vein at rest and fasting. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test (p0.05, while, the levels of serum cortisol (22.10±2.60 vs. 15.41±3.44 μg/dl, U=0.001, p=0.001 significantly greater in the BA than the NA.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that participation in training and competitions bodybuilding has no effect on serum levels of IgG, IgA, IgM, but increased levels of serum cortisol.

  2. Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Ashish K.; Mohanty, Banalata

    2009-01-01

    Effects of chronic exposures (one and two months) to sublethal doses of hexavalent chromium (2 and 4 mg/L potassium dichromate) on organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile were investigated and their overall impact on growth and behavior of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus was elucidated. Histopathological lesions were distinct in the vital organs gill, kidney and liver. The gill lamellae became lifted, fused, and showed oedema. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar epithelial cells were distinct with desquamation. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and reduction in tubular lumens were observed in the trunk kidney. The atrophy of the head kidney interrenal cells and decreased serum cortisol level indicated exhaustion of interrenal activity. Hepatocyte vacuolization and shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and increase of sinusoidal spaces were observed in the liver. Abnormal behavioral patterns and reduced growth rate were also noticed in the exposed fish. The chronic hexavalent chromium exposure thus by affecting histopathology of gill, kidney (including interrenal tissue) and liver could impair the vital functions of respiration, excretion, metabolic regulation and maintenance of stress homeostasis which in the long-run may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

  3. Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Ashish K. [Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Mohanty, Banalata, E-mail: drbana_mohanty@rediffmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India)

    2009-09-01

    Effects of chronic exposures (one and two months) to sublethal doses of hexavalent chromium (2 and 4 mg/L potassium dichromate) on organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile were investigated and their overall impact on growth and behavior of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus was elucidated. Histopathological lesions were distinct in the vital organs gill, kidney and liver. The gill lamellae became lifted, fused, and showed oedema. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar epithelial cells were distinct with desquamation. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and reduction in tubular lumens were observed in the trunk kidney. The atrophy of the head kidney interrenal cells and decreased serum cortisol level indicated exhaustion of interrenal activity. Hepatocyte vacuolization and shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and increase of sinusoidal spaces were observed in the liver. Abnormal behavioral patterns and reduced growth rate were also noticed in the exposed fish. The chronic hexavalent chromium exposure thus by affecting histopathology of gill, kidney (including interrenal tissue) and liver could impair the vital functions of respiration, excretion, metabolic regulation and maintenance of stress homeostasis which in the long-run may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

  4. Changes in serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron is a vital constituent of cells but in excess may be harmful and is associated with a raised risk for some malignant diseases including breast cancer. We aimed to study changes in iron profile in Sudanese females newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods: A case- control study in which serum iron, Total ...

  5. Serum total proteins and creatinine levels in experimental gambian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempt was therefore made to evaluate the effect of two strains of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense on total proteins and other serum biochemical parameters using vervet monkeys as a model. The outcome of both strains in vervet monkeys was traumatic as the monkeys died from infection 12 – 15 weeks post infection while ...

  6. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin levels in Trypanosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of orally administered Scoparia dulcis on Trypanosoma brucei-induced changes in serum total protein, albumin and globulin were investigated in rabbits over a period of twenty eight days. Results obtained show that infection resulted in hyperproteinaemia, hyperglobulinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia. However ...

  7. A solid-phase-radioimmunoassay for total serum thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moedder, G.; Sokolowski, G.

    1978-01-01

    A new solid phase radioimmunoassay for total serum thyroxine was evaluated over a longer time under clinical routine conditions and compared with an established test system. The results show up that the T 4 values are precise, reliable and reproducible, the is incomplicate to handle and well suitable for semiautomatic pipetting systems. (orig.) 891 MG [de

  8. marital status and occupation versus serum total cholesterol and hdl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. The influence of marital status and occupation on serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL – CH) concentrations was studied in sixty one (61) adult male and female Hausa subjects aged 20 – 50 years. Irrespective of marital status and occupation, female subjects had higher ...

  9. Elevated serum cytokines correlated with altered behavior, serum cortisol rhythm, and dampened 24-hour rest-activity patterns in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Tyvin; Innominato, Pasquale F; Boerner, Julie; Mormont, M Christine; Iacobelli, Stefano; Baron, Benoit; Jasmin, Claude; Lévi, Francis

    2005-03-01

    Incapacitating symptom burden in cancer patients contributes to poor quality of life (QOL) and can influence treatment outcomes because of poor tolerance to therapy. In this study, the role of circulating cytokines in the production symptoms in cancer patients is evaluated. Eighty patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with either normal (group I, n = 40) or dampened (group II, n = 40) 24-hour rest/activity patterns measured by actigraphy were identified. Actigraphy patterns were correlated with QOL indices, serum cortisol obtained at 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. and with serum levels of transforming growth factor-alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) obtained at 8:00 a.m. and analyzed in duplicate by ELISA. Cytokine levels and survival were also correlated. Group II patients had significantly higher pre treatment levels of all three cytokines, displayed significantly poorer emotional and social functioning, had higher fatigue, more appetite loss, and poorer performance status compared with group I patients. Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) and IL-6 were significantly increased in the patients with WHO performance status >1 and in those with appetite loss. Fatigue was significantly associated with elevated TGF-alpha only. IL-6 was increased in those patients with extensive liver involvement and multiple organ replacement, and it was significantly correlated with dampened cortisol rhythm. In a multivariate analysis, IL-6 was correlated with poor treatment outcome. Significant correlations were found between serum levels of TGF-alpha and IL-6, circadian patterns in wrist activity and serum cortisol and tumor-related symptoms in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. These data support the hypothesis that some cancer patient's symptoms of fatigue, poor QOL, and treatment outcome are related to tumor or host generated cytokines and could reflect cytokine effects on the circadian timing system. This interplay between cytokine

  10. Serum total antioxidant capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira Hadžović-Džuvo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. It is characterized by loss of myelin, the fatty tissue that surrounds and protects nerve fibres allowing them to conduct electrical impulses. Recent data indicate that oxidative stress (OS plays a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study was to estimate level of serum total antioxidative capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Our cross-sectional study included 33 patients with MS and 24 age and sex matched control subjects. All our patients had a Poser criteria for definite diagnostic categories of multiple sclerosis. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC was measured by quantitative colorimetric determination, using Total antioxidant Capacity-QuantiCromAntioxidant Assay Kit (BioAssay systems, USA; DTAC-100. Mean serum TAC in multiple sclerosis group of patients was 119.2 mM Trolox equivalents and was significantly lower (p<0.001 compared to the control group of subjects (167.1 mM Trolox equivalents. Our results showed that oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. This finding, also, suggests the importance of antioxidants in diet and therapy of MS patients.

  11. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni Jaiswal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. Aim: To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Results: Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.

  12. Effect of Chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription on the concentration of the serum testosterone and cortisol in male rats under stress of maximum intensive training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ling; Si Xulan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription on the concentration of the serum testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) in male rats under the stress of maximum intensive training. Methods: Wistar male rat models of stress under maximum intensity training were established (n=40) and half of them were treated with Chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription twenty undisturbed rats served as controls. Testosterone and cortisol serum levels were determined with RIA at the end of the seven weeks' experiment. Results: Maximum intensive training would cause the level of the serum testosterone lowered, the concentration of the cortisol elevated and the ratio of T/C reduced. The serum T levels and T/C ratio were significantly lower and cortisol levels significantly higher in the untreated models than those in the treated models and controls (P<0.01). The levels of the two hormones were markedly corrected in the treated models with no significantly differences from those in the controls. However, the T/C ratio was still significantly lower than that in the controls (P <0.05) due to a relatively slightly greater degree of reduction of T levels. Conclusion: Anti-fatigue prescription can not only promote the recovery of fatigue after the maximum intensive training but also strengthen the anabolism of the rats. (authors)

  13. Serum total and free carnitine levels in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asilsoy, Suna; Bekem, Ozlem; Karaman, Ozkan; Uzuner, Nevin; Kavukçu, Salih

    2009-02-01

    Serum carnitine is decreased in recurrent pulmonary infections. We aimed to evaluate serum carnitine levels in asthmatic children. Study group consisted of children with stable asthma and those with acute asthma attacks, while control group included healthy children. Attack severity was determined by the pulmonary score system. Total and free carnitine levels were studied in one blood sample from the control group and stable asthmatics and in two samples from children with acute asthma exacerbation during and after the attack. All the 40 patients in the study group had moderate asthma including 30 with acute attack (13 mild and 17 moderate) and 10 with stable asthma. Carnitine levels were significantly lower in acute attack asthmatics than in the stable asthmatics and controls, while there was no significant difference between the latter two groups. Carnitine levels were not different between asthmatics with mild and moderate attack, and were similar during and after an acute attack. Serum carnitine levels decrease in children with moderate asthma during exacerbation of asthma and shortly thereafter. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of carnitine treatment on serum carnitine level.

  14. Serum cortisol and blood glucose in bitches treated with tramadol and submitted to ovariohysterectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Caldeira, Fátima Maria Caetano; Oliveira, Humberto Pereira; Melo, Eliane Gonçalves; Martins, Claudia; Vieira, Marilisa Souza; Silva, Cristiano Nicomedes da

    2006-01-01

    O tramadol é um analgésico opióide usado em medicina veterinária, embora existam poucos estudos sobre este fármaco. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito analgésico promovido pela administração do tramadol, mensurando o cortisol sérico e a glicemia de cadelas. Para isso, foram utilizadas 15 fêmeas, submetidas a ovário-histerectomia sob anestesia geral com isofluorano. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos. Grupo 1 (Tep) receberam tramadol pela via epidural (1,0mg kg-1 diluído em ...

  15. Salivary Cortisone Reflects Cortisol Exposure Under Physiological Conditions and After Hydrocortisone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Miguel; Harrison, Robert F; Whitaker, Martin J; Eckland, David; Arlt, Wiebke; Keevil, Brian G; Ross, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    In this study we tested the use of salivary cortisol and cortisone as alternatives to serum cortisol. Salivary cortisol is often undetectable and contaminated by hydrocortisone. Salivary cortisone strongly reflects serum cortisol.

  16. Reassessing the reliability of the salivary cortisol assay for the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Dou, Jingtao; Gu, Weijun; Yang, Guoqing; Lu, Juming

    2013-10-01

    The cortisol concentration in saliva is 10-fold lower than total serum cortisol and accurately reflects the serum concentration, both levels being lowest around midnight. The salivary cortisol assay measures free cortisol and is unaffected by confounding factors. This study analysed published data on the sensitivity and specificity of salivary cortisol levels in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. Data from studies on the use of different salivary cortisol assay techniques in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome, published between 1998 and 2012 and retrieved using Ovid MEDLINE®, were analysed for variance and correlation. For the 11 studies analysed, mean sensitivity and specificity of the salivary cortisol assay were both >90%. Repeated measurements were easily made with this assay, enabling improved diagnostic accuracy in comparison with total serum cortisol measurements. This analysis confirms the reliability of the saliva cortisol assay as pragmatic tool for the accurate diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. With many countries reporting a rising prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity--in which there is often a high circulating cortisol level--salivary cortisol measurement will help distinguish these states from Cushing syndrome.

  17. Radioimmunological determination of total thyroxine in the serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premachandra, Bhartur

    1975-09-04

    A radioimmunological method to determine total thyroxine in a serum sample is described. The method is as follows: trichloracetic acid and sodium hydroxide are mixed with the sample; radioactive thyroxine is added to the mixture, which is left to reach equilibrium then placed in contact with a resin sponge consisting of a polyurethane foam with intercommunicating cells containing a strongly basic anion exchange resin; the mixture and the resin sponge are incubated, the initial radioactivity of the mixture and resin sponge combination is measured with an appropriate detection system, then the resin sponge is removed from the mixture, washed and its residual radioactivity measured.

  18. Radioimmunological determination of total thyroxine in the serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premachandra, Bhartur.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunological method to determine total thyroxine in a serum sample is described. The method is as follows: trichloracetic acid and sodium hydroxide are mixed with the sample; radioactive thyroxine is added to the mixture, which is left to reach equilibrium then placed in contact with a resin sponge consisting of a polyurethane foam with intercommunicating cells containing a strongly basic anion exchange resin; the mixture and the resin sponge are incubated, the initial radioactivity of the mixture and resin sponge combination is measured with an appropriate detection system, then the resin sponge is removed from the mixture, washed and its residual radioactivity measured [fr

  19. Relationship between white matter integrity and serum cortisol levels in drug-naive patients with major depressive disorder: diffusion tensor imaging study using tract-based spatial statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodan; Watanabe, Keita; Kakeda, Shingo; Yoshimura, Reiji; Abe, Osamu; Ide, Satoru; Hayashi, Kenji; Katsuki, Asuka; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Watanabe, Rieko; Ueda, Issei; Nakamura, Jun; Korogi, Yukunori

    2016-06-01

    Higher daytime cortisol levels because of a hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis have been reported in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The elevated glucocorticoids inhibit the proliferation of the oligodendrocytes that are responsible for myelinating the axons of white matter fibre tracts. To evaluate the relationship between white matter integrity and serum cortisol levels during a first depressive episode in drug-naive patients with MDD (MDD group) using a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. The MDD group (n = 29) and a healthy control group (n = 47) underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans and an analysis was conducted using TBSS. Morning blood samples were obtained from both groups for cortisol measurement. Compared with the controls, the MDD group had significantly reduced fractional anisotropy values (Plevels in the MDD group (Plevels in the MDD group may injure the white matter integrity in the frontal-subcortical and frontal-limbic circuits. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  20. Lactation performance and serum biochemistry of dairy cows fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum biochemistry concentrations (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, and cortisol and insulin concentration) and blood hematology (red blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and percentage neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophiles, eosinophils and ratio of neutrophils to ...

  1. Cortisol and somatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, W; Auer, C

    2000-05-01

    Somatization symptoms are frequently associated with depression, anxiety, and feelings of distress. These features interact with the activity of the HPA-axis. Therefore we investigated relationships between somatization symptoms and cortisol. Seventy-seven participants were classified into three groups: somatization syndrome (at least eight physical symptoms from the DSM-IV somatization disorder list), somatization syndrome combined with major depression, and healthy controls. The following data were collected: salivary cortisol at three time points (morning, afternoon, evening), nighttime urinary cortisol, serum cortisol after the dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, somatization, and hypochondriasis. Salivary cortisol showed typical diurnal variations. However, the groups did not differ on any of the cortisol variables. A possible explanation may be counteracting effects of somatization and depression. Exploratory correlational analyses revealed that associations between cortisol and psychopathological variables were time-dependent. DST results correlated with psychological aspects of somatization, but not with the number of somatoform symptoms per se.

  2. Increases in heart rate and serum cortisol concentrations in healthy dogs are positively correlated with an indoor waiting-room environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Spada, Eva

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the effect of veterinary clinical procedures on the welfare of dogs, with specific emphasis on the veterinary practice environment. Clinicopathologic variables have also not been assessed in these potentially stressful situations. Similar to human clinical studies, the veterinary clinical waiting room could present a significant stress factor for dogs. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of waiting-room environment on serum cortisol and glucose alterations as well as heart rate in privately owned healthy dogs. The clinical trial included 24 healthy dogs that were divided into 2 groups: the clinical waiting-room group (A) and the control group (B) that waited outside in a garden. During the entire experiment, 18 dogs (9 dogs per group) were monitored with a human heart rate monitor fastened around the chest. After 20 minutes of waiting, blood samples were collected from all of the dogs (24 dogs) to determine serum cortisol concentration. Serum cortisol concentration and mean, maximum, and minimum heart rate were significantly higher in group A compared with group B, but there was no statistical difference in serum glucose concentrations between the 2 study groups. Results of this study suggest that the waiting room is a potentially stressful situation for dogs in clinical veterinary practice, when compared with a garden, based on the assessment of adrenal cortex function and heart rate evaluation. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  3. Evaluation of Basal Serum Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Levels and Their Relationship with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Male Patients with Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Bo; She, Fei; Xie, Li-Fang; Yan, Wen-Hua; Ouyang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Bao-An; Ma, Hang-Yun; Zang, Li; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2016-05-20

    Prolonged gonadal hormone deficiency in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) may produce adverse effects on the endocrine homeostasis and metabolism. This study aimed to compare basal serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels between male IHH patients and healthy controls. Moreover, this study compared the basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with and without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and also evaluated the relationship between basal HPA axis and NAFLD in male IHH patients. This was a retrospective case-control study involving 75 Chinese male IHH patients (mean age 21.4 ± 3.8 years, range 17-30 years) and 135 healthy controls after matching for gender and age. All subjects underwent physical examination and blood testing for serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, ACTH, and cortisol and biochemical tests. Higher basal serum ACTH levels (8.25 ± 3.78 pmol/L vs. 6.97 ± 2.81 pmol/L) and lower cortisol levels (366.70 ± 142.48 nmol/L vs. 452.82 ± 141.53 nmol/L) were observed in male IHH patients than healthy subjects (all pIHH patients also showed higher metabolism parameters and higher prevalence rate of NAFLD (34.9% vs. 4.4%) than the controls (all P IHH patients with NAFLD than those without NAFLD (all P IHH patients. Furthermore, NAFLD was independently associated with ACTH levels in male IHH patients by multiple linear regression analysis. The male IHH patients showed higher basal serum ACTH levels and lower cortisol levels than matched healthy controls. NAFLD was an independent associated factor for ACTH levels in male IHH patients. These preliminary findings provided evidence of the relationship between basal serum ACTH and NAFLD in male IHH patients.

  4. Evidence for a positive correlation between serum cortisol levels and IL-1beta production by peripheral mononuclear cells in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limone, P; Biglino, A; Bottino, F; Forno, B; Calvelli, P; Fassino, S; Berardi, C; Ajmone-Catt, P; Bertagna, A; Tarocco, R P; Rovera, G G; Molinatti, G M

    2000-01-01

    A hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been reported in anorexia nervosa (AN), together with some immunological abnormalities, involving citokine - and particularly Tumor Necrosis-Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) - production by polymorphonuclear cells. The ability of pro-inflammatory cytokines to activate the HPA axis is well known; however, there are no data demonstrating an interdependence between immunological and endocrine response in AN. To investigate the presence of a correlation between immune response and pituitary-adrenal function, plasma ACTH and serum cortisol concentrations were measured in 13 AN patients and in the same number of controls. TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta production by ex-vivo unstimulated and LPS-stimulated peripheral mononuclear cells was also assessed. Circulating cortisol concentrations were higher (p<0.01) in AN (156.7 +/- 45.1 microg/l, mean +/- SD) than in controls (105.9 +/- 25.7 microg/l). Unstimulated IL-1beta release in supernatants of mononuclear cell cultures was slightly but not significantly higher in AN than in controls, while TNF-alpha release was similar in the two groups. A positive correlation was found between IL-1beta concentrations in unstimulated culture supranatants and serum cortisol levels in AN (r=0.782, p=0.002), while in normal subjects there was a trend toward a negative correlation; a slight positive correlation, while not significant, between IL-1beta and plasma ACTH, as well as between TNF-alpha and serum cortisol was also found in AN. These data suggest that the normal relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines release, particularly IL-1beta, and cortisol secretion is deranged in AN.

  5. Usefulness of Time-Point Serum Cortisol and ACTH Measurements for the Adjustment of Glucocorticoid Replacement in Adrenal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Elise; Joubert, Michael; Trzepla, Géraldine; Parienti, Jean Jacques; Freret, Thomas; Vanthygem, Marie Christine; Desailloud, Rachel; Lefebvre, Hervé; Coquerel, Antoine; Reznik, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Adjustment of daily hydrocortisone dose on clinical criteria lacks sensitivity for fine tuning. Long term hydrocortisone (HC) over-replacement may lead to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI). Biochemical criteria may help detecting over- or under-replacement but have been poorly evaluated. Multicenter, institutional, pharmacokinetic study on ACTH and cortisol plasma profiles during HC replacement in 27 AI patients compared to 29 matched controls. All AI patients were administered HC thrice daily at doses of 6, 10 and 14 mg/m2/d. Blood samples were drawn hourly from 0800h to 1900h. The main outcome measures were: i) plasma peak cortisol and cortisol area under the curve (AUC) in AI patients compared to controls, ii) correlations between cortisol AUC vs single-point cortisol or ACTH decrease from baseline (ΔACTH) and iii) the predictive value of the two latters for obtaining AI patients' cortisol AUC in the control range. Cortisol peaks were observed 1h after each HC intake and a dose response was demonstrated for cortisol peak and cortisol AUC. The comparison of AI patients' cortisol AUC to controls showed that 81.5% AI patients receiving 6mg/m2/d were adequately replaced, whereas most patients receiving higher doses were over-replaced. The correlation coefficient between 1000h/1400h cortisol concentrations and 0800-1900h cortisol AUC were 0.93/0.88 respectively, whereas the 0800-1200h ΔACTH fairly correlated with 0800-1900h cortisol AUC (R = 0.57). ROC curve analysis indicated that the 1000h and 1400h cortisol concentrations best predicted over-replacement. Patients receiving a 6mg/m2 hydrocortisone daily dose exhibited the most physiological daytime cortisol profile. Single point plasma cortisol correlated with daytime cortisol AUC in AI patients. Although hydrocortisone dose should be currently determined on clinical grounds, our data suggest that single point plasma cortisol may be an adjunct for further hydrocortisone

  6. Male Accessory Gland Infection: Relevance of Serum Total Testosterone Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Condorelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to evaluate the different ultrasound characterization of fertile symptomatic patients with MAGI (male accessory gland infection according to different serum concentrations of total T (TT. We analyzed the ultrasound and hormonal data of 200 patients aged between 24.0 and 67.0 years. Patients were divided into six groups according to the sextile distribution of TT. Patients with serum concentrations of TT 6.6 ng mL−1 showed a frequency of ultrasound criteria suggestive for bilateral form of prostatitis and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis and significantly lower compared to the other examined groups. At multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and BMI, TT was an independent predictive factor of prostatovesiculitis (OR = 0.818 [95% CI: 0.675–0.992]; P<0.01 and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (OR = 0.714 [95% CI: 0.578–0.880]; P<0.01, which represent the main forms of complicated MAGI. The results of this study suggest that male hypogonadism could be associated with a different ultrasound characterization of these patients.

  7. Cortisol level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enable JavaScript. The cortisol blood test measures the level of cortisol in the blood. Cortisol is a ... in the morning. This is important, because cortisol level varies throughout the day. You may be asked ...

  8. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Roshni; Shenoy, Nina; Thomas, Biju

    2016-01-01

    Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t -test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation ( P periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.

  9. Low total cortisol correlates closely with low free cortisol in traumatic brain injury and predicts mortality and long-term hypopituitarism

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J

    2011-06-01

    Published data has demonstrated that low 0900h plasma total cortisol (PTC) in the acute phase following traumatic brain injury (TBI) predicts mortality. However, there is concern regarding the use of PTC to evaluate the pituitary-adrenal axis in acutely unwell patients due to potential discrepancies between PTC and plasma free cortisol (PFC) due to variations in corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG). We hypothesised that low PTC would correlate closely with PFC and would predict mortality and long-term hypopituitarism.100 patients (84 men, median age 33, range 18-75) were recruited on admission with TBI (mean GCS+\\/-SD = 8.59+\\/-4.2). Each patient had PTC and CBG measured on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 following TBI. Results were compared with 15 patients admitted to ITU following vascular surgery. A PTC <300nmol\\/L in a patient in ITU was regarded clinically as inappropriately low. PFC was calculated for 25% of TBI samples and all control samples using Coolen\\'s equation (1). TBI patients reattended for dynamic pituitary testing >6 months after TBI.All controls had PTC >500 nmol\\/L on day 1, and >300 nmol on days 3–10. By contrast, 78\\/100 TBI patients had at least one PTC <300 nmol\\/L.TBI patients in the lowest quartile of final PTC measurement had the highest mortality (p=0.0187). PTC correlated closely with PFC in both TBI patients (r=0.99, p<0.0001) and controls (r=0.99, p<0.0001). 32\\/79 (40.5%) of TBI survivors attended for dynamic pituitary testing. The median time to dynamic pituitary testing was 14 months (range 6–24 months). 15\\/32 (46.9%) underwent insulin tolerance testing, 9\\/32 (28.1%) underwent glucagon testing and 8\\/32 (25%) underwent short synacthen testing. 6\\/32 (18.8%) were ACTH deficient, of whom 5\\/6 (83.3%) previously had low PTC. 6\\/32 were GH deficient, all of whom previously had low PTC. One patient was gonadotropin deficient; he previously had low PTC. No patients were TSH or prolactin deficient. Overall, 12\\/32 (37

  10. Serum cortisol concentration with exploratory cut-off values do not predict the effects of hydrocortisone administration in children with low cardiac output after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, E J; Hogenbirk, Karin; Roest, Arno A W; van Brempt, Ronald; Hazekamp, Mark G; de Jonge, Evert

    2012-10-01

    Low cardiac output syndrome is common after paediatric cardiac surgery. Previous studies suggested that hydrocortisone administration may improve haemodynamic stability in case of resistant low cardiac output syndrome in critically ill children. This study was set up to test the hypothesis that the effects of hydrocortisone on haemodynamics in children with low cardiac output syndrome depend on the presence of (relative) adrenal insufficiency. A retrospective study was done on paediatric patients who received hydrocortisone when diagnosed with resistant low cardiac output syndrome after paediatric cardiac surgery in the period from 1 November 2005 to 31 December 2008. We studied the difference in effects of treatment with hydrocortisone administration between patients with adrenal insufficiency defined as an exploratory cut-off value of total cortisol of cortisol of ≥ 100 nmol/l. A total of 62 of patients were enrolled, meeting the inclusion criteria for low cardiac output syndrome. Thirty-two patients were assigned to Group 1 (cortisol concentration and those with normal baseline cortisol levels. A cortisol value using an exploratory cut-off value of 100 nmol/l for adrenal insufficiency should not be used as a criterion to treat these patients with hydrocortisone.

  11. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K63.a,b: Non-peptide hormones in serum: cortisol and progesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    S-C Tai, Susan; Duewer, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate many life functions. Deviations from normal hormone levels can have serious health consequences. Accurate measurement of hormone levels in serum can be beneficial in diagnosing, monitoring, and treating a number of diseases. Two steroid hormones, cortisol and progesterone, were selected by the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) to evaluate its member Institutes' measurement capabilities for this important class of measurand. Serum concentrations of cortisol range from 30 ng/mL to 230 ng/mL. Serum concentrations of progesterone in adult females range from 0.15 ng/mL to 25 ng/mL but can rise to approx230 ng/mL during pregnancy. The ability to measure cortisol is indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure steroid hormones at concentration levels similar to cortisol. The ability to measure progesterone is indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure steroid hormones with similar functional groups and concentration levels, such as testosterone. Pilot studies CCQM-P77.a and CCQM-P77.b on the determination of cortisol and progesterone in human serum were completed in 2006. There was good agreement among the results reported by participants who used isotope dilution/mass spectrometry (ID/MS) with either gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC). In 2007 the OAWG decided to proceed with key comparison (KC) CCQM-K63.a, cortisol in human serum, and CCQM-K63.b, progesterone in human serum. Thus, following established OAWG procedure, only results from participants that (1) used an ID/MS-based method, (2) participated in the relevant pilot study, and (3) used a metrologically traceable primary standard were to be eligible for use in calculating the key comparison reference value (KCRV) for each measurand. Six laboratories participated in CCQM-K63.a and eight laboratories participated in CCQM-K63.b. The same pooled frozen female serum material was used in both of the KCs. The mean value for the six ID

  12. Long-term exposure to xenoestrogens alters some brain monoamines and both serum thyroid hormones and cortisol levels in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashwa M. Saied

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to examine the effect of long-term treatment with the phytoestrogen soy isoflavone [(SIF; 43 mg/kg body weight/day] and/or the plastics component bisphenol-A [(BPA; 3 mg/kg body weight/day] on some monoamines in the forebrain and both serum thyroid hormones and cortisol levels of adult rats. Significant increases in serotonin (5-HT and norepinephrine (NE level, and significant decreases in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA level and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio, were observed after treatment with SIF or BPA. Level of dopamine (DA was increased in SIF-treated group and decreased in BPA-treated group. Activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO was decreased in all treated groups. The level of serum thyroid hormones (fT3 and fT4 was increased after treatment with SIF and decreased after exposure to BPA, while cortisol level was increased in all treated groups. It may be concluded that long-term exposure to SIF or BPA disrupts monoamine levels in the forebrain of adult rats through alteration in the metabolic pathways of amines and disorders of thyroid hormones and cortisol levels.

  13. A three-month longitudinal study of changes in day/night serum total antioxidant capacity in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera-Fumero, Armando L; Díaz-Mesa, Estefanía; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Fernandez-Lopez, Lourdes; Guillen-Pino, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Free radicals and an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance have been involved in the schizophrenia pathophysiology. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is a measure of the antioxidant capacity of a system. Day/night changes are a biological characteristic of hormones such as melatonin or cortisol. There is little information about TAC day/night changes in schizophrenia patients. The aim of this research is to study if there are day/night changes in serum TAC levels of schizophrenia patients. Thirty-two DSM-IV schizophrenia paranoid patients were studied. Blood was sampled at 12:00 and 00:00 h at admission, discharge and three months after hospital discharge (TMAHD). TAC results are expressed as mmol of Trolox/L. Patients did not have day/night TAC differences at admission (12:00: 0.67±0.12 vs. 00:00: 0.61±0.14, p>0.14) or discharge (12:00: 0.65±0.15 vs. 00:00: 0.65±0.12, p>0.99). At TMHD, patients had significantly higher TAC levels at midday than midnight (12:00: 0.83±0.10 vs. 00:00: 0.74±0.12, pday/night serum TAC changes when clinically relapsed and the normalization of day/night serum TAC changes at TMHD can be considered as a biological marker of schizophrenia evolution.

  14. Effect of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT Intervention on Serum Cortisol Level and Pain Score of Patients with Advanced-Stage Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Soetrisno

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is the most frequent cause of death related gynecology malignancy in Indonesia. Recent management of advanced-stage cervical cancer has still not been able to improve the prognosis. Chemotherapy and radiation intervention, as well as therapy may resulting pain and cause psychological stress for some patient, furthermore it could effect on the quality of life. Cortisol is a hormone of adrenal cortex, it secretes due to increased production of ACTH by anterior pituitary which is associated with stressful condition. To analyze the effect of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT intervention on serum cortisol levels and pain score of patients with advanced-stage cervical cancer. This experimental study was a double blind non-randomized clinical trial post-test group design. It was using two groups in this study, each group consisting of 15 subjects, the treatment group were given CBT and standard therapy, while the control group were only given a standard therapy. The study was conducted in the gynecology oncology ward and the gynecology oncology clinic of Dr. Moewardi Hospital Surakarta and Prodia Laboratory, from January - March 2015. Cortisol level of the treatment group was 1.03 ± 0.71 mg / dL, and the control group was 11.41 ± 7.34 mg / dL. Pain score in the treatment group was 4.46 ± 0.83, and the control group was 7.34 ± 0.74. There are significant differences in serum cortisol level decrease (p = 0.00 and pain score (p = 0.00 between the CBT intervention with standard therapy group compared and the standard therapy only group

  15. Circadian Levels of Serum Melatonin and Cortisol in relation to Changes in Mood, Sleep, and Neurocognitive Performance, Spanning a Year of Residence in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Premkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Altered circadian cortisol and melatonin rhythms in healthy subjects exposed to an extreme polar photoperiod results in changes in mood and sleep, which can influence cognitive performance. Materials and Methods. We assessed the circadian rhythm of 20 subjects who wintered over at Maitri (70°S, 11°E, India’s permanent Antarctic station, from November 2010 to December 2011. Serum cortisol and melatonin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay at 8 am, 3 pm, 8 pm, and 2 am in a single day, once each during the polar summer and winter photoperiods. Conventional psychological tests, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and a computerized neurocognitive test battery were used to measure mood, sleep, and cognitive performance. Results. The mean scores for DASS42 were higher during midwinter suggesting the presence of “overwintering.” Mean diurnal cortisol levels during summer and winter were comparable, but the levels of melatonin were markedly higher during winter. Higher 8 am melatonin levels were associated with better sleep quality, lower depression scores, and better performance in tasks like attention, visual memory, and arithmetic. Conclusion. Timing of artificial light exposure and usage of melatonin supplements in improving sleep and cognitive performance in expedition teams are of future research interest.

  16. Cortisol secretion in patients with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, S; Hagen, C; Andersen, A N

    1988-01-01

    with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea have elevated basal serum cortisol, the reason probably being hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone. Secondly that dopaminergic blockade with metoclopramide stimulates ACTH and cortisol secretion in patients presumed to have raised dopaminergic activity....

  17. Fordelinger af serum total kolesterol i befolkninger med varierende risiko for hjerte-karsygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, P; Voss, A; Hørder, M

    1990-01-01

    , it was found that serum total cholesterol increases with age in all groups. A distinct sex difference was observed in the majority of investigations: in the age groups under 25 years and over 50 years, women have higher serum total cholesterol values than men while, in the age group 25-50 years, men have......By means of search in the literature and subsequent meta-analysis, the authors have described the serum total cholesterol values in three different risk groups for cardiovascular disease. High total serum cholesterol levels were associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition...

  18. Comparison of Transcutaneous Bilirubin Measurement With Total Serum Bilirubin Levels in Preterm Neonates Receiving Phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendse, Amruta; Jasani, Bonny; Nanavati, Ruchi; Kabra, Nandkishor

    2017-08-15

    To compare transcutaneous bilirubin with total serum bilirubin in preterm neonates after initiation of phototherapy. Jaundice was assessed in 30 preterm neonates with transcutaneous bilirubin and total serum bilirubin before initiation of phototherapy and at 12 hr after initiation of phototherapy. A photo-occlusive patch was applied over the sternum. Transcutaneous bilirubin has a good correlation with total serum bilirubin after initiation of phototherapy. (r=0.918, Pbilirubin at 28-32 weeks of gestation (r = 0.97) was better correlated with total serum bilirubin than those at 32-37 weeks (r =0.88). The correlation was better for neonates 72 hours of age (r = 0.82). Transcutaneous bilirubin correlates significantly with total serum bilirubin at the patched sternal site after initiation of phototherapy in preterm neonates.

  19. Reference intervals for serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reference intervals of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were determined on 309 blood donors from an urban and peri-urban population of Botswana. Using non-parametric methods to establish 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the distribution, the intervals were: total cholesterol 2.16 ...

  20. Associations between circadian and stress response cortisol in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sterre S H; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with the cortisol stress response in children. Since alterations in cortisol stress responses have been associated with mental and physical health, this study investigated whether the cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with cortisol stress responses in 6-year-old children. To this end, 149 normally developing children (M age  = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an innovative social evaluative stress test that effectively provoked increases in cortisol. To determine the cortisol stress response, six cortisol saliva samples were collected and two cortisol stress response indices were calculated: total stress cortisol and cortisol stress reactivity. To determine children's cortisol circadian rhythm eight cortisol circadian samples were collected during two days. Total diurnal cortisol and diurnal cortisol decline scores were calculated as indices of the cortisol circadian rhythm. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that higher total diurnal cortisol as well as a smaller diurnal cortisol decline, were both uniquely associated with higher total stress cortisol. No associations were found between the cortisol circadian rhythm indices and cortisol stress reactivity. Possible explanations for the patterns found are links with children's self-regulatory capacities and parenting quality.

  1. The role of Rajyoga meditation for modulation of anxiety and serum cortisol in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery: A prospective randomized control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Kiran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rajyoga meditation is a form of mind body intervention that is promoted by the Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University. This form of meditation can be easily performed without rituals or mantras and can be practiced anywhere at any time. The practice of Rajyoga meditation can have beneficial effects on modulating anxiety and cortisol level in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized control study was carried out in a single tertiary care center. One hundred and fifty patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomized in two groups namely, Group 1 (Rajyoga group and Group 2 (Control Group. Anxiety was measured on a visual analog scale 1–10 before the start of Rajyoga training or patient counseling (T1, on the morning of the day of surgery (T2, on the 2nd postoperative day (T3, and on the 5th postoperative day (T4. The serum cortisol level was measured in the morning of the day of surgery (T1, on the 2nd postoperative day (T2 and on the 5th postoperative day (T3, respectively. Results: In the study, it was seen that the anxiety level of the patients before the surgery (T1 and on the day of surgery (T2 were comparable between the two groups. However on the 2nd postoperative day (T3, the patients who underwent Rajyoga training had lower anxiety level in comparison to the control group (3.12 ± 1.45 vs. 6.12 ± 0.14, P < 0.05 and on the 5th postoperative day (T4 it was seen that Rajyoga practice had resulted in significant decline in anxiety level (0.69 ± 1.1 vs. 5.6 ± 1.38, P < 0.05. The serum cortisol level was also favorably modulated by the practice of Rajyoga meditation. Conclusion: Mindbody intervention is found to effective in reducing the anxiety of the patients and modulating the cortisol level in patients undergoing wellknown stressful surgery like coronary artery bypass surgery.

  2. A three-month longitudinal study of changes in day/night serum total antioxidant capacity in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando L Morera-Fumero

    Full Text Available Free radicals and an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance have been involved in the schizophrenia pathophysiology. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC is a measure of the antioxidant capacity of a system. Day/night changes are a biological characteristic of hormones such as melatonin or cortisol. There is little information about TAC day/night changes in schizophrenia patients. The aim of this research is to study if there are day/night changes in serum TAC levels of schizophrenia patients. Thirty-two DSM-IV schizophrenia paranoid patients were studied. Blood was sampled at 12:00 and 00:00 h at admission, discharge and three months after hospital discharge (TMAHD. TAC results are expressed as mmol of Trolox/L. Patients did not have day/night TAC differences at admission (12:00: 0.67±0.12 vs. 00:00: 0.61±0.14, p>0.14 or discharge (12:00: 0.65±0.15 vs. 00:00: 0.65±0.12, p>0.99. At TMHD, patients had significantly higher TAC levels at midday than midnight (12:00: 0.83±0.10 vs. 00:00: 0.74±0.12, p<0.006 as it has been reported in healthy subjects. There were no significant TAC differences at 12.00 and 00:00 between admission and discharge. At TMAHD, patients had significantly higher TAC levels than at admission and discharge, both at 12:00 and 00:00 h. In conclusion, the absence of day/night serum TAC changes when clinically relapsed and the normalization of day/night serum TAC changes at TMHD can be considered as a biological marker of schizophrenia evolution.

  3. Can Serum Albumin Level and Total Lymphocyte Count be Surrogates for Malnutrition to Predict Wound Complications After Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Vivek M; Song, Young Dong; Whang, Ji Sup; Kang, Yeon Gwi; Kim, Tae Kyun

    2016-06-01

    Although the serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count (TLC) have been reported as valid and reliable markers for defining malnutrition, their cutoff levels and predictive values for wound complications in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remain questionable. A total of 3169 TKAs performed between April 2003 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. We determined the prevalence of malnutrition on applying different definitions, with various cutoff values of serum albumin and TLC and analyzed the variations in outcome. The differences between groups with and without malnutrition in terms of functional outcome and complications were determined using Student's t test and analysis of variance. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the independent risk factors. Among all the patients (N = 3169), the serum albumin level and TLC varied widely, with means of 4.1 g/dL and 2189 cells/mm(3), respectively. The prevalence of malnutrition (21%) as per the conventional definition (serum albumin level malnutrition was defined as serum albumin malnutrition for predicting wound complications after TKA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Concurrent determination of total serum calcium and magnesium by thermometric titration with ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicott, R H; Carr, P W

    1976-07-01

    Total serum calcium and magnesium may be determined in one thermometric titration, with disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate as the titrant. A 1-ml serum sample is diluted with 1 ml of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer (pH 8) and titrated at a constant rate with a motorized syringe buret. Results by the thermometric method compared well with those by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  5. The relationship between cortisol responses to laboratory stress and cortisol profiles in daily life

    OpenAIRE

    Kidd, Tara; Carvalho, Livia A.; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between cortisol responses to laboratory stress and cortisol output over the day have not been studied extensively. We tested associations between cortisol responses to a set of laboratory challenges (colour/word interference and mirror tracing) and three aspects of cortisol output over the day, namely total area under the curve (AUCday), the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the slope of cortisol decline over the day. Participants were 466 men and women aged 54–76 years. We...

  6. Association of serum total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status with pain perception in patients with myofacial pain dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etoz, Osman A; Ataoglu, Hanife; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Herken, Emine Nur; Bayazit, Yildirim Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to find out the association of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) with generalized pressure pain thresholds (PPT) of patients with myofacial pain dysfunction (MPD). PPT scores of patients with MPD (n = 37) and healthy individuals (n = 43) were measured on the hypothenar region of the hand using a mechanical algometer. Serum samples were collected and TAC and TOS were measured by novel methods. The TAC of patients was significantly lower than that of the control subjects. The difference between the TOS measurements of patients and control subjects was not significant. The PPT scores of the patients were significantly lower than that of control subjects. There may be an association between serum antioxidant capacity and MPD. Low serum TAC might also be related with pain perception.

  7. Direct salivary cortisol radio-immunoassay determination. Clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, C.; Cherfan, J.; Kurtz, F.; Vignon, F.; Schlienger, J.L.; Chabrier, G.

    1987-01-01

    Salivary cortisol levels reflect the biologically active free fraction of blood cortisol. The authors describe the results obtained with the aim of a radio-immunoassay commercial serum cortisol kit, without prealable extraction in different physiological and pathological situations. Salivary cortisol determination appears performant both in nycthemeral studies and in stimulation or freination tests [fr

  8. Serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease--Causal association or epiphenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K

    2015-12-01

    Observational epidemiological evidence supports a linear inverse and independent association between serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but whether this association is causal remains to be ascertained. A Mendelian randomization approach was employed to test whether serum total bilirubin is causally linked to CHD. The genetic variant rs6742078--well known to specifically modify levels of serum total bilirubin and accounting for up to 20% of the variance in circulating serum total bilirubin levels--was used as an instrumental variable. In pooled analysis of estimates reported from published genome-wide association studies, every copy of the T allele of rs6742078 was associated with 0.42 standard deviation (SD) higher levels of serum total bilirubin (95% confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.43). Based on combined data from the Coronary Artery Disease Genome wide Replication and Meta-analyses and the Coronary Artery Disease (C4D) Genetics Consortium involving a total of 36,763 CHD cases and 76,997 controls, the odds ratio for CHD per copy of the T allele was 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.04). The odds ratio of CHD for a 1 SD genetically elevated serum total bilirubin level was 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 1.09). The current findings casts doubt on a strong causal association of serum total bilirubin levels with CHD. The inverse associations demonstrated in observational studies may be driven by biases such as unmeasured confounding and/or reverse causation. However, further research in large-scale consortia is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  10. Interleukin-1 Antagonism Decreases Cortisol Levels in Obese Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwyler, Sandrine Andrea; Schuetz, Philipp; Ebrahimi, Fahim; Donath, Marc Y; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2017-05-01

    Increased cortisol levels in obesity may contribute to the associated metabolic syndrome. In obesity, the activated innate immune system leads to increased interleukin (IL)-1β, which is known to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). We hypothesized that in obesity IL-1 antagonism would result in downregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to decreased cortisol levels. In this prospective intervention study, we included 73 patients with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) and at least one additional feature of the metabolic syndrome. The primary end point was change in morning cortisol from baseline to after the administration of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra/Kineret®, total dose 3 × 100 mg). Secondary end points were effects on salivary cortisol and ACTH. Median age was 56 years, 50.7% of patients were female, and median BMI was 36.3 kg/m2. Median morning serum cortisol levels (nmol/L) decreased significantly after IL-1 antagonism [from baseline, 452 to 423; absolute difference, -38.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), -64 to -13.4; P = 0.0019]. Similar effects were found for salivary cortisol levels (-2.8; 95% CI, -4.4 to -1.3; P = 0.0007), ACTH levels (-2.2; 95% CI; -4.2 to -0.1; P = 0.038), systolic blood pressure (-5.2, 95% CI, -8.5 to -1.8; P = 0.0006), and heart rate (-2.9; 95% CI, -4.7 to -1.0; P = 0.0029). IL-1 antagonism in obese individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome leads to a decrease in serum cortisol, salivary cortisol, and ACTH levels along with a reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  11. Serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Lorenzo

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare, during the pollen season, serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 (sCD23 from patients with allergic bronchial asthma, with those from healthy subjects. Significantly higher levels of total IgE and sCD23 were found in patients with asthma compared to the control group. Both in normal controls and in asthmatic patients, a significant correlation was shown between the levels of these two molecules. In asthmatic patients, significant correlations were found for both total IgE and sCD23, with lung function measured as bronchial responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. These results suggest that in asthmatic patients, in addition to the study of total serum IgE levels, the assessment of sCD23 serum levels may be helpful in the evaluation of disease activity.

  12. Reference values for serum total adiponectin in healthy non-obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann

    2015-01-01

    : A total of 1193 healthy, non-obese Danish schoolchildren (730 girls, 463 boys) aged 6-18years (median 11.9) were examined by trained medical staff. Total serum adiponectin concentrations in venous fasting blood samples were quantitated by a DuoSet® ELISA human Adiponectin/Acrp30 (R&D Systems) following...

  13. Derivation of a formula for adjusting the total serum calcium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-06-16

    Jun 16, 2006 ... The total calcium concentration, total protein, albumin and globulin were estimated for 302 patients that reported for serum calcium estimation at the clinical biochemistry laboratory of the Olabisi Onabanjo. University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria. Based on regression analysis, three formulae were.

  14. Relationship between the cortisol awakening response and other features of the diurnal cortisol rhythm: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Wu, Meihua; Champaneri, Shivam; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Cumulative cortisol burden is known to influence neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders. To better understand the relationship between daily cortisol exposure and measures of the diurnal circadian cortisol rhythm, we examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) with wake-up cortisol, bedtime cortisol, diurnal slope, and total cortisol area under the curve (AUC). Up to 18 salivary cortisol samples were collected over 3 days from 935 White, Hispanic, and B...

  15. Is there any relationship between serum levels of total bilirubin and the severity of erectile dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ercüment; Karabakan, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Aliseydi; Hirik, Erkan; Karabulut, İbrahim; Gunay, Murat; Çakan, Murat

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that atherosclerosis is associated with erectile dysfunction and the serum bilirubin level. In this study, the serum total bilirubin levels of patients with erectile dysfunction were measured to investigate the relationship between the levels of erectile dysfunction and total bilirubin. A total of 94 patients with erectile dysfunction were divided into three groups; severe erectile dysfunction (33 patients), moderate erectile dysfunction (31 patients), and mild erectile dysfunction (30 patients). In addition, a control group was formed with 31 healthy men. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 Questionnaire was used to measure the quality of erection in all the groups. The body mass index was calculated for all the participants. The serum glucose, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein, cholesterol, triglyceride, total bilirubin, and total testosterone levels were also determined. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of the mean age, hypertension, smoking status, alcohol use, cardiovascular diseases, hepatobiliary disease, diabetes mellitus, and levels of total testosterone, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglyceride. However, high-density lipoprotein, body mass index, and total bilirubin were significantly lower compared to the control group (p < 0.001). The serum total bilirubin level was found to be 0.41 ± 0.21 ng/dL in the severe erectile dysfunction, 0.43 ± 0.19 ng/dL in the moderate erectile dysfunction, and 0.48 ± 0.11 ng/dL in the mild erectile dysfunction groups (p < 0.001). Considering the significant differences between the erectile dysfunction and control groups in terms of serum total bilirubin levels, a low level of bilirubin may have a role in the etiology of erectile dysfunction.

  16. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpou, P; Odén, A; Simonsson, T; Wilhelmsen, L; Landin-Wilhelmsen, K

    2011-05-01

    Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures were evaluated in 1,396 men and women for a period of 20 years. Serum total cholesterol was found to be an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term risk factors for osteoporotic fracture. A population random sample of men and women aged 25-64 years (the Gothenburg WHO MONICA project, N = 1,396, 53% women) was studied prospectively. The 1985 baseline examination recorded physical activity at work and during leisure time, psychological stress, smoking habits, coffee consumption, BMI, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fibrinogen. Osteoporotic fractures over a period of 20 years were retrieved from the Gothenburg hospital registers. Poisson regression was used to analyze the predictive power for osteoporotic fracture of each risk factor. A total number of 258 osteoporotic fractures occurred in 143 participants (10.2%). As expected, we found that previous fracture, smoking, coffee consumption, and lower BMI each increase the risk for osteoporotic fracture independently of age and sex. More unexpectedly, we found that the gradient of risk of serum total cholesterol to predict osteoporotic fracture significantly increases over time (p = 0.0377). Serum total cholesterol is an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.

  17. Mass fragmentographic analysis of total cholesterol in serum using a heptadeuterated internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolthers, B.G.; Hindriks, F.R.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Groen, A.

    1980-01-01

    A mass fragmentographic method for the determination of total cholesterol in serum using heptadeuterated [25,26,26,26,27,27,27- 2 H] cholesterol as internal standard is presented. The results obtained are compared with a colorimetric and gas chromatographic method which were previously proposed as reference methods. Criteria for the development of absolute measurement by means of mass fragmentography and stable isotopically labelled internal standards are given. The conclusion is drawn that, at present, mass fragmentographic methods for the determination of total cholesterol in serum do not fulfil the criteria required for absolute methods. (Auth.)

  18. Correlation of radiotherapy with serum total and lipid-bound sialic acid in OSCC patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Increased quantities of glycoconjugates such as Total Sialic Acid (TSA and Lipid-bound Sialic Acid (LSA have been detected in the plasma and serum of patients with various malignancies, indicating their usefulness in diagnosis or monitoring of the treatment modality. Aims: (1 To estimate and compare the serum TSA and LSA levels in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC patients before and after radiotherapy, as also in healthy individuals. (2 To determine the correlation, if any, between Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM staging and levels of TSA and LSA. (3 To determine the use of serum TSA and LSA as biomarkers of OSCC. Settings and Design: The study was designed as a case-control study and was undertaken in a dental college and cancer hospital. Materials and Methods: It was planned to estimate the serum TSA and LSA levels of 20 healthy individuals and of 20 OSCC patients, spectrophotometrically; before starting and one month after completion of radiotherapy. Statistical Analysis: The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 10.0 was used. Results: The mean serum TSA and LSA levels in OSCC patients decreased significantly after radiotherapy; however, they were still higher than the levels in the controls. In untreated OSCC patients, a statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the TNM stage of the disease and the serum TSA levels; but the same was not found between the TNM stage of the disease and the serum LSA levels. In OSCC, the serum TSA and LSA levels had a positive relationship with the TNM stages. These levels decreased significantly after radiotherapy. Conclusion: Serum TSA and LSA can be utilized as potential diagnostic and prognostic indicators in OSCC.

  19. Comparison of biuret and refractometry methods for the serum total proteins measurement in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulos, Panagiotis D; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Karatzia, Maria A; Giadinis, Nektarios; Karatzias, Harilaos; Boscos, Constantin; Polizopoulou, Zoe S

    2017-12-01

    Determination of serum total protein concentration is commonly performed by the biuret method. Refractometric measurement is a faster and less expensive alternative but its accuracy has not been determined in ruminants. The purpose of the study was to compare the serum total protein concentrations in cattle, sheep, and goats measured by the biuret method with those obtained by refractometry. Serum total protein concentration was determined in 120 cattle, 67 sheep, and 58 goat blood samples refractometrically and with the biuret method. The data were analyzed with a paired samples t-test, and Passing and Bablok regression equations and Bland and Altman plots were generated. There was a strong linear relationship between the total protein values determined with the refractometer and the biuret method in cattle, sheep, and goats. The statistical accuracy, which represents a bias correction factor that measures the deviation of the best-fit line from the 45° line through the origin, was 90.63% for cattle, 93.05% for sheep, and 91.76% for goats. The mean protein values determined with the refractometer were significantly lower than those measured with the biuret method in cattle and goats (P  .05). The evaluated refractometer was sufficiently accurate for the determination of serum total proteins in cattle, sheep, and goats, although it cannot be used interchangeably with the biuret method. The RIs should be corrected for negative bias based on the created equations. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  20. Determinants of cortisol during pregnancy - The ABCD cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleker, Laura S; Roseboom, Tessa J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G; Reynolds, Rebecca M; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2017-09-01

    Psychosocial stress during pregnancy has been proposed as a major contributor of glucocorticoid-mediated programming of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, with later adverse health consequences. However, evidence linking maternal stress to maternal cortisol values during pregnancy is inconclusive. A possible explanation for this is that other maternal factors overshadow any potential effects of stress on cortisol levels. We studied a large cohort of pregnant women with extensive data on pregnancy characteristics to determine the respective contributions of biological, environmental and psychosocial stress factors to cortisol levels in pregnancy. We used data from 3039 women from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development-study cohort. Serum cortisol was measured in blood, collected at the first prenatal visit, at different gestational ages (median=91days, range=40-256days), and at various time points during the day (median=11:45h, range=08:00-18:30h). We assessed associations between maternal serum cortisol in pregnancy and biological factors, lifestyle factors and stress factors, including depression, anxiety, pregnancy-related anxiety, work stress, parenting stress and fatigue. In multivariable analysis, variables that were associated with higher cortisol levels in pregnancy were lower maternal age [1.5nmol/l, 95%CI (0.6-2.4)], being nulliparous [21.5 nmol/l (15.9-27.1)], lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) [1.3nmol/l (0.3-2.4)], higher C-reactive protein (CRP) [1.0nmol/l (0.4-1.5)], carrying a female fetus [9.2nmol/l (1.8-16.5)], non-smoking [14.2nmol/l (0.6-27.7)], sufficient sleep [8.5nmol/l (0.9-16.1)], and being unemployed [12.7nmol/l (2.2-23.2)]. None of the psychosocial stressors was significantly associated with serum cortisol levels in pregnancy. A total of 32% of all variance in cortisol was explained by gestational age, maternal age, time of day, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, CRP, fetal sex, smoking behavior, self

  1. Metabolismo oxidativo de neutrófilos em ovelhas naturalmente infectadas por nematódeos gastrintestinais e correlação entre nível sérico de cortisol e carga parasitária Neutrophils oxidative metabolism in sheep naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes and correlation between serum level of cortisol and parasitary burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Ciarlini

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se as relações entre o metabolismo oxidativo dos neutrófilos, os níveis séricos de cortisol e a carga parasitária estimada pela contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG no final da gestação, durante a lactação e após o desmame de ovelhas naturalmente infectadas por nematódeos gastrintestinais. Utilizaram-se 22 ovelhas da raça Suffolk, homogêneas quanto à idade (três a quatro anos, número de parições (terceira e época de parição. O cortisol sérico foi determinado por radioimunoensaio e o metabolismo oxidativo dos neutrófilos pelo teste de redução do tetrazólio nitroazul (NBT. Os maiores valores de OPG foram observados na quinta semana de lactação, e as maiores taxas de cortisol e de redução do NBT ocorreram na quarta semana pós-desmame. Verificou-se correlação positiva (r = 0,52; PThe relationships between neutrophils oxidative metabolism, cortisol serum levels and worm burden, estimated by fecal egg count (EPG, were studied in sheep naturally infected by gastrointestinal parasites at the end of pregnancy, during lactation, and after weaning. Twenty-two Suffolk sheep three to four year-old, of same parity and season of parturition were used. Serum cortisol was determined by radioimmunoassay and the neutrophils oxidative metabolism by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT reduction test. The highest EPG values were observed on the fifth week of lactation while the highest rates of cortisol and reduction of NBT occurred on the fourth week after weaning. A positive correlation (r = 0.52; P<0.01 was observed between the neutrophils capacity to reduce the NBT and the serum cortisol concentration in the pre-parturition period. Otherwise, the neutrophils oxidative metabolism decreased near to the parturition. A negative correlation (r = -0.39; P<0.01 between EPG and NBT reduction test was observed after weaning, which was coincident with the increase in the neutrophils capacity to reduce NBT, indicating that animals

  2. Changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guohong; Xu Ruiji; Zhang Zhongshu

    2011-01-01

    To determine changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men.the healthy men (n=126) were divided 20-29 yr, 30-39 yr and 40-49 yr three groups,their serum levels of total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were detected. The results were statically analyzed. The results showed that the levels of serum T and FT was found significantly decreased in 30-39 yr group than in 20-29 yr group (15.06±13 nmol/L vs 20.41±86 nmol/L, P<0.01; 9.36±95 pg/L vs 11.48±88 pg/L, P<0.05; respectively). There were young trends that age-related decline in androgen levels. (authors)

  3. Higher Total Serum Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Less Severe Strokes and Lower All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Kammersgaard, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Evidence of a causal relation between serum cholesterol and stroke is inconsistent. We investigated the relation between total serum cholesterol and both stroke severity and poststroke mortality to test the hypothesis that hyperch....

  4. Extraction-free cortisol assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method for determining the concentration of cortisol in a serum sample comprises: (a) incubating the sample, labelled cortisol and an effective amount of deblocking agent in an aqueous medium with a composite comprising anti-cortisol antibodies fixed in active form onto the surfaces of a negatively charged support material, the incubation being carried out at a pH of from 4.0 to 6.5 and under conditions sufficient to result in the formation of immunochemical complexes on the composite, some of which complexes comprise labelled cortisol; (b) separating the composite from the incubation medium; (c) determining the amount of label on the separated composite or in the remaining incubation medium; and (d) relating the determination of (c) to a standard to determine the cortisol concentration in the sample. (author)

  5. Serum protein concentration in low-dose total body irradiation of normal and malnourished rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, W.C.M.; Lambertz, D.; Borges, E.S.; Neto, A.M.O.; Lambertz, K.M.F.T.; Amaral, A.

    2016-01-01

    Among the radiotherapeutics' modalities, total body irradiation (TBI) is used as treatment for certain hematological, oncological and immunological diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose TBI on plasma concentration of total protein and albumin using prematurely and undernourished rats as animal model. For this, four groups with 9 animals each were formed: Normal nourished (N); Malnourished (M); Irradiated Normal nourished (IN); Irradiated Malnourished (IM). At the age of 28 days, rats of the IN and IM groups underwent total body gamma irradiation with a source of cobalt-60. Total protein and Albumin in the blood serum was quantified by colorimetry. This research indicates that procedures involving low-dose total body irradiation in children have repercussions in the reduction in body-mass as well as in the plasma levels of total protein and albumin. Our findings reinforce the periodic monitoring of total serum protein and albumin levels as an important tool in long-term follow-up of pediatric patients in treatments associated to total body irradiation. - Highlights: • Low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) in children have repercussions in their body-mass. • Long-term total protein and albumin levels are affected by TBI. • The monitoring of total protein and albumin levels are useful in the follow-up of TBI pediatric patients.

  6. The effect of CoQ10 and vitamin E on serum total sialic acid, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-13

    Jun 13, 2011 ... This study was designed to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 and vitamin E on serum total sialic acid (TSA), lipid bound sialic acid (LSA) and some elements in rat administered doxorubicin (DXR). Cu levels were increased in the group treated with DXR + vitamin E in comparison with DXR (p<0.05) and CoQ10 ...

  7. The effect of CoQ 10 and vitamin E on serum total sialic acid, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 and vitamin E on serum total sialic acid (TSA), lipid bound sialic acid (LSA) and some elements in rat administered doxorubicin (DXR). Cu levels were increased in the group treated with DXR + vitamin E in comparison with DXR (p<0.05) and CoQ10 groups (p ...

  8. Serum total anti-oxidant capacity of some Nigerian cigarette smokers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Cigarette smoke has been reported to contain free radicals. The interaction of these free radicals with the body defense system and associated health risk among Nigerian smokers have remained scarcely investigated despite the high numbers of smokers in our society. This study thus, investigates the serum total ...

  9. Serum iron and total iron binding capacity levels among the abo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a common tropical disease. Iron plays a very important role in the human body. The understanding of the different blood groups ability to retain iron in their system can give an insight into their ability to handle the disease Iron deficiency anaemia. Serum Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) and ...

  10. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum ...

  11. Association Of Serum Total Bilirubin Level With Diabetic Retinopathy In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Tahir; Marwat, Zahid Irfan; Ullah, Fahim; Khan, Salman; Hassan Aamir, Aziz Ul

    2016-01-01

    Serum bilirubin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunological properties. It is considered a protective substance against atherosclerotic and microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study was designed to find the association between total serum bilirubin concentration and diabetic retinopathy (DR). This case control study was conducted in the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar. Type-2 DM patients more than 18 years of age of either gender with duration of T2DM more than 6 months were included and sub categorized in two groups. Cases (DM with DR) and Controls (DM without DR) while patients with acute and chronic liver diseases, haemolytic anaemia, history of chronic alcohol consumption, use of hepatotoxic drugs (anti-tuberculous, anti-epileptic), women on oral contraceptive pills were excluded. All participants underwent ophthalmic examination at diabetic retinopathy screening clinic followed by pre designed set of investigations. A total of 152 patients, 76 cases and 76 controls were included. Serum bilirubin concentration was found inversely and independently (p 0.000) associated and inversely co related (r -0.345and p 0.000) with prevalence of DR. Cases were concentrated in the lower quartiles of serum bilirubin concentration and vice versa. Low haemoglobin (p 0.00) and longer duration of DM (0.003) were independently and directly associated with prevalence of DR. Serum bilirubin concentration is inversely and independently associated and inversely correlated with the prevalence of DR and may predict progression of DR over time.

  12. Total serum homocysteine as an indicator of vitamin B12 and folate status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, R.C.; Hall, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a modification of an assay for total serum homocysteine (Hcy) in which the Hcy plus radioactive adenosine is converted enzymatically to labeled S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). The modifications included a commerical source for the AdoHcy hydrolase, adenosine labeled with either 14 C or 3 H, and separation of the AdoHcy by thin layer chromatography. The assay was sensitive to 25 pmol. Hcy levels in sera from 18 controls ranged from 6.9 to 12.1 mumol/L with a mean of 9.1 and a SD of 1.5 mumol/L. The total serum Hcy was increased in vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The level was high in congenital defects of vitamin B12 metabolism, blocking the methylation of Hcy regardless of the serum vitamin B12 levels, but was normal in the absence of tissue deficiency even if the serum vitamin B12 levels were low. The procedure has been found practical in two years of use and requires only 0.1 mL of serum

  13. Delayed growth in two German shepherd dog littermates with normal serum concentrations of growth hormone, thyroxine, and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, J F; Miller, C L; Cummings, J F; Lothrop, C D

    1990-01-01

    Four German Shepherd Dogs from a litter of 10 were evaluated because of postnatal onset of proportionate growth stunting that clinically resembled well-documented hypopituitary dwarfism in that breed. Although 2 pups had histologic evidence of hypopituitarism, the remaining 2 pups had normal serum growth hormone concentration and adrenocorticotropin secretory capability, and normal adrenal function test and thyroid function study results. Furthermore, the initially stunted German Shepherd Dogs grew at a steady rate until at 1 year, body weight and shoulder height approximated normal measurements. Seemingly, delayed growth in these pups may represent one end of a clinical spectrum associated with hypopituitarism in German Shepherd Dogs.

  14. Carvacrol attenuates serum levels of total protein, phospholipase A2 and histamine in asthmatic guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pharmacological effects of carvacrol such as its anti-inflammatory activities have been shows. In this study the effects of carvacrol on serum levels of total protein (TP, phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and histamine in sensitized guinea pigs was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Sensitized guinea pigs were given drinking water alone (group S, drinking water containing three concentrations of carvacrol (40, 80 and 160 µg/ml or dexamethasone. Serum levels of TP, PLA2 and histamine were examined I all sensitized groups as well as a non-sensitized control group (n=6 for each group. Results: In sensitized animals, serum levels of TP, PLA2 and histamine were significantly increased compared to control animals (p

  15. Clinical Usefulness of serum total cholesterol as an index of hypothyroidism in patients after cervical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguma, Yoko; Iwai, Chikako; Okuyama, Masako; Futami, Takahiro; Inui, Ken-ichi; Asato, Ryo

    2003-01-01

    Cervical radiation therapy is often applied to patients with head and neck cancers because radiation has a high sensitivity to these cancers and permits the preservation of functions and physical form. However, it has been shown that various complications can result from radiation therapy. We have encountered some patients who showed hypercholesterolemia resulting from cervical radiation. Therefore, we have paid close attention to the relationship between hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation and hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone tests in these patients with hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation showed high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and low free thyroxine (fT 4 ), indicating the presence of hypothyroidism. After administration of levothyroxine Na, their fT 4 levels increased and both TSH levels and serum total cholesterol levels decreased. In conclusion, in patients who have received cervical radiation, we recommend monitoring serum total cholesterol periodically to detect hypothyroidism easily before the appearance of its symptoms. (author)

  16. Clinical Usefulness of serum total cholesterol as an index of hypothyroidism in patients after cervical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguma, Yoko; Iwai, Chikako; Okuyama, Masako; Futami, Takahiro; Inui, Ken-ichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Asato, Ryo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2003-02-01

    Cervical radiation therapy is often applied to patients with head and neck cancers because radiation has a high sensitivity to these cancers and permits the preservation of functions and physical form. However, it has been shown that various complications can result from radiation therapy. We have encountered some patients who showed hypercholesterolemia resulting from cervical radiation. Therefore, we have paid close attention to the relationship between hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation and hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone tests in these patients with hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation showed high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and low free thyroxine (fT{sub 4}), indicating the presence of hypothyroidism. After administration of levothyroxine Na, their fT{sub 4} levels increased and both TSH levels and serum total cholesterol levels decreased. In conclusion, in patients who have received cervical radiation, we recommend monitoring serum total cholesterol periodically to detect hypothyroidism easily before the appearance of its symptoms. (author)

  17. Total cholesterol in serum determined by isotope dilution/mass spectrometry, with liquid-chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Akiko; Nishi, Sueo

    1988-01-01

    We describe an accurate, precise method for determination of total serum cholesterol by isotope dilution/mass spectrometry (IDMS) with liquid chromatographic separation. After adding [3,4- 13 C] cholesterol to serum and hydrolyzing the cholesterol esters, we extract the total cholesterol. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate the extracted cholesterol for measurement by electron-impact mass spectrometry with use of a direct-insertion device. To evaluate the specificity and the accuracy of this method, we also studied the conventional IDMS method, which involves converting cholesterol to the trimethylsilyl ether and assay by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with use of a capillary column. The coefficient of variation for the HPLC method was a little larger than for the conventional method, but mean values by each method agreed within 1% for all sera tested. (author)

  18. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Verma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 193-194

  19. Association of serum total bilirubin level with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffar, T.; Khan, S.; Aamir, A.U.H.; Marwat, Z.I.

    2016-01-01

    Serum bilirubin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunological properties. It is considered a protective substance against atherosclerotic and microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study was designed to find the association between total serum bilirubin concentration and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: This case control study was conducted in the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar. Type-2 DM patients more than 18 years of age of either gender with duration of T2DM more than 6 months were included and sub categorized in two groups. Cases (DM with DR) and Controls (DM without DR) while patients with acute and chronic liver diseases, haemolytic anaemia, history of chronic alcohol consumption, use of hepatotoxic drugs (anti-tuberculous, anti-epileptic), women on oral contraceptive pills were excluded. All participants underwent ophthalmic examination at diabetic retinopathy screening clinic followed by pre designed set of investigations. Results: A total of 152 patients, 76 cases and 76 controls were included. Serum bilirubin concentration was found inversely and independently (p 0.000) associated and inversely co related (r -0.345 and p 0.000) with prevalence of DR. Cases were concentrated in the lower quartiles of serum bilirubin concentration and vice versa. Low haemoglobin (p 0.00) and longer duration of DM (0.003) were independently and directly associated with prevalence of DR. Conclusion: Serum bilirubin concentration is inversely and independently associated and inversely correlated with the prevalence of DR and may predict progression of DR over time. (author)

  20. Total serum homocysteine levels do not identify cognitive dysfunction in multimorbid elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstermann, S; Laemmler, G; Hanemann, A; Schweter, A; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E; Lun, A; Schulz, R-J

    2009-02-01

    Total blood homocysteine (Hcys) and folate levels have been investigated in association with cognitive dysfunction in healthy but not in multimorbid elderly patients. We hypothesized that total serum Hcys is an adequate marker to identify multimorbid elderly patients with cognitive dysfunction assessed by the Short Cognitive Performance Test (SKT) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cross-sectional study. The study center was an acute geriatric hospital. A total of 189 multimorbid elderly patients were recruited. Cognitive dysfunction was determined according to the SKT and MMSE. Biochemical parameters (Hcys, folate, vitamin B12, hemoglobin), nutritional status (BMI, Mini Nutritional Assessment, nutritional intake), and activities of daily living were assessed. According to the SKT, 25.4% of patients showed no cerebral cognitive dysfunction, 21.2% had suspected incipient cognitive dysfunction, 12.7% showed mild cognitive dysfunction, 9.0% had moderate cognitive dysfunction, and 31.7% of patients were demented. The median plasma Hcys value was elevated by approximately 20% in multimorbid elderly patients, independent of cognitive dysfunction. Serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were within normal ranges. We did not find significant differences in nutritional status, activities of daily living, numbers of diseases or medications, or selected biochemical parameters between the SKT groups. Elevated serum Hcys levels with normal plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were observed in multimorbid elderly patients. The plasma Hcys level did not appear to be an important biological risk factor for cognitive dysfunction in multimorbid geriatric patients.

  1. Acute effect of a fight of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA on the serum concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, creatine kinase, lactate, and glucose

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    Rodrigo Poderoso de Souza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the serum concentrations of testosterone (T, cortisol (C, lactate (LAC, creatine kinase (CK and glucose (GLU on mixed martial arts (MMA athletes, before and after a fight. We divided 20 MMA athletes into two groups of 10 fighters each, according to the result of a fight, and were then evaluated four times: 24 hours before (-24h, one hour before (-1h, immediately after (0h and 24 hours after the fight (+24h. It was observed: a significant decrease in T and T/C between moment -24h and 0h and a subsequent increase between the moment 0h and +24h and a reverse behaviour in variables C, LAC and GLU (p<0.0001; a decrease in CK between moment -24h and -1h and an increase between moment -1h and +24h (p<0.0001; and differences between winners and losers T levels, in moments -24h, -1h, 0h and +24h (p = 0.009 e p < 0.001, p = 0.005 e p = 0,001, T and C, respectively, in T/C in the moments -24h and 0h (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively and in GLU levels (p<0.0001 in the moment 0h. Therefore, it seems that an MMA fight leads to metabolic stress and muscle damage, regardless of the result of the fight. The coaches have now more biochemical and hormonal references and indicators in response to an MMA fight.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of serum total cholesterol concentrations in dogs with osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, H; Viall, A; Ruaux, C; Bracha, S

    2017-10-01

    To determine if total serum cholesterol concentrations were altered in dogs with osteosarcoma. To evaluate association of total serum cholesterol concentration with clinical outcomes in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma. Retrospective, multi-institutional study on 64 dogs with osteosarcoma. Control population consisted of dogs with traumatic bone fractures (n=30) and healthy patients of similar age and weight as those of the osteosarcoma cases (n=31). Survival analysis was done on 35 appendicular osteosarcoma patients that received the current standard of care. Statistical associations were assessed by univariable and multi-variable analysis. Information about age, sex, primary tumour location, total cholesterol concentration, monocytes and lymphocyte counts and alkaline phosphatase were also included. Total cholesterol was elevated above the reference interval (3·89 to 7·12 mmol/L) (150 to 275 mg/dL) in 29 of 64 (45·3%) osteosarcoma-bearing dogs, whereas similar elevations were found in only 3 of 30 (10%) fracture controls (Posteosarcoma. These results suggest that elevated total cholesterol is associated with canine osteosarcoma and may have prognostic significance. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  3. Measurement of total antioxidant capacity in gingival crevicular fluid and serum in dogs with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlica, Zlatko; Petelin, Milan; Nemec, Alenka; Erzen, Damjan; Skaleric, Uros

    2004-11-01

    To determine whether gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum total antioxidant capacities (TACs) correlate with the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs. 41 Toy and Miniature Poodles. After assessment of the degree of severity of naturally occurring periodontitis, GCF samples from both maxillary fourth premolars and a blood sample were collected from each dog. The condition of the periodontium of the entire dentition and at each site of GCF collection was recorded. Clinical parameters assessed included plaque index, gingival index, and probing depth. Radiographic analysis of alveolar bone level was also performed. Total antioxidant capacity was measured in GCF and serum samples by use of a commercial kit. Dogs with gingivitis and minimal periodontitis had significantly higher TAC in GCF than dogs with advanced periodontitis. Bivariate regression analysis revealed significant negative correlations between TAC in GCF and clinical parameters and age. The TAC in serum was significantly negatively correlated with the degree of gingival inflammation but was not significantly correlated with age. TAC in GCF is related to the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs. This is likely the result of release of reactive oxygen species by activated phagocytes and fibroblasts in the inflamed periodontal tissues. The results of our study suggest that the local delivery of antioxidants may be a useful adjunctive treatment for periodontitis in dogs.

  4. Significance of Serum Total Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Patients with Colorectal Cancer.

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    Rong Wu

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in a variety of diseases. Prospective studies investigating the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers and the status and development of colorectal cancer (CRC are scarce; previous studies have failed to establish a relationship between the serum total oxidant/antioxidant status and CRC. Therefore, we compared the total serum oxidant/antioxidant levels of CRC patients and healthy subjects, and analyzed their clinical significance in the CRC. Fasting blood samples from 132 CRC patients and 64 healthy subjects were collected. Oxidative stress parameters, including total oxidant status (TOS and total antioxidant status (TAS, were measured, and the oxidative stress index (OSI was calculated. The TOS and OSI levels increased significantly (P0.05.However, the levels of TOS, TAS, and OSI were significantly different between patients with no metastasis and those with metastases to two organs (P<0.05 Finally, the parameters are affected by smoking and drinking, and subsequent research should be conducted excluding the relevant influencing factors.

  5. Serum lipid profiles, total tract nutrient digestibility, and gastrointestinal tolerance by dogs of α-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, M A; Bauer, L L; Garleb, K A; Fahey, G C; de Godoy, M R C

    2015-05-01

    The objectives were to quantify gastrointestinal tolerance, total tract nutrient digestibility, and serum lipid profiles of dogs as affected by α-cyclodextrin (ACD) supplementation and to validate the accuracy of fat analyses techniques using novel ACD-fat complexes. The ACD was hydrolyzed and free sugars and hydrolyzed monosaccharides were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Known amount of fats were complexed with ACD, and fat content of complexes were determined using the ether extraction and acid-hydrolyzed fat methods. Nine mixed-breed hounds were used in a crossover design with 3 periods of 10 d each, including 6 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for fecal collection. Dogs were fed twice daily a diet with poultry byproduct meal and brewer's rice as the main ingredients, and chromic oxide (0.2%) was included as a digestion marker. Dogs were supplemented with either 0, 3, or 6 g of ACD diluted in 15 mL of water twice per day for a total of 0, 6, and 12 g ACD per day. The ACD had a very low free sugar concentration and, once hydrolyzed, released only glucose, as expected. Average daily food intake, fecal output (DM basis), and fecal scores were not significantly different among treatments. Body weight and condition score and serum triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations remained unaltered throughout the duration of the experiment. Dry matter, OM, and fat digestibility coefficients were lower (P < 0.05) for both treatment groups compared to the control. The acid-hydrolyzed fat method was valid to measure fat that was bound to ACD. Intake of ACD lowered fat digestibility somewhat but not to the extent previously reported, without affecting serum lipid concentrations or outcomes related to tolerance. Therefore, ACD supplementation resulted in a small decrease in fat digestibility, but ACD supplementation might have potential in modifying serum lipid profiles.

  6. The relationship between 63 days of 24-h urinary free cortisol and hair cortisol levels in 10 healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ockenburg, S. L.; Schenk, H. M.; van der Veen, A.; van Rossum, E. F. C.; Kema, I. P.; Rosmalen, J. G. M.

    Background: Interest in measuring cortisol in scalp hair is increasing because of its assumed ability to provide a historical timeline of previous systemic levels of cortisol. Yet, it remains uncertain how well hair cortisol represents the total systemic secretion of cortisol over time. Methods: Ten

  7. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A. V.; Ravishankar, P. L.; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K.; Kalaivani, V.; Rajula, M. Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease. PMID:28462181

  8. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A V; Ravishankar, P L; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K; Kalaivani, V; Rajula, M Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease.

  9. Effects of buddleja officinalis total flavonoids on serum testosterone level of castrated male rats with xeroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Juan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe buddleja officinalis total flavonoids' effect on the basal tear secretion amount, tear film stability, lacrimal gland histomorphology and serum testosterone level of castrated male rat model with xeroma, to study the mechanism of rat xeroma caused by buddleja officinalis total flavones' anti-sex hormones disorders.MEATHODS: A total of 150 Wistar male rats of 1 month old, weighted about 200g, were randomly divided into 5 groups with 30 rats in each group with A representing normal group; B representing sham operation group; C representing surgery control group; D representing group treated with androgen; E representing group treated with buddleja officinalis total flavonoids. For the groups C, D, E, the bilateral testicle and epididymis were excised; For group B, scrota were incised without removal of the testicles, as the sham operation group; For group A, nothing was done. One week after modeling when the wound was to be healed, drug was given to each group. Respectively at the 1st month, 3rd, and 5th months after treatment, 10 rats were randomly selected in each group, to receive Schirmer I test, tear breakup time measurement. Blood serum testosterone levels were tested in the fifth month. RESUITS: For groups D and E, the Schirmer I test measurements were significantly higher than that of group C(PPPCONCLUSION: Decreased androgen levels can lead to xeroma, and removal of bilateral testes and epididymis can successfully establish the animal models of xeroma in rats caused by decreased androgen levels. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids have androgenic effect, which produces the similar treatment effect of xeroma with testosterone propionate. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids may become a new treatment for xeroma.

  10. Total serum bilirubin levels and sensorineural hearing loss in the US adolescents: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoli; Fu, Wenjiang

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to investigate whether current levels of total serum bilirubin are associated with different subtypes of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in adolescents. A set of cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2007-2010) was used. A subset of 1404 adolescents was sampled for measurements of total serum bilirubin, tympanometry, and average pure tone threshold at low-frequencies (LPTA: 500, 1000, 2000 Hz) or high-frequencies (HPTA: 3000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hz). SNHL was defined as the hearing loss that had type A tympanograms with a peak admittance of 0.3 ml or greater. Associations between serum bilirubin (square-root transformed) and different subtypes of SNHL were evaluated using binary or multinomial logistic regression models with 4-year sampling weights. The bootstrap method was used for estimation of variance and 10-fold cross-validation for assessment of overfitting issue. Total serum bilirubin levels were found to be associated with any high-frequency (HPTA>15 dB in at least one ear, adjusted odds-ratio (OR a )(bootstrap 95% confidence interval) = 3.29(1.31-8.19), p = 0.011), but not with any low-frequency (LPTA>15 dB in at least one ear), SNHL in the US adolescents. Furthermore, high-frequency SNHL with HPTA>15 dB in both ears (bilateral) or HPTA≥25 dB in at least one ear, compared to that with HPTA>15 dB in one ear only (unilateral) or HPTA = 15-25 dB in at least one ear, had a stronger association with total serum bilirubin levels (OR a  = 5.37(1.27-22.65), p = 0.022 for bilateral; OR a  = 2.64(0.84-8.25), p = 0.094 for unilateral; OR a  = 5.00(0.95-26.58), p = 0.058 for HPTA≥25 dB in at least one ear; as well as OR a  = 3.06(1.15-8.25), p = 0.025 for HPTA = 15-25 dB in at least one ear). No severe overfitting problems were found. Our findings suggest that current levels of total serum bilirubin may be informative in predicting and/or targeting high-frequency SNHL

  11. Serum homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and total antioxidant status in vegetarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, J; Klemarczyk, W; Chełchowska, M; Gajewska, J; Laskowska-Klita, T

    2006-01-01

    The results of several studies point to the positive role of vegetarian diets in reducing the risk of diabetes, some cancers and cardiovascular diseases. However, exclusion of animal products in vegetarian diets may affect the cobalamin status and cause an elevation of the plasma homocysteine level. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vegetarian diets on serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and total antioxidant status (TAS) in children. The study included 32 vegetarians (including 5 vegans), age 2-10 years. Dietary constituents were analyzed using a local nutritional programme. Serum homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 were determined with fluorescence and chemiluminescence immunoassays. The concentration of TAS was measured by a colorimetric method. Average daily energy intake and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates in the diets of the studied children were just above or similar to the recommended amounts. It could be shown that vegetarian diets contain high concentrations of folate. In vegan diets it even exceeds the recommended dietary allowance. Mean daily intake of vitamin B12 in the studied diets was adequate but in vegans was below the recommended range. The serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and TAS in vegetarian children remained within the physiological range. The presented data indicate that vegetarian children, contrary to adults, have enough vitamin B12 in their diet (excluding vegans) and normal serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12. Therefore, in order to prevent deficiencies in the future, close monitoring of vegetarian children (especially on a vegan diet) is important to make sure that they receive adequate quantities of nutrients needed for healthy growth.

  12. Effect of Home Cage Bedding in the Induction Chamber on Serum Cortisol and Corticosterone Levels in Response to Isoflurane-induced Anesthesia in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Cara P; Christy, Amanda C; Olsen, Cara H; Bentzel, David E

    2017-03-01

    Mice are routinely anesthetized with isoflurane in an induction chamber. The AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals states that distress should be minimized during euthanasia but does not address this point in regard to induction of anesthesia. Here we evaluated the potential for familiar surroundings to reduce the adrenocortical response of mice during anesthesia induction with isoflurane. However, adding bedding from the animals' home cage to the induction chamber failed to significantly reduce serum cortisol or corticosterone levels in male and female C57BL/6J mice. These results indicate that familiar surroundings do not appear sufficient to reduce the adrenocortical response of mice during anesthesia induction with isoflurane.

  13. Serum total bilirubin levels are negatively correlated with metabolic syndrome in aged Chinese women: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, P; Sun, D M; Wu, D H; Li, T M; Liu, X Y; Liu, H Y

    2017-01-26

    We evaluated serum total bilirubin levels as a predictor for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and investigated the relationship between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS prevalence. This cross-sectional study included 1728 participants over 65 years of age from Eastern China. Anthropometric data, lifestyle information, and previous medical history were collected. We then measured serum levels of fasting blood-glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and total bilirubin, as well as alanine aminotransferase activity. The prevalence of MetS and each of its individual component were calculated per quartile of total bilirubin level. Logistic regression was used to assess the correlation between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS. Total bilirubin level in the women who did not have MetS was significantly higher than in those who had MetS (Pbilirubin quartiles were linearly and negatively correlated with MetS prevalence and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) in females (Pbilirubin was an independent predictor of MetS for females (OR: 0.910, 95%CI: 0.863-0.960; P=0.001). The present study suggests that physiological levels of serum total bilirubin might be an independent risk factor for aged Chinese women, and the prevalence of MetS and HTG are negatively correlated to serum total bilirubin levels.

  14. Serum total antioxidant status in cardiovascular patients and in healthy individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.

    2010-01-01

    The previous studies suggest that low serum total antioxidant status (TAS) might be related to oxidative stress. To further examine the TAS, we investigated its relation in patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Total 39 samples of males and females were collected; age ranged from 18 to 86 years and divided them into two groups. Group I included 30 samples of cardiovascular patients; group 2 included 9 healthy individuals as control group. In group I, patients suffering from Myocardial infarction (Ml) showed low TAS values compared to the patients suffering from angina. The rest of the patients in group I showed TAS value within the reference range (1.3- 1.77 mmoVL). The present study concluded that the TAS value in MI patients is lower than patients suffering from angina pectoris, further it was also concluded that aging and smoking both leads to the decrease in the level of T AS. (author)

  15. Final report for CCQM-K107: total elements and selenomethionine in human serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenaga Infante, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Routine tests that measure the concentration of electrolytes in serum are needed for diagnosis and management of renal, endocrine, acid-base, water balance and other conditions such as screening D- and A-vitamin disorders, kidney insufficiency, bone diseases and leukaemia. The diagnostic concentration ranges for many such markers are narrow, requiring reference methods with small uncertainty. Serum concentration of total selenium (Se) is important in health studies but there is increasing interest in the speciation of selenium compounds in clinical samples such as serum and individual Se- Species are bio-indicators of Se status. The last CCQM IAWG key comparison for elements in the clinical area (CCQM-K14: Ca in human serum) was organized in 2003 and the previous key comparison (CCQM-K60) for Se and Se species used a wheat flour sample. Therefore, the CCQM IAWG agreed that CCQM-K107 and a parallel pilot study CCQM-P146 should be carried out. The candidate human serum sample used for both CCQM-K107 and P146 is of high complexity and contains approximately 1000-fold lower concentrations of selenium methionine (SeMet) than those encountered in the CCQM-K60 wheat flour. This significantly broadens the scope and degree of difficulty of earlier measurements in this field. A total of eleven institutes participated in CCQM-K107 (11 participants for total elements and 7 for SeMet). The performance of the majority of the K107 participants for all the measurands was very good, illustrating their ability to obtain accurate results for analytes such as electrolytes at mg kg-1 level, essential elements at µg kg-1 level and selenium species at µg kg-1 level in a complex biological fluid. The range of agreement between participants was within the interval of ± 0.1% for Ca and up to ± 1.8% for Fe. CMC claims based on total elements in this study may include other elements with similar core competencies (e.g. Se, Cu, Zn) in a wide range of biological materials (including liquids

  16. Total and ionized serum magnesium and calcium levels during magnesium sulfate administration for preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Hee; An, Yuna; Moon, Jong Ho; Noh, Eun Ji; Kim, Jong Woon

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to estimate the association between total and ionized magnesium, and the changes in serum magnesium and calcium levels in patients with preterm labor during magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) administration. Methods The study population included 64 women who were candidates for intravenous MgSO4 treatment for preterm labor. Serial blood samples were taken and measured total magnesium (T-Mg), ionized magnesium (I-Mg), total calcium (T-Ca), and ionized calcium (I-Ca) levels every one-week interval (1st, 2nd, 3rd). Results There was no significant difference in T-Mg and I-Mg levels during MgSO4 administration (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in T-Ca and I-Ca levels during MgSO4 administration (P>0.05). Compared before and after administration of MgSO4, T-Mg and I-Mg levels and T-Ca levels were changed allow statistically significant (P0.05). There was significant correlation between levels of I-Mg and T-Mg (I-Mg=0.395×T-Mg+0.144, P<0.01). Conclusion There were no significant differences in serum Mg and Ca levels during MgSO4 administration for preterm labor. Compared to the before and after administration of MgSO4, only I-Ca levels were not substantially changed. There are significant correlations between I-Mg and T-Mg levels during administration of MgSO4 and I-Mg level seemed to have more correlation with adverse effect than T-Mg. PMID:29372150

  17. Estimation of folate binding capacity (unsaturated and total) in normal human serum and in β-thalassaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulopoulos, S.; Mantzos, J.; Gyftaki, E.; Kesse-Elias, M.; Alevizou-Terzaki, V.; Souli-Tsimili, E.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the total serum folate binding capacity (TBC) after treating the serum with urea at pH5.5, the unsaturated serum folate binding capacity (UBC) being determined without treatment with urea. The method was applied to 50 normal controls and 20 patients with homozygous β-thalassaemia. The results show an increase in folate binding capacity after treating the serum with urea in all cases studied. There is no correlation between serum folic acid level and total or unsaturated folate binding capacity or per cent saturation. The method described is a simple and rapid one for screening the different groups studied for saturated and unsaturated specific folate-binding proteins. (author)

  18. A Comparison between Transcutaneous and Total Serum Bilirubin in Healthy-term Greek Neonates with Clinical Jaundice

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    Charalambos Neocleous

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of transcutaneous bilirubin meters has been assessed in newborns from various ethnic backgrounds. However, there are limited data on Greek newborns. Our study examined the accuracy of transcutaneous bilirubin measurements in clinically jaundiced healthy-term Greek newborns, using total serum bilirubin as the reference standard, in order to re-evaluate our local guidelines about neonatal jaundice. Clinically jaundiced newborns requiring total serum bilirubin level estimation were recruited prospectively. 368 pairs of total serum bilirubin/transcutaneous bilirubin measurements were taken in 222 newborns, using a direct spectrophotometric device and the BiliCheck device, respectively. The level of agreement between the obtained transcutaneous bilirubin and total serum bilirubin values was assessed. Our data were analysed using the Stata/SE 12.0 (StataCorp LP, USA statistical programme. The mean (± SD TSB was 225.4 ± 25.4 μmol/l and the mean (± SD TcB was 237.9 ± 21.0 μmol/l. The correlation between the values was poor (Pearson’s correlation coefficient 0.439; Lin’s concordance coefficient 0.377 [95% CI 0.301 to 0.453]; P<0.001. The Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that transcutaneous bilirubin measurements tended to overestimate the total serum bilirubin value (mean difference 12.5 ± 24.9 μmol/l, with wide 95% limits of agreement (–36.2 μmol/l to 61.3 μmol/l. Transcutaneous bilirubin values did not correlate well with total serum bilirubin values, being often imprecise in predicting the actual total serum bilirubin levels. This permits us to continue estimating total serum bilirubin in clinically jaundiced newborns according to our local guidelines, in order to safely decide the appropriate care plan.

  19. Reduced Cortisol Metabolism during Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Eva; Vervenne, Hilke; Meersseman, Philippe; Andrew, Ruth; Mortier, Leen; Declercq, Peter E.; Vanwijngaerden, Yoo-Mee; Spriet, Isabel; Wouters, Pieter J.; Perre, Sarah Vander; Langouche, Lies; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Walker, Brian R.; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Critical illness is often accompanied by hypercortisolemia, which has been attributed to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. However, low corticotropin levels have also been reported in critically ill patients, which may be due to reduced cortisol metabolism. METHODS In a total of 158 patients in the intensive care unit and 64 matched controls, we tested five aspects of cortisol metabolism: daily levels of corticotropin and cortisol; plasma cortisol clearance, metabolism, and production during infusion of deuterium-labeled steroid hormones as tracers; plasma clearance of 100 mg of hydrocortisone; levels of urinary cortisol metabolites; and levels of messenger RNA and protein in liver and adipose tissue, to assess major cortisol-metabolizing enzymes. RESULTS Total and free circulating cortisol levels were consistently higher in the patients than in controls, whereas corticotropin levels were lower (PCortisol production was 83% higher in the patients (P=0.02). There was a reduction of more than 50% in cortisol clearance during tracer infusion and after the administration of 100 mg of hydrocortisone in the patients (P≤0.03 for both comparisons). All these factors accounted for an increase by a factor of 3.5 in plasma cortisol levels in the patients, as compared with controls (Pcortisol clearance also correlated with a lower cortisol response to corticotropin stimulation. Reduced cortisol metabolism was associated with reduced inactivation of cortisol in the liver and kidney, as suggested by urinary steroid ratios, tracer kinetics, and assessment of liver-biopsy samples (P≤0.004 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS During critical illness, reduced cortisol breakdown, related to suppressed expression and activity of cortisol-metabolizing enzymes, contributed to hypercortisolemia and hence corticotropin suppression. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications for critically ill patients are unknown. (Funded by the Belgian

  20. Serum Interleukin-4 and Total Immunoglobulin E in Nonatopic Alopecia Areata Patients and HLA-DRB1 Typing

    OpenAIRE

    Attia, Enas A. S.; El Shennawy, Dina; Sefin, Ashraf

    2010-01-01

    Background. Interleukin-4 (IL-4), a Th2 cytokine, can stimulate immunoglobulin E (IgE) transcription. No previous studies evaluated the genetic mechanisms in nonatopic AA patients with elevated serum IgE. Objective. To compare serum IL-4 and total IgE levels between Egyptian nonatopic AA patients and healthy subjects and to investigate a possible relation to HLA-DRB1 alleles. Results. Serum IL-4 and total IgE were measured by ELISA in 40 controls and 54 nonatopic AA patients. Patients' HL...

  1. Traumatic memories, post-traumatic stress disorder and serum cortisol levels in long-term survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauer, Daniela; Weis, Florian; Krauseneck, Till; Vogeser, Michael; Schelling, Gustav; Roozendaal, Benno

    2009-01-01

    Survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) often report traumatic memories from the intensive care unit (ICU) and display a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As it is known that subjects with PTSD often show sustained reductions in circulating cortisol

  2. Total matrix metalloproteinase-8 serum levels in patients labouring preterm and patients with threatened preterm delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Laudański

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Preterm labour and prematurity are still a main cause of perinatal morbidity nowadays. The aim of our study was to assess the role of MMP-8 as a predictive marker of preterm delivery. Four groups of patients were involved to the study: I - pregnant women at 24-34 weeks of gestation with any symptoms of threatened preterm labour; II - threatened preterm labour patients between 24-34 weeks of gestation; III - preterm vaginal delivery patients; IV - healthy term vaginal delivery patients. Serum concentration of total MMP-8 was measured using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. There were no significant differences in the median concentrations of total MMP-8 between physiological pregnancy and threatened preterm labour patients with existing uterine contractility. No significant differences of total MMP-8 were either found between healthy term and preterm labouring patients. The studies on a larger population are needed to reject the hypothesis that preterm labour is connected with increased MMP-8 plasma concentrations of women in preterm labour and threatened preterm delivery.

  3. Serum immunoglobulin levels in humans exposed to therapeutic total-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaskes, S.; Kingdon, G.C.; Balish, E.

    1975-01-01

    Reduced serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, IgM) levels developed in the majority of 27 patients with hematologic disorders after treatment with 100 to 350 R total-body gamma-ray exposures at a dose rate of either 1.5 R/min to 1.5 R/hr. A reduction in IgA of 20 percent or more was found in 66 percent of the cases, while 56 percent showed an IgM decrease, and 49 percent an IgG decrease of 20 percent. The severity of immunoglobulin depression was influenced by the total radiation dose and the patient's primary disease. The occurrence of IgG and IgM depression was greater when the radiation was given at 1.5 R/hr than when the dose rate was 1.5 R/min. Substantial but incomplete recovery toward preirradiation immunoglobulin levels was found for most patients by 7 wk after total-body irradiation (TBI). (U.S.)

  4. Evaluation of a method to measure long term cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenschijn, Laura; Koper, Jan W; Lamberts, Steven W J; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of cortisol are known to induce various symptoms and diseases, e.g. abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Measuring serum, saliva and urine cortisol is limited to one time point. Measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a recently developed method to measure long term cortisol levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hair cortisol is a feasible parameter to measure cortisol exposure. We collected hair samples of 195 healthy individuals, 9 hypercortisolemic and one hypocortisolemic patient and measured hair cortisol levels. Cortisol was extracted from scalp hair using methanol and cortisol levels were measured using a salivary ELISA kit. Measurement of waist and hip circumferences and blood pressure was performed in 46 healthy subjects. We found a positive correlation between hair cortisol and both waist circumference (r=0.392, p=0.007) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (r=0.425, p=0.003). No correlations were found between hair cortisol levels and BMI, blood pressure or age. There was no decline in cortisol levels in six consecutive hair segments. Hair cortisol levels were elevated in patients with known hypercortisolism (pcortisol was positively correlated with WHR, suggesting that hair cortisol reflects cortisol exposure at tissue level, which was also supported by elevated hair cortisol levels in hypercortisolemic patients and concordance between hair cortisol levels and clinical disease course. Cortisol levels in hair are slightly influenced by hair treatment but not by natural hair colour, use of hair products, gender or age. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. TOTAL CHOLESTEROL, HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (HDL AND CORTISOL PLASMA LEVELS, AND THEIR BIORHYTMICITY, IN 24 HOURS, THROUGHOUT YEAR, IN IDEAL-POLWARTH RAMS NÍVEIS PLASMÁTICOS DE COLESTEROL TOTAL, LIPOPROTEÍNAS DE ALTA DENSIDADE (HDL E CORTISOL, E SUA BIORRITMICIDADE, EM CARNEIROS IDEAL-POLWARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides de Amorim Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the mean plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoproteins (HDL and cortisol, blood samples were collected of five Ideal-Polwarth rams, maintained at 22?53’S latitude, in semi-confinement, every two months throughout the year, by 24h period, with 2-hour intervals between colects. The TC, changed 40.70?1,11mg/dL (April and 61.48?1,11mg/dL (December, between months, while HDL changed 22.16?0.23mg/dL (December as 33.40?0.23mg/dL (February, but not make evident a circannual rhythm in this levels. The TC presented the lowest value at 16:30h (50.40?1.57mg/dL and the highest value at 8:30h collect (54.67?1.57mg/dL; the HDL lowest level was at 10:30h (27.04?0.33mg/dL and the highest level also at 8:30h collect (28.49?0.33mg/dL, however without permit circadian rhythm determination in your plasma concentrations. Similarly, the cortisol plasma concentrations, between collect months, presents variable, however without demonstrate circadian rhythm in this hormone secretion. In relation to different collection’s moments, throughout months, it wasn’t possible to define, by statistical analysis, a circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion. KEY WORDS: Ovine, adrenal hormone, biochemistry metabolites, circadian rhythm. Visando avaliar as concentrações médias de colesterol total (CT, lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL e cortisol plasmáticos, foram colhidas amostras de sangue de cinco carneiros Ideal-Polwarth, alocados em latitude 22°53’S, em regime de semiconfinamento, a cada dois meses, ao longo de um ano, com as colheitas em um período de 24 horas, e intervalos de duas horas entre elas. O CT oscilou entre 40,70±1,11mg/dL (abril e 61,48±1,11mg/dL (dezembro, entre os meses, enquanto HDL variou de 22,16±0,23mg/dL (dezembro a 33,40±0,23mg/dL (fevereiro, mas não evidenciando um ritmo circanual em seus níveis. O CT apresentou seu valor mínimo na colheita das 16h30min (50,40±1,57mg/dL e o máximo às 8h30min

  6. Brix refractometry in serum as a measure of failure of passive transfer compared to measured immunoglobulin G and total protein by refractometry in serum from dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, D; Nydam, D V; Godden, S M; Bristol, L S; Kryzer, A; Ranum, J; Schaefer, D

    2016-05-01

    A series of trials were conducted to evaluate Brix refractometry (Brix %) for the assessment of failure of passive transfer (FPT) in dairy calves compared to: (1) serum IgG (reference standard) when measured by radial immunodiffusion (RID) or a turbidometric immunoassay (TIA), and (2) serum total protein refractometry (STP). For the serum samples tested with TIA, STP, and Brix % (n = 310; Holstein calves), the median concentrations were 21.3 g/L IgG, 58 g/L STP, and 9.2%, respectively. For the serum samples tested with RID, STP and Brix % (n = 112; Jersey calves), the mean concentrations were 38 g/L IgG, 68 g/L STP, and 10.2%, respectively. For samples tested with only Brix % and STP (n = 265; Holstein calves), median STP and Brix % were 50 g/L STP and 8.5%, respectively. Correlations between Brix % and RID, and between Brix % and TIA were equal (r = 0.79, respectively). Brix % and STP were positively correlated (r = 0.99). Brix % estimated serum IgG concentrations determined by TIA and RID (r(2) = 0.63, 0.62, respectively). When FPT was defined as serum IgG refractometry predicted successful transfer of passive immunity in dairy calves, but further evaluation as a diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of FPT is warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Mildly elevated serum total bilirubin levels are negatively associated with carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is strongly associated with several mechanisms of tissue damage such as oxidative stress. Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Limited information is available on whether serum bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were 169 men aged 79 ± 8 (mean ± SD) years and 205 women aged 81 ± 8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients in the medical department. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum total bilirubin (β = -0.160) was significantly associated with carotid IMT. Compared to subjects with a serum total bilirubin of tertile-1 (0.13-0.58 mg/dL), the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of carotid IMT ≥1.0 mm including plaque and carotid plaque was 0.46 (0.23-0.93) and 0.32 (0.17-0.60) in the Tertile-3 group (0.87-1.93 mg/dL), respectively. Next, data were further stratified by gender, age, smoking status, medication and prevalence of CVD. There were no significant differences in serum total bilirubin levels between selected subgroups. Our data demonstrated a negative association between serum total bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Serum total IgG and IgG4 levels in thyroid eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aileen Sy, Rona Z Silkiss Department of Ophthalmology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA Purpose: To investigate the relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD and thyroid eye disease (TED with respect to IgG levels. Patients and methods: A retrospective review of total IgG, IgG subclass, and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI levels in 24 patients with TED. Results: Five patients (20.8% demonstrated serum IgG4 levels consistent with IgG4-RD without any additional systemic disease. Total IgG and IgG subclass levels were found to be an inadequate proxy for TSI elevation. Conclusion: There may be a subtype of TED patients with elevated IgG4 in the absence of IgG4-RD systemic findings. Keywords: thyroid eye disease, IgG subclass, IgG4, Graves’ disease, Graves’ ophthalmopathy, IgG4-RD

  9. Serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of outcome in hip fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Daly, Brendan J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hip fractures are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the elderly. Malnutrition is a significant contributor to this, however no consensus exists as to the detection or management of this condition. We hypothesise that results of admission serum albumin and total lymphocyte count (TLC), as markers of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) can help predict clinical outcome in hip fracture patients aged over 60 years. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the nutritional status of patients with hip fractures using albumin and TLC assays and analysed their prognostic relevance. Clinical outcome parameters studied were delay to operation, duration of in-patient stay, re-admission and in-patient, 3- and 12-month mortality. RESULTS: Four hundred and fifteen hip fracture patients were evaluated. Survival data were available for 377 patients at 12 months. In-hospital mortality for PEM patients was 9.8%, compared with 0% for patients without. Patients with PEM had a higher 12-month mortality compared to patients who had normal values of both laboratory parameters (Odds Ratio 4.6; 95% CI: 1.0-21.3). Serum albumin (Hazard Ratio 0.932, 95% CI: 0.9-1.0) and age (Hazard Ratio 1.04, 95% CI: 1.0-1.1) were found to be significant independent prognostic factors of mortality by Cox regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the relevance of assessing the nutritional status of patients with hip fractures at the time of admission and emphasises the correlation between PEM and outcome in these patients.

  10. Transrectal ultrasound in detecting prostate cancer compared with serum total prostate-specific antigen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamsel, S.; Killi, R.; Demirpolat, G.; Hekimgil, M.; Soydan, S.; Altay, B.

    2008-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective study to review the efficiency of grey-scale transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in detecting prostate cancer compared with the data in recent published work, including alternative imaging methods of the prostate gland. Our study group consisted of 830 patients who underwent TRUS-guided biopsy of the prostate between May 2000 and June 2004. The relation between abnormal TRUS findings and serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) levels was evaluated in patients with prostate cancer who were divided into three different groups according to serum tPSA levels. Group I included patients with tPSA levels of 4-9.9 ng/mL, group II included tPSA levels of 10-19.9 ng/mL and group III included patients with tPSA levels of 20 ng/mL or more. In general, TRUS detected 185 (64%) of 291 cancers with a specificity of 89%, a PPV of 76% and an accuracy of 80%. TRUS findings enabled the correct identification of 22 (56%) of the 39 cancers in group I, 28 (30%) of the 93 cancers in group II and 135 (85%) of the 159 cancers in group III. In conclusion, TRUS alone has a limited potential to identify prostate cancer, especially in patients with tPSA levels lower than 20 ng/mL. Therefore, increased numbers of systematically placed biopsy cores must be taken or alternative imaging methods are required to direct TRUS-guided biopsy for improving prostate cancer detection.

  11. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN G6PD DEFICIENCY AND TOTAL SERUM BILIRUBIN LEVEL IN ICTERIC NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Behjati-Ardakani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available "nGlucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most important disease of the hexose monophosphate pathway. Deficiency of this enzym can lead to hemolysis of red blood cells. Our aim was to study the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in relation to neonatal jaundice. We studied 456 clinically icteric neonates Laboratory investigations included determination of direct and indirect serum bilirubin concentrations, blood group typing, direct coomb's test, hemoglobin, blood smear, reticulocyte count and G6PD level. We divided these neonates to 3 groups based on total serum bilirubin level (TSB: TSB< 20 mg%, TSB=20-25 mg%, and TSB>25 mg%. In only 35 (7.6% of cases G6PD deficiency was diagnosed. All of these babies were male. From 456 icteric neonates, 213 cases belong to group 1 (TSB<20 mg%, 158 cases belong to group 2 (TSB=20-25 mg% and 85 cases belong to group 3 (TSB>25 mg%. 16 neonates from 213 neonates of group 1, 6 neonates from 158 neonates of group 2 and 13 neonates from 85 neonates of group 3 had G6PD deficiency. There was statistically significant difference of prevalence of G6PD deficiency between group 2 and 3 ( 15.3% vs 3.8%( P = 0.001. Between groups 1 vs 2 and 1 vs 3 no statistically significant difference was found. Early detection of this enzymopathy regardless of sex and close surveillance of the affected newborns may be important in reducing the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia. This emphasizes the necessity of neonatal screening on cord blood samples for G6PD deficiency.

  12. Analysis of cortisol and other stress-related hormones in patients with Meniere's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cruijsen, N; Dullaart, RPF; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    Objective: To evaluate cortisol and catecholamine levels in patients with Meniere's disease. Study Design: Prospective, controlled study. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Patients: Thirty patients with Meniere's disease and 18 healthy controls. Main Outcome Measures: Serum and saliva cortisol,

  13. Radioimmunoassay of plasma cortisol and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, Tetsuhiro; Ishitobi, Kazuyuki; Harada, Yoshimichi

    1975-01-01

    A system for the radioimmunoassay of plasma cortisol was developed together with a nonchromatographic method for the assay. An anti-cortisol serum, produced by immunization of rabbits with cortisol-21-hemisuccinate-BSA, proved to have a high affinity and a high specificity for cortisol. The results determined by this system were satisfactory. The nonchromatographic method correlated well with the chromatographic one in normal subjects, who showed 66.2 +- 34.8 ng/ml (case number 22) plasma cortisol levels from 9:00 to 10:00 AM. Various provocation tests were applied to normal subjects and to patients with endocrine disease, and the results were discussed. (auth.)

  14. Three calculations of free cortisol versus measured values in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Nienke; Groeneveld, A B Johan; de Jong, Margriet F C

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the agreement between the calculated free cortisol levels according to widely applied Coolens and adjusted Södergård equations with measured levels in the critically ill. A prospective study in a mixed intensive care unit. We consecutively included 103 patients with treatment-insensitive hypotension in whom an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test (250μg) was performed. Serum total and free cortisol (equilibrium dialysis), corticosteroid-binding globulin and albumin were assessed. Free cortisol was estimated by the Coolens method (C) and two adjusted Södergård (S1 and S2) equations. Bland Altman plots were made. The bias for absolute (t=0, 30 and 60min after ACTH injection) cortisol levels was 38, -24, 41nmol/L when the C, S1 and S2 equations were used, with 95% limits of agreement between -65-142, -182-135, and -57-139nmol/L and percentage errors of 66, 85, and 64%, respectively. Bias for delta (peak-baseline) cortisol was 14, -31 and 16nmol/L, with 95% limits of agreement between -80-108, -157-95, and -74-105nmol/L, and percentage errors of 107, 114, and 100% for C, S1 and S2 equations, respectively. Calculated free cortisol levels have too high bias and imprecision to allow for acceptable use in the critically ill. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Association Between Cortisol to DHEA-s Ratio and Sickness Absence in Japanese Male Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Fujii, Yasuhito; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Takaki, Jiro; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-11-21

    This study aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s) and sickness absence over 2 years in Japanese male workers. A baseline survey including questions about health behavior, along with blood sampling for cortisol and DHEA-s, was conducted in 2009. In total, 429 men (mean ± SD age, 52.9 ± 8.6 years) from whom blood samples were collected at baseline were followed until December 31, 2011. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sickness absence were calculated using a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusted for potential confounders. Among 35 workers who took sickness absences, 31 had physical illness. A high cortisol to DHEA-s ratio increased the risk of sickness absence (crude HR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.12-6.41; adjusted HR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.35-8.20). The cortisol to DHEA-s ratio was linearly associated with an increased risk of sickness absence (p for trend sickness absences. This trend did not change when limited to absences resulting from physical illness. Hormonal conditions related to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and adrenal function should be considered when predicting sickness absence. The cortisol to DHEA-s ratio may be more informative than single effects of cortisol and DHEA-s levels.

  16. Morning cortisol is lower in obese individuals with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen EP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Edavan P Praveen1, Jaya Prakash Sahoo1, Bindu Kulshreshtha2, Madan L Khurana3, Nandita Gupta1, Sada Nand Dwivedi3, Guresh Kumar3, Ariachery C Ammini11Department of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 2Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, 3Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaBackground: There is no consensus on the role of cortisol in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the relationship of morning plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels with body mass index (BMI and glucose tolerance.Subjects and methods: The sample frame was the “Offspring of individuals with diabetes study” database. A total of 358 offspring of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and 287 individuals without a known family history of T2DM were recruited for the study. Subjects who were ≥10 years of age were selected from the database for analysis. Subjects with T2DM were excluded. All participants underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes for glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Plasma cortisol, ACTH, and lipid profile were estimated from the fasting sample.Results: Four hundred and ninety-five participants (305 males [62%] and 190 females [38%] were included in the analysis. ACTH and cortisol levels were higher in normal-weight subjects than in overweight/obese subjects. Both ACTH and cortisol increased as fasting plasma glucose increased. Cortisol levels were significantly lower in offspring of T2DM subjects with MS than in offspring of T2DM subjects without MS. When adjusted for BMI, the significance was marginal. In males, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with early insulin secretion during OGTT (insulinogenic index [0–30] and positively with waist circumference and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In females, fasting

  17. [Risk factors for elevated serum total bile acid in preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan-Ting; Wang, Yong-Qin; Zhao, Yue-Hua; Zhu, Hai-Ling; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Xiao; Gao, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Wei-Ye; Sang, Yu-Tong

    2018-03-01

    To study the risk factors for elevated serum total bile acid (TBA) in preterm infants. A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 216 preterm infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. According to the presence or absence of elevated TBA (TBA >24.8 μmol/L), the preterm infants were divided into elevated TBA group with 53 infants and non-elevated TBA group with 163 infants. A univariate analysis and an unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the risk factors for elevated TBA. The univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences between the elevated TBA group and the non-elevated TBA group in gestational age at birth, birth weight, proportion of small-for-gestational-age infants, proportion of infants undergoing ventilator-assisted ventilation, fasting time, parenteral nutrition time, and incidence of neonatal respiratory failure and sepsis (PTBA in preterm infants. Low birth weight and neonatal sepsis may lead to elevated TBA in preterm infants.

  18. Clinical evaluation of free to total prostate specific antigen ratio in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Wei; Deng Shouzhen; Lin Xiangtong

    1999-01-01

    Free and total prostate specific antigen (F-PSA and T-PSA) in serum were measured with immunoradiometric assay and the F/T-PSA ratio was calculated in 175 patients with T-PSA levels in the range of 4-20 μg/L. Among them 141 patients were benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 23 were untreated prostate cancer (Pca untreated) and 11 were treated prostate cancer (Pca treated). The results showed that difference in F-PSA and F/T-PSA ratio for BPH group and Pca untreated group were statistically significant (P<0.01). The effectiveness of F/T-PSA ratio for Pca (89.9%) was higher than F-PSA (54.8%). The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed an improved diagnostic efficacy of F/T-PSA ratio compared with T-PSA for discrimination between BPH and Pca. If mean F/T-PSA ratio value + 1 SE (13.2%) was used in BPH group as discrimination limits of Pca patients, the diagnostic accuracy of BPH group and Pca untreated group were 90.8% and 82.6% respectively. Thereby F/T-PSA ratio may be useful for the differentiation between BPH and prostate cancer

  19. Elevated serum urate is a potential factor in reduction of total bilirubin: a Mendelian randomization study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Jing; Dong, Zheng; Ding, Yue; Qian, Qiaoxia; Zhou, Jingru; Ma, Yanyun; Mei, Zhendong; Chen, Xiangxiang; Li, Yuan; Yuan, Ziyu; Zhang, Juan; Yang, Yajun; Chen, Xingdong; Jin, Li; Zou, Hejian; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jiucun

    2017-01-01

    Aim A Mendelian randomization study (MRS) can be linked to a “natural” randomized controlled trial in order to avoid potential bias of observational epidemiology. We aimed to study the possible association between serum urate (SU) and total bilirubin (TBIL) using MRS. Materials and Methods An observational epidemiological study using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and MRS using two-stage least square (TLS) regression was conducted to assess the effect of SU on TBIL. The comparison between the OLS regression and the TLS regression was analyzed by the Durbin-Hausman test. If the p value is significant, it suggests that the OLS regression cannot evaluate the relationship between exposure and outcome, and the TLS regression is precise; while if the p value is not significant, there would be no significant difference between the two regressions. Results A total of 3,753 subjects were analyzed. In OLS regression, there was no significant association between SU and TBIL in all subjects and subgroup analysis (all p > 0.05). However, MRS revealed a negative correlation between SU and TBIL after adjustment for confounders (beta = –0.021, p = 0.010). Further analysis was conducted in different SU subgroups, and results show that elevated SU was associated with a significant reduction in TBIL after adjustment for hyperuricemic subjects (beta = –0.053, p = 0.027). In addition, the results using the Durbin-Hausman test further confirmed a negative effect of SU on TBIL (p = 0.002 and 0.010, respectively). Conclusions This research shows for the first time that elevated SU was a potential causal factor in the reduction of TBIL and it provides strong evidence to resolve the controversial association between SU and TBIL. PMID:29262606

  20. [Total serum calcium and corrected calcium as severity predictors in acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Jiménez, A A; Castro-Jiménez, E; Lagunes-Córdoba, R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate total serum calcium (TC) and albumin-corrected calcium (ACC) as prognostic severity factors in acute pancreatitis (AP). Ninety-six patients were included in the study. They were diagnosed with AP and admitted to the Hospital Regional de Veracruz within the time frame of January 2010 to December 2012. AP severity was determined through the updated Atlanta Classification (2013). TC and ACC values were measured in the first 24hours of admittance and the percentages of sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) were calculated through ROC curves and contingency tables. In accordance with the updated Atlanta Classification, 70 patients presented with mild AP, 17 with moderately severe AP, and 9 with severe AP. Of the patient total, 61.5% were women, and 69.8% presented with biliary etiology. The maximum TC cut-off point was 7.5mg/dL, with values of S, 67%; Sp, 82%; PPV, 27%, and NPV, 96%. The maximum ACC cut-off point was 7.5mg/dL, with values of S, 67%; Sp, 90%; PPV, 40%; NPV, 96%. Both had values similar to those of the Ranson and APACHE II prognostic scales. TC and ACC, measured within the first 24hours, are useful severity predictors in acute pancreatitis, with sensitivity and predictive values comparable or superior to those of the conventional prognostic scales. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum and plasma for total and free anticonvulsant drug analyses: effects on EMIT assays and ultrafiltration devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, W; Trepanier, J; Farrell, K

    1983-01-01

    The suitability of serum and plasma anticoagulated with heparin, EDTA, citrate, or oxalate was assessed for analysis of free and total phenytoin, carbamazepine, and valproic acid. The free fraction was isolated by ultrafiltration through FreeLevel devices (Syva, Palo Alto, CA). Serum, heparin, and EDTA plasma were satisfactory for both free and total phenytoin and carbamazepine. EDTA could not be used for EMIT (Syva) analysis of valproate. Citrate and, to a lesser degree, oxalate cause a significant negative interference in the concentration of these three drugs as measured both by EMIT and gas-liquid chromatography.

  2. Determination of total bile acids in serum. A comparison of a radioimmunoassay with an enzymatic-fluorimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkey, B.J.; Marks, V.

    1982-01-01

    A solid phase radioimmunoassay kit method for total conjugated bile acids has been compared to an enzymatic fluorimetric method for total serum bile acids. The methods were compared with respect to: precision, cross-reactivity (molar equivalence) of different bile salts, recovery of different bile salts from serum, the reference range for a healthy population, linearity, coefficient of correlation, diagnostic effectiveness, cost and ease of assay. Both assays seemed equally capable of predicting the presence or absence of liver disease. Radioimmunoassay had little advantage over the enzymatic-fluorimetric method. Its relative ease was far outweighed by its greater cost and poorer analytical performance. (Auth.)

  3. Specificity and sensitivity of binding proteins in the radioimmunoassay of cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijzen, A.H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison concerning avidity towards cortisol and 10 other steroids was made between several binding proteins either in solution or bound to cellulose as so called ''solid phase'' reagent. Human blood cortisol binding protein (CBP, transcortin), and two distinctly different cortisol-binding rabbit antisera and the isolated immunoglobulins thereof were compared in their avidity to bind cortisol and several other steroids. The antisera were harvested from rabbits immunized with either cortisol-21-succinyl-albumin (CSA) or cortisol-3-oxim-albumin (COA). The latter antiserum, having the highest titre in cortisol titration, showed the greatest specificity and was most useful as a binding reagent in cortisol radioimmunoassay when used as a solid phase reagent. The determination of cortisol in micro samples of blood serum is possible without steroid extraction or serum protein denaturation and with only minor influence of steroid impurities in the sample to be analyzed. Affinity constants for all compared binding reagents and steroids are given

  4. Serum Interleukin-4 and Total Immunoglobulin E in Nonatopic Alopecia Areata Patients and HLA-DRB1 Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Enas A S; El Shennawy, Dina; Sefin, Ashraf

    2010-01-01

    Background. Interleukin-4 (IL-4), a Th(2) cytokine, can stimulate immunoglobulin E (IgE) transcription. No previous studies evaluated the genetic mechanisms in nonatopic AA patients with elevated serum IgE. Objective. To compare serum IL-4 and total IgE levels between Egyptian nonatopic AA patients and healthy subjects and to investigate a possible relation to HLA-DRB1 alleles. Results. Serum IL-4 and total IgE were measured by ELISA in 40 controls and 54 nonatopic AA patients. Patients' HLA-DRB1 typing by sequence specific oligonucleotide probe technique was compared to normal Egyptian population. We found significantly elevated serum IL-4 and total IgE in AA patients (particularly alopecia universalis, AU, and chronic patients) (P Serum IL-4 and IgE are elevated in nonatopic AA patients, particularly AU and chronic disease. Relevant susceptibility, chronicity, and severity HLADRB1 alleles may have a role in determining type, magnitude, and duration of immune response in AA favouring increased IL4 and IgE.

  5. Association Between Maternal Serum Total Oxidant Status Total Antioxidant Status and Preterm Labor: A Prospective - Controlled Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Kalaycı; Mete Gürol Uğur; Ebru Öztürk; Özcan Balat; Özcan Erel

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the levels of individual antioxidant components of pregnants with preterm labor to evaluate their total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI). STUDY DESIGN: Prospectively-controlled 31 pregnants with a diagnosis of preterm labor (group Ι) and 32 controls (group ΙΙ) were evaluated for demographic data, general and obstetrical physical examination, obstetrical sonography, and routine laboratory tests. TAS, TOS and OSI leve...

  6. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kandasamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP and hemoglobin (Hb levels. Materials and Methods: The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Results: Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Also serum and salivary IgG and IgA levels showed significantly increased (P < 0.01 in all the three staging of OSMF when compared to control group. Hb levels and TSP levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. One-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and unpaired t -test were used for statistical analysis. Conclusion: The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  7. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, M; Jaisanghar, N; Austin, Ravi David; Srivastava, Kumar Chandan; Anusuya, G Sai; Anisa, N

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA) levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased ( P < 0.001) in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Also serum and salivary IgG and IgA levels showed significantly increased ( P < 0.01) in all the three staging of OSMF when compared to control group. Hb levels and TSP levels were significantly decreased ( P < 0.001) in OSMF patients when compared to controls. One-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and unpaired t -test were used for statistical analysis. The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  8. Use of sodium salicylate as a blocking agent for cortisol-binding-globulin in a radioimmunoassay for cortisol on unextracted plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, J W [Withington Hospital, Manchester (UK)

    1979-07-01

    This report describes investigations into the use of sodium salicylate as a cortisol-binding-globulin blocking agent and the subsequent development of a radioimmunoassay for cortisol on unextracted plasma. Cortisol antiserum was raised against a cortisol 3-0-(carboxy-methyl) oxime-bovine serum albumin conjugate. A /sup 125/I-labelled cortisol-tyrosine methyl ester conjugate was also prepared for use in the assay. The radioimmunoassay developed involved no pre-treatment or extraction of the samples before analysis and was extremely simple to perform. Comparison with another radioimmunoassay for cortisol and with the Mattingly fluorimetric assay gave good correlation.

  9. Use of sodium salicylate as a blocking agent for cortisol-binding-globulin in a radioimmunoassay for cortisol on unextracted plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes investigations into the use of sodium salicylate as a cortisol-binding-globulin blocking agent and the subsequent development of a radioimmunoassay for cortisol on unextracted plasma. Cortisol antiserum was raised against a cortisol 3-0-(carboxy-methyl) oxime-bovine serum albumin conjugate. A 125 I-labelled cortisol-tyrosine methyl ester conjugate was also prepared for use in the assay. The radioimmunoassay developed involved no pre-treatment or extraction of the samples before analysis and was extremely simple to perform. Comparison with another radioimmunoassay for cortisol and with the Mattingly fluorimetric assay gave good correlation. (author)

  10. Serum high molecular weight complex of adiponectin correlates better with glucose tolerance than total serum adiponectin in Indo-Asian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, F F M; Trujillo, M E; Hanif, W; Barnett, A H; McTernan, P G; Scherer, P E; Kumar, S

    2005-06-01

    It is well established that total systemic adiponectin is reduced in type 2 diabetic subjects. To date most studies have been concerned with the singular full-length protein or proteolytically cleaved globular domain. It is, however, apparent that the native protein circulates in serum as a lower molecular weight hexamer and as larger multimeric structures of high molecular weight (HMW). In this study we address the clinical significance of each form of the protein with respect to glucose tolerance. Serum was obtained from 34 Indo-Asian male subjects (BMI 26.5+/-3.1; age 52.15+/-10.14 years) who had undertaken a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. An aliquot of serum was fractionated using velocity sedimentation followed by reducing SDS-PAGE. Western blots were probed for adiponectin, and HMW adiponectin as a percentage of total adiponectin (percentage of higher molecular weight adiponectin [S(A)] index) was calculated from densitometry readings. Total adiponectin was measured using ELISA; leptin, insulin and IL-6 were determined using ELISA. Analysis of the cohort demonstrated that total adiponectin (r = 0.625, p = 0.0001), fasting insulin (r = -0.354, p = 0.040) and age (r = 0.567, p = 0.0001) correlated with S(A). S(A) showed a tighter, inverse correlation with 2-h glucose levels (r = -0.58, p = 0.0003) than total adiponectin (r = -0.38, p = 0.0001). This study demonstrates the importance of the S(A) index as a better determinant of glucose intolerance than measurements of total adiponectin. Our findings suggest that HMW adiponectin is the active form of the protein.

  11. Validation of a transcutaneous bilirubin meter in Mongolian neonates: comparison with total serum bilirubin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahira-Azuma, Moe; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Ganzorig, Battsengel; Mori, Rintaro; Hosokawa, Shinichi; Matsushita, Takeji; Bavuusuren, Bayasgalantai; Shonkhuuz, Enkhtur

    2013-09-27

    Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, especially kernicterus, can be prevented by screening for neonatal jaundice. The transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) meter is a non-invasive medical device for screening neonates. The study aimed to investigate the validity of a TcB meter in a resource-limited setting such as Mongolia. Term and late preterm neonates from the National Center for Maternal and Child Health of Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia who met the inclusion criteria (gestational age ≥35 weeks, birth weight ≥2000 g, postnatal age ≤ 1 month) were enrolled in the study. We used a TcB meter, JM-103 to screen for neonatal jaundice. TcB measurements at the infant's forehead and midsternum were performed within 3 h of obtaining samples for total serum bilirubin (TSB) measurement. We analyzed the correlation between TcB measurements and TSB measurements to validate the meter. A total of 47 term and six late preterm neonates were included in the study. TcB measured by the meter at both the forehead and the midsternum showed a strong correlation with TSB measured in the laboratory. The correlation equations were TSB = 1.409+0.8655 × TcB (R2=0.78871) at the forehead, and TSB = 0.7555+0.8974 × TcB (R2=0.78488) at the midsternum. Bland-Altman plots and the Bradley-Blackwood test showed no significant differences between the two methods at all measured ranges of bilirubin. The mean areas under the curves of TcB at the forehead and midsternum at three TSB levels (>10 mg/dL, >13 mg/dL, >15 mg/dL) of TcB were greater than 0.9, and all had high sensitivity and specificity. This study established the validity of the JM-103 meter as a screening tool for neonatal jaundice in term and late preterm infants in Mongolia. Future studies are needed, including the establishment of a TcB hour-specific nomogram, for more effective clinical practice to prevent severe hyperbilirubinemia.

  12. IFCC reference measurement procedure for substance concentration determination of total carbon dioxide in blood, plasma or serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burnett, RW; Covington, AK; Fogh-Andersen, N; Kulpmann, WR; Lewenstam, A; Mas, AHJ; VanKessel, AL; Zijlstra, WG

    A reference measurement procedure for substance concentration determination of total CO, in blood, plasma (the anticoagulant is usually heparin) or serum is described. The document covers the principle of the method, the materials and equipment needed and essential aspects of the procedure. The

  13. Quantitation of bilirubin conjugates with high-performance liquid chromatography in patients with low total serum bilirubin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P. L.; Cuypers, H. T.; Peters, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Bilirubin mono- and diconjugates were determined by alkaline methanolysis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in serum from patients with metastatic liver disease and liver cirrhosis. Conjugates could be detected and quantitated at normal or low total bilirubin levels. Comparison with

  14. CELL DAMAGE, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS, AND CORTISOL LEVELS RELATED TO NUTRITION IN SKI MOUNTAINEERING DURING A TWO-DAY RACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Diaz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the effect of nutrition on cell damage, antioxidant enzymes, and cortisol during a two-day ski mountaineering competition. Twenty-one male skiers participated in the study. Creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (AP, cortisol and C-reactive protein (CRP, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and reductase activities (GR and C-reactive protein (CRP levels, total antioxidant status, and cortisol levels were measured in serum the day before and immediately after the race. Their diet was also analysed during the competition. Enzymes and cortisol levels significantly increased after the competition. CK and LDH and cortisol levels were negatively correlated to total energy, protein, and fat intake. Intake of vitamin A, B1, B2, B6 and niacin was negatively correlated to LDH and AP. A negative correlation was also found between CK activity and Na, Fe, and Zn intake. Cortisol levels were negatively correlated to the intake of vitamins C, B1 and B2, and niacin. A positive correlation was found between serum GPx and intake of energy, carbohydrates, proteins, A and B vitamins, and folic acid. Skiers with the lowest nutrient intake during the competition were the ones who showed greater cell damage and lower antioxidant enzyme activity and cortisol levels, which may impair performance and also cause injuries and accidents. Particularly, skiers should have high intakes of total energy, macronutrients, vitamins A and B, Na, Zn, and Fe in order to decrease the deleterious effect of strenuous exercise

  15. Relationship between the cortisol awakening response and other features of the diurnal cortisol rhythm: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Sánchez, Brisa N; Wu, Meihua; Champaneri, Shivam; Diez Roux, Ana V; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary S

    2013-11-01

    Cumulative cortisol burden is known to influence neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders. To better understand the relationship between daily cortisol exposure and measures of the diurnal circadian cortisol rhythm, we examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) with wake-up cortisol, bedtime cortisol, diurnal slope, and total cortisol area under the curve (AUC). Up to 18 salivary cortisol samples were collected over 3 days from 935 White, Hispanic, and Black individuals (mean age 65 ± 9.8 years) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Outcome measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 min post-awakening), early decline (30 min to 2h post-awakening), late decline (2h post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding AUCs. Total cortisol AUC was a summary measure of cumulative cortisol exposure. Higher CAR was associated with significantly lower wake-up cortisol (β=-0.56; 95% CI: -0.59 to -0.53) and a higher early decline AUC (β=0.38; 95% CI: 0.34-0.42) but was not associated with total cortisol AUC (β=0.04; 95% CI: -0.01 to 0.09), or other diurnal cortisol curve components following multivariable adjustment. Total cortisol AUC was significantly and positively associated with wake-up cortisol (β=0.36; 95% CI: 0.32-0.40), bedtime cortisol (β=0.61; 95% CI: 0.58-0.64), and other AUC measures, following multivariable adjustment. Associations were similar by sex, race/ethnicity, and age categories. We conclude that bedtime cortisol showed the strongest correlation with total cortisol AUC, suggesting it may be a marker of daily cortisol exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone, inhibin B, and total inhibin levels in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea and anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisi, Stefano; Ciani, Valentina; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Lazzeri, Lucia; De Pascalis, Flavio; Meczekalski, Blazej; Petraglia, Felice

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether neuroendocrine forms of secondary amenorrhea (hypothalamic nervosa (HA) and anorexia nervosa (AN)) affect serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, and total inhibin levels. Amenorrheic women (n = 82) (aged between 16 and 35 years old) according to diagnosed with neuroendocrine forms of amenorrhea: HA (n = 64), AN (n = 18), and healthy women (n = 41) (control group) were enrolled. Serum AMH, inhibin B, and total inhibin levels were measured by specific ELISA. No statistically significant difference of AMH serum levels between women with HA, AN, and control group was observed. Serum inhibin B and total inhibin levels in women with HA (p < 0.0001), AN (p < 0.05) resulted significantly lower than in control healthy women. The present data showed that neuroendocrine forms of amenorrhea are associated with an impaired inhibin secretion while not AMH. These data indirectly support that AMH is an excellent marker of ovarian reserve and its secretion is not influenced by the hypothalamic-ovarian axis activity.

  17. First trimester serum levels of the soluble transcobalamin receptor, holo-transcobalamin, and total transcobalamin in relation to preeclampsia risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abuyaman, Omar; Torring, Niels; Obeid, Rima

    2016-01-01

    transcobalamin (TC) with the risk of subsequent preeclampsia using serum samples from asymptomatic first trimester pregnant women. Moreover, we aimed to establish reference intervals of the aforementioned biomarkers for first trimester pregnant women who remained healthy throughout pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN...... preeclampsia while the controls remained normotensive throughout pregnancy. We measured the serum concentration of sCD320, holoTC, and total TC by using in-house ELISA methods. RESULTS: First trimester median concentrations of sCD320, holoTC and total TC were not significantly different between cases...... and controls. The odd ratio for developing preeclampsia based on exposure to low or high levels of sCD320, holoTC or total TC at first trimester was not significant. The reference intervals (2.5-97.5% percentiles (median)) derived from the controls were 50-170 (90) pmol\\L for sCD320, 20-140 (70) pmol...

  18. Relationship between serum total bilirubin levels and mortality in uremia patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Man; Lin, Yi-Chun; Lin, Yen-Chung; Kao, Chih-Chin; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Wu, Mai-Szu

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies show that serum bilirubin has potent antioxidant effect and is associated with protection from kidney damage and reduce cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to examine the association of serum total bilirubin level and mortality in uremia patients who underwent hemodialysis. This is a nationwide retrospective long-term cohort study. Patients were registered in the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System (TWRDS) from 2005 to 2012. A total of 115,535 hemodialysis patients were surveyed and those with valid baseline total bilirubin (TB) data were enrolled. All-cause mortality was the primary outcome. A total of 47,650 hemodialysis patients followed for 27.6 ± 12 months, were divided into 3 groups according to different baseline serum total bilirubin levels (0.1-0.3, 0.3-0.7, 0.7-1.2 mg/dL). Mean age was 61.4 ± 13.6 years, 50% were male, 13% were hepatitis B carriers, and 20% were hepatitis C carriers. Primary outcome was the 3-year mortality. The TB level 0.7-1.2 mg/dL group had high mortality, statistically significant hazard ratio of mortality was 1.14 (crude HR, 95% 1.07-1.20, p bilirubin on hemodialysis patients are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cortisol intermediates and hydrocortisone responsiveness in critical neonatal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashana, Abdelmoneim; Saarela, Timo; Ramet, Mika; Hallman, Mikko

    2017-07-01

    Therapy-resistant hypotension complicates diseases in neonates. Our objective was to investigate whether lack of therapeutic response to plasma expanders and inotropes associates with serum levels of cortisol and its precursors. We investigated 96 infants with hypotension and critical neonatal disease for cortisol metabolism and are divided into responders and non-responders to plasma expanders and inotropes. Serum concentrations of steroids were analysed soon after the onset of volume expansion and inotrope treatment for shock. The 48 non-responders were treated with intravenous hydrocortisone (HC) and serum cortisol concentrations were monitored a week later. The mean cortisol concentrations did not differ between the responders and non-responders: 13.6 ± 2.5 and 12.5 ± 4.5 μg/dL, respectively. Dehydroepiandrosterone (37.3 ± 19.5 versus 324.0 ± 106.3; p cortisol and cortisone between the responders and non-responders. Hydrocortisone administration acutely increased blood pressure. Six non-responders who died despite HC administration had low levels of cortisol. The responders had normal serum cortisol after HC treatment. Precursors of cortisol, proximal to the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity, accumulated in neonates with hypotension, responding to HC treatment.

  20. Multiplex ready flow cytometric immunoassay for total insulin like growth factor 1 in serum of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    The European Union has banned the use of recombinant bovine somatotropins (rbST, growth hormones) to increase milk yield in dairy cattle. As direct detection of rbST in serum is problematic, methods based on the detection of changes in multiple rbST-dependent biomarkers have high potential for

  1. Serum IGF-1 is insufficient to restore skeletal size in the total absence of the growth hormone receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingjie; Sun, Hui; Basta-Pljakic, Jelena; Cardoso, Luis; Kennedy, Oran D; Jasper, Hector; Domené, Horacio; Karabatas, Liliana; Guida, Clara; Schaffler, Mitchell B; Rosen, Clifford J; Yakar, Shoshana

    2013-01-01

    States of growth hormone (GH) resistance, such those observed in Laron’s dwarf patients, are characterized by mutations in the GH receptor (GHR), decreased serum and tissue IGF-1 levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired skeletal acquisition. IGF-1 replacement therapy in such patients increases growth velocity but does not normalize growth. Herein we combined the GH-resistant (GHR knockout, GHRKO) mouse model with mice expressing the hepatic Igf-1 transgene (HIT) to generate the GHRKO-HIT mouse model. In GHRKOHIT mice, serum IGF-1 levels were restored via transgenic expression of Igf-1 allowing us to study how endocrine IGF-1 affects growth, metabolic homeostasis, and skeletal integrity. We show that in a GH-resistant state, normalization of serum IGF-1 improved body adiposity and restored glucose tolerance but was insufficient to support normal skeletal growth, resulting in an osteopenic skeletal phenotype. The inability of serum IGF-1 to restore skeletal integrity in the total absence of GHR likely resulted from reduced skeletal Igf-1 gene expression, blunted GH-mediated effects on the skeleton that are independent of serum or tissue IGF-1, and from poor delivery of IGF-1 to the tissues. These findings are consistent with clinical data showing that IGF-I replacement therapy in patients with Laron’s syndrome does not achieve full skeletal growth. PMID:23456957

  2. Gender differences in the associations between cortisol and insulin in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, RP; Lamberts, SWJ; deJong, FH; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE

    To investigate the role of cortisol in the etiology of insulin resistance in men and women, we examined 218 healthy non-hospitalized elderly, selected from the Rotterdam Study. Free cortisol was assessed by the ratio of fasting serum cortisol over corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and insulin

  3. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...... on stress hormones. Of the salivary cortisol measures reported for evaluations of all markers tested were 136 (49%) single time points, 100 (37%) deviations, 36 (13%) AUC, and 1 (1%) dexamethasone test. Of these, 72 (26%) were statistically significant, and 201 (74%) indicated non-significant findings...

  4. The relationship between serum total testosterone and free testosterone levels with serum hemoglobin and hematocrit levels: a study in 1221 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu Seob; You, Jae Hyung; Cha, Jai Seong; Park, Jong Kwan

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) levels in men with anemia. We reviewed the records of 1221 subjects between March 2009 and December 2014. All the subjects' blood samples were drawn for TT and FT assays. Their serum hemoglobin (Hb) and serum hematocrit (Hct) levels were measured. The primary objective of our study was to investigate the association between TT and FT levels with Hb and Hct levels. The mean age was 59.82 ± 12.71 years. The mean TT and FT levels were 4.54 ± 2.02 ng/mL and 10.63 ± 3.69 pg/mL, respectively. The mean Hb and Hct levels were 14.72 ± 1.34 g/dL and 43.11 ± 3.75%, respectively. Subjects with low TT (<2.35 ng/mL) had low Hb and Hct levels (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). TT was positively associated with FT, Hb, and Hct. TT and FT levels were significantly lower in older men. Subjects with low TT and FT levels had low Hb and Hct levels. This suggests that TT and FT play a significant role in erythropoiesis. Testosterone replacement therapy may be effective in men with hypogonadism to reduce the incidence of anemia.

  5. Serum Interleukin-4 and Total Immunoglobulin E in Nonatopic Alopecia Areata Patients and HLA-DRB1 Typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. S. Attia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Interleukin-4 (IL-4, a Th2 cytokine, can stimulate immunoglobulin E (IgE transcription. No previous studies evaluated the genetic mechanisms in nonatopic AA patients with elevated serum IgE. Objective. To compare serum IL-4 and total IgE levels between Egyptian nonatopic AA patients and healthy subjects and to investigate a possible relation to HLA-DRB1 alleles. Results. Serum IL-4 and total IgE were measured by ELISA in 40 controls and 54 nonatopic AA patients. Patients' HLA-DRB1 typing by sequence specific oligonucleotide probe technique was compared to normal Egyptian population. We found significantly elevated serum IL-4 and total IgE in AA patients (particularly alopecia universalis, AU, and chronic patients (P<.01. HLA-DRB1*11 is a general susceptibility/chronicity allele. DRB1*13 is a protective allele. DRB1*01 and DRB1*07 are linked to chronicity. Localized AA showed decreased DRB1*03 and DRB1*07. Extensive forms showed increased DRB1*08 and decreased DRB1*04. Elevated IL4 and IgE were observed in patients with DRB1*07 and DRB1*11 not DRB1*04. Conclusion. Serum IL-4 and IgE are elevated in nonatopic AA patients, particularly AU and chronic disease. Relevant susceptibility, chronicity, and severity HLADRB1 alleles may have a role in determining type, magnitude, and duration of immune response in AA favouring increased IL4 and IgE.

  6. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Hossain, Mahmud; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Izmirlian, Grant; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Wei-Jun; Leach, Robin J.; Thompson, Ian M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) has been more frequently applied to measure low abundance biomarker candidates in tissues and biofluids, owing to its high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of assay configuration, and exceptional multiplexing capability. In this study, we report for the first time the development of immunoaffinity depletion-based workflows and SRM-MS assays that enable sensitive and accurate quantification of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum without the requirement for specific PSA antibodies. Low ng/mL level detection of both total and free PSA was consistently achieved in both PSA-spiked female serum samples and actual patient serum samples. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained when SRM PSA assays and conventional immunoassays were applied to the same samples showed good correlation in several independent clinical serum sample sets. These results demonstrate that the workflows and SRM assays developed here provide an attractive alternative for reliably measuring candidate biomarkers in human blood, without the need to develop affinity reagents. Furthermore, the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers, including the free and bound forms of PSA, can be performed in a single multiplexed analysis using high-resolution liquid chromatographic separation coupled with SRM-MS. PMID:22846433

  7. The investigation of immunoprotective and sedative hypnotic effect of total polysaccharide from Suanzaoren decoction by serum metabonomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoyi; He, Bosai; Du, Yiyang; Sui, Zhenyu; Rong, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaotong; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2018-06-01

    Suanzaoren decoction, as one of the traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions, has been most commonly used in Asian countries and reported to inhibit the process of immunodeficiency insomnia. Polysaccharide is important component which also contributes to the role of immunoprotective and sedative hypnotic effects. This study was aimed to explore the immunoprotective and sedative hypnotic mechanisms of polysaccharide from Suanzaoren decoction by serum metabonomics approach. With this purpose, complex physical and chemical immunodeficiency insomnia models were firstly established according to its multi-target property. Serum samples were analyzed using UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS spectrometry approach to determine endogenous metabolites. Then, principal component analysis was used to distinguish the groups, and partial least squares discriminate analysis was carried out to confirm the important variables. The serum metabolic profiling was identified and pathway analysis was performed after the total polysaccharide administration. The twenty-one potential biomarkers were screened, and the levels were all reversed to different degrees in the total polysaccharide treated groups. These potential biomarkers were mainly related to vitamin, sphingolipid, bile acid, phospholipid and acylcarnitine metabolisms. The result has indicated that total polysaccharide could inhibit insomnia triggered by immunodeficiency stimulation through regulating those metabolic pathways. This study provides a useful approach for exploring the mechanism and evaluating the efficacy of total polysaccharide from Suanzaoren decoction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Urinary free cortisol in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome: how useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeniyi, I A; Ifedayo, A O; Fasanmade, O A; Olufemi, A F

    2013-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome results from chronic exposure to excessive circulating levels of glucocorticoids. To confirm the clinical suspicion, biochemical tests are needed. These biochemical tests include the measurement of excess total endogenous cortisol secretion assessed by 24-hour urinary free cortisol (UFC), loss of the normal feedback of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis assessed by suppressibility after dexamethasone testing, and disturbance of the normal circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion assessed by midnight serum or salivary cortisol. We searched the Medline, Pubmed, journal articles, WHO publications and reputable textbooks relating to Cushing's syndrome using publications from 1995 to 2011. UFC has been the classic screening test used to confirm hypercortisolemia as the first step in diagnostic work-up of Cushing's syndrome. Its long-term use in clinical practice has led to emergence of significant evidence regarding the utility of UFC in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. UFC would have been a simple diagnostic tool to use but for the drawbacks in the sample collection, different laboratory methods of assay, not easily determined normal range. UFC use as a screening test is not strongly favoured because cortisol is not uniformly secreted during the day, and the increased prevalence of mild, preclinical or cyclic Cushing's syndrome. A very high level of UFC negates the need for other test procedures in patients with obvious symptoms and signs of Cushing's syndrome. We therefore suggest that UFC should be used with other screening tests for Cushing's syndrome to increase diagnostic yield.

  9. Serum level modifications of female sex hormones after radiocastration with different total doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naujokat, B.; Rohloff, R.; Willich, N.; Eiermann, W.

    1988-01-01

    We determined serum level of estradiol, FSH and LH over a period of six to eight weeks after ovarian irradiation for castration with different doses (2x2.5 Gy/3x2.5 Gy/4x2.5 Gy) in 15 patients with metastatic breast cancer as compared to changes after ovarectomy in five patients. The time course of the changing estradiol-, FSH and LH-serum levels sigificantly depends on the ovarian dose. After radiological castration with a dose of 4x2.5 Gy = 10 Gy in four days the estrogen levels decrease within two to three weeks, and the FSH- and LH-levels increase after three to four weeks into the postmenopausal range. Therefore, the time course is not very different from changes after ovarectomy. (orig.) [de

  10. Cortisol and finfish welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, T.; Yildiz, H.Y.; López-Olmeda, J.; Spedicato, M.T.; Tort, L.; Overli, O.; Martins, C.I.

    2012-01-01

    Previous reviews of stress, and the stress hormone cortisol, in fish have focussed on physiology, due to interest in impacts on aquaculture production. Here, we discuss cortisol in relation to fish welfare. Cortisol is a readily measured component of the primary (neuroendocrine) stress response and

  11. Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using total reflection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, D.; Testoni, S.; Buoso, M.C.; Ceccato, D.; Moschini, G.; Valdes, M.; Torboli, A.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 months old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn Kα. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed. (author)

  12. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tao; Hossain, Mahmud; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Izmirlian, Grant; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Weijun; Leach, Robin; Thompson, Ian M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srinivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2012-08-03

    Sandwich immunoassay is the standard technique used in clinical labs for quantifying protein biomarkers for disease detection, monitoring and therapeutic intervention. Albeit highly sensitive, the development of a specific immunoassay is rather time-consuming and associated with extremely high cost due to the requirement for paired immunoaffinity reagents of high specificity. Recently, mass spectrometry-based methods, specifically selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS), have been increasingly applied to measure low abundance biomarker candidates in tissue and biofluids, owing to high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of assay configuration, and great multiplexing capability. In this study, we report for the first time the development of immunoaffinity depletion-based workflows and SRM-MS assays that enable sensitive and accurate quantification of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum without the requirement for specific PSA antibodies. With stable isotope dilution and external calibration, low ng/mL level detection of both total and free PSA was consistently achieved in both PSA-spiked female serum samples and actual patient serum samples. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained when SRM PSA assays and conventional immunoassays were applied to the same samples showed very good correlation (R2 values ranging from 0.90 to 0.99) in several independent clinical serum sample sets, including a set of 33 samples assayed in a blinded test. These results demonstrate that the workflows and SRM assays developed here provide an attractive alternative for reliably measuring total and free PSA in human blood. Furthermore, simultaneous measurement of free and total PSA and many other biomarkers can be performed in a single analysis using high-resolution liquid chromatographic separation coupled with SRM-MS.

  13. Double Antibody EIA of Cortisol Using Peroxidase As Label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, F.M.; Hamad, A.W.R.; Hashim, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) technique for plasma cortisol was established by using cortisol-3 (carboxymethyl) oxime covalently linked to the horseradish peroxidase as the label. An antibody raised in the rabbits against cortisol-3-(carboxy-methyl) oxime-bovline serum albumin was used as the first anti-body. Sheep anti-rabbit gamma-globulin serum with 8 percent poly-ethyleneglycol were used to separate antibody-bound and free cortisol. The enzyme activity of the bound fraction was measured with ortho-phenylene diamine as substrate. The procedure performed at room temperature was evaluated by sensitivity (50 pg/ tube). The correlation coefficient between our enzyme immunoassay technique and radioimmunoassay technique for determination of plasma cortisol was 97 percent

  14. Thyroid and Cortisol hormones in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppili, Pooja Patnaik; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju; Vivekanandhan, S

    2017-08-01

    There is paucity of research in the putative role of hormonal biomarkers in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The current study aimed to analyze the clinical profile, socio-demographic status, co-morbidity, hormonal biomarkers namely Thyroid hormones and Cortisol in children with ADHD and compare them with healthy controls and to explore the association of the hormonal biomarkers with severity of ADHD. Thirty children with DSM-IV TR diagnosis of ADHD were assessed using semi structured proforma, Conners' Parent Rating Scale revised short (CPRS - R: S) , Mini international neuropsychiatric interview for children and adolescents and Childrens' Global Assessment Scale as well as serum levels of total Triiodothyronine (T3) ,total Thyroxine (T4) , Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Cortisol using chemiluminescent immunometric assay and compared with 30 age- and gender -matched controls. The typical profile of cases of ADHD was of a male with mean age of 9.47 years (S.D=2.43) belonging to Hyperactive subtype of ADHD. Serum T4 was significantly lower in cases compared to controls. No significant difference was found in serum T3, TSH and Cortisol levels. No significant correlation between the CPRS : R-S scores and the hormonal biomarkers. There is need for exploration of Serum T4 as putative biomarker for ADHD with replication in future studies. It may also be important to report the negative finding of Cortisol as a biomarker of ADHD in the context of effective utilization of resources for research with special relevance to resource deficit developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of adrenal hormones, endotoxin and turpentine on serum components of the plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A; Fletcher, T C

    1982-01-01

    1. Within 24 hr of injection into plaice, cortisol, deoxycorticosterone, adrenalin or endotoxin cause an increase (P less than 0.001) in circulating C-reactive protein (CRP). Turpentine and soluble dexamethasone have no effect. 2. The increase in CRP with endotoxin is not enhanced with adrenalin or deoxycorticosterone, and in conjunction with cortisol the increase is additive. 3. Changes in CRP are independent of the amounts of serum amyloid P-component or total protein. 4. Turpentine, cortisol and adrenalin cause a rapid increase in circulating glucose. 5. It is concluded that some adrenal hormones stimulate the CRP acute phase response in plaice, without an apparent provoking agent.

  16. Sexual dimorphism of cortisol metabolism is maintained in elderly subjects and is not oestrogen dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toogood, A A; Taylor, N F; Shalet, S M; Monson, J P

    2000-01-01

    The net interconversion of inactive cortisone to active cortisol by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) may determine hepatic and adipose tissue exposure to glucocorticoid action. Cortisol metabolism exhibits a sexual dimorphism with an apparently lower activity of 11betaHSD1 in females that, in an animal model, has been attributed to the effects of oestrogen. The aim of this study is to determine whether the sexual dimorphism of cortisol metabolism persists between post-menopausal, oestrogen-deficient women and elderly men. Fifteen healthy men, aged 60.8-82.0 years, and 7 healthy women, aged 62.4-87.5 years, were studied. None of the subjects was receiving steroid medication at the time of the study. All the women were post-menopausal and none was receiving sex steroid replacement therapy. 24-h urine collections were taken from each patient and assayed for steroid metabolites by gas chromatography. Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood was drawn, after an overnight fast, for the determination of serum IGF-I and IGFBP1 levels. The ratio of 11-hydroxy cortisol metabolites to 11-oxo cortisol metabolites (Fm/Em) was significantly higher in men than in women, 0.80 (0.55-1.86) vs. 0.67 (0.46-0.98) (P cortisol and cortisone metabolite (Fm/Em) and total fat mass approached significance, r = - 0.39 (P = 0.07). These relationships were not apparent in the women when considered alone. Among the men there were negative relationships between Fm/Em and total fat mass, r = - 0.48, and Fm/Em and trunk fat mass, r = - 0.48 which approached significance (both P = 0.07). Serum IGFBP-1 levels were not significantly different between the two sexes. There was a significant correlation between IGFBP-1 and Fm/Em in the men, r = 0. 84 (P sexual dimorphism in cortisol metabolism is not dependent on oestrogen, although the possibility that oestrogen exerts a permanent modifying effect on 11beta-HSD1 gene expression during the pre

  17. [Serum total cholesterol levels and eligibility for long-term care insurance: a prospective cohort study of the Tsurugaya project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Rena; Tomata, Yasutake; Kakizaki, Masako; Tsuboya, Toru; Nagai, Masato; Watanabe, Ikue; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between serum total cholesterol levels and certification eligibility for long-term care insurance in elderly Japanese individuals. The Tsurugaya Project was a comprehensive geriatric assessment conducted for community-dwelling elderly individuals aged ≥70 years in the Tsurugaya area, Sendai, Japan. Of the 2,925 inhabitants, 958 subjects participated in the Tsurugaya Project. For this analysis, we used 827 subjects who gave informed consent and were not qualified for long-term care insurance at the time of the baseline survey. Subjects were followed up for 6 years. We classified the subjects into 4 quintiles and used the fourth quintile (212-230 mg/dL) as a reference for statistical analysis. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of certification eligibility for long-term care insurance according to total cholesterol levels in serum. During 6 years of follow-up, a total of 214 subjects were qualified for long-term care insurance certification. The lowest serum total cholesterol level (care insurance certification. Compared with the fourth quintile, multivariate HRs (95%CIs) of long-term care insurance certification were 1.91 (1.23-2.98), 1.36 (0.85-2.18), 0.99 (0.62-1.56), 1.38 (0.88-2.17), for total cholesterol levels were significantly associated with increased eligibility for long-term care insurance certification even after adjusting for a variety of confounding factors.

  18. Total protein concentration and diagnostic test results for gray wolf (Canis lupus) serum using Nobuto filter paper strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Rocio F.; Sepúlveda, Carolina; Ip, Hon S.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Nobuto filter paper strips are widely used for storing blood-serum samples, but the recovery of proteins from these strips following rehydration is unknown. Poor recovery of proteins could reduce the concentration of antibodies and antigens and reduce the sensitivity of diagnostic assays. We compared the protein concentration, and its association with test sensitivity, of eluted Nobuto strip samples with paired sera. We collected and froze serum from five gray wolves (Canis lupus) for 8 mo. When thawed, we used a spectrophotometer (absorbance 280 nm) to determine the serum protein concentration for paired sera and Nobuto eluates for each animal in 2-fold serial dilutions. Total protein concentration was similar for both sample storage methods (Nobuto eluates and control sera), except for the undiluted samples in which Nobuto eluates had higher total protein concentrations. Both sample storage methods appear to produce similar results using the SNAP® 4Dx® Test to detect antibodies against pathogens causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and ehrlichiosis as well as antigen for canine heartworm disease.

  19. CCQM K6.2 determination of total cholesterol in human serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Phinney, Karen W.; Duewer, David L.; Sniegoski, Lorna T.; Welch, Michael J.; Pabello, Guiomar; Avila Caldero, Marco A.; Qinde, Liu; Kooi, Lee Tong; Rego, Eliane; Garrido, Bruno; Allegri, Gabriella; de La Cruz, Marcia; Barrabin, Juliana; Puglisi, Celia; Lopez, Eduardo; Lee, Hwashim; Kim, Byungjoo; Delatour, Vincent; Heuillet, Maud; Nammoonnoy, Jintana; Ceyhan Gören, Ahmet; Bilsel, Gokhan; Konopelko, L.; Krylov, A.; Lopushanskaya, E.

    2018-01-01

    Cholesterol is one of the most frequently measured substances in human blood/serum to assist in assessing the health status of individuals. Because of its clinical significance, CCQM-K6 determination of cholesterol in serum was completed in 2000 as one of the first key comparison (KC) studies performed within the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG). The first subsequent KC for cholesterol, CCQM-K6.1, was completed in 2001. Measurements for this second subsequent, CCQM-K6.2, were completed in 2012. These subsequent comparisons were conducted to enable CCQM members that had not participated in earlier studies to demonstrate their capabilities to measure a nonpolar (pKow mass (100 g/mol to 500 g/mol) metabolite in human serum at relatively high concentrations (1 mg/g to 3 mg/g) found in normal populations. Successful participation in CCQM-K6.2 demonstrated capabilities in analysis of complex biological matrices including sample preparation (extraction, derivatization), LC or GC separation, and quantification using an isotope dilution mass spectrometry approach. Normally in a subsequent KC, no key comparison reference value (KCRV) would be established and assessment of performance would be via the deviation of participants' results to the anchor institute's results, adjusted to account for the anchor's performance in the original comparison versus its KCRV. Due to the very long-time period since the original key comparison, the OAWG decided that this did not represent the best approach to assess performance in what is a relatively complex measurement. Given the excellent agreement between the anchor institute's results and robust consensus summary of the participants' values, the reference value for this study was taken as the anchor institute's result and treated as a 'KCRV'. Seven of the nine participants demonstrated agreement with the reference value. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears

  20. New, advantageous approach to the direct radioimmunoassay of cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilden, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of serum cortisol is simplified by a unique solution to the problem of eliminating competition between cortisol-binding globulin and cortisol immunoglobulin. Increasing incubation temperature tends to release cortisol from its carrier protein while favoring the immunoglobulin reaction. We applied this methodology, using reagents supplied as a commercial kit. Serum, 5 μl, is diluted with 125 I-containing tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer and incubated at 45 0 C for 1 h, then aspirated. All standards are constituted in steroid-deprived serum. The clinical validity of the method is supported by comparisons with conventional methods during months of use under routine laboratory conditions. The simplified method also offers improved performance characteristics and, as described, is fully instrumented. The significance of this use of thermodynamic properties is discussed in terms of more general applicability

  1. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone, total and free T4 during the neonatal period: Establishing regional reference intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sheikhbahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH, the most common etiology of preventable mental retardation in children, is estimated to be more prevalent among Asian population. Aims: Since thyroid function tests (TFTs varied among different ages and geographical regions, in this study, the neonatal thyroid reference intervals in a healthy neonatal population is determined for the first time in Iran. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study performed on 246 healthy term newborns aged between 2 days and 1 month. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture from all subjects. The median, 2.5 th , 5 th , 95 th , and 97.5 th percentile of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, as well as the total and free T4 were assessed among different age groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Predictive Analytics Software (PASW Statistics 18 was used for the analysis. Results: Serum TSH, total and free T4 concentration peaked in 5 th to 7 th days of life, continued over 2 weeks, then decreased and started reaching to adult reference range. A significant negative correlation between age and serum concentration of TSH (P = 0.02, total T4 (P = 0.01 and free T4 (P = 0.01 was found. Conclusion: This study yielded fairly different values for TFTs compared compared values found in other countries and also different from values reported for laboratory kits we used. These differences were assumed to be due to variations in ethnicity, age, and laboratory methods used. Due to the lack of international standardization, conducting multicenter studies helps in making a more precise evaluation of thyroid status in neonates.

  2. Exploration of Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D in Total Joint Arthroplasty within a Subtropical Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Naylor

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The majority (53.8% of an otherwise classically low risk patient population present with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency prior to undergoing elective total joint arthroplasty, with elderly non-white patients in the winter months at the highest risk. Appropriate vitamin D management is associated with favorable influences on both skeletal and non-skeletal outcomes. Potential complications of total joint arthroplasty (TJA, including periprosthetic joint infection and aseptic loosening, can possibly be decreased with proper identification and treatment, which can be elucidated by future high quality studies.

  3. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanay, A.; Schiffman, G.; Strober, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA

  4. Diurnal cortisol rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Anette; Endresen Reme, Silje; Tangen, Tone

    2015-01-01

    with different instruments, and cortisol in a population with LBP. Participants (n=305) sick-listed 2-10 months due to non-specific LBP were included in the study. The screening instruments were the MINI-interview, HADS and HSCL-25. Saliva cortisol were measured on 2 consecutive days; at awakening, 30min later......, at 15:00h and 22:00h. Results showed no associations between any of the main diagnostic categories from the MINI-interview, or anxiety/depression measured with HADS or HSCL-25 and cortisol. However, significant associations were found between low cortisol awakening response, low cortisol slope during...... the day and the somatization scale from HSCL-25 (dizziness or lack of energy, lack of sexual interest, the feeling that everything requires substantial efforts, difficulties to fall asleep, headache). The results indicate that cortisol, may not be directly associated with psychopathology, such as anxiety...

  5. Plasma, salivary and urinary cortisol levels following physiological and stress doses of hydrocortisone in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Caroline; Greco, Santo; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Ho, Jui T; Lewis, John G; Torpy, David J; Inder, Warrick J

    2014-11-26

    Glucocorticoid replacement is essential in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, but many patients remain on higher than recommended dose regimens. There is no uniformly accepted method to monitor the dose in individual patients. We have compared cortisol concentrations in plasma, saliva and urine achieved following "physiological" and "stress" doses of hydrocortisone as potential methods for monitoring glucocorticoid replacement. Cortisol profiles were measured in plasma, saliva and urine following "physiological" (20 mg oral) or "stress" (50 mg intravenous) doses of hydrocortisone in dexamethasone-suppressed healthy subjects (8 in each group), compared to endogenous cortisol levels (12 subjects). Total plasma cortisol was measured half-hourly, and salivary cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio were measured hourly from time 0 (between 0830 and 0900) to 5 h. Endogenous plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) levels were measured at time 0 and 5 h, and hourly from time 0 to 5 h following administration of oral or intravenous hydrocortisone. Plasma free cortisol was calculated using Coolens' equation. Plasma, salivary and urine cortisol at 2 h after oral hydrocortisone gave a good indication of peak cortisol concentrations, which were uniformly supraphysiological. Intravenous hydrocortisone administration achieved very high 30 minute cortisol concentrations. Total plasma cortisol correlated significantly with both saliva and urine cortisol after oral and intravenous hydrocortisone (P cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio may provide useful alternatives to plasma cortisol measurements to monitor replacement doses in hypoadrenal patients.

  6. Ultratrace element contents in rat tissues: Comparative analysis of serum and hair as indicative matrices of the total body burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skalny Anatoly V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of ultratrace elements in rat tissues and to perform a comparative analysis of hair and serum as potential bioindicators of the total ultratrace element content. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow containing 0.006±0.000, 0.001±0.000, 0.017±0.002, 0.382±0.031, 0.168±0.014, 3.211±0.134, 0.095±0.006, 0.000±0.000, 6.675±0.336, 15.327±0.564, 0.002±0.000, and 1.185±0.202 μg/g of silver (Ag, gold (Au, cesium (Cs, gallium (Ga, germanium (Ge, lanthanum (La, niobium (Nb, platinum (Pt, rubidium (Rb, titanium (Ti, thallium (Tland zirconium (Zr, respectively, from weaning to 3 months old. The ultratrace element content in the liver, kidney, muscle, heart, serum and hair was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data indicate that the highest concentrations of most of the studied elements (Ti, Zr, Ge, Nb, tungsten (W, La, uranium (U, Ag, Au, Pt are in hair, whereas the lowest were observed in the serum. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between concentrations in the hair and other tissues for Cs, Ti, Nb, Tl, La, U and Au. At the same time, serum Cs, Rb, Ti, Ge, Nb, W, Ga, Tl and La concentrations significantly correlated with the tissue content of the respective ultratrace elements. It can be concluded that hair may be used as a potential bioindicator for certain ultratrace element content in the mammalian organism.

  7. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Radioligand binding assay of cortisol using horse transcortin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, R.J.; Sharma, B.R.; Lata, V.

    1979-01-01

    A modified radioligand binding assay was developed to measure cortisol in a single methylene chloride extract of human plasma/serum. The assay utilises 5 percent horse serum for cortisol binding and 3 H-cortisol as tracer. Except for a cross reaction of 13.3 percent for cortisone and 7 percent for prednisolone that for other steroids tested was negligible. The assay sensitivity at the lower 95 percent inhibition of buffer controls was 20 pg/tube. The log dose logit response standard curve was linear between 80 pg and 5 ng/tube. Recovery(Y) of cortisol added (x) to male and pregnant female plasma was quantitated (y = 0.983 X-0.47, r = 0.98). Regression analysis of cortisol estimates obtained in 51 plasma/serum samples with this assay system and a specific radioimmunoassay (using cortisol-3-BSA antiserum) for plasma cortisol gave a coefficient of correlation (r) of 0.95 and a regression coefficient (b) of 0.97. The method was found to be simple and highly reproducible. Availability of all reagents in the aqueous phase permitted handling of a large number of samples by a single technician. (auth.)

  9. One-tube micromethod for radioimmunoassay of plasma cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, G.; Morris, R.

    1978-01-01

    A micro-scale method is presented for measurement of cortisol. Serum or plasma, 2 μl, is diluted with buffer and the solution heated at 60 0 C in the presence of high-affinity antibody and [ 3 H]cortisol. Corticosteroid-binding globulin in the serum is denatured, releasing cortisol and making it available to the antibody, which is stable during the incubation. After cooling, ammonium sulfate solution is added, followed by a toluene-based scintillant that does not dissolve in the aqueous phase. The vial is shaken to extract the free cortisol into the scintillant. Antibody-bound cortisol remains in the aqueous phase and does not produce any scintillation. The amount of [ 3 H]cortisol that is free at the end of the incubation, and which therefore gives rise to the measured counts, is related to the concentration of cortisol in the original serum, and may be calculated from a standard curve. The assay is sensitive and precise. Ranges are presented for normal and pathologic subjects

  10. Postmortem serum levels of tryptase and total and specific IgE in fatal asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkie, M L; Mitchell, I; Revers, C W; Karkhanis, A; Butt, J; Tough, S; Green, F H

    1998-01-01

    Sera were obtained postmortem from 55 subjects classified into three groups; death due to asthma (FA, n = 21), asthmatic but death not due to asthma (NFA, n = 24) and a nonasthmatic control group (NAC, n = 10). A full autopsy was performed on all cases and a medical history, including details of allergies, was obtained by questionnaire from the next of kin. Grading of asthma severity by either questionnaire or autopsy was comparable (tP = 0.435, p > 0.05) and the mean pathology-grade was significantly higher for the FA group (3.375) compared to the NFA group (2.375), p 2.0 micrograms/L) in 21/55 sera (38%) and there was no significant difference between the groups. ROC plots showed that tryptase levels did not discriminate between the FA and NFA groups, even if specimens were collected within 24 hours after death. Total IgE was significantly elevated in the FA group (geometric mean 140.3 kU/L) compared to the other two groups (NFA 30.2 kU/L, NAC 9.4 kU/L), p = 0.05. Fatal asthmatics also had a greater positivity (67%) to a screen for common inhalant allergens than did the other groups (NFA 30%, NAC 20%). Sera with a positive screen were tested against a panel of 10 common aero-allergens. Each sample was then assigned a number (N) and a score (S), dependent on either the number of allergens positive (N) or the total sum of pluses for all allergens (S). Both the N and S values were higher for the FA group (N = 98, S = 264) than the NFA group (N = 52, S = 151) and NAC group (N = 4, S = 8). The ratio (S/N) which gives an index (I) was 2.69, 2.90, and 2.00, respectively. Tryptase was poorly correlated to the total IgE level (r = 0.036); however, mean values for N and S were significantly different (N 6.81, S 4.50, and N 19.25, S 11.5, p or = 2.0 micrograms/L, respectively. We conclude that total and specific IgE may be useful predictors of asthma severity but that postmortem tryptase is not useful in the diagnosis of a fatal asthmatic attack.

  11. Measurements and signification of unbound cortisol in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyns, W.; Coolens, J.L.; Van Baelen, H.; De Moor, P.

    1984-01-01

    It is generally accepted that transcortin-bound cortisol in plasma has no direct hormonal activity. For that reason unbound cortisol, rather than total cortisol will reflect hormonal impregnation. In this communication we present a method to calculate unbound cortisol from total cortisol and from the concentration of transcortin based on the binding equilibrium. The results of this technique correlate very well with those obtained by centrifugal ultrafiltration at 37 0 C (R=0.988, y=0.986+0.862xX; n=20) showing the validity of this technique. The diurnal variation of transcortin and of total or unbound cortisol was studied in normal adult volunteers. No diurnal variation was observed for transcortin and the concentration of this protein was identical in normal men [38.3+-3.1(SD)mg/l, n=17] and women (38.9+-4.6 mg/l; n=5) but markedly higher (89.9+-14.6 mg/l, n=9) in estrogen-treated women. As expected both total and unbound cortisol showed marked diurnal variation with relatively high levels at 8 AM (total cortisol 23.5+-2.7 μg% in men and 25.8+-6.1 μg% in women); unbound cortisol 2.3+-0.5 μg% in men; 3.0+-1.6 μg% in women) and low levels at 10 PM (total cortisol 4.9+-3.3 μg% in men, 5.7+-2.8 μg% in women; unbound cortisol 0.2+-0.1 μg% in men; 0.3+-0.1μg% in women). In estrogen-treated women the levels of total cortisol were about twice as high at all timepoints, but the unbound cortisol concentrations were similar. These results indicate that the unbound cortisol is not affected by the changed concentration of transcortin. In patients with Cushing's disease, on the other hand, the unbound cortisol is relatively more elevated than the total cortisol due to a high degree of saturation of this protein, which is often present at relatively low concentrations [fr

  12. Modulation of total IgE levels in serum of normal and athymic nude BALB/c mice by cells and exogenous antigenic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Akker, van den T.W.; Soeting, P.W.C.; Oudenaren, van A.; Benner, R.

    1989-01-01

    Several different grades of T-system impairment were studied for their effects on the total serum IgE concentration in BALB/c mice. Homozygous athymic nu/nu mice and their heterozygous nu/ littermates were compared for serum IgE levels while kept under either barrier-maintained or conventional

  13. Application of laboratory and portable attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopic approaches for rapid quantification of alpaca serum immunoglobulin G.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Elsohaby

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop and compare the performance of laboratory grade and portable attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR spectroscopic approaches in combination with partial least squares regression (PLSR for the rapid quantification of alpaca serum IgG concentration, and the identification of low IgG (<1000 mg/dL, which is consistent with the diagnosis of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI in neonates. Serum samples (n = 175 collected from privately owned, healthy alpacas were tested by the reference method of radial immunodiffusion (RID assay, and laboratory grade and portable ATR-IR spectrometers. Various pre-processing strategies were applied to the ATR-IR spectra that were linked to corresponding RID-IgG concentrations, and then randomly split into two sets: calibration (training and test sets. PLSR was applied to the calibration set and calibration models were developed, and the test set was used to assess the accuracy of the analytical method. For the test set, the Pearson correlation coefficients between the IgG measured by RID and predicted by both laboratory grade and portable ATR-IR spectrometers was 0.91. The average differences between reference serum IgG concentrations and the two IR-based methods were 120.5 mg/dL and 71 mg/dL for the laboratory and portable ATR-IR-based assays, respectively. Adopting an IgG concentration <1000 mg/dL as the cut-point for FTPI cases, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identifying serum samples below this cut point by laboratory ATR-IR assay were 86, 100 and 98%, respectively (within the entire data set. Corresponding values for the portable ATR-IR assay were 95, 99 and 99%, respectively. These results suggest that the two different ATR-IR assays performed similarly for rapid qualitative evaluation of alpaca serum IgG and for diagnosis of IgG <1000 mg/dL, the portable ATR-IR spectrometer performed slightly better, and provides more flexibility for

  14. Resetting the Abnormal Circadian Cortisol Rhythm in Adrenal Incidentaloma Patients With Mild Autonomous Cortisol Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Miguel; Harrison, Robert F; Chadarevian, Rita; Gueroult, Carole; Abitbol, Jean-Louis; Newell-Price, John

    2017-09-01

    Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are found commonly on axial imaging. Around 30% exhibit autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS) associated with increased cardiovascular events and death. We hypothesized that AI/ACS patients have an abnormal cortisol rhythm that could be reversed by use of carefully timed short-acting cortisol synthesis blockade, with improvement in cardiovascular disease markers. In a phase 1/2a, prospective study (Eudract no. 2012-002586-35), we recruited six patients with AI/ACS and two control groups of six sex-, age-, and body mass index-matched individuals: (1) patients with AI and no ACS (AI/NoACS) and (2) healthy volunteers with no AI [healthy controls (HC)]. Twenty-four-hour circadian cortisol analysis was performed to determine any differences between groups and timing of intervention for cortisol lowering using the 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor metyrapone. Circadian profiles of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed. Serum cortisol levels in group AI/ACS were significantly higher than both group AI/NoACS and group HC from 6 pm to 10 pm [area under the curve (AUC) difference: 0.81 nmol/L/h; P = 0.01] and from 10 pm to 2 am (AUC difference: 0.86 nmol/L/h; P cortisol rhythms were reassessed. Postintervention evening serum cortisol was lowered, similar to controls [6 pm to 10 pm (AUC difference: -0.06 nmol/L/h; P = 0.85); 10 pm to 2 am (AUC difference: 0.10 nmol/L/h; P = 0.76)]. Salivary cortisone showed analogous changes. IL-6 levels were elevated before treatment [10 pm to 2 pm (AUC difference: 0.42 pg/mL/h; P = 0.01)] and normalized post treatment. In AI/ACS, the evening and nocturnal cortisol exposure is increased. Use of timed evening doses of metyrapone resets the cortisol rhythm to normal. This unique treatment paradigm is associated with a reduction in the cardiovascular risk marker IL-6. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  15. Application of laboratory and portable attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopic approaches for rapid quantification of alpaca serum immunoglobulin G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jennifer B.; Riley, Christopher B.; Shaw, R. Anthony; McClure, J. Trenton

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and compare the performance of laboratory grade and portable attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopic approaches in combination with partial least squares regression (PLSR) for the rapid quantification of alpaca serum IgG concentration, and the identification of low IgG (portable ATR-IR spectrometers. Various pre-processing strategies were applied to the ATR-IR spectra that were linked to corresponding RID-IgG concentrations, and then randomly split into two sets: calibration (training) and test sets. PLSR was applied to the calibration set and calibration models were developed, and the test set was used to assess the accuracy of the analytical method. For the test set, the Pearson correlation coefficients between the IgG measured by RID and predicted by both laboratory grade and portable ATR-IR spectrometers was 0.91. The average differences between reference serum IgG concentrations and the two IR-based methods were 120.5 mg/dL and 71 mg/dL for the laboratory and portable ATR-IR-based assays, respectively. Adopting an IgG concentration portable ATR-IR assay were 95, 99 and 99%, respectively. These results suggest that the two different ATR-IR assays performed similarly for rapid qualitative evaluation of alpaca serum IgG and for diagnosis of IgG portable ATR-IR spectrometer performed slightly better, and provides more flexibility for potential application in the field. PMID:28651006

  16. Evaluation and correlation of stress scores with blood pressure, endogenous cortisol levels, and homocysteine levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and comparison with age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Garg, Monika; Dixit, Nikhil; Godara, Rohini

    2016-11-01

    Stress had been associated with the development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study was designed to evaluate the effect of stress on other risk factors of CSC such as serum cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, and blood pressure (BP) in CSC patients. To compare stress scores, serum cortisol and serum homocysteine levels, and BP of CSC patients with that of control population and to correlate stress scores of CSC patients with BP, serum cortisol levels, and serum homocysteine levels. Stress scores, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, systolic and diastolic BP of 54 CSC patients were measured and compared with that of 54 age- and sex-related controls using Student's t-test. Stress scores of CSC patients were correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, serum morning and evening cortisol levels and serum homocysteine levels and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were calculated. Stress scores, serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP were all elevated in CSC patients as compared with age- and sex-related controls (P Stress scores of CSC patients were found to correlate strongly with serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP, with r values 0.82, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.81, respectively (P Stress scores were elevated in CSC patients and were strongly correlated with serum homocysteine and cortisol levels and BP.

  17. Serum Levels Of Free And Total Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-1 And IGF Binding Protein-3 In Normal And Growth Hormone Deficient Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M.A.; Soliman, S.E.T.; Hafez, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect the endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 pre-pubertal GH deficient (GHD) children to study the correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97-1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the pre-pubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD were decreased significantly with increasing the degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

  18. Serum levels of free and total insulin-link growth factor (IGF)-1 and (IGF) binding protein-3 in normal and growth hormone deficient children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M.A.; Soliman, S.E.T.; Hafez, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 prepubertal GH. deficient (GHD) children to study correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97. 1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the prepubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD decreased significantly with increasing degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

  19. The Relationship Between Serum Levels of Total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN- γ and Disease Severity in Children With Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies about the role of cytokines on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD are generally based on in vitro observations and this role has not been completely clarified yet. Serum levels of total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN- γ and the relationship between these parameters and disease severity, determined using the SCORAD index, in a group of atopic patients were investigated in this study. Serum levels of total IgE were measured by the nephelometric method and serum levels of IL-18, IL-12/p40 and IFN- γ were measured by ELISA method. Serum levels of total IgE and IL-18 were found significantly higher in study group than in controls ( p<.001 . There was no statistically significant difference between patients and controls in respect of serum levels of IL-12/p40 ( p=.227 . A statistically significant relationship between SCORAD values and serum levels of total IgE ( p<.001 , IL-18 ( p<.001 , and IL-12/p40 ( p<.001 was determined. These results show that serum levels of IL-18 can be a sensitive parameter that importantly correlates with clinical severity of AD, can play a role in the immunopathogenesis of AD, and furthermore may be used in the diagnosis and follow-up of the disease in addition to other parameters.

  20. Simultaneous measurement of total Estradiol and Testosterone in human serum by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wang, Yuesong; Gatcombe, Matthew; Farris, Jacob; Botelho, Julianne C.; Caudill, Samuel P.; Vesper, Hubert W.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable measurement of total testosterone and estradiol is critical for their use as biomarkers of hormone related disorders in patient care and translation research. We developed and validated a mass spectrometry method to simultaneously quantify these analytes in human serum without chemical derivatization. Serum is equilibrated with isotopic internal standards and treated with acidic buffer to release hormones from their binding proteins. Lipids are isolated and polar impurities are removed by two serial liquid-liquid extraction steps. Total testosterone and estradiol are measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in combination of positive and negative electrospray ionization modes. The method shows broad analytical measurement range for both testosterone 0.03–48.5 nM (0.75–1400 ng/dL) and estradiol 11.0–5138 pM (2.99–1400 pg/mL) and excellent agreement with certified reference materials (mean bias less than 2.1% to SRM 971, BCR 576, 577, and 578) and a high order reference method (mean bias 1.25% for testosterone and −0.84% for estradiol). The high accuracy of the method was monitored and certified by CDC Hormone Standardization (HoSt) Program for two years with mean bias −0.7% (95%CI: −1.6% to 0.2%) for testosterone and 0.1% (95%CI: −2.2% to 2.3%) for estradiol. The method precision over a 2-year period for Quality Control pools at low, medium and high concentrations was 2.7–2.9% for testosterone and 3.3–5.3% for estradiol. With the consistently excellent accuracy and precision, this method is readily applicable for high-throughput clinical and epidemiological studies. PMID:28801832

  1. Low Impact of Urinary Cortisol in the Assessment of Hydrocortisone Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, C S; Rahvar, A-H; Danneberg, S; Lehnert, H; Moenig, H; Harbeck, B

    2016-09-01

    Hydrocortisone replacement therapy is a cornerstone in the treatment of adrenal insufficiency (AI). While urinary cortisol has been used as a diagnostic tool for AI, it remains unclear whether it is a useful parameter to monitor hydrocortisone replacement therapy. Aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in cortisol metabolism between adrenal insufficient patients and healthy subjects and to assess the value of urinary cortisol in AI management. In a case-control study, urinary cortisol excretion was determined in 14 patients with primary and secondary AI receiving hydrocortisone infusions from midnight to 8:00 AM. Results were correlated with serum cortisol levels and compared to urinary values obtained from 53 healthy volunteers. Urinary cortisol excretion in healthy subjects was 14.0±7.8 μg/8 h (range: 0.24-35.4), levels did not differ between 3 groups aged 20-34 years, 35-49 years, and ≥50 years. Patients with AI receiving hydrocortisone infusions demonstrated significantly higher rates of urinary cortisol excretion (51.6±37.8 μg/8 h; range 17.1-120.0, p<0.001); the values correlated with serum cortisol levels (r(2)=0.98). Of interest, patients with secondary AI showed significantly higher serum cortisol levels after hydrocortisone infusion than those with primary AI, conceivably due to residual adrenal function. In conclusion, we showed that: (i) there is a wide inter-individual variability in urinary cortisol excretion rates; (ii) cortisol metabolism in adrenal insufficient patients differs when compared to controls; (iii) there is a strong correlation between urinary and serum cortisol levels; and (iv) urinary cortisol levels despite their variability may help to discriminate between secondary and primary adrenal insufficiency. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.M.M.; Huque, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the relationship of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels with systemic hypertension, Diabetes mellitus and smoking as risk factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and changes in the former levels with vitamins supplementation. Study Design: An interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical College for Women and Hospital (MCW and H), Dhaka, Bangladesh, from July 2008 to December 2009. Methodology: Consecutive AMI patients were recruited from the Coronary Care Unit (CCU) at MCW and H, Dhaka. Blood samples were collected at inclusion (Patient-I0). They were given conventional treatments and prescribed vitamins (vitamins B6=25 mg, B12=2 mg and folic acid=2.5 mg) daily for 2 months. After follow-up, blood samples were taken again (Patient-II0). A group of 25 normal subjects were also included as controls. Serum tHcy and Lp(a) were measured by kinetic method and nephelometric method respectively. Results: Serum tHcy (macor mol/L) and Lp(a) (mg/dl) levels were elevated in Patient-I that reduced in Patient-II after vitamins supplementation, but not to the normal control level. tHcy of Patient-I0 was 25.1 +- 4.7 macro mol/L, of Patient-II0 was 20.1 +- 4.5 mu mol/L and of controls 12.1 +- 3.3, p 0.1). However, in a significant proportion of patients tHcy and Lp(a) levels were reduced to control levels (tHcy: p < 0.001, Lp(a): p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicated that tHcy and Lp(a) levels were possibly atherogenic risk factors independent of conventional risk factors. Since both tHcy and Lp(a) levels responded in a similar fashion, a common point of the metabolic and pathogenetic pathways of tHcy and Lp(a) may be influenced by the vitamins supplementation. (author)

  3. Dietary determinants of serum total cholesterol among middle-aged and older adults: a population-based cross-sectional study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarmath, Sujay S; Zack, Rachel M; Leyna, Germana H; Fahimi, Saman; Liu, Enju; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Lukmanji, Zohra; Killewo, Japhet; Sacks, Frank; Danaei, Goodarz

    2017-06-06

    To assess the dietary determinants of serum total cholesterol. Cross-sectional population-based study. Peri-urban region of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 347 adults aged 40 years and older from the Dar es Salaam Urban Cohort Hypertension Study. Serum total cholesterol measured using a point-of-care device. Mean serum total cholesterol level was 204 mg/dL (IQR 169-236 mg/dL) in women and 185 mg/dL (IQR 152-216 mg/dL) in men. After adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle and dietary factors, participants who reported using palm oil as the major cooking oil had serum total cholesterol higher by 15 mg/dL (95% CI 1 to 29 mg/dL) compared with those who reported using sunflower oil. Consumption of one or more servings of meat per day (p for trend=0.017) and less than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day (p for trend=0.024) were also associated with higher serum total cholesterol. A combination of using palm oil for cooking, eating more than one serving of meat per day and fewer than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, was associated with 46 mg/dL (95% CI 16 to 76 mg/dL) higher serum total cholesterol. Using palm oil for cooking was associated with higher serum total cholesterol levels in this peri-urban population in Dar es Salaam. Reduction of saturated fat content of edible oil may be considered as a population-based strategy for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, K E; Crowe, F L; Appleby, P N; Schmidt, J A; Travis, R C; Key, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. Vegans had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 mmol/l lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 mmol/l. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.6 mmol/l, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 mmol/l. [corrected]. In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet.

  5. The Association of Serum Total Peptide YY (PYY) with Obesity and Body Fat Measures in the CODING Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Farrell; Ji, Yunqi; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Randell, Edward; Vasdev, Sudesh; Gulliver, Wayne; Sun, Guang

    2014-01-01

    PYY is an appetite suppressing hormone. Low circulating PYY has been linked to greater BMI. However data is controversial and this association has not been verified in large human populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate if fasting serum total PYY is associated with obesity status and/or adiposity at the population level. A total of 2094 subjects (Male-523, Female-1571) participated in this investigation. Total PYY was measured in fasting serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Obesity status (NW-normal-weight, OW-overweight and OB-obese) was determined by the Bray Criteria according to body fat percentage measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and the WHO criteria according to BMI. One-way ANOVA and multiple regression was used to assess the adiposity-specific association between PYY and the following; weight, BMI, waist-circumference, hip-circumference, waist-hip ratio, percent body fat (%BF), trunk fat (%TF), android fat (%AF) and gynoid fat (%GF). PYY was not significantly different among NW, OW and OB groups defined by neither %BF nor BMI for both men and women. However among women, fasting PYY was positively associated with adiposity measures. Women with the highest (Top 33%) waist-circumference, %BF and %TF had significantly higher PYY (10.5%, 8.3% and 9.2% respectively) than women with the lowest (Bottom 33%). Age, smoking, medication use and menopause were all positively associated with PYY levels in women but not in men. To our knowledge this is the largest population based study, with the most comprehensive analysis and measures of confounding factors, to explore the relationship of circulating PYY with obesity. Contrary to initial findings in the literature we discovered that PYY was positively associated with body fat measures (waist-circumference, %BF and %TF) in women. Although the effect size of the positive association of PYY with obesity in women is small, and potentially negligible, it may in fact represent a protective

  6. Serum Total Cholinesterase Activity on Admission Is Associated with Disease Severity and Outcome in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of neurological disability. In this retrospective study, serum total cholinesterase (ChE activities were analyzed in 188 patients for diagnostic as well as predictive values for mortality.Within 72 hours after injury, serum ChE activities including both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were measured. Disease severity was evaluated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score, Glasgow Coma Score, length of coma, post-traumatic amnesia and injury feature. Neurocognitive and functional scores were assessed using clinical records. Of 188 patients, 146 (77.7% survived and 42 (22.3% died within 90 days. Lower ChE activities were noted in the non-survivors vs. survivors (5.94±2.19 vs. 7.04±2.16 kU/L, p=0.023, in septic vs. non-infected patients (5.93±1.89 vs. 7.31±2.45 kU/L, p=0.0005 and in patients with extremely severe injury vs. mild injury (6.3±1.98 vs. 7.57±2.48 kU/L, p=0.049. The trajectories of serum ChE levels were also different between non-survivors and survivors, septic and non-infected patients, mild and severely injured patients, respectively. Admission ChE activities were closely correlated with blood cell counts, neurocognitive and functional scores both on admission and at discharge. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve for ChE was inferior to that for either APACHE II or white blood cell (WBC count. However, at the optimal cutoff value of 5 kU/L, the sensitivity of ChE for correct prediction of 90-day mortality was 65.5% and the specificity was 86.4%. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that lower ChE activity (5 kU/L (p=0.04. After adjusting for other variables, ChE was identified as a borderline independent predictor for mortality as analyzed by Binary logistic regression (P=0.078.Lowered ChE activity measured on admission appears to be associated with disease severity and outcome for TBI patients.

  7. Determination of serum free thyroxine concentration (FT4) by means of fT4-fraction and total thyroxine concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passath, A.; Leb, G.

    1985-01-01

    A new equilibrium assay for the determination of serum free thyroxine was evaluated in 514 patients. The assay comprises a two-vial-procedure to measure total thyroxine and free thyroxine fraction by use of monoclonal antibodies. Free thyroxine concentrations are calculated from fT 4 -fraction and total thyroxine concentration readings. In euthyroidism the average free thyroxine fraction (%fT 4 ) was 0.011%, in hyperthyroidism this fraction was elevated, in hypothyroidism it was below normal. In patients with TBG anomalies, TBG values were inversely correlated with fT 4 fraction readings. The 'euthyroid reference range' of FT 4 (SPAC ET) was between 0.70 to 1.78ng/dl. This euthyroid range of FT 4 was determined from TT 4 concentrations measured by T 4 -RIA (SPAC T 4 MONO) which were 30% above TT 4 values measured by conventional T 4 -RIA (SPAC T 4 POLY; polyclonal antibodies). However, a different euthyroid range of FT 4 between 0.55 to 1.30 ng/dl was observed as well as by other investigators when conventional T 4 -RIA measurements were used for calculation of FT 4 values. Our results indicate that calculated FT 4 concentration values are highly dependent on the methods used for determination of total thyroxine concentrations. Precision and reproducability of this two vial equilibrium assay did not meet the requirements mandatory for the application as a clinical routine diagnostic procedure, and its general use for this purpose can as yet not be recommended. (Author)

  8. Changes of Serum Total and Free Testosterone Concentrations in Male Chronic Hemodialysis Patients with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Response to Cinacalcet Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kuczera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR is expressed, among others also in testis. Cinacalcet binds to the CaSR, increases sensitivity of CaSR to serum calcium and is used in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT in chronic hemodialysis patients (HDP. In most of male HDP, serum testosterone concentration is lower than in healthy males. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of six-month treatment with cinacalcet on the serum total and free testosterone concentration in male HDP with sHPT. Methods: 38 male, hemodialysed CKD patients with sHPT (PTH>300 pg/ml were enrolled into the study. In each patient serum PTH, total testosterone (TT and free testosterone (FT concentrations were assessed before the first dose of cinacalcet and then after 3 and 6 months of treatment. The results are presented as means with 95% confidence interval. Results: In 33 patients who completed the study cinacalcet treatment caused significant decrease of serum PTH from 1143 pg/ml (828 - 1458 pg/ml at the baseline, to 809 pg/ml (487 - 1132pg/ml after 3 month of treatment (p = 0.002, and to 607 pg/ml (281 - 934pg/ml; p Conclusion: Treatment with cinacalcet decreases serum total and free testosterone concentration in male hemodialysed patients with chronic kidney disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  9. Circulating cortisol-associated signature of glucocorticoid-related gene expression in subcutaneous fat of obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlatou, Maria G; Vickers, Kasey C; Varma, Sudhir; Malek, Rana; Sampson, Maureen; Remaley, Alan T; Gold, Philip W; Skarulis, Monica C; Kino, Tomoshige

    2013-05-01

    Serum cortisol concentrations fluctuate in a circadian fashion, and glucocorticoids exert strong effects on adipose tissue and induce obesity through the glucocorticoid receptor. To examine the impact of physiologic levels of circulating cortisol on subcutaneous adipose tissue, 25 overweight and obese subjects were employed, and their serum levels of morning (AM) and evening (PM) cortisol, AM/PM cortisol ratios, and 24-h urinary-free cortisol (UFC) were compared with their clinical parameters, serum cytokine levels, and mRNA expression of 93 receptor action-regulating and 93 glucocorticoid-responsive genes in abdominal subcutaneous fat. AM cortisol levels did not correlate with mRNA expression of the all genes examined, whereas PM cortisol levels, AM/PM cortisol ratios, and 24-h UFC were associated with distinct sets of these genes. Body mass index did not significantly correlate with the four cortisol parameters employed. These results suggest that physiologic levels of AM serum cortisol do not solely represent biological effects of circulating cortisol on the expression of glucocorticoid-related genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue, whereas PM levels, amplitude, and net amounts of the diurnally fluctuating serum cortisol have distinct effects. Through the genes identified in this study, glucocorticoids appear to influence intermediary metabolism, energy balance, inflammation, and local circadian rythmicity in subcutaneous fat. Our results may also explain in part the development of metabolic abnormality and obesity in subjects under stress or patients with melancholic/atypical depression who demonstrate elevated levels of PM serum cortisol. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  10. Summary cortisol reactivity indicators: Interrelations and meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Khoury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis has involved a proliferation of cortisol indices. We surveyed recently published HPA-related articles and identified 15 such indices. We sought to clarify their biometric properties, specifically, how they interrelate and what they mean, because such information is rarely offered in the articles themselves. In the present article, the primary samples consist of community mothers and their infants (N = 297, who participated in two challenges, the Toy Frustration Paradigm and the Strange Situation Procedure. We sought to cross-validate findings from each of these samples against the other, and also against a clinically depressed sample (N = 48 and a sample of healthy older adults (N = 51 who participated in the Trier Social Stress Test. Cortisol was collected from all participants once before and twice after the challenges. These heterogenous samples were chosen to obtain the greatest possible range in cortisol levels and stress response regulation. Using these data, we computed the 15 summary cortisol indices identified in our literature survey. We assessed inter-relations amongst indices and determined their underlying dimensions via principal component analysis (PCA. The PCAs consistently extracted two components, accounting for 79%–93% of the variance. These components represent “total cortisol production” and “change in cortisol levels.” The components were highly congruent across challenge, time, and sample. High variable loadings and explained factor variance suggest that all indices represent their underlying dimensions very well. Thus the abundance of summary cortisol indices currently represented in the literature appears superfluous.

  11. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) activity as an indicator of total body granuloma load and prognosis in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuswamy, P P; Lopez-Majano, V; Ranginwala, M; Trainor, W D

    1987-09-01

    The relationship between the level of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) and the total body granuloma load in patients with sarcoidosis was studied in two groups using SACE levels and total body gallium67 scans. The study group consisted of 22 patients with SACE levels greater than or equal to 100 U/ml (EH-SACE group) and the control group consisted of 24 patients consecutively diagnosed to have sarcoidosis in a one year period with SACE level of less than 80 U/ml. The average number of organs involved in the EH-SACE group was 3.9 +/- 1 compared to 2.3 +/- 1 in the control group (p less than 0.0001). The incidence of extra pulmonary organ involvement in the EH-SACE group was 2.2 +/- 1 organs compared to 1.0 + 0.8 in the control group (p less than 0.0002). The SACE level was correlated with the number of organs involved for all patients with sarcoidosis (r = .55; p less than .0001). Following corticosteroid therapy for 39 +/- 41 weeks the SACE dropped to 64 +/- 45 units in the EH-SACE group. But it took only 13 +/- 10 weeks to normalize the SACE level to 27 +/- 9 units in the control group. The EH-SACE group patients were followed for 114 +/- 64 weeks and 73% of them still have active sarcoidosis requiring repeated cycles of corticosteroid therapy, while after 42 +/- 23 weeks of follow up only 10% of patients from the control group were still on therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Phenobarbital and Phototherapy Combination Enhances Decline of Total Serum Bilirubin and May Decrease the Need for Blood Exchange Transfusion in Newborns with Isoimmune Hemolytic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaabneh, Mahmoud AF; Salama, Ghassan SA; Shakkoury, Ayoub GA; Al-abdallah, Ibrahim MH; Alshamari, Afrah; Halaseh, Ruba AA

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenobarbital and phototherapy combination on the total serum bilirubin of the newborn infants with isoimmune hemolytic disease (IHD) and its impact on blood exchange transfusion rates. PATIENTS AND METHOD This single-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted between March 2013 and December 2014 at the pediatric ward of two Military Hospitals in Jordan. A total of 200 full-term neonates with IHD were divided randomly into two groups: (1) the phenobarbital plus phototherapy group (n = 103), and (2) the phototherapy-only group (n = 97). Infants in group 1 received an oral dose of 2.5 mg/kg phenobarbital every 12 hours for 3 days in addition to phototherapy. The total serum bilirubin was observed. RESULTS Of the total 200 included newborn infants, 186 infants completed the study: 97 infants were included in group 1 and 89 infants in group 2. The difference between the mean total serum bilirubin levels at 24, 48, and 72 hours after starting the trial was clinically and statistically significant at P newborn infants with IHD, as it results in a faster decline in total serum bilirubin, thus decreasing the need for blood exchange transfusion than phototherapy alone. PMID:26309423

  13. Selenium, zinc, copper, Cu/Zn ratio and total antioxidant status in the serum of vitiligo patients treated by narrow-band ultraviolet-B phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacewicz, Marta; Socha, Katarzyna; Soroczyńska, Jolanta; Niczyporuk, Marek; Aleksiejczuk, Piotr; Ostrowska, Jolanta; Borawska, Maria H

    2018-03-01

    Vitiligo is a chronic, depigmenting skin disorder, whose pathogenesis is still unknown. Narrow band ultraviolet-B (NB-UVB) is now one of the most widely used treatment of vitiligo. It was suggested that trace elements may play a role in pathogenesis of vitiligo. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentration of selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and Cu/Zn ratio as well as total antioxidant status (TAS) in the serum of patients with vitiligo. We assessed 50 patients with vitiligo and 58 healthy controls. Serum levels of Se, Zn and Cu were determined by the atomic absorption spectrometry method, and the Cu/Zn ratio was also calculated. TAS in serum was measured spectrophotometrically. Serum concentration of Se in patients with vitiligo before and after phototherapy was significantly lower as compared to the control group. Zn level in the serum of patients decreased significantly after phototherapy. We observed higher Cu/Zn ratio (p vitiligo patients after NB-UVB. The current study showed some disturbances in the serum levels of trace elements and total antioxidant status in vitiligo patients.

  14. Usefulness of determination of serum levels of total bile acids (TBA) and other five markers of liver fibrosis for diagnosis of chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhenxian; Geng Quanlin; Gong Xiping; Yang Chenbao

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of combined determination of serum levels of TBA, PC-III, IV-C, HA, CG and LN in diagnosis of chronic hepatic diseases. Methods: Serum TBA levels were measured with totally automatic enzymatic method and the other five markers with RIA in 118 patients with various types of hepatic diseases as well as in 31 controls. Results: Serum levels of TBA and the other markers were significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls (p<0.01). Among the various types of diseases, values of the tested markers increased along with the increase of the severity of the disease process. Conclusion: Combined measurements of serum levels of TBA and other five markers were of important value for the diagnosis, treatment and outcome prediction of hepatic fibrosis

  15. Yawning, fatigue and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclero...

  16. Copeptin in obese children and adolescents: relationships to body mass index, cortisol and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Juliane; Kulle, Alexandra; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Toschke, Christina; Lass, Nina; Reinehr, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Copeptin has been reported to be associated with stress, obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. However, data in childhood are scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationships between copeptin, cortisol, puberty and parameters of the MetS in children. Cross-sectional study. A total of 51 obese children (10·8 ± 3·2 years, 39% male, 45% prepubertal, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) 2·77 ± 0·56) and 24 lean children of similar age, gender and pubertal stage. Copeptin, serum cortisol, 24-h urinary free cortisol, BMI-SDS and, as parameters of the MetS, insulin resistance index (HOMA), HbA1c, uric acids, blood pressure and lipids. Copeptin levels were significantly (P = 0·047) higher in obese children (5·8 ± 2·8pmol/l) compared to lean children (4·6 ± 2·2pmol/l). BMI-SDS (β-coefficient 0·38 ± 0·35, P =0·033), but not any parameter of the MetS, was significantly related to copeptin in multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age, gender and pubertal stage. A 24-h urinary free cortisol (β-coefficient 0·13 ± 0·06, P cortisol, was significantly related to copeptin in multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, pubertal stage and BMI-SDS. Pubertal boys (6·6 ± 2·8pmol/l) demonstrated significantly (P = 0·042) higher copeptin levels compared to pubertal girls (4·8 ± 2·6pmol/l), while copeptin concentrations did not differ between prepubertal girls and boys. Copeptin levels are related to 24-h urinary free cortisol in obese children. Pubertal boys, but not prepubertal boys, demonstrated higher copeptin levels than girls, suggesting that sex hormones are involved in the regulation of copeptin levels. Further studies are necessary to understand the relationship between obesity, cortisol, gender, pubertal stage and copeptin levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of five commercially available assays and measurement of serum total protein concentration via refractometry for the diagnosis of failure of passive transfer of immunity in foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Giguère, Steeve

    2005-11-15

    To determine and compare sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and predictive values of measurement of serum total protein concentration by refractometry as well as 5 commercially available kits for the diagnosis of failure of passive transfer (FPT) of immunity in foals. Prospective study. 65 foals with various medical problems and 35 clinically normal foals. IgG concentration in serum was assessed by use of zinc sulfate turbidity (assay C), glutaraldehyde coagulation (assay D), 2 semiquantitative immunoassays (assays F and G), and a quantitative immunoassay (assay H). Serum total protein concentration was assessed by refractometry. Radial immunodiffusion (assays A and B) was used as the reference method. For detection of IgG or = 6.0 g/dL indicated adequate IgG concentrations. Most assays were adequate as initial screening tests. However, their use as a definitive test would result in unnecessary treatment of foals with adequate IgG concentrations.

  18. FKBP5 methylation as a possible marker for cortisol state and transient cortisol exposure in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Britta K; Lehnert, Hendrik; Oster, Henrik; Kirchner, Henriette; Harbeck, Birgit

    2017-10-01

    Current glucocorticoid replacement regimens, in adrenal insufficiency, fail to mimic the physiological cortisol secretion, thereby fostering serious side effects. To experimentally evaluate the impact of CpG methylation within the FKBP5 gene as a possible short- and long-term marker for cortisol exposure in humans. An ACTH-stimulation test was carried out and methylation status of the FKBP5 gene in leukocytes was determined. A negative correlation between basal levels of methylation and serum cortisol was observed. Individual changes in FKBP5 methylation after 24 h correlated with cortisol responses. Considering previous studies conducted with murine leucocytes, FKBP5 methylation may be suitable as a long-term biomarker, rather than acute glucocorticoid exposure, also in humans.

  19. Moderating Effects of Cortisol on Neural-Cognitive Association in Cognitively Normal Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Way K. W. Lau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cortisol homeostasis is important for healthy brain and cognitive aging. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of serum cortisol levels in the relationship between regional brain volumes and cognitive processing speed in a group of cognitively normal elderly subjects. Forty-one healthy elderly participants were from a parallel longitudinal study. The reported data in this study reflects baseline measurements. Whole-brain anatomical scanning was performed using a 3.0 Tesla Philips Medical Systems Achieva scanner. Cognitive processing speed was assessed by the digit-symbol and symbol search tests, from the Chinese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—third edition (WAIS-III. Serum cortisol levels (sampled in the late morning were measured by ELISA kits. Whole-brain regression analysis revealed that serum cortisol levels positively predicted the white matter volumes (WMV of the right thalamus, the gray matter volumes (GMV of the left thalamus and right cerebellar tonsil, and negatively predicted the WMV and GMV of the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG in 41 healthy elderly participants. Furthermore, serum cortisol significantly moderated the relationship between the GMV of the left MTG and processing speed, as well as the GMV of the left thalamus and processing speed. This study provided the first piece of evidence supporting serum cortisol levels in moderating the relationship between regional brain volumes and processing speed in healthy elderly subjects. This observation enriches our understanding of the role of cortisol in brain morphology and cognitive functioning.

  20. Moderating Effects of Cortisol on Neural-Cognitive Association in Cognitively Normal Elderly Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Way K. W.; Leung, Mei Kei; Law, Andrew C. K.; Lee, Tatia M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Cortisol homeostasis is important for healthy brain and cognitive aging. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of serum cortisol levels in the relationship between regional brain volumes and cognitive processing speed in a group of cognitively normal elderly subjects. Forty-one healthy elderly participants were from a parallel longitudinal study. The reported data in this study reflects baseline measurements. Whole-brain anatomical scanning was performed using a 3.0 Tesla Philips Medical Systems Achieva scanner. Cognitive processing speed was assessed by the digit-symbol and symbol search tests, from the Chinese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—third edition (WAIS-III). Serum cortisol levels (sampled in the late morning) were measured by ELISA kits. Whole-brain regression analysis revealed that serum cortisol levels positively predicted the white matter volumes (WMV) of the right thalamus, the gray matter volumes (GMV) of the left thalamus and right cerebellar tonsil, and negatively predicted the WMV and GMV of the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in 41 healthy elderly participants. Furthermore, serum cortisol significantly moderated the relationship between the GMV of the left MTG and processing speed, as well as the GMV of the left thalamus and processing speed. This study provided the first piece of evidence supporting serum cortisol levels in moderating the relationship between regional brain volumes and processing speed in healthy elderly subjects. This observation enriches our understanding of the role of cortisol in brain morphology and cognitive functioning. PMID:28596732

  1. Low levels of serum total antioxidant capacity and presence at admission and absence at discharge of a day/night change as a marker of acute paranoid schizophrenia relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera-Fumero, Armando L; Díaz-Mesa, Estefanía; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Fernandez-Lopez, Lourdes; Cejas-Mendez, Maria Del Rosario

    2017-03-01

    An oxidant-antioxidant system dysregulation has been described as a schizophrenia pathophysiological base. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is one measure of the antioxidant capacity of a system. Day/night concentration changes is a biological characteristic of hormones such as melatonin or cortisol. There is no information about TAC day/night changes in schizophrenia. Studying the existence of a day/night TAC change in schizophrenia. Forty-three DSM-IV paranoid schizophrenia inpatients participated in the study. Thirty healthy subjects matched by age and gender acted as control group. Blood was sampled at 12:00 and 00:00h the day after admission and the day before discharge. Serum TAC was measured by the ABTS radical cation technique and expressed in Trolox mmol/L. Patients had significantly lower TAC levels at admission and discharge (12:00 and 00:00) than controls. At admission patients had a TAC day/night change, with higher day-time than night-time levels (0.66±0.14 vs 0.60±0.15) as well as healthy subjects (0.83±0.07 vs 0.77±0.11). At discharge patients had a similar TAC level at 12:00 and 00:00 (0.64±0.15 vs 0.63±0.14). Schizophrenic patients present a deficit of the antioxidant system. The initial presence and the later absence of a day/night change deserves future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum total prostate-specific antigen values in men with symptomatic prostate enlargement in Nigeria: role in clinical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnabugwu, Ikenna I; Ugwumba, Fred O; Enivwenae, Oghenekaro A; Udeh, Emeka I; Otene, Chris O; Nnabugwu, Chinwe A

    2015-01-01

    Prostatic enlargement is a common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in men in Nigeria. Malignant enlargements must be differentiated from benign enlargements for adequate treatment of each patient. High serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) levels suggest malignancy, but some of the biopsies done due to a serum tPSA value >4 ng/mL would be negative for malignancy because of the low specificity of tPSA for prostate cancer. This study aims to compare the histologic findings of all prostate specimens obtained from core needle biopsy, open simple prostatectomy, and transurethral resection of the prostate with the respective serum tPSA values in an attempt to decipher the role of serum tPSA in the management of these patients. The case notes of patients attended to from April 2009 to March 2012 were analyzed. Essentially, the age of the patient, findings on digital rectal examination, abdominopelvic ultrasonography report on the prostate, serum tPSA, and histology reports from biopsy or prostatectomy specimens as indicated were extracted for analysis. The relationship between age, findings on digital rectal examination, serum tPSA, abdominopelvic ultrasonography report, and histology are compared. A statistically significant relationship existed between a malignant histology and age 65 years and older, suspicious findings on digital rectal examination, suspicious ultrasonography findings, and serum tPSA >10 ng/mL, but not tPSA >4 ng/mL. In Nigerian patients with symptomatic prostate enlargement, serum tPSA should be seen as a continuum with increasing risk of prostate malignancy.

  3. Direct assay for urine cortisol with cortisol kit TFB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Michiko; Hosoya, Takaaki [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-05-01

    We examined Cortisol Kit TFB for direct assay of urine cortisol. And the multiplication by dilution factor of urine cortisol values in this kit was examined. The coefficient of correlation of cortisol levels (46 urine samples) between Cortisol Kit TFB and Chemilumi ACS-Cortisol II, which is another kit for direct assay of urine cortisol, was r=0.858, y=1.86x+38.2 (p<0.001). There were differences between the both cortisol levels of each urine sample in spite of the good coefficient of correlation. The urine cortisol values obtained from the standard curve in addition of 50 {mu}l of zero standard were 50-80% of the values obtained from the standard curve in the package insert. These results suggest that the specificity of the antibodies of both direct assay kits for urine cortisol may be different each other, and the multiplication by 1.09, the dilution factor due to the addition of zero standard to only urine sample, is unnecessary although it is indispensable for urine samples to add zero standard. Cortisol Kit TFB was very convenient for its easy assay procedure and short incubation. (author)

  4. Direct assay for urine cortisol with cortisol kit TFB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Michiko; Hosoya, Takaaki

    2002-01-01

    We examined Cortisol Kit TFB for direct assay of urine cortisol. And the multiplication by dilution factor of urine cortisol values in this kit was examined. The coefficient of correlation of cortisol levels (46 urine samples) between Cortisol Kit TFB and Chemilumi ACS-Cortisol II, which is another kit for direct assay of urine cortisol, was r=0.858, y=1.86x+38.2 (p<0.001). There were differences between the both cortisol levels of each urine sample in spite of the good coefficient of correlation. The urine cortisol values obtained from the standard curve in addition of 50 μl of zero standard were 50-80% of the values obtained from the standard curve in the package insert. These results suggest that the specificity of the antibodies of both direct assay kits for urine cortisol may be different each other, and the multiplication by 1.09, the dilution factor due to the addition of zero standard to only urine sample, is unnecessary although it is indispensable for urine samples to add zero standard. Cortisol Kit TFB was very convenient for its easy assay procedure and short incubation. (author)

  5. The relation of maternal job strain and cortisol levels during early pregnancy with body composition later in the 5-year-old child: the ABCD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Aimée E; Van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J B J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2012-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal stress may program the fetal HPA axis, potentially leading to altered metabolism in later life, associated with adiposity and diabetes. This association is little studied in humans, and thus we explore whether high maternal job strain during early pregnancy, as well as maternal cortisol levels are associated with increased body mass index (BMI), central adiposity or body fat mass in the offspring at age five. Additionally, we explore whether these associations are modified by gender or mediated by gestational age and fetal growth restriction. 2939 pregnant women (ABCD cohort study) completed a questionnaire around gestational week 16 including the Job Content Questionnaire, assessing job strain. Serum total cortisol was assessed in a subsample (n=1320). Gestational age (≥37 weeks), standardized birth weight and information on many covariates were available. At the age five health check, height, weight (BMI, kg/m(2)), waist circumference (waist-to-height ratio, WHtR) and Fat Mass Index (FMI, kg/m(2)) were assessed. Job strain was not associated with higher BMI, WHtR or FMI. Higher maternal cortisol was independently associated with marginally higher FMI in girls, but marginally lower FMI in boys (β 0.09 and β -0.10 per 100 unit increase in serum cortisol, respectively. pcortisol may not program obesity and adiposity in the next generation in humans, but gender differences should always be considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between salivary cortisol levels and regional cerebral glucose metabolism in nondemented elderly subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Young Bin; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Ha; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun

    2004-01-01

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone for flight-or-fight response in human. Increased levels of cortisol have been associated with memory and learning impairments. However, little is known about the role of cortisol on brain/cognitive functions in older adults. We compared regional cerebral glucose metabolism between elderly subjects with high and low cortisol levels using FDG PET. Salivary cortisol levels were measured four times during a day, and an average of the four measurements was used as the standard cortisol level for the analyses. From a population of 120 nondemented elderly subjects, 19 (mean age, 70.1±4.9 y: 2 males and 17 females) were identified as the high (> mean + 1 SD of the total population) cortisol subjects (mean cortisol, 0.69±0.09 μ g/dL), while 14 (mean age, 67.2±4.5 y: all females) as the low (< mean 1 SD) cortisol (mean cortisol, 0.27±0.03 μ g/dL). A voxel-wise comparison of FDG PET images from the high and low cortisol subjects was performed using SPM99. When compared with the low cortisol group, the high cortisol group had significant hypometabolism in the right middle temporal gyrus, left precuneus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior temporal and superior temporal gyri (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). There was no significant increase of glucose metabolism in the high cortisol group compared with the low cortisol group (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). The high cortisol elderly subjects had hypometabolism in the parahippocampal and temporal gyri and precuneus, regions involved in memory and other cognitive functions. This may represent the preclinical metabolic correlates of forthcoming cognitive dysfunction associated with stress in the elderly. Longitudinal studies of brain metabolism and cognitive function are warranted

  7. Relationship between salivary cortisol levels and regional cerebral glucose metabolism in nondemented elderly subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Bin; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Ha; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone for flight-or-fight response in human. Increased levels of cortisol have been associated with memory and learning impairments. However, little is known about the role of cortisol on brain/cognitive functions in older adults. We compared regional cerebral glucose metabolism between elderly subjects with high and low cortisol levels using FDG PET. Salivary cortisol levels were measured four times during a day, and an average of the four measurements was used as the standard cortisol level for the analyses. From a population of 120 nondemented elderly subjects, 19 (mean age, 70.1{+-}4.9 y: 2 males and 17 females) were identified as the high (> mean + 1 SD of the total population) cortisol subjects (mean cortisol, 0.69{+-}0.09 {mu} g/dL), while 14 (mean age, 67.2{+-}4.5 y: all females) as the low (< mean 1 SD) cortisol (mean cortisol, 0.27{+-}0.03 {mu} g/dL). A voxel-wise comparison of FDG PET images from the high and low cortisol subjects was performed using SPM99. When compared with the low cortisol group, the high cortisol group had significant hypometabolism in the right middle temporal gyrus, left precuneus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior temporal and superior temporal gyri (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). There was no significant increase of glucose metabolism in the high cortisol group compared with the low cortisol group (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). The high cortisol elderly subjects had hypometabolism in the parahippocampal and temporal gyri and precuneus, regions involved in memory and other cognitive functions. This may represent the preclinical metabolic correlates of forthcoming cognitive dysfunction associated with stress in the elderly. Longitudinal studies of brain metabolism and cognitive function are warranted.

  8. Grizzly bear corticosteroid binding globulin: Cloning and serum protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Alsop, Derek; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2010-06-01

    Serum corticosteroid levels are routinely measured as markers of stress in wild animals. However, corticosteroid levels rise rapidly in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint for sampling, limiting its use as an indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that serum corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary transport protein for corticosteroids in circulation, may be a better marker of the stress status prior to capture in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). To test this, a full-length CBG cDNA was cloned and sequenced from grizzly bear testis and polyclonal antibodies were generated for detection of this protein in bear sera. The deduced nucleotide and protein sequences were 1218 bp and 405 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments showed that grizzly bear CBG (gbCBG) was 90% and 83% identical to the dog CBG nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The affinity purified rabbit gbCBG antiserum detected grizzly bear but not human CBG. There were no sex differences in serum total cortisol concentration, while CBG expression was significantly higher in adult females compared to males. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in bears captured by leg-hold snare compared to those captured by remote drug delivery from helicopter. However, serum CBG expression between these two groups did not differ significantly. Overall, serum CBG levels may be a better marker of chronic stress, especially because this protein is not modulated by the stress of capture and restraint in grizzly bears. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Low cortisol levels in blood from dairy cows with ketosis: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Kristina B; Ljungvall, Orjan A; Jones, Bernt V

    2010-05-20

    An elevated plasma glucose concentration has been considered to be a potential risk factor in the pathogenesis of left-displaced abomasums (DA). Therefore the present study was performed to investigate if spontaneous disease (parturient paresis, metritis, ketosis etc) in dairy cows results in elevated concentrations of glucose and cortisol in blood as cortisol is the major regulator of glucose in ruminants. Cortisol, insulin, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), non esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and serum calcium were analyzed in blood serum and glucose, in whole blood, from 57 spontaneously diseased cows collected at different farms. The cows were grouped according to the disease; parturient paresis, recumbent for other reasons, mastitis, metritis, ketosis, inappetance and others. No elevated concentrations of cortisol or glucose were found in cows with metritis and mastitis but both cortisol and glucose were elevated in cows stressed by recumbency. Cows with ketonemia (BHBA > 1.5 mmol/l) did not have low concentration of glucose in blood but significantly low levels of cortisol. Some of these cows even had cortisol concentrations below the detection limit of the analysing method (ketosis, recommending glucocorticoids, insulin etc. However further studies of this problem are needed to understand why cows with ketosis have low levels of cortisol and normal levels of glucose. To what extent elevated cortisol and glucose levels in hypocalcemic and recumbent cows are involved in the ethiology and /or the pathogenesis of DA also will need further research.

  10. Hair cortisol as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis activity in female patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochigaeva, Ksenia; Druzhkova, Tatiana; Yakovlev, Alexander; Onufriev, Mikhail; Grishkina, Maria; Chepelev, Aleksey; Guekht, Alla; Gulyaeva, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    Hair cortisol is regarded as a promising marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity alterations due to stress, somatic and mental health conditions. Hair cortisol was previously reported to be elevated in patients with depression, however the data related to remission and recurrent depressive episodes are different. In this study, levels of hair cortisol were assessed in female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and the validity of hair cortisol as a marker of HPAA activity in this condition was evaluated. Hair cortisol was measured in 1 cm hair segments of 21 female patients with MDD and 22 female age-matched controls using enzyme-immunoassay analysis. Concurrently, serum cortisol was assessed and psychological status was evaluated using 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Spielberger state trait anxiety inventory (STAI). The levels of hair cortisol were significantly lower in the MDD group, while serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in patients, as compared with controls. A significant negative correlation was found between HAMD-17 scores and hair cortisol. Decreased hair cortisol found in female patients with MDD as compared to controls suggests downregulation of HPAA activity during the preceding month. Further studies are needed to investigate the profiles of hair cortisol at different stages of depressive disorder to establish this parameter as a handy clinical tool.

  11. Phenobarbital and Phototherapy Combination Enhances Decline of Total Serum Bilirubin and May Decrease the Need for Blood Exchange Transfusion in Newborns with Isoimmune Hemolytic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. F. Kaabneh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenobarbital and phototherapy combination on the total serum bilirubin of the newborn infants with isoimmune hemolytic disease (IHD and its impact on blood exchange transfusion rates. Patients and Method This single-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted between March 2013 and December 2014 at the pediatric ward of two Military Hospitals in Jordan. A total of 200 full-term neonates with IHD were divided randomly into two groups: (1 the phenobarbital plus phototherapy group ( n = 103, and (2 the phototherapy-only group ( n = 97. Infants in group 1 received an oral dose of 2.5 mg/kg phenobarbital every 12 hours for 3 days in addition to phototherapy. The total serum bilirubin was observed. Results Of the total 200 included newborn infants, 186 infants completed the study: 97 infants were included in group 1 and 89 infants in group 2. The difference between the mean total serum bilirubin levels at 24, 48, and 72 hours after starting the trial was clinically and statistically significant at P < 0.05. The differences between the two groups were also statistically significant at P < 0.05. Of the total 186 who completed the study, only 22 underwent blood exchange transfusion [7 from group 1, and 15 from group 2 ( P = 0.0478]. Conclusion In a limited-resources setting, phenobarbital in combination with phototherapy may be helpful to newborn infants with IHD, as it results in a faster decline in total serum bilirubin, thus decreasing the need for blood exchange transfusion than phototherapy alone.

  12. Plasma cortisol radioimmunoassay with 125I-cortisol and polyethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Keiko; Ogihara, Toshio; Miyai, Kiyoshi; Kumahara, Yuichi; Ishibashi, Kaichiro.

    1976-01-01

    A new, convenient, and less time-consuming plasma cortisol radioimmunoassay was set up. An antibody raised to cortisol-21-hemisuccinate-BSA was used at a 1: 6400 dilution. Because of its relatively high specificity, direct assay was possible. The main points of improvement were as follows, 125 I-cortisol was used as the labelled compound, B-F separation was done with polyethylene glycol, the effect of endogeneous corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) was avoided by the use of 0.6% glutamate buffer pH 3.3 treatment. It was found that by the omission of heat treatment it was possible to avoid this CBG effect. The minimum detectable concentration was 0.1 mg/tube, and the assay range was 1 to 80 μg/dl plasma when a 10 μl sample was used. Precision and accuracy were satisfactory. Coefficient of variance for intraassay and interassay were 6.0% at 12.1 μg/dl, 3.8% at 36.6 μg/dl and 7.5% at 10.2 μg/dl, 6.7% at 41.8 μg/dl respectively. Data obtained by this method, by Murphy's CPBA method, and by other commercial RIA methods were quite comparable. The mean value of serum cortisol (8:30 - 11:30) in normal subjects was 7.7 +- 3.4 μg/dl (m +- S.D., n=102). Mean value of serum cortisol was decreased slightly but significantly with age. (auth.)

  13. Hair Cortisol in Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rietschel, Liz; Streit, Fabian; Zhu, Gu

    2017-01-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a promising measure of long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Previous research has suggested an association between HCC and psychological variables, and initial studies of inter-individual variance in HCC have implicated genetic factors...

  14. Evaluation of hair cortisol in beef cattle of divergent temperaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...

  15. Colloidal gold probe based rapid immunochromatographic strip assay for cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Seema; Tripathi, Vinay; Singh, Harpal; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G.

    2010-01-01

    A rapid and semi-quantitative immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test for cortisol analysis in serum was developed. The test strip was based on a competitive assay format. Colloidal gold nanoparticles were synthesized and coupled with cortisol-3-carboxymethyloxime-adipic acid dihydrazide-bovine serum albumin (F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA) antigen to directly compete with cortisol in human serum samples. F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA-gold label and uncoupled colloidal gold nanoparticles were appropriately characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Anticortisol antibody raised against F-3-CMO-BSA immunogen in New Zealand white rabbits was coated on the NC membrane as test line. Anti-BSA antibody was used as control line. The lower detection limit of the ICS test was 30 ng mL -1 with visual detection and was completed in 10 min. About 30 human serum samples were also analyzed by the developed strip test and their range of cortisol concentration was established. The developed ICS test is rapid, economic and user friendly.

  16. Colloidal gold probe based rapid immunochromatographic strip assay for cortisol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nara, Seema, E-mail: seemanara@mnnit.ac.in [Department of Applied Mechanics (Biotechnology), Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad 211004 (India); Department of Reproductive Biomedicine, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka, New Delhi 110067 (India); Center for BioMedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Tripathi, Vinay [Department of Reproductive Biomedicine, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka, New Delhi 110067 (India); Center for BioMedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Singh, Harpal [Center for BioMedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Shrivastav, Tulsidas G. [Department of Reproductive Biomedicine, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2010-12-03

    A rapid and semi-quantitative immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test for cortisol analysis in serum was developed. The test strip was based on a competitive assay format. Colloidal gold nanoparticles were synthesized and coupled with cortisol-3-carboxymethyloxime-adipic acid dihydrazide-bovine serum albumin (F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA) antigen to directly compete with cortisol in human serum samples. F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA-gold label and uncoupled colloidal gold nanoparticles were appropriately characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Anticortisol antibody raised against F-3-CMO-BSA immunogen in New Zealand white rabbits was coated on the NC membrane as test line. Anti-BSA antibody was used as control line. The lower detection limit of the ICS test was 30 ng mL{sup -1} with visual detection and was completed in 10 min. About 30 human serum samples were also analyzed by the developed strip test and their range of cortisol concentration was established. The developed ICS test is rapid, economic and user friendly.

  17. Serum total prostate-specific antigen values in men with symptomatic prostate enlargement in Nigeria: role in clinical decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabugwu II

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikenna I Nnabugwu,1,2 Fred O Ugwumba,1 Oghenekaro A Enivwenae,2 Emeka I Udeh,1 Chris O Otene,2 Chinwe A Nnabugwu3 1Urology Unit, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 2Urology Unit, Department of Surgery, 3Department of Medical Laboratory Services, Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, Nigeria Background: Prostatic enlargement is a common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in men in Nigeria. Malignant enlargements must be differentiated from benign enlargements for adequate treatment of each patient. High serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA levels suggest malignancy, but some of the biopsies done due to a serum tPSA value >4 ng/mL would be negative for malignancy because of the low specificity of tPSA for prostate cancer. This study aims to compare the histologic findings of all prostate specimens obtained from core needle biopsy, open simple prostatectomy, and transurethral resection of the prostate with the respective serum tPSA values in an attempt to decipher the role of serum tPSA in the management of these patients.Methods: The case notes of patients attended to from April 2009 to March 2012 were analyzed. Essentially, the age of the patient, findings on digital rectal examination, abdominopelvic ultrasonography report on the prostate, serum tPSA, and histology reports from biopsy or prostatectomy specimens as indicated were extracted for analysis.Results: The relationship between age, findings on digital rectal examination, serum tPSA, abdominopelvic ultrasonography report, and histology are compared. A statistically significant relationship existed between a malignant histology and age 65 years and older, suspicious findings on digital rectal examination, suspicious ultrasonography findings, and serum tPSA >10 ng/mL, but not tPSA >4 ng/mL.Conclusion: In Nigerian patients with symptomatic prostate enlargement, serum tPSA should be seen as a continuum with increasing risk of prostate malignancy

  18. Total and specific serum IgE decreases with age in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma and insect allergy but not in patients with atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuber Karsten

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Concerning allergic diseases, the incidence of allergic symptoms, as well as their severity, seems to decrease with age. The decline of onset of allergic symptoms observed in ageing might result from a decrease of serum total and specific IgE. Atopic disorders are complex diseases that involve interactions among several physiological systems, e.g. skin, lung, mucosae, and the immune system. It was the aim of this study to compare the effects of age on total and specific IgE in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD, allergic rhinitis or asthma, and insect allergy, respectively. The study population consisted of 559 individuals (male: 229 and female: 330. Total and allergen specific IgE was measured in every individual. From the whole study population, 113 patients suffered from atopic dermatitis (AD, 132 had allergic rhinitis or asthma, and 314 were tested because of insect allergy. Total and specific serum IgE was significantly decreased as a function of age in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma and with insect allergy. In contrast, no significant decrease of total and specific serum IgE in old individuals with AD was observed. Additionally, in the group of patients with a total IgE 300 kU/l showed no correlation with age. Immunosenescence does not affect increased IgE levels in atopic patients with AD and/or high serum IgE levels indicating that in these subgroups of patients the atopic propensity remains into advanced age. One may hypothesize that either onset of allergic sensitization during life or the kind of atopic disease influences the correlation between age and IgE synthesis.

  19. The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizome and curcumin on total and differential WBC and serum oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers in rat model of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Shakeri; Mohammad Soukhtanloo; Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): The effects of Curcuma longa (C. longa) and curcumin on total and differential WBC count and oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers, in rat model of asthma were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Total and differential WBC count in the blood, NO2, NO3, MDA, SOD, CAT and thiol levels in serum were examined in control, asthma, Asthmatic rats treated with C. longa (0.75, 1.50, and 3.00 mg/ml), curcumin (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml), and dexamethasone (1.25 ?g/ml) rats. Results: Total and mo...

  20. An improved reference measurement procedure for triglycerides and total glycerides in human serum by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhao; Liu, Qinde; Yong, Sharon; Teo, Hui Ling; Lee, Tong Kooi

    2014-01-20

    Triglycerides are widely tested in clinical laboratories using enzymatic methods for lipid profiling. As enzymatic methods can be affected by interferences from biological samples, this together with the non-specific nature of triglycerides measurement makes it necessary to verify the accuracy of the test results with a reference measurement procedure. Several such measurement procedures had been published. These procedures generally involved lengthy and laborious sample preparation steps. In this paper, an improved reference measurement procedure for triglycerides and total glycerides was reported which simplifies the sample preparation steps and greatly shortens the time taken. The procedure was based on isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (IDGC-MS)with tripalmitin as the calibration standard. Serum samples were first spiked with isotope-labeled tripalmitin. For the measurement of triglycerides, the serum samples were subjected to lipid extraction followed by separation of triglycerides from diglycerides and monoglycerides. Triglycerides were then hydrolyzed to glycerol, derivatized and injected into the GC–MS for quantification. For the measurement of total glycerides, the serum samples were hydrolyzed directly and derivatized before injection into the GC-MS for quantification. All measurement results showed good precision with CV triglycerides and total glycerides were well within the certified ranges of the CRM, with deviation triglycerides and total glycerides.

  1. Genome-wide association study for levels of total serum IgE identifies HLA-C in a Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Yatagai

    Full Text Available Most of the previously reported loci for total immunoglobulin E (IgE levels are related to Th2 cell-dependent pathways. We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS to identify genetic loci responsible for IgE regulation. A total of 479,940 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were tested for association with total serum IgE levels in 1180 Japanese adults. Fine-mapping with SNP imputation demonstrated 6 candidate regions: the PYHIN1/IFI16, MHC classes I and II, LEMD2, GRAMD1B, and chr13∶60576338 regions. Replication of these candidate loci in each region was assessed in 2 independent Japanese cohorts (n = 1110 and 1364, respectively. SNP rs3130941 in the HLA-C region was consistently associated with total IgE levels in 3 independent populations, and the meta-analysis yielded genome-wide significance (P = 1.07×10(-10. Using our GWAS results, we also assessed the reproducibility of previously reported gene associations with total IgE levels. Nine of 32 candidate genes identified by a literature search were associated with total IgE levels after correction for multiple testing. Our findings demonstrate that SNPs in the HLA-C region are strongly associated with total serum IgE levels in the Japanese population and that some of the previously reported genetic associations are replicated across ethnic groups.

  2. Prolactin and cortisol levels in women with endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a progressive estrogen-dependent disease affecting women during their reproductive years. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether endometriosis is associated with stress parameters. We determined cortisol and prolactin levels in serum, peritoneal and follicular fluid from infertile women with endometriosis and fertile women without the disease. The extent of the disease was staged according to the revised American Fertility Society classification (1997. Serum and peritoneal fluid were collected from 49 women aged 19 to 39 years undergoing laparoscopy. Eighteen women had stage I-II endometriosis and 10 had stage III-IV. Controls were 21 women undergoing laparoscopy for tubal sterilization. Follicular fluid was obtained from 39 women aged 25-39 years undergoing in vitro fertilization (21 infertile women with endometriosis and 18 infertile women without endometriosis. Serum prolactin levels were significantly higher in infertile women with stage III-IV endometriosis (28.9 ± 2.1 ng/mL than in healthy controls (13.2 ± 2.1 ng/mL. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in infertile women with stage III-IV endometriosis (20.1 ± 1.3 ng/mL than in controls (10.5 ± 1.4 ng/mL. Cortisol and prolactin levels in follicular fluid and peritoneal fluid did not differ significantly between groups. The high levels of cortisol and prolactin in the serum from women with endometriosis might contribute to the subfertility frequently associated with the disease. Moreover, since higher levels of cortisol and prolactin are often associated with stress, it is probable that stress might contribute to the development of endometriosis and its progression to advanced stages of the disease.

  3. Association of Aldosterone and Cortisol with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Prehypertension Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiqa Badar Syed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Pakistani population has higher incidence of cardiovascular (CV diseases at younger ages, due to undiagnosed, uncontrolled hypertension (HTN. A variety of associated HTN stressors is also reported. The study plans to understand the variables associated with initiation of HTN in this population. Objective. To find plasma aldosterone and cortisol relationship with some CV risk factors (obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, sodium and potassium in different stages of HTN particularly prehypertension. Subjects and Methods. The study conducted on 276 subjects (25–60 years, classified into prehypertensive (=55, HTN stage-1 (=70 and II (=76 according to 7th JNC report and compared with normotensive controls (=75. The anthropometric profiles (height, weight, waist circumference, Body Mass index and BP recorded. Serum cortisol, aldosterone, total cholesterol, Low density lipoproteins, blood glucose, Na+ and K+, using standard laboratory techniques, were determined in fasting blood samples. Results. Subjects were mostly overweight and obese (80%, 90%, and 76% in pre-HTN, stage-I and II versus 69% in controls. The aldosterone level (ng/dl was in higher normal range (9.17–12.41 and significantly correlated to BMI (0.587 in controls, and to TC (0.726 and LDL (0.620 in pre-HTN stage-I. The cortisol level was positively correlated (25. Conclusion. Pre-HTN stage among Pakistani population with successive increase in various risk factors of HTN in relation to aldosterone and cortisol has been identified. Interaction of the risk factors with endogenous levels of these hormones may initiate stages of HTN.

  4. Comparative study of the second antibody for radioimmunoassay totally produced in the country to a similar imported one (sheep serum anti-rabbit IgG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.R. da; Borghi, V.C.; Wajchenberg, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    This work compares a second antibody for radioimmunoassay (RIA) produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP with a commercial one of known quality, produced by Radioassay Systems Laboratories, U.S.A.. This antiserum, sheep serum anti-rabbit IgG produced in its totality in the country, presented title and precipitation characteristics similar to those exhibited by the commercial product, being as suitable for the RIA separation as its imported similar. (author)

  5. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall...... sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity...... and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep...

  6. PENGARUH MINUMAN FUNGSIONAL MENGANDUNG TEPUNG KEDELAI KAYA ISOFLAVON DAN SERAT PANGAN LARUT TERHADAP KADAR TOTAL KOLESTEROL DAN TRIGLISERIDA SERUM TIKUS PERCOBAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Eva Nirmagustina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of functional drink that containe soybean flour rich in isoflavone, soluble dietary fiber, and other ingredients on the level of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and trigliseride in rat blood serum.  The formulation of functional drink consisted of soybean flour rich in isoflavone (0,115 g, soluble dietary fiber (fibergum (3 g, vitamine C (0,06 g; sucrosa (6,605 g; aspartam (0,02 g; and flavour (orange (0,2 g in 200 ml functional drink.  The total concentration of soybean flour rich in isoflavone, soluble dietary fiber (fibergum, and vitamine C was based on optimation of human need.  Whereas the concentration of sucrosa, aspartam, and flavour (orange based on organoleptic evaluation.  The result showed that functional drink caused a decrease the level of total blood serum rat colesterol after 1 and 2 month.  The HDL level of serum rat fed with standard ransum contain cholesterol was lower than the rat fed with sandard ransum only after 1 and 2 month because this was probably due to regulation feedback colesterol making in heart by enzim reductase HMG CoA. The functional drink caused decrease HDL level after 2 month . The functional drink also caused decrease the level of LDL and trigliseride after 2 month Keyword: functional drink, soy flour, isoflavon, soluble fiber, cholesterol, triglyseride

  7. Reduced Cortisol Output during Public Speaking Stress in Ostracized Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, Ulrike; Ruhweza, Jennifer; Deinzer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Ostracism (being excluded or ignored) is experienced as unpleasant and distressing. In previous studies, an immediate pre-stress experience of ostracism induced by Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, was found to inhibit cortisol reactivity to public speaking stress in female students. The present study examines whether the effect will persist when a 15-min time gap between the Cyberball experience and subsequent psychological stress is introduced. N = 84 women were randomly assigned to Cyberball ostracism vs. inclusion. 15 min after playing Cyberball, all women were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol and mood were repeatedly assessed during the course of the experiment. These are the main findings of the study: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that public speaking stress resulted in a significant increase of cortisol in both groups (inclusion vs. ostracism). However, cortisol levels were significantly lower in the ostracism group. In earlier studies when Cyberball was played immediately before public speaking stress, the cortisol response to public speaking was completely suppressed in ostracized women. By introducing a waiting period between Cyberball and public speaking stress in the present study, the main effect of an ostracism induced reduction of cortisol remained, although both groups showed an increase of cortisol as a response to public speaking. These results again suggest that the experience of ostracism might inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, thereby confirming previous results. The formerly observed total suppression of HPA axis responsiveness to public speaking, however, seems to be a rather short-term effect.

  8. A comparison of the effects of 2 doses of soy protein or casein on serum lipids, serum lipoproteins, and plasma total homocysteine in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Smerud, Knut; Høie, Lars

    2002-07-01

    Studies have shown that soy protein reduces some atherogenic lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, although lipoprotein(a) concentrations may be increased. The dose response of soy protein has not been established; neither has its effect on plasma total homocysteine. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of 2 doses of soy protein on lipid, lipoprotein, and homocysteine concentrations. Four to 24 wk after being instructed to consume a lipid-lowering diet, 130 men and women with LDL-cholesterol concentrations > or = 4 mmol/L were studied during a parallel group trial in which 4 interventions were assigned randomly. Thirty grams isolated soy protein (ISP) and 10 g cotyledon fiber or 50 g ISP and 16.6 g cotyledon fiber or equivalent doses of casein and cellulose were consumed daily as a beverage for 16 wk. When the 2 groups who consumed ISP were compared with the 2 groups who consumed casein, the differences in the net changes from baseline to week 16 in the concentrations of LDL cholesterol and plasma total homocysteine were -0.26 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.43, -0.09 mmol/L; P = 0.01) and -0.8 micromol/L (-1.4, -0.2 micromol/L; P = 0.005), respectively. The effect of the ISP dose was not significant. There were no significant differences between the 2 ISP and the 2 casein groups in changes in lipoprotein(a), HDL-cholesterol, or triacylglycerol concentrations. Adding 30-50 g soy protein/d to a lipid-lowering diet significantly reduced LDL-cholesterol concentrations without increasing lipoprotein(a) concentrations. Plasma total homocysteine concentrations also decreased, suggesting a novel, possibly antiatherosclerotic effect.

  9. Diagnostic value of serum free PSA and the ratio of free to total PSA in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Ningyan; Zhang Jingxin; Wu Jinchang; Gong Yiming; Li Huiping

    2005-01-01

    In order to evaluate the value of free prostate specific antigen (FPSA) and F/T PSA ratio in differential diagnosis of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) from prostate cancer (PC), serum FPSA and TPSA levels were measured in 85 patients with PC, 97 BPH and 89 healthy volunteers by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA), and the ratio of F/T PSA was calculated. The results showed that serum FPSA and TPSA levels were increased in healthy volunteers of 41-88 years old and were significantly higher in healthy volunteers of 61-88 years old than that in 20-40 gear old (P 10.0 μg/L were 65.0%, 30.9% and 4.1%, respectively, while they were 5.9%, 20.0% and 74.1% in PC patients (P<0.01). When the TPSA value was between 4.0-10.0 μg/L and the ratio of F/T PSA was at 0.10 and below, the probability of PC was larger(88.9%). But the ratio of F/T PSA was at 0.25 and above, the probability of PC was smaller(6.20%). Serum FPSA and TPSA both increased with age in healthy volunteers of 41-88 years old and were positively correlated with age. There were about 30.9% of BPH and 20.0% of PC patients with overlapping of TPSA level. Our conclusion is that the F/T PSA ratio can significantly enhance the specificity for PC diagnosis, especially when the TPSA is within the diagnostic gray zone. (authors)

  10. Mildly elevated serum total bilirubin is negatively associated with hemoglobin A1c independently of confounding factors among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Kawamoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally high glycated hemoglobin (Hb (HbA1c is significantly associated with oxidative stress and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Serum total bilirubin (T-B may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes and be a negative risk factor of CVD. Limited information is available on whether serum T-B is an independent confounding factor of HbA1c. The study subjects were 633 men aged 70 ± 9 (mean ± standard deviation (SD years and 878 women aged 70 ± 8 years who were enrolled consecutively from among patients aged ≥40 years through a community-based annual check-up process. We evaluated the relationship between various confounding factors including serum T-B and HbA1c in each gender. Multiple linear regression analysis pertaining to HbA1c showed that in men, serum T-B ( β = −0.139 as well as waist circumference ( β = 0.099, exercise habit ( β = 0.137, systolic blood pressure (SBP ( β = 0.076, triglycerides ( β = 0.087, and uric acid ( β = −0.123 were significantly and independently associated with HbA1c, and in women, serum T-B ( β = −0.084 as well as body mass index ( β = 0.090, smoking status ( β = −0.077, SBP ( β = 0.117, diastolic blood pressure (DBP ( β = −0.155, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( β = 0.074, prevalence of antidyslipidemic medication ( β = 0.174, and uric acid ( β = 0.090 were also significantly and independently associated with HbA1c. Multivariate-adjusted serum HbA1c levels were significantly high in subjects with the lowest serum T-B levels in both genders. Serum T-B is an independent confounding factor for HbA1c among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons.

  11. The impact of hypoxemia on serum total and free prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, Cengiz; Bozlu, Murat; Ozgur, Eylem Sercan; Tek, Mesut; Tunckiran, Ahmet; Muslu, Necati; Ilvan, Ahmet

    2015-05-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most important biochemical marker in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with prostate cancer. In recent years, a relationship between PSA levels and hypoxic conditions has been described. However, no study has investigated the PSA levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of hypoxemia on serum total (tPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) levels in patients with COPD. Between January 2010 and January 2014, 95 male patients who hospitalized for acute exacerbations of COPD and 80 control subjects were enrolled in the study. Serum tPSA and fPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios were determined in all patients on the first day of hospitalization (exacerbation) and 7 days after the treatment (stable state). Statistical analysis included paired t test and Mann-Whitney U test. No statistically significant differences were found between COPD and control groups with regard to the baseline characteristics, except for smoking status. The levels of serum tPSA and fPSA during exacerbation of COPD were significantly higher than the levels of the stable period (p 0.05). Hypoxemia during acute exacerbation of COPD can cause a rise in serum tPSA and fPSA levels, but f/tPSA ratio is not affected. Acute exacerbation of COPD may be added to list of the events in which PSA measurements must be interpreted with caution.

  12. The validation & verification of an LC/MS method for the determination of total docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in canine blood serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Gerald Patrick; Keegan, Jason D; Wallace, Geoff; Yiannikouris, Alexandros; Moran, Colm Anthony

    2018-06-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is an omega 3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) that has been shown to play a role in canine growth and physiological integrity and improvements in skin and coat condition. However, potential adverse effects of n-3 FA specifically, impaired cellular immunity has been observed in dogs fed diets with elevated levels of n-3 FA. As such, a safe upper limit (SUL) for total n-3 FAs (DHA and EPA) in dogs has been established. Considering this SUL, sensitive methods detecting DHA in blood serum as a biomarker when conducting n-3 FA supplementation trials involving dogs are required. In this study, an LC-ESI-MS/MS method of DHA detection in dog serum was validated and verified. Recovery of DHA was optimized and parallelism tests were conducted with spiked samples demonstrating that the serum matrix did not interfere with quantitation. The stability of DHA in serum was also investigated, with -80 °C considered suitable when storing samples for up to six months. The method was linear over a calibration range of 1-500 μg/mL and precision and accuracy were found to meet the requirements for validation. This method was verified in an alternative laboratory using a different analytical system and operator, with the results meeting the criteria for verification. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Development of the cortisol circadian rhythm in the light of stress early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sterre S H; Beijers, Roseriet; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-12-01

    The secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a diurnal circadian rhythm. There are indications that this rhythm is affected by stress early in life. This paper addresses the development of the cortisol circadian rhythm between 1 and 6 years of age, and the role of maternal stress and anxiety early in the child's life on this (developing) rhythm. Participants were 193 healthy mother-child dyads from a community sample. Self-reported maternal stress and anxiety and physiological stress (saliva cortisol), were assessed prenatally (gestational week 37). Postnatally, self-reported maternal stress and anxiety were measured at 3, 6, 12, 30, and 72 months. Saliva cortisol samples from the children were collected on two days (four times each day) at 12, 30, and 72 months of age. The total amount of cortisol during the day and the cortisol decline over the day were determined to indicate children's cortisol circadian rhythm. Multilevel analyses showed that the total amount of cortisol decreased between 1 and 6 years. Furthermore, more maternal pregnancy-specific stress was related to higher total amounts of cortisol in the child. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal anxiety were associated with flatter cortisol declines in children. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal daily hassles were associated with steeper child cortisol declines over the day. These results indicated developmental change in children's cortisol secretion from 1 to 6 years and associations between maternal stress and anxiety early in children's lives and children's cortisol circadian rhythm in early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison between Total Parenteral Nutrition Vs. Partial Parenteral Nutrition on Serum Lipids Among Chronic Ventilator Dependent Patients; A Multi Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radpay, Rojan; Poor Zamany Nejat Kermany, Mahtab; Radpay, Badiozaman

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is very common among chronically hospitalized patients, especially those in the intensive care unit (ICU). Identifying the patients at risk and providing suitable nutritional support can prevent and/or overcome malnutrition in them. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and partial parenteral nutrition (PPN) are two common routes to deliver nutrition to hospitalized patients. We conducted a multicenter, prospective double blind randomized controlled trial to evaluate the benefits and compare their adverse effects of each method. 97 patients were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the inclusion criteria. Serum protein, serum albumin, serum transferrin, and total lymphocyte count were measured on days 7 and 14. We did not find any statistically significant differences in clinical status or laboratory values between the two groups but there were significant improvements in measured lab values between days 7 and 14 (pnutritional status in each groups. This study shows that both TPN and PPN can be used safely in chronic ICU patients to provide nutritional support and prevent catabolic state among chronic critically ill patients. We need to develop precise selection criteria in order to choose the patients who would benefit the most from TPN and PPN. In addition, appropriate laboratory markers are needed to monitor the metabolic requirements of the patients and assess their progress.

  15. Fabrication and Optimization of ChE/ChO/HRP-AuNPs/c-MWCNTs Based Silver Electrode for Determining Total Cholesterol in Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum Lata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed method used three enzymes comprised of cholesterol esterase, cholesterol oxidase, and peroxidase for fabrication of amperometric biosensor in order to determine total cholesterol in serum samples. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs were used to design core of working electrode, having covalently immobilized ChO, ChE, and HRP. Polyacrylamide layer was finally coated on working electrode in order to prevent enzyme leaching. Chemically synthesised Au nanoparticles were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM for analysing the shape and size of the particles. Working electrode was subjected to FTIR and XRD. The combined action of AuNP and c-MWCNT showed enhancement in electrocatalytic activity at a very low potential of 0.27 V. The pH 7, temperature 40°C, and response time of 20 seconds, respectively, were observed. The biosensor shows a broad linear range from 0.5 mg/dL to 250 mg/dL (0.01 mM–5.83 mM with minimum detection limit being 0.5 mg/dL (0.01 mM. The biosensor showed reusability of more than 45 times and was stable for 60 days. The biosensor was successfully tested for determining total cholesterol in serum samples amperometrically with no significant interference by serum components.

  16. Serum Total Tryptase Level Confirms Itself as a More Reliable Marker of Mast Cells Burden in Mast Cell Leukaemia (Aleukaemic Variant

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    P. Savini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cell leukemia (MCL is a very rare form of systemic mastocytosis (SM with a short median survival of 6 months. We describe a case of a 65-year-old woman with aleukaemic variant of MCL with a very high serum total tryptase level of 2255 μg/L at diagnosis, which occurred following an episode of hypotensive shock. She fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of SM, with a bone marrow smear infiltration of 50–60% of atypical mast cells (MCs. She tested negative for the KIT D816V mutation, without any sign of organ damage (no B- or C-findings and only few mediator-related symptoms. She was treated with antihistamine alone and then with imatinib for the appearance of anemia. She maintained stable tryptase level and a very indolent clinical course for twenty-two months; then, she suddenly progressed to acute MCL with a serum tryptase level up to 12960 μg/L. The patient died due to haemorrhagic diathesis twenty-four months after diagnosis. This clinical case maybe represents an example of the chronic form of mast cell leukemia, described as unpredictable disease, in which the serum total tryptase level has confirmed itself as a reliable marker of mast cells burden regardless of the presence of other signs or symptoms.

  17. Multiple Salivary Cortisol Measurements Are a Useful Tool to Optimize Metyrapone Treatment in Patients with Cushing's Syndromes Treatment: Case Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenichi; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Odake, Yukiko; Nakajima, Shinsuke; Tachibana, Mariko; Ito, Jun; Hosokawa, Yusei; Yamada, Tomoko; Miura, Hiroshi; Suematsu, Natsu; Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Bando, Hironori; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Iguchi, Genzo; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Measuring salivary cortisol is both convenient and non-invasive for patients; however, its usefulness as a marker for monitoring medical therapy has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of multiple salivary cortisol measurements in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) during medical therapy. Six patients with CS (three with cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenoma and three with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma) were recruited. Samples for morning serum cortisol, urinary free cortisol (UFC), and multiple salivary cortisol levels were collected before and during metyrapone treatment. The area under the curve (AUC) and mean value (MV) of daily salivary cortisol levels were calculated. In five out of six patients, UFC were normalized; however, multiple salivary cortisol measurements revealed an impaired diurnal cortisol rhythm in these patients. To verify the usefulness of multiple salivary cortisol measurements, we performed a prospective case study of a patient in whom the excess secretion of cortisol was not controlled (UFC 211 μg/day) with 2,250 mg/day in four divided doses of metyrapone. Multiple measurements of salivary cortisol revealed that cortisol levels elevated before the next administration. Accordingly, we shortened the interval by increasing the number of administration from four to five times per day, with a slight increment of daily dose of 2,500 mg. These optimizations resulted in a drastic improvement of diurnal pattern as well as UFC level (101 μg/day). Changes in both the MV and AUC of salivary cortisol levels were more correlated with those in UFC levels (Correlation coefficient 0.75, p  = 0.007, and 0.70, p  = 0.017) than those in the morning serum cortisol levels (0.42, p  = 0.200), indicating that multiple salivary cortisol measurements reflect more precisely the excess secretion of cortisol. Our preliminary data suggest that multiple salivary cortisol measurements can be a useful

  18. The Effect of Cloud Ear Fungus (Auricularia polytricha on Serum Total Cholesterol, LDL And HDL Levels on Wistar Rats Induced by Reused Cooking Oil

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    Budinastiti Ratih

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of reused cooking oil affects the increase of serum total cholesterol (TC and LDL, also the decrease of serum HDL. This condition escalates the risk of atherosclerosis, which could lead to the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Cloud ear fungus is a natural antioxidant that contains polysaccharides, flavonoids, niacin, and vitamin C, which can improve the lipid profiles. Objective of this research is to analyze the impact of water from boiled cloud ear fungus on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL level of Wistar rats that have been given reused cooking oil. This study is a true experimental research with post test only control group design, using 12 weeks-aged male Wistar rats (n = 24 that were randomly divided into 4 groups. K1 as the negative control, K2 was given reused cooking oil and standard diet, K3 was given water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet, and K4 was given reused cooking oil, water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet. Serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were measured by the CHOD-PAP method after 28 days treatment. The study showed that TC mean value of K1 (80.2217 ± 3.61 mg / dL, K2 (195.8483 ± 5.47 mg / dL, K3 (75.5800 ± 4.02 mg / dL, and K4 (110.8683 ± 5.82 mg / dL; p = 0.000. LDL mean value of K1 (29.9200 ± 1.53 mg / dL, K2 (78.4167 ± 1.77 mg / dL, K3 (24.3167 ± 1.77 mg / dL, and K4 (40, 1617 ± 2.84 mg / dL; p = 0.000. HDL mean value of K1 (65.8950 ± 1.99 mg / dL, K2 (24.3233 ± 1.44 mg / dL, K3 (73.2300 ± 1.92 mg / dL, and K4 (54, 9550 ± 2.04 mg / dL; p= 0.000. Conclusion: Water from boiled cloud ear fungus decreases the serum total cholesterol and LDL, 06006 increases serum HDL levels of Wistar rats that has been given reused cooking oil.

  19. The Effect of Cloud Ear Fungus (Auricularia polytricha) on Serum Total Cholesterol, LDL And HDL Levels on Wistar Rats Induced by Reused Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinastiti, Ratih; Sunoko, Henna Rya; Widiastiti, Nyoman Suci

    2018-02-01

    The usage of reused cooking oil affects the increase of serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL, also the decrease of serum HDL. This condition escalates the risk of atherosclerosis, which could lead to the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Cloud ear fungus is a natural antioxidant that contains polysaccharides, flavonoids, niacin, and vitamin C, which can improve the lipid profiles. Objective of this research is to analyze the impact of water from boiled cloud ear fungus on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL level of Wistar rats that have been given reused cooking oil. This study is a true experimental research with post test only control group design, using 12 weeks-aged male Wistar rats (n = 24) that were randomly divided into 4 groups. K1 as the negative control, K2 was given reused cooking oil and standard diet, K3 was given water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet, and K4 was given reused cooking oil, water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet. Serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were measured by the CHOD-PAP method after 28 days treatment. The study showed that TC mean value of K1 (80.2217 ± 3.61 mg / dL), K2 (195.8483 ± 5.47 mg / dL), K3 (75.5800 ± 4.02 mg / dL), and K4 (110.8683 ± 5.82 mg / dL); p = 0.000. LDL mean value of K1 (29.9200 ± 1.53 mg / dL), K2 (78.4167 ± 1.77 mg / dL), K3 (24.3167 ± 1.77 mg / dL), and K4 (40, 1617 ± 2.84 mg / dL); p = 0.000. HDL mean value of K1 (65.8950 ± 1.99 mg / dL), K2 (24.3233 ± 1.44 mg / dL), K3 (73.2300 ± 1.92 mg / dL), and K4 (54, 9550 ± 2.04 mg / dL); p= 0.000. Conclusion: Water from boiled cloud ear fungus decreases the serum total cholesterol and LDL, 06006 increases serum HDL levels of Wistar rats that has been given reused cooking oil.

  20. Total Effective Xenoestrogen Burden in Serum Samples and Risk for Breast Cancer in a Population-Based Multicase–Control Study in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Fernández, Mariana F.; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Whelan, Denis; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Llorca, Javier; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Guevara, Marcela; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Barriuso-Lapresa, Laura; Tusquets, Ignasi; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Aragonés, Nuria; Olea, Nicolás; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollán, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most studies on endocrine-disrupting chemicals and breast cancer have focused on single compounds and have produced inconclusive findings. Objectives: We assessed the combined estrogenic effects of mixtures of xenoestrogens in serum and their relationship to breast cancer risk. Methods: A total of 186 incident pretreatment breast cancer cases and 196 frequency-matched controls were randomly sampled from a large population-based multicase–control study in Spain. The total effective xenoestrogen burden attributable to organohalogenated xenoestrogens (TEXB-α) and endogenous hormones and more polar xenoestrogens (TEXB-β) was determined in serum samples using high-performance liquid chromatography and E-Screen bioassay. Odds ratios for breast cancer comparing tertiles of serum TEXB-α and TEXB-β were estimated using logistic models, and smooth risk trends were obtained using spline models. Results: Cases had higher geometric mean TEXB-α and TEXB-β levels (8.32 and 9.94 Eeq pM/mL, respectively) than controls (2.99 and 5.96 Eeq pM/mL, respectively). The fully adjusted odds ratios for breast cancer (95% confidence intervals) comparing the second and third tertiles of TEXB-α with the first tertile were 1.77 (0.76, 4.10) and 3.45 (1.50, 7.97), respectively, and those for TEXB-β were 2.35 (1.10, 5.03) and 4.01 (1.88, 8.56), respectively. A steady increase in risk was evident across all detected TEXB-α levels and a sigmoidal trend was observed for TEXB-β. Individual xenoestrogens showed weak and opposing associations with breast cancer risk. Conclusions: This is the first study to show a strong positive association between serum total xenoestrogen burden and breast cancer risk, highlighting the importance of evaluating xenoestrogen mixtures, rather than single compounds, when studying hormone-related cancers. Citation: Pastor-Barriuso R, Fernández MF, Castaño-Vinyals G, Whelan D, Pérez-Gómez B, Llorca J, Villanueva CM, Guevara M, Molina-Molina JM

  1. Serial changes of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone after total thyroidectomy or withdrawal of suppressive thyroxine therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jin Ho; Lee, Jae Tae; Seo, Ji Hyoung [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy and whole-body scanning are the fundamentals of treatment and follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is generally accepted that a Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level of at least 30 {mu}U/ml is a prerequisite for the effective use of RAI, and that it requires 4-6 weeks of off-thyroxine to attain these levels. Because thyroxine withdrawal and the consequent hypothyroidism are often poorly tolerated, and occasionally might be hazardous, it is important to be certain that these assumptions are correct. We have measured serial changes in serum TSH after total thyroidectomy or withdrawl of thyroxine in patients with thyroid cancer. Serum TSH levels were measured weekly after thyroidectomy in 10 patients (group A) and after the discontinuation of thyroxine in 12 patients (group B). Symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism were also evaluated weekly by modified Billewicz diagnostic index. By the second week, 78% of group A patients and 17% of group B patients had serum TSH levels {>=} 30 {mu}U/ml. By the third week, 89% of group A patients and 90% of group B patients had serum TSH levels {>=} 30 {mu}U/ml. By the fourth week, all patients in two groups achieved target TSH levels and there were no overt hypothyroidism. In all patients, serum TSH elevated to the target concentration ({>=} 30 {mu}U/ml) within 4 weeks without significant manifestation of hypothyroidism. The schedule of RAI administration could be adjusted to fit. the needs and circumstances of individual patients with a shorter preparation period than the conventional.

  2. Estimation of serum, salivary immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A levels and total protein, hemoglobin in smokeless tobacco chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakanth Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a debilitating, potentially cancerous oral condition. Although areca nut is the most important causative agent, it is also considered that the disease is immunologically mediated. Aim of the Study: To establish that autoimmunity and nutritional deficiency play a role in the etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Objectives of the Study: To show that serum immunoglobulin markers (immunoglobulin-G [IgG], immunoglobulin-A [IgA] and nutritional parameters such as total serum protein (TSP, Hemoglobin (Hb play a role in causing OSMF and also to correlate serum, salivary IgG, IgA levels in OSMF patients. Settings and Design: A case-control study was done with 50 patients (25 patients who were provisionally diagnosed as OSMF - Group I, and 25 patients who were chronic smokeless tobacco chewers and who did not have any intraoral lesion - Group II. Materials and Methods: Five milliliters of blood and saliva were collected from both the groups. Quantitative analysis of serum, and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hemoglobin (Hb were estimated by spectrophotometry. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed by independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: All patients of OSMF showed significant (P < 0.01 increase in serum IgG, IgA, and salivary IgG levels as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. The salivary IgA levels showed a significant decrease in OSMF patients (P < 0.05. TSP and Hb levels showed significant (P < 0.01 decrease in OSMF patients as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. Conclusion: The elevation of immunoglobulin levels supports the concept of autoimmunity. The decrease in TSP and Hb suggests that nutritional deficiency plays a defined role in the occurrence as well as a further progression of OSMF.

  3. Effect of Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Total Cholesterol and High-Sensitivity C-reactive Protein in High-Risk Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming Yu; Xue, Feng Hua; Teng, Shi Chao; Jiang, Li; Zhu, Jing; Yin, Feng; Gu, Hong Yue

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and total cholesterol in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in Asia. By searching English and Chinese language-based electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, SpringerLink, Wiley, Web of Science, Wanfang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP database), we identified 13 studies relevant to our topic of interest. Data were collected from the 13 studies and analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (version 2.0, Biostat Inc., Englewood, New Jersey). Initially, our database searches retrieved 356 studies (45 in English, 311 in Chinese). Thirteen studies were selected for the meta-analysis following stringent criteria. The data included 1239 patients with AF, of whom 634 were treated with atorvastatin and included in the treatment group, and 605 patients were treated with conventional treatment and included in the control group. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that the serum levels of hs-CRP (mg/L) and total cholesterol (mmol/L) in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (hs-CRP: standardized mean difference = 0.962; 95% CI, 0.629-1.295, P < 0.001; total cholesterol: standardized mean difference = 1.400; 95% CI, 0.653-2.146, P < 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that atorvastatin may be very effective in decreasing serum levels of hs-CRP and total cholesterol to prevent cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cortisol in urine and saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz Eller, N; Netterstrøm, B; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis.......The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis....

  5. Optimizing the radioimmunologic determination methods for cortisol and calcitonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalla, G.

    1981-01-01

    In order to build up a specific 125-iodine cortisol radioimmunoassay (RIA) pure cortisol-3(0-carbodxymethyl) oxim was synthesized for teh production of antigens and tracers. The cortisol was coupled with tyrosin methylester and then labelled with 125-iodine. For the antigen production the cortisol derivate was coupled with the same method to thyreoglobulin. The major part of the antisera, which were obtained like this, presented high titres. Apart from a high specificity for cortisol a high affinity was found in the acid pH-area and quantified with a particularly developed computer program. An extractive step in the cortisol RIA could be prevented by efforts. The assay was carried out with an optimized double antibody principle: The reaction time between the first and the second antiserum was considerably accelerated by the administration of polyaethylenglycol. The assay can be carried out automatically by applying a modular analysis system, which operates fast and provides a large capacity. The required quality and accuracy controls were done. The comparison of this assay with other cortisol-RIA showed good correlation. The RIA for human clacitonin was improved. For separating bound and freely mobile hormones the optimized double-antibody technique was applied. The antiserum was examined with respect to its affinity to calcitonin. For the 'zero serum' production the Florisil extraction method was used. The criteria of the quality and accuracy controls were complied. Significantly increased calcitonin concentrations were found in a patient group with medullar thyroid carcinoma and in two patients with an additional phaechromocytoma. (orig./MG) [de

  6. The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizome and curcumin on total and differential WBC and serum oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers in rat model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Farzaneh; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    The effects of Curcuma longa ( C. longa ) and curcumin on total and differential WBC count and oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers, in rat model of asthma were evaluated. Total and differential WBC count in the blood, NO 2 , NO 3 , MDA, SOD, CAT and thiol levels in serum were examined in control, asthma, Asthmatic rats treated with C. longa (0.75, 1.50, and 3.00 mg/ml), curcumin (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml), and dexamethasone (1.25 μg/ml) rats. Total and most differential WBC count, NO 2 , NO 3 and MDA were increased but lymphocytes, SOD, CAT and thiol were decreased in asthmatic animals compared to controls ( P longa and curcumin compared to asthmatic group ( P longa and curcumin ( P longa extract and its constituent curcumin in animal model of asthma was observed which suggest a therapeutic potential for the plant and its constituent on asthma.

  7. GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms and total serum GST concentration in stable male COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žuntar Irena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that glutathione- S-transferase (GST genotypes were associated with COPD. GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes were determined by DNA methods and GST activity spectrophotometrically in older male Caucasian Croats (non- -smokers, ex-smokers, and smokers with stable COPD (n = 30 and sex/age matched controls (n = 60. The distribution of GSTP1 genotypes and alleles in controls vs. COPD showed a statistical difference (p < 0.05. The odds ratio of CC/CT+TT (wild type GSTP1 exon 6 vs. joint heterozygous and mutant homozygous GSTP1 exon 6 was 10.000 and statistically different (p = 0.002. In this study, the GSTP1 mutant genotype of exon 5 (GG, as well as GSTP1 mutant and heterozygous genotypes of exon 6 (TT and CT, were suggested to be genetic contributors to COPD susceptibility. Null GSTM1, null GSTT1 and joint GSTM1/GSTT1 null genotypes were not disease associated. Serum GST was not associated with GST genotypes and COPD or smoking history in our study subjects. Conclusions drawn from the study should be further supported and clarified by studies with larger sample sizes.

  8. Relationship between circulating serum osteoprotegerin and total receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand levels, triglycerides, and coronary calcification in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poornima, Indu G; Mackey, Rachel H; Buhari, Alhaji M; Cauley, Jane A; Matthews, Karen A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluates the relationship of blood osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand (RANKL) levels with coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cardiovascular risk factors in two studies of postmenopausal women. OPG, a marker of bone turnover, and its ligand, RANKL, may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. We tested the hypothesis that serum OPG and RANKL levels were associated with CAC and cardiovascular disease risk factors among postmenopausal women in the Women On the Move through Activity and Nutrition Study (WOMAN Study; n = 86; mean [SD], age 58 [2.9] y) and replicated our findings in the Healthy Women Study (HWS; n = 205; mean [SD] age, 61 [2.3] y). Serum OPG, total RANKL, and CAC were measured at baseline and 48 months in the WOMAN Study and on the eighth postmenopausal visit in the HWS. In the WOMAN Study, higher OPG was associated with higher CAC, and higher total RANKL was associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In the HWS, higher total RANKL was also associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In logistic regression models adjusted for body mass index and triglycerides, the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in OPG were 1.78 (1.17-2.73) for the WOMAN Study and 1.02 (0.84-1.24) for the HWS, and the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in log total RANKL were 0.86 (0.64-1.17) for the WOMAN Study and 0.83 (0.72-0.96) for the HWS. The inverse association of total RANKL with CAC and triglycerides is a new finding and may have important implications given the increasing use of drugs that modify total RANKL and its receptor, receptor activator of nuclear κ-B.

  9. Association between total serum cholesterol and suicide attempts in subjects with major depressive disorder: Exploring the role of clinical and biochemical confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Dakanalis, Antonios; Riboldi, Ilaria; Miotto, Alessio; Brosio, Enrico; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    We tested whether serum total cholesterol levels might be associated with recent suicide attempts in subjects with major depressive disorder, after controlling for relevant individual characteristics. We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study including consecutive inpatients with major depressive disorder. We differentiated subjects admitted for a recent serious (violent or non-violent) suicide attempt and those without such recent history. Total cholesterol was measured from fasting blood tests. At univariate analyses, suicide attempters had levels of total cholesterol (174.0±45.7mg/dL) lower than non-attempters (193.9±42.6mg/dL) (p=0.004). This was confirmed among both violent (174.1±46.2mg/dL) and non-violent (173.8±46.1mg/dL) suicide attempters (p=0.035 and 0.016, respectively). However, logistic regression analyses, sequentially including demographic, clinical (comorbid alcohol and personality disorders), and biochemical factors, did not show any association between serum cholesterol and recent suicide attempts (p=0.172). Similar findings were observed in multinomial logistic regression analyses, for both violent (p=0.512) and non-violent (p=0.157) suicide attempts. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that serum cholesterol and suicide attempts are associated among subjects with major depressive disorder. The identification of valid and accessible biological markers of suicidal behaviors still represents a challenge for future research. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The bone mass density in men aged over 50 and its relation to the concentration of free and total testosterone in the blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purzycka-Jazdon, A.; Lasek, W.; Serafin, Z.; Manysiak, S.

    2003-01-01

    As the mean length of life increases, osteoporosis affects a growing number of men and women, thus becoming an important medical and socioeconomic problem in many countries. Pathogenesis and the prevalence of the osteoporosis in women are well established, however, in men, they are still controversial. In this study, the bone mass density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was determined in 100 healthy men age 50-83, using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Also, the total serum and free testosterone was measured. The mean BMD was 123.1I39.3 mg/cm 3 , and the values below a fracture threshold were noted in 39% of subjects. The mean concentration of total and free serum testosterone was 4.3I1.7 ng/ml and 6.2I3.7 pg/ml, respectively. There was a significant (p 3 , respectively). There was no correlation found between total testosterone and BMD. Results indicate that reduced bone mass density in males over 50 is as frequent as recently reported in females. Moreover, sex hormones seem to be related to osteoporosis development in men as well. (author)

  11. Uric Acid or 1-Methyl Uric Acid in the Urinary Bladder Increases Serum Glucose, Insulin, True Triglyceride, and Total Cholesterol Levels in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs, can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels.

  12. Analysis of some chosen elements of cerebrospinal fluid and serum in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostachowicz, B.; Lankosz, M.; Tomik, B.; Adamek, D.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.; Kregsamer, P.

    2006-01-01

    Trace elements play an important role in the human central nervous system. Significant variations of the concentration of trace elements in body fluids may occur in neurodegenerative diseases. In the present work an investigation of the elemental composition of the serum, and the cerebrospinal fluid in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and a control group was performed. For the analysis of the body fluids Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry was used. The samples were taken during routine diagnostic procedures. Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, and Br were determined in both fluids. In order to validate the results of analysis a serum standard reference material was measured. A t-test was applied to check if the mean concentrations of the elements are different for ALS and the control group. For the serum samples higher values for Br were found in the ALS group, for the cerebrospinal fluid lower values of Na, Mg and Zn as well as higher Ca values were found in the ALS group compared to the control group

  13. Analysis of some chosen elements of cerebrospinal fluid and serum in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostachowicz, B. [Department of Radiometric Analyses, Faculty of Physic and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland); Lankosz, M. [Department of Radiometric Analyses, Faculty of Physic and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland); Tomik, B. [Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Adamek, D. [Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Streli, C. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: streli@ati.ac.at; Kregsamer, P. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-11-15

    Trace elements play an important role in the human central nervous system. Significant variations of the concentration of trace elements in body fluids may occur in neurodegenerative diseases. In the present work an investigation of the elemental composition of the serum, and the cerebrospinal fluid in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and a control group was performed. For the analysis of the body fluids Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry was used. The samples were taken during routine diagnostic procedures. Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, and Br were determined in both fluids. In order to validate the results of analysis a serum standard reference material was measured. A t-test was applied to check if the mean concentrations of the elements are different for ALS and the control group. For the serum samples higher values for Br were found in the ALS group, for the cerebrospinal fluid lower values of Na, Mg and Zn as well as higher Ca values were found in the ALS group compared to the control group.

  14. Development of a simple method for the immobilization of anti-thyroxine antibody on polystyrene tubes for use in the measurement of total thyroxine in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani Gnanasekar; Shalaka Paradkar; Vijay Kadwad; Ketaki Bapat; Grace Samuel; Sachdev, S.S.; Sivaprasad, N.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a simple method for the immobilisation of anti-thyroxine antibody on to the surface of polystyrene tubes and a simple assay format for the quantitative estimation of total thyroxine in serum. The immobilisation of anti-thyroxine antibody was achieved through passive adsorption of normal rabbit gamma globulin and anti-rabbit antibody raised in goat, as immune bridges. This procedure ensured minimum utilisation of primary and secondary antibody as neat sera without precipitation or affinity purification. The developed assay system using these antibody coated tubes covers a range of 0-240 ng/mL of thyroxine with intra and inter assay variations of less than 10 %. (author)

  15. Modification of Death rate and Disturbances induced in the Levels of serum total Lipids and free fatty acids of irradiated rats by ascorbic acid and serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, A.M.; Saada, H.N.; Osama, Z.S.

    1999-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of normal rats with ascorbic acid (10 mg/100 g body weight ) or serotonin (2 mg/100 g body weight) had no harmful effect on the life span. Moreover, the levels of serum total lipids and free fatty acids did not show any significant changes at 3, 7, 10 and 14 days after injection. Administration of ascorbic acid or serotonin to rats at the pre mentioned doses, 15 minutes, before gamma irradiation at 7.5 Gy (single dose ) improved the survival time of rats and the hyperlipemic state recorded after radiation exposure

  16. Total serum IgE level influences oral food challenge tests for IgE-mediated food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimukai, K; Hayashi, K; Tsumura, Y; Nomura, I; Narita, M; Ohya, Y; Saito, H; Matsumoto, K

    2015-03-01

    Probability curves predicting oral food challenge test (OFC) results based on specific IgE levels are widely used to prevent serious allergic reactions. Although several confounding factors are known to affect probability curves, the main factors that affect OFC outcomes are currently unclear. We hypothesized that an increased total IgE level would reduce allergic reactivity. Medical records of 337 and 266 patients who underwent OFCs for 3.5 g boiled hen's egg white and 3.1 ml raw cow's milk, respectively, were examined retrospectively. We subdivided the patients into three groups based on total IgE levels and age by percentile (75th percentiles), and logistic regression analyses were performed on each group. Patients with higher total IgE levels were significantly less responsive. In addition, age did not significantly affect the OFC results. Therefore, total IgE levels should be taken into account when predicting OFC results based on food-specific IgE levels. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Low serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of 30 day hospital readmission in patients 65 years of age or older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Robinson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge is a target for health care cost savings through the medicare Value Based Purchasing initiative. Because of this focus, hospitals and health systems are investing considerable resources into the identification of patients at risk of hospital readmission and designing interventions to reduce the rate of hospital readmission. Malnutrition is a known risk factor for hospital readmission.Materials and Methods. All medical patients 65 years of age or older discharged from Memorial Medical Center from January 1, 2012 to March 31, 2012 who had a determination of serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count on hospital admission were studied retrospectively. Admission serum albumin levels and total lymphocyte counts were used to classify the nutritional status of all patients in the study. Patients with a serum albumin less than 3.5 grams/dL and/or a TLC less than 1,500 cells per mm3 were classified as having protein energy malnutrition. The primary outcome investigated in this study was hospital readmission for any reason within 30 days of discharge.Results. The study population included 1,683 hospital discharges with an average age of 79 years. The majority of the patients were female (55.9% and had a DRG weight of 1.22 (0.68. 219 patients (13% were readmitted within 30 days of hospital discharge. Protein energy malnutrition was common in this population. Low albumin was found in 973 (58% patients and a low TLC was found in 1,152 (68% patients. Low albumin and low TLC was found in 709 (42% of patients. Kaplan–Meier analysis shows any laboratory evidence of PEM is a significant (p < 0.001 predictor of hospital readmission. Low serum albumin (p < 0.001 and TLC (p = 0.018 show similar trends. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed low serum albumin (Hazard Ratio 3.27, 95% CI [2.30–4.63] and higher DRG weight (Hazard Ratio 1.19, 95% CI [1.03–1.38] to be significant

  18. Stress Hormone Cortisol Enhances Bcl2 Like-12 Expression to Inhibit p53 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weizhong; Liu, Sanguang; Liang, Yunfei; Zhou, Zegao; Bian, Wei; Liu, Xueqing

    2017-12-01

    The pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HC) is unclear. It is suggested that psychological stress associates with the pathogenesis of liver cancer. Bcl2-like protein 12 (Bcl2L12) suppresses p53 protein. This study tests a hypothesis that the major stress hormone, cortisol, inhibits the expression of p53 in HC cells (HCC) via up regulating the expression of Bcl2L12. Peripheral blood samples were collected from patients with HC to be analyzed for the levels of cortisol. HCC were cultured to assess the role of cortisol in the regulation of the expression of Bcl2L12 and p53 in HCC. We observed that the serum cortisol levels were higher in HC patients. Expression of Bcl2L12 in HCC was correlated with serum cortisol. Cortisol enhanced the Bcl2L12 expression in HCC. Bcl2L12 binding to the TP53 promoter was correlated with p53 expression in HCC. Cortisol increased the Bcl2L12 expression in HCC to inhibit p53 expression. Stress hormone cortisol suppresses p53 in HCC via enhancing Bcl2L12 expression in HCC. The results suggest that cortisol may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of HC.

  19. Plant sterol ester diet supplementation increases serum plant sterols and markers of cholesterol synthesis, but has no effect on total cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingärtner, Oliver; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Schirmer, Stephan H; Husche, Constanze; Vanmierlo, Tim; Wagenpfeil, Gudrun; Hoth, Markus; Böhm, Michael; Lütjohann, Dieter; Laufs, Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention-study was conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine on cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols and oxidative stress in serum and monocytes. Sixteen volunteers, average age 34 years, with no or mild hypercholesterolemia were subjected to a 4 week period of daily intake of 3g plant sterols per day supplied via a supplemented margarine on top of regular eating habits. After a wash-out period of one week, volunteers switched groups. Compared to placebo, a diet supplementation with plant sterols increased serum levels of plant sterols such as campesterol (+0.16±0.19mg/dL, p=0.005) and sitosterol (+0.27±0.18mg/dL, psynthesis such as desmosterol (+0.05±0.07mg/dL, p=0.006) as well as lathosterol (+0.11±0.16mg/dL, p=0.012). Cholesterol serum levels, however, were not changed significantly (+18.68±32.6mg/dL, p=0.052). These findings could not be verified in isolated circulating monocytes. Moreover, there was no effect on monocyte activation and no differences with regard to redox state after plant sterol supplemented diet. Therefore, in a population of healthy volunteers with no or mild hypercholesterolemia, consumption of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine results in increased concentrations of plant sterols and cholesterol synthesis markers without affecting total cholesterol in the serum, activation of circulating monocytes or redox state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Fe and Zn/Cu ratio in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Bellido, Alfredo Victor B.; Anjos, Marcelino J.

    2011-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. In this work we have analyzed serum samples from patients with SCA by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. We have studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 years old, suffering from SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years old. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Student's t-test was applied in order to check whether the two populations (CG x SCA) had the same mean values. It was observed that elemental concentration of P, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br differed significantly (α = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and SCA. The concentrations of K, Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger 15%, 120 % and 20 %, respectively, when compared with the CG. On the other hand, the concentrations of P (-20 %), Cl (-6 %), Zn (-25 %) and Br (-22 %) were smaller than the values determined for the control group. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples of patients with SCA group than the CG. So, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. (author)

  1. Evaluation of Fe and Zn/Cu ratio in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Instrumentaco Nuclear; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bellido, Alfredo Victor B., E-mail: alfredo@ien.gov.b [Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Chemistry Inst.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b [State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Physics Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. In this work we have analyzed serum samples from patients with SCA by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. We have studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 years old, suffering from SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years old. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Student's t-test was applied in order to check whether the two populations (CG x SCA) had the same mean values. It was observed that elemental concentration of P, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br differed significantly ({alpha} = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and SCA. The concentrations of K, Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger 15%, 120 % and 20 %, respectively, when compared with the CG. On the other hand, the concentrations of P (-20 %), Cl (-6 %), Zn (-25 %) and Br (-22 %) were smaller than the values determined for the control group. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples of patients with SCA group than the CG. So, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Fe and Zn/Cu ratio in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Leitao, Roberta G; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Instrumentaco Nuclear; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bellido, Alfredo Victor B., E-mail: alfredo@ien.gov.b [Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Chemistry Inst.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b [State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Physics Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. In this work we have analyzed serum samples from patients with SCA by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. We have studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 years old, suffering from SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years old. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Student's t-test was applied in order to check whether the two populations (CG x SCA) had the same mean values. It was observed that elemental concentration of P, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br differed significantly ({alpha} = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and SCA. The concentrations of K, Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger 15%, 120 % and 20 %, respectively, when compared with the CG. On the other hand, the concentrations of P (-20 %), Cl (-6 %), Zn (-25 %) and Br (-22 %) were smaller than the values determined for the control group. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples of patients with SCA group than the CG. So, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. (author)

  3. Cortisol at the emergency room rape visit as a predictor of PTSD and depression symptoms over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Nugent, Nicole R; Kotte, Amelia; Amstadter, Ananda B; Wang, Sheila; Guille, Constance; Acierno, Ron; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S

    2013-11-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, typically reflected by alterations in cortisol responsivity, has been associated with exposure to traumatic events and the development of stress-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Serum cortisol was measured at the time of a post sexual assault medical exam among a sample of 323 female victims of recent sexual assault. Analyses were conducted among 235 participants who provided data regarding history of previous assault as well as PTSD and depression symptoms during at least one of the three follow-ups. Growth curve models suggested that prior history of assault and serum cortisol were positively associated with the intercept and negatively associated with the slope of PTSD and depression symptoms after controlling for covariates. Prior history of assault and serum cortisol also interacted to predict the intercept and slope of PTSD and depression symptoms such that women with a prior history of assault and lower ER cortisol had higher initial symptoms that decreased at a slower rate relative to women without a prior history and those with higher ER cortisol. Prior history of assault was associated with diminished acute cortisol responsivity at the emergency room visit. Prior assault history and cortisol both independently and interactively predicted PTSD and depression symptoms at first follow-up and over the course a 6-month follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased cortisol in the cerebrospinal fluid of women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundu, Benedetta; Loucks, Tammy L; Adler, Lauri J; Cameron, Judy L; Berga, Sarah L

    2006-04-01

    The proximate cause of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is reduced GnRH drive. The concomitant increase in circulating cortisol suggests that psychogenic stress plays an etiologic role, but others have argued for a strictly metabolic cause, such as undernutrition or excessive exercise. Indeed, our finding that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of CRH was not elevated in FHA cast doubt about the extent of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation in FHA and, therefore, we wondered whether central cortisol levels were elevated. We tested the null hypothesis that CSF cortisol levels would be comparable in FHA and eumenorrheic women (EW). The study is a cross-sectional comparison. The study was set in a general clinical research center at an academic medical center. Fifteen women with FHA who were of normal body weight and 14 EW participated. Blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 24 h, followed by procurement of 25 ml CSF. Cortisol, cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), and SHBG levels in blood and CSF were the main outcome measures. CSF cortisol concentrations were 30% greater when serum cortisol was 16% higher in FHA compared with EW. Circulating CBG, but not SHBG, was increased in FHA and, thus, the circulating free cortisol index was similar in FHA and EW. Because CBG and SHBG were nil in CSF, the increase in CSF cortisol in FHA was unbound. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is activated in FHA. The maintenance of CRH drive despite increased CSF cortisol indicates resistance to cortisol feedback inhibition. The mechanisms mediating feedback resistance likely involve altered hippocampal corticosteroid reception and serotonergic and GABAergic neuromodulation.

  5. Statins attenuate but do not eliminate the reverse epidemiology of total serum cholesterol in patients with non-ischemic chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Raman, Nandita; Täger, Tobias; Schellberg, Dieter; Goode, Kevin M; Kazmi, Syed; Grundtvig, Morten; Hole, Torstein; Cleland, John G F; Katus, Hugo A; Agewall, Stefan; Clark, Andrew L; Atar, Dan; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2017-07-01

    In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) increasing levels of total serum cholesterol are associated with improved survival - while statin usage is not. The impact of statin treatment on the "reverse epidemiology" of cholesterol is unclear. 2992 consecutive patients with non-ischemic CHF due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction from the Norwegian CHF Registry and the CHF Registries of the Universities of Hull, UK, and Heidelberg, Germany, were studied. 1736 patients were individually double-matched on both cholesterol levels and the individual propensity scores for statin treatment. All-cause mortality was analyzed as a function of baseline cholesterol and statin use in both the general and the matched sample. 1209 patients (40.4%) received a statin. During a follow-up of 13,740 patient-years, 360 statin users (29.8%) and 573 (32.1%) statin non-users died. When grouped according to total cholesterol levels as low (≤3.6mmol/L), moderate (3.7-4.9mmol/L), high (4.8-6.2mmol/L), and very high (>6.2mmol/L), we found improved survival with very high as compared with low cholesterol levels. This association was present in statin users and non-users in both the general and matched sample (p<0.05 for each group comparison). The negative association of total cholesterol and mortality persisted when cholesterol was treated as a continuous variable (HR 0.83, 95%CI 0.77-0.90, p<0.001 for matched patients), but it was less pronounced in statin users than in non-users (F-test p<0.001). Statins attenuate but do not eliminate the reverse epidemiological association between increasing total serum cholesterol and improved survival in patients with non-ischemic CHF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The ratio of free to total serum prostate specific antigen in 412 patients with prostate cancer and analysis of bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jinlai; Dong Li; Pan Fangfang; Gao Zheng; Xu Meihua; Shen Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the characteristics of the ratio of serum free prostate specific antigen (FPSA) to total prostate specific antigen (TPSA) and bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer (Pca). Methods: 412 patients with prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. The preoperative serum FPSA and TPSA levels in patients were measured and SPECT imaging with 99m Tc-MDP were carried out. The patients were further divided into 2 groups according to whether they were found with bone metastases. Results: The result showed that 25.5% of patients (105/412) were found without any bone metastasis, and 74.5% of them(307/412) were with bone metastasis. Among the 307 cases of Pca patients with bone metastases, total 2907 metastatic lesions were found. 97.5% of the metastasis showed a 'hot zone' sign, 2.5% of them showed a 'cold zone' sign. The serum levels of TPSA, FPSA and F/T in patients with bone metastasis were 97.9±59.4μg/L, 10.2±8.1μg/L, 0.09±0.04, respectively. The serum levels of TPSA, FPSA and F/T in patients without bone metastasis were 24.8±23.0μg/L, 4.4±3.4μg/L, 0.12±0.05, respectively. There was significantly different in TPSA, FPSA and F/T between two groups (P<0.01). The TPSA in patients was positively correlated with bone metastasis (r=-0.487, P<0.05). There was positively correlation between the ratio of F/T and bone metastasis (r=-0.641, P<0.05). Conclusion: The prostate patients with F/T<0.15 were highly suspected to have bone metastasis. The SPECT bone scan was recommended in these patients when necessary. The bone metastasis predication sites were pelvis, vertebrae and ribs, most of the type of bone metastases were ossification. (authors)

  7. Cortisol concentration, pain and sedation scale in free roaming dogs treated with carprofen after ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadović, Katarina; Vučinić, Marijana; Radenković-Damnjanović, Brana; Janković, Ljiljana; Teodorović, Radislava; Voslarova, Eva; Becskei, Zsolt

    2017-08-01

    One of the topic issues in animal welfare activities is the free roaming dog welfare especially in developing countries such as Serbia. The way of controlling population of free roaming dogs is their reproduction with the method of "Catch-Neuter-Release." This complex process consists of capturing free roaming dogs in public areas, sterilizing, and returning them to the public area from which they were temporarily removed. Ovariohysterectomy present the period with a high intensity of stress reaction since many veterinarians in Serbia do not use analgesia for this group of dogs. The aim of this study was to compare the serum cortisol concentration before and after ovariohysterectomy and the level of post-operative pain and sedation in a group of free roaming female dogs treated with carprofen after surgical intervention and in a group with no treatment. The study was performed on a total of 20 female dogs under the program for free roaming dog control. Free-roaming dogs were captured in public areas by the communal animal hygiene service and were transported between 30 and 45 min to the clinic of a veterinary practice. Treatment began at 10:00 h on the next day and the bitches were kept in cages until they were returned to public locations from which they were temporarily removed to be sterilized. The G2 group received before closing the incision line carprofen in one dosage of 4 mg/kg given by subcutaneous injection into the scruff. Rescue protocol with carprofen was provided for G1 after 24 h following ovariohysterectomy same dosage as G2. Blood (2 ml) was collected from the cephalic vein of each dog in disposable plastic syringes, containing heparin (1:1000) 4 times: Before ovariohysterectomy, 30, 120 min and 24 h following ovariohysterectomy. Cortisol concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The multifactorial pain and sedation scale were used for the assessment of pain and sedation. In both groups, the lowest values of serum cortisol

  8. Laparoscopic Partial Adrenalectomy for Bilateral Cortisol-secreting Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Domino

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas are a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome. We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who presented with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome and bilateral adrenal adenomas. Adrenal venous sampling confirmed both adenomas to be hyper-secreting cortisol. She underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy; total right and partial left adrenalectomies. At 2-year follow-up, she is maintained on low-dose fludrocortisone and hydrocortisone, and without recurrence of hypercorticolism. Laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy is a feasible option for this rare condition; however, long-term follow-up is needed to determine her total independence from steroid usage.

  9. Rapid changes in the serum total protein and globulin levels in complications caused by facultatively pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrás, G; Kiss, S; Juraszek, J; Merétey, K

    1978-01-01

    The changes in the levels of total protein and four globulin fractions were followed up throughout the entire course of complications caused by Gram-negative facultative pathogens in 37 acute cases of respiratory insufficiency accompanying different underlying illnesses and in 9 chronic, bedridden patients given artificial ventilation. At the onset of the infectious complications, in the first place in septic shock, the levels of various globulin fractions showed a decrease corresponding to a half-life of 2 to 4 days. Neither the increased catabolism, nor the protein losses by the urine and tracheal secretions offer a sufficient explanation for the escape of globulins of this extent from the plasma. It seems that this is a consequence of the increase in capillary permeability due to the effect of antigen-antibody reactions and that of endotoxin. As a result, in the critical phase of the infectious complications, at the point of culmination, e.g. in septic shock, diminished amount of different globulins is transported to the site of utilization, that is, to the inflammatory area.

  10. REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES AND CORTISOL RESPONSES TO PLYOMETRIC TRAINING IN MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Vatansever Ozen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Plyometric training activities are commonly used by a wide range of athletes to increase jump performance and improve explosive power and muscular activation patterns. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of plyometric training on male reproductive hormones. Nineteen recreationally active males volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly assigned to plyometrically trained (n=10, 21.2 ±2.3 years and control groups (n=9, 21.4± 2.1. The plyometric training group performed in a six-week plyometric training programme and the control group did not perform any plyometric training techniques. Resting serum levels of testosterone, prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinising hormone (LH, and cortisol were measured in each subject at t0 (before the training, t1 (end of third week and t2 (end of training. Two-way ANOVA revealed significant (P<0.05 interaction effects for testosterone, prolactin, FSH and cortisol. Six-week plyometric training decreased serum levels of testosterone, cortisol and FSH and increased serum levels of prolactin. These results suggest the presence of alterations in anabolic and catabolic hormonal responses to resistance exercise in men.

  11. Examination of the relation between periodontal health status and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T; Trevisan, M; Genco, R J; Falkner, K L; Dorn, J P; Sempos, C T

    2000-02-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), the authors examined the relation between periodontal health and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen. A total of 10,146 participants were included in the analyses of cholesterol and C-reactive protein and 4,461 in the analyses of fibrinogen. Periodontal health indicators included the gingival bleeding index, calculus index, and periodontal disease status (defined by pocket depth and attachment loss). While cholesterol and fibrinogen were analyzed as continuous variables, C-reactive protein was dichotomized into two levels. The results show a significant relation between indicators of poor periodontal status and increased C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. The association between periodontal status and total cholesterol level is much weaker. No consistent association between periodontal status and high density lipoprotein cholesterol was detectable. Similar patterns of association were observed for participants aged 17-54 years and those 55 years and older. In conclusion, this study suggests that total cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen are possible intermediate factors that may link periodontal disease to elevated cardiovascular risk.

  12. Influence of cortisol on zinc metabolism in morbidly obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota Martins, Luana; Soares de Oliveira, Ana Raquel; Clímaco Cruz, Kyria Jayanne; Borges de Araújo, Camila Guedes; de Oliveira, Francisco Erasmo; Santos de Sousa, Gustavo; do Nascimento Nogueira, Nadir; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of visceral fat affects the metabolism of hormones and some nutrients, but these mechanisms remain unclear. To assess the influence of cortisol on the metabolism of zinc in morbidly obese women. Cross-sectional, case-control study involving 80 women aged between 20 and 59 years. The participants were divided into two groups: experimental (morbidly obese, n = 40) and control (normal weight, n = 40). Zinc concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and serum and urinary cortisol by chemiluminescence method. Zinc intake was significantly different between groups. Mean plasma zinc was lower in obese compared to control group. Mean values for erythrocyte zinc were 44.52 ± 7.84 µg/gHb and 40.17 ± 6.71 µg/gHb for obese and control groups, respectively. Urinary excretion of this mineral was higher in obese compared to control subjects (p cortisol were 9.58 ± 4.86 µg/dL for obese and 9.89 ± 5.61 µg/dL for control groups. Mean values for urinary cortisol were 163.00 ± 100.35 µg/dL and 109.71 ± 34.88 µg/dL for obese and control groups, respectively (p > 0.05). The correlation analysis between cortisol and zinc was not significant (p > 0.05). Obese patients have hypozincemia and high erythrocyte zinc levels. The correlation between zinc parameters and cortisol concentration showed no influence of this hormone on zinc metabolism.

  13. Elevated Serum Osmolality and Total Water Deficit Indicate Impaired Hydration Status in Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities Regardless of Low or High Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Melissa Ventura; Simmons, Sandra F; Shotwell, Matthew S; Hudson, Abbie; Hollingsworth, Emily K; Long, Emily; Kuertz, Brittany; Silver, Heidi J

    2016-05-01

    Dehydration is typically associated with underweight and malnutrition in long-term care (LTC) settings. Evidence is lacking regarding the influence of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity on risk factors, prevalence, and presentation of dehydration. The aim of this study was to objectively assess hydration status and the adequacy of total water intake, and determine relationships between hydration status, total water intake, and body mass index (BMI) in LTC residents. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was performed. Baseline data from 247 subjects recruited from eight community-based LTC facilities participating in two randomized trials comparing nutrient and cost-efficacy of between-meal snacks vs oral nutrition supplements (ONS). Hydration status was assessed by serum osmolality concentration and total water intakes were quantified by weighed food, beverage, water, and ONS intake. Simple and multiple linear regression methods were applied. Forty-nine (38.3%) subjects were dehydrated (>300 mOsm/kg) and another 39 (30.5%) had impending dehydration (295 to 300 mOsm/kg). The variance in serum osmolality was significantly accounted for by blood urea nitrogen level, mental status score, and having diabetes (R(2)=0.46; PTotal water intake averaged 1,147.2±433.1 mL/day. Thus, 96% to 100% of subjects did not meet estimated requirements, with a deficit range of 700 to 1,800 mL/day. The variance in total water intake was significantly accounted for by type of liquid beverages (thin vs thick), type of ONS, total energy intake, total activities of daily living dependence, sex, and BMI (R(2)=0.56; Ptotal water intake is prevalent in LTC residents across all BMI categories. Type of liquid beverages, type of ONS, and type of between-meal snacks are factors that could be targeted for nutrition interventions designed to prevent or reverse dehydration. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Low cortisol levels in blood from dairy cows with ketosis: a field study

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    Jones Bernt V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An elevated plasma glucose concentration has been considered to be a potential risk factor in the pathogenesis of left-displaced abomasums (DA. Therefore the present study was performed to investigate if spontaneous disease (parturient paresis, metritis, ketosis etc in dairy cows results in elevated concentrations of glucose and cortisol in blood as cortisol is the major regulator of glucose in ruminants. Methods Cortisol, insulin, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA, non esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and serum calcium were analyzed in blood serum and glucose, in whole blood, from 57 spontaneously diseased cows collected at different farms. The cows were grouped according to the disease; parturient paresis, recumbent for other reasons, mastitis, metritis, ketosis, inappetance and others. Results No elevated concentrations of cortisol or glucose were found in cows with metritis and mastitis but both cortisol and glucose were elevated in cows stressed by recumbency. Cows with ketonemia (BHBA > 1.5 mmol/l did not have low concentration of glucose in blood but significantly low levels of cortisol. Some of these cows even had cortisol concentrations below the detection limit of the analysing method ( Conclusions The study gives patho-physiological support to the treatment strategies of ketosis, recommending glucocorticoids, insulin etc. However further studies of this problem are needed to understand why cows with ketosis have low levels of cortisol and normal levels of glucose. To what extent elevated cortisol and glucose levels in hypocalcemic and recumbent cows are involved in the ethiology and /or the pathogenesis of DA also will need further research.

  15. Associations between basal cortisol levels and memory retrieval in healthy young individuals.

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    Ackermann, Sandra; Hartmann, Francina; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J F; Rasch, Björn

    2013-11-01

    Cortisol is known to affect memory processes. On the one hand, stress-induced or pharmacologically induced elevations of cortisol levels enhance memory consolidation. On the other hand, such experimentally induced elevations of cortisol levels have been shown to impair memory retrieval. However, the effects of individual differences in basal cortisol levels on memory processes remain largely unknown. Here we tested whether individual differences in cortisol levels predict picture learning and recall in a large sample. A total of 1225 healthy young women and men viewed two different sets of emotional and neutral pictures on two consecutive days. Both sets were recalled after a short delay (10 min). On Day 2, the pictures seen on Day 1 were additionally recalled, resulting in a long-delay (20 hr) recall condition. Cortisol levels were measured three times on Days 1 and 2 via saliva samples before encoding, between encoding and recall as well as after recall testing. We show that stronger decreases in cortisol levels during retrieval testing were associated with better recall performance of pictures, regardless of emotional valence of the pictures or length of the retention interval (i.e., 10 min vs. 20 hr). In contrast, average cortisol levels during retrieval were not related to picture recall. Remarkably during encoding, individual differences in average cortisol levels as well as changes in cortisol did not predict memory recall. Our results support previous findings indicating that higher cortisol levels during retrieval testing hinders recall of episodic memories and extend this view onto interindividual changes in basal cortisol levels.

  16. Perinatal maternal depression and cortisol function in pregnancy and the postpartum period: a systematic literature review.

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    Seth, Sunaina; Lewis, Andrew J; Galbally, Megan

    2016-05-31

    Perinatal depression has a significant impact on both mother and child. However, the influence of hormonal changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period remains unclear. This article provides a systematic review of studies examining the effects of maternal cortisol function on perinatal depression. A systematic search was conducted of six electronic databases for published research on the relationship between cortisol and perinatal depression. The databases included; MEDLINE complete, PsychINFO, SCOPUS, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences, Science Direct and EBSCO, for the years 1960 to May 2015. Risk of bias was assessed and data extraction verified by two investigators. In total, 47 studies met criteria and studies showed considerable variation in terms of methodology including sample size, cortisol assays, cortisol substrates, sampling processes and outcome measures. Those studies identified as higher quality found that the cortisol awakening response is positively associated with momentary mood states but is blunted in cases of major maternal depression. Furthermore, results indicate that hypercortisolemia is linked to transient depressive states while hypocortisolemia is related to chronic postpartum depression. Future research should aim to improve the accuracy of cortisol measurement over time, obtain multiple cortisol samples in a day and utilise diagnostic measures of depression. Future studies should also consider both antenatal and postnatal depression and the differential impact of atypical versus melancholic depression on cortisol levels, as this can help to further clarify the relationship between perinatal depression and maternal cortisol function across pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  17. Shift work parameters and disruption of diurnal cortisol production in female hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Eleanor Wai Man; Aronson, Kristan J; Leung, Michael; Day, Andrew; Tranmer, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Disruption of cortisol production is a potential underlying mechanism. This study explored the associations of diurnal quantity and pattern of cortisol production in relation to (1) current shift work status (exclusive day versus rotating days and nights), (2) years of past shift work and (3) parameters of rotating shift work (timing, length and intensity). Female hospital employees (160 day workers and 168 rotating shift workers) from southeastern Ontario, Canada, participated in a cross-sectional study. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire and measures of body height, weight, and waist circumference were taken. Midstream urine samples were collected over two separate 24-hour periods to measure creatinine-adjusted cortisol. Total diurnal cortisol production and pattern were described with two measures of the area under the curve. The effect of shift work on cortisol was modeled using multivariable linear regression analyses. Cortisol production in day workers and shift workers on their day shift were similar; however, shift workers on the night shift had flatter diurnal cortisol curves and produced less cortisol. This suggests that night work is associated with an acute attenuation of cortisol production.

  18. Salivary cortisol assessment in the evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, S.E.; Maxwell, J.U.; Barron, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A simple, short and sensitive direct radio-immunoassay technique for the determination of salivary cortisol concentration was employed to assess saliva as a medium for evaluating cortisol response during endocrine testing in 9 controls and 40 patients. Results in controls suggested that an adequate salivary cortisol response to insulin hypoglycaemia was an increase of 150% above the basal value with a minimum peak of 15 nmol/l. Thirty-three patients were classified as being either good or poor responders to insulin hypoglycaemia on the basis of criteria for plasma cortisol levels. When the defined salivary cortisol response was used for assessment, all 33 patients were correctly categorized into the same response groups. The salivary cortisol response to intramuscular tetracosactin in 3 patients and an intravenous dexamethasone infusion in 4 patients confirmed the value of saliva as an assay medium. These studies show that the salivary cortisol response parallels that of total plasma cortisol in all cases. However, with sampling at short intervals a lag in secretion of the free fraction from the plasma into the saliva becomes apparent. The relative change in cortisol levels from the basal value is greater in saliva than in plasma

  19. Release of Gentamicin and Vancomycin from Preformed Spacers in Infected Total Hip Arthroplasties: Measurement of Concentrations and Inhibitory Activity in Patients’ Drainage Fluids and Serum

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    Dario Regis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin (G and vancomycin (V concentrations in drainage fluids obtained from patients during the first 24 hours after implantation of antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA spacers in two-stage revision of infected total hip arthroplasty were studied. The inhibitory activity of drainage fluids against different multiresistant clinical isolates was investigated as well. Seven hips were treated by implantation of industrial G-loaded spacers. Vancomycin was added by manually mixing with PMMA bone cement. Serum and drainage fluid samples were collected 1, 4, and 24 hours after spacer implantation. Antibiotics concentrations and drains bactericidal titer of combination were determined against multiresistant staphylococcal strains. The release of G and V from PMMA cement at the site of infection was prompt and effective. Serum levels were below the limit of detection. The local release kinetics of G and V from PMMA cement was similar, exerting a pronounced, combined inhibitory effect in the implant site. The inhibitory activity of drainage fluids showed substantial intersubject variability related to antibiotic concentrations and differed according to the pathogens tested. Gentamicin and vancomycin were released from temporary hip spacers at bactericidal concentrations, and their use in combination exerted strong inhibition against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci strains.

  20. Urinary and Serum Metabolomics Analyses Uncover That Total Glucosides of Paeony Protect Liver against Acute Injury Potentially via Reprogramming of Multiple Metabolic Pathways

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    Haojie Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Total glucosides of paeony (TGP have been confirmed to be hepatoprotective. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the metabolic profiles of urine and serum in rats with carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced experimental liver injury and TGP administration by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS. The vehicle or a single dose of TGP was intragastrically administered to Wistar rats once a day for 14 consecutive days. To induce ALI, 50% CCl4 was injected intraperitoneally into these rats 2 hours after the last time administration of saline of TGP at the 14th day. The results indicated that TGP administration could protect rats from CCl4-induced ALI and alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST elevation, as well as hepatocyte apoptosis and inflammation. Furthermore, metabolomics analysis showed that TGP treatment significantly attenuated CCl4-triggered deregulation of multiple metabolites in both urine and serum, including glycine, alanine, proline, and glutamine. Metabolite set enrichment and pathway analyses demonstrated that amino acid cycling and glutathione metabolism were two main pathways involved in CCl4-induced experimental liver injury and TGP administration. Taken together, these findings revealed that regulation of metabolites potentially plays a pivotal role in the protective effect of TGP on ALI.

  1. Simple and sensitive method for the quantification of total bilirubin in human serum using 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride as a chromogenic probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Avinash, Krishnegowda; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Dinesh, Rangappa; Shrestha, Ashwinee Kumar

    2010-11-01

    We here describe a new spectrophotometric method for measuring total bilirubin in serum. The method is based on the cleavage of bilirubin giving formaldehyde which further reacts with diazotized 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride giving blue colored solution with maximum absorbance at 630 nm. Sensitivity of the developed method was compared with Jendrassik-Grof assay procedure and its applicability has been tested with human serum samples. Good correlation was attained between both methods giving slope of 0.994, intercept 0.015, and R2 = 0.997. Beers law obeyed in the range of 0.068-17.2 μM with good linearity, absorbance y = 0.044 Cbil + 0.003. Relative standard deviation was 0.006872, within day precision ranged 0.3-1.2% and day-to-day precision ranged 1-6%. Recovery of the method varied from 97 to 102%. The proposed method has higher sensitivity with less interference. The obtained product was extracted and was spectrally characterized for structural confirmation with FT-IR, 1H NMR.

  2. Total serum vitamin C concentration in pregnant women: implications for a healthy pregnancy Concentração total de vitamina C na gestante: implicações para uma gestação saudável

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    Garba Ibrahim Hassan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: total serum vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid concentration was measured in 90 pregnant women, 30 in each trimester (age range 18-35 years and a control group of age-matched non-pregnant women. METHODS: total serum vitamin C concentration was measured using the 2.4-dinitrophenylhydrazine method which involves the conversion of vitamin C to dehydroascorbic acid in the presence of copper (II ions and subsequent measurement of the resulting bis-hydrazone at 540nm. RESULTS: the total vitamin C concentration in the first trimester was 2.55 ± 0.82 mg/dl and 2.32 ± 0.40 mg/dl and 0.77 ± 0.10 mg/dl in the second and third trimesters respectively. Relative to serum total vitamin C concentration in the controls (3.15 ± 0.13 mg/dl these values are significantly lower (p OBJETIVOS: a concentração sérica total de vitamina C (ácido 1-ascórbico foi medida em 90 mulheres grávidas sendo 30 em cada trimestre (idade de 18-35 anos e um grupo controle, pareado por idade, de mulheres não grávidas. MÉTODOS: a concentração sérica total de vitamina C foi medida usando o método 2.4-dinitrofenilhidrazina que envolve a conversão de vitama C a ácido dehidroascorbico na presença de íons cobre II e, em seguida, medindo a resultante bi-hidrazona em 540 nm. RESULTADOS: a concentração total de vitamina C no primeiro semestre foi de 2.55 ± 0,13 mg/dL e de 2,32 ± 0,40 mg/dL e 0,77 ± 0,10 mg/dL no segundo e terceiro trimestres, respectivamente. Estes valores são significativamente mais baixos do que nos controles (3,15 ± 0,13 mg/dL(p<0,05. CONCLUSÕES: reduzida concentração de vitamina C sérica na gestação pode indicar a sua utilização para retirar o excesso de espécies oxigênio-reativas e manter a homeostase normal. Assim, recomenda-se a suplementação de vitamina C na gestação para aumentar o seu baixo nível no organismo e previnir a predisposição para o baixo peso ao nascer, parto prematuro e pré-eclâmpsia, condições associadas

  3. Acute effects of high-intensity interval, resistance or combined exercise protocols on testosterone - cortisol responses in inactive overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Orjuela, Gina P; Domínguez-Sanchéz, María A; Hernández, Enrique; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Triana-Reina, Héctor R; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Peña-Ibagon, Jhonatan C; Izquierdo, Mikel; Cadore, Eduardo L; Hackney, Anthony C; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2018-06-22

    The purpose of this study was to compare the hormonal responses to one session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 4 × 4 min intervals at 85-95% maximum heart rate [HRmax], interspersed with 4 min of recovery at 75-85% HRmax), resistance training (RT at 50-70% of one repetition maximum 12-15 repetitions per set with 60s of recovery) or both (HIIT+RT) exercise protocol in a cohort of physical inactivity, overweight adults (age 18-30 years old). Randomized, parallel-group clinical trial among fifty-one men (23.6 ± 3.5 yr; 83.5 ± 7.8 kg; 28.0 ± 1.9 kg/m2), physical inactivity (i.e., 6 months), with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm) or body mass index ≥25 and ≤30 kg/m 2 were randomized to the following 4 groups: high-intensity interval training (HIIT, n = 14), resistance training (RT, n = 12), combined high-intensity interval and resistance training (HIIT+RT, n = 13), or non-exercising control (CON, n = 12). Cortisol, total- and free-testosterone and total-testosterone/cortisol-ratio (T/C) assessments (all in serum) were determined before (pre) and 1-min post-exercise for each protocol session. Decreases in cortisol levels were -57.08 (95%CI, -75.58 to -38.58; P = 0.001; ɳ 2  = 0.61) and - 37.65 (95%CI, -54.36 to -20.93; P = 0.001; ɳ 2  = 0.51) in the HIIT and control group, respectively. Increases in T/C ratio were 0.022 (95%CI, 0.012 to 0.031; P = 0.001; ɳ 2  = 0.49) and 0.015 (95%CI, 0.004 to 0.025; P = 0.007; ɳ 2  = 0.29) in the HIIT and control group, respectively. In per-protocol analyses revealed a significant change in cortisol levels [interaction effect F( 7.777 ), ɳ 2  = 0.33] and T/C ratio [interaction effect F( 5.298 ), ɳ 2  = 0.25] between groups over time. Additionally, we showed that in both the intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol analyses, HIIT+RT did not change serum cortisol, total or free testosterone. The present

  4. Analysis of nutrition-relevant trace elements in human blood and serum by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stosnach, Hagen; Mages, Margarete

    2009-01-01

    In clinical service laboratories, one of the most common analytical tasks with regard to inorganic traces is the determination of the nutrition-relevant elements Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se. Because of the high numbers of samples and the commercial character of these analyses, a time-consuming sample preparation must be avoided. In this presentation, the results of total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements with a low-power system and different sample preparation procedures are compared with those derived from analysis with common methods like Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The results of these investigations indicate that the optimal total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of the nutrition-relevant elements Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se can be performed by preparing whole blood and serum samples after dilution with ultrapure water and transferring 10 μl of internally standardized sample to an unsiliconized quartz glass sample carrier with subsequent drying in a laboratory oven. Suitable measurement time was found to be 600 s. The enhanced sample preparation by means of microwave or open digestion, in parts combined with cold plasma ashing, led to an improvement of detection limits by a factor of 2 for serum samples while for whole blood samples an improvement was only observed for samples prepared by means of microwave digestion. As the matrix elements P, S, Cl, and for whole blood Fe have a major influence on the detection limits, most probably a further enhancement of analytical quality requires the removal of the organic matrix. However, for the routine analysis of the nutrition-relevant elements, the dilution preparation was found to be sufficient.

  5. Effects of policosanol on borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol levels: a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, comparative study

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    Gladys Castaño, PhD

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Clinical studies have shown that lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, is beneficial for patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol (TC levels (5.0–6.0 mmol/L. Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug made from purified sugar cane wax. The therapeutic range of policosanol is 5 to 20 mg/d. Objective: This study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol 5 mg/d in patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum TC levels. Methods: This 14-week, single-center, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, comparative study was conducted in men and women aged 25 to 75 years with a serum TC level ≥4.8 to <6.0 mmol/L. After a 6-week run-in period in which patients were placed on therapeutic lifestyle changes, in particular a cholesterol-lowering diet, patients were randomly assigned to receive policosanol 5-mg tablets or placebo tablets once daily with the evening meal for 8 weeks, and the diet was continued throughout the study. Lipid profile variables, safety indicators, adverse events (AEs, and compliance with study medications were assessed. Results: One hundred patients (71 women, 29 men; mean [SD] age, 52 [10] years entered the study after the dietary run-in period. After 8 weeks of treatment, the mean (SD serum LDL-C level decreased significantly in the policosanol group (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo from 3.57 (0.30 mmol/L to 2.86 (0.41 mmol/L (change, −19.9%. Significantly more patients in the policosanol group (42 patients [84%] achieved a ≥15% decrease in serum LDL-C than in the placebo group (2 patients [4%] (P<0.001. Also in the policosanol group, the mean (SD serum TC level decreased significantly, from 5.20 (0.22 mmol/L to 4.56 (0.44 mmol/L (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo (change, −12.3%; the mean (SD triglyceride (TG

  6. Cortisol production rate is similarly elevated in obese women with or without the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M; Pijl, Hanno

    2010-07-01

    The pituitary-adrenal axis in obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is marked by increased urinary excretion of cortisol and its metabolites. It is not as yet clear whether the increased cortisol production in PCOS is related to obesity per se. We investigated 15 obese PCOS women with a body mass index of 30-54 kg/m(2) and 15 healthy obese controls (body mass index 31-60 kg/m(2)) with a regular menstrual cycle. Patients and control women underwent 24-h blood sampling at 20-min intervals. Cortisol concentrations were measured with a sensitive assay. Data were analyzed with a new deconvolution program, approximate entropy, and cosinor regression. Basal, pulsatile, and total cortisol production expressed per liter distribution volume, per square meter body surface, and as absolute amount per 24 h was similar in PCOS patients and matched healthy control women. In addition, the regularity of cortisol secretion and the diurnal properties were identical. Compared with 10 lean control women, mean cortisol production per liter distribution volume was similar in the three groups, but the total 24-h cortisol production was increased in obese control women and PCOS women. This study demonstrates equally increased cortisol production in PCOS women and obese healthy control women.

  7. Evidence for disruption of normal circadian cortisol rhythm in women with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Safi, Zain A; Polotsky, Alex; Chosich, Justin; Roth, Lauren; Allshouse, Amanda A; Bradford, Andrew P; Santoro, Nanette

    2018-04-01

    Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may play a role in the pathogenesis of comorbidities encountered in obesity, including the relative hypogonadotropic hypogonadism that we and others have observed. We sought to examine serum cortisol profiles throughout the day and evening in a sample of normal weight women and women with obesity. In this cross-sectional study, regularly cycling obese (n = 12) and normal weight (n = 10) women were recruited. Mean serum cortisol was measured by frequent blood sampling for 16 h (8am-midnight) in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Women with obesity had significantly higher overall cortisol levels when compared to normal weight women (6.2 [4.3, 6.6] vs. 4.7 [3.7, 5.5] ug/dl, p = .04). Over the two-hour postprandial period, obese women displayed an almost two-fold greater (7.2 [6.5, 8.6] ug/dl) rise in cortisol than normal weight controls (4.4 [3.7, 6.2] ug/dl, p obese women demonstrated a sustained evening cortisol elevation compared to normal weight women, who displayed the typical decline in cortisol (3.2 [2.3, 4] vs. 2 [1.5, 3.2] ug/dl, p obesity may be related to risks of obesity-associated metabolic comorbidities and reproductive dysfunction often seen in these women.

  8. Hormonal status of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in an elderly Tunisian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehab, Olfa; Ouertani, Mohamed; Chaieb, Kamel; Haouala, Faouzi; Mahdouani, Kacem

    2007-10-01

    Adrenal function and aging have been the object of intense interest recently, especially as regards dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), which is of major importance, since it is distinct from cortisol and aldosterone in declining with age. In a group of healthy old Tunisians, we investigated the association between cortisol and DHEA-S, on the one hand, and age, sex, lifestyle, physical health, including the body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and smoking indicators, on the other hand. We observed that cortisol concentrations did not change with aging, while DHEA-S concentrations decrease with age in both sexes. Cortisol/DHEA-S ratio, however, increases with aging. Our results revealed that DHEA-S levels are affected neither by physical activity nor by weight. It appears also that current smoking could not affect the level of DHEA-S. Relationships were found between DHEA-S concentrations and BMI, then between DHEA-S levels and serum cholesterol, triglycerides and calcium. No modification in the morning serum cortisol was found to be associated with aging. Decrease in DHEA-S levels is, however, clearly associated with this phenomenon. High cortisol/DHEA-S ratio accelerates the occurrence of some adult diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, dementia, and osteoporosis. Generally, the adrenal insufficiency marked by a cognitive impairment, immune disorders, sexual dysfunction, and scores for depression and anxiety can be corrected by a replacement of deficient DHEA-S.

  9. Multiple Salivary Cortisol Measurements Are a Useful Tool to Optimize Metyrapone Treatment in Patients with Cushing’s Syndromes Treatment: Case Presentations

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    Kenichi Yoshida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring salivary cortisol is both convenient and non-invasive for patients; however, its usefulness as a marker for monitoring medical therapy has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of multiple salivary cortisol measurements in patients with Cushing’s syndrome (CS during medical therapy. Six patients with CS (three with cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenoma and three with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma were recruited. Samples for morning serum cortisol, urinary free cortisol (UFC, and multiple salivary cortisol levels were collected before and during metyrapone treatment. The area under the curve (AUC and mean value (MV of daily salivary cortisol levels were calculated. In five out of six patients, UFC were normalized; however, multiple salivary cortisol measurements revealed an impaired diurnal cortisol rhythm in these patients. To verify the usefulness of multiple salivary cortisol measurements, we performed a prospective case study of a patient in whom the excess secretion of cortisol was not controlled (UFC 211 μg/day with 2,250 mg/day in four divided doses of metyrapone. Multiple measurements of salivary cortisol revealed that cortisol levels elevated before the next administration. Accordingly, we shortened the interval by increasing the number of administration from four to five times per day, with a slight increment of daily dose of 2,500 mg. These optimizations resulted in a drastic improvement of diurnal pattern as well as UFC level (101 μg/day. Changes in both the MV and AUC of salivary cortisol levels were more correlated with those in UFC levels (Correlation coefficient 0.75, p = 0.007, and 0.70, p = 0.017 than those in the morning serum cortisol levels (0.42, p = 0.200, indicating that multiple salivary cortisol measurements reflect more precisely the excess secretion of cortisol. Our preliminary data suggest that multiple salivary cortisol measurements can be a

  10. Effect of different component ratio of Astragalus total saponins and Verbena total glycosides on the cerebral infarction area and serum biochemical indicators in the focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model

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    Erping Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose is to study the effect of different component ratio of Astragalus Total Saponins (ATS and Verbena Total Glycosides (VTG on the cerebral infarction area and the serum biochemical indicators in the focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model. Compared with the model group, different component ratio of ATS and VTG could significantly improve the neurological deficit scores to the focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model, and the group of 7:3, 6:4, 5:5 got the best results; it could reduce the mortality of rat model to a certain extent, and the group of 5:5 group got the best results; it can significantly reduce the cerebral infarction area, and the group of 7:3, 5:5, 4:6 got the best results; it could significantly reduce the content of TNF-α, and the group of 8:2, 6:4 got the best results; it could significantly reduce the content of NO, and the group of 7:3, 5:5 got the best results; it could significantly increase the content of SOD, and the group of 6:4, 5:5 got the best results. This indicates that different component ratio of ATS and VTG may protect the damage of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model to a certain extent, which are compared using the comprehensive weight method and the ratio of 5:5 was proved to be the optimal active ratio.

  11. Morning plasma cortisol is low among obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabir, Iram; Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Praveen, Edavan P; Khurana, Madan L; John, Jomimol; Gupta, Nandita; Kumar, Guresh; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2013-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause for androgen excess in women. It is associated with wide variety of metabolic disorders. The present study assessed morning plasma cortisol in women with PCOS. One hundred and ninety seven cases and 55 controls were enrolled for this study. The mean age of patients and controls were 23 ± 5.6 years and 25 ± 4.3 years. One hundred twelve (56%) women with PCOS had BMI >25. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in lean PCOS women compared to controls (13.4 ± 5.1 versus 11.3 ± 4.5, p cortisol was lower among obese women with PCOS. Morning plasma cortisol correlated negatively with BMI in PCOS women with normal glucose tolerance.

  12. Effect of temperament on cortisol response to a single exercise bout in Thoroughbred racehorses - short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohák, Zsófia; Szenci, Ottó; Harnos, Andrea; Kutasi, Orsolya; Kovács, Levente

    2017-12-01

    Temperament has not been taken into account in previous studies evaluating the stress response to exercise in horses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cortisol response in Thoroughbred racehorses to a single exercise bout, and to analyse the results based on the basic personality of the horse examined. Twenty healthy Thoroughbred horses were selected for the study based on a 25-item rating questionnaire survey used for characterising equine temperament. Eight temperamental and twelve calm horses took part in the experiment. The horses trotted as a warm-up activity, and then galloped on a rounded sand track. Blood sampling was conducted four times for each horse. Horses with a more excitable temperament showed a higher cortisol response to the test (P = 0.036). In conclusion, cortisol levels in response to a mild intensive exercise can be affected by temperament in horses. Serum cortisol may be a relevant marker to quantify individual temperamental differences in racehorses.

  13. Distribution of Serum Total Homocysteine and Its Association with Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Mexican American Men: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillum Richard

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data have been published on the association of variables of the insulin resistance syndrome and serum total homocysteine (tHcy, a putative risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity, in representative samples of total populations or in Hispanic Americans. Methods To describe the distributions of serum tHcy concentration and variables associated with insulin resistance in Mexican American men and to assess their association, data from a cross-sectional survey of a large national sample, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Analyses were restricted to Mexican American men aged 40–74 years with data on glycated hemoglobin (%, body mass index (BMI, body fat distribution, HDL cholesterol, fasting serum insulin, serum triglycerides and serum tHcy concentrations. Results Cumulative distributions of serum tHcy shifted to the right with increasing age. Log serum tHcy was not associated with prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus or glycated hemoglobin percent or other risk factors other than age. Log serum tHcy concentration showed borderline significant (p = 0.049 positive association with fasting serum insulin concentration independent of age and BMI, only in men aged 60–74. Conclusion No consistent association of tHcy with diabetes prevalence or variables of the insulin resistance syndrome were found in Mexican American men aged 40–74 years. Further research is needed on the associations of serum tHcy concentration with insulin resistance and other components of the insulin resistance syndrome in persons of varying ethnicity.

  14. Radioimmunoassay of progesterone in unextracted serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, S.P.; Corcoran, J.M.; Eastman, C.J.; Doy, F.A.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid, precise radioimmunoassay for progesterone in 25 μL of unextracted serum is described. Progesterone is released from its binding protein by adding an optimal amount of cortisol, which binds to the same protein (cortisol binding globulin) as progesterone. The amount of cortisol required does not cross react with the specific progesterone antibody used. This approach considerably shortens assay time and removes a tedious and imprecise stage in the conventional assay of serum progesterone. Results correlated well (r = 0.97) with a method involving organic solvent extraction of progesterone from serum. During the two years we have used this mehod in a busy diagnostic endocrine laboratory, the between-assay precision (CV) for low-, medium-, and high-concentration quality control sera was 12, 7, and 9%, respectively. Data from participation in an independent external quality-control program verified the adequacies of the method

  15. Stress and parental care in a wild Teleost fish: insights from exogenous supraphysiological cortisol implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Constance M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Arlinghaus, Robert; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Cooke, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    Male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) provide sole parental care over a 4-6-wk period to a single brood, fanning the eggs to keep them oxygenated and free of silt and defending the brood until the offspring develop antipredator tactics. During this period, fish are highly active and have few opportunities for feeding, so this activity is energetically costly. To understand some of the consequences of stress during this challenging period, we injected fish with cortisol suspended in coconut oil to experimentally raise circulating cortisol in parental males for the first week of the parental care period. We compared parental care behavior between cortisol-treated, sham-treated (injected only with coconut oil), and control parental males. We further compared physiological parameters associated with metabolism and reproductive function between cortisol-treated and control males. The cortisol injections resulted in supraphysiological levels of circulating plasma cortisol, giving us insight into potential maximal effects of stress during parental care. At these supraphysiological levels, the cortisol-treated fish displayed higher concentrations of circulating glucose and cholesterol and lower concentrations of circulating triglycerides when compared with control fish, with no change in plasma concentrations of total protein. Plasma concentrations of androgen were similarly unaffected by cortisol treatment. In the short term (initial 1-2 wk), parental care of eggs and egg-sac fry was maintained by all groups, with no differences observed in behavior (e.g., tending, vigilance, defense) among the groups. However, the cortisol-treated fish abandoned their offspring at a higher rate than in the control or sham groups. The fish treated with cortisol also tended to develop external Saprolegnian infections, indicative of compromised immune function. These data demonstrate that exogenous cortisol elevation during parental care results in changes in energy use and a

  16. Relationship between oxygen free radicals, cytokines, cortisol and stress complications in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yingbin; Wang Bingjie; Li Yunchao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between oxygen free radicals, cytokines, cortisol and stress complications in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease (ACVD). Methods: Serum levels of superoxide dismutases (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA) (with biochemistry) interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and cortisol (with RIA) were measured in 32 patients with acute cerebrovascular disease (ACVD) plus stress complications and 48 patients without stress complications as well as 36 controls. Results: Serum SOD contents in non-stressed group were higher than those in stressed group (P<0.05) but lower than those of the controls (P<0.05). However the levels of MDA, IL-6, TNF-α and cortisol were highest in the stressed group and lowest in the controls (all P<0.05). Conclusion: Oxygen free radicals, IL-6, TNF-α and cortisol were involved in stress complications in patients with ACVD. Monitoring the levels of serum SOD, MDA, IL-6, TNF-α and cortisol could be useful for predicting stress complications and evaluating the therapeutic effect. (authors)

  17. Improved radioimmunoassay of plasma cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donohue, J.; Sgoutas, D.

    1975-01-01

    We report a simplified radioimmunoassay procedure for determination of plasma cortisol. The method offers the advantage that tracer, antibody, and assay buffer are added in a single step with the use of semi-automated equipment. Thus, critical pipetting procedures are minimized, and assay time is reduced to 4 h. No prior extraction or chromatographic purification of cortisol is required. The procedure is simple, reliable, and accurate. For either between-assay or within-assay determinations, the coefficients of variation are about 6 percent. Our results compare well with those obtained from a procedure that included extraction and chromatographic purification of cortisol in several plasma samples. Conditions for optimizing the assay are also discussed. (auth)

  18. Evaluation of four commercial biuret reagent kits of serum total protein by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry reference measurement procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meilin; Zhang, Jie

    2011-06-01

    In China, the traceability of clinical chemistry methods is still immature. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a reference measurement procedure and evaluate commercial reagent kits using such established procedures. We reproduced the reference measurement procedure for serum total protein, as recommended by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC). We evaluated the performance by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines EP15-A and EP6-A. Subsequently, four commercial reagent kits were evaluated by the reproduced reference procedure following CLSI guideline EP9-A2. The performance of the reproduced reference procedure was as follows: CVs ranged from 0.47% to 0.85% at medical decision levels (X(c)) of 45 g/L, 60 g/L and 80 g/L. Linearity was Y=1.0022X-0.2121 (r=0.9999), and recovery ranged from 100.2% to 102.4%. The External Quality Assessment Scheme for Reference Laboratories in Laboratory Medicine (RELA) was applied, and the result was within the limit of equivalence. The linear relationships of four commercial reagent kits, Merit Choice, KHB, Leadman, and Olympus, were, respectively: Y=0.9922X+0.5776 (r=0.9961); Y=0.9936X+0.4316 (r=0.9992); Y=0.9949X+0.9129 (r=0.9987) and Y=0.9923X+0.8876 (r=0.9989). KHB showed slight negative bias, and the mean±SD was -0.03±0.60 g/L. Merit Choice, Leadman, and Olympus all showed positive bias, and the mean±SDs were 0.02±0.63 g/L, 0.55±0.77 g/L and 0.34±0.71 g/L, respectively. The correlation and bias of four commercial reagent kits for serum total protein were found to be acceptable. Thus, these reagent kits can be used reliably in China.

  19. Maternal stress-associated cortisol stimulation may protect embryos from cortisol excess in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Faught, Erin; Best, Carol; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal embryo cortisol level causes developmental defects and poor survival in zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, no study has demonstrated that maternal stress leads to higher embryo cortisol content in zebrafish. We tested the hypothesis that maternal stress-associated elevation in cortisol levels increases embryo cortisol content in this asynchronous breeder. Zebrafish mothers were fed cortisol-spiked food for 5 days, to mimic maternal stress, followed by daily breeding for 10 days to mon...

  20. Trait Rumination Predicts Elevated Evening Cortisol in Sexual and Gender Minority Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccola, Peggy M; Manigault, Andrew W; Figueroa, Wilson S; Hollenbeck, Cari; Mendlein, Anna; Woody, Alex; Hamilton, Katrina; Scanlin, Matt; Johnson, Ryan C

    2017-11-09

    Stress may contribute to illness through the impaired recovery or sustained activity of stress-responsive biological systems. Rumination, or mental rehearsal of past stressors, may alter the body's stress-responsive systems by amplifying and prolonging exposure to physiological mediators, such as cortisol. The primary aim of the current investigation was to test the extent to which the tendency to ruminate on stress predicts diminished diurnal cortisol recovery (i.e., elevated evening cortisol) in a sample of sexual and gender minority young adults. Participants included 58 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender young adults ( M age = 25.0, SD = 4.1) who completed an initial online survey that assessed trait rumination and current depressed mood. Participants completed daily evening questionnaires and provided salivary cortisol samples at wake, 45 min post-wake, 12 h post-wake, and at bedtime over seven consecutive days. Trait rumination predicted significantly higher cortisol concentrations at bedtime, but was unrelated to other cortisol indices (e.g., morning cortisol, diurnal slope, total output). The association with trait rumination was not accounted for by daily negative affect, and was largely independent of depressed mood. These results have implications for identifying and treating those who may be at risk for impaired diurnal cortisol recovery and associated negative health outcomes.

  1. Trait Rumination Predicts Elevated Evening Cortisol in Sexual and Gender Minority Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy M. Zoccola

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress may contribute to illness through the impaired recovery or sustained activity of stress-responsive biological systems. Rumination, or mental rehearsal of past stressors, may alter the body’s stress-responsive systems by amplifying and prolonging exposure to physiological mediators, such as cortisol. The primary aim of the current investigation was to test the extent to which the tendency to ruminate on stress predicts diminished diurnal cortisol recovery (i.e., elevated evening cortisol in a sample of sexual and gender minority young adults. Participants included 58 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender young adults (Mage = 25.0, SD = 4.1 who completed an initial online survey that assessed trait rumination and current depressed mood. Participants completed daily evening questionnaires and provided salivary cortisol samples at wake, 45 min post-wake, 12 h post-wake, and at bedtime over seven consecutive days. Trait rumination predicted significantly higher cortisol concentrations at bedtime, but was unrelated to other cortisol indices (e.g., morning cortisol, diurnal slope, total output. The association with trait rumination was not accounted for by daily negative affect, and was largely independent of depressed mood. These results have implications for identifying and treating those who may be at risk for impaired diurnal cortisol recovery and associated negative health outcomes.

  2. Radioimmunological determination of apparent free cortisol concentration: Some physiological and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerico, A.; Del Chicca, M.G.; Ghione, S.; Zucchelli, G.C.

    1979-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of the apparent free plasma cortisol concentration by means of direct radioimmunological measurement of dialyzed cortisol. This method is characterized by a sufficient degree of reproducibility and high sensitivity. Apparent free cortisol concentration in 40 control subjects of both sexes (blood drawn at 8 a.m.) was 9.00 +- 4.6 ng/ml. The mean value of free cortisol concentration in blood samples drawn at 11-12 p.m. from 21 of these subjects was highly significantly different (2.3 +- 1.6 ng/ml, p < 0.001). In addition, in 13 of these subjects circadian variation of the apparent free cortisol concentration showed a pattern similar to that of total cortisol concentration. The mean free cortisol concentration found in a group of women during normal pregnancy was significant higher than in non-pregnant women. Patients with renal insufficiency do not show a significant difference in free cortisol plasma levels, whereas higher values were found in hepatic cyrrhosis. (Auth.)

  3. Effect of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning on Blood Cortisol Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Farnaghi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute intoxication with ALP is extremely lethal. The present study was conducted to determine the range of serum cortisol levels in ALP poisoning and its correlation with patient outcome. Methods: This study was carried out on patients who were intoxicated with ALP. Their demographic data and pertinent findings in their history and physical examination were recorded at the time of arrival and also when shock and severe metabolic acidosis emerged. 5cc blood was taken from the patients to measure blood cortisol level, when shock and severe metabolic acidosis developed. Blood cortisol level analysis was performed using ELISA method. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 16.0. Results: The average ingested dose was 1.98+1.79 tablets each containing 3 grams of ALP. Overall, 77% of the patients presented tachycardia and hypotension. Blood cortisol level less than 15 µg/dl, 15-33 µg/dl, and more than 34 µg/dl were regarded as adrenal insufficiency, critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency, and adequate adrenal response, respectively. Eventually, 3 patients fell within the first category, 24 patients matched with the second category, and 3 patients corresponded to the last category. Conclusion: Blood cortisol concentration is satisfactory only in 10% of the patients. In majority of the patients although it is not apparently low, it has not shown the expected rise comparable to the shock and stress state of such patients. It defines a role for corticosteroids therapy in management of ALP poisoning, particularly if it does not respond to conventional treatments.

  4. Burnout and Hypocortisolism - A Matter of Severity? A Study on ACTH and Cortisol Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Sjörs, Anna; Währborg, Peter; Ljung, Thomas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2015-01-01

    Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with clinical burnout exhibit aberrant ACTH and cortisol responses under acute psychosocial stress compared with healthy individuals. Nineteen patients (9 men and 10 women) and 37 healthy subjects (20 men and 17 women), underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Blood samples and saliva samples were collected before, after, and during the stress test for measurements of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, and salivary cortisol. Several statistical analyses were conducted to compare the responses between patients and controls. In addition, in order to investigate the possibility that burnout patients with more severe symptoms would respond differently, sub-groups of patients reporting higher and lower burnout scores were compared. In both patients and healthy controls, we observed elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol after exposure to the stressor. There were no differences in responses of ACTH, serum cortisol, or salivary cortisol between patients and controls. Patients reporting higher burnout scores had lower salivary cortisol responses than controls, indicating that patients with more severe burnout symptoms may be suffering from hypocortisolism. In addition, patients with more severe burnout symptoms tended to have smaller ACTH responses than the other patients. However, there was no corresponding difference in serum cortisol. This study indicates that hypocortisolism is not present in a clinical burnout patient group as a whole but may be present in the patients with more severe burnout symptoms.

  5. Burnout and hypocortisolism – a matter of severity? A study on ACTH and cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin eLennartsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with clinical burnout exhibit aberrant ACTH and cortisol responses under acute psychosocial stress compared with healthy individuals. Methods: Nineteen patients (9 men and 10 women and 37 healthy subjects (20 men and 17 women, underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Blood samples and saliva samples were collected before, after and during the stress test for measurements of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol and salivary cortisol. Several statistical analyses were conducted to compare the responses between patients and controls. In addition, in order to investigate the possibility that burnout patients with more severe symptoms would respond differently, sub-groups of patients reporting higher and lower burnout scores were compared. Results: In both patients and healthy controls, we observed elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol after exposure to the stressor. There were no differences in responses of ACTH, serum cortisol or salivary cortisol between patients and controls. Patients reporting higher burnout scores had lower salivary cortisol responses than controls, indicating that patients with more severe burnout symptoms may be suffering from hypocortisolism. In addition patients with more severe burnout symptoms tended to have smaller ACTH responses than the other patients. There was no corresponding difference in serum cortisol however. Conclusion: This study indicates that hypocortisolism is not present in a clinical burnout patient group as a whole but may be present in the patients with more severe burnout symptoms.

  6. Serum total homocystein, folate and vitamin B12 levels and their correlation with antipsychotic drug doses in adult male patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Esin; Yeğin, Ayşenur; Yilmaz, Necat; Herken, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Elevated blood levels of homocysteine (hCY) have been associated with schizophrenic male patients. However, controversy remains regarding the association between lowered plasma folate and vitamin B12, hyperhomocysteinemia, and schizophrenia. Sixty-six (66) male patients with chronic schizophrenia were investigated to test the hypotheses that alterations in Hcy, folate, and vitamin B12 levels might be related to the antipsychotic drug doses used in treatment. Serum total homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels were determined by chemiluminescence methods in both patients and control subjects. The patients were grouped according to the antipsychotic drug doses used in their treatment. Patients had higher homocysteine levels but they did not differ from controls in terms of folate and vitamin B12 levels. On the other hand, only folate levels were negatively correlated in the patient group treated with higher therapeutic doses of chlorpromazine equivalents (> 400 mg/day) compared to the patient group with lower doses (< 400 mg/day). Our findings show that higher typical antipsychotic drugs may play a role as modifiying factor for folate metabolism in chronic schizoprenic male patients.

  7. [Studies on the relationship between beta-adrenergic receptor density on cell wall lymphocytes, total serum catecholamine level and heart rate in patients with hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, J; Zieba, I; Zyśko, D

    2000-08-01

    Hyperthyreosis mimics the hyperadrenergic state and its symptoms were though to be dependent on increased level of catecholamines. Another reason for the symptoms could be the increased density or affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors to catecholamines. The aim of the study was to examine the elements of sympathetic nervous system, thyroid hormones level and their influence on heart rate control in patients with hyperthyreosis. The study was carried out in 18 women, mean age 48.9 +/- 8.7 yrs and 6 men, mean age 54.2 +/- 8.7 yrs. The control group consisted of 30 healthy persons matched for age and sex. We examined the density of beta-adrenergic receptors using radioligand labelling method with 125I-cyanopindolol, serum total catecholamines level with radioenzymatic assay kit, the levels of free thyroid hormones using radioimmunoassays and thyreotropine level with immunoradiometric assay. Maximal, minimal and mean heart rate were studied using Holter monitoring system. The density of beta-adrenergic receptors in hyperthyreosis was 37.3 +/- 21.7 vs 37.2 +/- 18.1 fmol/mg in the control group (p = NS). Total catecholamines level was significantly decreased in hyperthyreosis group: 1.5 +/- 0.89 vs 1.9 +/- 0.73 pmol/ml (p < 0.05). There was significantly higher minimal, maximal and mean heart rate in hyperthyreosis group (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05 respectively). There was a weak inverse correlation between minimum heart rate and triiodothyronine level (r = -0.38, p < 0.05). An inverse correlation between triiodothyronine and catecholamines level (r = -0.49, p < 0.05) was observed. Beta-adrenergic receptors density is unchanged and catecholamines level is decreased in hyperthyreosis when compared to normal subjects. There is no correlation between minimal heart rate and adrenergic receptors density or catecholamines level in hyperthyreosis.

  8. Stress level in wild harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) during satellite tagging measured by respiration, heart rate and cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, Ida Grønborg; Teilmann, J.; Geertsen, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    During satellite tagging of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), heart rate, respiration rate and cortisol value were measured to evaluate stress effects during handling and tagging. Respiration rates were obtained using video recordings, heart rates were recorded and serum cortisol levels were...... between cortisol and month of year, sex and body length. As high individual variations occurred in response to tagging of harbour porpoises, it is not possible to give general advice based oil the factors investigated, on how to reduce stress during handling. However, pouring water over the animal...

  9. Body composition using deuterated water, index of insulin resistance and cortisol levels in Costa Rican school in the metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde Vindas, Allan Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Body composition in the Costa Rican child population is evaluated and analyzed to determine the relationship with the index of insulin resistance and serum cortisol levels. 113 children in the metropolitan area were studied using deuterium isotope techniques as reference method for overweight and obesity. Morning cortisol levels were determined by immunoassay techniques (ELISA). The insulin resistance index of 113 Costa Rican boys and girls is obtained by the homeostatic method and the relationship between body composition with index of insulin resistance or levels of cortisol [es

  10. Determination of cortisol in two BCR reference sera by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks; H.J.G.M.; Freudenthal; J.; Heiningen; A.van; Gramberg; L.G.; Klaasen; R.

    1984-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt een analytische methode voor de juiste en preciese bepaling van cortisol in humaan serum en zijn toepassing bij de certificatie van twee gevriesdroogde referentiesera van de BCR beschreven. De methode is gebaseerd op isotoopverdunnings gaschromatografie-massaspectrometrie

  11. The Association between Midnight Salivary Cortisol and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Mi Jang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe common characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MetS and Cushing's syndrome suggest that excess cortisol may be involved in the pathogenesis of MetS. Salivary cortisol measurements are simple and can be surrogates for plasma free cortisol, which is the most biologically active form. We evaluated the association between levels of midnight salivary cortisol and MetS in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 46 subjects, aged 20 to 70 years, who visited the Health Care Center at Konkuk University Hospital from August 2008 to August 2009 were enrolled. We compared the levels of midnight salivary cortisol in subjects with MetS with those in subjects without MetS. We analyzed the associations between midnight salivary cortisol levels and components of MetS.ResultsMidnight salivary cortisol levels were higher in the MetS group (70±42.4 ng/dL, n=12 than that in the group without MetS (48.1±36.8 ng/dL, n=34 (P=0.001. Positive correlations were observed between midnight salivary cortisol levels and waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. The risk for MetS was significantly higher in subjects with midnight salivary cortisol levels ≥100 ng/dL than in those with levels <50 ng/dL (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.35 to 36.4.ConclusionThe results showed a positive correlation between midnight salivary cortisol levels and MetS, suggesting that hypercortisolism may be related to MetS.

  12. Daily endogenous cortisol production and hydrocortisone pharmacokinetics in adult horses and neonatal foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kelsey A; Dirikolu, Levent; Ferguson, Duncan C; Norton, Natalie A; Barton, Michelle H

    2012-01-01

    To compare daily endogenous cortisol production rate and the pharmacokinetics of an i.v. bolus of hydrocortisone between neonatal foals and adult horses. 10 healthy full-term 2- to 4-day-old foals and 7 healthy adult horses. Blood samples were collected from each horse every 15 to 20 minutes for 24 hours for determination of 24-hour mean cortisol concentration. Afterward, dexamethasone (0.08 mg/kg) was administered i.v. to suppress endogenous cortisol production. Twelve hours afterward, hydrocortisone sodium succinate (1.0 mg/kg) was administered as a rapid i.v. bolus and serial blood samples were collected to determine hydrocortisone pharmacokinetics. Cortisol concentrations, daily cortisol production rate, and hydrocortisone pharmacokinetics were determined, and results were compared between adult horses and foals. The mean ± SD 24-hour cortisol concentration was significantly lower in foals (20 ± 4 ng/mL) than in horses (26 ± 6 ng/mL), but the daily cortisol production rate was significantly greater in foals (6,710 ± 320 ng/kg/d) than in horses (2,140 ± 400 ng/kg/d). For hydrocortisone, foals had a significantly greater volume of distribution at steady state (1.92 ± 1.11 L/kg) and total body clearance (1.39 ± 0.108 L/kg/h) and significantly lower peak plasma concentration (1,051 ± 343 ng/mL) than did horses (0.58 ± 0.15 L/kg, 0.349 ± 0.065 L/kg/h, and 8,934 ± 3,843 ng/mL, respectively). Important differences were detected in cortisol production and metabolism between neonatal foals and adult horses consistent with lower plasma protein binding of cortisol in foals. This decrease may contribute to cortisol insufficiency during prolonged critical illness in neonatal foals.

  13. Work family balance, stress, and salivary cortisol in men and women academic physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, B; Ahmad, F; Stewart, D E

    2008-01-01

    The stress of medical practice has been recurrently studied, but work- and family-related determinants of health by gender remain under researched. To test the hypothesis that cortisol excretion would be affected by the perceived severity of total workload imbalance. By hierarchical regression analysis, the associations between work-family balance and diurnal salivary cortisol levels by sex in academic physicians (n = 40) were investigated. Men physicians reported more paid work hours per week than women physicians and women more time in childcare, but their total working hours were similar. Controlling for sex and age, the mean of the diurnal cortisol release was associated with a combined effect of sex and responsibility at home. When morning cortisol, sex, and children at home were held constant, cortisol levels in the evening were associated with responsibility at home without significant gender interaction. With increasing responsibility at home, women and men reacted differently with regard to cortisol responses over the day. However, in the evening, controlling for the morning cortisol, these gender differences were not as obvious. These findings highlight traditional gender patterns among both women and men physicians in the challenge of finding a balance between work and family.

  14. A lack of consistent evidence for cortisol dysregulation in premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesner, Jeff; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-03-01

    Although decades of research has examined the association between cortisol regulation and premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS/PMDD), no review exists to provide a general set of conclusions from the extant research. In the present review we summarize and interpret research that has tested for associations between PMS/PMDD and cortisol levels and reactivity (n=38 original research articles). Three types of studies are examined: correlational studies, environmental-challenge studies, and pharmacological-challenge studies. Overall, there was very little evidence that women with and without PMS/PMDD demonstrate systematic and predictable mean-level differences in cortisol, or differences in cortisol response/reactivity to challenges. Methodological differences in sample size, the types of symptoms used for diagnosis (physical and psychological vs. only affective), or the type of cortisol measure used (serum vs. salivary), did not account for differences between studies that did and did not find significant effects. Caution is recommended before accepting the conclusion of null effects, and recommendations are made that more rigorous research be conducted, considering symptom-specificity, within-person analyses, and multiple parameters of cortisol regulation, before final conclusions are drawn. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of cortisol on the primary response of mouse spleen cell cultures to heterologous erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracott, B.N.

    1974-01-01

    Cell viability and the production of direct PFC were studied in mouse spleen cell cultures after cortisol treatment in vivo or in vitro at various times relative to primary stimulation with SRBC in vitro. Cortisol treatment in vivo reduced spleen cell numbers by 88 percent after 48 hr, but cultures of the remaining cells produced as many PFC in vitro as did cultures of equal numbers of normal spleen cells. In normal spleen cell cultures incubated with cortisol for 4 hr prior to the addition of antigen, peak responses of PFC/culture and PFC/10 6 cells occurred 24 hr later than in controls and averaged, respectively, 27 and 141 percent of control values. Minimum viable cell numbers were observed in cortisol-treated cultures after 3 days; thereafter cell numbers gradually increased. These results were not significantly altered when cultures were treated simultaneously with cortisol and antigen. The response was not suppressed if the addition of antigen preceded that of cortisol by more than 4 hr. Suppression was also considerably reduced if fetal calf serum was used when preparing cells for culture

  16. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette M Hormann

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax in unconjugated (bioactive BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.

  17. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Annette M; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Stahlhut, Richard W; Moyer, Carol L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Welshons, Wade V; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.

  18. Detection of the value of consecutive serum total light chain (sTLC) in patients diagnosed with diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Linzhu; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Peng, Songguo; Zhu, Ke; Yu, Rongjian; Chen, Hailong; Lin, Tongyu; Lin, Lizhu

    2016-12-01

    There are limited data on serum total light chain (sTLC) in lymphoma and its relative role on the outcome of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Blood samples from 46 cases newly diagnosed with DLBCL were collected consecutively during chemotherapy to detect sTLC, IgG, IgA, and IgM levels. Clinical data and survival outcomes were analyzed according to the results of sTLC measurements. In summary, 22 patients (47.8 %) had abnormal k or λ light chain, respectively, and 6 patients (13.0 %) had both abnormal k and λ light chains before chemotherapy. Patients with elevated k light chain more frequently displayed multiple extra-nodal organ involvement (P = 0.01) and had an inferior overall survival (OS) (P = 0.041) and progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.044) compared to patients with normal level of k light chain. Furthermore, patients with elevated level of both k and λ also exhibited significant association with shorter OS (P = 0.002) and PFS (P = 0.009). Both elevated k alone and concurrent elevated k and λ had independent adverse effects on PFS (P = 0.031 and P = 0.019, respectively). sTLC level was reduced gradually by treatment in this study and reached the lowest point after the fourth cycle of chemotherapy, which was consistent with the disease behavior during chemotherapy. Considering the small sample size of this study, these results should be confirmed in a larger prospective study.

  19. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A as early-phase and prognostic indicators of acute radiation exposure in nonhuman primate total-body irradiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossetrova, N.I., E-mail: ossetrova@afrri.usuhs.mil [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Sandgren, D.J.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Terrorist radiological attacks or nuclear accidents could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. In mass-casualty radiological incidents early medical-management requires triage tools for first-responders to quantitatively identify individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and for early initiation (i.e., within one day after radiation exposure) of cytokine therapy for treatment of bone marrow acute radiation syndrome. Herein, we present results from 30 rhesus macaques total-body irradiated (TBI) to a broad dose range of 1-8.5 Gy with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (0.55 Gy min{sup -1}) and demonstrate dose- and time-dependent changes in blood of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CRP and SAA dose-response results are consistent with {approx}1 Gy and {approx}0.2 Gy thresholds for photon-exposure at 24 h after TBI, respectively. Highly significant elevations of CRP and SAA (p = 0.00017 and p = 0.0024, respectively) were found in animal plasma at 6 h after all TBI doses suggesting their potential use as early-phase biodosimeters. Results also show that the dynamics and content of CRP and SAA levels reflect the course and severity of the acute radiation sickness (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results demonstrate proof-of-concept that these radiation-responsive proteins show promise as a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and may also contribute as diagnostic indices in the medical management of radiation accidents.

  20. Holding Thermal Receipt Paper and Eating Food after Using Hand Sanitizer Results in High Serum Bioactive and Urine Total Levels of Bisphenol A (BPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Annette M.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Moyer, Carol L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Welshons, Wade V.; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone’s urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

  1. Cortisol in human milk predicts child BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Le, Tran Bao; Chung, Anna; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M

    2016-12-01

    Breastfeeding has been linked to lower rates of childhood obesity. Human milk contains cortisol, known to regulate glucose storage and metabolism. The aim of this study was to to test the hypothesis that early exposure to cortisol in human breast milk helps to modulate infant body mass index (BMI) trajectories over the first 2 years of life. Growth curve modeling was used to examine whether infant exposure to cortisol in human milk at 3 months predicted changes in child body mass index percentile (BMIP) at 6, 12, and 24 months of age in 51 breastfeeding mother-child pairs. Infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels at 3 months were less likely to exhibit BMIP gains over the first 2 years of life, compared with infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. By age 2, infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels had lower BMIPs than infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. Milk cortisol was a stronger predictor of BMIP change in girls than boys. Cortisol exposure through human milk may help to program metabolic functioning and childhood obesity risk. Further, because infant formula contains only trace amounts of glucocorticoids, these findings suggest that cortisol in milk is a novel biological pathway through which breastfeeding may protect against later obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  2. Impact of age, sex and body mass index on cortisol secretion in 143 healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roelfsema

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies on 24-h cortisol secretion are rare. The impact of sex, age and adiposity on cortisol levels, often restricted to one or a few samples, are well recognized, but conflicting. Objective: To investigate cortisol dynamics in 143 healthy men and women, spanning 7 decades and with a 2-fold body mass index (BMI range with different analytic tools. Setting: Clinical Research Unit. Design: Cortisol concentrations in 10-min samples collected for 24 h. Outcomes were mean levels, deconvolution parameters, approximate entropy (ApEn, regularity statistic and 24-h rhythms. Results: Total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. Mean 24-h cortisol concentrations were lower in premenopausal women than those in men of comparable age (176 ± 8.2 vs 217 ± 9.4 nmol/L, P = 0.02, but not in subjects older than 50 years. This was due to lower daytime levels in women, albeit similar in the quiescent overnight period. Aging increased mean cortisol by 10 nmol/L per decade during the quiescent secretory phase and advanced the acrophase of the diurnal rhythm by 24 min/decade. However, total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. ApEn of 24-h profiles was higher (more random in premenopausal women than those in men (1.048 ± 0.025 vs 0.933 ± 0.023, P = 0.001, but not in subjects older than 50 years. ApEn peaked during the daytime. Conclusion: Sex and age jointly determine the 24-h cortisol secretory profile. Sex effects are largely restricted to age <50 years, whereas age effects elevate concentrations in the late evening and early night and advance the timing of the peak diurnal rhythm.

  3. Altered cortisol metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome: insulin enhances 5alpha-reduction but not the elevated adrenal steroid production rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilchorozidou, Tasoula; Honour, John W; Conway, Gerard S

    2003-12-01

    homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA-R): alpha-THF/THF and HOMA-R (r = 0.34; P = 0.03), androsterone/etiocholanolone and HOMA-R (r = 0.32; P = 0.04), and total 5alpha /total 5beta and HOMA-R (r = 0.37; P = 0.02). A positive correlation was also found between measures of 5alpha-R and BMI (r = 0.37; P = 0.02). No correlation was found between measures of 11beta-HSD1 activity and indices of insulin sensitivity or BMI. We have demonstrated that there is an increased production rate of cortisol and androgens as measured in vivo in lean PCOS women. Insulin seems to enhance 5alpha reduction of steroids in PCOS but was not associated with the elevated cortisol production rate. The changes in 5alpha-R, 11beta-HSD1, and 20alpha/beta-HSD enzyme activities observed in PCOS may contribute to the increased production rates of cortisol and androgens, supporting the concept of a widespread dysregulation of steroid metabolism. This dysregulation does not seem to be the primary cause of PCOS because no correlation was found between serum androgen levels or urinary excretion of androgens with measurements of either 5alpha-R or 11beta-HSD1 activities.

  4. Low serum levels of free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in patients with anorexia nervosa are not associated with increased IGF-binding protein-3 proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Flyvbjerg, A; Frystyk, J

    1999-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are GH resistant, with elevated GH levels and low serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). IGF-I action is modulated by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), and a variety of catabolic states has been characterized by the presence of increased IGFBP-3...

  5. Psychological pathways from racial discrimination to cortisol in African American males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel B; Peckins, Melissa K; Heinze, Justin E; Miller, Alison L; Assari, Shervin; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2018-04-01

    The association between racial discrimination (discrimination) and stress-related alterations in the neuroendocrine response-namely, cortisol secretion-is well documented in African Americans (AAs). Dysregulation in production of cortisol has been implicated as a contributor to racial health disparities. Guided by Clark et al. (Am Psychol 54(10):805-816, 1999. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.54.10.805 ) biopsychosocial model of racism and health, the present study examined the psychological pathways that link discrimination to total cortisol concentrations in AA males and females. In a sample of 312 AA emerging adults (45.5% males; ages 21-23), symptoms of anxiety, but not depression, mediated the relation between discrimination and total concentrations of cortisol. In addition, the results did not reveal sex differences in the direct and indirect pathways. These findings advance our understanding of racial health disparities by suggesting that the psychological consequences of discrimination can uniquely promote physiologic dysregulation in AAs.

  6. Is there an inhibitory role of cortisol in the mechanism of male sexual arousal and penile erection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckert, Stefan; Fuhlenriede, Mark H; Becker, Armin J; Stief, Christian G; Scheller, Friedemann; Knapp, Wolfram H; Jonas, Udo

    2003-12-01

    It has been speculated for more than 2 decades whether there is a significance of adrenal corticosteroids, such as cortisol, in the process of normal male sexual function, especially in the control of sexual arousal and the penile erectile tissue. However, only few in vivo studies have been carried out up until now on the effects of cortisol on human male sexual performance and penile erection. In order to evaluate further the role of cortisol in male sexual activity, the present study was conducted to detect serum levels of cortisol in the systemic and cavernous blood taken during different penile conditions from healthy males. The effects of cortisol derivative prednisolone, catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) and the peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) on isolated human corpus cavernosum (HCC) were investigated using the organ bath technique. Fifty-four healthy adult male subjects were exposed to erotic stimuli in order to elicit penile tumescence and rigidity. Whole blood was simultaneously aspirated from the corpus cavernosum and the cubital vein during different penile conditions. Serum levels of cortisol (microg/dl) were determined by means of a radioimmunoassay (ELISA). In the healthy volunteers, cortisol serum levels significantly decreased in the systemic circulation and the cavernous blood with increasing sexual arousal, when the flaccid penis became rigid. During detumescence, the mean cortisol level remained unaltered in the systemic circulation, whereas in the cavernous compartment, it was found to decrease further. Under all penile conditions, no significant differences were registered between cortisol levels in the systemic circulation and in the cavernous blood. Cumulative addition of NE and ET-1 (0.001-10 microM) induced contraction of isolated HCC strips, whereas the contractile response to prednisolone was negligible. Our results strongly suggest an inhibitory role for cortisol in the mechanism of male sexual response and behaviour. These properties are

  7. Mercury and cortisol in Western Hudson Bay polar bear hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshoft, T; Derocher, A E; Richardson, E; Mislan, P; Lunn, N J; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Janz, D M; St Louis, V L

    2015-08-01

    Non-invasive methods of assessing animal health and life history are becoming increasingly popular in wildlife research; hair samples from polar bears (Ursus maritimus), are being used to study an ever broader range of anthropogenic and endocrine compounds. A number of contaminants are known to disrupt endocrine function in polar bears. However, the relationship between mercury and cortisol remains unknown, although mercury is an endocrine disruptor in other species. Here, we examine the relationship between concentrations of cortisol and total mercury (THg) analyzed in guard hair from 378 polar bears (184 females, 194 males) sampled in Western Hudson Bay, 2004-2012. The difference in mean cortisol concentration between female (0.8 ± 0.6 pg/mg) and male (0.7 ± 0.5 pg/mg) polar bears bordered on significance (p = 0.054). However, mean mercury concentration was significantly greater (p = 0.009) in females (4.7 ± 1.4 μg/g) than males (4.3 ± 1.2 μg/g). Hair cortisol in males was significantly influenced by mercury, age, and fatness, as well as interactions between mercury and year, mercury and fatness, and year and fatness (all: p polar bears.

  8. Diurnal Salivary Cortisol, Glycemia and Insulin Resistance: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joshua J.; Wang, Xu; Spanakis, Elias; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary; Needham, Belinda; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hypercortisolism is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes mellitus (DM); however, to our knowledge prior studies have not examined the association of diurnal cortisol curve features with measures of glycemia or IR in a population-based setting. Using log-transformed salivary cortisol data on 850 ethnically diverse men and women from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we investigated the cross-sectional association of cortisol curve features with (1) glycemia in those with and without DM and (2) IR, in non-diabetic subjects. The log-transformed salivary cortisol curve features included wake-up cortisol, cortisol awakening response (CAR), early decline slope (30 minutes to 2 hours post-awakening), late decline slope (2 hours post-awakening to bedtime), overall decline slope (0 minutes to bedtime, excluding 30 minute cortisol), bedtime cortisol and total area under the curve (AUC). Overall, following multivariable adjustment, among those with diabetes mellitus (DM), early decline slope, overall decline slope, bedtime cortisol, and AUC were significantly and positively associated with a 5.4% (95% CI: 1.3, 9.7), 54.7% (95% CI: 12.4, 112.9), 4.0% (95% CI: 1.6, 6.4), and 6.8% (95% CI: 3.3, 10.4) higher HbA1c per 1 unit increase in log cortisol feature, respectively. Cortisol curve features were not associated with HbA1c among non-diabetic participants; however, wake-up cortisol and AUC were associated with a 8.2% lower (95% CI: −13.3, −2.7) and 7.9% lower (95% CI: −14.6, −0.6) log HOMA-IR, respectively. This was attenuated by adjustment for waist circumference. Among participants with DM, cortisol curve parameters suggestive of higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and dysfunction were associated with higher HbA1c. In non-diabetic participants, greater HPA activity was paradoxically associated with lower insulin resistance. PMID:26356041

  9. Salivary Cortisol Reactivity in Preterm Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care: An Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalotte Mörelius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, more and more researchers have been using salivary cortisol reactivity to evaluate stress in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. The aim of this integrative literature review was to summarize the evidence of interventions leading to a change in salivary cortisol from the baseline in preterm infants in the NICU. The electronic databases of PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for relevant studies. The inclusion criteria were studies with preterm infants exposed to an intervention evaluated by salivary cortisol reactivity before discharge from the NICU, which were published in English. In total, 16 studies were included. Eye-screening examination and heel lance provoked an increase in the salivary cortisol level. Music, prone position, and co-bedding among twins decreased the salivary cortisol level. Several studies reported a low rate of successful saliva sampling or did not use control groups. Future studies need to focus on non-painful interventions in order to learn more about salivary cortisol regulation in preterm infants. Moreover, these studies should use study designs comprising homogenous gestational and postnatal age groups, control groups, and reliable analysis methods that are able to detect cortisol in small amounts of saliva.

  10. Testosterone and cortisol release among Spanish soccer fans watching the 2010 World Cup final.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Ijzerman, Hans; van Lange, Paul A M; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This field study investigated the release of testosterone and cortisol of a vicarious winning experience in Spanish fans watching the finals between Spain and the Netherlands in the 2010 FIFA World Cup Soccer. Spanish fans (n = 50) watched the match with friends or family in a public place or at home and also participated in a control condition. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed that testosterone and cortisol levels were higher when watching the match than on a control day. However, neither testosterone nor cortisol levels increased after the victory of the Spanish team. Moreover, the increase in testosterone secretion was not related to participants' sex, age or soccer fandom, but the increase in total cortisol secretion during the match was higher among men than among women and among fans that were younger. Also, increases in cortisol secretion were greater to the degree that people were a stronger fan of soccer. Level of fandom further appeared to account for the sex effect, but not for the age effect. Generally, the testosterone data from this study are in line with the challenge hypothesis, as testosterone levels of watchers increased to prepare their organism to defend or enhance their social status. The cortisol data from this study are in line with social self-preservation theory, as higher cortisol secretion among young and greater soccer fans suggests that especially they perceived that a negative outcome of the match would threaten their own social esteem.

  11. Testosterone and cortisol release among Spanish soccer fans watching the 2010 World Cup final.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leander van der Meij

    Full Text Available This field study investigated the release of testosterone and cortisol of a vicarious winning experience in Spanish fans watching the finals between Spain and the Netherlands in the 2010 FIFA World Cup Soccer. Spanish fans (n = 50 watched the match with friends or family in a public place or at home and also participated in a control condition. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed that testosterone and cortisol levels were higher when watching the match than on a control day. However, neither testosterone nor cortisol levels increased after the victory of the Spanish team. Moreover, the increase in testosterone secretion was not related to participants' sex, age or soccer fandom, but the increase in total cortisol secretion during the match was higher among men than among women and among fans that were younger. Also, increases in cortisol secretion were greater to the degree that people were a stronger fan of soccer. Level of fandom further appeared to account for the sex effect, but not for the age effect. Generally, the testosterone data from this study are in line with the challenge hypothesis, as testosterone levels of watchers increased to prepare their organism to defend or enhance their social status. The cortisol data from this study are in line with social self-preservation theory, as higher cortisol secretion among young and greater soccer fans suggests that especially they perceived that a negative outcome of the match would threaten their own social esteem.

  12. Development and validation of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for blood plasma cortisol in female cattle, buffaloes, and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R; Mohan, K; Kumar, V; Sarkar, M; Nitu, K; Meyer, H H D; Prakash, B S

    2013-08-01

    A highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) that used the second antibody coating technique and the cortisol-horseradish peroxidase conjugate as a label for determination of free and total cortisol in blood plasma of dairy animals (cows, buffaloes, and goats) was developed. For biological validation of the EIA, blood samples were collected from the animals at 48 and 24 h before and 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, 120, and 132 h after dexamethasone administration. The EIA was performed directly with 20 μL of fresh plasma (for free cortisol) and also with 20 μL of heat-treated plasma (for total cortisol) after 1:5 dilutions with PBS. Cortisol standards ranging from 0.39 to 200 pg/well/20 μL were used, and the sensitivity of the EIA procedure was found to be 0.39 pg/well/20 μL, which corresponded to 0.02 ng/mL. In comparison with RIA the EIA was at least 4 times more sensitive and required 5 times less cortisol antiserum. In female cattle, buffaloes, and goats, the total, free, and bound plasma cortisol before dexamethasone administration was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the total, free, and bound cortisol after dexamethasone administration. It can be concluded from these studies that the direct, sensitive EIA validated for estimating the free and total cortisol concentrations was sufficiently reliable and quick for studying the dynamics of cortisol distribution in blood plasma of dairy animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cortisol, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study of obese subjects and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S B; Rubino, D; Sinaii, N; Ramsey, S; Nieman, L K

    2013-01-01

    Circulating cortisol and psychosocial stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). To evaluate these relationships, a cross-sectional study of 369 overweight and obese subjects and 60 healthy volunteers was performed and reviewed the previous literature. Overweight and obese subjects had at least two other features of Cushing's syndrome. They underwent measurements representing cortisol dynamics (24 h urine cortisol excretion (UFC), bedtime salivary cortisol, 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test) and metabolic parameters (BMI, blood pressure (BP); fasting serum triglycerides, HDL, insulin, and glucose). Subjects also completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). UFC, salivary cortisol, and weight from 60 healthy volunteers were analyzed. No subject had Cushing's syndrome. UFC and dexamethasone responses were not associated with BMI or weight. However, salivary cortisol showed a trend to increase as BMI increased (P cortisol levels were weak to moderately correlated with fasting insulin (rs = -0.31, P = 0.01) and HOMA-IR (rs = -0.31, P = 0.01) in men and systolic (rs = 0.18, P = 0.02) and diastolic BP (rs = 0.20, P = 0.009) in women. PSS results were higher in obese subjects than controls, but were not associated with cortisol or metabolic parameters. As expected, WC correlated with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and systolic BP (adjusted for BMI and gender; P cortisol and metabolic parameters. Taken together, these data do not support a strong relationship between systemic cortisol or stress and obesity or MS. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  14. Relación de cortisol sérico con los componentes del síndrome metabólico, ingesta alimentaria y trastorno de ansiedad en niños de 8 a 12 años con obesidad Relationship of serum cortisol and metabolic syndrome components, dietary intakes and anxiety disorder in children at 8 to 12 years of age with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    D.C. Treviño Villarreal; V. López Guevara; L.E. Ramírez López; A. Tijerina Sáenz

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: La obesidad es un trastorno que se asocia con ingesta alimentaria inadecuada y problemas psicológicos y predispone a complicaciones entre ellas el Síndrome Metabólico (SM), el cual ha sido relacionado con el estrés crónico debido a alteraciones en la actividad del eje Hipotálamo-Hipófisis-Adrenal (HHA) mediado por el hipercortisolismo. Objetivo: Determinar la relación del cortisol sérico con los componentes del SM, ingesta alimentaria y trastorno de ansiedad en niños de 8 a 12 a...

  15. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-03-04

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability.

  16. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-01-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  17. Genome wide association identifies common variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 locus influencing plasma cortisol and corticosteroid binding globulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Bolton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30-60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma, and SERPINA1, encoding α1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG. Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136 influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases.

  18. Cortisol Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/cortisoltest.html Cortisol Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Cortisol Test? Cortisol is a hormone that affects almost every ...

  19. Cortisol and DHEA in development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Hayley S; Kertes, Darlene A

    2017-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol are the most abundant hormones of the human fetal and adult adrenals released as end products of a tightly coordinated endocrine response to stress. Together, they mediate short- and long-term stress responses and enable physiological and behavioral adjustments necessary for maintaining homeostasis. Detrimental effects of chronic or repeated elevations in cortisol on behavioral and emotional health are well documented. Evidence for actions of DHEA that offset or oppose those of cortisol has stimulated interest in examining their levels as a ratio, as an alternate index of adrenocortical activity and the net effects of cortisol. Such research necessitates a thorough understanding of the co-actions of these hormones on physiological functioning and in association with developmental outcomes. This review addresses the state of the science in understanding the role of DHEA, cortisol, and their ratio in typical development and developmental psychopathology. A rationale for studying DHEA and cortisol in concert is supported by physiological data on the coordinated synthesis and release of these hormones in the adrenal and by their opposing physiological actions. We then present evidence that researching cortisol and DHEA necessitates a developmental perspective. Age-related changes in DHEA and cortisol are described from the perinatal period through adolescence, along with observed associations of these hormones with developmental psychopathology. Along the way, we identify several major knowledge gaps in the role of DHEA in modulating cortisol in typical development and developmental psychopathology with implications for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical applications of cortisol measurements in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Vincent L; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol measurements in blood, saliva and urine are frequently used to examine the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in clinical practice and in research. However, cortisol levels are subject to variations due to acute stress, the diurnal rhythm and pulsatile secretion. Cortisol measurements in body fluids are not always a reflection of long-term cortisol exposure. The analysis of cortisol in scalp hair is a relatively novel method to measure cumulative cortisol exposure over months up to years. Over the past years, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) have been examined in association with a large number of somatic and mental health conditions. HCC can be used to evaluate disturbances of the HPA axis, including Cushing's syndrome, and to evaluate hydrocortisone treatment. Using HCC, retrospective timelines of cortisol exposure can be created which can be of value in diagnosing cyclic hypercortisolism. HCC have also been shown to increase with psychological stressors, including major life events, as well as physical stressors, such as endurance exercise and shift work. Initial studies show that HCC may be increased in depression, but decreased in general anxiety disorder. In posttraumatic stress disorder, changes in HCC seem to be dependent on the type of traumatic experience and the time since traumatization. Increased hair cortisol is consistently linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Potentially, HCC could form a future marker for cardiovascular risk stratification, as well as serve as a treatment target. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. Association of cortisol and the metabolic syndrome in Korean men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sat Byul; Blumenthal, James A; Lee, Soon Young; Georgiades, Anastasia

    2011-07-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are closely related and have become increasingly prevalent in Korea. The cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors comprising the metabolic syndrome have previously been associated with increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity, but the associations have not been extensively examined in non-Caucasian populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between cortisol, adiposity and the metabolic syndrome in a Korean population. A total of 1,881 adults participated in the study between January 2001 and February 2008. Sociodemographic data were assessed by questionnaires. Body composition, clinic blood pressures as well as metabolic variables including glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed and analyzed in relation to cortisol levels. Mean age of the participants was 58.7 ± 10.8 yr. Higher levels of cortisol was associated with elevated blood pressure, fasting glucose and total cholesterol in men, and between cortisol and systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and total cholesterol in women. There was an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome associated with higher cortisol levels in both men (P cortisol levels are associated with several CVD risk factors and the metabolic syndrome, independent of overall of adiposity level, in Korean men and women.

  2. Investigating Cortisol Production and Pattern as Mediators in the Relationship Between Shift Work and Cardiometabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritonja, Jennifer; Aronson, Kristan J; Day, Andrew G; Korsiak, Jill; Tranmer, Joan

    2018-05-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Although the biological pathways are still unclear, it is hypothesized that cortisol disruption during night work is an intermediate. The objective of this study is to determine whether total cortisol production and cortisol pattern mediate the relationship between current shift work and cardiometabolic risk (CMR) among female hospital employees. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 326 female employees (166 rotating shift workers, 160 day workers), recruited from a hospital in Southeastern Ontario, Canada, during 2011 to 2014. Participants completed a baseline interview, questionnaire, and clinical exam. Urine samples were collected over two 24-hour periods and used to analyze creatinine-adjusted cortisol, which was then used to calculate total cortisol production (AUC G ), and pattern (AUC I ). Mediation analysis was performed to test the mediating effect of cortisol in the relationship between shift work and a continuous CMR score. Current shift work is associated with a 0.52 higher CMR score (95% CI: 0.15, 0.89), a lower cortisol output (AUC G ), and a flatter pattern (AUC I ) over a 2-day period. AUC G is a partial mediator in the relationship between shift work and CMR, whereas AUC I is not. AUC G is also associated with CMR while controlling for shift work, suggesting that lower total cortisol production is also linked to CMR in non-shift workers. Total cortisol production is a partial mediator in the relationship between rotating shift work and CMR among female hospital employees, whereas cortisol pattern is not a mediator. Copyright © 2018 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A switch in hepatic cortisol metabolism across the spectrum of non alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adeeba; Rabbitt, Elizabeth; Brady, Theresa; Brown, Claire; Guest, Peter; Bujalska, Iwona J; Doig, Craig; Newsome, Philip N; Hubscher, Stefan; Elias, Elwyn; Adams, David H; Tomlinson, Jeremy W; Stewart, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver disease ranging from reversible hepatic steatosis, to non alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. The potential role of glucocorticoids (GC) in the pathogenesis of NAFLD is highlighted in patients with GC excess, Cushing's syndrome, who develop central adiposity, insulin resistance and in 20% of cases, NAFLD. Although in most cases of NAFLD, circulating cortisol levels are normal, hepatic cortisol availability is controlled by enzymes that regenerate cortisol (F) from inactive cortisone (E) (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, 11β-HSD1), or inactivate cortisol through A-ring metabolism (5α- and 5β-reductase, 5αR and 5βR). In vitro studies defined 11β-HSD1 expression in normal and NASH liver samples. We then characterised hepatic cortisol metabolism in 16 patients with histologically proven NAFLD compared to 32 obese controls using gas chromatographic analysis of 24 hour urine collection and plasma cortisol generation profile following oral cortisone. In patients with steatosis 5αR activity was increased, with a decrease in hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity. Total cortisol metabolites were increased in this group consistent with increased GC production rate. In contrast, in patients with NASH, 11β-HSD1 activity was increased both in comparison to patients with steatosis, and controls. Endorsing these findings, 11β-HSD1 mRNA and immunostaining was markedly increased in NASH patients in peri septal hepatocytes and within CD68 positive macrophages within inflamed cirrhotic septa. Patients with hepatic steatosis have increased clearance and decreased hepatic regeneration of cortisol and we propose that this may represent a protective mechanism to decrease local GC availability to preserve hepatic metabolic phenotype. With progression to NASH, increased 11β-HSD1 activity and consequent cortisol regeneration may serve to

  4. Parental history of depression and higher basal salivary cortisol in unaffected child and adolescent offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jihui; Lam, Siu Ping; Li, Shirley Xin; Liu, Yaping; Chan, Joey Wing Yan; Chan, Michael Ho Ming; Ho, Chung Shun; Li, Albert Martin; Wing, Yun Kwok

    2018-07-01

    There are contradictory findings regarding the associations of parental depression on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity of their offspring. We aimed to explore the associations of parental depression on the diurnal salivary cortisol profile in their child and adolescent offspring. A total of 189 unaffected child and adolescent offspring as determined by structured clinical interview were divided into 3 groups according to their parental history of depression, namely current parental depression (CPD, n = 27), past parental depression (PPD, n = 57), and no parental depression (NPD, n = 105). Diurnal saliva samples were collected to measure the cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol profile. CPD group had significantly higher basal cortisol level (mean ± SE = 11.9 ± 0.80 nmol/dl) than PPD group (mean ± SE = 9.7 ± 0.73 nmol/dl, post hoc p = .024) and NPD group (mean ± SE = 10.2 ± 0.52 nmol/dl, post hoc p = .031) and lower cortisol level at noon, but comparable cortisol levels in other time points. The cortisol awakening response reference to increase (AUCi) were significantly blunted in CPD group when compared with PPD and NPD (post hoc p < .01). Adjustment for potential confounding factors did not change major findings. Further analyses revealed that main influences were derived from current maternal depression. A single day of saliva sample. Current but not past (lifetime) parental depression is associated with higher basal salivary cortisol and blunted cortisol awakening response in their children and adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A switch in hepatic cortisol metabolism across the spectrum of non alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeeba Ahmed

    Full Text Available Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver disease ranging from reversible hepatic steatosis, to non alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH and cirrhosis. The potential role of glucocorticoids (GC in the pathogenesis of NAFLD is highlighted in patients with GC excess, Cushing's syndrome, who develop central adiposity, insulin resistance and in 20% of cases, NAFLD. Although in most cases of NAFLD, circulating cortisol levels are normal, hepatic cortisol availability is controlled by enzymes that regenerate cortisol (F from inactive cortisone (E (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, 11β-HSD1, or inactivate cortisol through A-ring metabolism (5α- and 5β-reductase, 5αR and 5βR.In vitro studies defined 11β-HSD1 expression in normal and NASH liver samples. We then characterised hepatic cortisol metabolism in 16 patients with histologically proven NAFLD compared to 32 obese controls using gas chromatographic analysis of 24 hour urine collection and plasma cortisol generation profile following oral cortisone.In patients with steatosis 5αR activity was increased, with a decrease in hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity. Total cortisol metabolites were increased in this group consistent with increased GC production rate. In contrast, in patients with NASH, 11β-HSD1 activity was increased both in comparison to patients with steatosis, and controls. Endorsing these findings, 11β-HSD1 mRNA and immunostaining was markedly increased in NASH patients in peri septal hepatocytes and within CD68 positive macrophages within inflamed cirrhotic septa.Patients with hepatic steatosis have increased clearance and decreased hepatic regeneration of cortisol and we propose that this may represent a protective mechanism to decrease local GC availability to preserve hepatic metabolic phenotype. With progression to NASH, increased 11β-HSD1 activity and consequent cortisol regeneration may

  6. Effects of Oral, Vaginal, and Transdermal Hormonal Contraception on Serum Levels of Coenzyme Q10, Vitamin E, and Total Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhudas R. Palan

    2010-01-01

    coenzyme Q10 levels compared with normal subjects. Serum TAOC levels were significantly lower (P<.05 among the contraceptive user groups. Alterations in coenzyme Q10 and α-tocopherol induced by hormonal contraception and the potential effect(s of exogenous ovarian hormones should be taken into consideration in future antioxidant research.

  7. Oral lichen planus: salival biomarkers cortisol, immunoglobulin A, adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jornet, Pia; Cayuela, Cristina Aznar; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Parra-Perez, Francisco; Escribano, Damian; Ceron, Jose

    2016-03-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease, inflammatory and autoimmune in character, in which the pathogenesis is not fully understood. Psychological stress has also been implicated in triggering or exacerbating the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological profile, sleep, and salivary biological markers-cortisol, immunoglobin A (IgA), and adiponectin - in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). The sample consisted of 65 patients (33 with OLP and 32 control patients). Patients completed hospital anxiety and depression scales (HADD, HADA). Questionnaires were used to assess sleepiness: the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). A visual analog scale (VAS) was used for rating pain. Unstimulated whole saliva was evaluated, together with total proteins: cortisol, IgA, and adiponectin. Patients with OLP obtained significantly higher HADA and PSQI scores than control subjects (P = 0.001, P = 0.012, respectively). Total salivary protein (flow at rest) analysis found that total proteins were higher in the OLP group (P = 0.001). In the OLP group, IgA was 80.3 ± 51.3 vs. the control group 48.9 ± 32.8 (P = 0.005). Mean cortisol was 0.5 ± 0.3 μg/dl in the OLP group vs. 0.4 ± 0.2 μg/dl in the control group (P = 0.010). The OLP group showed a correlation between the HADA variable and pain (r = 0.358; P = 0.041), HADD (r = 0.568; P = 0.001), and PSQI (r = 0.537; P = 0.001). OLP patients presented worse psychological profiles and sleep disturbances, as well as higher values for IgA, cortisol, and total proteins than control subjects. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Serum albumin levels in burn people are associated to the total body surface burned and the length of hospital stay but not to the initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; de Haro-Padilla, Jesús M; Rioja, Luis F; Derosier, Leo C; de la Torre, Jorge I

    2013-01-01

    Serum albumin levels have been used to evaluate the severity of the burns and the nutrition protein status in burn people, specifically in the response of the burn patient to the nutrition. Although it hasn't been proven if all these associations are fully funded. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the relationship of serum albumin levels at 3-7 days after the burn injury, with the total body surface area burned (TBSA), the length of hospital stay (LHS) and the initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition (IOEN). It was carried out with the health records of patients that accomplished the inclusion criteria and were admitted to the burn units at the University Hospital of Reina Sofia (Córdoba, Spain) and UAB Hospital at Birmingham (Alabama, USA) over a 10 years period, between January 2000 and December 2009. We studied the statistical association of serum albumin levels with the TBSA, LHS and IOEN by ANOVA one way test. The confidence interval chosen for statistical differences was 95%. Duncan's test was used to determine the number of statistically significantly groups. Were expressed as mean±standard deviation. We found serum albumin levels association with TBSA and LHS, with greater to lesser serum albumin levels found associated to lesser to greater TBSA and LHS. We didn't find statistical association with IOEN. We conclude that serum albumin levels aren't a nutritional marker in burn people although they could be used as a simple clinical tool to identify the severity of the burn wounds represented by the total body surface area burned and the lenght of hospital stay.

  9. Antepartum depression severity is increased during seasonally longer nights: relationship to melatonin and cortisol timing and quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliska, Charles J; Martínez, Luis F; López, Ana M; Sorenson, Diane L; Nowakowski, Sara; Kripke, Daniel F; Elliott, Jeffrey; Parry, Barbara L

    2013-11-01

    Current research suggests that mood varies from season to season in some individuals, in conjunction with light-modulated alterations in chronobiologic indices such as melatonin and cortisol. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of seasonal variations in darkness on mood in depressed antepartum women, and to determine the relationship of seasonal mood variations to contemporaneous blood melatonin and cortisol measures; a secondary aim was to evaluate the influence of seasonal factors on measures of melancholic versus atypical depressive symptoms. We obtained measures of mood and overnight concentrations of plasma melatonin and serum cortisol in 19 depressed patients (DP) and 12 healthy control (HC) antepartum women, during on-going seasonal variations in daylight/darkness, in a cross-sectional design. Analyses of variance showed that in DP, but not HC, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HRSD) scores were significantly higher in women tested during seasonally longer versus shorter nights. This exacerbation of depressive symptoms occurred when the dim light melatonin onset, the melatonin synthesis offset, and the time of maximum cortisol secretion (acrophase) were phase-advanced (temporally shifted earlier), and melatonin quantity was reduced, in DP but not HC. Serum cortisol increased across gestational weeks in both the HC and DP groups, which did not differ significantly in cortisol concentration. Nevertheless, serum cortisol concentration correlated positively with HRSD score in DP but not HC; notably, HC showed neither significant mood changes nor altered melatonin and cortisol timing or quantity in association with seasonal variations. These findings suggest that depression severity during pregnancy may become elevated in association with seasonally related phase advances in melatonin and cortisol timing and reduced melatonin quantity that occur in DP, but not HC. Thus, women who experience antepartum depression may be more susceptible than

  10. Association of Porphyromonas gingivalis with high levels of stress-induced hormone cortisol in chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Carlos M; Guzmán, Isabel C

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between the occurrence of periodontopathogens with cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis patients. Seventy-five chronic periodontitis patients were invited to participate in the present study. Cortisol levels in serum were measured using an immunoassay method. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were detected by polymerase chain reaction using primers designed to target the respective 16S rRNA gene sequences. Severe chronic periodontitis patients showed higher mean levels of cortisol (P chronic periodontitis (P chronic periodontitis patients. These results suggest that high levels of cortisol could increase the occurrence of P. gingivalis in the biofilm. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Development of cortisol circadian rhythm in infancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Zijl, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cortisol is the final product of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It is secreted in a pulsatile fashion that displays a circadian rhythm. Infants are born without a circadian rhythm in cortisol and they acquire it during their first year of life. Studies do not

  12. Basal cortisol levels and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, Anderson; Leite, Heloísa Marquardt; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Watte, Guilherme; Canuto, Raquel; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2018-05-17

    To perform a qualitative synthesis (systematic review) and quantitative analysis (meta-analysis) to summarize the evidence regarding the relationship between basal cortisol levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. A systematic search was performed in the PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO databases for observational studies on the association between basal cortisol levels and MetS. The quality of individual studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa score. A random effects model was used to report pooled quantitative results and the I 2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. Egger's and Begg's tests were used to evaluate publication bias. Twenty-six studies (19 cross-sectional and seven case-control) met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. The majority was classified as having a low risk of bias and used established criteria for the diagnosis of MetS. Twenty-one studies provided data on basal cortisol levels as continuous values and were included in the meta-analysis; they comprised 35 analyses and 11,808 subjects. Pooled results showed no significant difference in basal cortisol levels between subjects with and without MetS (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]=-0.11 to 0.14). There was high heterogeneity between the studies when all comparisons were considered (I 2  = 83.1%;p meta-analysis of studies evaluating saliva samples showed no significantly lower basal cortisol levels among subjects with MetS (SMD=-0.18, 95% CI=-0.37 to 0.01), whereas those studies that evaluated serum samples (SMD = 0.11, 95% CI=-0.02 to 0.24) and urine samples (SMD = 0.73, 95% CI=-0.40 to 1.86) showed no significantly higher basal cortisol levels among subjects with MetS. In the subgroup and meta-regression analyses, a significant difference in basal cortisol levels was observed according to study design, population base, age, gender, cortisol level assessment method, and study quality. This systematic review

  13. Seasonal Variation in Human Salivary Cortisol Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Roger; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of cortisol concentration can contribute important information about an individual's ability to adjust to various environmental demands of both physical and psychosocial origin. However, one uncertainty that affects the possibilities of correctly interpreting and designing field studies...... is the lack of observations of the impact of seasonal changes on cortisol excretion. For this reason, the month-to-month changes in diurnal cortisol concentration, the awakening cortisol response (ACR), maximum morning concentration, and fall during the day were studied in a group of 24 healthy men and women...... 32 to 61 yrs of age engaged in active work. On one workday for 12 consecutive months, participants collected saliva at four time points for determination of cortisol: at awakening, +30 min, +8 h, and at 21:00 h. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures design with month (12 levels) and time...

  14. Cortisol concentration, pain and sedation scale in free roaming dogs treated with carprofen after ovariohysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Nenadovic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the topic issues in animal welfare activities is the free roaming dog welfare especially in developing countries such as Serbia. The way of controlling population of free roaming dogs is their reproduction with the method of "Catch-Neuter-Release." This complex process consists of capturing free roaming dogs in public areas, sterilizing, and returning them to the public area from which they were temporarily removed. Ovariohysterectomy present the period with a high intensity of stress reaction since many veterinarians in Serbia do not use analgesia for this group of dogs. The aim of this study was to compare the serum cortisol concentration before and after ovariohysterectomy and the level of post-operative pain and sedation in a group of free roaming female dogs treated with carprofen after surgical intervention and in a group with no treatment. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on a total of 20 female dogs under the program for free roaming dog control. Free-roaming dogs were captured in public areas by the communal animal hygiene service and were transported between 30 and 45 min to the clinic of a veterinary practice. Treatment began at 10:00 h on the next day and the bitches were kept in cages until they were returned to public locations from which they were temporarily removed to be sterilized. The G2 group received before closing the incision line carprofen in one dosage of 4 mg/kg given by subcutaneous injection into the scruff. Rescue protocol with carprofen was provided for G1 after 24 h following ovariohysterectomy same dosage as G2. Blood (2 ml was collected from the cephalic vein of each dog in disposable plastic syringes, containing heparin (1:1000 4 times: Before ovariohysterectomy, 30, 120 min and 24 h following ovariohysterectomy. Cortisol concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The multifactorial pain and sedation scale were used for the assessment of pain and

  15. Different levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cortisol in healthy heavy smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.C. Neves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis modulate dopaminergic activity in response to nicotine and that the concentrations of BDNF and cortisol seem to be dependent on the amount and duration of smoking. Therefore, we investigated BDNF and cortisol levels in smokers ranked by daily cigarette consumption. Twenty-seven adult males (13 non-smokers and 14 smokers participated in the study. The smokers were divided in two groups: light (n=7 and heavy smokers (n=7. Anthropometric parameters and age were paired between the groups, and plasma BDNF and salivary cortisol levels were measured. Saliva samples were collected on awakening, 30 min after awakening, at 10:00 and 12:00 am, 5:00 and 10:00 pm. Additionally, cotinine serum levels were measured in smokers. Heavy smokers had higher mean values of BDNF compared to the control group (P=0.01, whereas no difference was observed in light smokers. Moreover, heavy smokers presented lower cortisol levels in the last collection (10:00 pm than the control group (P=0.02 and presented statically higher values of cotinine than the light smokers (P=0.002. In conclusion, changes in BDNF and cortisol levels (10:00 pm appear to be dependent on heavy cigarette smoking and can be involved in activation and in the relationship between the mesolimbic system and the HPA axis.

  16. Different levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cortisol in healthy heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, C D C; Lacerda, A C R; Lima, L P; Lage, V K S; Balthazar, C H; Leite, H R; Mendonça, V A

    2017-10-19

    Studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulate dopaminergic activity in response to nicotine and that the concentrations of BDNF and cortisol seem to be dependent on the amount and duration of smoking. Therefore, we investigated BDNF and cortisol levels in smokers ranked by daily cigarette consumption. Twenty-seven adult males (13 non-smokers and 14 smokers) participated in the study. The smokers were divided in two groups: light (n=7) and heavy smokers (n=7). Anthropometric parameters and age were paired between the groups, and plasma BDNF and salivary cortisol levels were measured. Saliva samples were collected on awakening, 30 min after awakening, at 10:00 and 12:00 am, 5:00 and 10:00 pm. Additionally, cotinine serum levels were measured in smokers. Heavy smokers had higher mean values of BDNF compared to the control group (P=0.01), whereas no difference was observed in light smokers. Moreover, heavy smokers presented lower cortisol levels in the last collection (10:00 pm) than the control group (P=0.02) and presented statically higher values of cotinine than the light smokers (P=0.002). In conclusion, changes in BDNF and cortisol levels (10:00 pm) appear to be dependent on heavy cigarette smoking and can be involved in activation and in the relationship between the mesolimbic system and the HPA axis.

  17. Social-emotional competence and early adolescents' peer acceptance in school: Examining the role of afternoon cortisol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Oberle

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of afternoon cortisol in social-emotional competence and peer acceptance in early adolescence. To date, research on basal cortisol activity and social development in childhood and adolescence has predominately focused on understanding maladjustment and dysfunction in development. The degree to which basal cortisol is also involved in positive adjustment and social functioning remains largely unexplored. A total of 154 early adolescents (46% female; Mean age = 11.26; SD = .65 from diverse ethnic backgrounds provided self-reports of perspective taking, peer reports of acceptance by classmates, peer reports of prosocial behaviors, and saliva samples to assess basal cortisol. As expected and in alignment with previous research, afternoon cortisol, perspective taking, prosocial behaviors, and peer acceptance were all positively correlated. Path analyses followed by bootstrapping analyses revealed that the direct path from higher afternoon cortisol to higher levels of prosocial behavior was fully mediated by perspective taking skills. The direct path from higher afternoon cortisol to peer acceptance was fully mediated by perspective taking skills and prosocial behavior. The findings are discussed within the broader context of previous research on cortisol and social adjustment in childhood and early adolescence. The practical relevance of the findings is considered.

  18. Social-emotional competence and early adolescents' peer acceptance in school: Examining the role of afternoon cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Eva

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of afternoon cortisol in social-emotional competence and peer acceptance in early adolescence. To date, research on basal cortisol activity and social development in childhood and adolescence has predominately focused on understanding maladjustment and dysfunction in development. The degree to which basal cortisol is also involved in positive adjustment and social functioning remains largely unexplored. A total of 154 early adolescents (46% female; Mean age = 11.26; SD = .65) from diverse ethnic backgrounds provided self-reports of perspective taking, peer reports of acceptance by classmates, peer reports of prosocial behaviors, and saliva samples to assess basal cortisol. As expected and in alignment with previous research, afternoon cortisol, perspective taking, prosocial behaviors, and peer acceptance were all positively correlated. Path analyses followed by bootstrapping analyses revealed that the direct path from higher afternoon cortisol to higher levels of prosocial behavior was fully mediated by perspective taking skills. The direct path from higher afternoon cortisol to peer acceptance was fully mediated by perspective taking skills and prosocial behavior. The findings are discussed within the broader context of previous research on cortisol and social adjustment in childhood and early adolescence. The practical relevance of the findings is considered.

  19. Expensive Egos: Narcissistic Males Have Higher Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97) = .20, p = .65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97) = .00, p = .99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, β = .27, p = .04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, β = .27, p = .06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, β = .72, p = .01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications. PMID:22292062

  20. Expensive egos: narcissistic males have higher cortisol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Reinhard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log. There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97 = .20, p = .65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97 = .00, p = .99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, β = .27, p = .04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, β = .27, p = .06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, β = .72, p = .01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications.

  1. The behaviour of the endocrinological parameters cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone and prolactin after UVA and UVB whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicke, M.

    1986-01-01

    With two groups, each with 8 healthy subjects UV whole-body irradiation was carried out with uniformly 30 J/cm 2 UVA or respectively UVB at the level of the individual minimal erythema dose. Every subject received serial irradiations once a day for four days. The determination of the serum hormone level was accomplished by means of radioimmunoassays. The results show a weakly significant decline of cortisol 4 and 24 hours after 2 serial UVB irradiations. 3,5 and 7 days after the end of the irradiation series the cortisol values have increased, but by the seventh day statistically only weakly significant. With UVA irradiation there was also a weakly significant increase in cortisol levels three days after the end of the irradiation series. The serum levels of the other hormones showed no statistically significant changes. (orig./MG) [de

  2. CRH-stimulated cortisol release and food intake in healthy, non-obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sophie A; Khan, Samir; Briggs, Hedieh; Abelson, James L

    2010-05-01

    There is considerable anecdotal and some scientific evidence that stress triggers eating behavior, but underlying physiological mechanisms remain uncertain. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a key mediator of physiological stress responses and may play a role in the link between stress and food intake. Cortisol responses to laboratory stressors predict consumption but it is unclear whether such responses mark a vulnerability to stress-related eating or whether cortisol directly stimulates eating in humans. We infused healthy adults with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) at a dose that is subjectively undetectable but elicits a robust endogenous cortisol response, and measured subsequent intake of snack foods, allowing analysis of HPA reactivity effects on food intake without the complex psychological effects of a stress paradigm. CRH elevated cortisol levels relative to placebo but did not impact subjective anxious distress. Subjects ate more following CRH than following placebo and peak cortisol response to CRH was strongly related to both caloric intake and total consumption. These data show that HPA axis reactivity to pharmacological stimulation predicts subsequent food intake and suggest that cortisol itself may directly stimulate food consumption in humans. Understanding the physiological mechanisms that underlie stress-related eating may prove useful in efforts to attack the public health crises created by obesity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent negative life events increase hair cortisol concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Koenders, Manja A; Giltay, Erik J; Elzinga, Bernet M; Manenschijn, Laura; Hoencamp, Erik; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Spijker, Anne T

    2014-12-01

    Life events induce stress, which is considered to negatively impact the course of disease in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), its effects being predominantly mediated by cortisol. Cortisol in scalp hair has been identified as a biomarker for assessing long-term cortisol levels, and allows clarifying the relation between life events, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), and clinical course over time. In 71 BD patients, we analyzed the proximal 3 cm of hair, reflecting 3 months of cortisol production, and investigated the association between HCC, the number of life events, the amount of social support, and mood in the 3 months prior to the hair assessment and between HCC and mood in the subsequent 3 months. Although the total number of life events was not associated with HCC (p > 0.05), the number of negative life events was associated with increased HCC (r(2)( )= 0.04, p = 0.02). Social support showed an inverse association with HCC in patients reporting negative life events (r(2)( )= 0.07, p = 0.03). HCC and mood were not associated in the 3 months prior to hair sampling or in the subsequent 3 months. This study indicates that patients who experienced recent negative life events have increased hair cortisol levels, which seem to be attenuated by social support.

  4. Cortisol levels and sleep patterns in infants with orofacial clefts undergoing surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller AA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Andreas A Mueller,1,2 Nadeem Kalak,3 Katja Schwenzer-Zimmerer,1,2 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,4 1Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, University of Basel and University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Hightech Research Center of Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress, and Sleep Disorders, Basel, Switzerland; 4Department of Sport and Health Science, Division of Sport Science, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Traumatic events during early infancy might damage infants’ psychobiological functioning, such as sleep and cortisol secretion. Infants born with orofacial clefts (OFCs undergo functional, anatomical, and aesthetic surgery. The aim of the present study was to determine whether infants with OFC and undergoing OFC surgery show deteriorated sleep and cortisol secretion compared with healthy controls and with their presurgery status.Methods: A total of 27 infants with OFC (mean age: 22 weeks and 30 healthy controls (mean age: 23 weeks took part in the study. For infants with OFC, sleep actigraphy was performed and saliva cortisol was analyzed 5 days before, during, and 5 days after surgery. For controls, sleep and saliva cortisol were assessed similarly, except for the period taken up with surgery.Results: Compared with healthy controls, infants with OFC undergoing OFC surgery did not differ in sleep and cortisol secretion. Their sleep and cortisol secretion did deteriorate during the perisurgical period but recovered 5 days postsurgery. Conclusion: In infants with OFC undergoing corrective surgery, the pattern of results for sleep and cortisol suggests that OFC surgery does not seem to constitute a traumatic event with long-term consequences. Keywords: cortisol, sleep, orofacial cleft, surgery, infants

  5. Hair cortisol as a biomarker of stress in the 2011 Libyan war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etwel, Fatma; Russell, Evan; Rieder, Michael J; Van Uum, Stan H; Koren, Gideon

    2014-12-01

    There is a substantial body of research that utilizes saliva cortisol levels to examine wartime stress; however, there is a paucity of literature that utilizes hair cortisol levels, which allows for long-term assessment of chronic stress, to investigate the stress of war. The present study aimed to evaluate changes in hair cortisol concentrations before, during, and after the 2011 Libyan war. This study examined hair cortisol concentrations of young adult women who were living in Tripoli, Libya during the 2011 war. The participants were recruited at the campus of Tripoli University. Participants needed to have at least 24 cm of hair and to have resided in Tripoli before, during and after the 2011 Libyan war. Hair was sectioned to reflect 3 month windows of cortisol exposure corresponding to periods before, during and after the war. Hair cortisol concentrations were quantified using a modified salivary ELISA test. The women were also asked to complete the Perceived Stress Scale pertaining to the post-war period. Median hair cortisol concentrations in the post-war period (226.11 ng/g; range 122.95-519.85 ng/g) were significantly higher than both the pre-war (180.07 ng/g; 47.13-937.85 ng/g) and wartime (186.65 ng/g; 62.97-771.79 ng/g) periods (Pwar period appears to have been more stressful than the war itself. This is consistent with the fact that during the war the civilian participants were not directly involved with warfare, nor were they targeted by the international coalition fighting Gaddafi. In contrast, the post-war period was characterized by chaos and total lack of authority, with the participants exposed to injury, lack of food and destruction. This study documents the utility of hair cortisol levels to retrospectively assess stress before, during, and after an armed conflict.

  6. Diurnal and seasonal cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA rhythms in boys and girls during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchock, Robert L; Dorn, Lorah D; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2007-01-01

    Diurnal and seasonal rhythms of cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA were examined, as little is known about the relationship between these rhythmicities and pubertal development. Salivary samples were obtained from 60 boys and 60 girls at approximately 07:45, 08:00, 08:30, 12:00, 16:50, and 21:00 h. The participants' ages ranged from 8-14 yrs, and each participant was tested three times at six-month intervals. The study was conducted at a General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) and at the homes of the participants. All hormones showed diurnal fluctuations. The acrophase (peak time) of cortisol occurred earlier than for testosterone or DHEA and showed a seasonal effect, with the acrophase occurring earlier in spring than in summer. The cortisol acrophase also occurred later in the day for boys than for girls during later puberty. Seasonal effects were found only for cortisol with higher concentrations in the spring and summer. Cortisol concentrations were relatively stable across pubertal maturation, but significantly lower concentrations were observed at pubertal stage 3 compared to the other stages. Morning cortisol levels were also higher in boys at pubertal stage 2. Testosterone concentrations were higher in boys at pubertal stages 3 and 4, and DHEA was lower at pubertal stage 1 than 3 and 4 for both boys and girls. For the total sample, there was a positive correlation between DHEA and testosterone during early puberty (stages 1-3) but not later puberty (stages 4-5). Awakening secretory activity correlated with daytime secretory activity for testosterone and DHEA, but not for cortisol. These data provide novel chronobiological information on cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA as it relates to sexual maturation and encourage further study on both normal and abnormal endocrine rhythms.

  7. Effort reward imbalance, and salivary cortisol in the morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Nielsen, Søren Feodor; Blønd, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR.......Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR....

  8. Assay of cortisol with a radioimmunoassay method calibrated by isotope dilution-mass spectrometry. A Nordic collaborative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantto, O.; Lindback, B.; Aakvaag, A.; Bjoerkhem, I.; Damkjaer-Nielsen, M.; Pomoell, U.M.; Helsinki University Hospital

    1983-01-01

    A reference method for serum cortisol, based on isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS), was compared with a modified commercial RIA method. The modification solely concerned the calibration standards used in the RIA method. These were replaced by a series of human serum samples, in which the concentration of cortisol had been determined by the reference ID-MS method. Samples were selected to cover the whole range of the standard curve. Serum samples from healthy, untreated subjects with cortisol concentrations 270-1134 nmol/l were analysed with the ID-MS calibrated RIA method in four laboratories, one in each of the four Nordic countries. Mean values based on results from all four laboratories were almost identical with the values obtained with the reference method. Serum samples from 11 patients with endocrine disorders with cortisol concentrations 31-916 nmol/l were analysed in three of the four laboratories. In three of the samples significant differences were observed between the values obtained with the ID-MS and the ID-MS calibrated RIA method. The value obtained with the ID-MS calibrated RIA was however always more accurate than the corresponding value obtained with RIA with the use of a commercial calibration standard. (author)

  9. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism interacts with gender to influence cortisol responses to mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rong; Babyak, Michael A; Brummett, Beverly H; Siegler, Ilene C; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Williams, Redford B

    2017-05-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism has been associated with cortisol responses to stress with gender differences reported, although the findings are not entirely consistent. To evaluate the role of Val66Met genotype and gender on cortisol responses to stress, we conducted a 45-min mental stress protocol including four tasks and four rest periods. Blood cortisol was collected for assay immediately before and after each task and rest period. A significant two-way interaction of Val66Met genotype×gender (P=0.022) was observed on the total area under the curve (AUC), a total cortisol response over time, such that the Val/Val genotype was associated with a larger cortisol response to stress as compared to the Met group in women but not in men. Further contrast analyses between the Val/Val and Met group for each stress task showed a similar increased cortisol pattern among women Val/Val genotype but not among men. The present findings indicate the gender differences in the effect of Val66Met genotype on the cortisol responses to stress protocol, and extend the evidence for the importance of gender and the role of Val66Met in the modulation of stress reactivity and subsequent depression prevalence. Further studies and the underlying mechanism need to be investigated, which may provide an insight for prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies that target those at high risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations between circadian and stress response cortisol in children

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, S.S.H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with the cortisol stress response in children. Since alterations in cortisol stress responses have been associated with mental and physical health, this study investigated whether the ...

  11. A method of radiocompetitive assay of total thyroxine in the serum by means of enzymatic release of thyroxine from the transporting proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snarski, A.; Wyrwinski, J.

    1978-01-01

    Pepsin causes denaturation of the transporting proteins and liberates thyroxine which can be assayed by the radiocompetitive method. Change of the pH of the medium from acid to alkaline inactivates irreveribly pepsin. The enzymatic release of thyroxine is much simpler that the method of ethanol extraction and thermal denaturation of the transporting proteins applied up to now. The new technique of thyroxine release has been introduced for radiocompetitive determination of thyroxine using dextran coated charcoal for adsorption of the free hormone. A new method has been elaborated for preparation of working standards of thyroxine in a mixture of pepsin solution with hormone-free serum. The method is efficient and rapid. The normal range is from 50 to 130 nanomol/l. Over 7 000 determinations were done as yet in patients with suspected thyroid function disturbances. (author)

  12. No association between pseudotumors, high serum metal-ion levels and metal hypersensitivity in large-head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty at 5-7-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mette Holm; Stilling, Maiken; Soballe, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    -ion concentrations were measured, metal allergy and atopic dermatitis were evaluated, and the questionnaires of the Oxford Hip Score (OHS), Harris Hip Score (HHS) and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were completed. RESULTS: Pseudotumors were found in eight patients, but they were asymptomatic and their serum...... pseudotumor formation, serum metal-ion levels, metal patch test reactivity, and atopic dermatitis. However, clinicians should be aware of asymptomatic pseudotumors, and we advise further exploration into the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of pseudotumors.......OBJECTIVE: The relationship between metal wear debris, pseudotumor formation and metal hypersensitivity is complex and not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of pseudotumor formation in a consecutive series of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty...

  13. The effect of sodium bicarbonate and validation of beckman coulter AU680 analyzers for measuring total carbon dioxide (TCO2) concentrations in horse serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirikolu, Levent; Waller, Pamela; Waguespack, Mona Landry; Andrews, Frank Michael; Keowen, Michael Layne; Gaunt, Stephen David

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the usage of Beckman Coulter AU680 analyzers for measurement of TCO 2 in horse serum, and the effect of sodium bicarbonate administrations on serum TCO 2 levels in resting horses. Treatment of horses with sodium bicarbonate did not result in any adverse events. Mean TCO 2 concentration was significantly higher from 1 to 8 h in the sodium bicarbonate-treated horses compared to the untreated controls. Within an hour, administration of sodium bicarbonate increased the TCO 2 level from 31.5 ± -2.5 (SD) to 34.0 ± 2.65 (SD) mmol/L and at 2-8 h post-administration, the TCO 2 level was above the 36 mmol/L cut-off level. In all quality control analysis of Australian standard by Beckman Coulter AU680 analyzer, the instrument slightly over estimated the TCO 2 level but the values were in close agreement with mean TCO 2 level being 38.03 with ± 0.87 mmol/L (SD). Expanded uncertainty was calculated using different levels of confidence interval. Based on 99.5% confidence interval using 0.805% expanded uncertainty using mean measured concentration of 38.05 mmol/L, it was estimated that any race samples TCO 2 level higher than 38.5 mmol/L will be indicative of sodium bicarbonate administration using Beckman Coulter AU680 analyzer in Louisiana.

  14. Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol supplementation on basal testosterone cortisol ratio in male sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodhi, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Basal testosterone cortisol ratio is considered very important to maintain homeostasis. Increase in this ratio has various beneficial effects on body. In this study we determined the effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol supplementation on basal testosterone cortisol ratio in male Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: It was quasi experimental study carried out in department of Physiology, Army Medical College Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad during October 2006 to September 2007. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups with ten rats in each group and above mentioned antioxidants supplementation were given along with standard diet for one month. After this, blood samples were taken and analyzed for serum testosterone and cortisol by ELISA and malondialdehyde levels colorimetrically. Data were analysed on SPSS version 13 and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was no significant rise in testosterone cortisol ratio in rats supplemented with single antioxidant; however rats supplemented with combination of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol revealed significant rise in testosterone cortisol ratio with a fall in malondialdehyde levels. Conclusions: Synergistic effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol resulted in a decline in reactive oxygen species induced lipid peroxidation and rise of testosterone cortisol ratio. (author)

  15. Test-enhanced learning may be a gender-related phenomenon explained by changes in cortisol level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Charles B; Jensen, Morten Lind; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Context Testing increases memory of a topic studied more than additional study or training. The mechanisms by which this occurs are not clearly understood. Testing can be stressful and studies suggest that the stress hormone cortisol has modulating effects on memory, predominantly in men. The aim...... student performance in a CPR scenario using a checklist and a single blinded assessor. We measured salivary cortisol pre-course, half an hour before the end of the course and post-course, and compared learning outcomes and cortisol responses between groups and genders. Results In total, 146 of 202 (72...

  16. Hair cortisol concentrations exhibit a positive association with salivary cortisol profiles and are increased in obese prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafotiou, Chrysanthe; Christaki, Eirini; van den Akker, Erica L T; Wester, Vincent L; Apostolakou, Filia; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P; Pervanidou, Panagiota

    2017-03-01

    Cortisol, a key mediator of the stress response, has been associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome manifestations as early as in childhood. Scalp hair cortisol has been proposed as a reliable index of long-term circulating cortisol. We aimed to investigate whether obese prepubertal girls have higher scalp hair cortisol than normal-weight controls and whether hair cortisol levels are correlated with salivary cortisol concentrations in these groups. In this cross-sectional study, 25 obese girls and 25 normal-weighted, age-matched girls were enrolled. Anthropometric evaluation, blood chemistry and salivary cortisol measurements were performed, and body mass index (BMI) and areas under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) were calculated. Hair cortisol determination was performed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Both hair cortisol concentrations and salivary cortisol AUCs were higher in the obese than the normal-weight girls (p cortisol and BMI Z-score was found (rho = .327, p = .025), while hair cortisol correlated positively with salivary cortisol AUCg (rho = .3, p = .048). We conclude that obese prepubertal girls have higher hair and salivary cortisol concentrations than their age-matched lean counterparts. Hair cortisol assessment seems to be a sensitive method of evaluating systemic cortisol exposure, which is supported by our finding that hair cortisol is associated with salivary concentrations of the hormone. Lay Summary: Cortisol is the key hormone of the stress response. Childhood obesity has been associated with cortisol production dysregulation. Our findings suggest a positive association between obesity in prepubertal girls and elevated cortisol concentrations, measured in saliva and hair.

  17. Long-term stability of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    either stored in small vials or spiked to polyester Salivette tampons before analysis for cortisol using Spectria RIA kits. The effects of storage were evaluated by a linear regression model (mixed procedure) on a logarithmic scale. No effects on cortisol concentrations were found after storage of saliva......The measurement of salivary cortisol provides a simple, non-invasive, and stress-free measure frequently used in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. In research projects, samples are often required to be stored for longer periods of time either because of the protocol...... of the project or because of lack of funding for analysis. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of long-term storage of samples on the amounts of measurable