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Sample records for serum sex hormone-binding

  1. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Send Us Your Feedback ... As Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin TeBG Formal Name Sex Hormone Binding Globulin This article was last reviewed ...

  2. Serum-sex steroids, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin inprostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Mohammad A. Jalil; Begum, D.; Islam, F.

    2008-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) develops in elderly males when serumandrogens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but is not wellunderstood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia.It is also uncertain that whether there is any change in sex steroids levelsin males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males isoften discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens onprostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatichyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significantchange in these hormones after the age of 40 years. We studied healthy malesof >40 years with (n=92) or without (n=93) clinical prostatic hyperplasia.Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-bindingglobulin (SHBG) were compared. The hormones and SHGB were also correlatedwith age. No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases withprostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significantage-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negativecorrelation (P<0.003) with age was found. Serum sex steroids and SHGBremained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except forestrdoil there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone,gonadotrophins and SHGB in healthy males after the fourth decade. Morestudies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.(author)

  3. Association of Serum Testosterone and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Levels in Females with Acne Based on its Severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiayani, A. J.; Rehman, R. U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Androgens are involved in the development of acne. The aim of this study was to find out if there was an association of serum testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in females with acne based on its severity. Methods: It was a cross sectional study, conducted in Dermatology unit of Fauji Foundation Hospital (FFH), Rawalpindi. Duration of study was eight months. Adult females with acne were enrolled in the study. Patients were categorized into minor, mild, moderate groups. Blood samples were taken for serum testosterone and SHBG. Results: Five hundred and thirty-one adult female were enrolled into the study. The mean age was 21.49±4.73 years. Acne was graded as minor in 78 (14.7 percent) cases, mild in 248 (46.7 percent) and moderate in 205 (38.6 percent). There was no statistically significant relationship between the levels of serum testosterone (p=0.776) and SHBG (p=0.711) with acne severity. Conclusion: There was no association of serum testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels in females with acne based on its severity. (author)

  4. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis...... on the experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....

  5. Effects of aerobic exercise training on serum sex hormone binding globulin, body fat index, and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Won; Kim, Do-Yeon

    2012-12-01

    The percentage of obese postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome is rising, and physical factors associated with the metabolic syndrome prevalence or incidence are also rising, including high body mass index (BMI), visceral fat area (VFA), low plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels, and low cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we investigated the influence of aerobic exercise on SHBG, body fat index (BFI), and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal Korean women. Thirty healthy postmenopausal, women aged 53.46 ± 2.4 years and with over 32% body fat, were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise group (EX; n=15) or to a "nonexercise" control (Con; n=15) group. The primary outcome measurements were serum SHBG, lipid profiles, insulin levels, and metabolic syndrome factors. Secondary outcome measurements were body composition, VFA, blood pressure (BP), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Posttraining body weight and BFI (Pmetabolic syndrome factors (Pexercise group but not in the control group. SHBG levels also showed a significant positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and significant negative correlations withglucose, diastolic blood pressure, fat mass, BMI, and percent body fat (Pexercise improves body composition, SHBG, insulin levels, and metabolic syndrome factors. These findings suggest that in obesepostmenopausal Korean women, 16 weeks of aerobic exercise is effective for preventing the metabolic syndrome caused by obesity.

  6. Effect of anticonvulsants on plasma testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragry, J M; Makin, H L; Trafford, D J; Scott, D F

    1978-01-01

    Plasma sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone levels were measured in 29 patients with epilepsy (16 men and 13 women), most of them on chronic therapy with anticonvulsant drugs. Sex hormone binding globulin concentrations were increased in both sexes and testosterone levels in male patients. It is postulated that anticonvulsants may induce hepatic synthesis of SHBG. PMID:569688

  7. Autocrine and Paracrine Control of Breast Cancer Growth by Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosner, Wiliam

    2003-01-01

    We propose that the expression of Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) by breast cancer cells is biologically regulated and that this SHBG functions to alter the effects of estrogens within the breast cancer cell...

  8. Autocine and Paracrine Control of Breast Cancer Growth by Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosner, William

    2004-01-01

    We propose that the expression of Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) by breast cancer cells is biologically regulated and this SHBG functions to alter the effects of estrogens within the breast cancer cell...

  9. [Influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in adult male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Yang, Rupu; Li, Shihong; Zheng, Guoqing; Xi, Yu; Cheng, Xuemin; Hou, Jiaxiang; Cui, Liuxin; Ba, Yue

    2013-03-01

    To explore the influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone in adult male. Cross-sectional study was conducted in three villages of Tongxu county including high fluoride group (HFG), defluoridation project group (DFPG) and control group (CG) based on the fluoride concentration in drinking water. Adult male who were born and raised in the village and aged 18 - 50 years old were recruited using cluster sampling. Fasting blood and morning urine samples were collected. The fluoride levels in drinking water and urine were detected by fluoride-ion selective electrode method. Serum SHBG level was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The chemical luminescence immune analysis method was used to detect serum testosterone content. Serum SHBG level was 47.85 nmol/L in CG, 31.37 nmol/L in DFPG and 24.52 nmol/L in HFG respectively. There were significant difference among of three groups (P < 0.05). Serum testosterone level was 3.69 ng/ml in CG, 4.61 ng/ml in DFPG and 4.83 ng/ml in HFG respectively. Serum testosterone level in HFG was significantly higher than that in CG (P < 0.05). Serum SHBG level in HFG has positive correlation with serum testosterone (r = 0.230, P = 0.049), which has not been observed in DFPG and CG. Long-time fluorine exposure may affect serum SHBG and testosterone level in adult male.

  10. Sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels during pregnancy as predictors for pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés R, Enrique; Lattes A, Karina; Muñoz S, Hernán; Ángel Cumsille, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sex-Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) may be associated to Pre-eclampsia (PE) and Fetal Growth Restriction (RCIU). Aim: To determine if maternal serum SHBG concentrations during the first and second trimesters are predictive biomarkers of Pre-eclampsia and RCIU. Patients and Methods: Prospective cohort study carried out in the Fetal Medicine Unit, Universidad de Chile Clinical Hospital between January, 2005 and December, 2006. Blood samples were obtained from unselectedpregnant wome...

  11. Concentration of serum thyroid hormone binding proteins after 131I treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrop, J.S.; Hopton, M.R.; Lazarus, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Serum concentrations of the thyroid hormone binding proteins, thyroxine binding globulin, prealbumin, and albumin were determined in 30 thyrotoxic patients before and after 131 I treatment. Each patient was placed into one of three groups according to response to treatment. The serum concentration of all three proteins rose significantly in 10 patients who became euthyroid, and a greater increase was seen in 10 patients who developed hypothyroidism. There was no significant change in thyroid hormone binding protein concentrations in 10 subjects who remained hyperthyroid. Changes in the concentration of thyroid hormone binding proteins should be borne in mind when total thyroid hormone concentrations are used to monitor the progress of patients receiving treatment for hyperthyroidism. (author)

  12. Sex hormone binding globulin, free estradiol index, and lipid profiles in girls with precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Wook Chae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeSex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG modulates the availability of biologically active free sex hormones. The regulatory role of SHBG might be important in the relationship between hormone levels and the modification of lipid profiles in girls with precocious puberty. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship of SHBG, free estradiol index (FEI, and lipid levels in these girls.MethodsOne hundred and nine girls less than 8 years of age with pubertal development were enrolled. FEI was calculated with SHBG and estradiol (E2. We analyzed SHBG between peak luteinizing hormone (LH≥5 (IU/L (group 1 and LH<5 (IU/L (group 2 through a gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation test.ResultsBody mass index (BMI standard deviation score (SDS was higher in group 2 than in group 1 (P=0.004. Serum SHBG levels did not differ and FEI was not higher in group 1 (P=0.122. Serum cholesterol, HDL, and LDL did not differ; however, triglyceride levels were higher in group 2 (P=0.023. SHBG was negatively correlated with bone age advancement, BMI, BMI SDS, and FEI, and was positively correlated with HDL. However, SHBG was not correlated with E2 or peak LH.ConclusionSerum SHBG itself might not be associated with precocious puberty in girls, but it might be related to BMI and lipid profiles. Further studies are needed to reveal the relationship between sex hormone and obesity in girls with precocious puberty.

  13. Relation of cigarette smoking in males of different ages to sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship of cigarette smoking, age, total testosterone free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were examined by solid phase radioimmunoassay in 90 randomly chosen healthy males of different ages. The serum levels of these hormones were investigated for smokers compared with non-smokers, of the same ages in 3 groups (adolescent males, middle aged males, and old aged males). Results indicated that cigarette smokers showed increased serum levels of testosterone (60.0% higher, P> 0.05), free testosterone (51.0 higher, P > 0.005) in young adolescent males group, testosterone (27.8% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (21.3% higher, P > 0.001) in middle aged males group, and testosterone (21.0% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (16.8% higher, P > 0.4) in old ages males group. SHBG was calculated as a mean of free and total testosterone in each group. smokers showed higher mean values of SHBG than non-smokers. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG, it was found that SHBG increased by 17.2% from the youngest (> 18 years) to the oldest age (> 65 years)

  14. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels predict insulin sensitivity, disposition index, and cardiovascular risk during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor

    2009-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are a feature of early puberty and of conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate SHBG as a predictor...... of glucose metabolism and metabolic risk during puberty....

  15. Increased sex hormone-binding globulin levels in children and adolescents with thyrotoxicosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Juul, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis is a rare condition in pediatric patients, and optimal treatment can be difficult to achieve in some children. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in hyperthyroid children and adolescents in relation to age- and gender...

  16. Is the sex hormone binding globulin related to preeclampsia independent of insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmanian, M.; Salari, Z.; Mirmohammadkhani, M.; Ghorbani, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between Sex Hormone Binding Globulin and preeclampsia in Iranian women considering the probable confounding effect of insulin resistance. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at the Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, and comprised pregnant women who received prenatal care at Amiralmomenin Hospital in 2011. Cases represented patients admitted because of preeclampsia, while controls were randomly selected eligible pregnant women without hypertension and/or proteinuria. Fasting blood sugar and insulin were assessed for all participants as well as their blood concentration of Sex Hormone Binding Globulin. The Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance Score was used. The correlation between dependant and independent variables was reported by crude and adjusted odds ratio applying logistic regression models. SPSS 16.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 100 pregnant women in the study, 45(45%) were cases. Insulin resistance was found to be significantly more frequent in the cases compared to the controls (adjusted odds ratio=2.78; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.11, 6.90; p<0.01). There was a significant reverse correlation between level of Sex Hormone Binding Globulin in blood and being a case of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio=0.99; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.98, 1.00; p=0.04). Conclusion: Independent of insulin resistance, every 1nmol/l increase in Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, decreases the odds of preeclampsia by 1%, notifying Sex Hormone Binding Globulin as an important biomarker about its etiology and prediction. (author)

  17. Association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and metabolic syndrome among men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuela Quental Callou de Sá

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome consists of a set of factors that imply increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The objective here was to evaluate the association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, sex hormones and metabolic syndrome among men. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective analysis on data from the study "Endogenous oestradiol but not testosterone is related to coronary artery disease in men", conducted in a hospital in São Paulo. METHODS: Men (aged 40-70 who underwent coronary angiography were selected. The age, weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index and prevalence of dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes of each patient were registered. Metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP-ATPIII. Serum samples were collected to assess the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein, triglycerides, albumin, SHBG, estradiol and total testosterone (TT. The levels of LDL-cholesterol (low density lipoprotein were calculated using Friedewald's formula and free testosterone (FT and bioavailable testosterone (BT using Vermeulen's formula. RESULTS: 141 patients were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the first SHBG tercile than in the second and third terciles. A statistically significant positive association between the SHBG and TT values was observed, but no such association was seen between SHBG, BT and FT. CONCLUSION: Low serum levels of SHBG are associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome among male patients, but further studies are required to confirm this association.

  18. Sex hormone binding globulin - an important biomarker for predicting PCOS risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deswal, Ritu; Yadav, Arun; Dang, Amita Suneja

    2018-02-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein which regulates bioavailability of sex steroid hormones. Interest in SHBG has escalated in recent years because of its inverse association with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes type II. This meta-analysis was performed to examine the associations of SHBG with PCOS and to correlate serum SHBG levels with various PCOS associated endocrine and metabolic dysregulation as well as to determine the effects of various therapeutic agents on serum SHBG levels in PCOS patients in order to assess the true accuracy of SHBG in the prediction of PCOS. A literature search was performed using Pub-Med, Science direct, google scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane library. A total of 675 relevant records were identified, of which 62 articles were included. Meta-analysis using a random-effects model was performed using STATA version 13 to calculate standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95 % CIs). SHBG levels in controls were significantly higher than that of PCOS patients (SMD= -0.83, 95%CI = -1.01, -0.64), with significant heterogeneity across studies (I 2 = 93.9% and p=0.000). Our results suggest that the lower serum SHBG levels are associated with the risk of PCOS. SHBG may also play an important role in various metabolic disturbances in PCOS patients. Therapeutic interventions improved SHBG levels in PCOS women which further reduced PCOS associated complications. Therefore, SHBG levels may prove to be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of PCOS. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42017057972 Abbreviations: PCOS: polycystic ovary syndrome; SHBG: sex hormone-binding globulin.

  19. [Sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels during pregnancy as predictors for pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés R, Enrique; Lattes A, Karina; Muñoz S, Hernán; Cumsille, Miguel Angel

    2012-05-01

    Sex-Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) may be associated to Pre-eclampsia (PE) and Fetal Growth Restriction (RCIU). To determine if maternal serum SHBG concentrations during the first and second trimesters are predictive biomarkers of Pre-eclampsia and RCIU. Prospective cohort study carried out in the Fetal Medicine Unit, Universidad de Chile Clinical Hospital between January, 2005 and December, 2006. Blood samples were obtained from unselected pregnant women during routine 11-14 week and 22-25 week ultrasound examinations, conforming two different study groups. Posteriorly, serum SHBG concentrations were determined in women who developed Pre-eclampsia, RCIU and their respective controls. Fifty five patients were included in the 11-14 weeks group. Nine women that developed PE, 10 that developed RCIU and 36 controls were selected from this group. There were no significant differences in SHBG levels between patients with PE, RCIU or controls (324.7 (26.6), 336.8 (33.9) and 377.5 (24.3) nmol/L, respectively). Fifty four women were included in the 22-25 weeks group. Eight women who developed Pre-eclampsia, 15 who developed RCIU and 31 controls were selected. Again, there were no significant differences in SHBG levels between patients with PE, RCIU or controls (345.5 (151.1), 383.8 (143.4) and 345.5 nmol/l (151.1), respectively). Maternal SHBG serum levels did not predict subsequent development of Pre-eclampsia and RCIU.

  20. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG expression in ovarian carcinomas and its clinicopathological associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixia Huang

    Full Text Available Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is known as a carrier protein. It is classically thought to be mainly synthesized in the liver and then secreted into the circulating system, where it binds to sex steroids with a high affinity and modulates the bio-availability of the hormones. Other organs known to produce SHBG include brain, uterus, testis, prostate, breast and ovary, and the local expressed SHBG may play an important role in tumor development. However, SHBG expression status and its clinicopathological significance in ovarian cancer cells are not reported yet. In our present study, we examined and found the variable SHBG expression in four ovarian cancer cell lines (OV-90, OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and ES-2 by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. We then extended our study to 248 ovarian carcinoma samples, which were collected at The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital with complete clinical information, and discovered that SHBG was variably expressed in these ovarian carcinomas. Higher level of SHBG expression was significantly associated with more aggressive histological subtype (p = 0.022, higher FIGO stage (p = 0.018 and higher histological grade (grade of differentiation, p = 0.020, although association between SHBG expression and OS/PFS was not observed. Our results demonstrate that ovarian cancer cells produce SHBG and higher SHBG expression in ovarian carcinoma is associated with unfavorable clinicopathological features.

  1. Low Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels Associate with Prediabetes in Chinese Men Independent of Total Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Zhu, Chunfang; Chen, Yingchao; Xia, Fangzhen; Cang, Zhen; Lu, Meng; Chen, Chi; Lin, Dongping; Lu, Yingli

    2016-01-01

    Objective The association ns between prediabetes and androgens have been rarely reported, especially in Chinese men. We aimed to investigate whether androgens were associated with the prevalence of prediabetes diagnosed with new American Diabetes Association criteria in Chinese men and then to assess which androgen value was the most relevant factor. Methods A total of 2654 men (52.6±13.4 years old) were selected. Serum total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and free testosterone (FT) were measured. Covariance analysis of different androgen values were performed in age subgroups. Multinomial logistic regression was used for the association of TT, SHBG and FT with prediabetes and diabetes, as well as prediabetes in age subgroups. Results According to ADA new criteria, normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes were diagnosed in 1405, 907 and 342 men, respectively. In covariance analysis, SHBG of prediabetes were found lower than that of normoglycemia but higher than that of diabetes (P prediabetes and diabetes. While, after full adjustment for age, residence area, economic status, waist circumference, metabolic factors, other two androgen values and HOMA-IR, only the associations of SHBG with prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes persisted statistically significant, especially in the elderly with prediabetes (all P for trend prediabetes and diabetes in Chinese men. Low serum SHBG was the most relevant factor for prediabetes and diabetes. Whether it is an independent predictor for incident prediabetes in Chinese men needs further explorations. PMID:27583401

  2. In silico identification of anthropogenic chemicals as ligands of zebrafish sex hormone binding globulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorsteinson, Nels; Ban, Fuqiang; Santos-Filho, Osvaldo; Tabaei, Seyed M.H.; Miguel-Queralt, Solange; Underhill, Caroline; Cherkasov, Artem; Hammond, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic compounds with the capacity to interact with the steroid-binding site of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) pose health risks to humans and other vertebrates including fish. Building on studies of human SHBG, we have applied in silico drug discovery methods to identify potential binders for SHBG in zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model aquatic organism. Computational methods, including; homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, virtual screening, and 3D QSAR analysis, successfully identified 6 non-steroidal substances from the ZINC chemical database that bind to zebrafish SHBG (zfSHBG) with low-micromolar to nanomolar affinities, as determined by a competitive ligand-binding assay. We also screened 80,000 commercial substances listed by the European Chemicals Bureau and Environment Canada, and 6 non-steroidal hits from this in silico screen were tested experimentally for zfSHBG binding. All 6 of these compounds displaced the [ 3 H]5α-dihydrotestosterone used as labeled ligand in the zfSHBG screening assay when tested at a 33 μM concentration, and 3 of them (hexestrol, 4-tert-octylcatechol, and dihydrobenzo(a)pyren-7(8H)-one) bind to zfSHBG in the micromolar range. The study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale in silico screening of anthropogenic compounds that may disrupt or highjack functionally important protein:ligand interactions. Such studies could increase the awareness of hazards posed by existing commercial chemicals at relatively low cost

  3. Low Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels Associate with Prediabetes in Chinese Men Independent of Total Testosterone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhu

    Full Text Available The association ns between prediabetes and androgens have been rarely reported, especially in Chinese men. We aimed to investigate whether androgens were associated with the prevalence of prediabetes diagnosed with new American Diabetes Association criteria in Chinese men and then to assess which androgen value was the most relevant factor.A total of 2654 men (52.6±13.4 years old were selected. Serum total testosterone (TT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and free testosterone (FT were measured. Covariance analysis of different androgen values were performed in age subgroups. Multinomial logistic regression was used for the association of TT, SHBG and FT with prediabetes and diabetes, as well as prediabetes in age subgroups.According to ADA new criteria, normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes were diagnosed in 1405, 907 and 342 men, respectively. In covariance analysis, SHBG of prediabetes were found lower than that of normoglycemia but higher than that of diabetes (P <0.05. In multinomial logistic regression, serum TT and SHBG were inversely associated with prediabetes and diabetes. While, after full adjustment for age, residence area, economic status, waist circumference, metabolic factors, other two androgen values and HOMA-IR, only the associations of SHBG with prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes persisted statistically significant, especially in the elderly with prediabetes (all P for trend <0.05.Serum androgen was inversely associated with prediabetes and diabetes in Chinese men. Low serum SHBG was the most relevant factor for prediabetes and diabetes. Whether it is an independent predictor for incident prediabetes in Chinese men needs further explorations.

  4. Low Levels of Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Constitute an Independent Risk Factor for Arterial Stiffness in Korean Women

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    Kunhee Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and arterial stiffness in women is not conclusive. In addition, obesity might also be involved in the relationship between SHBG and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between SHBG and arterial stiffness in association with central obesity in women. This cross-sectional study included 381 women who participated in the health checkup programs in one hospital. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV was measured as a marker for arterial stiffness. A negative correlation was observed between SHBG levels and baPWV (rho = −0.281. The relationship was significant even after adjusting for potential confounders (beta = −0.087 in fully adjusted model. After considering the interaction between central obesity and SHBG levels, the significant association was evident only in obese women (P for interaction = 0.025. Adjustment for a 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk scores, instead of each cardiovascular risk factor individually, did not affect the significance of the relationship between SHBG levels and baPWV. Serum levels of SHBG were negatively associated with arterial stiffness independent of cardiovascular risk factors or 10-year ASCVD risk scores in Korean women. The relationship may be potentiated by central obesity.

  5. Human sex hormone-binding globulin gene expression- multiple promoters and complex alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosner William

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG regulates free sex steroid concentrations in plasma and modulates rapid, membrane based steroid signaling. SHBG is encoded by an eight exon-long transcript whose expression is regulated by a downstream promoter (PL. The SHBG gene was previously shown to express a second major transcript of unknown function, derived from an upstream promoter (PT, and two minor transcripts. Results We report that transcriptional expression of the human SHBG gene is far more complex than previously described. PL and PT direct the expression of at least six independent transcripts each, resulting from alternative splicing of exons 4, 5, 6, and/or 7. We mapped two transcriptional start sites downstream of PL and PT, and present evidence for a third SHBG gene promoter (PN within the neighboring FXR2 gene; PN regulates the expression of at least seven independent SHBG gene transcripts, each possessing a novel, 164-nt first exon (1N. Transcriptional expression patterns were generated for human prostate, breast, testis, liver, and brain, and the LNCaP, MCF-7, and HepG2 cell lines. Each expresses the SHBG transcript, albeit in varying abundance. Alternative splicing was more pronounced in the cancer cell lines. PL- PT- and PN-derived transcripts were most abundant in liver, testis, and prostate, respectively. Initial findings reveal the existence of a smaller immunoreactive SHBG species in LNCaP, MCF-7, and HepG2 cells. Conclusion These results extend our understanding of human SHBG gene transcription, and raise new and important questions regarding the role of novel alternatively spliced transcripts, their function in hormonally responsive tissues including the breast and prostate, and the role that aberrant SHBG gene expression may play in cancer.

  6. False radioimmunoassay of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the presence of hormone binding autoantibodies in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, J.; Kley, H.K.; Rudorff, K.H.; Kroell, H.J.; Krueskemper, H.L.

    1976-01-01

    Radioimmuno-assay of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in a 14-year-old girl with primary hypothyroidism and nodular goitre as a result of Hashimoto's thyroiditis gave falsely low values due to the presence of hormone-binding antibodies. Such antibodies occur in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid carcinoma. Their presence requires special methods for determining these hormones. (orig.) [de

  7. The association between sex hormone-binding globulin and type 2 diabetes in Nigerian men

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    Fayefori M. Abbiyesuku

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have shown that sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG has a role in glucose homeostasis in both men and women. However, a prospective study on Japanese-American subjects concluded that SHBG was not a significant risk factor in either men or women, suggesting ethnic differences. We were not aware of any evaluation of SHBG in subjects of African ancestry. Objectives: We investigated the association between SHBG and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic diabetic men in a hospital in Nigeria. Method: Forty-eight male subjects with type 2 diabetes and 20 non-diabetic male subjects were recruited in this cross-sectional hospital-based study by the convenient sampling method.Height and circumferences around the waist and hip were measured to the nearest 0.5 cm and the waist–hip ratio was calculated from this measurement. Weight was measured and body mass index was calculated. Fasting plasma glucose concentration was measured by the glucose oxidase method with a between-run coefficient of variation of 3%. Insulin and SHBG were measured by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: There was a statistically-significant difference between test results for the diabetic and non-diabetic patients. The mean SHBG concentration was higher in the non-diabetic group (42.2 nmol/L than the diabetic group (30.5 nmol/L. A significant inverse association between insulin resistance and SHBG was observed (r = 0.353, p < 0.015. Conclusion: This study supported earlier observations that a significant inverse correlation exists between SHBG and insulin resistance and provides evidence that the relationship may extend to type 2 diabetic men of African ancestry in Nigeria.

  8. Effect of weight reduction on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin, sex hormones and gonadotrophins in obese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkebaek, N H; Lange, Aksel; Holland-Fischer, P

    2010-01-01

    Obesity in men is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hypoandrogenism, while obesity in women is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hyperandrogenism. In children, the effect of obesity and weight reduction on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is rarely investigated. ....... The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of weight reduction in obese Caucasian children on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), DHEAS and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis.......Obesity in men is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hypoandrogenism, while obesity in women is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hyperandrogenism. In children, the effect of obesity and weight reduction on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is rarely investigated...

  9. Effect of triiodothyronine (L-T/sub 3/) and weight loss on sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in hirsute obese women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaliere, H.; Medeiros Neto, G.A. (Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina)

    1984-06-01

    The effect of a 60-day period of treatment with L-T/sub 3/ (200 ..mu..g/day) was evaluated in hirsute obese women and normal controls. The obese patients were also submitted to a low calorie high protein diet. Mean initial weight significantly declined with a significant lowering of the mean DHEA-S level. There were changes in serum T/sub 3/ which rose in both obese and normal patients. Serum sex-hormone binding globulin levels at baseline studies were significantly higher in normal controls than in obese patients. At the end of the 60-day period of L-T/sub 3/ administration it was observed in both groups a 2-4 fold increase in serum SHBG levels but normal controls had significantly higher mean values than obese individuals.

  10. The effect of triiodothyronine (L-T3) and weight loss on sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in hirsute obese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaliere, H.; Medeiros Neto, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of a 60-day period of treatment with L-T 3 (200 μg/day) was evaluated in hirsute obese women and normal controls. The obese patients were also submitted to a low calorie high protein. Mean initial weight significantly declined with a significant lowering of the mean DHEA-S leves. There was changes in serum T 3 rose in both obese and normal patients. Serum sex-hormone binding globulin levels at baseline studies were significantly higher in normal controls than in obese patients. At the end of de 60-day period of L-T 3 administration it was observed in both groups a 2-4 fold increase in serum SHBG levels but normal controls had significantly higher mean values than obese individuals. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Sex hormone binding globulin and sex steroids among premenopausal women in the diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Stentz, Frankie B; Murphy, Mary Beth; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Kitabchi, Abbas E

    2013-07-01

    It is unknown whether intensive lifestyle modification (ILS) or metformin changes sex steroids among premenopausal women without a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We examined 1-year intervention impact on sex steroids (estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione [A4]) and SHBG and differences by race/ethnicity. A subgroup of Diabetes Prevention Program participants who were premenopausal, not using estrogen, without a history of PCOS or irregular menses, and who reported non-Hispanic white (NHW), Hispanic, or African-American race/ethnicity (n = 301). Randomization arms were 1) ILS with the goals of weight reduction of 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, 2) metformin 850 mg twice a day, or 3) placebo. Neither intervention changed sex steroids compared to placebo. ILS, but not metformin, increased median SHBG by 3.1 nmol/L (~11%) compared to decreases of 1.1 nmol/L in the placebo arm (P < .05). This comparison remained significant after adjustment for changes in covariates including waist circumference. However, associations with glucose were not significant. Median baseline A4 was lower in Hispanics compared to NHWs (5.7 nmol/L vs 6.5 nmol/L, P < .05) and increases in A4 were greater in Hispanics compared to NHWs (3.0 nmol/ vs 1.2 nmol/L, P < .05), and these differences did not differ significantly by intervention arm. No other racial/ethnic differences were significant. Among premenopausal glucose-intolerant women, no intervention changed sex steroids. ILS increased SHBG, although associations with glucose were not significant. SHBG and sex steroids were similar by race/ethnicity, with the possible exception of lower baseline A4 levels in Hispanics compared to NHWs.

  12. Association of the pituitary-testicular axis function and sex hormone-binding globulin with melatonin secretion in morbidly obese men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowska, Z.; Buntner, B.; Marek, B.; Zwirska-Korczala, K.

    1995-01-01

    A possible relationship between melatonin (MEL) secretion and pituitary-testicular function as well as the circadian rhythmicity of serum MEL, lutropin (LH), folitropin (FSH), estradiol (E 2 ), total testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were evaluated in 16 men with the primary obesity (body mass index - BMI > 43 kg/m 2 ; waist-to-hip circumference ratio - WHR > 1.0) and in 17 healthy volunteers with normal body weight. The mean 24-h MEL level was significantly higher in obese patients than in healthy control individuals. Moreover, all obese men showed some abnormalities of MEL circadian pattern such as decreased ratio between day and night MEL levels, abnormal secretory peaks during the light hours and lower interindividual variability for timing amplitude. Abnormal circadian variations of MEL were associated with reduced 24-h mean values of LH, FSH, T and SHBG, whereas E 2 levels were elevated. (author). 49 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Serum levels of growth hormone binding protein in children with normal and precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Fisker, Sidse; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2000-01-01

    To study the regulation of GHBP serum levels by gonadal steroids in normal and precocious puberty.......To study the regulation of GHBP serum levels by gonadal steroids in normal and precocious puberty....

  14. Lignans from the roots of Urtica dioica and their metabolites bind to human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöttner, M; Gansser, D; Spiteller, G

    1997-12-01

    Polar extracts of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) roots contain the ligans (+)-neoolivil, (-)-secoisolariciresinol, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, isolariciresinol, pinoresinol, and 3,4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran. These compounds were either isolated from Urtica roots, or obtained semisynthetically. Their affinity to human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) was tested in an in vitro assay. In addition, the main intestinal transformation products of plant lignans in humans, enterodiol and enterolactone, together with enterofuran were checked for their activity. All lignans except (-)-pinoresinol developed a binding affinity to SHBG in the in vitro assay. The affinity of (-)-3,4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran was outstandingly high. These findings are discussed with respect to potential beneficial effects of plant lignans on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

  15. Genetic evidence that raised sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N; Langenberg, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show that circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are lower in type 2 diabetes patients than non-diabetic individuals, but the causal nature of this association is controversial. Genetic studies can help dissect causal directions...... used data from this SNP, or closely correlated SNPs, in 27 657 type 2 diabetes patients and 58 481 controls from 15 studies. We then used data from additional studies to estimate the difference in SHBG levels between type 2 diabetes patients and controls. The SHBG SNP rs1799941 was associated with type...... 2 diabetes [odds ratio (OR) 0.94, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.97; P = 2 x 10(-5)], with the SHBG raising allele associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. This effect was very similar to that expected (OR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96), given the SHBG-SNP versus SHBG levels association (SHBG levels are 0.2...

  16. Absence of serum growth hormone binding protein in patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron dwarfism)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daughaday, W.H.; Trivedi, B.

    1987-07-01

    It has recently been recognized that human serum contains a protein that specifically binds human growth hormone (hGH). This protein has the same restricted specificity for hGH as the membrane-bound GH receptor. To determine whether the GH-binding protein is a derivative of, or otherwise related to, the GH receptor, the authors have examined the serum of three patients with Laron-type dwarfism, a condition in which GH refractoriness has been attributed to a defect in the GH receptor. The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hGH incubated with serum has been measured after gel filtration of the serum through an Ultrogel AcA 44 minicolumn. Results are expressed as percent of specifically bound /sup 125/I-hGH and as specific binding relative to that of a reference serum after correction is made for endogenous GH. The mean +/- SEM of specific binding of sera from eight normal adults (26-46 years of age) was 21.6 +/- 0.45%, and the relative specific binding was 101.1 +/- 8.6%. Sera from 11 normal children had lower specific binding of 12.5 +/- 1.95% and relative specific binding of 56.6 +/- 9.1%. Sera from three children with Laron-type dwarfism lacked any demonstrable GH binding, whereas sera from 10 other children with other types of nonpituitary short stature had normal relative specific binding. They suggest that the serum GH-binding protein is a soluble derivative of the GH receptor. Measurement of the serum GH-binding protein may permit recognition of other abnormalities of the GH receptor.

  17. Absence of serum growth hormone binding protein in patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron dwarfism)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughaday, W.H.; Trivedi, B.

    1987-01-01

    It has recently been recognized that human serum contains a protein that specifically binds human growth hormone (hGH). This protein has the same restricted specificity for hGH as the membrane-bound GH receptor. To determine whether the GH-binding protein is a derivative of, or otherwise related to, the GH receptor, the authors have examined the serum of three patients with Laron-type dwarfism, a condition in which GH refractoriness has been attributed to a defect in the GH receptor. The binding of 125 I-labeled hGH incubated with serum has been measured after gel filtration of the serum through an Ultrogel AcA 44 minicolumn. Results are expressed as percent of specifically bound 125 I-hGH and as specific binding relative to that of a reference serum after correction is made for endogenous GH. The mean +/- SEM of specific binding of sera from eight normal adults (26-46 years of age) was 21.6 +/- 0.45%, and the relative specific binding was 101.1 +/- 8.6%. Sera from 11 normal children had lower specific binding of 12.5 +/- 1.95% and relative specific binding of 56.6 +/- 9.1%. Sera from three children with Laron-type dwarfism lacked any demonstrable GH binding, whereas sera from 10 other children with other types of nonpituitary short stature had normal relative specific binding. They suggest that the serum GH-binding protein is a soluble derivative of the GH receptor. Measurement of the serum GH-binding protein may permit recognition of other abnormalities of the GH receptor

  18. Characterization of mini-protein S, a recombinant variant of protein S that lacks the sex hormone binding globulin-like domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnen, M.; Stam, J. G.; Chang, G. T.; Meijers, J. C.; Reitsma, P. H.; Bertina, R. M.; Bouma, B. N.

    1998-01-01

    Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein involved in the regulation of the anticoagulant activity of activated protein C (APC). Also, an anticoagulant role for protein S, independent of APC, has been described. Protein S has a unique C-terminal sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)-like domain

  19. A portion of heifers attaining “early puberty” do not display estrus, are anovulatory and have altered sex hormone binding globulin concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cows with excess androstenedione (High A4) in the follicular fluid of dominant follicles attain puberty earlier than their low androstenedione counterparts. Furthermore, High A4 cows are anovulatory (chronic or sporadic) and have lower Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) compared to Low A4 ovulator...

  20. Sex differences, endogenous sex-hormone hormones, sex-hormone binding globulin, and exogenous disruptors in diabetes and related metabolic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Simin; Sun, Qi

    2016-12-19

    In assessing clinical and pathophysiological development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), the critical role of the sex steroids axis is underappreciated, particularly concerning the sex-specific relationships with many relevant cardiometabolic outcomes. In this issue of the Journal of Diabetes, we provide a comprehensive overview of these significant associations of germline variants in the genes governing the sex steroid pathways, plasma levels of steroid hormones, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with T2D risk that have been observed in many clinical and high-quality large prospective cohorts of men and women across ethnic populations. Together, this body of evidence indicates that sex steroids and SHBG should be routinely incorporated into clinical characterization of T2D patients, particularly in screening prediabetic patients, such as those with metabolic syndrome, using plasma levels of SHBG. Given that several germline mutations in the SHBG gene have also been directly related to both plasma concentrations of SHBG and clinical manifestation of T2D, targeting signals in the sex steroid axis, particularly SHBG, may have significant utility in the prediction and treatment of T2D. Further, many of the environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals may exert their potential adverse effects on cardiometabolic outcomes via either estrogenic or androgenic signaling pathways, highlighting the importance of using the sex steroids and SHBG as important biochemical markers in both clinical and population studies in studying sex-specific mechanisms in the pathogenesis of T2D and its complications, as well as the need to equitably allocate resources in studying both men and women. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Associations of sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone with diabetes among men and women (the Saku Diabetes study: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto Atsushi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG levels and sex hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. As fatty liver has been suggested to be a major determinant of SHBG levels, we examined whether the associations of SHBG and testosterone with diabetes were independent of fatty liver. Methods We conducted a case–control study that included 300 diabetes cases (215 men and 85 women and 300 matched controls from the Saku cohort study. Diabetes was defined by either fasting plasma glucose levels ≥126 mg/dL, 2-h post-load glucose levels ≥200 mg/dL after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, or diabetes diagnosed by physicians. We fitted conditional logistic regression models to examine the associations between SHBG and total testosterone levels with diabetes by sex. To evaluate the impact of fatty liver, we used the fatty liver index (FLI, a validated measure derived from serum triglyceride levels, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and γ-glutamyltransferase levels. Results After adjusting for age, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity, BMI, and FLI, SHBG levels were inversely associated with diabetes among women (odds ratio [OR] comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles, 0.13 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.02–0.96], but not among men. Similar patterns were observed in a subgroup analysis restricted to postmenopausal women"(OR, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.01–1.17]. In contrast, testosterone levels were inversely associated with diabetes among men (OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.23–0.89], but not among women. Conclusions Our findings suggest that SHBG in women and testosterone in men may be inversely associated with diabetes.

  2. Endogenous Androgens and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin in Women and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Benjamin; Kische, Hanna; Gross, Stefan; Wallaschofski, Henri; Völzke, Henry; Dörr, Marcus; Nauck, Matthias; Keevil, Brian G; Brabant, Georg; Haring, Robin

    2015-12-01

    The association of endogenous androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mostly 23562 refers to small and selected study samples with immunoassay-based measurements. Thus, we investigated the association of hormone levels with MetS and T2DM in women from a large population-based sample. A total of 2077 women from the Study of Health in Pomerania were assessed at baseline (N = 3160, 1997-2001) and 5-year follow-up (N = 1711, 2002-2006). We investigated associations of total testosterone (T) and androstenedione measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, SHBG by immunoassay, and free T and free androgen index with MetS and T2DM. Baseline prevalence of MetS and T2DM was 23.1% (N = 365) and 9.5% (N = 196), with an incidence of 17.7 and 7.0 per 1.000 person-years, respectively. Cross-sectional analyses yielded inverse associations of SHBG with MetS (relative risk [RR], 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-0.74) and T2DM (RR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.50-0.74) after multivariable adjustment. In longitudinal analyses, only age-adjusted models showed an inverse association of baseline SHBG with incident MetS (RR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.51-0.73) and T2DM (RR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.43-0.78). Multivariable-adjusted models stratified by menopausal status revealed an inverse association between SHBG and incident MetS risk in postmenopausal women (RR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.51-0.81). This longitudinal population-based study revealed independent inverse associations of SHBG with MetS and T2DM, suggesting low SHBG as a potential risk marker for cardiometabolic morbidity, especially among postmenopausal women.

  3. Genome-wide association study of circulating estradiol, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Prescott

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have successfully identified common genetic variants that contribute to breast cancer risk. Discovering additional variants has become difficult, as power to detect variants of weaker effect with present sample sizes is limited. An alternative approach is to look for variants associated with quantitative traits that in turn affect disease risk. As exposure to high circulating estradiol and testosterone, and low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG levels is implicated in breast cancer etiology, we conducted GWAS analyses of plasma estradiol, testosterone, and SHBG to identify new susceptibility alleles. Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, and Sisters in Breast Cancer Screening data were used to carry out primary meta-analyses among ~1600 postmenopausal women who were not taking postmenopausal hormones at blood draw. We observed a genome-wide significant association between SHBG levels and rs727428 (joint β = -0.126; joint P = 2.09 × 10(-16, downstream of the SHBG gene. No genome-wide significant associations were observed with estradiol or testosterone levels. Among variants that were suggestively associated with estradiol (P<10(-5, several were located at the CYP19A1 gene locus. Overall results were similar in secondary meta-analyses that included ~900 NHS current postmenopausal hormone users. No variant associated with estradiol, testosterone, or SHBG at P<10(-5 was associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk among CGEMS participants. Our results suggest that the small magnitude of difference in hormone levels associated with common genetic variants is likely insufficient to detectably contribute to breast cancer risk.

  4. Sex steroid hormones and sex hormone binding globulin levels, CYP17 MSP AI (-34T:C) and CYP19 codon 39 (Trp:Arg) variants in children with developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hiwa; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Rahimi, Zohreh; Faghihi, Faezeh; Khazaie, Habibolah; Farhangdoost, Hashem; Mehrpour, Masoud

    2017-12-01

    Developmental stuttering is known to be a sexually dimorphic and male-biased speech motor control disorder. In the present case-control study, we investigated the relationship between developmental stuttering and steroid hormones. Serum levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), oestradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), as well as the 2nd/4th digit ratio (2D:4D), an indicator of prenatal testosterone level, were compared between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS). Moreover, two SNPs (CYP17 -34 T:C (MSP AI) and CYP19 T:C (Trp:Arg)) of cytochrome P450, which is involved in steroid metabolism pathways, were analysed between the groups. Our results showed significantly higher levels of testosterone, DHT, and oestradiol in CWS in comparison with CWNS. The severity of stuttering was positively correlated with the serum levels of testosterone, DHEA, and cortisol, whereas no association was seen between the stuttering and digit ratio, progesterone, or SHBG. The CYP17CC genotype was significantly associated with the disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D Coviello

    Full Text Available Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p = 1.8 × 10(-106, PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p = 1.4 × 10(-11, GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p = 2.2 × 10(-16, ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p = 3.4 × 10(-09, JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p = 6.1 × 10(-35, SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p = 1.9 × 10(-08, NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p = 8.3 × 10(-12, ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p = 3.5 × 10(-14, TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p = 4.1 × 10(-14, LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p = 1.3 × 10(-07, BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p = 2.7 × 10(-08, and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p = 5.5 × 10(-06. These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p = 2.5 × 10(-08, women p = 0.66, heterogeneity p = 0.003. Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the proportion

  6. Alterations of serum concentrations of thyroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin, nuclear binding of tri-iodothyronine and thyroid hormone-stimulated cellular uptake of oxygen and glucose in mononuclear blood cells from patients with non-thyroidal illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear tri-iodothyronine (T3) binding and thyroid hormone-stimulated oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were examined in mononuclear blood cells from patients with non-thyroidal illness (NTI) in which serum T3 was significantly (P less than 0.05) depressed (0.62 +/- 0.12 (S.D.) nmol/l) compared...

  7. Secular decline in male testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin serum levels in Danish population surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Tina Kold; Juul, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Adverse secular trends in male reproductive health have been reported to be reflected in increased testicular cancer risk and decreased semen quality in more recently born men. These secular trends may also be reflected by changes in Leydig cell function....

  8. Secular decline in male testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin serum levels in Danish population surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Tina K; Juul, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Adverse secular trends in male reproductive health have been reported to be reflected in increased testicular cancer risk and decreased semen quality in more recently born men. These secular trends may also be reflected by changes in Leydig cell function.......Adverse secular trends in male reproductive health have been reported to be reflected in increased testicular cancer risk and decreased semen quality in more recently born men. These secular trends may also be reflected by changes in Leydig cell function....

  9. Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin and hyperproinsulinemia as markers of increased pancreatic ß-cell demand in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Reis

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG are considered to be an indirect index of hyperinsulinemia, predicting the later onset of diabetes mellitus type 2. In the insulin resistance state and in the presence of an increased pancreatic ß-cell demand (e.g. obesity both absolute and relative increases in proinsulin secretion occur. In the present study we investigated the correlation between SHBG and pancreatic ß-cell secretion in men with different body compositions. Eighteen young men (30.0 ± 2.4 years with normal glucose tolerance and body mass indexes (BMI ranging from 22.6 to 43.2 kg/m2 were submitted to an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g and baseline and 120-min blood samples were used to determine insulin, proinsulin and C-peptide by specific immunoassays. Baseline SHBG values were significantly correlated with baseline insulin (r = -0.58, P28 kg/m2, N = 8 and nonobese (BMI £25 kg/m2, N = 10 groups, significantly lower levels of SHBG were found in the obese subjects. The obese group had significantly higher baseline proinsulin, C-peptide and 120-min proinsulin and insulin levels. For the first time using a specific assay for insulin determination, a strong inverse correlation between insulinemia and SHBG levels was confirmed. The finding of a strong negative correlation between SHBG levels and pancreatic ß-cell secretion, mainly for the 120-min post-glucose load proinsulin levels, reinforces the concept that low SHBG levels are a suitable marker of increased pancreatic ß-cell demand.

  10. Effects of intraperitoneal insulin versus subcutaneous insulin administration on sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Boering

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims Elevated sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG concentrations have been described in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, probably due to low portal insulin concentrations. We aimed to investigate whether the route of insulin administration, continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII, or subcutaneous (SC, influences SHBG concentrations among T1DM patients. Methods Post hoc analysis of SHBG in samples derived from a randomized, open-labeled crossover trial was carried out in 20 T1DM patients: 50% males, mean age 43 (±13 years, diabetes duration 23 (±11 years, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c 8.7 (±1.1 (72 (±12 mmol/mol. As secondary outcomes, testosterone, 17-β-estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH were analyzed. Results Estimated mean change in SHBG was −10.3nmol/L (95% CI: −17.4, −3.2 during CIPII and 3.7nmol/L (95% CI: −12.0, 4.6 during SC insulin treatment. Taking the effect of treatment order into account, the difference in SHBG between therapies was −6.6nmol/L (95% CI: −17.5, 4.3; −12.7nmol/L (95% CI: −25.1, −0.4 for males and −1.7nmol/L (95% CI: −24.6, 21.1 for females, respectively. Among males, SHBG and testosterone concentrations changed significantly during CIPII; −15.8nmol/L (95% CI: −24.2, −7.5 and −8.3nmol/L (95% CI: −14.4, −2.2, respectively. The difference between CIPII and SC insulin treatment was also significant for change in FSH 1.2U/L (95% CI: 0.1, 2.2 among males. Conclusions SHBG concentrations decreased significantly during CIPII treatment. Moreover, the difference in change between CIPII and SC insulin therapy was significant for SHBG and FSH among males. These findings support the hypothesis that portal insulin administration influences circulating SHBG and sex steroids.

  11. Testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and the metabolic syndrome in men: an individual participant data meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Brand

    Full Text Available Low total testosterone (TT and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG concentrations have been associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS in men, but the reported strength of association varies considerably.We aimed to investigate whether associations differ across specific subgroups (according to age and body mass index (BMI and individual MetS components.Two previously published meta-analyses including an updated systematic search in PubMed and EMBASE.Cross-sectional or prospective observational studies with data on TT and/or SHBG concentrations in combination with MetS in men.We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of 20 observational studies. Mixed effects models were used to assess cross-sectional and prospective associations of TT, SHBG and free testosterone (FT with MetS and its individual components. Multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs and hazard ratios (HRs were calculated and effect modification by age and BMI was studied.Men with low concentrations of TT, SHBG or FT were more likely to have prevalent MetS (ORs per quartile decrease were 1.69 (95% CI 1.60-1.77, 1.73 (95% CI 1.62-1.85 and 1.46 (95% CI 1.36-1.57 for TT, SHBG and FT, respectively and incident MetS (HRs per quartile decrease were 1.25 (95% CI 1.16-1.36, 1.44 (95% 1.30-1.60 and 1.14 (95% 1.01-1.28 for TT, SHBG and FT, respectively. Overall, the magnitude of associations was largest in non-overweight men and varied across individual components: stronger associations were observed with hypertriglyceridemia, abdominal obesity and hyperglycaemia and associations were weakest for hypertension.Associations of testosterone and SHBG with MetS vary according to BMI and individual MetS components. These findings provide further insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms linking low testosterone and SHBG concentrations to cardiometabolic risk.

  12. The association of testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 with bone parameters in Korean men aged 50 years or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Koo, Hyung Suk; Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Moon Jong; Kim, Kwang-Min; Joo, Nam-Seok; Haam, Ji-Hee

    2017-11-01

    Testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are essential factors for the maintenance of bone health in men. However, the results for the association of testosterone and IGF-1 with bone parameters were not consistent in prior studies. We evaluated the relationship of testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and IGF-1 with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in Korean men. We enrolled 1227 men aged ≥50 years in this cross-sectional study. Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), SHBG, IGF-1, osteocalcin, and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) were measured. Free testosterone (FT) was calculated using Vermeulen's method. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. TT level was not related to BMD or BTMs in the unadjusted model; however, after adjusting for SHBG and IGF-1, the association between TT and BTMs was significant (β = -0.139 for osteocalcin and β = -0.204 for CTX). SHBG levels were negatively associated with lumbar BMD, and positively associated with BTMs in all models. As SHBG level increased, the prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis defined by BMD significantly increased (OR of 1SD change, 1.24). IGF-1 levels were significantly related with BMD, but not with BTMs. Meanwhile, FT levels were positively associated with BMD and negatively associated with BTMs. In conclusion, SHBG levels were independently related with bone parameters and osteopenia in men aged ≥50 years. IGF-1 levels were positively associated with BMD, but not with BTMs. SHBG may play a role in regulating age-related bone loss in men after middle-age.

  13. Sex hormone binding globulin decrease as potential pathogenetic factor for hirsutism in adolescent girls Disminución de la globulina transportadora de hormonas sexuales como factor patogénico de hirsutismo en la adolescencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Cross

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated 252 non-obese female subjects aged 13-39 years to evaluate if an exaggerated descent of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG levels during adolescence can play a role in the development of hirsutism. Body hair was assessed according to Ferriman and Gallwey (FG, with a stringent criterion of normality of 4 and controls (FG Se investigaron 252 mujeres con peso normal, de 13 a 39 años de edad, para evaluar si un descenso exagerado en los niveles de la globulina transportadora de hormonas sexuales ("sex hormone binding globulin"; SHBG puede tener un rol en el desarrollo de hirsutismo. Este signo fue evaluado con la escala de Ferriman y Gallwey (FG, empleando un criterio riguroso de normalidad 4 y controles (FG < 4, ciclos menstruales regulares, sin acné. En adolescentes de 15-18 años, los valores de SHBG fueron menores en las "hirsutas", los niveles de FT fueron similares en ambos grupos y el índice de FG correlacionó inversamente con SHBG. En las mujeres de 19-39 años, los niveles de FT fueron mayores en las "hirsutas", los valores de SHBG fueron similares en ambos grupos y FG correlacionó positivamente con FT. Los valores más bajos de SHBG se observaron entre 15 y 18 años, pero la pendiente de disminución a partir de los valores de 13-14 años fue mayor en el grupo de "hirsutas". Los valores de FT se incrementaron progresivamente con la edad, pero el aumento fue mayor en el grupo de "hirsutas". Estos resultados sugieren un rol importante del descenso de SHBG en la adolescencia vs. un incremento más acentuado de los niveles de testosterona en las adultas, como factores que condicionan el desarrollo del hirsutismo en esos dos diferentes periodos de la vida.

  14. Basal Testosterone and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Levels in the Prediction of Stimulation Parameters and Cycle Outcome in Cycling Patients Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Moraloğlu

    2010-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Basal serum T levels during IVF have a positive correlation with part of the stimulation parameters including number of oocytes retrieved and the number of oocytes transferred. However, neither T nor SHBG has any affect on fertilization or pregnancy rates.

  15. Serum growth hormone-binding protein in obesity: effect of a short-term, very low calorie diet and diet-induced weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Ho, K K; Kjems, L

    1996-01-01

    +/-SEM)] before and after an average weight loss of 30.3 +/- 4.6 kg and in 18 age- and sex matched normal subjects (BMI, 23.0 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) and studied the effects of a very low calorie diet over 4 days in 5 normal subjects and a subgroup of obese subjects before (n = 6) and after (n = 5) weight loss...... was positively correlated to insulin as well as proinsulin levels (r = 0.60; P diet-induced massive weight loss, GHBP levels were restored to normal in obese subjects (BMI, 27.8 +/- 1.4 kg/m2). Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that changes...... days of a very low calorie diet, although mean insulin levels fell significantly in the normal subgroup as well as in the obese subgroup studied after weight loss. In summary, GHBP levels are elevated in obesity, are restored to normal by massive weight loss, and are unaffected by short term...

  16. Expression of serum insulin-like growth factors, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins, and the growth hormone-binding protein in heterozygote relatives of Ecuadorian growth hormone receptor deficient patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, P J; Guevara-Aguirre, J; Rosenbloom, A L; Carlsson, L; Hintz, R L; Rosenfeld, R G

    1992-04-01

    Recently, an isolated population of apparent GH-receptor deficient (GHRD) patients has been identified in the Loja province of southern Ecuador. These individuals presented many of the physical and biochemical phenotypes characteristic of Laron-Syndrome and are believed to have a defect in the GH-receptor gene. In this study, we have compared the biochemical phenotypes between the affected individuals and their parents, considered to be obligate heterozygotes for the disorder. Serum GH, insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) levels were measured by RIA Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. (IGFBPs) were measured by Western ligand blotting (WLB) of serum samples, following separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and relative quantitation of serum IGFBPs was performed with a scanning laser densitometer. Serum GH-binding protein (GHBP) levels were measured with a ligand-mediated immunofunctional assay using a monoclonal antibody raised against the GHBP. These values were then compared to values obtained from normal, sex-matched adult Ecuadorian controls, to determine if the above parameters were abnormal in the heterozygotes. The serum IGF-I levels of the GHRD patients were less than 13% of control values for adults and 2% for children. However, the IGF-I levels of both the mothers and fathers were not significantly different from that of the control population. The serum IGF-II levels of the GHRD patients were approximately 20% of control values for adults and 12% for the children. The IGF-II levels of the mothers were reduced, but were not significantly different from that of the control population. However, IGF-II levels of the fathers were significantly lower than those of controls (64% of control male levels). WLB analysis of serum IGFBP levels of the affected subjects demonstrated increased IGFBP-2 and decreased IGFBP-3, suggesting an inverse relationship between these IGFBPs. The GHRD patients who had the

  17. Molecular sex differences in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M Ramsey

    Full Text Available Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females can provide a valuable basis for exploring conditions differentially affected by sex.Using multiplexed immunoassays, we analyzed 174 serum molecules in 9 independent cohorts of typical individuals, comprising 196 males and 196 females. Sex differences in analyte levels were quantified using a meta-analysis approach and put into biological context using k-means to generate clusters of analytes with distinct biological functions. Natural sex differences were established in these analyte groups and these were applied to illustrate sexually dimorphic analyte expression in a cohort of 22 males and 22 females with Asperger syndrome. Reproducible sex differences were found in the levels of 77 analytes in serum of typical controls, and these comprised clusters of molecules enriched with distinct biological functions. Analytes involved in fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation, immune cell growth and activation, and cell death were found at higher levels in females, and analytes involved in immune cell chemotaxis and other indistinct functions were higher in males. Comparison of these naturally occurring sex differences against a cohort of people with Asperger syndrome indicated that a cluster of analytes that had functions related to fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation was associated with sex and the occurrence of this condition.Sex-specific molecular differences were detected in serum of typical controls and these were reproducible across independent cohorts. This study extends current knowledge of sex differences in biological functions involved in metabolism and immune function. Deviations from typical sex differences were found in a cluster of molecules in Asperger syndrome

  18. Effect of oral testosterone treatment on serum concentrations of sex steroids gonadotrophins and prolactin in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Copenhagen Study Group for Liver Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones in a randomly selected group of alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of oral testosterone treatment on the liver. Before treatment......, patients (n = 25) had median serum concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, non-protein bound oestradiol, non-sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) bound oestradiol and oestrone sulphate which did not differ significantly from those of healthy controls (n = 16), but the patients had significantly (P less...... than 0.01) higher median serum concentrations of oestrone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin. The patients were randomized to treatment with either oral micronized testosterone (200 mg t.d.s.) or placebo for a median duration of 1 year. In the placebo group (n...

  19. Detection of sex hormone in serum and semen of patients with idiopathic oligospermia and its significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guohong; Xu Ruiji; Zhang Zhongshu; Wang Youji

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to detect testosterone(T), free testosterone (FT) and sex hormone-binding globulin(SHBG) in serum and semen of patients with idiopathic oligospermia, and further analyze the relationship between T, FT, SHBG and idiopathic oligospermia. Blood and semen samples were collected from males of a normal control group and an idiopathic oligospermia group at 8:00-10:00 am. The sperm density in semen was detected by routine semen analysis, while T, FT, SHBG in serum and semen were detected by RIA. There were no significant differences in serum concentrations of T, FT, SHBG between normal control group [(30.03±13.07)nmol/L,(97.50±46.96)pmol/L, (40.37±16.73)nmol/L, respectively] and idiopathic oligspermia group [(28.11±11.54) nmol/L, (94.88±42.04) pmol/L, (41.61± 18.86)noml/LJ(all P>0. 05). There were significant differences in semsn concentrations of FT and SHBG between normal control group[(2.01±0.32) pmol/L, (0.17±0.21)nmol/L] and idiopathic oligspermia group [ (0.52±0.44) pmol/L, (0.22±0.15) nmol/LJ (P 0.05). Therefore, measurement of semsn FT, SHBG concentration could early reflect the function of tesis, which is useful for early diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic oligospermia. (authors)

  20. Sex, age, pubertal development and use of oral contraceptives in relation to serum concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone and their ratios in children, adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, Tue; Frederiksen, Hanne; Mouritsen, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sex, age, pubertal development and oral contraceptives on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), Δ4-androstenedione (Adione), testosterone (T), calculated free testosterone (fT), free androgen index (FAI) and selected ratios in 1798...... serum samples from healthy children, adolescents and young adults was evaluated. Samples were analyzed by Turboflow-LC-MS/MS. Sex hormone-binding globulin was analyzed by immunoassay. All steroid metabolite concentrations were positively associated with age and pubertal development in both sexes....... Use of oral contraceptives significantly lowered serum concentrations of all steroid metabolites, fT, FAI, the 17-OHP/Adione, the Adione/T and the DHEA/Adione ratios, but not the DHEA/DHEAS ratio. We provide reference ranges for DHEA, DHEAS, 17-OHP, Adione, T, fT, FAI and selected ratios in relation...

  1. Sex hormones in postmenopausal women with primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Christensen, E

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate serum sex hormone profiles in nonalcoholic postmenopausal women with liver disease, 25 women with primary biliary cirrhosis (11 in cirrhotic stage) and 46 healthy controls were studied. The patients had significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated serum concentrations of estrone and andr......To evaluate serum sex hormone profiles in nonalcoholic postmenopausal women with liver disease, 25 women with primary biliary cirrhosis (11 in cirrhotic stage) and 46 healthy controls were studied. The patients had significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated serum concentrations of estrone...... and androstenedione and significantly (p less than 0.05) lower concentrations of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone compared with the 46 controls. Serum concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin, testosterone, non-sex hormone binding globulin-bound testosterone...... and non-protein-bound testosterone did not differ significantly (p greater than 0.05) between primary biliary cirrhosis patients and controls. Patients in the cirrhotic stage had significantly (p less than 0.05) higher concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin than did controls. Patients...

  2. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D.; Gutai, J.P.; Powell, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks

  3. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Gutai, J.P. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA)); Powell, J.G. (East Carolina School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (USA))

    1989-06-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.

  4. Persistent Graves' hyperthyroidism despite rapid negative conversion of thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assay results: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Kaneko, Masanori; Kitazawa, Masaru; Uemura, Yasuyuki; Minagawa, Shinichi; Miyakoshi, Masashi; Kaneko, Kenzo; Kamoi, Kyuzi

    2017-02-06

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disorder characterized by hyperthyroidism, and patients exhibit thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody. The major methods of measuring circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody include the thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assays. Although the diagnostic accuracy of these assays has been improved, a minority of patients with Graves' disease test negative even on second-generation and third-generation thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulins. We report a rare case of a thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin-positive patient with Graves' disease who showed rapid lowering of thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin levels following administration of the anti-thyroid drug thiamazole, but still experienced Graves' hyperthyroidism. A 45-year-old Japanese man presented with severe hyperthyroidism (serum free triiodothyronine >25.0 pg/mL; reference range 1.7 to 3.7 pg/mL) and tested weakly positive for thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulins on second-generation tests (2.1 IU/L; reference range hyperthyroidism for more than 8 years, requiring 15 mg/day of thiamazole to correct. During that period, he tested negative on all first-generation, second-generation, and third-generation thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assays, but thyroid scintigraphy revealed diffuse and increased uptake, and thyroid ultrasound and color flow Doppler imaging showed typical findings of Graves' hyperthyroidism. The possible explanations for serial changes in the thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin results in our patient include the presence of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody, which is bioactive but less reactive on thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assays, or the effect of reduced levels of circulating thyroid

  5. Sex-Specific Associations Between Thyrotropin and Serum Lipid Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisinger, Christa; Ittermann, Till; Tiller, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population-based studies investigating the sex-specific association between thyrotropin (TSH) levels and serum lipid concentrations are scarce. We examined the association between TSH and total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL......) cholesterol, and triglycerides in men and women from the general population. Furthermore, the association with TSH outside and within the reference range and lipid levels was studied. METHODS: Individual data of 13,571 men and women without lipid medication of four population-based studies conducted...... in Western European adults were pooled for cross-sectional analyses. The association between TSH levels and lipid concentrations were analyzed by calculating sex-specific multivariable median regression models. RESULTS: In the pooled population, serum TSH levels were significantly positively associated...

  6. Sex, age, pubertal development and use of oral contraceptives in relation to serum concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone and their ratios in children, adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søeborg, Tue; Frederiksen, Hanne; Mouritsen, Annette; Johannsen, Trine Holm; Main, Katharina Maria; Jørgensen, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Juul, Anders

    2014-11-01

    The influence of sex, age, pubertal development and oral contraceptives on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), Δ4-androstenedione (Adione), testosterone (T), calculated free testosterone (fT), free androgen index (FAI) and selected ratios in 1798 serum samples from healthy children, adolescents and young adults was evaluated. Samples were analyzed by Turboflow-LC-MS/MS. Sex hormone-binding globulin was analyzed by immunoassay. All steroid metabolite concentrations were positively associated with age and pubertal development in both sexes and generally higher in males than in females except for Adione. The pubertal rise in T in males was more pronounced compared to females, reflecting contribution from the testes. Ratios between steroid metabolites varied and depended on sex and age. All ratios were lower during infancy compared to later in life. Use of oral contraceptives significantly lowered serum concentrations of all steroid metabolites, fT, FAI, the 17-OHP/Adione, the Adione/T and the DHEA/Adione ratios, but not the DHEA/DHEAS ratio. We provide reference ranges for DHEA, DHEAS, 17-OHP, Adione, T, fT, FAI and selected ratios in relation to sex, age and pubertal development. Use of oral contraceptives strongly influences adrenal steroidogenesis and should be considered when diagnosing and monitoring treatment of patients with disorders of sex development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for corticosterone and deoxycortisol in human serum: Sex differences in the mean serum concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeneshoefer, M.; Harendt, H.; Vecsei, P.

    1977-01-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay is described which allows the simultaneous determination of serum corticosterone and deoxycortisol. The normal serum concentration of both steroids were found to be dependent on sex and menstrual cycle. Mean concentrations (+-S.D.) in males, females (follicular phase) and females (luteal phase) were 4210 +- 2170 ng/l, 2410 +- 1480 ng/l and 4390 +- 2320 ng/l for corticosterone and 499 +- 273 ng/l, 207 +- 152 ng/l and 335 +- 182 ng/l for deoxycortisol. After adrenal stimulation by corticotropin itself or by insulin induced hypoglycemia, the serum concentrations of corticosterone became significantly higher than those of deoxycortisol. After oral administration of dexamethasone serum concentrations of both steroids were suppressed to levels below the limit of the normal range. One hour after oral metyrapone administration at midnight, serum corticosterone decreased, while serum deoxycortisol increased by a factor of about five. After eight hours serum concentrations of both steroids were increased considerably. Corticosterone attained levels slightly higher than the normal range and deoxycortisol rose to levels which were higher than the normal mean concentrations by a factor of about 500. (orig./AS) [de

  8. Elevated serum IGF-I, but unaltered sex steroid levels, in healthy boys with pubertal gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Sorensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pubertal gynaecomastia is a very common condition. Although the underlying aetiology is poorly understood, it is generally accepted that excess of oestrogens and deficit of androgens are involved in the pathogenesis. Furthermore, adiposity as well as the GH/IGF-I axis may play a role....... In this study, we elucidate the association of adiposity and levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, oestrogen, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 with the presence of pubertal gynaecomastia in a large cohort of healthy boys. PATIENTS: A total...... of 501 healthy Danish school boys (aged 6·1-19·8 year) from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometry and pubertal stages (PH1-6 and G1-5) were evaluated, and the presence of gynaecomastia was assessed. Body fat percentage was calculated by means of four skin folds and impedance...

  9. Variation in levels of serum inhibin B, testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin in monthly samples from healthy men during a 17-month period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anna-Maria; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2003-01-01

    To obtain information on the scale of the intraindividual variation in testicular hormone, blood samples for inhibin B determination were collected monthly in 27 healthy male volunteers during a 17-month period. In addition, the traditional reproductive hormones FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol....... A seasonal variation was observed in LH and testosterone levels, but not in the levels of the other hormones. The seasonal variation in testosterone levels could be explained by the variation in LH levels. The seasonal variation in LH levels seemed to be related to the mean air temperature during the month...... levels in men. The peak levels of both LH and testosterone were observed during June-July, with minimum levels present during winter-early spring. Air temperature, rather than light exposure, seems to be a possible climatic variable explaining the seasonal variation in LH levels....

  10. Molecular characterization of a genetic variant of the steroid hormone-binding globulin gene in heterozygous subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, D.O.; Catterall, J.F. [Population Council, New York, NY (United States); Carino, C. [Instituto National de la Nutricion, Mexico City, MX (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Steroid hormone-binding globulin in human serum displays different isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns among individuals, suggesting genetic variation in the gene for this extracellular steroid carrier protein. Analysis of allele frequencies and family studies suggested the existence of two codominant alleles of the gene. Subsequent determination of the molecular basis of a variant of the gene was carried out using DNA from homozygous individuals from a single Belgian family. It was of interest to characterize other variant individuals to determine whether all variants identified by IEF phenotyping were caused by the same mutation or whether other mutations occurred in the gene in different populations. Previous studies identified Mexican subjects who were heterozygous for the variant IEF phenotype. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to localize the mutation in these subjects and to purify the variant allele for DNA sequence analysis. The results show that the mutation in this population is identical to that identified in the Belgian family, and no other mutations were detected in the gene. These data represent the first analysis of steroid hormone-binding globulin gene variation in heterozygous subjects and further support the conclusion of biallelism of the gene worldwide. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Study on the relationship between serum sex hormones levels and essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qingzhang; Yang Xiuhong; Di Fang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible relationship existing between serum sex hormones levels and development of essential hypertension. Methods: Serum sex hormones (LH, FSH, E 2 , P, T) levels were determined with RIA in 87 males and 81 post-menopausal women with essential hypertension as well as in 44 normotensive males and 40 normotensive post-menopausal women serving as controls. Results: The serum E 2 , progesterone and testosterone levels in the hypertensives were significantly higher than those in the respective controls (P 0.05). Sex hormones levels were not much different among hypertensives of various stages (I , II, III). The serum E 2 levels in male hypertensives and progesterone levels in female hypertensives were not correlated with the respective FSH and LH levels. Conclusion: The authors suggested that the changes of serum sex hormones levels might be a risk factor rather than a consequence of the development of essential hypertension. (authors)

  12. Serum testosterone concentrations in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C

    1987-01-01

    Median serum testosterone concentration of men with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 216) did not differ significantly from normal controls (n = 51), but serum testosterone concentrations varied by a factor 43.9 in patients compared to 3.2 in controls (P less than .001). Nineteen percent of the patients...... had serum testosterone concentrations above 30 nmol/L. Serum concentrations of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly (P less than .001) raised, and serum concentrations of calculated nonprotein-bound and non-SHBG-bound testosterone were significantly (P less than .001) decreased...... in patients compared to normal control values. A number of background variables were analyzed with reference to serum testosterone concentrations by means of multiple regression techniques after having divided the patients into groups (A, B, C) with decreasing liver function by a modification of the Child...

  13. Relationship between serum insulin level and age and sex in 980 patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jianlin; Ji Naijun; Mei Yubin; Wang Chengyao; Fan Bifu; Chen Donghai; Guan Li; Tong Lijun; Li Fuyuan; Gao Meiying

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of serum insulin level in essential hypertension patients and its relationship with age and sex. Methods: The levels of serum insulin were determined with radioimmunoassay in 980 essential hypertension patients and 120 controls. Results: The levels of serum insulin in the essential hypertension patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (t=4.280, P<0.01). However, there were no significant differences among the levels in different sex and age groups. The same held true for women before and after menopause as well as different stages of hypertension. Conclusion: The average serum insulin level in EH patients was significantly higher than the level in controls, and had positive correlation to mean arterial pressure. But no significant differences were found among different sex and age groups, so serum insulin could be a new independent risk factor of essential hypertension

  14. Clinical significance of combined measurement of serum sex hormones in secondary amenorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Boxun; Chen Yue; Gan Xilun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of levels of serum sex hormones in the diagnosis of the types of secondary amenorrhea. Methods: Serum sex hormones levels were measured with chemiluminescence in 100 patients with secondary amenorrhea and 42 controls. The serum hormones determined were: estradiol (E 2 )-, progesterone (PROG), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (TSTO). Results: Patients with secondary amenorrhea had significantly higher levels of serum FSH, LH and PRL ( P 2 (P<0.05) than those in the controls. Serum levels of PROG and TSTO were about the same in the patients and controls. Conclusion: Determination of serum hormones levels with chemiluminescence is clinically useful for diagnosis of the types of secondary amenorrhea. (authors)

  15. NMR assignments of juvenile hormone binding protein in complex with JH III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Rintaro; Tase, Akira; Fujimoto, Zui; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Toshimasa

    2009-06-01

    A hemolymph juvenile hormone binding protein (JHBP) shuttles hydrophobic JH, a key hormone in regulation of the insect life cycle, from the site of the JH biosynthesis to the cells of target organs. We report complete NMR chemical shift assignments of Bombyx mori JHBP in the JH III-bound state.

  16. Sex differences in serum lidid levels in nigerian patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The incidence of Nephrotic syndrome (NS) in Nigeria population remain undetermined. The sex differences in changes in lipoprotein levels in. NS. are not well defined. This study examines the sex differences in lipoprotein levels among Nigerian patients with the N.S.. Methods Of 79 patients seen ...

  17. Age and sex variation in serum albumin concentration: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaving, Gary; Batstone, Gifford F; Jones, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    In the UK, a common reference interval for serum albumin is widely used irrespective of age or sex. Implicit in this is that laboratories produce analytically similar results. This paper challenges the validity of this approach. A three-week collection of results sent to all primary care centres in England has been analysed by age, sex and laboratory. In all, 1,079,193 serum albumin reports were included in this analysis. The mean population serum albumin concentration increases to peak at around age 20 years and then decreases with increasing age. Values in females decrease more rapidly but become close to male values at 60 years. The variation between laboratories was large and potentially clinically significant. Reference intervals for serum albumin should be stratified by age and sex. Until there is greater methodological standardization, laboratories should determine their own reference intervals and not accept a single consensus reference interval. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Clinical significance of serum sex hormones protein and lipid determination in patients with ulcerative colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qingzhang; Zhang Min

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between changes of serum sex hormones levels and protein-lipid metabolism in patients with ulcerative colitis. Methods: Serum levels of estradiol (E 2 ) pregnenedione (P), prolactin(PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (with CLIA), sree testos (T, with RIA) and total-protein (TP), albumin (Alb), globulin (G), albumin/globulinratio (A/G) total-cholesterd (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterols (LDL-C) (with biochemistry were determined in 72 patients) with ulcerative colitis and 72 controls. Results: The serum levels of T, LH, FSH, TP, Alb, A/G, TC, LDL-C in patients with ulcerative colitis were significantly lower than those in controls (P 2 , PRL in patients with ulcerative colitis were significantly higher than those in controls (P 2 were negatively correlated with TP, A/G and TC (P 2 levels in the female sex (P>0.05) as well as between LH, FSH and T levels in the male sex (P>0.05). Conclusion: The abnormal serum levels of sex hormone might contribute to the development of hypoproteinaemia and lowered lipid levels in patients with ulcerative colitis. Treatment with correction of serum sex hormones levels might be beneficial to the patients. (authors)

  19. Analysis of the hormone-binding domain of steroid receptors using chimeras generated by homologous recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Elisabeth D.; Pattabiraman, Nagarajan; Danielsen, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor and the mineralocorticoid receptor are members of the steroid receptor family that exhibit ligand cross-reactivity. Specificity of steroid receptor action is investigated in the present work by the construction and characterization of chimeras between the glucocorticoid receptor and the mineralocorticoid receptor. We used an innovative approach to make novel steroid receptor proteins in vivo that in general, contrary to our expectations, show increased ligand specificity compared to the parental receptors. We describe a receptor that is specific for the potent synthetic glucocorticoid triamcinolone acetonide and does not bind aldosterone. A further set of chimeras has an increased ability to discriminate between ligands, responding potently to mineralocorticoids and only very weakly to synthetic glucocorticoids. A chimera with the fusion site in the hinge highlights the importance of the region between the DNA-binding and the hormone-binding domains since, unlike both the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, it only responds to mineralocorticoids. One chimera has reduced specificity in that it acts as a general corticoid receptor, responding to glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids with similar potency and efficacy. Our data suggest that regions of the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor hormone-binding domains are functionally non-reciprocal. We present transcriptional, hormone-binding, and structure-modeling evidence that suggests that receptor-specific interactions within and across domains mediate aspects of specificity in transcriptional responses to steroids

  20. Serum metabolomic profiles suggest influence of sex and oral contraceptive use

    OpenAIRE

    Ruoppolo, Margherita; Campesi, Ilaria; Scolamiero, Emanuela; Pecce, Rita; Caterino, Marianna; Cherchi, Sara; Mercuro, Giuseppe; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Franconi, Flavia

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Considering that the effects of sex and oral contraceptives (OCs) on blood metabolites have been scarcely studied and the fact that protocol designs for clinical trials emphasise the use of contraception for women of childbearing potential, we examined if OCs and sex affect the serum levels of the physiologically relevant amino acids, carnitine and acylcarnitines, using metabolomics approaches. Methods: Healthy adult men and women were enrolled. They were drug free with the exception of ...

  1. Clinical significance of determination serum sex hormones levels in patients with secondary amenorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Hua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum sex hormones levels in patients with secondary amenorrhea. Methods: Serum levels of E 2 , FSH, LH, PRL and P were detected with RIA in 33 patients with secondary amenorrhea and 30 controls. Results: In the patients, the serum E 2 levels were significantly lower and FSH, LH, PRL and P levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P 2 , FSH, LH, PRL and P levels is of help for assessment of severity of secondary amenorrhea as well as outcome prediction. (authors)

  2. Uterine artery embolization for uterine leiomyomas: impact on serum level of sex hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Shouzhong; Dai Feng; Zhang Lihua; Ding Wei; Wang Xiaowei; Wang Xiaoyan; Wang Jianhua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for leiomyomas of uterus on serum level of sex hormones. Methods: UAE were performed on 31 patients with leiomyomas of uterus. Changes of menses were followed up within 3-6 months after UAE. Serum levels of sex hormones, including FSH, LH, Prog, E2 were tested before and 3 months or 6 months after UAE; and simultaneously with recording the tumor size and the changes of blood dynamics by color Doppler. Results: Twenty-five patients (80.6%)with menorrhagia resumed normal after UAE, and a transient menstrual disorder occurred in 4 patients (12.9%). Only 2 patients (0.06%)aged 45 years and 49 years became menopausal following the procedure. Serum levels of sex hormones showed no significant difference before and 3 months or 6 months after UAE (P>0.05)in 31 patients. Conclusion: UAE is an effective treatment for uterine leiomyomas and possesses no influence on serum levels of sex hormones. However, for patients aged 45 or older, there is possibility of menopause. (authors)

  3. Analysis of Effects of Breed, Sex and Age on some Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Effects of Breed, Sex and Age on some Serum Biochemical Parameters in Rabbits. C A Chineke, F A Adeniran, A G Olugun, C ON Ikeobi, O A Oseni. Abstract. (Tropical Journal of Animal Science: 2003, 6(2): 85-90). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  4. Effects of age and sex on haematological and serum biochemistry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    haematology and serum biochemistry) at different ages (in weeks) in male and female Japanese quails. A total of hundred (100) unsexed day-old quail chicks were purchased and sorted based on sex at the third week. Blood samples were collected ...

  5. Sex hormone-binding globulin as a marker for the thrombotic risk of hormonal contraceptives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raps, M.; Helmerhorst, F.; Fleischer, K.; Thomassen, S.; Rosendaal, F.; Rosing, J.; Ballieux, B.; Vliet, H. van

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It takes many years to obtain reliable values for the risk of venous thrombosis of hormonal contraceptive users from clinical data. Measurement of activated protein C (APC) resistance via thrombin generation is a validated test for determining the thrombogenicity of hormonal

  6. Sex differences in the aging pattern of renin-angiotensin system serum peptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Atucha, A; Izagirre, A; Fraile-Bermúdez, A B; Kortajarena, M; Larrinaga, G; Martinez-Lage, P; Echevarría, E; Gil, J

    2017-01-01

    Serum peptidases, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), neutral endopeptidase (NEP), aminopeptidase N (APN), and aminopeptidase A (APA), are important elements of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Dysregulation of these enzymes has been associated with hypertension and cardiovascular risk. In the present study, serum activities of RAS peptidases were analyzed to evaluate the existence of sexual differences, with a possible different pattern in pre- and post-andropausal/post-menopausal participants. One hundred and eighteen healthy men and women between 41 and 70 years of age (58 women and 60 men) were recruited to participate in the study. Serum RAS-regulating enzymes were measured by spectrofluorimetry. Enzymatic activity was recorded as units of enzyme per milliliter of serum (U/mL). Significantly lower serum APA activity was observed in men with respect to women; no sex differences were detected for ACE, ACE2, NEP, or APN. Significantly lower APA and ACE serum activity were observed in older men compared to older women. In contrast, younger (menopausia, on the critical serum enzymatic activities of the RAS, which could correlate with sexual differences in cardiovascular risk.

  7. Age- and sex-tailored serum phosphate thresholds do not improve cardiovascular risk estimation in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Bonello, Monica; Gambaro, Alessia; Sturniolo, Antonio; Gambaro, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Disordered metabolism of phosphorus is one of the hallmarks of chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting in increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Age and sex may affect the metabolism of phosphorus and subsequently its serum level. We evaluated if age- and sex-specific cutoffs for hyperphosphatemia may define cardiovascular risk better than the current guideline cutoffs. We used data from 16,834 subjects participating in the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); the prevalence of self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality rates were analyzed in CKD patients for both the classic definitions (CH; i.e., NKF-KDOQI and K-DIGO) and a tailored definition (TH) of hyperphosphatemia by means of regression models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status and body mass index. The cutoffs for TH were represented by the 95th percentile of an age- and sex-matched non-CKD population. Serum phosphorus levels showed an inverse correlation with age (r = -0.12; pdefinition and CVD was marginally better compared with the CH definition (odds ratio [OR] = 1.49, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.04-2.13; p=0.030 vs. OR=1.55, 95% CI, 0.98-2.44; p = 0.059), the TH model was not superior in predicting CVD or mortality. Our data suggest that a tailored, age- and sex-specific definition of hyperphosphatemia is not superior to conventional definitions in predicting cardiovascular events in patients with CKD.

  8. Radioimmunoassay of testosterone and of sexual hormone-binding globulin in plasma of women with hirsutism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warenik-Szymankiewicz, A.; Baron, J.; Chawlisz, K.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma-borne testosterone was determined in 176 women with hirsutism, and in 47 patients sexual hormone-binding globulin was determined as well. The highest average testosterone values were recorded from cases with congenital adrenogenital syndrome (AGS). In cases of postnatal AGS values were much lower, but they were clearly in excess of those recordable from Stein-Leventhal syndrome. Plasma borne testosterone in cases of hirsutism came very close to testosterone levels established in the context of Stein-Leventhal syndrome. Testosterone levels dropped with significance, following AGS treatment, using cortisol derivatives, and following wedge-shaped ovariectomy. Sexual hormone binding-globulin was found to be strongly reduced in almost all women with hirsutism. Such reduction seemed to suggest the presence of increased amounts of free active testosterone in the blood of those patients. Determination of plasma-borne testosterone in cases of hirsutism is considered to be essential to both diagnosis of the endocrinological syndromes and monitoring of therapy. (author)

  9. Decreased serum levels of sex steroids associated with osteoporosis in a group of Romanian male patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Florina Ligia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. With age, sex hormone deficiency leads to reduced bone mineral density (BMD in men. The aim of our research is to analyze the role of serum sex steroids in assessing BMD in the men included in this study. Materials and methods. This cross-sectional study included 146 men aged 65-85 years old with osteopenia or osteoporosis (study group and 121 men with normal BMD (control group. Serum levels of total testosterone (Tt and free testosterone (Tf were measured by immunoassay, and estradiol (E2 levels were measured by the immunoenzymatic method. Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD was examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. Tf and E2 deficiency was significantly associated with low BMD (p=0.007. No association was found between Tt deficiency and reduced BMD. Tf levels (p<0.001 and E2 levels (p=0.003 were significantly lower in patients with reduced BMD compared to those with normal BMD. Significant more cases with low levels of Tf (p=0.015 and E2 (p<0.001 were found in patients with osteoporosis compared to those with osteopenia. Conclusions. Sex hormones deficiency in men was significantly correlated with the decrease of BMD. Determination of serum Tf and E2 levels is important in assessing the risk of osteoporosis in male subjects.

  10. The relationship between serum PSA, six sex hormones and the benign or malignant prostate diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yancun

    2008-01-01

    In order to study clinical significance of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free prostate specific antigen (PSA), f/tPSA and six sex hormones in prostate diseases, the serum levels of PSA, fPSA, f/tPSA, T, P, E 2 , PRL, LH and FSH in 72 cases of hyperplasia of prostate patients and 40 patients with prostate cancer were determined by RIA. The results showed that the serum levels of T, E 2 , PRL, LH, FSH in the BPH Group were significantly lower than those of in Pca group, the serum level of P in Pca group were significantly lower than those in BPH group; the levels of fPSA and f/tPSA ratio in BPH Group were significantly higher than those in Pca group. The results suggest that benign and malignant prostate disease (BPH and Pca) was related with the hormone imbalance. The serum total PSA and fPSA can be regarded as important indicators in the diagnosis of BPH and Pea. The combined determination of PSA, fPSA and f/tPSA may improve the diagnostic accuracy of Pca. (authors)

  11. Interrelationships of serum testosterone and free testosterone index with FFM and strength in aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tracey Ann; Blackman, Marc R; Harman, S Mitchell; Tobin, Jordan D; Schrager, Matthew; Metter, E Jeffery

    2002-08-01

    Muscle mass and strength losses during aging may be associated with declining levels of serum testosterone (T) in men. Few studies have shown a direct relationship between T and muscle mass and strength. Subjects were 262 men, aged 24-90 yr, from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, who had T and sex hormone-binding globulin sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) measurements, from which the free T index (FTI) was calculated (T/SHBG) from serum samples collected longitudinally since 1963, total body fat mass and arm and leg fat-free mass (FFM) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and arm and leg strength by dynanomometry. Mixed-effects models estimated T and FTI at the time of mass and strength measurements. Age, total body fat, arm and leg FFM, T, and FTI were significantly associated with concentric and eccentric strength. FTI, not T, was modestly, but directly, related to arm and leg strength after fat, arm and leg FFM, height, and age were accounted for and indirectly through body mass. FTI is a better predictor of arm and leg strength than T in aging men.

  12. The effect of sex and time of day on testosterone concentrations in equine saliva and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Munk; Jensen, R.B.; Palme, R.

    2016-01-01

    In terms of exercise, testosterone is important for the growth and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Sampling saliva could be a non-invasive alternative to blood sampling for the quantification of testosterone levels in horses. The objective of this study was to compare testosterone concentrat......In terms of exercise, testosterone is important for the growth and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Sampling saliva could be a non-invasive alternative to blood sampling for the quantification of testosterone levels in horses. The objective of this study was to compare testosterone......:00-08:00), at midday (11:00-13:00) and in the evening (17:00-19:00). The results demonstrated a weak correlation between saliva and serum testosterone concentrations (rs=0.25, P=0.04). Stallions had higher serum testosterone concentrations than mares and geldings (Peffect of sex...

  13. Sex-related differences in serum cotinine concentrations in daily cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Cohen, Sigal Ben-Zaken; Man, S F Paul; Sin, Don D

    2008-08-01

    Self-reported use of cigarettes generally underestimates the true cigarette exposure of smokers. Serum cotinine is considered the best biomarker to evaluate tobacco exposure. This study determined whether or not there were any significant differences in serum cotinine concentrations between men and women when they reported smoking the same number of cigarettes per day. We analyzed cotinine and tobacco consumption data on 680 women and 840 men, aged 20 years or older, who smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime and were still actively smoking at the time of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2002). Overall, compared with men, women reported smoking fewer cigarettes per day (16.1 vs. 18.7, ppoverty status, the use of either menthol or regular cigarettes, and the nicotine content in cigarettes, female compared with male smokers had lower serum cotinine concentrations (difference of 117.6 nmol/L; 95% CI = 42.6-192.6, p = .003). The difference was particularly notable in moderate to heavy smokers (i.e., those who smoked more than 15 cigarettes/day). These findings indicate that significant sex-related differences exist in serum cotinine levels among smokers, which suggests that self-reports may overestimate cigarette exposure in women compared with men.

  14. Changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guohong; Xu Ruiji; Zhang Zhongshu

    2011-01-01

    To determine changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men.the healthy men (n=126) were divided 20-29 yr, 30-39 yr and 40-49 yr three groups,their serum levels of total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were detected. The results were statically analyzed. The results showed that the levels of serum T and FT was found significantly decreased in 30-39 yr group than in 20-29 yr group (15.06±13 nmol/L vs 20.41±86 nmol/L, P<0.01; 9.36±95 pg/L vs 11.48±88 pg/L, P<0.05; respectively). There were young trends that age-related decline in androgen levels. (authors)

  15. Disruption of thyroid hormone binding to sea bream recombinant transthyretin by ioxinyl and polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Isabel; Hamers, Timo; Van der Ven, Leo; Power, D M

    2007-08-01

    A number of chemicals released into the environment share structural similarity to the thyroid hormones (THs), thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) and it is thought that they may interfere with the thyroid axis and behave as endocrine disruptors (EDs). One of the ways by which such environmental contaminants may disrupt the TH axis is by binding to TH transporter proteins. Transthyretin (TTR) is one of the thyroid hormone binding proteins responsible for TH transport in the blood. TTR forms a stable tetramer that binds both T(4) and T(3) and in fish it is principally synthesized in the liver but is also produced by the brain and intestine. In the present study, we investigate the ability of some chemicals arising from pharmaceutical, industrial or agricultural production and classified as EDs, to compete with [I(125)]-T(3) for sea bream recombinant TTR (sbrTTR). Ioxinyl, a common herbicide and several polybrominated diphenyl ethers were strong inhibitors of [I(125)]-T(3) binding to TTR and some showed even greater affinity than the natural ligand T(3). The TTR competitive binding assay developed offers a quick and effective tool for preliminary risk assessment of chemicals which may disrupt the thyroid axis in teleost fish inhabiting vulnerable aquatic environments.

  16. Radiometric immunosorbent assay for the detection of anti-hormone-binding protein antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, E.A.; Dame, M.C.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1986-01-01

    A radiometric immunosorbent assay (RISA) for the detection of monoclonal antibodies to hormone-binding proteins has been developed. The assay involves incubating hybridoma supernatants in microtiter wells that have been coated with goat anti-mouse IgG antibodies. Any mouse IgG in the test supernatant is thus specifically retained in the wells. Radioactive ligand-binding protein complexes are then incubated in the wells. The presence of anti-binding protein antibodies in the supernatant is indicated by specific retention of radioactive ligand-binding protein complexes in the wells. Crude antigen preparations, such as tissue homogenates, can be used to detect antibodies. The assay is capable of detecting antibody at concentrations 20 ng/ml (approx. 100 pM IgG). The RISA has been used successfully to screen for monoclonal antibodies to the intracellular receptor for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 and should be useful for the detection of antibodies to ligand-binding proteins in general

  17. Vitamin D deficiency and low ionized calcium are linked with semen quality and sex steroid levels in infertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Lawaetz, Jacob Gerner; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Are low vitamin D levels linked with semen quality and sex steroids in infertile men? SUMMARY ANSWER: Infertile men with vitamin D deficiency had lower sperm motility, total numbers of motile sperm, Inhibin B, sex-hormone-binding-globulin (SHBG) and testosterone/estradiol ratio......, but higher levels of free sex steroids, than infertile men with normal vitamin D levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Low vitamin D levels have been associated with decreased sperm motility in healthy men, but a relationship between vitamin D and calcium with semen quality and especially sex steroids has not been...... infertile men, consecutively referred to our tertiary andrological centre for fertility workup, underwent a physical examination and had semen quality assessed based on two samples and blood analysed for serum testosterone, SHBG, estradiol, inhibin B, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH...

  18. Characterization of the hormone-binding domain of the chicken c-erbA/thyroid hormone receptor protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, A; Zenke, M; Gehring, U

    1988-01-01

    mutations present in the carboxy-terminal half of P75gag-v-erbA co-operate in abolishing hormone binding, and that the ligand-binding domain resides in a position analogous to that of steroid receptors. Furthermore, a point mutation that is located between the putative DNA and ligand-binding domains of P75......To identify and characterize the hormone-binding domain of the thyroid hormone receptor, we analyzed the ligand-binding capacities of proteins representing chimeras between the normal receptor and P75gag-v-erbA, the retrovirus-encoded form deficient in binding ligand. Our results show that several......gag-v-erbA and that renders it biologically inactive fails to affect hormone binding by the c-erbA protein. These results suggest that the mutation changed the ability of P75gag-v-erbA to affect transcription since it also had no effect on DNA binding. Our data also suggest that hormone...

  19. Visceral fat and weight loss in obese subjects : relationship to serum lipids, energy expenditure and sex hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the relationships between visceral fat accumulation and serum lipids, energy expenditure, and sex hormone levels in healthy obese men and premenopausal women undergoing weight loss therapy. The subjects, aged 27-51 years, with an initial body mass index of 28-38 kg/m

  20. Extended hormone binding site of the human thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: distinctive acidic residues in the hinge region are involved in bovine thyroid stimulating hormone binding and receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sandra; Kleinau, Gunnar; Jaeschke, Holger; Paschke, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2008-06-27

    The human thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (hTSHR) belongs to the glycoprotein hormone receptors that bind the hormones at their large extracellular domain. The extracellular hinge region of the TSHR connects the N-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain with the membrane-spanning serpentine domain. From previous studies we reasoned that apart from hormone binding at the leucine-rich repeat domain, additional multiple hormone contacts might exist at the hinge region of the TSHR by complementary charge-charge recognition. Here we investigated highly conserved charged residues in the hinge region of the TSHR by site-directed mutagenesis to identify amino acids interacting with bovine TSH (bTSH). Indeed, the residues Glu-297, Glu-303, and Asp-382 in the TSHR hinge region are essential for bTSH binding and partially for signal transduction. Side chain substitutions showed that the negative charge of Glu-297 and Asp-382 is necessary for recognition of bTSH by the hTSHR. Multiple combinations of alanine mutants of the identified positions revealed an increased negative effect on hormone binding. An assembled model suggests that the deciphered acidic residues form negatively charged patches at the hinge region resulting in an extended binding mode for bTSH on the hTSHR. Our data indicate that certain positively charged residues of bTSH might be involved in interaction with the identified negatively charged amino acids of the hTSHR hinge region. We demonstrate that the hinge region represents an extracellular intermediate connector for both hormone binding and signal transduction of the hTSHR.

  1. Effect of Exercise on Serum Sex Hormones in Men: A 12-Month Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAWKINS, VIVIAN N.; FOSTER-SCHUBERT, KAREN; CHUBAK, JESSICA; SORENSEN, BESS; ULRICH, CORNELIA M.; STANCYZK, FRANK Z.; PLYMATE, STEPHEN; STANFORD, JANET; WHITE, EMILY; POTTER, JOHN D.; MCTIERNAN, ANNE

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The effect of exercise on androgens in middle-aged to older men is poorly understood, and it could have implications for several aspects of health. This analysis was conducted to examine the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on serum sex hormones in middle-aged to older men. Methods One hundred two sedentary men, ages 40–75 yr, were randomly assigned to a 12-month exercise intervention or a control group (no change in activity). The combined facility- and home-based exercise program consisted of moderate/vigorous-intensity aerobic activity for 60 min·d−1, 6 d·wk−1. Serum concentrations of testosterone, free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 3α-androstanediol glucuronide (3α-Diol-G), estradiol, free estradiol, and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) were measured at baseline, 3, and 12 months. Results Exercisers trained a mean of 370 min·wk−1 (102% of goal), with only two dropouts. Cardiopulmonary fitness (V̇O2max) increased 10.8% in exercisers and decreased by 1.8% in controls (P < 0.001). DHT increased 14.5% in exercisers versus 1.7% in controls at 3 months (P = 0.04); at 12 months, it remained 8.6% above baseline in exercisers versus a 3.1% decrease in controls (P = 0.03). SHBG increased 14.3% in exercisers versus 5.7% in controls at 3 months (P = 0.04); at 12 months, it remained 8.9% above baseline in exercisers versus 4.0% in controls (P = 0.13). There were significant trends toward increasing DHT and SHBG, with greater increases in V̇O2max at 3 and 12 months in exercisers. No statistically significant differences were observed for testosterone, free testosterone, 3α-Diol-G, estradiol, or free estradiol in exercisers versus controls. Conclusions A yearlong, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program increased DHT and SHBG, but it had no effect on other androgens in middle-aged to older men. PMID:18202581

  2. Association between GH receptor polymorphism (exon 3 deletion), serum IGF1, semen quality, and reproductive hormone levels in 838 healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, M; Jensen, Rikke Bodin; Jørgensen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    =467) GHRd3/d3 homozygous individuals (n=69) tended to have larger semen volume (3.2 (2.4-4.3) vs 3.6 (2.6-4.7) ml, P=0.053) and higher serum inhibin-B levels (208 pg/ml (158-257) vs 227 pg/ml (185-264), P=0.050). Semen quality, levels of gonadotropins, testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone......-binding globulin, and IGF1 were not associated with GHRd3 genotype. A twofold increase in serum IGF1 was associated with a 13% (4-23) increase in calculated free testosterone (P=0.004). By contrast IGF1 was inversely associated with serum inhibin-B (P=0.027), but showed no associations to semen quality. GHR...

  3. Increased serum cortisol binding in chronic active hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbach, O.; Schussler, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    A high serum cortisol concentration, apparently due to increased cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), was found in a patient (index case) with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). We therefore performed further studies to determine whether increased cortisol binding is generally associated with CAH. Serum samples were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with long-term liver function test elevations but no evidence of cirrhosis, 15 normal subjects without a history of hepatitis, four healthy pregnant women, and 10 alcoholic patients with stigmata of cirrhosis. Serum cortisol binding was measured by an adaptation of a previously described charcoal uptake method. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined by radioimmunoassays. Charcoal uptake of 125I cortisol from sera of normal subjects and additional patients with CAH revealed that increased serum cortisol binding by a saturable site, presumably CBG, was associated with CAH. Cortisol binding was significantly correlated with immunoassayable TBG, suggesting that in CAH, similar mechanisms may be responsible for increasing the serum concentrations of CBG and TBG

  4. Serum sex hormone and growth arrest-specific protein 6 levels in male patients with coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of low serum testosterone levels in men with cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the tyrosine kinase receptor Axl, the ligand of which is growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6, is expressed in the vasculature, and serum GAS6 levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular events. Testosterone regulates GAS6 gene transcription directly, which inhibits calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells and provides a mechanistic insight into the cardioprotective action of androgens. This study was designed to determine the correlation between serum GAS6 and testosterone levels in male patients with coronary heart disease (CHD. We recruited 225 patients with CHD and 102 apparently healthy controls. Serum concentrations of GAS6 and soluble Axl were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, testosterone, estradiol, and other routine biochemical markers were also measured. Testosterone decreased from 432.69 ± 14.40 to 300.76 ± 6.23 ng dl−1 (P < 0.001 and GAS6 decreased from 16.20 ± 0.31 to 12.51 ± 0.19 ng ml−1 (P < 0.001 in patients with CHD, compared with control subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum testosterone and GAS6 levels were positively associated in male patients with CHD. Alterations in GAS6 levels may influence the development of CHD. Downregulation of GAS6/Axl signaling in the presence of low sex hormone levels during disease progression is a potential mechanism by which GAS6 affects CHD. This study provides novel results regarding the influence of sex hormones on serum GAS6 levels in patients with CHD.

  5. Biosensor-based detection of reduced sex hormone-binding globulin binding capacities in response to growth-promoter administrations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooney, M.H.; Bergwerff, A.A.; van Meeuwen, J.A.; Luppa, P.B.; Elliott, C.T.

    2009-01-01

    Growth-promoting agents are illicitly used during animal rearing processes and the detection of their use is limited by new compounds and dosing practices that limit the efficiency of current testing which is based on residue analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and

  6. Polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperandrogenemia, sex hormone-binding globulin, and risks of pregnancy complications in singleton pregnancies after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naver, Klara

    2014-01-01

    Et klinisk prospektivt multicenterstudie. Projektet består af prægravid karakteristik af kvinder med og uden polycystisk ovariesyndrom (PCOS) før de opstarter fertilitetsbehandling. Når deltagerne er blevet gravide følges de i graviditeten med ultralydskanninger og målinger af insulin resistens, ...

  7. Sex Differences in Serum Markers of Major Depressive Disorder in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jordan M; Cooper, Jason D; Bot, Mariska; Guest, Paul C; Lamers, Femke; Weickert, Cynthia S; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Women have a consistently higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) than men. Hypotheses implicating hypothalamic-pituitary -adrenal, -gonadal, and -thyroid axes, immune response, genetic factors, and neurotransmitters have emerged to explain this difference. However, more evidence for these hypotheses is needed and new explanations must be explored. Here, we investigated sex differences in MDD markers using multiplex immunoassay measurements of 171 serum molecules in individuals enrolled in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NMDD = 231; Ncontrol = 365). We found 28 sex-dependent markers of MDD, as quantified by a significant interaction between sex and log2-transformed analyte concentration in a logistic regression with diagnosis (MDD/control) as the outcome variable (pdepression to males and females and have important implications for the development of diagnostic biomarker tests for MDD. More studies are needed to validate these results, investigate a broader range of biological pathways, and integrate this data with brain imaging, genetic, and other relevant data.

  8. Postmenopausal sex hormones in relation to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedtke, S.; Schmidt, M.E.; Vrieling, A.; Lukanova, A.; Becker, S.; Kaaks, R.; Zaineddin, A.K.; Buck, K.; Benner, A.; Chang-Claude, J.; Steindorf, K.

    2012-01-01

    Being overweight or obese increases the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. A potential reason may be the frequently observed positive association of BMI with endogenous sex hormones and its negative association with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The purpose of this study was to investigate

  9. Study on the differences between the serum sex hormones levels in menopausal women and patients with secondary amenorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaohui

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the differences between the ovarian function in menopausal women and patients with secondary amenorrhea with measurement of serum sex hormones levels. Methods: Serum FSH, LH, E 2 prolactin, progesterone and testosterone levels were measured with RIA in: (1) 40 women with normal menstration (2) 40 menopausal women and (3) 40 patients with secondary amenorrhea. Results: Among the three groups, the serum FSH and LH levels wre highest in the menopausal women with secondary amenorrhea patients the next. On the contrary, the serum E 2 levels were lowest in the menopausal women with secondary amenorrhea patients the next. The sreum prolactin levels in women with normal menstruation and menopausal women were about the same and both were significantly lower than those in patients with secondary amenorrhea. The serum progestrone levels were extremely low in menopausal women (0.63 ± 0.39 ng/ml), while the levels in patients with secondary menopause were only moderately decreased (4.91 ± 2. 83 ng/ml vs 11.25 ± 4.51 ng/ml in women with normal menstruation), indicating possible presence of ovulation. Testosterone levels were also lowest in menopausal women. Conclusion: Ovarian atrophy with functional failure was present in menopausal women. Secondury amenorrhea was usually due to dysfunction of hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary-uterus axis (HPOV axis) with rentention of ovarian function. (authors)

  10. Age and sex specific variation in hematological and serum biochemical parameters of Beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akrami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the age- and sex-specific changes of various haematological and blood serum biochemical blood parameters of Beluga (Huso huso were investigated. Blood samples were collected from 4-, 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old beluga (n = 7 for each sex and age. The specimens were fed at a rate of 0.5-3% body weight per day. AST and LDH levels in 7- and 8-year-old fish of both sexes were significantly higher (P<0.05 than those in 4- and 6-year-old individuals. The mean ALT were significantly different (P<0.05 in both sexes of 4-, 6-, and 7-year-old sturgeon. However, the 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old female sturgeon had higher ALP levels (P<0.05. Additionally, mean RBC, PCV, and Hb values were significantly higher (P<0.05 in 7- and 8-year-old females and males than the others. Two-tailed Pearson’s correlation between the biochemical and haematological parameters obtained for beluga sturgeon indicated significant positive correlations between AST and ALP, AST and LDH, ALP and LDH, RBC and Hb, RBC and PCV, Hb and PCV, MCH and MCHC, and MCV and MCH. However, significant negative correlations were found between RBC and MCV and MCH. These results suggest that the blood parameters of beluga are influenced by age- and sex-specific factors.

  11. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas [Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lidfeldt, Jonas [Department of Community Health, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden); Samsioe, Göran [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Halldin, Krister [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Åkesson, Agneta, E-mail: agneta.akesson@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  12. Effects of orlistat on serum androgen levels among iranian obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, Saghar; Hosseini, Sedighe; Nazari, Leila; Saharkhiz, Nasrin; Zademodarres, Shahrzad

    2018-05-14

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common endocrinopathies in young women, and it affects 6% to 8% of women in reproductive age. Hyperandrogenism is the hallmark of polycystic ovary syndrome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of orlistat on weight loss and serum androgen levels among Iranian women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The present study was carried out in the clinic of Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Thirty-two patients with polycystic ovary syndrome were randomly enrolled. We measured serum androgens (Testosterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin) before and after 12 weeks of treatment with orlistat. We used the Rotterdam Criteria for all patients and transvaginal sonography was performed. The mean age of patients was 27.75±6.22 and the mean body mass index was 32.69±0.94 kg/m2. Comparing with baseline, treatment with orlistat resulted in a significant reduction in weight, BMI, and waist circumference (p=0.001). We also found a remarkable reduction in total testosterone levels (p>0.001). Treatment improved the sex hormone-binding globulin plasma levels, but the improvement was not statistically significant. There was no reduction in other androgen levels. This study showed a significant reduction of weight and total testosterone level - the most important androgen in polycystic ovary syndrome - after 12 weeks of treatment with orlistat. Therefore, it seems that a short course of orlistat can be useful in the management of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  13. Alcohol and dietary fibre intakes affect circulating sex hormones among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Takata, Yumie; Murphy, Suzanne P; Stanczyk, Frank Z

    2006-10-01

    The association of alcohol and fibre intake with breast cancer may be mediated by circulating sex hormone levels, which are predictors of breast cancer risk. To evaluate the relationship of alcohol and dietary fibre intake with circulating sex hormone levels among premenopausal women. A total of 205 premenopausal women completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and after 2 years; blood samples taken at the same time were analysed for circulating sex hormone concentrations, including oestrone (E1), oestradiol (E2), free E2, progesterone, androstenedione and sex hormone-binding globulin, by radioimmunoassay. We used mixed models to estimate least-square means of sex hormone concentrations for alcohol intake categories and quartiles of dietary intake. After adjustment for covariates, alcohol consumption was moderately associated with higher circulating oestrogen levels; those who consumed more than one drink per day had 20% higher E2 (Ptrend=0.07) levels than non-drinkers. In contrast, higher dietary fibre intake was associated with lower serum levels of androstenedione (-8% between the lowest and highest quartiles of intake, Ptrend=0.06), but not oestrogens. Similarly, consumption of fruits (-12%, Ptrend=0.03), vegetables (-9%, Ptrend=0.15) and whole grains (-7%, Ptrend=0.07) showed inverse associations with androstenedione levels. The consistency of the observed differences in sex hormone levels associated with alcohol and fibre-rich foods indicates that these nutritional factors may affect sex hormone concentrations and play a role in breast cancer aetiology and prevention.

  14. Changes of serum sex hormones levels in aged patient with peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiuhai; Xiao Chuangqing; He Yunnan; Li Xuewen; Bi Chao; Zhang Yifan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum contents of testosterone (T), estradiol (E 2 ) and cortisol (Cor) in aged patients with peptic ulcer. Methods: Serum T, E 2 and Cor levels were determined with CLIA in 86 aged patients with peptic ulcer both before treatment (active stage) and after treatment for 6 weeks (healing stage) as well as in 76 controls. Results: Serum contents of T and E 2 in the patients during active stage were significantly lower than those in patients during healing stage and in controls (both P 0.05). Conclusion: A lower serum T and E 2 contents was present in aged patients with peptic ulcer during active stage. (authors)

  15. Population Reference Values for Serum Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations and Its Relationship with Age, Sex, Race-Ethnicity, Supplement Use, Kidney Function and Serum Vitamin B12 in the Post-Folic Acid Fortification Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Ganji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum methylmalonic acid (MMA is elevated in vitamin B-12 deficiency and in kidney dysfunction. Population reference values for serum MMA concentrations in post-folic acid fortification period are lacking. Aims of this study were to report the population reference values for serum MMA and to evaluate the relation between serum MMA and sex, age, race-ethnicity, kidney dysfunction and vitamin B-12. We used data from three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999–2000, 2001–2002 and 2003–2004 conducted after folic acid fortification commenced (n = 18,569. Geometric mean MMA was ≈22.3% higher in non-Hispanic white compared to non-Hispanic black (141.2 vs. 115.5 nmol/L and was ≈62.7% higher in >70 years old persons compared to 21–30 years old persons (196.9 vs. 121.0 nmol/L. Median serum MMA was ≈28.5% higher in the 1st the quartile of serum vitamin B-12 than in the 4th quartile of serum vitamin B-12 and was ≈35.8% higher in the 4th quartile of serum creatinine than in the 1st quartile of serum creatinine. Multivariate-adjusted serum MMA concentration was significantly associated with race-ethnicity (p < 0.001 and age (p < 0.001 but not with sex (p = 0.057. In this large US population based study, serum MMA concentrations presented here reflect the post-folic acid fortification scenario. Serum MMA concentrations begin to rise at the age of 18–20 years and continue to rise afterwards. Age-related increase in serum MMA concentration is likely to be due to a concomitant decline in kidney function and vitamin B-12 status.

  16. Application of a naturalistic psychogenic stressor in periadolescent mice: effect on serum corticosterone levels differs by strain but not sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Laura C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a first step in determining whether psychogenic stressors might be incorporated into periadolescent mouse models of stress, we evaluated whether a commonly used psychogenic stressor, exposure to red fox urine, alters serum corticosterone levels in periadolescent C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. Findings In a 1-day experiment, forty-eight 38-day-old C57BL/6J (N = 12 males; N = 12 females and DBA/2J (N = 12 males; N = 12 females mice were exposed to 10-min of red fox urine via cotton ball (N = 12 C57BL/6J mice; N = 12 DBA/2J mice or to a non-saturated cotton ball (N = 12 C57BL/6J mice; N = 12 DBA/2J mice. All mice were sacrificed 15-min after cotton ball exposure and serum was collected for corticosterone assessment. Overall, there was a main effect for strain such that C57BL/6J male and female mice displayed higher corticosterone levels than did male and female DBA/2J mice. There were no main effects for sex or odor exposure. However, there was a significant strain by odor exposure interaction, whereby, within odor-exposed mice, DBA/2J mice displayed lower corticosterone levels (ng/mL compared to C57BL/6J mice, regardless of sex. Further, among DBA/2J mice, predator odor exposure reduced corticosterone levels compared to no odor exposure. Conclusions Findings indicate that mouse strain, but not sex, may play an important role in the efficacy of a predator odor among periadolescent mice.

  17. Changes in serum concentrations of growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 1 and 3 and urinary growth hormone excretion during the menstrual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Scheike, Thomas Harder; Pedersen, A T

    1997-01-01

    Few studies exist on the physiological changes in the concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factors (IGF) and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) within the menstrual cycle, and some controversy remains. We therefore decided to study the impact of endogenous sex steroids on the GH......-IGF-IGFBP axis during the ovulatory menstrual cycle in 10 healthy women (aged 18-40 years). Blood sampling and urinary collection was performed every morning at 0800 h for 32 consecutive days. Every second day the subjects were fasted overnight before blood sampling. Follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing...... hormone (LH), oestradiol, progesterone, IGF-I, IGFBP-3, sex hormone-binding globulin, dihydroepiandrosterone sulphate and GH were determined in all samples, whereas insulin and IGFBP-1 were determined in fasted samples only. Serum IGF-I concentrations showed some fluctuation during the menstrual cycle...

  18. Serum level modifications of female sex hormones after radiocastration with different total doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naujokat, B.; Rohloff, R.; Willich, N.; Eiermann, W.

    1988-01-01

    We determined serum level of estradiol, FSH and LH over a period of six to eight weeks after ovarian irradiation for castration with different doses (2x2.5 Gy/3x2.5 Gy/4x2.5 Gy) in 15 patients with metastatic breast cancer as compared to changes after ovarectomy in five patients. The time course of the changing estradiol-, FSH and LH-serum levels sigificantly depends on the ovarian dose. After radiological castration with a dose of 4x2.5 Gy = 10 Gy in four days the estrogen levels decrease within two to three weeks, and the FSH- and LH-levels increase after three to four weeks into the postmenopausal range. Therefore, the time course is not very different from changes after ovarectomy. (orig.) [de

  19. Serum LBP Is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qibo; Zhou, Huang; Zhang, Aipin; Gao, Rufei; Yang, Shumin; Zhao, Changhong; Wang, Yue; Hu, Jinbo; Goswami, Richa; Gong, Lilin; Li, Qifu

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) is closely associated with many metabolic disorders. However, no study has been done to explore the relationship between LBP and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the serum LBP level is elevated and associated with insulin resistance (IR) in PCOS. In this cross-sectional study, 117 PCOS patients and 121 age-matched controls were recruited. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed with an expression of M value for insulin sensitivity. Fasting serum samples were collected to detect LBP, lipids, insulin, sex hormones and high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP). Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression was used to analyze the associations between M value and LBP level. The study was performed in a clinical research center. Compared with controls, PCOS subjects had a significantly higher LBP concentration (33.03±14.59 vs. 24.35±10.31 μg/ml, plean and overweight/obese individuals, serum LBP level was higher in PCOS subjects than that in controls. M value was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), fasting serum insulin, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), free testosterone, high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and LBP, whereas positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Serum LBP level was associated with M value after adjusting for BMI, fasting serum insulin, SHBG, as well as hs-CRP. Serum LBP level significantly is elevated in PCOS, and is independently associated with IR in PCOS.

  20. Serum LBP Is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Women with PCOS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qibo Zhu

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP is closely associated with many metabolic disorders. However, no study has been done to explore the relationship between LBP and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the serum LBP level is elevated and associated with insulin resistance (IR in PCOS.In this cross-sectional study, 117 PCOS patients and 121 age-matched controls were recruited. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed with an expression of M value for insulin sensitivity. Fasting serum samples were collected to detect LBP, lipids, insulin, sex hormones and high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression was used to analyze the associations between M value and LBP level.The study was performed in a clinical research center.Compared with controls, PCOS subjects had a significantly higher LBP concentration (33.03±14.59 vs. 24.35±10.31 μg/ml, p<0.001, and lower M value (8.21±3.06 vs. 12.31±1.72 mg/min/kg, p<0.001. Both in lean and overweight/obese individuals, serum LBP level was higher in PCOS subjects than that in controls. M value was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI, fasting serum insulin, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, free testosterone, high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP and LBP, whereas positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG. Serum LBP level was associated with M value after adjusting for BMI, fasting serum insulin, SHBG, as well as hs-CRP.Serum LBP level significantly is elevated in PCOS, and is independently associated with IR in PCOS.

  1. Serum testosterone levels in males are not associated with entrepreneurial behavior in two independent observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Loos, Matthijs J H M; Haring, Robin; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Groenen, Patrick J F; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Frank H; Koellinger, Philipp D; Kohlmann, Thomas; Nauck, Matthias A; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; van Rooij, Frank J A; Wallaschofski, Henri; Thurik, A Roy

    2013-07-02

    Previous research has suggested a positive association between testosterone (T) and entrepreneurial behavior in males. However, this evidence was found in a study with a small sample size and has not been replicated. In the present study, we aimed to verify this association using two large, independent, population-based samples of males. We tested the association of T with entrepreneurial behavior, operationalized as self-employment, using data from the Rotterdam Study (N=587) and the Study of Health in Pomerania (N=1697). Total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in the serum. Free testosterone (FT), non-SHBG-bound T (non-SHBG-T), and the TT/SHBG ratio were calculated and used as measures of bioactive serum T, in addition to TT adjusted for SHBG. Using logistic regression models, we found no significant associations between any of the serum T measures and self-employment in either of the samples. To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study on the relationship between serum T and entrepreneurial behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Obesity, serum steroid levels, and pulsatile gonadotropin secretion in polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, T; Tulenheimo, A; Andersson, B; Kärkkäinen, J

    1983-04-01

    Serum binding capacity of sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG-BC), steroid concentrations, and secretion patterns of LH and FSH were compared between groups of seven nonobese and seven obese patients with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). Obese patients with PCOD differed from those with normal weight in having very low SHBG-BC and elevated serum levels of free and albumin bound testosterone. Compared to healthy women in the follicular phase, both nonobese and obese patients with PCOD showed equally elevated serum levels of androstenedione, estrone, and albumin-bound and free estradiol. Pattern of gonadotropin secretion was studied from blood samples taken at 15 min intervals for 6 h. In 6 patients of both groups low pulses of FSH were found coincidently with pulses of LH. Serum level of LH showed a clear pulsatile pattern in all patients with PCOD, varying from 4.5 to 7.5 pulses per 6 h. The mean pulse rate in the groups of nonobese and obese patients with PCOD was similar, 5.9 pulses per 6 h. In the obese patients the mean LH levels were, however, less elevated and the pulse amplitudes were smaller than those in the nonobese patients. We suggest that this difference is due to high levels of biologically active testosterone in obese patients with PCOD.

  3. Relationship between Serum Leptin, Ghrelin and Dietary Macronutrients in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Houjeghani, Shiva; Farzadi, Laya; Houjeghani, Sheyda; Safaeiyan, Abdolrasoul

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women. It may involve an impairment in physiologic regulation of leptin and ghrelin. There is limited, controversial data on the relation of dietary components with leptin and ghrelin in PCOS, so the current study has been conducted to explore the effects of different macronutrients on serum levels of leptin and ghrelin in PCOS and healthy subjects. In this case-control study, we randomly choose 30 PCOS pa- tients and 30 healthy age and body mass index (BMI) matched controls. Intake of macronutrients [protein, total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), carbohydrate, dietary fiber] and energy were assessed using 3-day, 24-hour food recall and food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Fasting hormonal status was measured for each participant. PCOS women had higher levels of serum leptin, insulin, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone (LH), whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was lower compared to healthy women. There was no significant difference in mean ghrelin concentrations between the groups. Among PCOS women, independent of BMI and total energy intake, we observed an inverse association between leptin concentration and total dietary fat (β=-0.16, Pmacronutrients in PCOS and healthy participants. Certain habitual dietary components such as fat and SFA may decrease serum leptin, whereas ghrelin is not influenced by these in PCOS women. More studies are needed to better clarify the effects of dietary macronutrients on serum leptin and ghrelin.

  4. 18F FDG Uptake of Human Testis on PET/CT: Correlation with Age, Sex Hormones, and Vasectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Eo, Jae Sun; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose metabolism of normal human testis on 18F FDG PET/CT and to assess possible correlation among age, the serum levels of sex hormones, and vasectomy. 18F FDG PET/CT was performed in 66 normal healthy men (50.8±13.6 years, range 22-81), and mean standard uptake values (SUV) of 18F FDG in testis and adductor muscle were measured. Testis muscle SUV ratios (T/M ratios) were calculated. Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, and of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We searched for correlations between T/M ratios and age and the serum concentrations of sex hormones. 18F FDG PET/CT was also performed in 32 vasectomized men (55.7±7.8 years, range 38-71) and 52 nonvasectomized men (55.4±11.6 years, range 37-72). Mean SUVs of testis and adductor muscle were measured, and T/M ratios were calculated. A significant age related decline was found in T/M ratio (r=-0.509, p 18F FDG uptake may have attributed to testicular function and testicular histology. Our findings may have important implications for the interpretation of testicular 18F FDG uptake in the normal adult population.

  5. Sex-specific nonlinear associations between serum lipids and different domains of cognitive function in middle to older age individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanhui; An, Yu; Yu, Huanling; Che, Fengyuan; Zhang, Xiaona; Rong, Hongguo; Xi, Yuandi; Xiao, Rong

    2017-08-01

    To examine how serum lipids relates to specific cognitive ability domains between the men and women in Chinese middle to older age individuals. A complete lipid panel was obtained from 1444 individuals, ages 50-65, who also underwent a selection of cognitive tests. Participants were 584 men and 860 women from Linyi city, Shandong province. Multiple linear regression analyses examined serum lipids level as quadratic predictors of sex-specific measure of performance in different cognitive domains, which were adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. In men, a significant quadratic effect of total cholesterol (TC) was identified for Digit Symbol (B = -0.081, P = 0.044) and also quadratic effect of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was identified for Trail Making Test B (B = -0.082, P = 0.045). Differently in women, there were significant quadratic associations between high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and multiple neuropsychological tests. The nonlinear lipid-cognition associations differed between men and women and were specific to certain cognitive domains and might be of potential relevance for prevention and therapy of cognitive decline.

  6. Serum concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients diagnosed with gender dysphoria undergoing sex reassignment surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko A. Schneider

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Transsexualism (ICD-10 is a condition characterized by a strong and persistent dissociation with one's assigned gender. Sex reassignment surgery (SRS and hormone therapy provide a means of allowing transsexual individuals to feel more congruent with their gender and have played a major role in treatment over the past 70 years. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF appears to play a key role in recovery from acute surgical trauma and environmentally mediated vulnerability to psychopathology. We hypothesize that BDNF may be a biomarker of alleviation of gender incongruence suffering. Objectives: To measure preoperative and postoperative serum BDNF levels in transsexual individuals as a biomarker of alleviation of stress related to gender incongruence after SRS. Methods: Thirty-two male-to-female transsexual people who underwent both surgery and hormonal treatment were selected from our initial sample. BDNF serum levels were assessed before and after SRS with sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The time elapsed between the pre-SRS and post-SRS blood collections was also measured. Results: No significant difference was found in pre-SRS or post-SRS BDNF levels or with relation to the time elapsed after SRS when BDNF levels were measured. Conclusion: Alleviation of the suffering related to gender incongruence after SRS cannot be assessed by BDNF alone. Surgical solutions may not provide a quick fix for psychological distress associated with transsexualism and SRS may serve as one step toward, rather than as the conclusion of, construction of a person's gender identity.

  7. Association between Sex Hormone and Blood Uric Acid in Male Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Wen Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between serum uric acid (SUA level and sexual dysfunction in patients with diabetes is not well characterized. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM causes metabolic disorders, including abnormal serum uric acid (SUA levels. In this study, we enrolled 205 male patients with T2DM and investigated the relationship between sex hormone levels and SUA. Patients were divided into four groups based on SUA quartiles. On the other hand, based on the total testosterone (TT level, patients were divided into three groups; SUA and other laboratory indices were determined. Increase in SUA level was significantly associated with decreased levels of TT, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and increased levels of dehydroepiandrosterone, age, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, glycated hemoglobin, serum creatinine, and HOMA-IR levels. SUA, waist circumference, BMI, and HOMA-IR showed a negative correlation with TT level, while age showed a positive correlation with TT level. SUA and body mass index were found to be risk factors for gonadal dysfunction. Therefore, we conclude that hypogonadism of male patients with T2DM is related to SUA level.

  8. Extended and structurally supported insights into extracellular hormone binding, signal transduction and organization of the thyrotropin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Krause

    Full Text Available The hormone thyrotropin (TSH and its receptor (TSHR are crucial for the growth and function of the thyroid gland. The TSHR is evolutionary linked with the receptors of follitropin (FSHR and lutropin/choriogonadotropin (LHR and their sequences and structures are similar. The extracellular region of TSHR contains more than 350 amino acids and binds hormone and antibodies. Several important questions related to functions and mechanisms of TSHR are still not comprehensively understood. One major reason for these open questions is the lack of any structural information about the extracellular segment of TSHR that connects the N-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain (LRRD with the transmembrane helix (TMH 1, the hinge region. It has been shown experimentally that this segment is important for fine tuning of signaling and ligand interactions. A new crystal structure containing most of the extracellular hFSHR region in complex with hFSH has recently been published. Now, we have applied these new structural insights to the homologous TSHR and have generated a structural model of the TSHR LRRD/hinge-region/TSH complex. This structural model is combined and evaluated with experimental data including hormone binding (bTSH, hTSH, thyrostimulin, super-agonistic effects, antibody interactions and signaling regulation. These studies and consideration of significant and non-significant amino acids have led to a new description of mechanisms at the TSHR, including ligand-induced displacements of specific hinge region fragments. This event triggers conformational changes at a convergent center of the LRRD and the hinge region, activating an "intramolecular agonistic unit" close to the transmembrane domain.

  9. Extended and structurally supported insights into extracellular hormone binding, signal transduction and organization of the thyrotropin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Gerd; Kreuchwig, Annika; Kleinau, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    The hormone thyrotropin (TSH) and its receptor (TSHR) are crucial for the growth and function of the thyroid gland. The TSHR is evolutionary linked with the receptors of follitropin (FSHR) and lutropin/choriogonadotropin (LHR) and their sequences and structures are similar. The extracellular region of TSHR contains more than 350 amino acids and binds hormone and antibodies. Several important questions related to functions and mechanisms of TSHR are still not comprehensively understood. One major reason for these open questions is the lack of any structural information about the extracellular segment of TSHR that connects the N-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain (LRRD) with the transmembrane helix (TMH) 1, the hinge region. It has been shown experimentally that this segment is important for fine tuning of signaling and ligand interactions. A new crystal structure containing most of the extracellular hFSHR region in complex with hFSH has recently been published. Now, we have applied these new structural insights to the homologous TSHR and have generated a structural model of the TSHR LRRD/hinge-region/TSH complex. This structural model is combined and evaluated with experimental data including hormone binding (bTSH, hTSH, thyrostimulin), super-agonistic effects, antibody interactions and signaling regulation. These studies and consideration of significant and non-significant amino acids have led to a new description of mechanisms at the TSHR, including ligand-induced displacements of specific hinge region fragments. This event triggers conformational changes at a convergent center of the LRRD and the hinge region, activating an "intramolecular agonistic unit" close to the transmembrane domain.

  10. Genetic determinants of serum testosterone concentrations in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one in silico (n = 871 and two de novo replication cohorts (n = 4,620 to identify genetic loci significantly associated with serum testosterone concentration in men. All these loci were also associated with low serum testosterone concentration defined as <300 ng/dl. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG locus (17p13-p12 were identified as independently associated with serum testosterone concentration (rs12150660, p = 1.2×10(-41 and rs6258, p = 2.3×10(-22. Subjects with ≥ 3 risk alleles of these variants had 6.5-fold higher risk of having low serum testosterone than subjects with no risk allele. The rs5934505 polymorphism near FAM9B on the X chromosome was also associated with testosterone concentrations (p = 5.6×10(-16. The rs6258 polymorphism in exon 4 of SHBG affected SHBG's affinity for binding testosterone and the measured free testosterone fraction (p<0.01. Genetic variants in the SHBG locus and on the X chromosome are associated with a substantial variation in testosterone concentrations and increased risk of low testosterone. rs6258 is the first reported SHBG polymorphism, which affects testosterone binding to SHBG and the free testosterone fraction and could therefore influence the calculation of free testosterone using law-of-mass-action equation.

  11. Effect of oral testosterone treatment on serum concentrations of sex steroids gonadotrophins and prolactin in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Copenhagen Study Group for Liver Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones in a randomly selected group of alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of oral testosterone treatment on the liver. Before treatment...

  12. Impact of Male Obesity on Semen Quality and Serum Sex Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdoh Eskandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To investigate the association of high Body Mass Index (BMI with semen parameters and reproductive hormones in men of reproductive age. Setting. The Saudi Center for Assisted Reproduction. Method. This study was conducted during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. Subjects were exposed through medical history evaluation as well as physical examination. BMI was calculated. Two semen samples about 1 week apart were taken from each participant by masturbation after 2–5 days of abstinence. The samples were assessed according to the WHO Criteria. Blood samples (5 ml were withdrawn; centrifuged and the resulting sera were preserved at −4 degrees Centigrade. Serum FSH, LH, PRL, and Testosterone levels were estimated by the ELISA method. Results. There was no significant correlation between BMI and any of semen and hormonal parameters. There was significant negative correlation between age and total motility. Only the advanced paternal age has shown significant association with low motility (=0.007. Conclusion. Our study showed a significant effect of aging on sperm motility and concentration.

  13. Seasonal and sex-related variations in serum steroid hormone levels in wild and farmed brown trout Salmo trutta L. in the north-west of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregeneda-Grandes, Juan M; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Fernandez-Coppel, Ignacio A; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Ruíz-Potosme, Norlan; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Aller-Gancedo, J Miguel; Martín-Gil, Francisco J; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2013-12-01

    Serum steroid profiles were investigated in order to evaluate the potential use of circulating sex steroid levels as a tool for sex identification in brown trout. Changes in the serum concentrations of testosterone (T), progesterone (P), 17-β-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) in wild and farmed mature female and male brown trout, Salmo trutta L., were measured in each season (January, May, July, and October) in six rivers and four hatcheries located in the north-west of Spain. Serum cortisol levels in farmed brown trout were significantly higher and showed a seasonal pattern opposite to that found in wild trout. Because levels of the hormones under study can be affected by disruptive factors such as exposure to phytoestrogens (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis) and infection with Saprolegnia parasitica (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), both factors are taken into account.

  14. The comparison of free androgen index and serum free testosterone levels in women with hirsutism or polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Metin Yıldırımkaya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In many laboratories free testosterone can not be measured, so that free androgen index is suggested instead. The aim of this study was to compare free androgen index and serum free testosterone levels measured by radioimmunoassay in women with hirsutism or polycystic ovary syndrome.Materials and methods: Totally 94 women referred to the polyclinics of Ankara Numune Hospital were retrospectively included. Three patient groups were composed; 55 of hirsutism, 20 of polycystic ovary syndrome and 19 of both hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome. Total testosterone and sex hormone binding globuline levels were measured by chemiluminescence method and free testosterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Free androgen index was calculated from total testosterone and sex hormone binding globuline.Results: There was a significant positive correlation between free testosterone and free androgen index in patients with hirsutism, in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, in patients with hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome, and in total patient group [r(hirsutism=0,597, r(PCOS=0,617, r(hirsutism and PCOS=0,779, r(total patient group=0,649, P<0,01].Receiver operating characteristics curves were drawn to assess the diagnostic power of parameters for all patient groups [For hirsutism (n=55 auROC (FT=0,431 auROC (FAI=0,485] [For PCOS (n=20 auROC (FT=0,431 auROC (FAI=0,359] [For hirsutism and PCOS (n=19 auROC (FT=0,676 auROC (FAI=0,669]. In our study, free testosterone and free androgen index were found useful to diagnose ‘hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome’ but not others.Conclusion: Free androgen index can be used instead of free testosterone in hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome for diagnosis. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:152-6

  15. {sup 18F} FDG Uptake of Human Testis on PET/CT: Correlation with Age, Sex Hormones, and Vasectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Eo, Jae Sun; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose metabolism of normal human testis on {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT and to assess possible correlation among age, the serum levels of sex hormones, and vasectomy. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was performed in 66 normal healthy men (50.8{+-}13.6 years, range 22-81), and mean standard uptake values (SUV) of {sup 18F} FDG in testis and adductor muscle were measured. Testis muscle SUV ratios (T/M ratios) were calculated. Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, and of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We searched for correlations between T/M ratios and age and the serum concentrations of sex hormones. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was also performed in 32 vasectomized men (55.7{+-}7.8 years, range 38-71) and 52 nonvasectomized men (55.4{+-}11.6 years, range 37-72). Mean SUVs of testis and adductor muscle were measured, and T/M ratios were calculated. A significant age related decline was found in T/M ratio (r=-0.509, p<0.0001). Serum levels of total testosterone and free testosterone were also found to be positively correlated with T/M ratio (r=-0.427, p=0.0003; r=0.435, p=0.0003, respectively). The mean SUV and T/M ratio of vasectomized men were significantly lower than those of nonvasectomized men (p<0.0378 and p=0.0001, respectively). Glucose metabolism in the testis in an adult population was found to be correlated with age, serum sex hormone level, and vasectomy history. These results indicate that testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake may have attributed to testicular function and testicular histology. Our findings may have important implications for the interpretation of testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake in the normal adult population.

  16. Study on the correlationship between serum levels of sex hormones and Th1/Th2 cytokines in male patients with graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Li; Su Shengou; Zhang Xuekun; Wang Hongfen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of sex hormones on the balance of Th1/Th2 in male patients with GD through investigation of changes of serum levels of sex hormones and cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-4) after treatment. Methods: Serum levels of E 2 , testosterone, FSH, LH (with RIA) and IFN-γ, IL-4 (with ELISA) were determined in 42 male patients with Graves' disease (both before and after 12 weeks of successful antithyroid therapy) and 40 controls. Results: The levels of E 2 , T, LH, FSH in the patients before treatment were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 2 was an independent fator affecting the levels of IL-4, and showed positive correlationship. The level of T was an independent factor affecting the levels of IFN-γ, also showed positive correlationship. The levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ were independent factors to each other, and there was negative correlationship between them. Conclusion: There were changes in levels of sex hormones and imbalance of Th1/Th2 in male patients with Graves' disease. The sex hormones might have some effect on Th1/Th2 balance in male patients with GD. (authors)

  17. Circulating sex hormones in relation to anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors in an international dataset of 12,300 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Eleanor L; Appleby, Paul N; Albanes, Demetrius; Black, Amanda; Chan, June M; Chen, Chu; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A; Cook, Michael B; Donovan, Jenny L; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garland, Cedric F; Giles, Graham G; Goodman, Phyllis J; Habel, Laurel A; Haiman, Christopher A; Holly, Jeff M P; Hoover, Robert N; Kaaks, Rudolf; Knekt, Paul; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Le Marchand, Loïc; Luostarinen, Tapio; MacInnis, Robert J; Mäenpää, Hanna O; Männistö, Satu; Metter, E Jeffrey; Milne, Roger L; Nomura, Abraham M Y; Oliver, Steven E; Parsons, J Kellogg; Peeters, Petra H; Platz, Elizabeth A; Riboli, Elio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Rinaldi, Sabina; Rissanen, Harri; Sawada, Norie; Schaefer, Catherine A; Schenk, Jeannette M; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Stampfer, Meir; Stattin, Pär; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Thompson, Ian M; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Vatten, Lars; Whittemore, Alice S; Ziegler, Regina G; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C

    2017-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in the etiology of a number of diseases. To better understand disease etiology and the mechanisms of disease-risk factor associations, this analysis aimed to investigate the associations of anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors with a range of circulating sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin. Statistical analyses of individual participant data from 12,330 male controls aged 25-85 years from 25 studies involved in the Endogenous Hormones Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group. Analysis of variance was used to estimate geometric means adjusted for study and relevant covariates. Older age was associated with higher concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin and dihydrotestosterone and lower concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide and free estradiol. Higher body mass index was associated with higher concentrations of free estradiol, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol and estrone and lower concentrations of dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, free testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Taller height was associated with lower concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin and higher concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide. Current smoking was associated with higher concentrations of androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione and androstanediol glucuronide. East Asians had lower concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide and African Americans had higher concentrations of estrogens. Education and marital status were modestly associated with a small number of hormones. Circulating sex hormones in men are strongly associated with age and body mass index, and to a

  18. Circulating sex hormones in relation to anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors in an international dataset of 12,300 men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor L Watts

    Full Text Available Sex hormones have been implicated in the etiology of a number of diseases. To better understand disease etiology and the mechanisms of disease-risk factor associations, this analysis aimed to investigate the associations of anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors with a range of circulating sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin.Statistical analyses of individual participant data from 12,330 male controls aged 25-85 years from 25 studies involved in the Endogenous Hormones Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group. Analysis of variance was used to estimate geometric means adjusted for study and relevant covariates.Older age was associated with higher concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin and dihydrotestosterone and lower concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide and free estradiol. Higher body mass index was associated with higher concentrations of free estradiol, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol and estrone and lower concentrations of dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, free testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Taller height was associated with lower concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin and higher concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide. Current smoking was associated with higher concentrations of androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione and androstanediol glucuronide. East Asians had lower concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide and African Americans had higher concentrations of estrogens. Education and marital status were modestly associated with a small number of hormones.Circulating sex hormones in men are strongly associated with age and body mass

  19. Effects of a high-fiber, low-fat diet intervention on serum concentrations of reproductive steroid hormones in women with a history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Stefanick, Marcia L; Newman, Vicky A; Jones, Lovell A; Natarajan, Loki; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Hollenbach, Kathryn A; Pierce, John P; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2004-06-15

    Diet intervention trials are testing whether postdiagnosis dietary modification can influence breast cancer recurrence and survival. One possible mechanism is an effect on reproductive steroid hormones. Serum reproductive steroid hormones were measured at enrollment and 1 year in 291 women with a history of breast cancer who were enrolled onto a randomized, controlled diet intervention trial. Dietary goals for the intervention group were increased fiber, vegetable, and fruit intakes and reduced fat intake. Estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured. The intervention (but not the comparison) group reported a significantly lower intake of energy from fat (21% v 28%), and higher intake of fiber (29 g/d v 22 g/d), at 1-year follow-up (P <.001). Significant weight loss did not occur in either group. A significant difference in the change in bioavailable estradiol concentration from baseline to 1 year in the intervention (-13 pmol/L) versus the comparison (+3 pmol/L) group was observed (P <.05). Change in fiber (but not fat) intake was significantly and independently related to change in serum bioavailable estradiol (P <.01) and total estradiol (P <.05) concentrations. Results from this study indicate that a high-fiber, low-fat diet intervention is associated with reduced serum bioavailable estradiol concentration in women diagnosed with breast cancer, the majority of whom did not exhibit weight loss. Increased fiber intake was independently related to the reduction in serum estradiol concentration.

  20. Effect of Modified and accumulated decoction on serum ER, PR, sex hormone, IGF-I and IGF-I in patients with uterine fibroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Sha Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of Modified and accumulated Decoction on serum ER, PR, sex hormone, IGF-I and IGF-I in patients with uterine fibroids. Method: A total of 90 patients with uterine fibroids in our hospital from January 2015 to January 2017 were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into the control group (n=45 and the treatment group (n=45 randomly. The control group was treated with mifepristone, the treatment group was treated with Modified and accumulated Decoction combined with mifepristone, and both the two groups were treated for 3 months. The uterine fibroid volume and uterine volume of the two groups before and after treatment were compared. The serum ER, PR, P, E 2 , LH, FSH, IGF-I and IGF-IR of the two groups before and after treatment were compared. Result: There were no significantly differences of the uterine fibroid volume and uterine volume of the two groups before treatment. The uterine fibroid volume and uterine volume of the two groups after treatment were significantly less than before treatment, and that of the treatment group after treatment were significantly less than the control group. There were no significantly differences among the serum ER, PR, P, E 2 , LH, FSH, IGF-I and IGF-IR of the two groups before treatment. The serum ER, PR, P, E 2 , LH, FSH, IGF-I and IGF-IR of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than before treatment, and that of the treatment group after treatment were significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: Modified and accumulated Decoction combined with mifepristonecan significantly reduce the uterine fibroid volume, improve the serum ER, PR, sex hormone, IGF-I and IGF-I levels of the patients with uterine fibroids, and it was worthy clinical application.

  1. The chronic blockade of angiotensin I-converting enzyme eliminates the sex differences of serum cytokine levels of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalpiaz, P.L.M.; Lamas, A.Z.; Caliman, I.F. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Medeiros, A.R.S. [Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Instituto Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Abreu, G.R.; Moysés, M.R. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Andrade, T.U. [Departamento de Farmácia, Centro Universitário de Vila Velha, Vila Velha, ES (Brazil); Alves, M.F.; Carmona, A.K. [Departamento de Biofísica, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bissoli, N.S. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2013-02-01

    Sex hormones modulate the action of both cytokines and the renin-angiotensin system. However, the effects of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) on the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are unclear. We determined the relationship between ACE activity, cytokine levels and sex differences in SHR. Female (F) and male (M) SHR were divided into 4 experimental groups each (n = 7): sham + vehicle (SV), sham + enalapril (10 mg/kg body weight by gavage), castrated + vehicle, and castrated + enalapril. Treatment began 21 days after castration and continued for 30 days. Serum cytokine levels (ELISA) and ACE activity (fluorimetry) were measured. Male rats exhibited a higher serum ACE activity than female rats. Castration reduced serum ACE in males but did not affect it in females. Enalapril reduced serum ACE in all groups. IL-10 (FSV = 16.4 ± 1.1 pg/mL; MSV = 12.8 ± 1.2 pg/mL), TNF-α (FSV = 16.6 ± 1.2 pg/mL; MSV = 12.8 ± 1 pg/mL) and IL-6 (FSV = 10.3 ± 0.2 pg/mL; MSV = 7.2 ± 0.2 pg/mL) levels were higher in females than in males. Ovariectomy reduced all cytokine levels and orchiectomy reduced IL-6 but increased IL-10 concentrations in males. Castration eliminated the differences in all inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-6 and TNF-α) between males and females. Enalapril increased IL-10 in all groups and reduced IL-6 in SV rats. In conclusion, serum ACE inhibition by enalapril eliminated the sexual dimorphisms of cytokine levels in SV animals, which suggests that enalapril exerts systemic anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive effects.

  2. Sex differences in the effect of acute peripheral IL-1β administration on the brain and serum BDNF and VEGF expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchowicz, Ewa; Nowacka, Marta; Paul-Samojedny, Monika; Bielecka-Wajdman, Anna M; Małecki, Andrzej

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate, for the first time, the potential sex differences in BDNF and VEGF systems under normal conditions and in response to IL-1β given ip. Peripheral overproduction of this cytokine mediates the pathophysiology of various acute neuroinflammatory states. Until now, the effect of IL-1β on VEGF expression in rat brain structures and its serum level has not been examined. In male and female rats, the BDNF and VEGF mRNA expression, and BDNF level were evaluated in the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The VEGF levels were determined in the pituitary. Serum BDNF and VEGF levels were also measured. The pituitary BDNF mRNA, and BDNF and VEGF levels were higher in females than in male rats whereas in males, the BDNF levels were higher in the other brain structures. The serum BDNF concentration was similar in both groups but VEGF levels were enhanced in females. Following IL-1β (50μg/kg ip.) administration, a higher serum IL-1β level was detected in females than in males. In male rats, IL-1β decreased BDNF mRNA in all the brain structures, except for the pituitary, and VEGF mRNA in the amygdala. In opposite, IL-1β challenge in females increased the pituitary VEGF mRNA and serum BDNF and VEGF levels. These results suggest that in females BDNF and VEGF may play a more important role in the pituitary function. In males, amygdala trophic system seems to be especially sensitive to the enhanced peripheral IL-1β production. Our findings point to the need to consider sex-related differences to be able to draw reliable conclusions about changes in BDNF and VEGF levels during inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Markers of Oxidative Stress in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease are Influenced by Sex, Neuter Status, and Serum Cholesterol Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, M J; Häggström, J; Møller, J E

    2017-01-01

    -tocopherol [P = .003]) was associated with body condition score (BCS), but the association disappeared when cholesterol was included in the analyses. All markers of oxidative stress (MDA, oxLDL, and vitamin E) were positively associated with serum cholesterol concentration (P ≤ .04), but none were associated...... with clinical stage of MMVD. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, markers of oxidative stress are associated with sex, BCS, neuter status, and cholesterol. The results cannot confirm a relationship between oxidative stress and clinical stage of the disease in dogs with MMVD....

  4. The relationship between pubertal gynecomastia, prostate specific antigen, free androgen index, SHBG and sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Mustafa; Kanbur, Nuray; Derman, Orhan; Akgül, Sinem; Kutluk, Tezer

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationships between pubertal gynecomastia, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free androgen index (FAI), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and sex steroids. A total of 61 male adolescents (10-17 years old; mean: 13.67 +/- 1.08) with gynecomastia were enrolled into the study group. A total of 65 healthy age-matched adolescents were included in the control group. Body mass index (BMI), Tanner staging, testis volume, stretched penis length (SPL) and bone age were evaluated. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), testosterone, free testosterone, SHBG, PSA levels were determined and FAI was calculated. In the study group, free testosterone (p = 0.012) and FAI (p = 0.05) were significantly lower than the control group. In the control group, SHBG levels decreased (p 0.05). High FAI was found to decrease the risk of gynecomastia (odds ratio: 0.211, 95% confidence interval: 0.064-0.694, p = 0.01). PSA showed a positive correlation with FAI, free testosterone, Tanner staging, testosterone, E2 and LH levels. PSA is a good indicator of androgen activity during puberty. However, owing to FAI remaining as the single significant variable for pubertal gynecomastia, we suggest that it is still the best parameter to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of gynecomastia as well as other pubertal developmental abnormalities in male adolescents, and further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the relationships between PSA and FAI in puberty.

  5. The Potential Biochemical Diagnosis Criteria and Therapeutic Effect Indexes: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Levels and Free Androgen Index in Blood of Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-02

    The Investigators Collected 534 PCOS Patients as the Case Group,and 580 Infertile Women With Normal Ovulatory Cycle of the Control Group;; At the Same Time, the Investigators Continuedly Collect Cases to October 2012, and Totally Collected 579 Patients With PCOS Altogether;; 534 Patients in the Cases Group and 580 Women in the Control Group Received no Measures, While 579 Patients Received Drugs;; The Investigators Monitored Basic Indexes in Blood of All the Subjects in This Suvey,and Also Monitored Indexes of 579 Patients After Treatment.

  6. Interaction of xenobiotics with estrogen receptors α and β and a putative plasma sex hormone-binding globulin from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, William L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Maule, Alec G.

    2004-01-01

    Estrogens are important regulators of physiological functions. Although environmental contaminants (xenoestrogens) which interfere with estrogen signaling are of increasing concern, there is only limited information about their ability to interact with estrogen-binding proteins (SHBG) or receptors (ER). Recombinant ER?? and ?? were obtained after transient transfection of COS-7 cells with channel catfish ER cDNA. Plasma from adult female channel catfish was the source of SHBG. Tritiated estradiol ( 3H-E2) was used in standard radioligand-binding assays to characterize the binding properties of channel catfish SHBG (ccfSHBG) and to estimate the inhibition constants for various estrogenic compounds. Binding of 3H-E2 to ccfSHBG was saturable and of high affinity with a Kd (??SE) of 1.9??0.14nM and a Bmax of 14.3??2.4pmol/mg protein (n=3 assays). Additionally, ccfSHBG displayed binding specificity for androgens and estrogens. Endosulfan, 4-nonylphenol, and 4-octylphenol displaced 3H-E2 binding to ccfSHBG albeit only at very high concentrations, whereas dieldrin and atrazine showed little displacement activity even at the highest concentrations used. The synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol had higher affinity than E2 for ccfSHBG. This finding differs from results with human and rainbow trout SHBG. The alkylphenolic compounds (4-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol) displayed some ability to displace 3H-E2 binding from ER?? and ?? at high concentrations, but dieldrin and atrazine had little binding activity for both ER subtypes and endosulfan for ER??. The xenobiotics tested generally showed equivalent or greater affinity for ER?? than ER??, whereas natural estrogens had much greater affinity for ER?? than ER??. These observations suggest that results of studies using fish tissue ER extracts must be interpreted with caution, since both ER subtypes may be present, and that the binding of xenoestrogens to SHBG must be taken into account for proper assessment of endocrine disruption caused by environmental contaminants.

  7. A simple method for measuring sex-hormone binding protein (SHBP) - typical values in men and women and in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafurt, C.A.; Estrada, R. de

    1978-01-01

    Assuming that the binding forces between steroid hormones and their binding proteins are similar to those between antigens and their antibodies, the authors describe how to determine SHBP activity by a dilution method analogous to that used for titration of antisera in radioimmunoassay. The method consists of the following stages: (1) plasma dilution; (2) incubation of the dilution with 20,000dis/min of 1,2- 3 H-testosterone; (3) separation of the fraction of tracer bound to the SHBP by precipitation with ammonium sulphate; (4) centrifugation and measurement of the supernatant; and (5) plotting of the results on a graph where the axis of ordinates represents the quotient given by bound steroid over free steroid (U/L) and the abscissa represents the plasma dilutions. The values are expressed as the 50% bound titre. An advantage of the method is the higher sensitivity of the dilution curves in the steepest part where the 50% bound is encountered; it is thus not necessary to use the saturation part of the curves where sensitivity is lost owing to the steeper slope. A further advantage of the method is that there is no need for costly processes such as dialysis. The SHBP values obtained for healthy subjects were as follows: 1/5 for men, 1/93 for women, and 1/360 in pregnant women. These physiological values showed no overlapping. (author)

  8. Sex-specific association of rs16996148 SNP in the NCAN/CILP2/PBX4 and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ting-Ting

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of rs16996148 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in NCAN/CILP2/PBX4 and serum lipid levels is inconsistent. Furthermore, little is known about the association of rs16996148 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Chinese population. We therefore aimed to detect the association of rs16996148 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. Method A total of 712 subjects of Mulao nationality and 736 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the rs16996148 SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of apolipoprotein (Apo B were higher in Mulao than in Han (P P 0.05; respectively. The frequencies of GG, GT and TT genotypes were 76.0%, 22.5% and 1.5% in Mulao, and 81.2%, 17.4% and 1.4% in Han (P 0.05; respectively. There were no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between males and females in both ethnic groups. The levels of HDL-C, ApoAI, and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Mulao were different between the GG and GT/TT genotypes in males but not in females (P P P P P Conclusions The genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs16996148 SNP and the associations of the SNP and serum lipid levels are different in the Mulao and Han populations. Sex (male-specific association of rs16996148 SNP in the NCAN/CILP2/PBX4 and serum lipid levels is also observed in the both ethnic groups.

  9. Dynamically observing the value of the changes of serum sex hormone levels of early pregnancy after drug-induced abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Honggang; Dong Hua; Gu Yan; Zhang Zuncheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the value of the changes of serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG), estradiol (E), progesterone (P) Levels of early pregnancy after drug-induced abortion dynamically. Methods: Assessing 55 women proved pregnant by urine or blood HCG retrospecticly, who had terminated their pregnancy by mifepristonr and misoprostol. Meanwhile the serum levels of β-HCG, E, P were monitored dynamically. Results: Among the 55 patients, the levels of β-HCG, E and P had significant decreased (t β-HCG =4.845, t E =7.655, t P =11.390, P E =9.089, P P =2.910, P<0.05). Conclusion: Detectint the serum hormone's levels after drug-induced abortion by chemiluminescent immunoassay, we can assess indirectly the value of administration of mifepristone and misoprostol, predict the prolonged vaginal bleeding after drug-induced abortion, and the outcome of the treatment, which determine wether need another curestage. (authors)

  10. Serum androgen and gonadotropin levels decline after progestogen-induced withdrawal bleeding in oligomenorrheic women with or without polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, L; Koskinen, P; Kaihola, H L; Erkkola, R; Irjala, K; Ruutiainen, K

    1992-10-01

    To examine the effect of short-term progestogen treatment on androgen, gonadotropin, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in oligomenorrheic women. Comparative study of changes in hormonal parameters in patients with or without ultrasonographically diagnosed polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). Open patient clinic of reproductive endocrinology at University Central Hospital of Turku, Finland. Seventy-five oligomenorrheic women with (n = 51) or without (n = 24) PCOD. Serum concentrations of testosterone (T), androstenedione (A), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and SHBG. The levels of T, A, LH, and the LH:FSH ratios decreased significantly after oral treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate (10 mg/d for 10 days) in non-PCOD women and in women with PCOD decreasing the frequencies of pathological laboratory findings, in particular elevated levels of LH:FSH ratio and A in PCOD women and of LH:FSH ratio in non-PCOD women. The levels of T, A, and LH as well as the LH:FSH ratio were significantly higher in women with PCOD. Obesity was associated with high free androgen indices, low LH:FSH ratios, and low concentrations of LH, A, and SHBG. The serum samples for hormonal analyses used as an aid in diagnosing PCOD should be obtained without pretreatment with progestogen because it masks the biochemical findings of PCOD.

  11. Associations of lead and cadmium with sex hormones in adult males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, Jacob K., E-mail: jkreso2@uic.edu; Argos, Maria; Turyk, Mary E.

    2015-10-15

    Heavy metal exposures are ubiquitous in the environment and their relation to sex hormones is not well understood. This paper investigates the associations between selected heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and sex hormones (testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, free estradiol) as well as other major molecules in the steroid biosynthesis pathway (androstanedione glucuronide and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)). Blood lead and cadmium were selected as biomarkers of exposure, and tested for associations in males using National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999–2004. After adjustment for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes and alcohol intake, blood lead was positively associated with testosterone and SHBG while blood cadmium was positively associated with SHBG. After controlling for additional heavy metal exposure, the associations between lead and testosterone as well as cadmium and SHBG remained significant. Furthermore, the association between blood lead and testosterone was modified by smoking status (P for interaction=0.011), diabetes (P for interaction=0.021) and blood cadmium (P for interaction=0.029). The association between blood cadmium and SHBG levels was modified by blood lead (P for interaction=0.004). This study is the most comprehensive investigation to date regarding the association between heavy metals and sex hormones in males. - Highlights: • We used a nationally representative dataset (NHANES) and employed sample weighting. • We examined associations between lead and cadmium with sex-hormone levels. • Blood lead level was positively associated with serum testosterone and SHBG levels. • Blood cadmium level was positively associated with SHBG levels, modified by lead. • Diabetes, smoking and cadmium modified lead and testosterone association.

  12. Associations of lead and cadmium with sex hormones in adult males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresovich, Jacob K.; Argos, Maria; Turyk, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal exposures are ubiquitous in the environment and their relation to sex hormones is not well understood. This paper investigates the associations between selected heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and sex hormones (testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, free estradiol) as well as other major molecules in the steroid biosynthesis pathway (androstanedione glucuronide and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)). Blood lead and cadmium were selected as biomarkers of exposure, and tested for associations in males using National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999–2004. After adjustment for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes and alcohol intake, blood lead was positively associated with testosterone and SHBG while blood cadmium was positively associated with SHBG. After controlling for additional heavy metal exposure, the associations between lead and testosterone as well as cadmium and SHBG remained significant. Furthermore, the association between blood lead and testosterone was modified by smoking status (P for interaction=0.011), diabetes (P for interaction=0.021) and blood cadmium (P for interaction=0.029). The association between blood cadmium and SHBG levels was modified by blood lead (P for interaction=0.004). This study is the most comprehensive investigation to date regarding the association between heavy metals and sex hormones in males. - Highlights: • We used a nationally representative dataset (NHANES) and employed sample weighting. • We examined associations between lead and cadmium with sex-hormone levels. • Blood lead level was positively associated with serum testosterone and SHBG levels. • Blood cadmium level was positively associated with SHBG levels, modified by lead. • Diabetes, smoking and cadmium modified lead and testosterone association.

  13. Effects of long term feeding of Quillaja saponins on sex ratio, muscle and serum cholesterol and LH levels in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (L)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, George; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Avitan, Ayelet; Becker, Klaus

    2002-12-01

    Seventeen-day-old Nile tilapia fry were fed a standard diet (C) or diets containing 50-700 mg kg(-1) Quillaja saponin (QS) extract (groups S50, S150, S300, S500 and S700). After the first 8 weeks, 30 randomly selected tilapia from each of the treatments were placed in separate aquaria and fed the standard diet without saponins from then on (these were designated S50/C, S150/C, S300/C, S500/C and S700/C). The fish grew from an initial average weight of approximately 30 mg to a final average weight of 79 g during the 6-month feeding period. The difference between the average weight of C-fed tilapia and the treatment with the highest average weight after 6 months was 53.5%. The sex ratio of tilapia in the saponin-fed groups deviated from the normal 50:50 male:female ratio, with the S700 group showing a significantly higher number of males. Quillaja saponin stimulated LH release from dispersed tilapia pituitary cells in vitro. This effect was abolished in the presence of dilute calf serum. Serum LH values did not show any diet-dependent trend in either male or female tilapia in vivo. In both continuously saponin-fed and only-initially saponin-fed groups, the average serum (but not muscle) cholesterol levels in males showed an increasing trend (R(2) values of 0.62 and 0.69) with increasing dietary saponin level. It was concluded that dietary QS has the potential to change the sex-ratio in favour of males. More investigations are required to determine the mechanism of action and the optimum dietary level of QS for maximum effects.

  14. Circulating and intraprostatic sex steroid hormonal profiles in relation to male pattern baldness and chest hair density among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Hafi, Muhannad; Veneroso, Carmela C; Lynch, Barlow; Falk, Roni T; Niwa, Shelley; Emanuel, Eric; Gao, Yu-Tang; Hemstreet, George P; Zolfghari, Ladan; Carroll, Peter R; Manyak, Michael J; Sesterhenn, Isabell A; Levine, Paul H; Hsing, Ann W; Cook, Michael B

    2017-12-01

    Prospective cohort studies of circulating sex steroid hormones and prostate cancer risk have not provided a consistent association, despite evidence from animal and clinical studies. However, studies using male pattern baldness as a proxy of early-life or cumulative androgen exposure have reported significant associations with aggressive and fatal prostate cancer risk. Given that androgens underlie the development of patterned hair loss and chest hair, we assessed whether these two dermatological characteristics were associated with circulating and intraprostatic concentrations of sex steroid hormones among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. We included 248 prostate cancer patients from the NCI Prostate Tissue Study, who answered surveys and provided a pre-treatment blood sample as well as fresh frozen adjacent normal prostate tissue. Male pattern baldness and chest hair density were assessed by trained nurses before surgery. General linear models estimated geometric means and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) of each hormone variable by dermatological phenotype with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were performed by Gleason score (balding status with serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and a weak association with elevated intraprostatic testosterone. Conversely, neither circulating nor intraprostatic sex hormones were statistically significantly associated with chest hair density. Age-adjusted correlation between binary balding status and three-level chest hair density was weak (r = 0.05). There was little evidence to suggest that Gleason score or race modified these associations. This study provides evidence that balding status assessed at a mean age of 60 years may serve as a clinical marker for circulating sex hormone concentrations. The weak-to-null associations between balding status and intraprostatic sex hormones reaffirm differences in organ

  15. Postnatal penile length and growth rate correlate to serum testosterone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Boisen, Kirsten A; Virtanen, Helena E

    2006-01-01

    in Denmark and at 0, 3 and 18 months in Finland with blood samples taken at 3 months (n = 630). Penile length and growth were registered and reproductive hormones (testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, oestradiol) were analysed. RESULTS: Penile length increased from birth (3.49+/-0.4 cm) to 3 years...... and growth. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal population-based study taking place at two large primary obstetric centres at the University Hospitals of Copenhagen, Denmark, and Turku, Finland. METHODS: Infant boys, 728 Danish and 1234 Finnish, underwent clinical examinations at 0, 3, 18 and 36 months...... of age (4.53+/-0.51 cm) with the highest growth velocity from birth to 3 months (1.0 mm/month). Penile length and growth were significantly, positively correlated to serum testosterone (r = 0.31 and 0.076, P = 0.006 and 0.001 respectively) and to free testosterone index (r = 0.385 and 0.094, P = 0...

  16. Effect of methomyl on sex steroid hormone and vitellogenin levels in serum of male tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and recovery pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shun-Long; Qiu, Li-Ping; Hu, Geng-Dong; Fan, Li-Min; Song, Chao; Zheng, Yao; Wu, Wei; Qu, Jian-Hong; Li, Dan-Dan; Chen, Jia-Zhang; Xu, Pao

    2017-07-01

    Tilapia were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of 0, 0.2, 2, 20 or 200 μg/L for 30 days, then transferred to methomyl-free water for 18 days. E 2 , T, 11-KTand VTG in serum were examined. There were no significant changes in all the parameters in serum of tilapia exposed to 0.2 μg/L and 2 μg/L methomyl compared to the control. However, 20 μg/L and 200 μg/L have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system of male tilapia, as shown by its ability to increase VTG and E 2 and decrease T and 11-KT in serum. Thus it would appear the no observed adverse effect level for sexual steroid hormones of methomyl is lower than 2 μg/L. Recovery data showed that the effects produced by 20μg/L were reversible but not at 200μg/L. Furthermore, the sensitivity of above parameters to methomyl followed the order of VTG>E 2 >11-KT>T>GSI, suggesting VTG being the better biomarkers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sex steroids, insulin sensitivity and sympathetic nerve activity in relation to affective symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedel, Elizabeth; Gustafson, Deborah; Waern, Margda; Sverrisdottir, Yrsa Bergmann; Landén, Mikael; Janson, Per Olof; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2011-11-01

    Affective symptoms are poorly understood in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Clinical signs of hyperandrogenism and high serum androgens are key features in PCOS, and women with PCOS are more likely to be overweight or obese, as well as insulin resistant. Further, PCOS is associated with high sympathetic nerve activity. To elucidate if self-reported hirsutism, body mass index (BMI) and waistline, circulating sex steroids, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), insulin sensitivity and sympathetic nerve activity are associated with depression and anxiety-related symptoms in women with PCOS. Seventy-two women with PCOS, aged 21-37 years, were recruited from the community. Hirsutism was self-reported using the Ferriman-Gallway score. Serum estrogens, sex steroid precursors, androgens and glucuronidated androgen metabolites were analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC-MS/LC-MS/MS) and SHBG by chemiluminiscent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). Insulin sensitivity was measured with euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Sympathetic nerve activity was measured with microneurography. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were self-reported using the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S) and the Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA-S). Circulating concentrations of testosterone (T) (P=0.026), free T (FT) (P=0.025), and androstane-3α 17β-diol-3glucuronide (3G) (P=0.029) were lower in women with depression symptoms of potential clinical relevance (MADR-S≥11). The odds of having a MADRS-S score ≥11 were higher with lower FT and 3G. No associations with BSA-S were noted. Lower circulating FT and 3G were associated with worse self-reported depression symptoms. The relationship between mental health, sex steroids and corresponding metabolites in PCOS requires further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effect of Transcutaneuos Acupoint Electrostimulation on Serum Sex Hormone Levels and Expression of Ovarian Steroid Hormone Metabolic Enzymes in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-yong; Zhang, Xiao-yue; Yu, Mei-ling; Lu, Sheng-feng; Chen, Xia

    2016-02-01

    To observe the effect of transcutaneuos acupoint electrostimulation(TAES) on ovarian serum sex hormone levels and ovarian follicle granular cell aromatase cytochrome P 450 (P 450 arom) protein and follicle theca cell cytochrome P 450 17 α-hydroxylase/c 17-20 lyase cytochrome P 450 (P 450 c 17 α) protein expression in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improvement of PCOS. METHODS Forty SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, model, medication and TAES (10 rats/group). The PCOS model was established by giving (gavage) the animals with letrozole solution (1.0 mg/kg, once daily for 21 consecutive days). Rats of the medication group were treated with Clomiphene (1 mg/kg) once daily for 7 days, and those of the TAES group were treated with electrical stimulation (2 Hz, 3 mA) of "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) areas for 30 min, once daily for 7 consecutive days. The rats body weight and bilateral ovarian weight were detected, and the ovarian structure and follicular development degree were observed under light microscope after H. E. stain, and the serum testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), luteotrophic hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) contents were detected using radioimmunoassay. The expression of ovarian P 450 arom (for production of estrogen)protein and P 450 c 17 α (for production of androgen) protein was detected by using immunohistochemical stain and Western blot, respectively. The body weight, bilateral ovary weight, serum T and LH contents, and ratio of LH/FSH, and ovarian P 450 c 17 α immunoactivity and protein expression levels in the model group were all significantly increased compared with the normal control group (P ovarian P 450 arom immunoactivity and protein expression were significantly decreased after modeling (P ovarian P 450 c 17 α immunoactivity and protein expression levels, and the decreased ovarian P 450 arom immunoactivity and protein expression

  19. α-Helical element at the hormone-binding surface of the insulin receptor functions as a signaling element to activate its tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jonathan; Whittaker, Linda J; Roberts, Charles T; Phillips, Nelson B; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Lawrence, Michael C; Weiss, Michael A

    2012-07-10

    The primary hormone-binding surface of the insulin receptor spans one face of the N-terminal β-helix of the α-subunit (the L1 domain) and an α-helix in its C-terminal segment (αCT). Crystallographic analysis of the free ectodomain has defined a contiguous dimer-related motif in which the αCT α-helix packs against L1 β-strands 2 and 3. To relate structure to function, we exploited expanded genetic-code technology to insert photo-activatable probes at key sites in L1 and αCT. The pattern of αCT-mediated photo-cross-linking within the free and bound receptor is in accord with the crystal structure and prior mutagenesis. Surprisingly, L1 photo-probes in β-strands 2 and 3, predicted to be shielded by αCT, efficiently cross-link to insulin. Furthermore, anomalous mutations were identified on neighboring surfaces of αCT and insulin that impair hormone-dependent activation of the intracellular receptor tyrosine kinase (contained within the transmembrane β-subunit) disproportionately to their effects on insulin binding. Taken together, these results suggest that αCT, in addition to its hormone-recognition role, provides a signaling element in the mechanism of receptor activation.

  20. Mutations in the estrogen receptor alpha hormone binding domain promote stem cell phenotype through notch activation in breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelsomino, L; Panza, S; Giordano, C; Barone, I; Gu, G; Spina, E; Catalano, S; Fuqua, S; Andò, S

    2018-04-24

    The detection of recurrent mutations affecting the hormone binding domain (HBD) of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα/ESR1) in endocrine therapy-resistant and metastatic breast cancers has prompted interest in functional characterization of these genetic alterations. Here, we explored the role of HBD-ESR1 mutations in influencing the behavior of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), using various BC cell lines stably expressing wild-type or mutant (Y537 N, Y537S, D538G) ERα. Compared to WT-ERα clones, mutant cells showed increased CD44 + /CD24 - ratio, mRNA levels of stemness genes, Mammosphere Forming Efficiency (MFE), Self-Renewal and migratory capabilities. Mutant clones exhibited high expression of NOTCH receptors/ligands/target genes and blockade of NOTCH signaling reduced MFE and migratory potential. Mutant BCSC activity was dependent on ERα phosphorylation at serine 118, since its inhibition decreased MFE and NOTCH4 activation only in mutant cells. Collectively, we demonstrate that the expression of HBD-ESR1 mutations may drive BC cells to acquire stem cell traits through ER/NOTCH4 interplay. We propose the early detection of HBD-ESR1 mutations as a challenge in precision medicine strategy, suggesting the development of tailored-approaches (i.e. NOTCH inhibitors) to prevent disease development and metastatic spread in BC mutant-positive patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Design of the sex hormones and physical exercise (SHAPE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeters Petra HM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has been associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer. The biological mechanismn(s underlying the association between physical activity and breast cancer is not clear. Most prominent hypothesis is that physical activity may protect against breast cancer through reduced lifetime exposure to endogenous hormones either direct, or indirect by preventing overweight and abdominal adiposity. In order to get more insight in the causal pathway between physical activity and breast cancer risk, we designed the Sex Hormones and Physical Exercise (SHAPE study. Purpose of SHAPE study is to examine the effects of a 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise programme on endogenous hormone levels associated with breast cancer among sedentary postmenopausal women and whether the amount of total body fat or abdominal fat mediates the effects. Methods/Design In the SHAPE study, 189 sedentary postmenopausal women, aged 50–69 years, are randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The intervention consists of an 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic and strenght training exercise programme. Partcipants allocated to the control group are requested to retain their habitual exercise pattern. Primary study parameters measured at baseline, at four months and at 12 months are: serum concentrations of endogenous estrogens, endogenous androgens, sex hormone binding globuline and insuline. Other study parameters include: amount of total and abdominal fat, weight, BMI, body fat distribution, physical fitness, blood pressure and lifestyle factors. Discussion This study will contribute to the body of evidence relating physical activity and breast cancer risk and will provide insight into possible mechanisms through which physical activity might be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Trial registration NCT00359060

  2. Adipose tissue has aberrant morphology and function in PCOS: enlarged adipocytes and low serum adiponectin, but not circulating sex steroids, are strongly associated with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannerås-Holm, Louise; Leonhardt, Henrik; Kullberg, Joel; Jennische, Eva; Odén, Anders; Holm, Göran; Hellström, Mikael; Lönn, Lars; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Lönn, Malin

    2011-02-01

    Comprehensive characterization of the adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), over a wide range of body mass indices (BMIs), is lacking. Mechanisms behind insulin resistance in PCOS are unclear. To characterize the adipose tissue of women with PCOS and controls matched pair-wise for age and BMI, and to identify factors, among adipose tissue characteristics and serum sex steroids, that are associated with insulin sensitivity in PCOS. Seventy-four PCOS women and 31 controls were included. BMI was 18-47 (PCOS) and 19-41 kg/m(2) (controls). Anthropometric variables, volumes of subcutaneous/visceral adipose tissue (magnetic resonance imaging; MRI), and insulin sensitivity (clamp) were investigated. Adipose tissue biopsies were obtained to determine adipocyte size, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, and macrophage density. Circulating testosterone, free testosterone, free 17β-estradiol, SHBG, glycerol, adiponectin, and serum amyloid A were measured/calculated. Comparison of 31 pairs revealed lower insulin sensitivity, hyperandrogenemia, and higher free 17β-estradiol in PCOS. Abdominal adipose tissue volumes/distribution did not differ in the groups, but PCOS women had higher waist-to-hip ratio, enlarged adipocytes, reduced adiponectin, and lower LPL activity. In regression analysis, adipocyte size, adiponectin, and waist circumference were the factors most strongly associated with insulin sensitivity in PCOS (R(2)=0.681, P < 0.001). In PCOS, adipose tissue has aberrant morphology/function. Increased waist-to-hip ratio indicates abdominal/visceral fat accumulation, but this is not supported by MRI. Enlarged adipocytes and reduced serum adiponectin, together with a large waistline, rather than androgen excess, may be central factors in the pathogenesis/maintenance of insulin resistance in PCOS.

  3. Elevated Serum Bisphenol A Level in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinmei Xiong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available background: This study aimed to determine serum Bisphenol A (BPA concentrations in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM as well as the association between serum BPA and several hormonal parameters in DCM patients compared with a healthy control group. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight DCM patients and 88 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Serum BPA levels and several hormonal parameters (including total testosterone (T, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and estradiol (E2 were measured by using corresponding ELISA Kits. The free androgen index (FAI was calculated by the formula: total T in nmol/L × 100/SHBG in nmol/L. Results: BPA levels in the total DCM group were significantly higher compared with that in the controls (6.9 ± 2.7 ng/mL vs. 3.8 ± 1.9 ng/mL, p < 0.001. Significant difference was also observed in SHBG and FAI between DCM patients and controls, (76.9 ± 30.9 nM/L vs. 41.0 ± 15.6 nM/L and 2.9 ± 3.5 vs.5.3 ± 2.6, respectively, both of p < 0.001. Similar trends were observed in the male and female subgroup. Mean T level was lower in DCM group than in control group (540.8 ± 186.0 pg/mL vs. 656.3 ± 112.9 pg/mL, p < 0.001. Linear regression analysis has shown that increasing serum BPA levels were statistically significantly associated with increased SHBG levels. However, no statistical difference was noted for E2. Conclusion: Our findings firstly demonstrated that BPA exposure increased in DCM patients compared with that in healthy controls, while FAI and T levels decreased. SHBG presented a positive association with BPA. It is concluded that hormone disorder induced by BPA exposure might be an environmental factor in the pathology of DCM.

  4. Effects of monochromatic light sources on sex hormone levels in serum and on semen quality of ganders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shen-Chang; Zhuang, Zi-Xuan; Lin, Min-Jung; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Lin, Tsung-Yi; Jea, Yu-Shine; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Light is an essential external factor influencing various physiological processes, including reproductive performance, in birds. Although several attempts have been made to understand the effect of light on poultry production, the effect of light of a particular wavelength (color) on the reproductive function in geese remains unclear. This study evaluated the effect of various monochromatic light sources on the levels of sex hormone and on semen quality of ganders. Of 30 male White Roman geese in their third reproductive season (average age=3 years), 27 were divided into three groups receiving monochromatic white or red or blue lights. The birds were kept in an environmentally controlled house with a lighting photoperiod of 7L:17D for six weeks as the adaptation period. The photoperiod was subsequently changed to 9L:15D and maintained for 24 weeks. Three ganders at the beginning of the study and three from each group at the end of the adjusting period and the 20th and 30th week of the study period were sacrificed, and their testes and blood samples were collected for determining the sex hormone levels. Semen samples were collected for determining semen quality parameters, including the semen collection index, sperm concentration, semen volume, sperm motility, sperm viability, sperm morphology, and semen quality factor. The results showed that the testosterone and estradiol levels remained unchanged in all three groups at all time points. The ratio of testosterone to estradiol of ganders exposed to white light was significantly higher than that of ganders exposed to red light at the 30th week (PSemen collection index and sperm viability of ganders exposed to blue light were significantly the lowest (Psemen quality than that with red or blue lights in ganders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A randomized, open-label, crossover study comparing the effects of oral versus transdermal estrogen therapy on serum androgens, thyroid hormones, and adrenal hormones in naturally menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifren, Jan L; Desindes, Sophie; McIlwain, Marilyn; Doros, Gheorghe; Mazer, Norman A

    2007-01-01

    To compare the changes induced by oral versus transdermal estrogen therapy on the total and free serum concentrations of testosterone (T), thyroxine (T4), and cortisol (C) and the concentrations of their serum binding globulins sex hormone-binding globulin, thyroxine-binding globulin, and cortisol-binding globulin in naturally menopausal women. Randomized, open-label, crossover. Interventions included a 6-week withdrawal from previous hormone therapy (baseline), followed in randomized order by 12 weeks of oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) (0.625 mg/d) and 12 weeks of transdermal estradiol (TD E2) (0.05 mg/d), with oral micronized progesterone (100 mg/d) given continuously during both transdermal estrogen therapy regimens. Twenty-seven women were enrolled in the study, and 25 completed both treatment periods. The mean(SD) percentage changes from baseline of sex hormone-binding globulin, total T, and free T with oral CEE were +132.1% (74.5%), +16.4% (43.8%), and -32.7% (25.9%), respectively, versus +12.0% (25.1%), +1.2% (43.7%), and +1.0% (45.0%) with TD E2. The mean (SD) percentage changes of thyroxine-binding globulin, total T4, and free T4 with oral CEE were +39.9% (20.1%), +28.4% (29.2%), and -10.4% (22.3%), respectively, versus +0.4% (11.1%), -0.7% (16.5%), and +0.2% (26.6%) with TD E2. The mean (SD) percentage changes of cortisol-binding globulin, total C, and free C with oral CEE were +18.0% (19.5%), +29.2% (46.3%), and +50.4% (126.5%), respectively, versus -2.2% (11.3%), -6.7% (30.8%), and +1.8% (77.1%) with TD E2. Concentrations of all hormones and binding globulins were significantly different (P < or = 0.003) during administration of oral versus transdermal estrogen therapy, except for free T4 and free C. Compared with oral CEE, TD E2 exerts minimal effects on the total and free concentrations of T, T4, and C and their binding proteins.

  6. Hyperglycemia induces elevated expression of thyroid hormone binding protein in vivo in kidney and heart and in vitro in mesangial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kafaji, Ghada; Malik, Afshan N.

    2010-01-01

    During a search for glucose-regulated abundant mRNAs in the diabetic rat kidney, we cloned thyroid hormone binding protein (THBP), also known as μ-crystallin or CRYM. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hyperglycemia/high glucose on the expression of THBP. THBP mRNA copy numbers were determined in kidneys and hearts of diabetic GK rats vs normoglycemic Wistar rats, and in human mesangial cells (HMCs) exposed to high glucose using real-time qPCR, and THBP protein levels were measured by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Intracellular ROS was measured in THBP transfected cells using DCF fluorescence. Hyperglycemia significantly increased THBP mRNA in GK rat kidneys (326 ± 50 vs 147 ± 54, p < 0.05), and hearts (1583 ± 277 vs 191 ± 63, p < 0.05). Moreover, the levels of THBP mRNA increased with age and hyperglycemia in GK rat kidneys, whereas in normoglycemic Wistar rat kidneys there was a decline with age. High glucose significantly increased THBP mRNA (92 ± 37 vs 18 ± 4, p < 0.005), and protein in HMCs. The expression of THBP as a fusion protein in transfected HMCs resulted in reduction of glucose-induced intracellular ROS. We have shown that THBP mRNA is increased in diabetic kidney and heart, is regulated by high glucose in renal cells, and appears to attenuate glucose-induced intracellular ROS. These data suggest that THBP may be involved in the cellular pathways activated in response to glucose. This is the first report linking hyperglycemia with THBP and suggests that the role of THBP in diabetic complications should be further investigated.

  7. Hyperglycemia induces elevated expression of thyroid hormone binding protein in vivo in kidney and heart and in vitro in mesangial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kafaji, Ghada [Diabetes Research Group, Division of Reproduction and Endocrinology, King' s College London (United Kingdom); Malik, Afshan N., E-mail: afshan.malik@kcl.ac.uk [Diabetes Research Group, Division of Reproduction and Endocrinology, King' s College London (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-22

    During a search for glucose-regulated abundant mRNAs in the diabetic rat kidney, we cloned thyroid hormone binding protein (THBP), also known as {mu}-crystallin or CRYM. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hyperglycemia/high glucose on the expression of THBP. THBP mRNA copy numbers were determined in kidneys and hearts of diabetic GK rats vs normoglycemic Wistar rats, and in human mesangial cells (HMCs) exposed to high glucose using real-time qPCR, and THBP protein levels were measured by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Intracellular ROS was measured in THBP transfected cells using DCF fluorescence. Hyperglycemia significantly increased THBP mRNA in GK rat kidneys (326 {+-} 50 vs 147 {+-} 54, p < 0.05), and hearts (1583 {+-} 277 vs 191 {+-} 63, p < 0.05). Moreover, the levels of THBP mRNA increased with age and hyperglycemia in GK rat kidneys, whereas in normoglycemic Wistar rat kidneys there was a decline with age. High glucose significantly increased THBP mRNA (92 {+-} 37 vs 18 {+-} 4, p < 0.005), and protein in HMCs. The expression of THBP as a fusion protein in transfected HMCs resulted in reduction of glucose-induced intracellular ROS. We have shown that THBP mRNA is increased in diabetic kidney and heart, is regulated by high glucose in renal cells, and appears to attenuate glucose-induced intracellular ROS. These data suggest that THBP may be involved in the cellular pathways activated in response to glucose. This is the first report linking hyperglycemia with THBP and suggests that the role of THBP in diabetic complications should be further investigated.

  8. Prostate cancer risk: the significance of differences in age related changes in serum conjugated and unconjugated steroid hormone concentrations between Arab and Caucasian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, E O; Akanji, A O; Memon, A; Bashir, A A; Daar, A S; Al-Awadi, K A; Fatinikun, T

    2006-01-01

    Factors responsible for the low incidence of clinical prostate cancer (3-8/100,000 men/year) in the Arab population remain unclear, but may be related to changes in steroid hormone metabolism. We compared the levels of serum conjugated and unconjugated steroids between Arab and Caucasian populations, to determine if these can provide a rational explanation for differences in incidence of prostate cancer between the two populations. Venous blood samples were obtained from 329 unselected apparently healthy indigenous Arab men (Kuwaitis and Omanis) aged 15-80 years. Samples were also obtained from similar Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The samples were taken between 8:00 am and 12:00 noon. Serum levels of total testosterone, (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI); adrenal C19-steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (ADT) were determined using Immulite kits (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories Inc, Webster Texas, USA). The results obtained in Arab men were compared with those reported for similarly aged Chinese, German and White USA men. In all four ethnic groups, median TT and FAI declined with age, while SHBG increased with age. However, the mean TT and SHBG was significantly lower (p Arab men (p Arabs (p Arabs. There was no significant difference in mean serum levels of DHEAS between German and USA men. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the level of the hormones between Arab and Chinese men. Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer had high serum TT, SHBG and DHEAS compared to those without the disease. The mean TT and SHBG was significantly lower in Arab men compared to Caucasian men especially in early adulthood. Caucasians have significantly higher serum levels of the precursor androgens DHEAS and ADT especially in early adulthood compared to Arab men. These observations of low circulating androgens and their adrenal precursors in

  9. Association of sex hormones with sexual function, vitality, and physical function of symptomatic older men with low testosterone levels at baseline in the testosterone trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Glenn R; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J; Rosen, Raymond C; Wang, Christina; Ellenberg, Susan S; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Bhasin, Shalender; Molitch, Mark E; Farrar, John T; Cella, David; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Cauley, Jane A; Cifelli, Denise; Crandall, Jill P; Ensrud, Kristine E; Fluharty, Laura; Gill, Thomas M; Lewis, Cora E; Pahor, Marco; Resnick, Susan M; Storer, Thomas W; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan; Tabatabaie, Vafa; Hou, Xiaoling; Snyder, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of sexual dysfunction, low vitality, and poor physical function increases with aging, as does the prevalence of low total and free testosterone (TT and FT) levels. However, the relationship between sex hormones and age-related alterations in older men is not clear. To test the hypotheses that baseline serum TT, FT, estradiol (E2), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are independently associated with sexual function, vitality, and physical function in older symptomatic men with low testosterone levels participating in the Testosterone Trials (TTrials). Cross-sectional study of baseline measures in the TTrials. The study was conducted at 12 sites in the United States. The 788 TTrials participants were ≥ 65 years and had evidence of sexual dysfunction, diminished vitality, and/or mobility disability, and an average of two TT sexual desire, erectile function, and sexual activity. None of these hormones was significantly associated within or across trials with FACIT-Fatigue, PHQ-9 Depression or Physical Function-10 scores, or gait speed. FT and TT levels were consistently, independently, and positively associated, albeit to a small degree, with measures of sexual desire, erectile function, and sexual activity, but not with measures of vitality or physical function in symptomatic older men with low T who qualified for the TTrials.

  10. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prashanth Rajagopalan,1 Georgi Abraham,2 Yuvaram NV Reddy,2 Ravivarman Lakshmanasami,1 ML Prakash,1 Yogesh NV Reddy2 1Department of General Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, 2Department of Nephrology, Madras Medical Mission Hospital, Chennai, India Abstract: This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI, birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs by the Cockcroft–Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m2, 18.5–24.99 kg/m2, 25–29.99 kg/m2, and ≥30 kg/m2 were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex. Keywords: eGFR, birth weight, renal volume

  11. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and ovulatory responses to clomiphene citrate in women with polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiitinen, A E; Laatikainen, T J; Seppälä, M T

    1993-07-01

    To study the serum levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in relation to clomiphene citrate (CC) responsiveness in women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). Prospective. PATIENTS, SETTING: Twenty-three women with PCOD admitted consecutively to the University Infertility Clinic, a tertiary referral center. Blood samples were taken at fasting state and during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for the determination of insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-1. A dose of 50 to 200 mg/d CC was given for ovulation induction. With CC treatment, ovulation was achieved in 13 of 23 PCOD patients. The IGFBP-1 concentration was lower in CC nonresponders than in CC responders (20.5 +/- 4.0 ng/mL versus 41.0 +/- 8.5 ng/mL) (P PCOD patients. Lean CC nonresponders (n = 7) had almost threefold lower serum IGFBP-1 levels than lean CC responders (n = 6) (24.0 +/- 3.1 ng/mL versus 61.8 +/- 8.6 ng/mL) (P PCOD patients, the IGFBP-1 levels were low irrespective of CC responsiveness (14.8 +/- 8.0 ng/mL versus 16.7 +/- 7.2 ng/mL). The differences remained during OGTT. The concentrations of IGF-I, insulin, sex hormone-binding globulin, LH, FSH, and androgens showed no significant differences between CC responders and nonresponders. There was an inverse correlation between serum insulin and IGFBP-1 levels in obese PCOD patients, whereas this was not seen in lean patients. In lean PCOD patients, low serum IGFBP-1 concentration is related to CC unresponsiveness by a mechanism unrelated to insulin.

  12. Evaluation of the association of vitamin D deficiency with gonadotropins and sex hormone in obese and non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velija-Ašimi, Zelija

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the association of vitamin D (VD) deficiency with gonadotropins and sex hormone in obese and non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Of the total of 140 women, thirty obese and thirty nonobese, aged 20-40 years, were included in the study. Inclusion criteria were the women with normal level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcium, and those who had not received any medication or VD supplementation within the last 6 months. Serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), C-reactive protein (CRP), lipid profile, fasting serum glucose, basal insulin, homeostasis model analysis of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), oestrogen, total testosterone, dehidroepiandrostendion-sulphat (DHEA-S), androstendione, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were determined at follicular phase. Body mass index (BMI), weight, waist, lipids, and CRP were significantly higher in obese than in non-obese PCOS women (p=0.000). Meanwhile, insulin and HOMA-IR were also higher in the obese PCOS (p less than 0.000), and so was the fasting glucose (p=0.004). Furthermore, obese PCOS showed significantly higher level of LH (p=0.012), but lower level of progesterone (p=0.001) and androstendione (p=0.006) than in non-obese PCOS. In total 68% of PCOS women had VD deficiency but without significant difference among groups according to BMI. There was no association of VD deficiency with gonadotropins and sex hormones except SHBG. Insulin resistance was a better independent risk factor for the presence of vitamin D deficiency than SHBG. The insulin resistance and vitamin D deficiency significantly predicted the obesity risk in PCOS women.

  13. Minimizing the effects of multicollinearity in the polynomial regression of age relationships and sex differences in serum levels of pregnenolone sulfate in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloun, Milan; Hill, Martin; Vceláková-Havlíková, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Pregnenolone sulfate (PregS) is known as a steroid conjugate positively modulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors on neuronal membranes. These receptors are responsible for permeability of calcium channels and activation of neuronal function. Neuroactivating effect of PregS is also exerted via non-competitive negative modulation of GABA(A) receptors regulating the chloride influx. Recently, a penetrability of blood-brain barrier for PregS was found in rat, but some experiments in agreement with this finding were reported even earlier. It is known that circulating levels of PregS in human are relatively high depending primarily on age and adrenal activity. Concerning the neuromodulating effect of PregS, we recently evaluated age relationships of PregS in both sexes using polynomial regression models known to bring about the problems of multicollinearity, i.e., strong correlations among independent variables. Several criteria for the selection of suitable bias are demonstrated. Biased estimators based on the generalized principal component regression (GPCR) method avoiding multicollinearity problems are described. Significant differences were found between men and women in the course of the age dependence of PregS. In women, a significant maximum was found around the 30th year followed by a rapid decline, while the maximum in men was achieved almost 10 years earlier and changes were minor up to the 60th year. The investigation of gender differences and age dependencies in PregS could be of interest given its well-known neurostimulating effect, relatively high serum concentration, and the probable partial permeability of the blood-brain barrier for the steroid conjugate. GPCR in combination with the MEP (mean quadric error of prediction) criterion is extremely useful and appealing for constructing biased models. It can also be used for achieving such estimates with regard to keeping the model course corresponding to the data trend, especially in polynomial type

  14. Effects of experimentally induced mild hyperthyroidism on growth hormone and insulin secretion and sex steroid levels in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, J C; Smith, S R; Bray, G A; Veldhuis, J D; Rood, J C; Tulley, R

    1997-12-01

    Although triiodothyronine (T3) exerts major regulatory actions in both animals and humans, most clinical studies of T3 administration have been relatively short-term. The present study examined the effects of more than 2 months (63 days) of low-dose T3 treatment on overnight pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion, short-term insulin secretion, and of sex steroid levels in seven healthy, lean men studied at an inpatient metabolic unit. At baseline, there were strong correlations between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and several measures of GH production, including total GH production (r = .99), GH interburst interval (r = -.75), and GH mass (r = .82). SHBG was also inversely correlated with basal insulin secretion (r = -.74). There was a 42% increase in serum levels of total testosterone (18.5 +/- 1.3 to 26.3 +/- 1.8 nmol/L, P = .005) and a 150% increase in SHBG (18.0 +/- 2.2 to 44.9 +/- 7.0 nmol/L, P = .008) following T3 treatment. Estradiol and free testosterone levels were unchanged by treatment, although free testosterone decreased from 142.8 +/- 18.4 to 137.3 +/- 19.5 pmol/L. T3 treatment significantly reduced the GH interburst interval (P secretion. There were no statistically significant effects of T3 treatment on insulin secretion, although insulin peak amplitude, mass secreted per burst, and total production all decreased. We conclude that experimentally induced T3 excess in healthy men produces significant and sustained changes in sex hormone levels and GH secretion. Furthermore, there are strong associations between SHBG and both GH and insulin secretion independent of thyroid hormone excess that require additional study.

  15. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate concentration is not a predictive factor in IVF outcomes before the first cycle of GnRH agonist administration in women with normal ovarian reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kunicki

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine whether serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS concentration and the models incorporating it could help clinicians to predict IVF outcomes in women with normal ovarian reserve undergoing their first long protocol.We performed a retrospective analysis of 459 women undergoing cycles of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI for the first time in a long GnRH agonist protocol.Embryo transfer was performed in 407 women (88.7%. The fertilisation rate was 78.6%. The clinical pregnancy rate was 44.8% per started cycle and 50.6% per embryo transfer. Our univariate model revealed that the best predictors of clinical pregnancy were the number of mature oocytes, the number of embryos transferred and the number of good quality embryos, account for the clinical parameters that reflect ovarian reserve the best being AMH level and AFC. DHEAS did not predict clinical pregnancy (OR 1.001, 95% CI, 0.999-1.004. After adjusting for the number of embryos transferred and class of embryos in a multivariate model, the best predictors were age (OR 0.918, 95% CI, 0.867-0.972 and AFC (OR 1.022, 95% CI, 0.992-1.053. Serum DHEAS levels were positively correlated with AFC (r = 0.098, P<0.039 and testosterone levels (r = 0.371, P<0.001, as well as the number of mature oocytes (r = 0.109, P<0.019; serum DHEAS levels were negatively correlated with age (r = -0.220, P<0.001, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, (r = -0.116, P<0.015 and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, (r = -0.193, P<0.001.DHEAS concentration (in addition to the known factors of ovarian reserve does not predict clinical pregnancy in women with normal ovarian reserve who are undergoing ICSI.

  16. Postmenopausal Serum Sex Steroids and Risk of Hormone Receptor-Positive and -Negative Breast Cancer : a Nested Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Rebecca E.; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Dossus, Laure; Becker, Susen; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Mesrine, Sylvie; Engel, Pierre; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Vrieling, Alina; Boeing, Heiner; Schuetze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Rodriguez, Laudina; Buckland, Genevieve; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Ros, Martine M.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Allen, Naomi E.; Romieu, Isabelle; Siddiq, Afshan; Cox, David; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Prediagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence toward the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of

  17. Postmenopausal serum sex steroids and risk of hormone receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer: a nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, R.E.; Lukanova, A.; Dossus, L.; Becker, S.; Rinaldi, S.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Mesrine, S.; Engel, P.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Chang-Claude, J.; Vrieling, A.; Boeing, H.; Schutze, M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lagiou, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Palli, D.; Krogh, V.; Panico, S.; Tumino, R.; Sacerdote, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Buckland, G.; Sanchez, M.J.; Amiano, P.; Ardanaz, E.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B.; Ros, M.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.; Key, T.J.; Allen, N.E.; Romieu, I.; Siddiq, A.; Cox, D.; Riboli, E.; Kaaks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Prediagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence toward the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of

  18. Effect of caricapryl-99 seed alkaloid extract on the serum levels of sex hormones and pituitary gonadotrophins in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, P B; Udoh, F V; Umoren, E B; James, U W; Okeke, C P; Agwu, B

    2009-06-01

    Activity of alkaloid extract of caricapryl-99 seeds [Carica papaya Linn seeds] on the serum levels of steroid hormones was studied in adult male albino rats. Three tolerated doses obtained from the graph of percentage toxicity [10, 50 and 150 mg/kg] were separately administered orally, daily for three days to three groups of male rats [n=5] while group four of 5 rats received the vehicle [corn oil] as control. The results showed that 10 mg/kg/d caused increase serum levels of FSH and estrogen but decrease in the serum levels of LH and testosterone compared to control; 50 mg/kg/d elevated the serum levels of FSH, estrogen but inhibited testosterone; while 150 mg/kg/d pretreatments caused a significant decrease [pinfertility.

  19. Trend of Changes in Serum Albumin and Its Relation with Sex, Age, and BMI Following Laparoscopic Mini-gastric Bypass Surgery in Morbid Obese Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mehrdad; Kabir, Ali; Nejatifar, Masoumeh; Pazouki, Abdolreza

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the pattern of changes in serum albumin level after mini-gastric bypass (MGB) and its association with gender, age, and body mass index (BMI) of the patients. This cohort study was conducted on 196 morbidly obese patients undergoing MGB followed for 1 year. The data on BMI, serum albumin level, demographic, anthropometric, biochemical variables and comorbidities were gathered before and after (3, 6, and 12 months) surgery. The trend of changes in BMI and serum albumin of the patients was investigated by repeated measures tests using general linear model (GLM) and generalized estimating equations (GEE) approaches. The mean age, baseline median BMI, and albumin of the patients were 41.34 ± 11.03 years, 44.54 kg/m 2 , and 4.00 g/dl, respectively. There was a chronologically significant trend of decline in BMI (P age grouping and baseline serum albumin level (P = 0.017 and 0.001, respectively). This trend had fluctuations in patients older than 40 years with baseline serum albumin level of 3.50-3.90 g/dl. For patients with any age and baseline serum albumin level of 4.00-4.90 g/dl, this trend was stable in all periods of follow-up. MGB is an effective technique to lose weight. The trend of changes in serum albumin level was affected by its baseline levels and age.

  20. Validity of Serum Testosterone, Free Androgen Index, and Calculated Free Testosterone in Women with Suspected Hyperandrogenism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal K. Al Kindi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There are technical limitations for the currently available methods of measuring serum total and free testosteronein females. The study objectives were to evaluate the usefulness of serum total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, free androgen index (FAI, and calculated free testosterone (CFT in the assessment of androgen status in women investigated for suspected hyperandrogenism.Methods: This is a case control study that was conducted during the period from 1st May 2011 to 31st October 2011 on 122 patients aged (18-45 years whom were referred to the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory from the Endocrinology and Gynecology Clinics, Royal Hospital, Oman. Women with no clinical feature or laboratory data indicative of hormonal dysfunction and with midluteal progesterone >30 nmol/L were selected as controls (group 1; n=18. The patients were divided into subgroups based on the clinical/laboratory diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS [group 2; n=19, hirsutism (group 3; n=18, menstrual disturbances (irregularities or infertility (group 4; n=49, as well as combination of PCOS or hirsutism and menstrual disturbances or infertility (group 5;n=18. Serum total testosterone and SHBG were measured, FAI was calculated as percentage ratio of total testosterone to SHBG values, and CFT was calculated according to Vermeulen equation.Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the mean levels of testosterone, FAI and CFT in each patient group compared with the control group. For diagnosing hyperandrogenism, each indicator was selected at the recommended cut-off: testosterone >3.0 nmol/L, SHBG 5%, and CFT >32 pmol/L. In group 2, 89.5% and 94.7% of the patients had increased FAI and CFT, respectively; compared with 36.4% for increased testosterone. In group 3, 88.9% and 88.9% of the patients had similarly increased FAI and CFT, respectively; compared with 66.7% for testosterone. In group 4, patients had 63.3% and 73

  1. Abnormal sex chromosome constitution and longitudinal growth: serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone in 109 males with 47,XXY, 47,XYY, or sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY)-positive 46,XX karyotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Juul, A.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abnormal chromosome constitution for longitu......CONTEXT: Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abnormal chromosome constitution...... and sitting height, serum levels of reproductive hormones, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 were measured. RESULTS: In boys with 47,XXY and 47,XYY karyotypes, growth was accelerated already in childhood, compared with healthy boys. 46,XX-males were significantly shorter than healthy boys but matched the stature of healthy...... and elevated LH levels after puberty, whereas the sex hormone secretion of the 47,XYY boys remained normal. CONCLUSION: We found accelerated growth in early childhood in boys with 47,XXY and 47,XYY karyotypes, whereas 46,XX-males were shorter than controls. These abnormal growth patterns were not reflected...

  2. Serum tree IGF-I, total IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in an elderly population : relation to age and sex steroid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, JAMJL; Stolk, RP; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE; de Jong, FH; Lamberts, SWJ

    BACKGROUND Most previous studies concerning the relationship between IGF-I and age used assays measuring total IGF-I, Although free IGF-I is considered of greater biological relevance, little is known about its relationship with sex steroids levels in elderly healthy subjects, MEASUREMENTS In a

  3. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  4. Sex steroids and glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A Allan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone levels are lower in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and also predict the onset of these adverse metabolic states. Body composition (body mass index, waist circumference is an important mediator of this relationship. Sex hormone binding globulin is also inversely associated with insulin resistance and T2DM but the data regarding estrogen are inconsistent. Clinical models of androgen deficiency including Klinefelter's syndrome and androgen deprivation therapy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer confirm the association between androgens and glucose status. Experimental manipulation of the insulin/glucose milieu and suppression of endogenous testicular function suggests the relationship between androgens and insulin sensitivity is bidirectional. Androgen therapy in men without diabetes is not able to differentiate the effect on insulin resistance from that on fat mass, in particular visceral adiposity. Similarly, several small clinical studies have examined the efficacy of exogenous testosterone in men with T2DM, however, the role of androgens, independent of body composition, in modifying insulin resistance is uncertain.

  5. Early paternal deprivation alters levels of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glucocorticoid receptor and serum corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin in a sex-specific way in socially monogamous mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruiyong; Song, Zhenzhen; Wang, Siyang; Shui, Li; Tai, Fadao; Qiao, Xufeng; He, Fengqin

    2014-01-01

    In monogamous mammals, fathers play an important role in the development of the brain and typical behavior in offspring, but the exact nature of this process is not well understood. In particular, little research has addressed whether the presence or absence of paternal care alters levels of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and basal levels of serum corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). Here, we explored this concept using socially monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus), a species in which fathers display high levels of paternal care toward their pups. Our immunohistochemical study shows that paternal deprivation (PD) significantly decreased levels of GR and BDNF protein in the CA1 and CA2/3 of the hippocampus. In the dental gyrus, decreases in GR and BDNF induced by PD were evident in females but not in males. Additionally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results show that PD significantly upregulated levels of serum CORT and ACTH in females, but not males. These findings demonstrate that PD alters HPA axis activity in a sex-specific way. The changes in stress hormones documented here may be associated with alteration in hippocampal BDNF and GR levels. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Lower Serum DHEAS levels are associated with a higher degree of physical disability and depressive symptoms in middle-aged to older African American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haren, Matthew T.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Banks, William A.; Patrick, Ping; Miller, Douglas K.; Morley, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Background Changes in androgen levels and associations with chronic disease, physical and neuropsychological function and disability in women over the middle to later years of life are not well understood and have not been extensively studied in African-American women. Aims The present cross-sectional analysis reports such levels and associations in community dwelling, African American women aged 49 – 65 years from St. Louis, Missouri. Methods A home-based physical examination and a health status questionnaire were administered to randomly sampled women. Body composition (DEXA), lower limb and hand-grip muscle strength, physical and neuropsychological function and disability levels were assessed. Blood was drawn and assayed for total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), oestradiol (E2), adiponectin, leptin, triglycerides, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP) and cytokine receptors (sIL2r, sIL6r, sTNFr1 & sTNFr2). Multiple linear regression modelling was used to identify the best predictors of testosterone, DHEAS and Free Androgen Index (T/SHBG). Results Seventy-four percent of women were menopausal and a quarter of these were taking oestrogen therapy. DHEAS and E2 declined between the ages of 49 and 65 years, whereas total T, SHBG and FAI remained stable. Total T and DHEAS levels were strongly correlated. In this population sample there were no independent associations of either total T or FAI with indicators of functional limitations, disability or clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Unlike total T and FAI, lower DHEAS levels was independently associated with both higher IADL scores (indicating a higher degree of physical disability) and higher CESD scores (indicating a higher degree of clinically relevant depressive symptoms). Conclusion There is an age-related decline in serum DHEAS in African-American women. Lower DHEAS levels appear to be associated with a higher degree of physical disability and

  7. Effects of Chamomile Hydro-Alcoholic Extract (Matricaria chamomilla on the Aborted Fetuses, Serum Sex Hormones and Ovarian Follicles in Adult Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mirzakhani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Nowadays, female infertility and abortion is considered one of the most important issues in the medical world. Due to high consumption of chamomile as a medicinal herb, this study aimed to investigate the effects of chamomile consumption on abortion, estrogen, progesterone, FSH, LH hormones and ovarian follicles in adult female rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 80 adult female rats were divided to 2 categories in 5 groups of 8 pregnant and non-pregnant rats, including control groups, sham group and groups receiving intraperitoneal doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg chamomile hydro-alcoholic extract. At the end of the day 16 of pregnancy, aborted fetuses in pregnant groups were counted, and in day 21, the number of follicles and corpora-lutea in non-pregnant groups was obtained by separating ovaries, and sexual hormone levels were measured after phlebotomizing the samples. The results were analyzed by SPSS software (Ver.18 using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Significant difference of data was set at p≤0.05. Results: The results of this study showed that chamomile caused a significant increase in the number of aborted fetuses and follicle atresia and a significant decrease (p≤0.05 in serum level of estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH hormones as well as the number of pre-antral follicle, antral follicles, graph and corpora-lutea. Conclusion: The results showed chamomile extract decreased LH and FSH, thereby decreasing ovarian follicles, sexual hormones and aborted fetuses.

  8. Markers of Oxidative Stress in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease are Influenced by Sex, Neuter Status, and Serum Cholesterol Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, M. J.; Haggstrom, J.; Moller, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease has been associated with oxidative stress, which has been suggested to contribute to myocardial remodeling in human patients. Little is known about the relationship between myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and oxidative stress in dogs. Objective To determin...... with clinical stage of MMVD. Conclusions In conclusion, markers of oxidative stress are associated with sex, BCS, neuter status, and cholesterol. The results cannot confirm a relationship between oxidative stress and clinical stage of the disease in dogs with MMVD.......Background Cardiovascular disease has been associated with oxidative stress, which has been suggested to contribute to myocardial remodeling in human patients. Little is known about the relationship between myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and oxidative stress in dogs. Objective To determine...... whether clinical stage of MMVD is associated with changes in the plasma concentrations of certain markers of oxidative stress in clinically healthy dogs and dogs with MMVD. Animals Seventy five privately owned dogs: 59 cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) with different severities of MMVD and 16 dogs...

  9. [The National Serum Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magos-López, C; Sánchez-Villarreal, F; Gutiérrez, G; Tapia-Conyer, R

    1992-01-01

    A National Serum Bank was established to store sera obtained during the National Seroepidemiological Survey performed in Mexico in 1987. More than 70,000 serum samples were obtained from subjects of either sex 1-99 years of age in each of the 32 states of the country. The current collection of sera includes 28,704 male samples and 40,629 female samples. This paper describes the procedures for handling serum samples, including reception registry, storage and distribution to several laboratories for detection of measles, rubella, poliomyelitis, AIDS, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, brucella, salmonella, amoeba, toxoplasma, American trypanosomiasis and cysticercus. Determinations of total cholesterol were also made in order to describe its distribution and to identify the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia.

  10. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator type methods for the identification of serum biomarkers of overweight and obesity: simulation and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica M. Vasquez

    2016-11-01

    14, Complement 3, C-reactive protein, Ferritin, Growth Hormone, Immunoglobulin M, Interleukin-18, Leptin, Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1, Myoglobin, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, Surfactant Protein D, and YKL-40. Conclusions For the data scenarios examined, choice of optimal LASSO-type method was data structure dependent and should be guided by the research objective. The LASSO-type methods identified biomarkers that have known associations with obesity and obesity related conditions.

  11. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator type methods for the identification of serum biomarkers of overweight and obesity: simulation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Monica M; Hu, Chengcheng; Roe, Denise J; Chen, Zhao; Halonen, Marilyn; Guerra, Stefano

    2016-11-14

    , Growth Hormone, Immunoglobulin M, Interleukin-18, Leptin, Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1, Myoglobin, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, Surfactant Protein D, and YKL-40. For the data scenarios examined, choice of optimal LASSO-type method was data structure dependent and should be guided by the research objective. The LASSO-type methods identified biomarkers that have known associations with obesity and obesity related conditions.

  12. Serum under-carboxylated osteocalcin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: weight-dependent relationships with endocrine and metabolic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepene Carmen E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under-carboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC, the precursor substrate of bone biomarker OC is a potent regulator of energy metabolism by promoting insulin production and adiponectin synthesis and decreasing fat stores. The aim of the present study was to point out the potential role of ucOC in the physiopathology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a common disorder defined by the constellation of anovulation, insulinresistance, hyperinsulinemia, obesity and androgen excess. Methods In this prospective case–control investigation, 78 young premenopausal women, i.e. 52 PCOS patients and 26 age- and body mass index (BMI-matched healthy controls, were successively enrolled. Recruitment of PCOS patients was performed according to Androgen Excess-Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (AE-PCOS Society 2006 criteria. All study participants were subjected to clinical examination, whole-body composition assessment and measurements of serum ucOC, OC (1-49, glucose and lipids, insulin, total testosterone (TT, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP and β-CrossLaps. Results BMI-stratified multivariate analysis revealed significantly higher ucOC levels in PCOS vs. controls in lean (p = 0.001 but not overweight and obese study participants (p = 0.456. Notably, a positive correlation between ucOC and TT (p = 0.018, calculated free testosterone (cFT, p = 0.028 and serum insulin (p = 0.036, respectively, was found to be confined to the lean analysis subgroup. Furthermore, in stepwise multiple regression models, β-CrossLaps and cFT were able to predict 46.71% of serum ucOC variability. (1-43/49OC failed to be significantly associated to any PCOS trait. Conclusions Circulating ucOC concentration is related to key endocrine PCOS characteristics in a weight-dependent manner. Within the bone-pancreas loop, high ucOC may favor insulin release in lean hyperandrogenic women to compensate for

  13. Studies on the direct radioimmunological determination of triiodothyronine in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, H.; Wenzel, K.W.

    1974-01-01

    The production of highly specific antisera for T 3 and the development of a sensitive radioimmunological procedure for the direct measurement of T 3 in serum is described. Anti-T 3 sera were produced by immunizing rabbits with conjugates of T 3 and bovine albumin, human albumin, and ovalbumin. The various antisera produced showed very little variance in quality and could be used for the direct radioimmunological determination of serum-T 3 with final dilutions between 1:60,000 and 1:300,000. Binding of T 3 to thyroid-hormone-binding serum proteins was inhibited by 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid. This compound showed better inhibition properties than merthiolate and sodium salicylate. The separation of free and bound hormone was performed by the double antibody technique. The separation by dextran-coated charcoal and ion-exchange resin leads to a decrease of the antibody-bound activity. The validation of the method used was tested by serial dilutions of sera, recovery experiments, and by comparing the serum-T 3 values measured in ethanol extracts with those values obtained by the direct measurement in unextracted serum. The lower limit of detection was approximately 0.18 nmol/l serum. The variation coefficient for the intraassay reproducibility was between 4.3 and 6.1%, for the interassay reproducibility between 7.7 and 13.9%. Measured mean T 3 concentrations for various thyroid states were as follows: Normals: 1.77 nmol/l (1.15 μg/l), normal females on contraceptives: 2.03 nmol/l (1.32 μg/l), pregnants: 2.73 nmol/l (1.78 μg/l), hyperthyroidism: 6.30 nmol/l (4.10 μg/l), T 3 -toxicosis: 3.69 nmol/l (2.40 μg/l). In hypothyroidism T 3 ranged from [de

  14. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...

  15. Infantile and early childhood masturbation: Sex hormones and clinical profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajlouni, Heitham K; Daoud, Azhar S; Ajlouni, Saleh F; Ajlouni, Kamel M

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have explored the hormonal triggers for masturbation in infants and young children. Thus, we aimed to study the sex hormones and clinical profiles of masturbating infants and young children. This case-control study involved infants and young children who masturbate and were referred to three pediatric neurology clinics between September 2004 and 2006 (n=13), and a similar control group. All children underwent basic laboratory investigations prior to referral. Other tests included electroencephalography (n=8) and brain neuroimaging (n=9). We measured dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, free testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and androstenedione in all participants. The median age at the first incident was 19.5 months (range, 4-36 months); the median masturbation frequency, 4 times/day; and the median duration of each event, 3.9 min. The subjects masturbated in both prone (n=10) and supine positions (n=3); two subjects used the knee-chest position. All subjects showed facial flushing; 6, friction between the thighs; 5, sweating; 9, sleeping after the event; and 12, disturbance on interruption. EEG was abnormal in one of eight subjects tested, and neuroimages were normal in all of nine subjects examined. The case and control groups had comparable levels of all sex hormones, except estradiol, which showed significantly lower levels in the case group (P=.02). Masturbation in children seems to be associated with reduced estradiol levels, but not with other sex hormones. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  16. TESTOSTERONE CHANGES IN PATIENTS WITH LIVER CIRRHOSIS BEFORE AND AFTER ORTHOTOPIC LIVER TRANSPLANTATION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH MELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo NITSCHE

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Hypogonadism is a common clinical situation in male patients with liver cirrhosis. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of orthotopic liver transplantation on testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in male with advanced liver disease and also to determine the relationship of these changes with Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD score. Methods In a prospective study, serum levels of testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin of 30 male adult patients with end-stage liver disease were measured 2 to 4 hours before and 6 months after orthotopic liver transplantation. Results Total testosterone levels increased after orthotopic liver transplantation and the number of patients with normal testosterone levels increased from 18 to 24. Free testosterone mean level in the pre-transplant group was 7.8 pg/mL and increased to 11.5 pg/mL (P = 0.10 and sex hormone-binding globulin level decreased after orthotopic liver transplantation returning to normal levels in MELD ≤18 - group (A (P<0.05. Conclusions Serum level changes of testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin are more pronounced in cirrhotic males with MELD ≤18. Serum levels of testosterone and free testosterone increase and serum levels of sex hormone-binding globulin decrease after orthotopic liver transplantation.

  17. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  18. Sex Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex headaches Overview Sex headaches are brought on by sexual activity — especially an orgasm. You may notice a dull ache in your head ... severe headache just before or during orgasm. Most sex headaches are nothing to worry about. But some ...

  19. Race differences in obesity and its relationship to the sex hormone milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Arlette C; Martin, Lorena

    2014-09-01

    A sexual dimorphism exists in which increased abdominal and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) - found in women and marked by low sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and high bioavailable testosterone (BT) - is related to the metabolic risk profile. In men, increased BT is related to decreased abdominal obesity and a decrease in the metabolic risk profile. In women, race differences have been found in androgenic sex steroids including SHBG and BT as well as central fat distribution, creating inherently greater metabolic risk for certain populations. Estrogen and estrogen receptor isoforms play a role in fat deposition and distribution and may influence the changes that occur during the menopausal transition. Androgenic sex steroids serve a mediating role, influencing VAT accumulation and its associated metabolic risk factors while VAT also serves a mediating role influencing the androgenic sex steroid-metabolic risk relationship in women. Furthermore, androgenic sex steroids and VAT may independently contribute to the variance in several metabolic variables associated with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and their antecedent conditions such as the metabolic syndrome. Race has been shown to modify the relationship between androgenic sex steroids and metabolic variables associated with risk for diabetes in Black and White women. Further research is warranted to examine the mechanisms involved in race differences. Total adiposity and central fat distribution in accordance with changes in the hormone and metabolic milieu influence breast cancer risk, which varies by race and menopausal status. These findings have broader implications for the study of health promotion/disease prevention in women.

  20. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. RESULTS: Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG bound fractions, and significant ethnic differences were observed (p<0.05; however, the effect size was small. In general, testosterone levels in males began to decline significantly after age 50. Significant ethnic differences in total, free and non-SHBG bound fraction estradiol levels were observed in the 20-29 and 50-59 age groups (p<0.05. The estradiol levels of Malay men decreased as they aged, but they increased for Chinese men starting at age 40. CONCLUSIONS: Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  1. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. RESULTS: Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG bound fractions, and significant ethnic differences were observed (p<0.05; however, the effect size was small. In general, testosterone levels in males began to decline significantly after age 50. Significant ethnic differences in total, free and non-SHBG bound fraction estradiol levels were observed in the 20-29 and 50-59 age groups (p<0.05. The estradiol levels of Malay men decreased as they aged, but they increased for Chinese men starting at age 40. CONCLUSIONS: Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  2. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Ahmad, Fairus; Ramli, Elvy Suhana Mohd; Aminuddin, Amilia; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2013-01-01

    Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) bound fractions), and significant ethnic differences were observed (pChinese men starting at age 40. Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  3. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  4. Serum bioactive and immunoreactive luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels in women with cycle abnormalities, with or without polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, B C; Pache, T D; Lamberts, S W; Hop, W C; de Jong, F H; Dahl, K D

    1991-10-01

    Serum steroid, gonadotropin, and alpha-subunit levels were assessed in 35 women with cycle abnormalities [11 with and 24 without polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) according to strict clinical and biochemical criteria] and 8 regularly cycling women in the early (cycle day 3 or 4) and mid (cycle day 7 or 8) follicular phase. LH and FSH levels were estimated using two immunological techniques [RIA and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)] and in vitro bioassays (BIO), using mouse Leydig cells and rat granulosa cells, respectively. In PCOD patients mean alpha-subunit, free androgen index [FAI; testosterone x 100/sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)], androstenedione, estrone, and estradiol (E2) were significantly elevated compared to levels in the early follicular phase of control cycles and non-PCOD patients. In addition, in PCOD patients mean IRMA-LH and RIA-LH levels were distinctly increased (2.8- to 3.6 fold, respectively; both comparisons, P less than 0.001) compared to control values, but in the same order of magnitude (1.3- to 1.4-fold increments) as that in non-PCOD patients. However, the median BIO-LH level in PCOD patients was 5.9-fold higher than that in non-PCOD patients and 4.0-fold higher than the BIO-LH in the early follicular phase of control women. Consequently, the median BIO/IRMA-LH ratio was 4.8-fold higher in PCOD patients compared to non-PCOD patients. In women with cycle abnormalities, individual BIO/IRMA-LH ratios correlated with BIO-LH (rs = 0.48), FAI (rs = 0.39), free estrogens (E2/SHBG ratios; rs = 0 0.47), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (rs = 0.60) concentrations. Mean IRMA-, RIA-, and BIO-FSH levels and BIO/IRMA-FSH ratios were not significantly different when various groups were compared. Although RIA- and IRMA-LH levels showed good correlation (rs = 0.88), RIA-LH levels were consistently higher, resulting in distinctly higher RIA-LH/FSH ratios (mean, 4.5) compared to IRMA-LH/FSH ratios (median, 1.8) in PCOD patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT

  5. Serum lysozyme determinations, April-June 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S C; Lamphere, J P; Jablon, S

    1963-04-18

    Serum lysozyme levels were determined on 670 consecutive subjects seen for regularly scheduled clinic examinations of the Adult Health Study in Hiroshima. Serum lysozyme levels were found to vary significantly with the absolute peripheral granulocyte count, age, sex, and month of study. A high level of correlation also was noted between serum lysozyme and diabetes mellitus. This was at least in part attributable to greater average age in patients with diabetes. Suggestive relationship was established between serum lysozyme levels, respiratory diseases, and tuberculosis. These changes are believed to reflect active inflammation with excessive destruction of granulocytes and parenchymal tissues in those patients with the more acute processes. No relationship was found between serum lysozyme and previous exposure to ionizing radiation. These studies indicate that the serum lysozyme level may be useful in the study of the kinetics of leukopoiesis, the aging process, and in the detection of subtle inflammatory processes. 21 references, 5 tables.

  6. Creating Sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahana, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Laqueur’s influential yet controversial study Making Sex has, in many ways, revolutionized our understanding of sexuality in antiquity. Yet, most of Laqueur’s critics and supporters stressed the one-sex body, while the crux of his argument is the primacy of gender. Moreover, a systematic...

  7. Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sex-determining system differs considerably among organisms. Even among insect species, the genetic system for sex-determination is highly diversified. In Drosophila melanogaster, somatic sexual differentiation is regulated by a well characterized genetic hierarchy X : A > Sxl > tra/tra2 > dsx and fru. This cascade ...

  8. Serum homocysteine levels in cerebrovascular accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Zongte, Zolianthanga; Shaini, L.; Debbarma, Asis; Singh, Th Bhimo; Devi, S. Bilasini; Singh, W. Gyaneshwar

    2008-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia has been considered an independent risk factor in the development of stroke. The present study was undertaken to evaluate serum homocysteine levels in patients with cerebrovascular accidents among the Manipuri population and to compare with the normal cases. Ninety-three cerebrovascular accident cases admitted in the hospital were enrolled for the study and twenty-seven age and sex matched individuals free from cerebrovascular diseases were taken as control group. Serum h...

  9. Serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochna Viola, E.M.; Diaz de Domingo, N.B.; Lazarowski, A.

    1981-01-01

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis. (author) [es

  10. Abnormal sex chromosome constitution and longitudinal growth: serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone in 109 males with 47,XXY, 47,XYY, or sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY)-positive 46,XX karyotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Juul, A.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abnormal chromosome constitution...... and elevated LH levels after puberty, whereas the sex hormone secretion of the 47,XYY boys remained normal. CONCLUSION: We found accelerated growth in early childhood in boys with 47,XXY and 47,XYY karyotypes, whereas 46,XX-males were shorter than controls. These abnormal growth patterns were not reflected...

  11. Oral sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-05

    The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association urges HIV prevention specialists to regard male-to-male oral-genital sex as a low-risk activity and concentrate instead on the danger of unprotected anal intercourse. According to the association, the confusion and mixed messages surrounding oral sex are harming efforts to encourage gay men to make rational choices about truly risky behavior. The recommendations appear in the association's position paper issued March 19, 1996.

  12. Why Sex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....

  13. Modulation of SHBG binding to testosterone and estradiol by sex and morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasa, María Del Mar; Gulfo, José; Camps, Núria; Alcalá, Rosa; Monserrat, Laura; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Ortega, Francisco José; Esteve, Montserrat; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Alemany, Marià

    2017-04-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) binds and transports testosterone and estradiol in plasma. The possibility that SHBG is a mixture of transporting proteins has been postulated. We analyzed in parallel the effects of obesity status on the levels and binding capacity of circulating SHBG and their relationship with testosterone and estradiol. Anthropometric measures and plasma were obtained from apparently healthy young (i.e. 35 ± 7 years) premenopausal women ( n =  32) and men ( n =  30), with normal weight and obesity (BMI >30 kg/m 2 ). SHBG protein (Western blot), as well as the plasma levels of testosterone, estradiol, cortisol and insulin (ELISA) were measured. Specific binding of estradiol and testosterone to plasma SHBG was analyzed using tritium-labeled hormones. Significant differences in SHBG were observed within the obesity status and gender, with discordant patterns of change in testosterone and estradiol. In men, testosterone occupied most of the binding sites. Estrogen binding was much lower in all subjects. Lower SHBG of morbidly obese (BMI >40 kg/m 2 ) subjects affected testosterone but not estradiol. The ratio of binding sites to SHBG protein levels was constant for testosterone, but not for estradiol. The influence of gender was maximal in morbid obesity, with men showing the highest binding / SHBG ratios. The results reported here are compatible with SHBG being a mixture of at least two functionally different hormone-binding globulins, being affected by obesity and gender and showing different structure, affinities for testosterone and estradiol and also different immunoreactivity. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  14. Cutoff Values of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) in Normal Korean Adults and Factors Influencing Serum CEA Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Soon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    1994-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic Antigen is one of most frequently checked tumor markers in cancer management. We performed statistical analysis with serum CEA data of 2626 persons who received regular health examination and were thought to be free of active disease to determine the cutoff values of serum CEA level in normal Korean adults and to study the factors influencing serum CEA levels in normal subjects. 1) The cutoff values of serum CEA in normal Korean adults in general were 9.28 ng/ml for men, 5.90 ng/ml for women. 2) Serum CEA level was influenced by age, present smoking history, sex, and abnormal findings in chest X ray. 3) Serum CEA level had no correlation with the history of amount of alcohol consumption or obesity. 4) Cutoff values of serum CEA in normal Korean adults were tabulated according to age, sex, and smoking history. Serum CEA level was influenced by age, sex, present smoking history and abnormal findings in chest X ray and cutoff values of serum CEA were tabulated according to age, sex, and smoking history.

  15. Pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone associated with a base mutation in the hormone-binding domain of the human 3, 5,3[prime]-triiodothyronine receptor-[beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shigekazu; Nakamura, Hirotoshi; Tagami, Tetsuya; Miyoshi, Yohzi; Nogimori, Tsuyoshi; Mitsuma, Terunori; Imura, Hiroo (Kyoto Univ. School of Medicine, Aichi (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    Point mutations in the human T[sub 3] receptor-[beta] (TR[beta]) gene causing single amino acid substitutions have been identified in several different kindred with generalized resistance to thyroid hormone. Until now, no study has been reported on the TR gene in cases of pituitary resistance (PRTH). In the present study, the authors analyzed the TR[beta] gene in a 30-yr-old Japanese female with PRTH. She exhibited clinical features of hyperthyroidism, elevated serum thyroid hormone levels accompanied by inappropriately increased secretion of TSH, mildly elevated basal metabolic rate, and increased urinary excretion of hydroxyproline. No pituitary tumor was detected. DNA fragments of exons 3-8 of the geonomic TR[beta] gene were generated by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by a single stranded conformation polymorphism method. Exon 7 of the patient's TR[beta] gene showed an abnormal band, suggesting the existence of mutation(s). By subcloning and sequencing the DNA, a point mutation was identified in one allele at nucleotide 1297 (C to T), which altered the 333rd amino acid, arginine, to tryptophan. Neither of her apparently normal parents had any mutations of the TR[beta] gene. In vitro translation products of the mutant TR[beta] gene showed remarkably decreased T[sub 3]-binding activity (K[sub a], 2.1 [times] 10[sup 8] M[sup [minus]1]; normal TR[beta] K[sub a], 1.1 [times] 10[sup 10] M[sup [minus]1]). Since the molecular defect detected in a patient with PRTH is similar to that seen in subjects with generalized resistance to thyroid hormone, both types of the syndrome may represent a continuous spectrum of the same etiological defect with variable tissue resistance to thyroid hormone.

  16. Complement Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Salicylates Semen Analysis Serotonin Serum Free Light Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia ... and forming complexes that respond to infections, non-self tissues (transplants), dead cells ... KJ. Complement determinations in human disease. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol . 2004; ...

  17. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Vol. 2 (1) pp. 4 -16 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-16

    Jun 16, 2010 ... seeds (200 g/kg) was shown to increase both the .... seeds and oil is likely to increase. These attributes .... sex hormone-binding globulin in serum (Wu et al.,. 2006). ..... induced deficit in learning and memory in mice (Kim et al.

  18. Genetic and environmental influences of surfactant protein D serum levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Grith Lykke; Hjelmborg, Jacob v. B.; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    in the NH(2)-terminal region (Met11Thr) of the mature protein is significantly associated with the serum SP-D levels. A classic twin study was performed on a twin population including 1,476 self-reported healthy adults. The serum SP-D levels increased with male sex, age, and smoking status. The intraclass...... defining the constitutional serum level of SP-D and determine the magnitude of the genetic contribution to serum SP-D in the adult population. Recent studies have demonstrated that serum SP-D concentrations in children are genetically determined and that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located...

  19. Genetic and environmental influences of surfactant protein D serum levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, G.L.; Hjelmborg, J.V.; Kyvik, K.O.

    2006-01-01

    defining the constitutional serum level of SP-D and determine the magnitude of the genetic contribution to serum SP-D in the adult population. Recent studies have demonstrated that serum SP-D concentrations in children are genetically determined and that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located...... in the NH(2)-terminal region (Met11Thr) of the mature protein is significantly associated with the serum SP-D levels. A classic twin study was performed on a twin population including 1,476 self-reported healthy adults. The serum SP-D levels increased with male sex, age, and smoking status. The intraclass...

  20. Human Serum Protein-Bound iodine and Protein Fractions at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine profile of Nigerians at different ages in both sexes and in pregnant women, and under narcotic influence, such as alcoholism, cigarette smoking and marijuana addiction were studied. Their serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were also determined. Results of the study showed that serum protein ...

  1. Sex. Dev.

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubiczka, S.; Schröder, C.; Ullmann, R.; Volleth, M.; Ledig, S.; Gilberg, E.; Kroisel, P.; P. Wieacker, P.

    2010-01-01

    Campomelic dysplasia (MIM 114290) is a severe malformation syndrome frequently accompanied by male-to-female sex reversal. Causative are mutations within the SOX9 gene on 17q24.3 as well as chromosomal aberrations (translocations, inversions or deletions) in the vicinity of SOX9 . Here, we report on a patient with muscular hypotonia, craniofacial dysmorphism, cleft palate, brachydactyly, malformations of thoracic spine, and gonadal dysgenesis with female external genitalia and müllerian duct ...

  2. SERUM PARAOXONASE ACTIVITY IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saritha Gadicherla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Serum paraoxonase is an enzyme synthesised in the liver. It is known to prevent atherosclerosis by inhibiting oxidation of lowdensity lipoprotein. Renal transplant recipients have increased tendency for developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Reduced activity of serum paraoxonase contributes to accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular complications in these patients. The aim of this study was to estimate serum paraoxonase activity in renal transplant recipients and compare it with healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 renal transplant recipients and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls were taken for the study. Serum paraoxonase activity, blood urea, serum creatinine and uric acid were estimated in these groups. The serum paraoxonase activity was correlated with urea, creatinine and uric acid levels. RESULTS Serum paraoxonase activity was reduced in renal transplant recipients compared to healthy controls. There was a negative correlation between paraoxonase activity and the levels of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels. CONCLUSION In this study, the paraoxonase activity was reduced in renal transplant recipients compared to controls. The increased cardiovascular disease in these patients could be due to reduced paraoxonase activity.

  3. Serum homocystein level in patients with scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarinia, Mohammadali; Shams, Mesbah; Kamali Sarvestani, Eskandar; Shenavande, Saeede; Khademalhosseini, Maryam; Khademalhosseini, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic connective tissue disease. In this study, we compared the serum Homocystein (Hcy) level between patients with SSc and normal control group. The current study was conducted to determine whether serum Hcy levels are elevated in SSc patients and whether there is any correlation between Hcy levels and RP, Gastro intestinal and lung involvement. Forty one patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for SSc (39 females and 5 males) and Forty four community-based healthy individuals (sex and age matched) were enrolled in to the study. Serum Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate levels were determined. Thirty three patients (70.45%) had GI involvement, twenty two patients (50%) had lung involvement and twenty seven patients (61.36%) had Raynaud's phenomena. Mean serum Hcy level in control group was 22.78 ± 6.018 μmol/L and in case group was 19.43 ± 7.205 μmol/L, shows that the serum Hcy level in control group was significantly higher than patients (P = 0.020). Serum Hcy level is significantly lower in SSc patients than in control group. There is no statistically significant correlation between serum Hcy level and organ involvements.

  4. When Sex Is Painful

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  5. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  6. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003540.htm Protein electrophoresis - serum To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood ...

  7. Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of 13 studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J; Appleby, P N; Reeves, G K; Roddam, A W; Helzlsouer, K J; Alberg, A J; Rollison, D E; Dorgan, J F; Brinton, L A; Overvad, K; Kaaks, R; Trichopoulou, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Panico, S; Duell, E J; Peeters, P H M; Rinaldi, S; Fentiman, I S; Dowsett, M; Manjer, J; Lenner, P; Hallmans, G; Baglietto, L; English, D R; Giles, G G; Hopper, J L; Severi, G; Morris, H A; Hankinson, S E; Tworoger, S S; Koenig, K; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Arslan, A A; Toniolo, P; Shore, R E; Krogh, V; Micheli, A; Berrino, F; Barrett-Connor, E; Laughlin, G A; Kabuto, M; Akiba, S; Stevens, R G; Neriishi, K; Land, C E; Cauley, J A; Lui, Li Yung; Cummings, Steven R; Gunter, M J; Rohan, T E; Strickler, H D

    2011-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens, but the determinants of these hormones are not well understood. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of breast cancer risk factors and circulating hormone concentrations in more than 6000 postmenopausal women controls in 13 prospective studies. Results: Concentrations of all hormones were lower in older than younger women, with the largest difference for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was higher in the older women. Androgens were lower in women with bilateral ovariectomy than in naturally postmenopausal women, with the largest difference for free testosterone. All hormones were higher in obese than lean women, with the largest difference for free oestradiol, whereas SHBG was lower in obese women. Smokers of 15+ cigarettes per day had higher levels of all hormones than non-smokers, with the largest difference for testosterone. Drinkers of 20+ g alcohol per day had higher levels of all hormones, but lower SHBG, than non-drinkers, with the largest difference for DHEAS. Hormone concentrations were not strongly related to age at menarche, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy or family history of breast cancer. Conclusion: Sex hormone concentrations were strongly associated with several established or suspected risk factors for breast cancer, and may mediate the effects of these factors on breast cancer risk. PMID:21772329

  8. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  9. Association of serum uric acid with blood urea and serum creatinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.U.; Ahmad, Z.; Rehman, J.U.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hyperuricemia can cause serious health problems including renal insufficiency. Hyperuricemia is associated with many diseases including Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertriglyceridemia and Obesity. Objective of the present study was to study the Association of Serum Uric Acid with Blood Urea and Serum Creatinine. Methods: Eighty subjects, aged above 40, having blood urea more than 40 mg/dl and serum Creatinine more than 1.3 mg/dl were selected. 52.5 % subjects were male. Eighty subjects were selected as control group matching the age and sex with study group with normal blood urea and serum Creatinine. Results: Serum Uric Acid was found to be raised in 33 patients. Mean Serum Uric Acid value was 6.98+-2.021 in males (p<0.05) and 5.054+-2.324 in females (p<0.05). Conclusion: Serum Uric Acid is raised in patients with impaired renal function (p<0.05). Levels of increased Serum Uric Acid were not significantly associated with the cause of renal disease. (author)

  10. Sex Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Srivastava

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procrea­tional. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function. Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development. Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life. Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is

  11. SEX EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Srivastava

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procrea­tional. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function.Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development.Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life.Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is also

  12. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in relation to liver function in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, Patrick

    1983-01-01

    Serum concentrations of oestrone, oestradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly (P less than 0.01) raised in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (no. = 42) compared with age-matched controls (no. = 20). No signi......Serum concentrations of oestrone, oestradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly (P less than 0.01) raised in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (no. = 42) compared with age-matched controls (no. = 20...... affected liver function (no. = 18) had significantly (P less than 0.05) raised serum concentrations of testosterone, FSH, and LH when compared with both controls and patients with severely affected liver function (no. = 13). Serum concentrations of testosterone, FSH, and LH in the latter group showed...

  13. Quantitative sexing (Q-Sexing) and relative quantitative sexing (RQ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    samer

    Key words: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), quantitative sexing, Siberian tiger. INTRODUCTION. Animal molecular sexing .... 43:3-12. Ellegren H (1996). First gene on the avian W chromosome (CHD) provides a tag for universal sexing of non-ratite birds. Proc.

  14. Alcohol-related breast cancer in postmenopausal women – effect of CYP19A1, PPARG and PPARGC1A polymorphisms on female sex-hormone levels and interaction with alcohol consumption and NSAID usage in a nested case-control study and a randomised controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Jensen, Ditte Marie; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Cohen, Arieh; Sommer, Helle Molgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tjonneland, Anne; Hougaard, David Michael; Vogel, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of breast cancer (BC), and the underlying mechanism is thought to be sex-hormone driven. In vitro and observational studies suggest a mechanism involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in a complex with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) and interaction with aromatase (encoded by CYP19A1). Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) may also affect circulating sex-hormone levels by modifying PPARγ activity. In the present study we assessed whether genetic variation in CYP19A1 is associated with risk of BC in a case-control study group nested within the Danish “Diet, Cancer and Health” cohort (n cases = 687 and n controls = 687) and searched for gene-gene interaction between CYP19A1 and PPARGC1A, and CYP19A1 and PPARG, and gene-alcohol and gene-NSAID interactions. Association between the CYP19A1 polymorphisms and hormone levels was also examined among 339 non-HRT users. Incidence rate ratios were calculated based on Cox’ proportional hazards model. Furthermore, we performed a pilot randomised controlled trial to determine the effect of the PPARG Pro 12 Ala polymorphism and the PPARγ stimulator Ibuprofen on sex-hormone levels following alcohol intake in postmenopausal women (n = 25) using linear regression. Genetic variations in CYP19A1 were associated with hormone levels (estrone: P rs11070844 = 0.009, estrone sulphate: P rs11070844 = 0.01, P rs749292 = 0.004, P rs1062033 = 0.007 and P rs10519297 = 0.03, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG): P rs3751591 = 0.03) and interacted with alcohol intake in relation to hormone levels (estrone sulphate: P interaction/rs2008691 = 0.02 and P interaction/rs1062033= 0.03, and SHBG: P interaction/rs11070844 = 0.03). CYP19A1/rs3751591 was both associated with SHBG levels (P = 0.03) and with risk of BC (Incidence Rate Ratio = 2.12; 95 % Confidence Interval: 1.02–4.43) such that homozygous

  15. Selected Blood Serum Elements in Van (Turkey Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Altunok

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish Van cat originates from eastern Turkey. One of the characteristic features of Van cats is the colour of their eyes, which can be both eyes blue, both eyes amber or one eye blue and the other amber. Serum essential trace, macro and industrial element concentrations of Van cats (n = 47 according to sex, age, hair length and eye colour differences were investigated. Serum aluminium, arsenic, boron, barium, cobalt, chromium, copper, gallium, indium, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, nickel, selenium, silver, sulphur, strontium, vanadium and zinc were measured with ICP-OES plasma optical atomic emission spectrometer. In result, serum aluminium, barium, copper, manganese and strontium levels in male cats were found higher (p p p p > 0.05 found in the age and hair length groups. Our results indicate that several of the blood serum elements of Van cats may be related to their eye colours and sex differences.

  16. Cancer risk in relation to serum copper levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, R J; Weiss, N S; Daling, J R; Rettmer, R L; Warnick, G R

    1989-08-01

    A nested, matched case-control study was conducted to assess the relationship between serum levels of copper and the subsequent risk of cancer. One hundred thirty-three cases of cancer were identified during 1974-1984 among 5000 members of a northwest Washington State employee cohort from whom serum specimens had been previously obtained and stored. Two hundred forty-one controls were selected at random from the cohort and were matched to the cases on the basis of age, sex, race, and date of blood draw. Serum copper levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Risk of a subsequent diagnosis of cancer was positively associated with serum copper levels, but only among those cases diagnosed within 4 years of the time the serum specimens were collected. Among cases diagnosed more than 4 years after specimen collection, there was no consistent association between serum copper levels and risk. Adjustment for age, sex, race, occupational status, cigarette smoking, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, and, among females, use of exogenous hormones had no appreciable effect on these relationships. The findings suggest that the presence of cancer may increase serum copper levels several years prior to its diagnosis. They are less supportive of the hypothesis that serum copper levels affect cancer risk.

  17. Association of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwasaki Motoki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although global hypomethylation of leukocyte DNA has been associated with an increased risk of several sites of cancer, including breast cancer, determinants of global methylation level among healthy individuals remain largely unexplored. Here, we examined whether postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones were associated with the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the control group of a breast cancer case–control study in Nagano, Japan. Subjects were postmenopausal women aged 55 years or over who provided blood samples. We measured global methylation level of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA by luminometric methylation assay; estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex-hormone binding globulin by immunoradiometric assay. A linear trend of association between methylation and hormone levels was evaluated by regression coefficients in a multivariable liner regression model. A total of 185 women were included in the analyses. Results Mean global methylation level (standard deviation was 70.3% (3.1 and range was from 60.3% to 79.2%. Global methylation level decreased 0.27% per quartile category for estradiol and 0.39% per quartile category for estrone while it increased 0.41% per quartile category for bioavailable estradiol. However, we found no statistically significant association of any sex hormone level measured in the present study with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA. Conclusions Our findings suggest that endogenous sex hormones are not major determinants of the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA.

  18. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  19. Multiple sex partner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    intercourse, about 60% reported having a single sexual partner and 40% reported having multiple ... masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married people and/or .... sex were considered unacceptable by 89 vs.

  20. Serum gonadotropins levels in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertogh, R. De; Vankrieken, L.; Wolter, R.; Vliet, G. Van

    1989-01-01

    The complex changes in serum LH and FSH levels from infancy to adulthood are diversely evaluated by radioimmunoassays or bioassays. The relative lack of sensitivity and specificity of radioimmunoassay, using polyclonal antibodies, could possibly be overcome by new immunoradiometric assays, using specific antibodies to LH and FSH. Significant differences were indeed observed between radioimmunoassays and immunoradiometric assays. During the prepubertal period, LH levels, measured by the immunoradiometric assays, were below the sensitivity of the method in the majority of the samples. LH levels were, however, well detectable when measured with radioimmunoassay, showing the heterogeneity of circulating LH structures. At the onset of puberty, LH levels increased at least 3 to 4 times in both sexes, when measured with immunoradiometric assays, whereas their increase was only 20 to 60% with the radioimmunoassays. FSH levels remained well detectable in the prepubertal period whether measured by immunoradiometric or radioimmunoassays. At pubertal onset, FSH increase in both sexes was more important in the immunoradiometric assays. The results obtained with immunoradiometric assays give a better insight into the quantitative and qualitative function of the gonadotropes during childhood. The almost complete absence of LH during the prepubertal period and the steep increase at the onset of puberty better reflects the reported data obtained with bioassays. The persistance of significant levels of FSH in the prepubertal ages, and the lesser increase at the onset of puberty, when compared with LH, illustrates that the individual regulation of LH and FSH secretion vary over time and is influenced by developmental factors. (author)

  1. Serum zinc level in children with malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.M.; Mahmood, M.T.; Baluch, G.R.; Bhatti, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Serum zinc level amongst children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) was evaluated in a control study conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Allama Iqbal Medical College and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. Twenty-five children with PEM and 25 healthy children as control from the community were screened. Mean serum zinc level was found to be 54.48 -+ 18.91 mg/dl in children with PEM while it was 72.72 -+ 8.21 mg/dl in control group (P < 0.001). No significant difference in zinc level was noted between both sexes in each group. Marasmic 16 children revealed mean serum zinc level of 57.55 -+ 18.16 mg/dl while in Kwashiorkor it was 44.57 -+ 13.66 mg/dl. Serum zinc was significantly low in Kwashiorkor than in marasmus (P < 0.001). It was also significantly low in children with acute or chronic diarrhea associated with malnutrition (44.66 -+ 16.0 mg/dl). Acute respiratory infections in these children were not associated with low serum zinc level (71.66 -+ 16.51 mg/dl). (author)

  2. Understanding Sex for Sale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book Understanding Sex for Sale: Meanings and Moralities of Sexual Commerce is dedicated to the exploration of the ways in which sex prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are taken for granted by particularly looking at how the relation between sex and money is interpreted and enacted....... This interdisciplinary book aims to understand how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are defined, delineated, contested and understood in different places and times. The book offers contributions from a number of scholars who, based on their on their own research, discuss on going theoretical issues and analytical...... challenges Some chapters focuses on how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale have been regulated by the authorities and what understandings this regulation builds on. Other chapters investigate the experiences of the sex workers and sex buyers asking how these actors adjust to or resist the categorisation...

  3. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  4. effect of caricapryl-99 seed alkaloid extract on the serum levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    LEVELS OF SEX HORMONES AND PITUITARY GONADOTROPHINS IN MALE ... of caricapryl–99 seeds (Carica papaya Linn seeds) on the serum levels .... Textbook Reproductive Medicine (pp.157). ... United Nation, Department of Int. Econ.

  5. Genome-wide association study with 1000 genomes imputation identifies signals for nine sex hormone-related phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Katherine S; Campbell, Purdey J; Chew, Shelby; Lim, Ee Mun; Hadlow, Narelle; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A; Brown, Suzanne J; Feenstra, Bjarke; Joseph, John; Surdulescu, Gabriela L; Zheng, Hou Feng; Richards, J Brent; Murray, Anna; Spector, Tim D; Wilson, Scott G; Perry, John R B

    2016-02-01

    Genetic factors contribute strongly to sex hormone levels, yet knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms remains incomplete. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified only a small number of loci associated with sex hormone levels, with several reproductive hormones yet to be assessed. The aim of the study was to identify novel genetic variants contributing to the regulation of sex hormones. We performed GWAS using genotypes imputed from the 1000 Genomes reference panel. The study used genotype and phenotype data from a UK twin register. We included 2913 individuals (up to 294 males) from the Twins UK study, excluding individuals receiving hormone treatment. Phenotypes were standardised for age, sex, BMI, stage of menstrual cycle and menopausal status. We tested 7,879,351 autosomal SNPs for association with levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), oestradiol, free androgen index (FAI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, progesterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Eight independent genetic variants reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), with minor allele frequencies of 1.3-23.9%. Novel signals included variants for progesterone (P=7.68 × 10(-12)), oestradiol (P=1.63 × 10(-8)) and FAI (P=1.50 × 10(-8)). A genetic variant near the FSHB gene was identified which influenced both FSH (P=1.74 × 10(-8)) and LH (P=3.94 × 10(-9)) levels. A separate locus on chromosome 7 was associated with both DHEAS (P=1.82 × 10(-14)) and progesterone (P=6.09 × 10(-14)). This study highlights loci that are relevant to reproductive function and suggests overlap in the genetic basis of hormone regulation.

  6. Sex hormones and quantitative ultrasound parameters at the heel in men and women from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pätzug, Konrad; Friedrich, Nele; Kische, Hanna; Hannemann, Anke; Völzke, Henry; Nauck, Matthias; Keevil, Brian G; Haring, Robin

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigates potential associations between liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measured sex hormones, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and bone ultrasound parameters at the heel in men and women from the general population. Data from 502 women and 425 men from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) were used. Cross-sectional associations of sex hormones including testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (FT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), androstenedione (ASD), estrone (E1) and SHBG with quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters at the heel, including broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS) and stiffness index (SI) were examined by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariable quantile regression models. Multivariable regression analysis showed a sex-specific inverse association of DHEAS with SI in men (Beta per SI unit = - 3.08, standard error (SE) = 0.88), but not in women (Beta = - 0.01, SE = 2.09). Furthermore, FT was positively associated with BUA in men (Beta per BUA unit = 29.0, SE = 10.1). None of the other sex hormones (ASD, E1) or SHBG was associated with QUS parameters after multivariable adjustment. This cross-sectional population-based study revealed independent associations of DHEAS and FT with QUS parameters in men, suggesting a potential influence on male bone metabolism. The predictive role of DHEAS and FT as a marker for osteoporosis in men warrants further investigation in clinical trials and large-scale observational studies.

  7. Associations of urinary cadmium with circulating sex hormone levels in pre- and postmenopausal Japanese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Chisato; Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Tamura, Takashi; Wada, Keiko; Hayashi, Makoto; Takeda, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. The present study examined the associations between urinary cadmium levels and circulating sex hormone levels that are linked to breast cancer risk in healthy women. Methods: The study subjects were 396 premenopausal Japanese women who had regular menstrual cycles less than 40 days long and 207 postmenopausal Japanese women. Urinary cadmium was measured using spot urine samples. Plasma estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured. Additionally, the follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured for premenopausal women. Results: In premenopausal women, the urinary cadmium level either expressed in μg per liter or per g of urine creatinine was significantly inversely associated with total and free testosterone levels after controlling for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Total and free testosterone levels were 14.6% and 15.0% lower, respectively, in women in the highest quartile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine in those in the lowest quartile. In postmenopausal women, the urinary cadmium in μg per liter as well as per g creatinine was significantly inversely associated with the estradiol level after controlling for covariates. The estradiol level was 25.8% lower in women in the highest tertile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine than in those in the lowest tertile. Conclusions: The data suggest inverse associations between urinary cadmium and the plasma estradiol or testosterone level in Japanese women. - Highlights: • Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. • Urinary cadmium and plasma sex-hormone levels were measured in Japanese women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with testosterone in premenopausal women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with estradiol in postmenopausal

  8. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Victor H H; Tong, Terry Y Y

    2011-07-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men.

  9. Sex hormones and gene expression signatures in peripheral blood from postmenopausal women - the NOWAC postgenome study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rylander Charlotta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT influences endogenous hormone concentrations and increases the risk of breast cancer. Gene expression profiling may reveal the mechanisms behind this relationship. Our objective was to explore potential associations between sex hormones and gene expression in whole blood from a population-based, random sample of postmenopausal women Methods Gene expression, as measured by the Applied Biosystems microarray platform, was compared between hormone therapy (HT users and non-users and between high and low hormone plasma concentrations using both gene-wise analysis and gene set analysis. Gene sets found to be associated with HT use were further analysed for enrichment in functional clusters and network predictions. The gene expression matrix included 285 samples and 16185 probes and was adjusted for significant technical variables. Results Gene-wise analysis revealed several genes significantly associated with different types of HT use. The functional cluster analyses provided limited information on these genes. Gene set analysis revealed 22 gene sets that were enriched between high and low estradiol concentration (HT-users excluded. Among these were seven oestrogen related gene sets, including our gene list associated with systemic estradiol use, which thereby represents a novel oestrogen signature. Seven gene sets were related to immune response. Among the 15 gene sets enriched for progesterone, 11 overlapped with estradiol. No significant gene expression patterns were found for testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH or sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG. Conclusions Distinct gene expression patterns associated with sex hormones are detectable in a random group of postmenopausal women, as demonstrated by the finding of a novel oestrogen signature.

  10. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  11. Associations of urinary cadmium with circulating sex hormone levels in pre- and postmenopausal Japanese women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Chisato, E-mail: chisato@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Tamura, Takashi; Wada, Keiko [Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Hayashi, Makoto [Department of Internal Medicine, Matsunami General Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Takeda, Noriyuki [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Murakami Memorial Hospital, Asahi University, Gifu (Japan); Yasuda, Keigo [Department of Internal Medicine, Matsunami General Hospital, Gifu (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Background: Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. The present study examined the associations between urinary cadmium levels and circulating sex hormone levels that are linked to breast cancer risk in healthy women. Methods: The study subjects were 396 premenopausal Japanese women who had regular menstrual cycles less than 40 days long and 207 postmenopausal Japanese women. Urinary cadmium was measured using spot urine samples. Plasma estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured. Additionally, the follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured for premenopausal women. Results: In premenopausal women, the urinary cadmium level either expressed in μg per liter or per g of urine creatinine was significantly inversely associated with total and free testosterone levels after controlling for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Total and free testosterone levels were 14.6% and 15.0% lower, respectively, in women in the highest quartile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine in those in the lowest quartile. In postmenopausal women, the urinary cadmium in μg per liter as well as per g creatinine was significantly inversely associated with the estradiol level after controlling for covariates. The estradiol level was 25.8% lower in women in the highest tertile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine than in those in the lowest tertile. Conclusions: The data suggest inverse associations between urinary cadmium and the plasma estradiol or testosterone level in Japanese women. - Highlights: • Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. • Urinary cadmium and plasma sex-hormone levels were measured in Japanese women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with testosterone in premenopausal women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with estradiol in postmenopausal

  12. Male patients with terminal renal failure exhibit low serum levels of antimüllerian hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Eckersten

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive function is impaired during end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and therefore the regulation of sex hormones, is one of the major causes. Our focus was to include antimüllerian hormone (AMH and inhibin B concentrations. Twenty male patients on hemodialysis, median age 40 (26-48 years, were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, testosterone, estradiol, AMH and inhibin B levels. We used 144 proven fertile men, median age 32 (19-44 years as a control group and analyzed differences using multiple linear regression. Males with ESRD demonstrated higher mean values for prolactin, 742 versus normal 210 mIE l−1 (95% confidence interval (CI: 60.3, 729, LH, 8.87 versus normal 4.5 IE l−1 (95% CI: 2.75, 6.14, and estradiol 89.7 versus normal 79.0 pmol l−1 (95% CI: −1.31, −0.15. Mean value for AMH was lower, 19.5 versus normal 47.3 pmol l−1 (95% CI: −37.6, −11.6. There were no differences found for FSH, SHBG, inhibin B and testosterone. The most important difference was found for AMH, a marker of Sertoli cell function in the testes, which decreased by close to 60% when compared with controls. Combined with an increase in LH, these findings may indicate a dysfunction of Sertoli cells and an effect on Leydig cells contributing to a potential mechanism of reproductive dysfunction in men with ESRD.

  13. Haematological profile and serum biochemical indices of weaned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the haematological profile and serum biochemical indices of rabbits fed pawpaw (Carica papaya) leaves as feed supplement to a corn – soybean mealbasal diet. The study involved thirty six (36) cross bred (New Zealand White X Chinchilla) mixed sex weaned rabbits of five - six ...

  14. Pattern of Serum Electrolytes Changes among Non Psychotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Serum electrolytes, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, were measured in 30 depressed patients at the Neuropsychiatric Hospital Rumuigbo, Port Harcourt before therapy commenced and after four (4) weeks of amitriptyline. Thirty (30) known non psychotic disordered subjects matched for age and sex were used as control.

  15. Transthyretin Ala36Pro mutation in a Chinese pedigree of familial transthyretin amyloidosis with elevated vitreous and serum vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xuan; Dong, Fangtian; Zhang, Shuying; Tian, Rong; Sui, Ruifang

    2013-05-01

    The familial transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis (FTA) demonstrates variable penetrance of clinical features associated with mutations in the plasma thyroid hormone-binding protein TTR gene. The purpose of this study was to assess the ocular features, to analyze vitreous and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels, and to identify the genetic defect in a Chinese family with TTR FTA. The pedigree of interest was a three-generation family with eleven members. The primary ocular signs were vitreous opacities, beginning from the third or fourth decade, accompanied by retinal vasculitis, hemorrhages, and widespread pinpoint deposits in the peripheral retina. Two patients underwent vitrectomy with marked improvement of visual acuity postoperatively. Vitreous and serum samples for VEGF were analyzed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Forty-eight healthy adult volunteers were enrolled as a control group for the analysis of serum VEGF. Eight subjects who underwent vitrectomy for a macular epiretinal membrane or macular hole were enrolled as control for the analysis of vitreous VEGF. Both serum and vitreous VEGF levels of patients were raised compared to that of controls. Venous blood was collected from family members and the genomic DNA was extracted. All exons and exon-intron boundaries of the TTR gene were sequenced. A previously-described pathogenic transversion in exon 2 (c.G106C, p.Ala36Pro) was identified. Within this family eight individuals were confirmed as affected. In conclusion, a Chinese family with TTR Ala36Pro associated FTA is characterized by early ocular involvement. Widespread pinpoint lesions indicate RPE lesions caused by TTR deposition. FTA is associated with increased VEGF levels, both in serum and vitreous. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Aging and sex hormones in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaroli, Maria Chiara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several large cohort studies have disclosed the trajectories of sex steroids changes overtime in men and their clinical significance. In men the slow, physiological decline of serum testosterone (T) with advancing age overlaps with the clinical condition of overt, pathological hypogonadism. In addition, the increasing number of comorbidities, together with the high prevalence of chronic diseases, all further contribute to the decrease of serum T concentrations in the aging male. For all these reasons both the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in men and the decision about starting or not T replacement treatment remain challenging. At present, the biochemical finding of T deficiency alone is not sufficient for diagnosing hypogonadism in older men. Coupling hypogonadal symptoms with documented low serum T represents the best strategy to refine the diagnosis of hypogonadism in older men and to avoid unnecessary treatments. PMID:27831823

  17. High serum levels of YKL-40 in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck are associated with short survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslind, Anne; Johansen, Julia S; Christensen, Ib J

    2008-01-01

    by immunohistochemistry in 50 patients. Pretreatment serum YKL-40 was elevated in 53%. Patients with high serum YKL-40 had shorter survival than patients with normal serum YKL-40 (33 vs. 84 months; p = 0.008). Multivariate Cox analysis including pretreatment serum YKL-40, age, sex, primary tumor site, TNM classification...... and treatment demonstrated that TNM classification (HR = 2.61, p = 0.02) and serum YKL-40 (log-transformed continuous variable: HR = 1.55, p...

  18. Serum homocysteine levels in cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongte, Zolianthanga; Shaini, L; Debbarma, Asis; Singh, Th Bhimo; Devi, S Bilasini; Singh, W Gyaneshwar

    2008-04-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia has been considered an independent risk factor in the development of stroke. The present study was undertaken to evaluate serum homocysteine levels in patients with cerebrovascular accidents among the Manipuri population and to compare with the normal cases. Ninety-three cerebrovascular accident cases admitted in the hospital were enrolled for the study and twenty-seven age and sex matched individuals free from cerebrovascular diseases were taken as control group. Serum homocysteine levels were estimated by ELISA method using Axis homocysteine EIA kit manufactured by Ranbaxy Diagnostic Ltd. India. The finding suggests that hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with cerebrovascular accident with male preponderance, which increases with advancing age. However, whether hyperhomocysteinemia is the cause or the result of cerebrovascular accidents needs further investigations.

  19. Reference values for fasting serum resistin in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula Louise

    2017-01-01

    are needed for the risk stratification and interpretation of individual serum resistin concentrations. METHODS: A total of 1191 healthy, non-obese Danish schoolchildren (727 girls) aged 6-18years (median 11.9) were included. Fasting serum resistin concentrations were quantitated by Human Resistin ELISA...... in both boys (p=0.02) and girls (pFasting serum resistin concentrations differ between sexes...

  20. Alfa-fetoprotein secreting ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum D Jashnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors are relatively infrequent neoplasms that account for approximately 8% of all primary ovarian tumors. They are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms composed of cells derived from gonadal sex cords (granulosa and Sertoli cells, specialized gonadal stroma (theca and Leydig cells, and fibroblasts. They may show androgenic or estrogenic manifestations. We report such a tumor associated with markedly raised serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels in a young female presenting with a mass and defeminising symptoms. Serum AFP levels returned to normal on removal of tumor.

  1. Sex Steroid Actions in Male Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Michaël R.; Claessens, Frank; Gielen, Evelien; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Börjesson, Anna E.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroids are chief regulators of gender differences in the skeleton, and male gender is one of the strongest protective factors against osteoporotic fractures. This advantage in bone strength relies mainly on greater cortical bone expansion during pubertal peak bone mass acquisition and superior skeletal maintenance during aging. During both these phases, estrogens acting via estrogen receptor-α in osteoblast lineage cells are crucial for male cortical and trabecular bone, as evident from conditional genetic mouse models, epidemiological studies, rare genetic conditions, genome-wide meta-analyses, and recent interventional trials. Genetic mouse models have also demonstrated a direct role for androgens independent of aromatization on trabecular bone via the androgen receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes, although the target cell for their key effects on periosteal bone formation remains elusive. Low serum estradiol predicts incident fractures, but the highest risk occurs in men with additionally low T and high SHBG. Still, the possible clinical utility of serum sex steroids for fracture prediction is unknown. It is likely that sex steroid actions on male bone metabolism rely also on extraskeletal mechanisms and cross talk with other signaling pathways. We propose that estrogens influence fracture risk in aging men via direct effects on bone, whereas androgens exert an additional antifracture effect mainly via extraskeletal parameters such as muscle mass and propensity to fall. Given the demographic trends of increased longevity and consequent rise of osteoporosis, an increased understanding of how sex steroids influence male bone health remains a high research priority. PMID:25202834

  2. Sex Education: Another View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jennifer

    1977-01-01

    The mother of a 14-year-old mentally retarded boy comments on the viewpoints of Dr. Sol Gordon (a sex education columnist) regarding masturbation, questions on sex, marriage, and the parents' role. (SBH)

  3. Sex in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøgholt, Ida

    2017-01-01

    Sex er en del af vores sociale praksis og centralt for det, vi hver især er. Men bortset fra pornoindustrien, har vi ikke mange muligheder for at få adgang til billeder af sex. Teater Nordkrafts forestilling Sex in situ vil gøre seksuelle billeder til noget, der kan deles, udveksles og tales om, og...

  4. Coeducation and Sex Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary B.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the sex role stereotypes held by 538 first-term Australian university students from single-sex and coeducational high schools is presented. Results suggest that coeducational schooling may have some advantages for fostering interactions with the opposite sex. (MSE)

  5. sex and Cannibalism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 12. The Secret Sex Lives of Rotifers Sex - sex and Cannibalism. T Ramakrishna Rao. General Article Volume 5 Issue 12 December 2000 pp 41-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. A Sex Work Research Symposium: Examining Positionality in Documenting Sex Work and Sex Workers’ Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Lowthers; Magdalena Sabat; Elya M. Durisin; Kamala Kempadoo

    2017-01-01

    Historically, academic literature on sex work has documented the changing debates, policies, and cultural discourse surrounding the sex industry, and their impact on the rights of sex workers worldwide. As sex work scholars look to the future of sex workers’ rights, however, we are also in a critical moment of self-reflection on how sex work scholarship engages with sex worker communities, produces knowledge surrounding sex work, and represents the lived experiences of sex workers’ rights, or...

  7. Serum adiponectin levels in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyaz, I.; Shah, S.I.; Ghani, M.

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocytokine secreted from white adipose tissue. Serum level of adiponectin has been shown to be reduced in several disease states like obesity and diabetes. Hypoadiponectinemia has also been included in the list of newer risk factors for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). In this analytical cross-sectional study serum adiponectin level was measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) in 60 cases of coronary artery disease (CAD) (both sexes, aged 40-60 yrs) and 60 healthy controls. Low levels of adiponectin were seen in CAD patients as well as controls. These levels were lower as compared to western standards. Our study conforms to the previous observation of lower serum adiponectin levels in South Asians compared to the western standards. Serum adiponectin level should be considered in the laboratory work-up of CAD patients. (author)

  8. Study of serum osteocalcin levels in patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Ningyan; Zhang Jingxin; Li Huiping; Gong Yiming

    2001-01-01

    In order to study the serum osteocalcin (OC) level in hyperthyroidism, serum osteocalcin, FT 3 , FT 4 and TSH were measured by radioimmunoassay in 87 patients with hyperthyroidism and 52 healthy volunteers. The results indicated that the serum osteocalcin level was decreased with age increasing in healthy volunteers and there was no significant difference in sex (P > 0.05). Serum concentration of OC was significantly higher in untreated hyperthyroid patients than that in healthy volunteers (P 3 , FT 4 (FT 3 :r 0.84 - 0.27, P 4 :r = 0.58 - 0.29, P < 0.01), but not with TSH. Conclusion: Thyroid hormones might speed up bone turnover directly with increased bone resorption to induce bone mass loss. These results indicate that OC is a highly sensitive marker for altered bone metabolism in hyperthyroidism

  9. Neuroprotection of Sex Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyue; Kelley, Melissa H.; Herson, Paco S.; Hurn, Patricia D.

    2011-01-01

    Sex steroids are essential for reproduction and development in animals and humans, and sex steroids also play an important role in neuroprotection following brain injury. New data indicate that sex-specific responses to brain injury occur at the cellular and molecular levels. This review summarizes the current understanding of neuroprotection by sex steroids, particularly estrogen, androgen, and progesterone, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. Better understanding of the role of sex steroids under physiological and pathological conditions will help us to develop novel effective therapeutic strategies for brain injury. PMID:20595940

  10. Evaluación de la globulina transportadora de hormonas esteroidales (SHBG) durante el embarazo como factor predictor de pre-eclampsia y restricción del crecimiento intrauterino

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés R,Enrique; Lattes A,Karina; Muñoz S,Hernán; Ángel Cumsille,Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sex-Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) may be associated to Pre-eclampsia (PE) and Fetal Growth Restriction (RCIU). Aim: To determine if maternal serum SHBG concentrations during the first and second trimesters are predictive biomarkers of Pre-eclampsia and RCIU. Patients and Methods: Prospective cohort study carried out in the Fetal Medicine Unit, Universidad de Chile Clinical Hospital between January, 2005 and December, 2006. Blood samples were obtained from unselectedpregnant wome...

  11. Associations between urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and reproductive hormones in fertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, J; Jørgensen, N; Andersson, A-M

    2010-01-01

    metabolites were measured in urine and serum samples were analysed for reproductive hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, inhibin B and oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Pearson correlations and parametric tests were used for unadjusted analyses...... inversely correlated with the urinary concentrations of four DEHP metabolites. After adjustment by appropriate covariates, there was no longer an association between urinary DEHP metabolite concentrations and total testosterone levels; however, FAI was significantly associated with the urinary...

  12. Associations between urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and reproductive hormones in fertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, J; Jørgensen, N; Andersson, A-M

    2011-01-01

    metabolites were measured in urine and serum samples were analysed for reproductive hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, inhibin B and oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Pearson correlations and parametric tests were used for unadjusted analyses...... inversely correlated with the urinary concentrations of four DEHP metabolites. After adjustment by appropriate covariates, there was no longer an association between urinary DEHP metabolite concentrations and total testosterone levels; however, FAI was significantly associated with the urinary...

  13. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Sexing young snowy owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidensticker, M.T.; Holt, D.W.; Detienne, J.; Talbot, S.; Gray, K.

    2011-01-01

    We predicted sex of 140 Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus) nestlings out of 34 nests at our Barrow, Alaska, study area to develop a technique for sexing these owls in the field. We primarily sexed young, flightless owls (3844 d old) by quantifying plumage markings on the remiges and tail, predicting sex, and collecting blood samples to test our field predictions using molecular sexing techniques. We categorized and quantified three different plumage markings: two types of bars (defined as markings that touch the rachis) and spots (defined as markings that do not touch the rachis). We predicted sex in the field assuming that males had more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on the remiges and rectrices. Molecular data indicated that we correctly sexed 100% of the nestlings. We modeled the data using random forests and classification trees. Both models indicated that the number and type of markings on the secondary feathers were the most important in classifying nestling sex. The statistical models verified our initial qualitative prediction that males have more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on flight feathers P6P10 for both wings and tail feathers T1 and T2. This study provides researchers with an easily replicable and highly accurate method for sexing young Snowy Owls in the field, which should aid further studies of sex-ratios and sex-related variation in behavior and growth of this circumpolar owl species. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  15. Osho - Insights on sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a mysterious phenomenon, which has puzzled even great sages. Human beings have researched and mastered the biology of sex. But that is not all. Sex needs to be understood from the spiritual perspective too. The vision of Osho is an enlightening experience in this regard. Out of the thousands of lectures, five lectures on sex made Osho most notorious. Born into a Jain family of Madhya Pradesh, Rajneesh, who later wanted himself to be called Osho, is a great master. He has spoken volumes on a wide range of topics ranging from sex to super-consciousness. His contributions in the area of sex are based on the principles of "Tantra" which has its origin from Buddhism. This article focuses on his life and insights on sex, which if understood properly, can be a stepping stone for enlightenment.

  16. Radioimmunoassay of haloperidol in human serum: correlation of serum haloperidol with serum prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poland, R.E.; Rubin, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of serum haloperidol is described. Compared to gaschromatography (GC), RIA vaues average 40% higher. However, a simple organic extraction of serum yields statistically equivalent RIA and GC haloperidol determinations. For both men and women combined, there was a positive correlation between dose (mg/kg/day) and steady-state serum haloperidol level (r = +0.86) and between steady-state serum haloperidol and serum prolactin (PRL) concentration

  17. Helping Behavior: Effects of Sex and Sex-Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Crawley, Donna M.

    1982-01-01

    Male and female experimenters requested adult shoppers (N=178) to fill out a questionnaire. Refusal data showed shoppers helping other-sex more than same-sex experimenters. Other results showed a significant three-way interaction among helper and helpee sex and sex-typing and situation sex-typing and that helper sex-typing did not have significant…

  18. Serum YKL-40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylin, Anne K; Abildgaard, Niels; Johansen, Julia S

    2015-01-01

    to clinical progression, i.e. skeletal-related events (SREs), in 230 newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma receiving intravenous bisphosphonates. Serum concentrations of YKL-40 and biochemical bone markers (CTX-MMP, CTX-I, PINP) were measured at diagnosis. Patients were evaluated every third month...

  19. 79 - 81_Wali - Serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... SERUM ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE. CELL ANAEMIA IN ... play a role in the development of sickle cell anaemic complications. In the current study, ... vaso-occlusive episodes, acute chest syndrome and impaired ... frequency of sickling crises accompanied by tissue or.

  20. Serum zinc and copper levels in children with febrile convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shokrzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Febrile convulsions (FC are the most common neurologic disorder in children 6-60 months of age. Zinc (Zn and copper (Cu play role as cofactors in more than 300 enzymatic activities significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship serum levels of Zn and Cu with seizure occurrence in febrile children. In this case-control study, 270 children with 6 month to 6 years were evaluated. The patients were enrolled in three groups: a children with febrile convulsion, b febrile children without convulsion and c healthy ones. After recording of all patients’ characteristics, 5 mL blood was taken from peripheral vessels at the first 12 hours of hospitalization. Absorption of all samples was read by BRAIC (Rayleigh instrument company, WFX-130 model with calibration diagram, considering samples dilution levels. The mean of serum Zn levels in children with FC were significantly lower than other two groups. Mean serum Cu levels in children with FC and non-FC patients were significantly higher than healthy children. No meaningful differences were observed in serum levels of Zn and Cu among the girl or boy cases. This study showed significant lower serum zinc level in children with febrile seizure and meaningful higher serum copper level than control group cases. There was no significant difference in level of serum zinc and copper in term of sex.

  1. Evaluation of the serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Rostami Mogaddam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Vitiligo is an acquired, idiopathic disorder characterized by circumscribed depigmented macules and patches, which affects approximately 0.1–2% of the general population worldwide. Zinc is an essential trace element that is necessary for growth and development at all stages of life. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and vitiligo. Aim : To measure the serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo compared to healthy subjects. Material and methods : One hundred patients with vitiligo and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. The two groups were matched for age and sex. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc levels. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results : The mean serum level of zinc in vitiligo patients and controls was 80.11 ±17.10 µg/dl and 96.10 ±16.16 µg/dl, respectively. The serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo was significantly lower than in healthy controls (p = 0.0001. Conclusions : The results of our study revealed a significant association between vitiligo and serum zinc levels. A relative decrease in the serum zinc level in vitiligo patients can highlight the role of zinc in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, and large-scale studies need to be conducted to confirm these findings and assess the effect of oral zinc supplements in patients with low zinc levels.

  2. Genetic factors explain half of all variance in serum eosinophil cationic protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmose, Camilla; Sverrild, Asger; van der Sluis, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    with variation in serum ECP and to determine the relative proportion of the variation in ECP due to genetic and non-genetic factors, in an adult twin sample. METHODS: A sample of 575 twins, selected through a proband with self-reported asthma, had serum ECP, lung function, airway responsiveness to methacholine......, exhaled nitric oxide, and skin test reactivity, measured. Linear regression analysis and variance component models were used to study factors associated with variation in ECP and the relative genetic influence on ECP levels. RESULTS: Sex (regression coefficient = -0.107, P ... was statistically non-significant (r = -0.11, P = 0.50). CONCLUSION: Around half of all variance in serum ECP is explained by genetic factors. Serum ECP is influenced by sex, BMI, and airway responsiveness. Serum ECP and airway responsiveness seem not to share genetic variance....

  3. Fordelinger af serum total kolesterol i befolkninger med varierende risiko for hjerte-karsygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, P; Voss, A; Hørder, M

    1990-01-01

    , it was found that serum total cholesterol increases with age in all groups. A distinct sex difference was observed in the majority of investigations: in the age groups under 25 years and over 50 years, women have higher serum total cholesterol values than men while, in the age group 25-50 years, men have......By means of search in the literature and subsequent meta-analysis, the authors have described the serum total cholesterol values in three different risk groups for cardiovascular disease. High total serum cholesterol levels were associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition...

  4. Doing gender in sex and sex research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2009-12-01

    Gender is central to sexuality, and vice versa, but there are a number of difficulties with the treatment of gender in sex research. Apparently, it is hard to find a balance between two conflicting needs. First, obviously, it is necessary to make distinctions between women and men, for political as well as research-technical and theoretical reasons. A second requirement, at odds with the first one, is the necessity to understand gender and its relation to sexuality and the body as much more complex than simplistically referring to two sets of individuals. This is all the more necessary when one realizes the possible drawbacks of exaggerating the differences between the sexes (in particular when they are biologically explained), because of stereotyping, stigmatizing, and expectancy confirmatory processes. This essay identifies and discusses 10 difficulties in the treatment of gender in sex research, reflects on their origins, and reviews theory and evidence with the aim to (1) consider the relative strength of gender/sex as an explanatory variable compared to other factors and processes explaining differences between men and women on a number of sexual aspects, (2) inform an understanding of gender and its relation to sexuality as an ongoing, open-ended, multi-determined, situated, interactional process, with the body as a third player, and (3) argue in favor of a nuanced, well-balanced treatment of gender in sex research.

  5. Serum cholesterol levels of Seventh-day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C B; Allen, E S; Mikkelson, B; Kang-Jey, H

    1976-10-01

    Serum cholesterol levels and dietary habits were surveyed in 27 male and 34 female Seventh-day Adventist. All subjects studied were lacto-ovo-vegetarians and a few consumed some meat products. Their serum cholesterol levels, significantly lower than those of the United States general population, showed no sex difference but increased with age and were higher in overweight males. Their levels, however, were much higher than those of true vegetarians which was most likely attributable to their consumption, even though to a limited acount, of dairy foods.

  6. Joint relative risks for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer from a clinical model, polygenic risk score, and sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Yiwey; Hu, Donglei; Ma, Lin; Huntsman, Scott; Gard, Charlotte C; Leung, Jessica W T; Tice, Jeffrey A; Ziv, Elad; Kerlikowske, Karla; Cummings, Steven R

    2017-11-01

    Models that predict the risk of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers may improve our ability to target chemoprevention. We investigated the contributions of sex hormones to the discrimination of the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) risk model and a polygenic risk score comprised of 83 single nucleotide polymorphisms. We conducted a nested case-control study of 110 women with ER-positive breast cancers and 214 matched controls within a mammography screening cohort. Participants were postmenopausal and not on hormonal therapy. The associations of estradiol, estrone, testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin with ER-positive breast cancer were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. We assessed the individual and combined discrimination of estradiol, the BCSC risk score, and polygenic risk score using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Of the sex hormones assessed, estradiol (OR 3.64, 95% CI 1.64-8.06 for top vs bottom quartile), and to a lesser degree estrone, was most strongly associated with ER-positive breast cancer in unadjusted analysis. The BCSC risk score (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.00-1.75 per 1% increase) and polygenic risk score (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.06-2.36 per standard deviation) were also associated with ER-positive cancers. A model containing the BCSC risk score, polygenic risk score, and estradiol levels showed good discrimination for ER-positive cancers (AUROC 0.72, 95% CI 0.65-0.79), representing a significant improvement over the BCSC risk score (AUROC 0.58, 95% CI 0.50-0.65). Adding estradiol and a polygenic risk score to a clinical risk model improves discrimination for postmenopausal ER-positive breast cancers.

  7. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  8. Serum Creatinine: Not So Simple!

    OpenAIRE

    DELANAYE, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Pottel, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Measuring serum creatinine is cheap and commonly done in daily practice. However, interpretation of serum creatinine results is not always easy. In this review, we will briefly remind the physiological limitations of serum creatinine due notably to its tubular secretion and the influence of muscular mass or protein intake on its concentration. We mainly focus on the analytical limitations of serum creatinine, insisting on important concept such as reference intervals, standardization (and IDM...

  9. The Human Serum Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychogios, Nikolaos; Hau, David D.; Peng, Jun; Guo, An Chi; Mandal, Rupasri; Bouatra, Souhaila; Sinelnikov, Igor; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Eisner, Roman; Gautam, Bijaya; Young, Nelson; Xia, Jianguo; Knox, Craig; Dong, Edison; Huang, Paul; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Smith, Steven R.; Bamforth, Fiona; Greiner, Russ; McManus, Bruce; Newman, John W.; Goodfriend, Theodore; Wishart, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology) in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca. PMID:21359215

  10. Sex tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Many foreigners visit Thailand in search of sex. While long-distance tourism was long enjoyed by members of more privileged social classes, even the lower economical classes of Japan, Malaysia, Europe, America, and Australia can now afford to travel over long distances. This relatively new breed of tourist is more likely to be of lower socioeconomic and educational status and less likely to use condoms when having sex. An estimated 30,000 sex workers are active in Bangkok, of whom 7000/10,000 are females who work specifically in the tourism sector. 1/2-1/3 of the 600 commercial sex establishments in the city are visited by foreigners. Phuket, Pattaya, Koh Samui, and Chiangmai are also well-frequented by sex tourists. Overall, a large, diverse, inexpensive, and accessible commercial sex market exists in Thailand. One may meet sex workers quasi-ubiquitously and be assured to find someone capable of meeting one's sexual needs. With these attributes, Thailand strongly attracts tourists in search of sex. A certain degree of recklessness also prevails among those on vacation. Away from the peers and social mores of their native lands, tourists may engage in sexually activities without criticism. Likewise, Thai sex workers who cater to foreigners, especially females, enjoy more freedom and control in sexual relations than their peers who work among nationals. Neither single nor married women in Thailand are allowed much sexual freedom and are traditionally expected to be obliging docile, and submissive. The greater than normal personal latitude enjoyed by both sex worker and foreigner lead to more negotiation on condom use and overall lower use. As such, Thailand's commercial sex market with foreigners' involvement therein threatens to spread HIV to many other countries throughout the world.

  11. The evolution of sex ratios and sex-determining systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido; Wapstra, Erik; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Komdeur, Jan

    Sex determination is a fundamental process governed by diverse mechanisms. Sex ratio selection is commonly implicated in the evolution of sex-determining systems, although formal models are rare. Here, we argue that, although sex ratio selection can induce shifts in sex determination, genomic

  12. Serum immunoglobulin levels in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, C B; Hall, W J; Ashley, F W; Hamilton, H B

    1972-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulins (SI) were determined in 803 survivors and matched controls. Each subject's age, sex, health, exposure, and medical record were evaluated with respect to serum IgG, IgA, IgM levels. The IgG and IgA levels tended to be higher for this Hiroshima population than for Americans. Past exposure to ionizing radiation showed no significant correlation to SI levels. However, age and sex did influence the SI. IgM was significantly higher in females. With advancing age IgG and IgA increased in males, and IgM decreased in females. Elevated sedimentation rate and increased lymphocytes were accompanied by increased SI levels. Radiographic TB was detected in 45% of the population; IgG and IgA levels were somewhat elevated in these individuals. (DLC)

  13. Sex Determination, Sex Ratios, and Genetic Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werren, John H.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic mechanisms of sex determination are unexpectedly diverse and change rapidly during evolution. We review the role of genetic conflict as the driving force behind this diversity and turnover. Genetic conflict occurs when different components of a genetic system are subject to selection in

  14. Insects and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Most organisms reproduce sexually, but the evolution of sexual reproduction is not yet well understood. Sexual reproduction leads to new variation and adaptations to the environment, but sex is also costly. Some insects reproduce without sex through parthenogenesis or paedogenesis. Almost all sexual

  15. Sex Away from Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Harold

    1971-01-01

    The reasons why people who are normally truthful to their spouses engage in sex away from home are discussed. These reasons can include loneliness, ego building or the opportunity to have homosexual relations. Sex away from home is likely to increase since the number of people traveling is increasing. (Author/CG)

  16. Single-Sex Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Although single-sex education was once the norm in the U.S., the practice has largely been confined to private schools for more than a century. However, with the introduction of the final version of the U.S. Department of Education's so-called single-sex regulations in 2006, public schools were allowed greater flexibility to offer single-sex…

  17. Sex Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer-Magdoff, Laura

    1969-01-01

    After briefly discussing the philosophy of sex education and appraising generally the nature of the instructional methods and materials currently in use in the schools, the author provides brief but incisive reviews of a number of films, filmstrips, and other instructional materials dealing with sex. The reviews are continued in the succeeding…

  18. Sex-specific phenotypes of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakov, Helena; Engels, Kathrin; Hönes, Georg Sebastian; Strucksberg, Karl-Heinz; Moeller, Lars Christian; Köhrle, Josef; Zwanziger, Denise; Führer, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is more common in the female population, however, the impact of sex on disease characteristics has rarely been addressed. Using a murine model, we asked whether sex has an influence on phenotypes, thyroid hormone status, and thyroid hormone tissue response in hyper- and hypothyroidism. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced in 5-month-old female and male wildtype C57BL/6N mice, by LoI/MMI/ClO4 (-) or T4 i.p. treatment over 7 weeks, and control animals underwent sham treatment (N = 8 animals/sex/treatment). Animals were investigated for impact of sex on body weight, food and water intake, body temperature, heart rate, behaviour (locomotor activity, motor coordination, and strength), liver function, serum thyroid hormone status, and cellular TH effects on gene expression in brown adipose tissue, heart, and liver. Male and female mice showed significant differences in behavioural, functional, metabolic, biochemical, and molecular traits of hyper- and hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism resulted in increased locomotor activity in female mice but decreased muscle strength and motor coordination preferably in male animals. Hypothyroidism led to increased water intake in male but not female mice and significantly higher serum cholesterol in male mice. Natural sex differences in body temperature, body weight gain, food and water intake were preserved under hyperthyroid conditions. In contrast, natural sex differences in heart rate disappeared with TH excess and deprivation. The variations of hyper- or hypothyroid traits of male and female mice were not explained by classical T3/T4 serum state. TH serum concentrations were significantly increased in female mice under hyperthyroidism, but no sex differences were found under eu- or hypothyroid conditions. Interestingly, analysis of expression of TH target genes and TH transporters revealed little sex dependency in heart, while sex differences in target genes were present in liver and brown adipose tissue

  19. Grizzly bear corticosteroid binding globulin: Cloning and serum protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Alsop, Derek; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2010-06-01

    Serum corticosteroid levels are routinely measured as markers of stress in wild animals. However, corticosteroid levels rise rapidly in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint for sampling, limiting its use as an indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that serum corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary transport protein for corticosteroids in circulation, may be a better marker of the stress status prior to capture in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). To test this, a full-length CBG cDNA was cloned and sequenced from grizzly bear testis and polyclonal antibodies were generated for detection of this protein in bear sera. The deduced nucleotide and protein sequences were 1218 bp and 405 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments showed that grizzly bear CBG (gbCBG) was 90% and 83% identical to the dog CBG nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The affinity purified rabbit gbCBG antiserum detected grizzly bear but not human CBG. There were no sex differences in serum total cortisol concentration, while CBG expression was significantly higher in adult females compared to males. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in bears captured by leg-hold snare compared to those captured by remote drug delivery from helicopter. However, serum CBG expression between these two groups did not differ significantly. Overall, serum CBG levels may be a better marker of chronic stress, especially because this protein is not modulated by the stress of capture and restraint in grizzly bears. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Serum magnesium is associated with the risk of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieboom, Brenda C T; Licher, Silvan; Wolters, Frank J; Ikram, M Kamran; Hoorn, Ewout J; Zietse, Robert; Stricker, Bruno H; Ikram, M Arfan

    2017-10-17

    To determine if serum magnesium levels are associated with the risk of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer disease. Within the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study, we measured serum magnesium levels in 9,569 participants, free from dementia at baseline (1997-2008). Participants were subsequently followed up for incident dementia, determined according to the DSM-III-R criteria, until January 1, 2015. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to associate quintiles of serum magnesium with incident all-cause dementia. We used the third quintile as a reference group and adjusted for age, sex, Rotterdam Study cohort, educational level, cardiovascular risk factors, kidney function, comorbidities, other electrolytes, and diuretic use. Our study population had a mean age of 64.9 years and 56.6% were women. During a median follow-up of 7.8 years, 823 participants were diagnosed with all-cause dementia. Both low serum magnesium levels (≤0.79 mmol/L) and high serum magnesium levels (≥0.90 mmol/L) were associated with an increased risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.69, and HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.67, respectively). Both low and high serum magnesium levels are associated with an increased risk of all-cause dementia. Our results warrant replication in other population-based studies. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Serum bicarbonate and bone mineral density in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L; Abramowitz, Matthew K

    2015-02-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Cross-sectional study. 9,724 nationally representative adults 20 years or older in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 1999-2004. Serum bicarbonate level. Lumbar and total BMD, as well as low lumbar and total bone mass, defined as 1.0 SD below the sex-specific mean value of young adults. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate was measured in all participants. Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD in the total population, as well as in sex-specific models (P=0.02 for all 3 models, P=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate level for women but not men (P=0.02 and P=0.1, respectively; P=0.8 for interaction), and a significant association was seen for postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women (P=0.02 and P=0.2, respectively; P=0.5 for interaction). Compared with women with serum bicarbonate levels <24mEq/L, those with serum bicarbonate levels ≥27mEq/L had 0.018-g/cm(2) higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; P=0.01) and 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; P=0.049). Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate. Subgroup differences are not definitive. Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be incorporated into the diagnostic assessment and management of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation

  2. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of free-ranging brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) in Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.

    1999-01-01

    Hematologic and serum chemistry values are reported for 105 brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) from Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific. Hematocrit, estimated total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Hematologic and serum chemistry values varied with age and sex. Values were compared with those of red-footed boobies and other tropical and temperate marine pelecaniforms.

  3. Free serum thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrossi, O.J.; Altschuler, Noe; Cabrejas, M.L. de; Pinkas, Mirta; Garcia del Rio, Hernan

    1982-01-01

    The use of radiommunoassay (RIA) tehcniques has increased the diagnosis of thyroid functional alterations. A solid phase RIA method for free thyroxine (FT4) measurement was tested. Serum FT4, Total T4, T3 and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay in 179 subjects. One hundred twenty two patients were normal (8 to 75 years old); FT4 was 1.42 +- 0.03 ng/100 ml (avg. value and std. error). In 27 cases of thyrotoxicosis the values were 4.66 +- 0.48 ng/100 ml and in 15 cases of hypothyroidism 0.50 +- 0.06 ng/100 ml (statistics probability [es

  4. Basal serum pancreatic polypeptide is dependent on age and gender in an adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimnes Damholt, M; Rasmussen, B K; Hilsted, L

    1997-01-01

    This study is the first epidemiologically based study of basal levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide (s-PP). The basal level of serum PP has become a field of interest mainly due to the role of PP as an endocrine tumour marker, and as a marker of pancreatic neuroendocrine function after pancreas...... a monospecific radioimmunoassay. Fasting serum pancreatic polypeptide depended on age and gender. The results demonstrated that fasting pancreatic polypeptide levels increase exponentially with age. Fitted separately for each sex, basal serum pancreatic polypeptide was found to increase by approximately 3% per...... reports on the fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide are most likely due to lack of adjustment for age and gender. Thus, variation due to age and gender should be considered in evaluating fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide. Whether similar considerations are important when evaluating...

  5. ABCC-JNIH adult health study: Hiroshima. Serum lysozyme determinations, April-June 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S C; Lamphere, J P; Jablon, S

    1961-01-01

    Serum lysozyme levels were determined on 670 consecutive subjects seen for regularly scheduled clinic examinations of the Adult Health Study in Hiroshima. Serum lysozyme levels were found to vary significantly with the absolute peripheral granulocyte count, age, sex, and month of study. A high level of correlation also was noted between serum lysozyme and diabetes mellitus. This was at least in part attributable to greater average age in patients with diabetes. A suggestive relationship was established between serum lysozyme levels, respiratory diseases, and tuberculosis. These changes are believed to reflect active inflammation with excessive destruction of granulocytes and parenchymal tissues in those patients with the more acute processes. No relationship was found between serum lysozyme and previous exposure to ionizing radiation. These studies indicate that the serum lysozyme level may be useful in the study of the kinetics of leukopoiesis, the aging process, and in the detection of subtle inflammatory processes.

  6. Sex: a sensitive issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Health care workers and educators may need to improve their skills in discussing sensitive issues in order to elicit and understand what influences people's attitudes toward sex. While the health worker may be bent upon preventing HIV infection, advising on family planning, or teaching youth about sexual relationships, his or her audience may have other priorities. A good counselor/teacher must learn what people's concerns are and discuss sexual health within that context. It can be difficult talking about sex because sex is a private concern and many people are embarrassed discussing it. Even sex partners often find it difficult to talk to each other about sex. Appropriate communication techniques vary depending upon the situation. It depends upon whether one is addressing people on an individual basis or in groups, which people are being addressed, which organization one is representing, and what one's role is. Good communication is a two-way sharing of information. The different stages of life, common beliefs and myths, culture and religion, relationships between men and women, reasons for having sex, and sex practices are discussed.

  7. Circulating sex hormones and terminal duct lobular unit involution of the normal breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodr, Zeina G; Sherman, Mark E; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Gierach, Gretchen L; Brinton, Louise A; Falk, Roni T; Patel, Deesha A; Linville, Laura M; Papathomas, Daphne; Clare, Susan E; Visscher, Daniel W; Mies, Carolyn; Hewitt, Stephen M; Storniolo, Anna Maria V; Rosebrock, Adrian; Caban, Jesus J; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2014-12-01

    Terminal duct lobular units (TDLU) are the predominant source of breast cancers. Lesser degrees of age-related TDLU involution have been associated with increased breast cancer risk, but factors that influence involution are largely unknown. We assessed whether circulating hormones, implicated in breast cancer risk, are associated with levels of TDLU involution using data from the Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank (KTB) at the Indiana University Simon Cancer Center (2009-2011). We evaluated three highly reproducible measures of TDLU involution, using normal breast tissue samples from the KTB (n = 390): TDLU counts, median TDLU span, and median acini counts per TDLU. RRs (for continuous measures), ORs (for categorical measures), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), and Ptrends were calculated to assess the association between tertiles of estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), progesterone, and prolactin with TDLU measures. All models were stratified by menopausal status and adjusted for confounders. Among premenopausal women, higher prolactin levels were associated with higher TDLU counts (RRT3vsT1:1.18; 95% CI: 1.07-1.31; Ptrend = 0.0005), but higher progesterone was associated with lower TDLU counts (RRT3vsT1: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.72-0.89; Ptrend < 0.0001). Among postmenopausal women, higher levels of estradiol (RRT3vsT1:1.61; 95% CI: 1.32-1.97; Ptrend < 0.0001) and testosterone (RRT3vsT1: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.09-1.59; Ptrend = 0.0043) were associated with higher TDLU counts. These data suggest that select hormones may influence breast cancer risk potentially through delaying TDLU involution. Increased understanding of the relationship between circulating markers and TDLU involution may offer new insights into breast carcinogenesis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(12); 2765-73. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Making Healthy Decisions About Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Teens: How to Make Healthy Decisions About Sex Page Content Article Body Before you decide to ... alcohol or use drugs. Are You Ready for Sex? Sex can change your life and relationships. Having ...

  9. Dyspareunia: Painful Sex for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and ... Share Print What is dyspareunia? Dyspareunia is painful sex for women. Also, it causes pain during tampon ...

  10. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  11. Sex education in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, A; Vilar, D

    1991-05-01

    The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the

  12. Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D and concentrations of circulating sex hormones in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Howard A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D is used as a marker of prenatal sex hormone exposure. The objective of this study was to examine whether circulating concentrations of sex hormones and SHBG measured in adulthood was associated with 2D:4D. Methods This analysis was based on a random sample from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. The sample consisted of of 1036 men and 620 post-menopausal women aged between 39 and 70 at the time of blood draw. Concentrations of circulating sex hormones were measured from plasma collected at baseline (1990-1994, while digit length was measured from hand photocopies taken during a recent follow-up (2003-2009. The outcome measures were circulating concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenediol glucoronide for men only and oestrone sulphate for women only. Free testosterone and oestradiol were estimated using standard formulae derived empirically. Predicted geometric mean hormone concentrations (for tertiles of 2D:4D and conditional correlation coefficients (for continuous 2D:4D were obtained using mixed effects linear regression models. Results No strong associations were observed between 2D:4D measures and circulating concentrations of hormones for men or women. For males, right 2D:4D was weakly inversely associated with circulating testosterone (predicted geometric mean testosterone was 15.9 and 15.0 nmol/L for the lowest and highest tertiles of male right 2D:4D respectively (P-trend = 0.04. There was a similar weak association between male right 2D:4D and the ratio of testosterone to oestradiol. These associations were not evident in analyses of continuous 2D:4D. Conclusions There were no strong associations between any adult circulating concentration of sex hormone or SHGB and 2D:4D. These results contribute to the growing body of evidence indicating that 2D:4D is unrelated to adult sex

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection and serum ferritin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Bode, G; Blettner, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori may possibly affect the iron metabolism by occult bleeding, impaired absorption of non-hem iron, and by scavenging hem iron or ferritin, as some studies have suggested. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between H. pylori infection and serum ferritin...... in 1987/1988. The examination included a detailed questionnaire on medical history and lifestyle factors, a 7-day food record, and blood samples. Infection with H. pylori was measured serologically by ELISA and Westernblot. RESULTS: In total, 39.2% of 1806 persons aged 18 to 89 yr included in the study...... were H. pylori positive, of whom 57.6% had an infection with a CagA-positive H. pylori strain. Age- and sex-adjusted geometric mean of ferritin was 54.5 microg/dl among H. pylori-infected compared with 63.8 microg/dl among uninfected persons. A multiple linear regression model with log...

  14. Study of the role of serum folic acid in atopic dermatitis: A correlation with serum IgE and disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha A Shaheen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Most atopic dermatitis (AD patients have elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE. Impaired folic acid (FA metabolism was found to reduce the intracellular methyl donor pool, associated with a higher prevalence of atopy. Aim : To assess serum IgE and FA in AD patients and to correlate their levels with the disease severity, and with each other. Materials and Methods : Twenty patients with AD were assessed for serum FA and IgE, compared with 20 age- and sex-matched controls. Patients were classified into three groups (mild, moderate, and severe AD based on clinical severity according to Nottingham index. In both patients and controls, serum IgE was measured using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique and serum FA was measured using Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay technique. Results : Serum FA levels were lower in AD patients compared with controls, but the difference was not statistically significant. FA levels did not show statistically significant difference among disease severity groups and did not correlate with serum IgE levels. On the other hand, serum IgE levels were significantly elevated in AD patients compared with controls, and among AD patients, its levels were significantly elevated in severe AD compared with mild and moderate disease. Conclusion : Serum IgE is useful in assessment of AD severity and activity. FA contribution to AD needs further investigations.

  15. Serum Creatinine: Not So Simple!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaye, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Pottel, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Measuring serum creatinine is cheap and commonly done in daily practice. However, interpretation of serum creatinine results is not always easy. In this review, we will briefly remind the physiological limitations of serum creatinine due notably to its tubular secretion and the influence of muscular mass or protein intake on its concentration. We mainly focus on the analytical limitations of serum creatinine, insisting on important concept such as reference intervals, standardization (and IDMS traceability), analytical interferences, analytical coefficient of variation (CV), biological CV and critical difference. Because the relationship between serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate is hyperbolic, all these CVs will impact not only the precision of serum creatinine but still more the precision of different creatinine-based equations, especially in low or normal-low creatinine levels (or high or normal-high glomerular filtration rate range). © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Sex, Deportation and Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Sine

    2017-01-01

    recirculating the claim that human trafficking is the “third largest” criminal economy after drugs and weapons. Based on ethnographic fieldwork among Nigerian sex worker migrants conducted in Benin City, Nigeria, in 2011 and 2012, this study brings together four otherwise isolated migration economies......This contribution explores the economies interlinked by the migration of Nigerian women sex workers. The literature and politics of sex work migration and human trafficking economies are commonly relegated to the realm that focuses on profits for criminal networks and pimps, in particular...... – facilitation, remittances, deportation, and rescue – and suggests that we have to examine multiple sites and relink these in order to more fully understand the complexity of sex work migration. Drawing upon literature within transnational feminist analysis, critical human trafficking studies, and migration...

  17. Commentary Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    2008-01-31

    Jan 31, 2008 ... years old (Charnier 1966 reported it in an African agamid lizard), although it was ... people's attention in Susumu Ohno's now famous book on .... If they do enhance male and female fitness, sex chromosomes would then be.

  18. Commentary Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    2008-01-31

    ZW is reserved for female heterogamety.) The Radder et al study used lab incubation regimes that mimic temperature profiles of cool natural nests, so temperature probably determines sex at least occasionally in nature.

  19. Female Sex Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Intyre, Maria Kleivan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This project explores the phenomenon of North American and Western European women, who travel to the Global South and engage in sexual encounters with the local men. This project has positioned itself as a postcolonial critique, arguing that female sex tourism is a form of neocolonialism. It has also investigated the term romance tourism, where it has found that as a result of essentialist gender stereotyping, the female version of sex tourism has been titled ‘romance tourism’. The p...

  20. Sex and Horror

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The combination of sex and horror may be disquieting to many, but the two are natural (if perhaps gruesome) bedfellows. In fact, sex and horror coincide with such regularity in contemporary horror fiction that the two concepts appear to be at least partially intertwined. The sex–horror relationship is sometimes connotative rather than overt; examples of this relationship range from the seduction overtones of 'Nosferatu' and the juxtaposition of nudity and horror promised by European exploitat...

  1. Radioimmunoassay of cholylglycine in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakushima, Tadashi; Yamanishi, Yasuhito; Hirayama, Chisato

    1979-01-01

    Serum levels of cholylglycines (CG) were determined by radioimmunoassay and that of total bile acids (TBA) by enzymatic method. In normal subjects, serum levels of CG, TBA and CG/TBA ratio were 0.6 +- 0.4 μM, 7 +- 2 μM, and 0.08 +- 0.06, respectively. They were increased markedly in acute hepatitis and moderately in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Thus, measurement of serum CG as compared with serum TBA appears to be a sensitive liver test. (author)

  2. [Serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy children during growth and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Ljiljana; Savić, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Many changes happen during growth and development in an organism as a result of important hormon changes, especially biohumoral ones. These changes make a problem when interpreting biochemical results in pediatric population. The most important changes are intensive calcium and phosphorus metabolic turnover in bone tissue with changes in alkaline phosphatase activity as a result of osteoblast activity. The aim of this study was to follow the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in children 1-15 years old in different growth and development period and of different sexes and to fortify the influence of growth and development dynamics on biohumoral status in healthy male and female children. We evaluated 117 healthy children of both sexes from 1-15 years of age and divided them into three age groups: 1-5, 6-10 and 11-15 years. We followed the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in different groups and in different sexes. Our investigation found significantly higher values of serum calcium in boys than in girls with no important changes between the age groups and significantly higher values of serum phosphorus in the youngest age group in all children and in different sexes with no important sex differences. Alkaline phosphatase activity followed the growth spurt and was the biggest in 6-10 years group in girls and in 11-15 years group in boys.

  3. Serum zinc status of neonates with seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olia Sharmeen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seizure is a common neurological disorder in neonatal age group!. Primary metabolic derangement is one of the important reason behind this convulsion during this period. Among primary metabolic derangement hypoglycemia, is most common followed by bypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia, low zinc status etc. As causes of many cases of convul­sion remain unknown in neonate. Objectives: To see the zinc status in the sera of neonate with convulsion. So that if needed early intervention can be taken up and thereby prevent complications. Method: A total of 50 neonates (1-28 days who had convulsion with no apparent reasons of convulsion were enrolled as cases and 50 healthy age and sex matched neonates were enrolled as controls. After a quick clinical evaluation serum zinc status was estimated from venous blood by atomic absorption method in Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Centre. Low zinc was considered if serum value was <0.7mg/L. Results: Among a total of 50 cases 6% had low zinc value & 2% of controls also had low zinc level. The mean serwu zinc level of cases and controls were 1.57±0.95 and 2.37±1.06 mmol/1 respectively (p<0.01. Conclusion: From the study it is seen that low zinc value is an important cause of neonatal seizure due to primary metabolic abnormalities. So early recognition and treatment could save these babies from long term neurological sequelies.

  4. Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium in emergency surgical patients in a tertiary hospital in Ghana. Robert Djagbletey, Brenda Phillips, Frank Boni, Christian Owoo, Ebenezer Owusu-Darkwa, Papa Kobina Gyakye deGraft-Johnson, Alfred E. Yawson ...

  5. Sex hormones and breast cancer risk in premenopausal women: collaborative reanalysis of seven prospective studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationships of circulating concentrations of oestrogens, progesterone and androgens with breast cancer and related risk factors in premenopausal women are not well understood. Methods Individual data on prediagnostic sex hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations were contributed by 7 prospective studies. Analyses were restricted to women who were premenopausal and under age 50 at blood collection, and to breast cancer cases diagnosed before age 50. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for breast cancer associated with hormone concentrations were estimated by conditional logistic regression in up to 767 cases and 1699 controls matched for age, date of blood collection, and day of cycle, with stratification by study and further adjustment for cycle phase. The associations of hormones with risk factors for breast cancer in control women were examined by comparing geometric mean hormone concentrations in categories of these risk factors, adjusted for study, age, phase of menstrual cycle and body mass index (BMI). All statistical tests were two-sided. Findings ORs for breast cancer associated with a doubling in hormone concentration were 1.19 (95% CI 1.06–1.35) for oestradiol, 1.17 (1.03–1.33) for calculated free oestradiol, 1.27 (1.05–1.54) for oestrone, 1.30 (1.10–1.55) for androstenedione, 1.17 (1.04–1.32) for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, 1.18 (1.03–1.35) for testosterone and 1.08 (0.97–1.21) for calculated free testosterone. Breast cancer risk was not associated with luteal phase progesterone (for a doubling in concentration OR=1.00 (0.92–1.09)), and adjustment for other factors had little effect on any of these ORs. The cross-sectional analyses in control women showed several associations of sex hormones with breast cancer risk factors. Interpretation Circulating oestrogens and androgens are positively associated with the risk for breast cancer in premenopausal women. PMID:23890780

  6. Activation of PPAR by Rosiglitazone Does Not Negatively Impact Male Sex Steroid Hormones in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR activation decreased serum testosterone (T in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2 in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR. It is not clear if PPAR modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the long term impact of PPAR activation on steroid sex hormones in males is critical. Our objective was to determine the effect of PPAR activation on serum and intratesticular T, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and E2 concentrations in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats treated with the PPAR agonist rosiglitazone (a thiazolidinedione. Treatment for eight weeks increased PPAR mRNA and protein in the testis and elevated serum adiponectin, an adipokine marker for PPAR activation. PPAR activation did not alter serum or intratesticular T concentrations. In contrast, serum T level but not intratesticular T was reduced by diabetes. Neither diabetes nor PPAR activation altered serum E2 or gonadotropins FSH and LH concentrations. The results suggest that activation of PPAR by rosiglitazone has no negative impact on sex hormones in male ZDF rats.

  7. AIDS and sex tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior.

  8. The effect of essential hypertension on serum uric acid level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawed, S.; Khawaja, T.F.; Sultan, M.A.; Ahmad, S.

    2005-01-01

    Patient with arterial hypertension and no definable cause are said to have essential, primary or idiopathic hypertension. A total of 100 patients suffering from essential hypertension and 100 control subjects with almost same mean age and sex distribution were enrolled in this study. Levels of serum uric acid, total cholesterol, TG, and HDL-c were determined by enzymatic colorimetric method. Serum LDL-c and VLDL-c was calculated by using Friedewald and Wilson's formulae. The study was aimed to find out the levels of serum uric acid and lipid profile in patients with essential hypertension and to compare them with levels of normal healthy individuals. Results show increased level of serum uric acid and lipid parameters except for HDL-c, which was significantly, decreased in patients with essential hypertension as compared to the control subjects. Variations in aforementioned parameters were also observed on comparing the obese and the non-obese patients. It can be concluded from the present study that the essential hypertension is associated with abnormalities in the levels of serum uric acid and lipid profile. (author)

  9. DETERMINATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reaction of tribromoarsenazo(TB-ASA) with serum albumin in the presence of emulgent OP was studied by spectrophotometry. In a Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 2.9, tribromoarsenazo and bovine serum albumin can immediately form a red compound in the presence of emulgent OP with a maximum absorption ...

  10. Serum androgen levels in women who have recurrent miscarriages and their correlation with markers of endometrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okon, M A; Laird, S M; Tuckerman, E M; Li, T C

    1998-04-01

    To compare plasma androgen concentrations in women who have recurrent miscarriages and in fertile women, and to correlate the results with concentrations of the endometrial protein PP14 in uterine flushings and plasma from women who have recurrent miscarriages. Retrospective study. Hospital research unit. Women attending a recurrent miscarriage clinic and normal fertile volunteers. Ten of the women with recurrent miscarriages had polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) as assessed by ultrasonography or increased follicular LH levels. Plasma samples were obtained from the women on days LH-7, LH-4, LH+0, and LH+7 or LH+10 of a cycle. An endometrial flushing sample and a biopsy specimen were taken from women with recurrent miscarriages on day LH+7 or LH+10. Androstenedione, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in the plasma samples. The endometrial protein PP14 was measured in the uterine flushings and in the LH+7 or LH+10 plasma samples from the women with recurrent miscarriages. Testosterone concentrations were higher in the women with recurrent miscarriages both with and without PCOD on days LH-7 and LH-4 of the cycle. Concentrations of androstenedione also were higher in the women with recurrent miscarriages, but without PCOD on day LH-7. Testosterone SHBG ratios were higher in the women with recurrent miscarriages, without PCOD compared with the controls on days LH-7, LH+0, and LH+7. Mean follicular testosterone concentrations were correlated negatively with both uterine (r = -0.47) and plasma (r = -0.49) PP14 levels on day LH+10. Mean luteal phase testosterone SHBG ratios were correlated negatively with uterine PP14 concentrations on day LH+7 of the cycle (r = -0.674). Androgen levels are higher in women who have recurrent miscarriages than in normal fertile controls. These high levels of androgens may have a detrimental effect on endometrial function.

  11. Teleology and Defining Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Nathan K; Pruski, Michal

    2018-07-01

    Disorders of sexual differentiation lead to what is often referred to as an intersex state. This state has medical, as well as some legal, recognition. Nevertheless, the question remains whether intersex persons occupy a state in between maleness and femaleness or whether they are truly men or women. To answer this question, another important conundrum needs to be first solved: what defines sex? The answer seems rather simple to most people, yet when morphology does not coincide with haplotypes, and genetics might not correlate with physiology the issue becomes more complex. This paper tackles both issues by establishing where the essence of sex is located and by superimposing that framework onto the issue of the intersex. This is achieved through giving due consideration to the biology of sexual development, as well as through the use of a teleological framework of the meaning of sex. Using a range of examples, the paper establishes that sex cannot be pinpointed to one biological variable but is rather determined by how the totality of one's biology is oriented towards biological reproduction. A brief consideration is also given to the way this situation could be comprehended from a Christian understanding of sex and suffering.

  12. Reduced total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Schieffer

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD results in increased oxidative stress that damages the colonic microenvironment. Low levels of serum bilirubin, an endogenous antioxidant, have been associated with increased risk for Crohn's disease (CD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC. We identified a retrospective case-control population (n = 6,649 from a single tertiary care center, Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSU and a validation cohort (n = 1,996 from Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center (VCU. Cases were age- and sex-matched to controls (PSU: CD n = 254, UC n = 187; VCU: CD n = 233, UC n = 124. Total serum bilirubin levels were obtained from de-identified medical records and segregated into quartiles. Logistic regression analysis was performed on each quartile of total serum bilirubin compared to the last quartile (highest bilirubin levels to determine the association of total serum bilirubin with UC. Similar to CD patients, UC patients demonstrated reduced levels of total serum bilirubin compared to controls at PSU and VCU. The lowest quartile of total serum bilirubin was independently associated with UC for the PSU (OR: 1.98 [95% CI: 1.09-3.63] and VCU cohorts (OR: 6.07 [95% CI: 3.01-12.75]. Lower levels of the antioxidant bilirubin may reduce the capability of UC patients to remove reactive oxygen species leading to an increase in intestinal injury. Therapeutics that reduce oxidative stress may be beneficial for these patients.

  13. Changes of serum prolactin level in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jian; Li Hairu; Chen Yaming; Tang Guihong; Xu Yalan

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the change of serum prolactin (PRL) level in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, serum PRL level in 79 normal person and 68 cases of patient s was measured by RIA. The result showed that serum PRL level was significantly higher in 26 patients (38.2%, 26/68) than that in the control (P 0.05) between the sex and region of lesion. The above results indicated that proportion of patient with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma was hyperprolactinaemia and the change of PRL was related to the development in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. (authors)

  14. Same sex families and children

    OpenAIRE

    Mršević Zorica

    2009-01-01

    Introduction comprises the information on two main forms of same sex families, civic partnership (same sex partnership) and same sex marriage. Countries and various status modalities of legal regulations are mentioned. The main part of the text is dedicated to presentation of the findings of the most recent research on various aspects regarding children of same sex partnerships. It comprises presentations grouped in four main chapters: acceptance of same sex partnerships, acceptance of legal ...

  15. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...... has also been linked to a reduced responsiveness to relaxin. The present chapter will focus on sex difference in tendon injury risk, tendon morphology and tendon collagen turnover, but also on the specific effects of estrogen and androgens....

  16. Clinical significance of changes of serum osteocalcin (BGP) levels in subjects of different age-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lihua; Zhang Jin; Han Cuihua; Ouyang Qiaohong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum BGP levels in different age-groups. Methods: Serum BGP levels were determined with RIA in 306 subjects of different age-groups. Results: The serum BGP levels were highest in subjects of the pre-adolescent group (age5-15, n=60, vs other groups, all P 50, n=80, P<0.001). Levels in the middle age group were the lowest and were significantly lower than those in the old age group (P<0.001). No sex related differences were observed in the pre-adolescent and middle age groups, but in the youth group, serum BGP levels were significantly higher in the males than those in the females (P<0.05). However, in the old age group, the reverse was true i.e. values being significantly higher in the females (vs males, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum BGP levels varied greatly among the different age groups. (authors)

  17. Reduced serum concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in transsexual Brazilian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Aguiar, Bianca; Tusset, Cíntia; Andreazza, Tahiana; Schneider, Maiko; da Rosa, Eduarda Dias; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Schwarz, Karine; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Borba, André Oliveira; Mueller, Andressa; Massuda, Raffael; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2016-09-06

    Serum BDNF levels are significantly decreased in transsexual Brazilian women when compared to cis-sexual men. Since transsexual men are also exposed to chronic social stress and have a high prevalence of associated psychopathologies, it is plausible to inquire if BDNF serum levels are altered in transsexual men as well. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate differences in BDNF serum level of transsexual men when compared to cis-sexual men and women. Our sample comprises 27 transsexual men, 31 cis-sexual women and 30 cis-sexual men recruited between 2011 and 2015. We observed that BDNF serum concentration is decreased in transsexual men comparing to cis-sexual men and women. Cross-sex hormone treatment, chronic social stress or long-term gender dysphoria (GD) could explain the variation found in BDNF serum levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex Disparities in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2015-01-01

    between 2003 and 2012 (N=79 617), and the Danish Register of Causes of Death. Information was available on age, sex, marital status, stroke severity, stroke subtype, socioeconomic status, and cardiovascular risk profile. We studied only deaths due to the index stroke, with the assumption that death.......5%) or 1 month (6.9%), respectively. After the age of 60 years, women had more severe strokes than men. Up to ages in the mid-60s, no difference in the risk of death from stroke was seen between the 2 sexes. For people aged >65 years, however, the risk gradually became greater in men than in women...

  19. Serum nitric oxide metabolites and disease activity in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Mo Yin; Fung, Peter Chin Wah; Ooi, Clara; Tse, Hung Fat; Wong, Yik; Lam, Yui Ming; Wong, Woon Sing; Lau, Chak Sing

    2008-03-01

    There is no surrogate marker in serum for defining disease activity in scleroderma (SSc). Nitric oxide (NO), which regulates vasodilation and possesses pro-inflammatory actions, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of SSc. We compared serum NO(x) (total nitrate and nitrite) level in SSc patients to healthy controls and evaluated its correlation with detailed symptomatology and scoring systems for various organ involvement. Symptoms and physical findings that suggested disease activity in regard to various organs were documented. Lung function test, high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scan of thorax and echocardiography were performed. Serum NO(x) was measured by chemiluminescence. Serum NO(x) levels in SSc (n = 43) were significantly higher (72.4 +/- 47.8 microM) than age- and sex-matched controls (n = 41; 37.1 +/- 13.5 microM; p n = 9; OR 145.3, p = 0.01) were predictive factors for elevated serum NO(x). Prednisolone use was associated with lower serum NO(x) level (OR 0.06, p = 0.04). Elevated PAP of increasing severity was found to be associated with higher level of serum NO(x) (p = 0.004 by trend). Serum NO(x) in SSc patients were elevated compared to healthy controls. Serum NO(x) level was determined by multiple factors including age, prednisolone use, and elevated PAP.

  20. Serum selenium concentration is associated with metabolic factors in the elderly: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hui-Ying

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium is an essential micronutrient known for its antioxidant function. However, the association of serum selenium with lipid profiles and fasting glucose are inconsistent in populations with average intake of selenium. Furthermore, there were few studies conducted specifically for the elderly. This study examined the relationship of serum selenium concentration with serum lipids and fasting glucose in the Taiwanese elderly population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 200 males and females aged 65-85 years (mean 71.5 ± 4.6 years from Taipei, Taiwan. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The association between serum selenium and metabolic factors was examined using a multivariate linear regression analysis after controlling several confounders. Results The mean serum selenium concentration was 1.14 μmol/L, without significant difference between sexes. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol increased significantly with serum selenium concentration (P P P P Conclusions Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting serum glucose concentrations increased significantly with serum selenium concentration in the Taiwanese elderly. The underlying mechanism warrants further research.

  1. Gluten Intolerance: Sex- and Age-Related Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Llorente-Alonso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gluten intolerance is an immune-mediated enteropathy associated with gluten-containing foods in genetically susceptible patients. The typical form mainly affecting children shows failure to thrive and/or gastrointestinal symptoms. The adult form is less typical, presenting vague gastrointestinal symptoms, iron deficiency (with or without anemia or nonspecific serum chemistry abnormalities. The present study aims to analyze clinical and biochemical differences of celiac disease (CD according to sex and age.

  2. Associations of Body Composition Measurements with Serum Lipid, Glucose and Insulin Profile: A Chinese Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunxiao; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Bin; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantitate and compare the associations of various body composition measurements with serum metabolites and to what degree genetic or environmental factors affect obesity-metabolite relation. Methods Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean body mass (LBM), percent body fat (PBF), fasting serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin and lifestyle factors were assessed in 903 twins from Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting serum glucose and insulin. Linear regression models and bivariate structural equation models were used to examine the relation of various body composition measurements with serum metabolite levels and genetic/environmental influences on these associations, respectively. Results At individual level, adiposity measurements (BMI, WC and PBF) showed significant associations with serum metabolite concentrations in both sexes and the associations still existed in male twins when using within-MZ twin pair comparison analyses. Associations of BMI with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly stronger in male twins compared to female twins (BMI-by-sex interaction p = 0.043, 0.020 and 0.019, respectively). Comparison of various adiposity measurements with levels of serum metabolites revealed that WC explained the largest fraction of variance in serum LDL-C, TG, TC and glucose concentrations while BMI performed best in explaining variance in serum HDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR levels. Of these phenotypic correlations, 64–81% were attributed to genetic factors, whereas 19–36% were attributed to unique environmental factors. Conclusions We observed different associations between adiposity and serum metabolite profile and demonstrated that WC and BMI explained the largest fraction of variance in serum lipid profile and insulin

  3. Stress and Cognition: the relevance of timing, steroid receptors and sex differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse, S.

    2013-01-01

    In response to a stressful situation the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are activated, eventually leading to the release of catecholamines and corticosteroids. These stress hormones bind to different receptors in the brain (in case of corticosteroids,

  4. Study of Serum Amylase and Serum Cholinesterase in Organophosphorus Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Badiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds is most commonly seen. Earlier plasma cholinesterase level was used to assess the severity of poisoning. Presently serum amylase is being recommended as a better indicator of severity. Aims and Objectives: To study plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase levels in acute organophosphorus and to correlate serum amylase levels with clinical severity and outcome. Material and Methods: A total of 80 patients in the study admitted to a tertiary care centre within 24 hours with a history of organophosphorus poisoning were included in study. Estimation of plasma cholinesterase and serum rd amylase was done at the time of admission, and on 3 th day and on 5 day. Results: Occurrence of organophosphorus poisoning was more common among age group 21-30 years and among males (57.5%. They were 25 (31.2% farmers, 23 (28.8% st u d e n ts, a n d 2 2 ( 2 7 . 5% h o u s ewi v e s. Monocrotophos (45.0% was commonly used compound. Mean value of plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase at admission are 3693 U/L, and 185.4 U/L. There was significant inhibition of plasma cholinesterase and elevation of serum amylase at th admission with return to normal values on 5 day. Conclusion: Plasma cholinesterase inhibition 200 U/L has been associated with poor prognosis and proneness to respiratory failure.

  5. Sex steroids and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberden, Christine

    2017-10-01

    The brain has long been known as a dimorphic organ and as a target of sex steroids. It is also a site for their synthesis. Sex steroids in numerous ways can modify cerebral physiology, and along with many processes adult neurogenesis is also modulated by sex steroids. This review will focus on the effects of the main steroids, estrogens, androgens and progestogens, and unveil some aspects of their partly disclosed mechanisms of actions. Gonadal steroids act on different steps of neurogenesis: cell proliferation seems to be increased by estrogens only, while androgens and progestogens favor neuronal renewal by increasing cell survival; differentiation is a common target. Aging is characterized by a cognitive deficiency, paralleled by a decrease in the rate of neuronal renewal and in the levels of circulating gonadal hormones. Therefore, the effects of gonadal hormones on the aging brain are important to consider. The review will also be expanded to related molecules which are agonists to the nuclear receptors. Sex steroids can modify adult neuronal renewal and the extensive knowledge of their actions on neurogenesis is essential, as it can be a leading pathway to therapeutic perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. How Sex Attitudes Develop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnstein, Helene S.

    1976-01-01

    Excerpt from "The Roots of Love" (Helene S. Arnstein, 1975). Book is concerned with feelings that are part of child's developmental stages. Included in excerpt are: genital self-discovery, masturbation, discovery of sex differences, and birth fantasies. Stresses importance of parent's feelings which are communicated to child.

  7. Sex differences in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B

    2016-12-01

    Women exhibit more rapid escalation from casual drug taking to addiction, exhibit a greater withdrawal response with abstinence, and tend to exhibit greater vulnerability than men in terms of treatment outcome. In rodents, short-term estradiol intake in female rats enhances acquisition and escalation of drug taking, motivation for drugs of abuse, and relapse-like behaviors. There is also a sex difference in the dopamine response in the nucleus accumbens. Ovariectomized female rats exhibit a smaller initial dopamine increase after cocaine treatment than castrated males. Estradiol treatment of ovariectomized female rats enhances stimulated dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum, but not in the nucleus accumbens, resulting in a sex difference in the balance between these two dopaminergic projections. In the situation where drug-taking behavior becomes habitual, dopamine release has been reported to be enhanced in the dorsolateral striatum and attenuated in the nucleus accumbens. The sex difference in the balance between these neural systems is proposed to underlie sex differences in addiction.

  8. Battle of the Sexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Tu, Q.; List, J.

    2015-01-01

    A vibrant literature has emerged that explores the economic implications of the sex ratio (the ratio of men to women in the population), including changes in fertility rates, educational outcomes, labor supply, and household purchases. Previous empirical efforts, however, have paid less attention to

  9. Sex education and ideals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, D.J.; Spiecker, B.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that sex education should include sexual ideals. Sexual ideals are divided into sexual ideals in the strict sense and sexual ideals in the broad sense. It is argued that ideals that refer to the context that is deemed to be most ideal for the gratification of sexual ideals in the

  10. Sex education in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsalides, N

    1991-05-01

    The objective of educating people on family planning and sexuality issues has been carried forth by the Family Planning Association of Cyprus (FPAC) since 1971. The promotion of sex education in schools has generated respect for their expertise. Sex education has reached the agenda of the General Assembly of Parliament only to be postponed due to the April 1991 end of term dismissal. A newly elected Parliament are not expected to act immediately. The Ministry of Education Committee on Health Education has been actively counseled since 1974, and most recently in their examination of the possibilities of school sex education and training of high school teachers. The Ministry of Education has authority over primary and secondary education, which is compulsory up to 3 years of secondary education. The approach of FPAC has been to work with parents first in education lectures at various well publicized locations. The agenda was to inform about FPAC, explain the purpose and meaning of sex education, and show the Merry-Go-Round educational film followed by a question and answer session. Eventually, presentations involved children with parent observation. In 1977, authorization from the Ministry of Education gave official approval to FPAC, but not on school premises. FPAC went directly to headmasters and gained support in primary schools to organize sessions on school premises, which successfully involved many primary schools even in the much needed rural areas. Home Economics and Child Care, offered in the 5th and 6th grades was the only vehicle for gaining permission to enter secondary schools. In Larnaca, secondary school headmasters at the 3rd and 6th grade levels permitted invitations which requested parental permission. Lecture topics on human reproduction, sex roles, and disease and contraception were also provided in a follow-up letter. Higher education levels were involved through youth clubs and evening lectures. In 1988, FPAC urged the Director General of the

  11. Sex and life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifarth, Joshua E; McGowan, Cheri L; Milne, Kevin J

    2012-12-01

    A sexual dimorphism in human life expectancy has existed in almost every country for as long as records have been kept. Although human life expectancy has increased each year, females still live longer, on average, than males. Undoubtedly, the reasons for the sex gap in life expectancy are multifaceted, and it has been discussed from both sociological and biological perspectives. However, even if biological factors make up only a small percentage of the determinants of the sex difference in this phenomenon, parity in average life expectancy should not be anticipated. The aim of this review is to highlight biological mechanisms that may underlie the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy. Using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar, as well as cited and citing reference histories of articles through August 2012, English-language articles were identified, read, and synthesized into categories that could account for biological sex differences in human life expectancy. The examination of biological mechanisms accounting for the female-based advantage in human life expectancy has been an active area of inquiry; however, it is still difficult to prove the relative importance of any 1 factor. Nonetheless, biological differences between the sexes do exist and include differences in genetic and physiological factors such as progressive skewing of X chromosome inactivation, telomere attrition, mitochondrial inheritance, hormonal and cellular responses to stress, immune function, and metabolic substrate handling among others. These factors may account for at least a part of the female advantage in human life expectancy. Despite noted gaps in sex equality, higher body fat percentages and lower physical activity levels globally at all ages, a sex-based gap in life expectancy exists in nearly every country for which data exist. There are several biological mechanisms that may contribute to explaining why females live longer than men on average, but the complexity of the

  12. Serum antioxidant vitamins and the risk of oral cancer in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-05

    Jun 5, 2011 ... This study compared serum antioxidant vitamin levels in oral cancer patients and controls in order to validate ... Key words: Antioxidant vitamins, Nigeria, oral cancer risk. Date of ..... Sex. (MSL±SD) cancer. P1. (MSL±SD) control. P2. Vitamin A. Male. Female .... cancer. J Clin Lab Anal 2001;15:324‑30. 19.

  13. Human Serum Vitamin A and β-Carotene Contents in Relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of the levels of vitamin A (as retinol) and β-carotene in locally consumed foods in relationship to their occurrence in the serum of individuals grouped according to different social groups and sexes was carried out in Kano metropolis. Both raw and prepared foods (meals/snacks) investigated showed the ...

  14. Effect of Effective Microorganisms on Growth Parameters and Serum Cholesterol Levels in Broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wondmeneh, E.; Adey, S.; Tadelle, D.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different administration methods of effective microorganisms (EM®) on the performance and serum cholesterol level of broilers at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. Uniform weight of mixed sex day-old-broilers of cobb-500 strain (n =

  15. Serum levels of lead and copper in a group of Egyptian children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    included 15 clinically healthy children matched for age and sex as a control group. Patients were .... Atopic dermatitis (eczema). 15. 4. 8. 3. 50.0%. 13.3% .... the tissue and may worsen the physical and mental capabilities.14 Serum lead and ...

  16. Klinefelter syndrome and other sex chromosomal aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham John M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The term Klinefelter syndrome (KS describes a group of chromosomal disorder in which there is at least one extra X chromosome to a normal male karyotype, 46,XY. XXY aneuploidy is the most common disorder of sex chromosomes in humans, with prevalence of one in 500 males. Other sex chromosomal aneuploidies have also been described, although they are much less frequent, with 48,XXYY and 48,XXXY being present in 1 per 17,000 to 1 per 50,000 male births. The incidence of 49,XXXXY is 1 per 85,000 to 100,000 male births. In addition, 46,XX males also exist and it is caused by translocation of Y material including sex determining region (SRY to the X chromosome during paternal meiosis. Formal cytogenetic analysis is necessary to make a definite diagnosis, and more obvious differences in physical features tend to be associated with increasing numbers of sex chromosomes. If the diagnosis is not made prenatally, 47,XXY males may present with a variety of subtle clinical signs that are age-related. In infancy, males with 47,XXY may have chromosomal evaluations done for hypospadias, small phallus or cryptorchidism, developmental delay. The school-aged child may present with language delay, learning disabilities, or behavioral problems. The older child or adolescent may be discovered during an endocrine evaluation for delayed or incomplete pubertal development with eunuchoid body habitus, gynecomastia, and small testes. Adults are often evaluated for infertility or breast malignancy. Androgen replacement therapy should begin at puberty, around age 12 years, in increasing dosage sufficient to maintain age appropriate serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, and luteinizing hormone (LH. The effects on physical and cognitive development increase with the number of extra Xs, and each extra X is associated with an intelligence quotient (IQ decrease of approximately 15–16 points, with language most affected

  17. Disestablishing Sex: The Case for Released-Time Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2011-01-01

    Allowing nonschool organizations to provide sex education in a released-time format would disestablish state-funded sex education and give families a choice in the sex education that would be provided for their children. Released-time programs, as originally conceived and currently practiced, allow students to be released for a period of time…

  18. Sex identification of Nigerian indigenous chicks using Auto-sexing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexing has been a challenging task in Nigerian indigenous chickens due to the monomorphism of chicks which makes it impossible to distinguish the male from the female until eight weeks. . Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the sex of Nigerian indigenous chicks using the common auto-sexing methods.

  19. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Ota

    Full Text Available Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES. The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models.With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L. The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model.Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  20. Sex & vision I: Spatio-temporal resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov Israel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral cortex has a very large number of testosterone receptors, which could be a basis for sex differences in sensory functions. For example, audition has clear sex differences, which are related to serum testosterone levels. Of all major sensory systems only vision has not been examined for sex differences, which is surprising because occipital lobe (primary visual projection area may have the highest density of testosterone receptors in the cortex. We have examined a basic visual function: spatial and temporal pattern resolution and acuity. Methods We tested large groups of young adults with normal vision. They were screened with a battery of standard tests that examined acuity, color vision, and stereopsis. We sampled the visual system’s contrast-sensitivity function (CSF across the entire spatio-temporal space: 6 spatial frequencies at each of 5 temporal rates. Stimuli were gratings with sinusoidal luminance profiles generated on a special-purpose computer screen; their contrast was also sinusoidally modulated in time. We measured threshold contrasts using a criterion-free (forced-choice, adaptive psychophysical method (QUEST algorithm. Also, each individual’s acuity limit was estimated by fitting his or her data with a model and extrapolating to find the spatial frequency corresponding to 100% contrast. Results At a very low temporal rate, the spatial CSF was the canonical inverted-U; but for higher temporal rates, the maxima of the spatial CSFs shifted: Observers lost sensitivity at high spatial frequencies and gained sensitivity at low frequencies; also, all the maxima of the CSFs shifted by about the same amount in spatial frequency. Main effect: there was a significant (ANOVA sex difference. Across the entire spatio-temporal domain, males were more sensitive, especially at higher spatial frequencies; similarly males had significantly better acuity at all temporal rates. Conclusion As with other sensory systems

  1. Prognostic Significance of Blood, Serum, and Ascites Parameters in Patients with Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma or Peritoneal Carcinomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shan-Shan; Zheng, Guo-Qi; Yin, Wen-Jie; Liang, Yu-Fei; Liu, Ying-Ying; Song, Hui; Sun, Ning-Ning; Yang, Yu-Xin

    2018-01-01

    To determine effects of the biochemical and cytological properties of blood, serum, and ascites on survival of patients with malignant peritoneal effusion (MPeE), including malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM) and peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC), we conducted a retrospective study of patients with MPeE and healthy controls. Potential prognostic factors were identified as follows: age, sex, blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), serum parameters, ascites parameters, serum-ascites albumin gradient, and the ascites-serum LDH ratio. Compared to those of the control group, serum albumin levels were significantly lower, and the NLR and serum LDH levels were significantly higher in the MPeE group. Overall survival (OS) was longer in patients with MPeM compared to that in patients with PC. Compared with patients in the MPeM, patients with PC had higher NLRs, ascites glucose levels, serum-ascites albumin gradients, and serum LDH levels. In contrast, their ascites albumin levels and ascites-serum LDH ratios were lower. Univariate analyses indicated that the NLR, serum LDH levels, ascites LDH levels, ascites coenocyte levels, and the ascites coenocyte-to-monocyte ratios affected the OS. Multivariate analyses identified only serum and ascites LDH levels as independent prognostic factors.

  2. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries ... Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  3. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries ... Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  4. Low Sex Drive in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low sex drive in women Overview Women's sexual desires naturally fluctuate over the years. Highs and lows commonly coincide ... used for mood disorders also can cause low sex drive in women. If your lack of interest ...

  5. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord ... a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, ...

  6. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sex after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Can men and women still have sex after a ... menstruation after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Can women still get pregnant after a spinal cord ...

  7. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  8. Smoking and serum proteins in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stram, D.O.; Akiba, Suminori; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hosoda, Yutaka; Stevens, R.G.

    1989-09-01

    Associations of smoking habit with serum levels of total protein as well as protein fractions were studied in a population consisting of 4,739 atomic bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima who participated in the 1979-81 period of the Adult Health Study, an on-going health follow-up program of the RERF. Smoking was strongly related to serum protein concentration after correction for age, sex, and body mass index. Among current smokers as compared to nonsmokers, levels of total protein, β globulin, and γ globulin were significantly lower (p 1 and α 2 globulin were significantly higher (p 1 globulin. Duration of smoking (years) was related to increased α 1 and α 2 globulin. Smoking duration was also associated with albumin level but the trend was not monotonic. The radiation exposure effect on serum protein level was significant in several instances but was in general much smaller than the smoking effect. Its inclusion in the regression models did not noticeably affect the association between smoking and serum proteins. (author)

  9. Serum lipids and lipoproteins in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri Sarvtin, Mehdi; Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Shokohi, Tahereh; HajHeydari, Zohreh

    2014-05-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disorder characterized by hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and infiltration of T cells, monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils into dermal and epidermal layers of the skin. The prevalence of cardiovascular disorders in these patients is remarkably higher compared to normal individuals, which seems to be associated with the hyperlipidemia. This study was designed and conducted to investigate the serum lipid profile in psoriatic patients and its association with the severity of disease. This case-control study was performed on 50 plaque-type psoriasis patients and 50 healthy individuals as control, matched for age and sex. Blood samples were collected after 14 h fasting. Serum triglyceride, cholesterol and lipoproteins were assayed using the standard kit (made by Pars Azmon Co. Iran). Certain parameters, including serum triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), were significantly higher in the case group compared to the controls (P lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly lower in the former (P < 0.001). In addition, there was a significant relationship between severity of psoriasis and serum lipid profile. The results have revealed the higher plasma level of lipids in psoriatic patients. This may elevate the risk of atherosclerosis, particularly cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, from the epidemiological point of view, screening psoriatic patients, particularly those with severe psoriasis, is recommended.

  10. Sex Education with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, Sally; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses guidelines (developed by the Oregon State University Early Childhood Sex Education Project) for developing teacher-parent cooperation in providing sex education to young children. The guidelines concern how to talk about body differences and body functions; how to deal with masturbation, sex play and obscene language; and how to involve…

  11. YY Sex: a Polar Candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabdeev, M. M.; Shimanskiy, V. V.; Borisov, N. V.; Tazieva, Z. R.

    2017-06-01

    We present spectroscopic investigations of a cataclysmic variable star, YY Sex. There are some uncertainties in the classification of this object. We calculate Doppler maps for Hβ and HeII λ4686Å and show that there is no sign of disk accretion in YY Sex. Consequently, we conclude that YY Sex is a polar.

  12. Sex Education: Challenges and Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Alison; Hedge, Nicki; Enslin, Penny

    2017-01-01

    Noting public concern about sexual exploitation, abuse and sexualisation, we argue that sex education in the UK needs revision. Choice is a feature of current sex education policy and, acknowledging that choice can be problematic, we defend its place in an approach to sex education premised on informed deliberation, relational autonomy, a…

  13. Sex Stereotyping Hurts All Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, Melitta J.

    1991-01-01

    Sex stereotyping (raising boys and girls to be different because of their sex) begins at birth. The article reviews studies detailing sex stereotyping practices and offers suggestions on what parents can do to avoid them. A list of suggestions for raising children in a nonsexist way is included. (SM)

  14. Decreased serum hepcidin concentration correlates with brain iron deposition in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Lin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Excessive brain iron accumulation contributes to cognitive impairments in hepatitis B virus (HBV-related cirrhotic patients. The underlying mechanism remains unclear. Hepcidin, a liver-produced, 25-aminoacid peptide, is the major regulator of systemic iron metabolism. Abnormal hepcidin level is a key factor in some body iron accumulation or deficiency disorders, especially in those associated with liver diseases. Our study was aimed to explore the relationship between brain iron content in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and serum hepcidin level. METHODS: Seventy HBV-related cirrhotic patients and forty age- sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Brain iron content was quantified by susceptibility weighted phase imaging technique. Serum hepcidin as well as serum iron, serum transferrin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation were tested in thirty cirrhotic patients and nineteen healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to investigate correlation between brain iron concentrations and serum hepcidin, or other iron parameters. RESULTS: Cirrhotic patients had increased brain iron accumulation compared to controls in the left red nuclear, the bilateral substantia nigra, the bilateral thalamus, the right caudate, and the right putamen. Cirrhotic patients had significantly decreased serum hepcidin concentration, as well as lower serum transferring level, lower total iron binding capacity and higher transferrin saturation, compared to controls. Serum hepcidin level negatively correlated with the iron content in the right caudate, while serum ferritin level positively correlated with the iron content in the bilateral putamen in cirrhotic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased serum hepcidin level correlated with excessive iron accumulation in the basal ganglia in HBV-related cirrhotic patients. Our results indicated that systemic iron overload underlined regional

  15. The many costs of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Jussi; Jennions, Michael D; Kokko, Hanna

    2012-03-01

    Explaining the evolution of sex is challenging for biologists. A 'twofold cost' compared with asexual reproduction is often quoted. If a cost of this magnitude exists, the benefits of sex must be large for it to have evolved and be maintained. Focusing on benefits can be misleading, as this sidelines important questions about the cost of sex: what is the source of the twofold cost: males, genome dilution or both? Does the cost deviate from twofold? What other factors make sex costly? How should the costs of sex be empirically measured? The total cost of sex and how it varies in different contexts must be known to determine the benefits needed to account for the origin and maintenance of sex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex Differences in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Eileen P

    2018-04-01

    This review will outline the multilevel effects of biological sex on HIV acquisition, pathogenesis, treatment response, and prospects for cure. Potential mechanisms will be discussed along with future research directions. HIV acquisition risk is modified by sex hormones and the vaginal microbiome, with the latter acting through both inflammation and local metabolism of pre-exposure prophylaxis drugs. Female sex associates with enhanced risk for non-AIDS morbidities including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, suggesting different inflammatory profiles in men and women. Data from research on HIV cure points to sex differences in viral reservoir dynamics and a direct role for sex hormones in latency maintenance. Biological sex remains an important variable in determining the risk of HIV infection and subsequent viral pathogenesis, and emerging data suggest sex differences relevant to curative interventions. Recruitment of women in HIV clinical research is a pathway to both optimize care for women and to identify novel therapeutics for use in both men and women.

  17. Food consumption and serum nutritional status of people living in the Kathmandu valley in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshimi; Hirai, Kazuko; Sakata, Susumu; Shimizu, Satoshi; Akai, Yuko; Ogoshi, Kumiko; Sherchand, Sarala; Gurung, Rajesh; Sherchand, Jeevan B; Shrestha, Mathura P

    2005-03-01

    The food consumption and serum nutritional status of people living in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal, were examined to obtain actual data for comparison with our previous findings. A dietary survey of 45 males and 60 females was carried out in March 1997 by the 24-hr dietary recall method and nutrient intake was calculated from food tables of India and Japan. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained and serum biochemical parameters were measured using clinical kits. The mean body mass index values was at about the same level in both sexes, although the mean percentage body fat of females was higher than that of males, and vice versa for packed red cell volume. The main foods consumed by both sexes, were rice, potatoes, meats, milk & dairy products and vegetables, with a difference in the amounts consumed. Females did not drink alcoholic beverages. The mean daily intakes of energy, protein, lipids, iron and vitamin B group for the males were higher than those for the females, while those of vitamins A and C for the males were lower than those for the females. The mean values of serum biochemical parameters for both sexes were generally at the normal levels, but those of ALT and TG were at the higher end of the normal range. Differences of correlation between food groups and between serum parameters were observed depending on the sex, however, no clear relationship between food and nutrient intake and serum biochemical parameters were observed. The present food intake study revealed that the amounts of food consumption for both sexes, especially for the females, were mostly insufficient although the serum parameters were at the normal levels. The energy intake of both sexes was lower than that of estimated requirements and those in Terai region. The relatively high serum TG level of the subjects may be due to the consumption of large amounts of cereals containing much carbohydrate. Our findings suggested a marked influence on food consumption by food price and income

  18. Adolescents' reported consequences of having oral sex versus vaginal sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonya S; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

    2007-02-01

    The present study examined whether adolescents' initial consequences of sexual activity differ according to type of sexual activity and gender. Surveys were administered to 618 adolescents recruited from 2 public high schools in the autumn of ninth grade (2002) and at 6-month intervals until the spring of tenth grade (2004). Analyses were limited to the 275 adolescents (44%) who reported engaging in oral sex and/or vaginal sex at any assessment. Participants were 14 years of age at study entry, 56% female, and of diverse socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. In comparison with adolescents who engaged in oral sex and/or vaginal sex, adolescents who engaged only in oral sex were less likely to report experiencing a pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection, feeling guilty or used, having their relationship become worse, and getting into trouble with their parents as a result of sex. Adolescents who engaged only in oral sex were also less likely to report experiencing pleasure, feeling good about themselves, and having their relationship become better as a result of sex. Boys were more likely than girls to report feeling good about themselves, experiencing popularity, and experiencing a pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection as a result of sex, whereas girls were more likely than boys to report feeling bad about themselves and feeling used. Adolescents experience a range of social and emotional consequences after having sex. Our findings have implications for clinical practice and public health campaigns targeted toward youth.

  19. Sex Determination, Sex Chromosomes, and Karyotype Evolution in Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Heath; Ross, Laura; Bachtrog, Doris

    2017-01-01

    Insects harbor a tremendous diversity of sex determining mechanisms both within and between groups. For example, in some orders such as Hymenoptera, all members are haplodiploid, whereas Diptera contain species with homomorphic as well as male and female heterogametic sex chromosome systems or paternal genome elimination. We have established a large database on karyotypes and sex chromosomes in insects, containing information on over 13000 species covering 29 orders of insects. This database constitutes a unique starting point to report phylogenetic patterns on the distribution of sex determination mechanisms, sex chromosomes, and karyotypes among insects and allows us to test general theories on the evolutionary dynamics of karyotypes, sex chromosomes, and sex determination systems in a comparative framework. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that male heterogamety is the ancestral mode of sex determination in insects, and transitions to female heterogamety are extremely rare. Many insect orders harbor species with complex sex chromosomes, and gains and losses of the sex-limited chromosome are frequent in some groups. Haplodiploidy originated several times within insects, and parthenogenesis is rare but evolves frequently. Providing a single source to electronically access data previously distributed among more than 500 articles and books will not only accelerate analyses of the assembled data, but also provide a unique resource to guide research on which taxa are likely to be informative to address specific questions, for example, for genome sequencing projects or large-scale comparative studies. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Sex selection and restricting abortion and sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberberg, Julie

    2007-11-01

    Sex selection in India and China is fostered by a limiting social structure that disallows women from performing the roles that men perform, and relegates women to a lower status level. Individual parents and individual families benefit concretely from having a son born into the family, while society, and girls and women as a group, are harmed by the widespread practice of sex selection. Sex selection reinforces oppression of women and girls. Sex selection is best addressed by ameliorating the situations of women and girls, increasing their autonomy, and elevating their status in society. One might argue that restricting or prohibiting abortion, prohibiting sex selection, and prohibiting sex determination would eliminate sex selective abortion. But this decreases women's autonomy rather than increases it. Such practices will turn underground. Sex selective infanticide, and slower death by long term neglect, could increase. If abortion is restricted, the burden is placed on women seeking abortions to show that they have a legally acceptable or legitimate reason for a desired abortion, and this seriously limits women's autonomy. Instead of restricting abortion, banning sex selection, and sex determination, it is better to address the practice of sex selection by elevating the status of women and empowering women so that giving birth to a girl is a real and positive option, instead of a detriment to the parents and family as it is currently. But, if a ban on sex selective abortion or a ban on sex determination is indeed instituted, then wider social change promoting women's status in society should be instituted simultaneously.

  1. Talking to Your Kids about Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and ... Kids and Teens Talking to Your Kids About Sex Talking to Your Kids About Sex Share Print ...

  2. Altered serum copper homeostasis suggests higher oxidative stress and lower antioxidant capability in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yansong; Zhang, Yuan; Lin, Zhexuan; Han, Ming; Cheng, Hongqiu

    2018-06-01

    Copper homeostasis can be altered by inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the alteration of serum copper homeostasis and to explore its clinical significance in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).Thirty-two patients with CHB and 10 aged- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Analyses included serum levels of total copper (TCu), copper ions (Cu), small molecule copper (SMC), ceruloplasmin (CP), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), urinary copper, and the activities of serum CP and SOD1.The serum TCu and urinary copper levels in patients with CHB were significantly higher than the controls (P = .04 and .003), while the serum Cu was lower than the controls (P = .0002). CP and SOD1 activities in the serum were significantly lower in patients with CHB compared to controls (P = .005) despite higher serum concentrations. In addition, serum alanine aminotransferase inversely correlated with serum CP activity (P = .0318, r = -0.4065).Serum copper homeostasis was altered in this cohort of patients with CHB. The results suggest increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant capability in patients with CHB, in addition to necroinflammation. These results may provide novel insights into the diagnosis and treatment of patients with CHB.

  3. Sex workers talk about sex work: six contradictory characteristics of legalised sex work in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Sufia; Hocking, Jane S; Groves, Jan; Fairley, Christopher K; Keogh, Louise A

    2013-01-01

    Despite research suggesting that legal sex work is safe and that emotional risks and social stigma are of greater concern than health risks, much research on sex work has focused on health risks. Given the legalisation of sex work in Victoria, Australia, it is timely to look beyond health. Three focus groups were conducted with a total of 14 female sex workers on their experience of legal sex work, both positive and negative, and the social acceptability of their profession. Thematic analysis was used to identify the key ways that sex workers described sex work. Women saw legal sex work as safer than illegal sex work, but still not socially acceptable. However, they also described six contradictory elements of sex work, which was seen as: financially rewarding and entrapping; empowering and demeaning; increasing some opportunities while reducing others; flexible and demanding; offering both intimacy and competition; and leading to a 'double life'. While legalisation has improved the safety of sex work, stigma and discrimination persist.

  4. Serum electrolytes changes in malnourished children with diarrhoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, Y.; Majeed, R.; Shaikh, S.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of electrolyte disturbances in malnourished children with and without diarrhea and whether these findings have therapeutic value or not. It is a descriptive study conducted at pediatric Unit-II LUH Hyderabad, from 1st August to 31st September 2004. One hundred children of protein-calorie-malnutrition between 6 months to 5 year of age of either sex who were admitted due to diarrhoea, failure to thrive, acute respiratory infection, malaria, anemia, cardiac failure and feeding problems were included in the study. On the basis of history, physical examination and anthropometrics measurement they were divided into Group A patients (n=64) who were malnourished but had diarrhoea and Group B patients (n=36) who were also malnourished and had no diarrhoea. Serum electrolytes were done in patients of both groups and the results were analyzed statistically. Analysis of serum electrolyte in both groups revealed that hypokalemia, hyponatremia and low serum bicarbonate were seen more frequently in patients of group A as compared to group B. In group A hypokalemia was seen in 40 patients(62.5%) while it was observed in 8 patients (22.22%) in group B (p<0.001), hyponatremia was seen in 17 patients (26.56%) in group A and in 5 patients (13.88%) in group B (p<0.001). In group A 41 patients (64%) had low serum bicarbonate while in group B only 15 patients (41.66%) had low serum bicarbonate value (p<0.001) Electrolyte changes were commonly seen in grade II and III malnourished patients particularly who presented with diarrhoeal episode of variable duration. If these changes are diagnosed in time and treated appropriately the morbidity and mortality could be decreased. (author)

  5. Serum Concentrations of IgG4 in the Spanish Adult Population: Relationship with Age, Gender, and Atopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Iago; Alvela, Lucía; Pérez, Luis-Fernando; Gude, Francisco; Vidal, Carmen; Alonso, Manuela; Sopeña, Bernardo; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Serum IgG4 concentrations are commonly measured in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate serum IgG4 concentrations in adults and their potential relationship with demographic, lifestyle, metabolic, and allergy-related factors. Methods Serum IgG4 concentrations were measured with a commercial assay in 413 individuals (median age 55 years, 45% males) who were randomly selected from a general adult population. Results Median IgG4 concentration was 26.8 mg/dL. Five out of the 413 individuals (1.2%) exhibited IgG4 concentrations >135 mg/dL, and 17 out of 411 (4.1%) exhibited an IgG4/total IgG ratio >8%. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly higher in males than in females and decreased with age. After adjusting for age and sex, serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly influenced by alcohol consumption, smoking or common metabolic abnormalities (obesity and the related metabolic syndrome). Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation markers. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly correlated with IgE concentrations. Serum IgG4 concentrations tended to be higher in atopics (individuals with IgE-mediated sensitization to aeroallergens) than in non-atopics, particularly among atopics without respiratory symptoms. Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with total eosinophil blood count. Cases of IgG4-related disease were neither present at baseline nor detected after a median of 11 years of follow-up. Conclusions Studies aimed at defining reference IgG4 values should consider partitioning by age and sex. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential influence of atopy status on serum IgG4 concentrations. PMID:26910567

  6. Fungal Sex: The Mucoromycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Chan; Idnurm, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Although at the level of resolution of genes and molecules most information about mating in fungi is from a single lineage, the Dikarya, many fundamental discoveries about mating in fungi have been made in the earlier branches of the fungi. These are nonmonophyletic groups that were once classified into the chytrids and zygomycetes. Few species in these lineages offer the potential of genetic tractability, thereby hampering the ability to identify the genes that underlie those fundamental insights. Research performed during the past decade has now established the genes required for mating type determination and pheromone synthesis in some species in the phylum Mucoromycota, especially in the order Mucorales. These findings provide striking parallels with the evolution of mating systems in the Dikarya fungi. Other discoveries in the Mucorales provide the first examples of sex-cell type identity being driven directly by a gene that confers mating type, a trait considered more of relevance to animal sex determination but difficult to investigate in animals. Despite these discoveries, there remains much to be gleaned about mating systems from these fungi.

  7. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  8. Stress and sex: does cortisol mediate sex change in fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goikoetxea, Alexander; Todd, Erica V; Gemmell, Neil J

    2017-12-01

    Cortisol is the main glucocorticoid (GC) in fish and the hormone most directly associated with stress. Recent research suggests that this hormone may act as a key factor linking social environmental stimuli and the onset of sex change by initiating a shift in steroidogenesis from estrogens to androgens. For many teleost fish, sex change occurs as a usual part of the life cycle. Changing sex is known to enhance the lifetime reproductive success of these fish and the modifications involved (behavioral, gonadal and morphological) are well studied. However, the exact mechanism behind the transduction of the environmental signals into the molecular cascade that underlies this singular process remains largely unknown. We here synthesize current knowledge regarding the role of cortisol in teleost sex change with a focus on two well-described transformations: temperature-induced masculinization and socially regulated sex change. Three non-mutually exclusive pathways are considered when describing the potential role of cortisol in mediating teleost sex change: cross-talk between GC and androgen pathways, inhibition of aromatase expression and upregulation of amh (the gene encoding anti-Müllerian hormone). We anticipate that understanding the role of cortisol in the initial stages of sex change will further improve our understanding of sex determination and differentiation across vertebrates, and may lead to new tools to control fish sex ratios in aquaculture. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  9. Lecithin intake and serum cholesterol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, J.T.; Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    To find out whether the consumption of lecithin has a more beneficial effect on serum cholesterol than does the consumption of equivalent amounts of polyunsaturated oils, we scrutinized 24 studies on the effect of supplementary lecithin intakes ranging from 1 to 54 mg/d. Most of the studies lacked

  10. Serum transferrin receptor in polycythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteiga, R; Remacha, A F; Sardà, M P; Ubeda, J

    1998-10-01

    We measured serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels in 22 patients with polycythemia vera and in 26 cases of secondary polycythemia. In our study, raised sTfR levels in both polycythemia groups were related to iron deficiency.

  11. Serum zinc level in thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keikhaei, B.; Badavi, M.; Pedram, M.; Zandian, K.

    2010-01-01

    To compare serum zinc level between Thalassemia Major (TM) patients and normal population at Shafa Hospital in South West of Iran. A total of 25 male and 36 female of TM patients were enrolled in this study. Out of 61 patients thirty were treated by deferroxamine (DFO) and 31 were on the combination of DFO and deferiprone (DEF) protocol therapy. Sixty normal subjects of the matching age and gender were recruited as controls. From each patient and control group 2 ml of blood was taken in fasting condition. Cell blood count and serum zinc were carried out for both thalassemia patients and normal subjects. The mean age of patients and control group was 15+- 5 years. Mean serum zinc level was 68.97+- 21.12 mu g/dl, 78.10-28.50 mu g/dl, and 80.16+- 26.54 mu g/dl in the TM with DFO, TM with DFO + DEF combination protocol and control group respectively. There was no significant correlation between patients and control group. However 50 percent of TM with DFO, 38.7 percent of TM with DFO + DEF and 32.8 percent of control group had hypozincemia. Nearly 40 to 50 percent of TM patients and one third of normal subjects are suffering from hypozincemia. This study shows that low level of serum zinc is a health problem in both thalassemia patients and normal population in South West of Iran. (author)

  12. High serum levels of YKL-40 in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck are associated with short survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslind, A.; Johansen, J.S.; Christensen, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    by immunohistochemistry in 50 patients. Pretreatment serum YKL-40 was elevated in 53%. Patients with high serum YKL-40 had shorter survival than patients with normal serum YKL-40 (33 vs. 84 months; p = 0.008). Multivariate Cox analysis including pretreatment serum YKL-40, age, sex, primary tumor site, TNM classification...... and treatment demonstrated that TNM classification (HR = 2.61, p = 0.02) and serum YKL-40 (log-transformed continuous variable: HR = 1.55, p classification (HR = 5.77, p = 0.001) and serum...... YKL-40 (dichotomous variable: HR = 2.75, p = 0.01) were independent predictors of recurrence-free survival. During follow-up after radiotherapy, a high serum YKL-40 (log-transformed continuous variable) in patients with TNM Stage III and TV disease predicted poorer OS within 6 months (HR = 1.95, p

  13. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels, phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes gene product (PED/PEA-15) and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio in women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, Silvia; Valentino, Rossella; Di Somma, Carolina; Orio, Francesco; Pivonello, Claudia; Passaretti, Federica; Brancato, Valentina; Formisano, Pietro; Colao, Annamaria; Beguinot, Francesco; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2011-11-23

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is frequently associated with hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D is endowed with pleiotropic effects, including insulin resistance (IR) and apoptotic pathway. Disruption of the complex mechanism that regulated ovarian apoptosis has been reported in PCOS. Phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes gene product (PED/PEA-15), an anti-apoptotic protein involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is overexpressed in PCOS women, independently of obesity. Leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (L/A) is a biomarker of IR and low-grade inflammation in PCOS. The aim of the study was to investigate the levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), and L/A, in association with PED/PEA-15 protein abundance, in both lean and overweight/obese (o/o) women with PCOS. PED/PEA-15 protein abundance and circulating levels of 25(OH)D, L/A, sex hormone-binding globulin, and testosterone were evaluated in 90 untreated PCOS patients (25 ± 4 yrs; range 18-34) and 40 healthy controls age and BMI comparable, from the same geographical area. FAI (free androgen index) and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HoMA-IR) index were calculated. In o/o PCOS, 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower, and L/A values were significantly higher than in lean PCOS (p involvement in the ovarian imbalance between pro-and anti-apoptotic mechanisms, with high L/A and insulin and low 25(OH)D levels as the main determinants of PED/PEA-15 protein variability. Further studies, involving also different apoptotic pathways or inflammatory cytokines and granulosa cells are mandatory to better define the possible bidirectional relationships between 25(OH)D, PED/PEA-15 protein abundance, leptin and adiponectin in PCOS pathogenesis.

  14. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels, phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes gene product (PED/PEA-15 and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio in women with PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savastano Silvia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is frequently associated with hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D is endowed with pleiotropic effects, including insulin resistance (IR and apoptotic pathway. Disruption of the complex mechanism that regulated ovarian apoptosis has been reported in PCOS. Phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes gene product (PED/PEA-15, an anti-apoptotic protein involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, is overexpressed in PCOS women, independently of obesity. Leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (L/A is a biomarker of IR and low-grade inflammation in PCOS. The aim of the study was to investigate the levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD, and L/A, in association with PED/PEA-15 protein abundance, in both lean and overweight/obese (o/o women with PCOS. Patients and Methods PED/PEA-15 protein abundance and circulating levels of 25(OHD, L/A, sex hormone-binding globulin, and testosterone were evaluated in 90 untreated PCOS patients (25 ± 4 yrs; range 18-34 and 40 healthy controls age and BMI comparable, from the same geographical area. FAI (free androgen index and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HoMA-IR index were calculated. Results In o/o PCOS, 25(OHD levels were significantly lower, and L/A values were significantly higher than in lean PCOS (p Conclusions Lower 25(OHD and higher L/A were associated to PED/PEA-15 protein abundance in PCOS, suggesting their involvement in the ovarian imbalance between pro-and anti-apoptotic mechanisms, with high L/A and insulin and low 25(OHD levels as the main determinants of PED/PEA-15 protein variability. Further studies, involving also different apoptotic pathways or inflammatory cytokines and granulosa cells are mandatory to better define the possible bidirectional relationships between 25(OHD, PED/PEA-15 protein abundance, leptin and adiponectin in PCOS pathogenesis.

  15. Parathyroid hormone related protein concentration in human serum and CSF correlates with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Mark M; Peterson, Lisa K; Strathmann, Frederick G

    2018-02-01

    Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein (PTHrP) is involved in intracellular calcium (Ca) regulation, and has been demonstrated to participate in regulation of Ca in brain cells, activation of neurons, and modulation of pain. However, there are conflicting reports regarding the presence of PTHrP in CSF. PTHrP and Ca were quantified in paired CSF and serum samples using mass spectrometry-based methods. Associations between PTHrP and Ca concentrations with age, sex and concentrations of nine CSF diagnostic markers in a set of 140 paired serum and CSF patient samples were evaluated. The observed median PTHrP concentration in CSF was 51 times higher than in serum; the median concentration of Ca in CSF was 1.8 times lower than in serum. We observed positive correlation between concentrations of PTHrP in CSF and serum (p=0.013). Distribution of PTHrP concentrations in serum was associated with age (p=0.0068) and the concentrations were higher in women. In samples with serum calcium concentrations within the reference intervals (n=118), central 95% distribution of concentrations for Ca-CSF, PTHrP-serum and PTHrP-CSF were 5.4 (4.5-6.1) mg/dL, 1.2 (0.5-2.5) pmol/L, 62 (22-125) pmol/L, respectively. Our data demonstrate that PTHrP is a normal constituent of human CSF with median concentrations 51 fold higher than in serum. Elevated serum PTHrP concentrations were positively correlated with age and significantly higher in women. Our data suggest that CSF could be a significant source of circulating PTHrP. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Smoking and serum proteins in atomic-bomb survivors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stram, D.O.; Akiba, S.; Neriishi, K.; Stevens, R.G.; Hosoda, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Associations of smoking habit with serum levels of total protein as well as protein fractions were studied in a population consisting of 4,739 atomic-bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima, Japan who participated in the 1979-1981 period of the Adult Health Study, an ongoing health follow-up program of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Smoking was strongly related to serum protein concentration after correction for age, sex, and body mass index. Among current smokers, levels of total protein, beta globulin, and gamma globulin were significantly lower and levels of alpha-1 and alpha-2 globulin were significantly higher, when compared with nonsmokers. For serum albumin levels a decrease was also noted, but it failed to attain statistical significance. Ex-smokers were indistinguishable from nonsmokers in terms of the serum protein levels analyzed. With an increase of the amount of daily cigarette consumption, monotonic increases of serum levels were observed only in alpha-1 globulin. Duration of smoking was related to increased alpha-1 and alpha-2 globulin. Smoking duration was also associated with albumin level, but the trend was not monotonic. The radiation exposure effect on serum protein level was significant in several instances but was in general much smaller than the smoking effect, and its inclusion in the regression models did not noticeably affect the association between smoking and serum proteins

  17. Diagnostic Value of Serum Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) Level for Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanzadeh, Shokrollah; Tavakkol, Heshmatollah; Bavieh, Khalid; Alavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is not always easy, thus employing methods with a short duration and acceptable sensitivity and specificity is necessary to diagnose TB. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) level for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. A total of 160 sex and age-matched subjects were included in this study, and were divided to four groups; forty patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosed based on the national TB program (NTP), forty patients with non-tuberculosis bacterial pneumonia, forty patients with lung cancer and forty people who were healthy in every respect. Serum adenosine deaminase activity in patients of each group was measured by the Giusti and Galanti calorimetry method using a commercial kit (Diazyme, USA). The ANOVA analysis was used to compare groups for quantitative variables. Mean serum ADA level in the PTB group was clearly higher than the mean serum ADA in the other three groups. Mean serum ADA was 26 IU/L in PTB patients, 19.48 IU/L in patients with pneumonia, 15.8 IU/L in patients with lung cancer, and 10.7 IU/L in the control group (P ADA in patients with PTB sensitivity and specificity was defined as 35% and 91%, respectively. Serum ADA activity with high specificity percentage may be a useful alternative test in restricted resource areas to rule out diagnosis of PTB. However, serum ADA activity is not a useful tool for TB diagnosis.

  18. Sex differentials in mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-06-01

    The questions leing considered are whether a higher female than male mortality rate exists in Ceylon, India, and Pakistan, and whether this sex differential can account for the observed high male sex ratios. There is a choice between explaining the recorded masculinity of the Indian population by assuming that the subordinate position of women caused their omission from the census or that it caused their unrecorded death in childhood. The 1951 census report of India states that there is a traditional fondness for male issues in most parts of the country and a corresponding dislike for female children. However, a life table for India applied to the 1951 census gave a higher average female age at death 34.7 years as opposed to 33.5 years for male. Other estimates for India and Pakistan for the period 1951-1961 give 37.8 years for life expectancy for males and 36.98 for females. In 1953 the female death rate in Ceylon was over 80% higher than that of the males in the most reproductive ages, 20-29. In 1963 the female excess mortality at the same ages was still 25%, and in the age group 30-34 almost a 1/3 higher. In India the female death rate at ages 15-44 was 38% higher than that of the males in the 1958-1959 survey and as much as 174% higher in the Khanna rural survey, 1956-1960. In Pakistan a Population growth Estimate experiment conducted during 1962-1965 on a national probability sample has shown that in the ages 15-44 the female death rate was 75% higher than that of the males. High maternal mortality was the major reason. In addition, female mortality among young children over age 1 year was 24% higher in 1965 and 1963. There was little difference between the rates of mortality of the 2 sexes at age 45 and above. Recent trends in Ceylon show considerable improvement in maternal mortality which has reduced by 22% the ratio of female to male mortality at age 15-44. Also the ratio at ages 1-9 fell by 8%. to .1 of a year for every calendar year to 1980.

  19. Sex differences in drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; Hu, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstinence. In this review, sex differences in drug abuse are discussed for humans and in animal models. The possible neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating these sex differences are discussed.

  20. Radioimmunologic determination of the concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen in serum of normal individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkov, V.; Milanov, S.

    1982-01-01

    The serum concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was determined by radioimmunoassay in 95 normal individuals (41 women and 54 men), 20 to 65 years of age. Depending on sex and age, the tested individuals were divided in four groups: gr. I - 27 women, 20 to 40 years of age; gr. II - 14 women, 4O to 65 years of age; gr. III -35 men, 20 to 40 years of age, and group IV - 19 men, 40 to 65 years of age. The following mean serum CEA levels were obtained in normal individuals: Group I -6.8 +- 1.07 ng/ml; group II - 9.71 +- 1.46 ng/ml; group III - 4.9 +- 0.73 ng/ml; group IV - 7.5 +- 1.5 ng/ml. The CEA levels in the serum of normal individuals varied with age and sex, but the differences were statistically insignificant (p> 0.10). Normal values fo serum CEA concentrations in normal individuals were determined. These values are meant to be used for comparison with serum CEA values in patients with malignant diseases. (author)

  1. Sex Reversal in Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians have been widely used to study developmental biology due to the fact that embryo development takes place independently of the maternal organism and that observations and experimental approaches are easy. Some amphibians like Xenopus became model organisms in this field. In the first part of this article, the differentiation of the gonads in amphibians and the mechanisms governing this process are reviewed. In the second part, the state of the art about sex reversal, which can be induced by steroid hormones in general and by temperature in some species, is presented. Also information about pollutants found in the environment that could interfere with the development of the amphibian reproductive apparatus or with their reproductive physiology is given. Such compounds could play a part in the amphibian decline, since in the wild, many amphibians are endangered species. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Serum Predictors of Percent Lean Mass in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori L; Phillips, Edward M; Kirn, Dylan R; Mills, John; Fielding, Roger A

    2016-08-01

    Lustgarten, MS, Price, LL, Phillips, EM, Kirn, DR, Mills, J, and Fielding, RA. Serum predictors of percent lean mass in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2194-2201, 2016-Elevated lean (skeletal muscle) mass is associated with increased muscle strength and anaerobic exercise performance, whereas low levels of lean mass are associated with insulin resistance and sarcopenia. Therefore, studies aimed at obtaining an improved understanding of mechanisms related to the quantity of lean mass are of interest. Percent lean mass (total lean mass/body weight × 100) in 77 young subjects (18-35 years) was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Twenty analytes and 296 metabolites were evaluated with the use of the standard chemistry screen and mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling, respectively. Sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression was used to determine serum analytes and metabolites significantly (p ≤ 0.05 and q ≤ 0.30) associated with the percent lean mass. Two enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase) and 29 metabolites were found to be significantly associated with the percent lean mass, including metabolites related to microbial metabolism, uremia, inflammation, oxidative stress, branched-chain amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, glycerolipid metabolism, and xenobiotics. Use of sex-adjusted stepwise regression to obtain a final covariate predictor model identified the combination of 5 analytes and metabolites as overall predictors of the percent lean mass (model R = 82.5%). Collectively, these data suggest that a complex interplay of various metabolic processes underlies the maintenance of lean mass in young healthy adults.

  3. Serum total antioxidant capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira Hadžović-Džuvo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. It is characterized by loss of myelin, the fatty tissue that surrounds and protects nerve fibres allowing them to conduct electrical impulses. Recent data indicate that oxidative stress (OS plays a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study was to estimate level of serum total antioxidative capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Our cross-sectional study included 33 patients with MS and 24 age and sex matched control subjects. All our patients had a Poser criteria for definite diagnostic categories of multiple sclerosis. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC was measured by quantitative colorimetric determination, using Total antioxidant Capacity-QuantiCromAntioxidant Assay Kit (BioAssay systems, USA; DTAC-100. Mean serum TAC in multiple sclerosis group of patients was 119.2 mM Trolox equivalents and was significantly lower (p<0.001 compared to the control group of subjects (167.1 mM Trolox equivalents. Our results showed that oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. This finding, also, suggests the importance of antioxidants in diet and therapy of MS patients.

  4. Serum Levels of the Adipokine Progranulin Depend on Renal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Judit; Focke, Denise; Ebert, Thomas; Kovacs, Peter; Bachmann, Anette; Lössner, Ulrike; Kralisch, Susan; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Beige, Joachim; Anders, Matthias; Bast, Ingolf; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Fasshauer, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Progranulin has recently been introduced as a novel adipokine inducing insulin resistance and obesity. In the current study, we investigated renal elimination, as well as association of the adipokine with markers of the metabolic syndrome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Progranulin serum levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and correlated to anthropometric and biochemical parameters of renal function and glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as inflammation, in 532 patients with stages 1–5 of chronic kidney disease (CKD). RESULTS Median serum progranulin levels adjusted for age, sex, and BMI were significantly different between CKD stages with highest values detectable in stage 5 (stage 1, 58.3 µg/L; stage 2, 63.0 µg/L; stage 3, 65.4 µg/L; stage 4, 68.8 µg/L; and stage 5, 90.6 µg/L). Furthermore, CKD stage was the strongest independent predictor of circulating progranulin in our cohort. In addition, high-sensitivity interleukin-6 and adiponectin remained significantly and independently correlated with the adipokine. CONCLUSIONS We demonstrate that progranulin serum levels increase with deteriorating renal function. These findings are in accordance with the hypothesis that renal clearance is a major elimination route for circulating progranulin. Furthermore, the adipokine is positively and independently associated with markers of inflammation and adiponectin. PMID:23033238

  5. Serum Adipokine and Ghrelin Levels in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yalniz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines and ghrelin play role in insulin resistance, the key pathophysiological abnormality in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. In the present study, relationship between nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and serum adipokine and ghrelin levels was investigated. Thirty seven patients with biopsy-proven NASH and 25 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. Ten of NASH patients (27% had diabetes mellitus (n=5 or impaired glucose tolerance (n=5. Body mass index (BMI was less than 30 kg/m2 in 67.6% of patients, while in the remaining 32.4% it was more than 30 kg/m2. Serum adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, and ghrelin were determined. Serum leptin (15.49±4.84 vs 10.31±2.53 and TNF-α (12.1±2.7 vs 10.31±2.56 levels were significantly higher in the NASH group compared to in the control group (P30 or glucose tolerance was impaired or not (P>.05. Additionally, neither adipokines nor ghrelin was correlated with histopathological grade and stage (P>.05. In conclusion; there is a significant relationship between NASH and adipokines and ghrelin independent from BMI and status of the glucose metabolism. These cytokines that appear to have role in the pathogenesis of NASH, however, do not have any effect upon the severity of the histopathology.

  6. Sex ratio variation and sex determination in Urtica dioica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glawe, Grit Anja

    2006-01-01

    This thesis will first document on variation in progeny sex ratios among individual female plants of Urtica dioica at our field site in Meijendel (Chapter 2). Next, we show that there is also considerable sex ratio variation among male and female flowering shoots in 26 natural populations studied

  7. Sense about Sex: Media, Sex Advice, Education and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Feona; Barker, Meg John; Boynton, Petra; Hancock, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The media are widely acknowledged as important in sex and relationship education, but they are usually associated with "bad" effects on young people in contrast to the "good" knowledge represented by more informational and educational formats. In this paper we look at sex advice giving in newspapers, magazines and television in…

  8. Sex differences in adolescent depression: do sex hormones determine vulnerability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naninck, E.F.G.; Lucassen, P.J.; Bakker, J.

    2011-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common, costly and severe psychopathologies worldwide. Its incidence, however, differs significantly between the sexes, and depression rates in women are twice those of men. Interestingly, this sex difference emerges during adolescence. Although the adolescent period is

  9. Sex and Age Differences in Attitude toward the Opposite Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Rawley

    1997-01-01

    Examines fantasies about the opposite sex expressed by 116 children, adolescents, and adults responding to the Drawing from Imagination task of the Silver Drawing Test of Cognition and Emotion. Results indicate that both males and females expressed more negative than positive feelings toward subjects of the opposite sex. Males were more negative.…

  10. Sex Education: Talking to Toddlers and Preschoolers about Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Sexual health Sex education often begins with a child's curiosity about his or her body. Here's how to set the stage for ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/sexual-health/in-depth/sex-education/art-20044104 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  11. A Large, Cross-sectional Observational Study of Serum BDNF, Cognitive Function, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eShimada

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The clinical relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and cognitive function or mild cognitive impairment (MCI is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between serum BDNF and cognitive function and MCI, and determine whether serum BDNF level might be a useful biomarker for assessing risk for MCI in older people.Materials and Methods: A total of 4463 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years participating in the study. We measured performance in a battery of neuropsychological and cognitive function tests; serum BDNF concentration.Results: Eight hundred twenty-seven participants (18.8% had MCI. After adjustment for sex, age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking, serum BDNF was associated with poorer performance in the story memory, and digit symbol substitution task scores. Serum BDNF was marginally associated with the presence of MCI (OR, 95% CI: 1.41, 1.00–1.99 when BDNF was 1.5 SD lower than the mean value standardized for sex and age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking.Conclusion: Low serum BDNF was associated with lower cognitive test scores and MCI. Future prospective studies should establish the discriminative value of serum BDNF for the risk of MCI.

  12. The Diagnostic Significances of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Won, Kyung Hee; Kim, Yul Ja; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) levels were measured in the serum of 35 normal control subjects and 179 cases of various benign and malignant gastrointestinal diseases. Malignant gastrointestinal tumors include 69 cases of stomach cancer, 24 cases of hepatoma and 33 cases of colorectal cancer. Benign gastrointestinal diseases include 29 cases of peptic ulcer and 24 cases of liver cirrhosis. The results were as followings: 1) Mean serum CEA level in normal control subjects was 6.9+-3.3 ng/ml and there was no difference in mean serum CEA level between age and sex difference. 2) In malignant gastrointestinal tumors, mean serum CEA level in colorectal cancer, hepatoma and stomach cancer, were 54.3+-88.9 ng/ml, 62.1+-99.7 ng/ml respectively. Serum CEA level showed positive rate of 67% in colorectal cancer, 63% in hepatoma and 625 in stomach cancer. There was no difference in mean levels and positivity of serum CEA between these 3 malignant tumor groups. 3) Positivity of serum CEA was 61% in malignant gastrointestinal tumor group in spite of 37% in benign gastrointestinal disease group. In both mean level and positivity of serum CEA, stomach cancer was much higher than peptic ulcer. But there was no difference in mean level and positivity of serum CEA level between hepatoma and liver cirrhosis. 4) In hepatoma serum CEA level showed positive rate of 62.5% and alpha-feto protein showed a rate of 58.3%. 5) Mean serum CEA levels in patients with cancer in rectal, cecal, sigmoid colon, ascending colon and descending colon were 73.7+-106.7 ng/ml, 69+-84.8 ng/ml, 15.7+-9.1 ng/ml, 7.5+-10.6 ng/ml and 4.0 ng/ml respectively. Positive rate of serum CEA showed 86% in sigmoid colon cancer, 68% in rectal cancer and 66% in cecal cancer. 6) In considering of histological background, there was no collelation between the degree of differentiation of tumor cell and the serum CEA level in colorectal cancer. According to Duke's classification, the mean serum levels of CEA were 8.8+-11.4 ng

  13. The Diagnostic Significances of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Won, Kyung Hee; Kim, Yul Ja; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong

    1983-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) levels were measured in the serum of 35 normal control subjects and 179 cases of various benign and malignant gastrointestinal diseases. Malignant gastrointestinal tumors include 69 cases of stomach cancer, 24 cases of hepatoma and 33 cases of colorectal cancer. Benign gastrointestinal diseases include 29 cases of peptic ulcer and 24 cases of liver cirrhosis. The results were as followings: 1) Mean serum CEA level in normal control subjects was 6.9±3.3 ng/ml and there was no difference in mean serum CEA level between age and sex difference. 2) In malignant gastrointestinal tumors, mean serum CEA level in colorectal cancer, hepatoma and stomach cancer, were 54.3±88.9 ng/ml, 62.1±99.7 ng/ml respectively. Serum CEA level showed positive rate of 67% in colorectal cancer, 63% in hepatoma and 625 in stomach cancer. There was no difference in mean levels and positivity of serum CEA between these 3 malignant tumor groups. 3) Positivity of serum CEA was 61% in malignant gastrointestinal tumor group in spite of 37% in benign gastrointestinal disease group. In both mean level and positivity of serum CEA, stomach cancer was much higher than peptic ulcer. But there was no difference in mean level and positivity of serum CEA level between hepatoma and liver cirrhosis. 4) In hepatoma serum CEA level showed positive rate of 62.5% and alpha-feto protein showed a rate of 58.3%. 5) Mean serum CEA levels in patients with cancer in rectal, cecal, sigmoid colon, ascending colon and descending colon were 73.7±106.7 ng/ml, 69±84.8 ng/ml, 15.7±9.1 ng/ml, 7.5±10.6 ng/ml and 4.0 ng/ml respectively. Positive rate of serum CEA showed 86% in sigmoid colon cancer, 68% in rectal cancer and 66% in cecal cancer. 6) In considering of histological background, there was no collelation between the degree of differentiation of tumor cell and the serum CEA level in colorectal cancer. According to Duke's classification, the mean serum levels of CEA were 8.8±11.4 ng

  14. The Diagnostic Significances of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Won, Kyung Hee; Kim, Yul Ja; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) levels were measured in the serum of 35 normal control subjects and 179 cases of various benign and malignant gastrointestinal diseases. Malignant gastrointestinal tumors include 69 cases of stomach cancer, 24 cases of hepatoma and 33 cases of colorectal cancer. Benign gastrointestinal diseases include 29 cases of peptic ulcer and 24 cases of liver cirrhosis. The results were as followings: 1) Mean serum CEA level in normal control subjects was 6.9+-3.3 ng/ml and there was no difference in mean serum CEA level between age and sex difference. 2) In malignant gastrointestinal tumors, mean serum CEA level in colorectal cancer, hepatoma and stomach cancer, were 54.3+-88.9 ng/ml, 62.1+-99.7 ng/ml respectively. Serum CEA level showed positive rate of 67% in colorectal cancer, 63% in hepatoma and 625 in stomach cancer. There was no difference in mean levels and positivity of serum CEA between these 3 malignant tumor groups. 3) Positivity of serum CEA was 61% in malignant gastrointestinal tumor group in spite of 37% in benign gastrointestinal disease group. In both mean level and positivity of serum CEA, stomach cancer was much higher than peptic ulcer. But there was no difference in mean level and positivity of serum CEA level between hepatoma and liver cirrhosis. 4) In hepatoma serum CEA level showed positive rate of 62.5% and alpha-feto protein showed a rate of 58.3%. 5) Mean serum CEA levels in patients with cancer in rectal, cecal, sigmoid colon, ascending colon and descending colon were 73.7+-106.7 ng/ml, 69+-84.8 ng/ml, 15.7+-9.1 ng/ml, 7.5+-10.6 ng/ml and 4.0 ng/ml respectively. Positive rate of serum CEA showed 86% in sigmoid colon cancer, 68% in rectal cancer and 66% in cecal cancer. 6) In considering of histological background, there was no collelation between the degree of differentiation of tumor cell and the serum CEA level in colorectal cancer. According to Duke's classification, the mean serum levels of CEA were 8

  15. Serum magnesium and the risk of prediabetes: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieboom, Brenda C T; Ligthart, Symen; Dehghan, Abbas; Kurstjens, Steef; de Baaij, Jeroen H F; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Zietse, Robert; Stricker, Bruno H; Hoorn, Ewout J

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have found an association between serum magnesium and incident diabetes; however, this association may be due to reverse causation, whereby diabetes may induce urinary magnesium loss. In contrast, in prediabetes (defined as impaired fasting glucose), serum glucose levels are below the threshold for urinary magnesium wasting and, hence, unlikely to influence serum magnesium levels. Thus, to study the directionality of the association between serum magnesium levels and diabetes, we investigated its association with prediabetes. We also investigated whether magnesium-regulating genes influence diabetes risk through serum magnesium levels. Additionally, we quantified the effect of insulin resistance in the association between serum magnesium levels and diabetes risk. Within the population-based Rotterdam Study, we used Cox models, adjusted for age, sex, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, kidney function, serum levels of electrolytes and diuretic use, to study the association between serum magnesium and prediabetes/diabetes. In addition, we performed two mediation analyses: (1) to study if common genetic variation in eight magnesium-regulating genes influence diabetes risk through serum magnesium levels; and (2) to quantify the proportion of the effect of serum magnesium levels on diabetes that is mediated through insulin resistance (quantified by HOMA-IR). A total of 8555 participants (mean age, 64.7 years; median follow-up, 5.7 years) with normal glucose levels (mean ± SD: 5.46 ± 0.58 mmol/l) at baseline were included. A 0.1 mmol/l decrease in serum magnesium level was associated with an increase in diabetes risk (HR 1.18 [95% CI 1.04, 1.33]), confirming findings from previous studies. Of interest, a similar association was found between serum magnesium levels and prediabetes risk (HR 1.12 [95% CI 1.01, 1.25]). Genetic variation in CLDN19, CNNM2, FXYD2, SLC41A2, and TRPM6 significantly influenced diabetes risk (p prediabetes 13.4% was

  16. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  17. Serum autoantibodies in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamakido, Michio; Hamilton, H.B.; Kobuke, Kyoko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Hakoda, Masayuki; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Yoshimoto, Keiko; Fujikura, Toshio.

    1983-12-01

    In order to evaluate delayed effects of radiation on humoral immunity, an attempt was made to detect antibodies in the serum of atomic bomb survivors against kidney, liver, and parietal cells from rats. The following results were observed. Comparing by sex and age, the detection frequency of antibodies increased significantly for all three organs in the male group only. Analysis of changes in antibody detection frequencies by age and exposure dose without considering sex showed that the rates for those exposed to 100 + rad showed a trend to increase with age for all three organs (P < 0.01). However, in the 0 rad group, a significant trend to increase with age was noted for antikidney and antiliver antibodies only (P < 0.01 for both). Analysis of changes in antibody detection frequencies by sex, age, and exposure dose showed that the detection frequencies increased significantly with age for all three organs in males exposed to 100 + rad (P < 0.05), but only the antiliver antibody frequency increased significantly with age in males in the 0 rad exposure group. Females failed to show any statistical changes in any exposure group. (author)

  18. Effect of the human follicle-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    a fragment of FSHBI, and the native protein have similar activity in vitro and both compounds alter FSH action at the receptor level ... of the rest of the cohort and meiotic arrest of oocytes until ... et al 1989) and preliminary studies performed using the partially .... that human ovarian follicular fluid contains a low molecular-.

  19. Juvenile hormone-binding proteins of Melanoplus bivittatus identified by EFDA photoaffinity labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winder, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    Proteins that bind juvenile hormone in the hemolymph and fat body of the grasshopper, Melanoplus bivittatus were identified by photoaffinity labeling with radiolabeled epoxyfarnesyl diazoacetate ( 3 H-EFDA), and were characterized by electrophoretic analysis. A protocol was developed which allowed detection of 3 H-EFDA that was covalently linked to proteins upon exposure to ultraviolet light at 254 nm. Quantification of protein-linked 3 H-EFDA by liquid scintillation spectrometry took advantage of the differential solubility of unlinked 3 H-EFDA in toluene alone, and of the protein-linked 3 H-EFDA in toluene plus the detergent, Triton X-100. Competition between EFDA and juvenile hormone (JH) for binding to JH-specific binding sites was measured by hydroxyapatite protein binding assays in the presence of radiolabeled JH or EFDA and competing non-radiolabeled hormone. The protein-linked EFDA was detected on fluorograms of SDS or nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels (PAGE), and by liquid scintillation spectrometry of membranes to which the proteins had been electrophoretically transferred. Proteins which specifically bound JH were identified by photolabeling proteins in the presence and absence of nonlabeled JH-III

  20. Multiple growth hormone-binding proteins are expressed on insulin-producing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, A; Billestrup, N; Thorn, N A

    1989-01-01

    The insulin-producing rat islet tumor cell line, RIN-5AH, expresses somatogen binding sites and responds to GH by increased proliferation and insulin production. Affinity cross-linking shows that RIN-5AH cells contain two major GH-binding subunits of Mr 100-130K (110K), which appear to exist as d....... It is concluded that the RIN-5AH cells have multiple GH-binding proteins which may mediate signals for either proliferation and/or insulin production....

  1. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone and Estradiol Levels in Positive Hepatitis C Virus in Liver Insufficiency Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.A.; Fekry, A.E.; Abdelgawad, M.R.; Ali, S.E.; Ali, W.I.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-two positive HCV male patients with liver insufficiency were classified into 4 different groups: steatohepatitis (16), chronic hepatitis (17), cirrhosis (12) and HCC (7), beside 24 healthy subjects served as control to evaluate serum sex hormones testosterone and estradiol, and trace elements Zn and Cu in different liver insufficiency positive male HCV patients. The results of the present study showed significant decrease (P<0.05 and P<0.001) in serum testosterone level and testosterone/estradiol ratio in patients with different liver states when compared with control. The serum testosterone level was significantly decreased (P<0.05 and P<0.001)) in patients with cirrhosis than other patient groups. On the other hand, there was significant increase (P<0.01 and P<0.001) in serum estradiol level in all groups as compared with control. Serum testosterone/estradiol ratio was less affected and significantly increased (P<0.01 and P<0.001) in patients with steatohepatitis than other patient groups. Also, the results showed significant decrease (P<0.001) in serum Zn level in patients when compared with control and significant decrease (P<0.05) in cirrhosis as compared with HCC. Also, significant increase (P<0.01 and P<0.001) was determined in serum Cu level and Cu/Zn ratio in different groups as compared with control group. Serum Cu level was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in chronic hepatitis as compared with cirrhosis and HCC. On the other hand, serum Cu/Zn ratio was significantly increased in cirrhosis as compared with steatohepatitis and chronic hepatitis groups (P<0.05 and P<0.01). The patient groups can be detected by using either zinc, copper, testosterone or estradiol contents in serum. It could be concluded that the levels of serum sex hormones (testosterone and estradiol) and trace elements (Zn and Cu and their ratio) may used as markers for liver insufficiency and liver complications, especially in the early diagnosis and prediction of HCC in patients

  2. The trouble with sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Lise

    2011-12-22

    Sex differences in the brain are real and clinically important but often grossly distorted in popular discourse. Considering the public's deep fascination with sex difference research and its impact on issues from mental health to education and workplace equity, neuroscientists should pay greater heed to its misappropriation and to studying how gender enculturation shapes neural function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex-work harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekart, Michael L

    2005-12-17

    Sex work is an extremely dangerous profession. The use of harm-reduction principles can help to safeguard sex workers' lives in the same way that drug users have benefited from drug-use harm reduction. Sex workers are exposed to serious harms: drug use, disease, violence, discrimination, debt, criminalisation, and exploitation (child prostitution, trafficking for sex work, and exploitation of migrants). Successful and promising harm-reduction strategies are available: education, empowerment, prevention, care, occupational health and safety, decriminalisation of sex workers, and human-rights-based approaches. Successful interventions include peer education, training in condom-negotiating skills, safety tips for street-based sex workers, male and female condoms, the prevention-care synergy, occupational health and safety guidelines for brothels, self-help organisations, and community-based child protection networks. Straightforward and achievable steps are available to improve the day-to-day lives of sex workers while they continue to work. Conceptualising and debating sex-work harm reduction as a new paradigm can hasten this process.

  4. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  5. Sex Differences Reappraised: A Rebuttal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolor, Alexander; Brannigan, Gary G.

    1975-01-01

    This rebuttal of the criticisms made by Evans and Sperekas points to the fact that sex differences have been found by the authors on locus of control scales, that the purported sex-biased items in the Future Events Test are not necessarily outside the response repetoire of women, and the criticism of including female relevant items cannot be…

  6. Teaching Sex Education in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Noy S.; Jones, Megan R.; Jantaraweragul, Sudgasame

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the current situation pertaining to the teaching of sex education and identify barriers to teaching sex education among Thai health education teachers. A survey questionnaire was administered to 193 health education teachers who participated in this study. The questionnaire was comprised of three parts:…

  7. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow How should people deal with spasticity during sex? play_arrow What about positions and foreplay after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow What about orgasms and sensation during sex after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow What ...

  8. Moral Pluralism and Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corngold, Josh

    2013-01-01

    How should common schools in a liberal pluralist society approach sex education in the face of deep disagreement about sexual morality? Should they eschew sex education altogether? Should they narrow its focus to facts about biology, reproduction, and disease prevention? Should they, in addition to providing a broad palette of information about…

  9. Sex in a test tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesce, Diego; Lehman, Niles; Visser, de Arjan

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of sex, and the associated role of recombination, present a major problem in biology. Sex typically involves recombination of closely related DNA or RNA sequences,which is fundamentally a randomprocess that creates but also breaks up beneficial allele combinations.

  10. Gender differences in serum testosterone and cortisol in patients with major depressive disorder compared with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaka, Hisashi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Kida, Sayaka; Kurita, Hirofumi; Shimano, Takahisa; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Baba, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone may have a role distinct from cortisol in the pathophysiology of depression. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis affects the functions of sex steroid hormones through interaction with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The objective of this study was to investigate differences in serum levels of testosterone and cortisol in male and female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants included 87 inpatients with MDD at Juntendo University Koshigaya Hospital. Serum levels of testosterone and cortisol were assessed at admission. Matched controls included 128 healthy individuals. Data from MDD patients and controls were compared separately for men and women. Correlations between serum hormone levels and scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) of patients were assessed by sex. Effects of various factors on testosterone and cortisol were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. In male patients with MDD, a significant negative correlation was seen between testosterone levels and the "retardation" score of HAM-D. However, serum testosterone levels were not significantly different in either male or female MDD patients compared with controls. Serum testosterone was negatively associated with the number of depressive episodes in male patients with MDD. Serum cortisol levels in female patients were significantly increased compared with female controls with no significant correlations between cortisol levels and HAM-D scores. The negative correlation between the sub-score of the HAM-D and testosterone may be associated with the biological pathophysiology of male depression. Findings of serum cortisol levels in women may suggest distinct characteristics of these hormones in men and women with MDD.

  11. Estimation of Serum Uric Acid in Cases of Hyperuriceamia and Gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Pokharel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gout is crystal deposit arthritis and is an ancient disease. The biologic precursor to gout is hyperuricaemia. The prevalence of hyperuricaemia and gout has an increasing trend all over the world including the developing countries. The purpose of this study is to estimate serum uric acid level in hyperuricaemic and gout patients attending a medical college hospital. Methods: A consecutive 150 hyperuricaemics and 150 gout patients attending Tribhuwan University Teaching Hospital from June to September 2005 were included in this study. The serum uric acid level was measured by the enzymatic (PAP- Uricase method. The patients with acute gout were interviewed and relevant information was obtained. Results: Males comprised 84 % of gout cases. Hyperuricaemia was common in both sexes. The mean age for gout was 47.49 and 56.65 years in males and females respectively. The mean age for the first gout attack was 42.1 ± 14.0 years. Family history was positive in 22 % of cases. The overall mean serum uric acid level in hyperuricaemics was 7.2 ± 0.7 mg/dL and 8.4 ± 1.1 mg/dL in acute gout (p 0.0001. The mean serum uric acid level was signifi cantly (p 0.0001 high among males both at the asymptomatic phase and at acute gout. Gout was more common in non-vegetarians (95 % and alcoholics (65.3 %. Serum uric acid level was inversely related with the amount of daily water intake (p 0.0001. Conclusions: Serum uric acid level is signifi cantly high among the male gouty arthritic patients. However, it is also high among asymptomatic hyperuricaemic cases of both sexes. Keywords: asymptomatic hyperuricaemia, gout, serum uric acid level.

  12. Sex reassignment surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bižić Marta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transsexualism, or gender incongruence, presents a state in which a person's assigned sex at birth conflicts with their psychological gender. It is classified in International Classification of Diseases as F64. Treating these persons require multidisciplinary approach, including psychiatrist, endocrinologist, gynecologist, urologist, plastic and reconstructive surgeon. Genital reconstruction is the final step in transition, and can be performed when all other conditions required by World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH are accomplished. Female to male sex reassignment surgery Several surgical procedures can be done in female to male transsexuals, including mastectomy, removal of female genitalia, metoidioplasty, scrotoplasty with implantation of testicular implants, as well as total phalloplasty. The current operative technique of metoidioplasty comprise the following steps: vaginal removal, the release of the ventral chordee and clitoral ligaments, straightening and lengthening of the clitoris, urethroplasty by combining buccal mucosa graft and genital flaps and scrotoplasty with insertion of testicle prostheses. The goal is to perform all these procedures in one stage, and that makes our team famous worldwide. Metoidioplasty results in excellent cosmetic outcome with completely preserved sensitivity and sexual arousal, enables voiding while standing, but without ability to penetrate due to small size of the neophallus. Considering these advantages, including low complication rate, patients often choose this option. For those who require bigger phallus which enables implantation of penile prosthesis, several surgical techniques have been reported using either available local vascularized tissue or microvascular tissue transfer. However, none of them satisfy all the goals of modern penile construction, i.e. reproducibility, tactile and erogenous sensation, a competent neourethra with a meatus at the top of the neophallus

  13. Constructions of Sex and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Responding to the ethical and performative call of Judith Butler not to propagate the sex- and gender-related violence of the imbedded discourse that we study, this article inquires into the discursive strategies of Jewish scripture by analysing how it orchestrates certain norms of sex and gender...... and make them serve the overall aim of securing cultural survival. Following this, it traces reflections on persons of ambiguous or indeterminate sex from rabbinic to modern Judaism so as to inquire into the rabbinic dependency on scripture when non-conforming individuals challenge its bipolar sex...... Jews and non-Jews are able to influence their own representations of sex and gender and thus liberate themselves from the normativity implied by scriptural discourse....

  14. Sex differences in primary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Men have higher blood pressure than women through much of life regardless of race and ethnicity. This is a robust and highly conserved sex difference that it is also observed across species including dogs, rats, mice and chickens and it is found in induced, genetic and transgenic animal models of hypertension. Not only do the differences between the ovarian and testicular hormonal milieu contribute to this sexual dimorphism in blood pressure, the sex chromosomes also play a role in and of themselves. This review primarily focuses on epidemiological studies of blood pressure in men and women and experimental models of hypertension in both sexes. Gaps in current knowledge regarding what underlie male-female differences in blood pressure control are discussed. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying sex differences in hypertension may lead to the development of anti-hypertensives tailored to one's sex and ultimately to improved therapeutic strategies for treating this disease and preventing its devastating consequences. PMID:22417477

  15. [Sex role and sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlison, E

    2000-11-01

    Gender inequality in all areas of life remains a global problem despite efforts over the past twenty years in particular to address the situation. In physical activity and sport the inequality between women and men is particularly pronounced in almost all countries, although it differs in degree. Two of the main reasons why inequality between women and men physical activity and sport is more extreme than in many other areas of social life are the result of the close association between the attributes required for sport and those associated with traditional concepts of stereotypical, hegemonic masculinity, and a lack of understanding of the difference between sex and gender. In sport and physical activity physical differences between men and women have been confused with socially constructed differences i.e. physical differences have been confused with gender differences, and this confusion has been used to justify women's lesser and limited participation at all levels. To achieve equality between women and men in physical activity and sport it will be essential that gender is identified and understood as a socially constructed and fluid concept which is a product of the relations between women and men. The fact that women bear children or are generally less physically powerful than men is not sufficient to justify why it is not considered appropriate for women to participate in certain forms of physical activity or why their participation is less valued than the participation of men. An understanding of gender and of the construction of gender relations is an important pre-requisite to addressing the inequality between women and men in physical activity and sport and in developing policies and programs which include, and are of equal benefit to both sexes. While more research on the benefits of participation in physical activity is needed, there is currently sufficient information available to identify the health related and social value of participation to both

  16. Same sex families and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction comprises the information on two main forms of same sex families, civic partnership (same sex partnership and same sex marriage. Countries and various status modalities of legal regulations are mentioned. The main part of the text is dedicated to presentation of the findings of the most recent research on various aspects regarding children of same sex partnerships. It comprises presentations grouped in four main chapters: acceptance of same sex partnerships, acceptance of legal recognition of the same sex partnerships, family plans of homosexual teenagers, and raising children within and by the same sex partners. Also the real life cases mirroring legal changes through their life destinies are presented, such is e.g. the Irish way to legalization of the same sex partnerships. In addition, a love story of two women crowned by giving birth of their four children is mentioned. Reasons against and negative reactions the author puts under the title Homophobia. In the Concluding remarks, the author presents the most recent examples of legal changes happened in Norway, Ecuador, and in the American states of California and Connecticut. It was also stated that in European countries of low birth rate, the same sex families are inevitably identified as one of demographically valuable source of creating and raising children, which is worthy to be supported, rather than being hindered without reason and discriminated. Although different than a model of heterosexual family, same sex partnerships neither are harrowing to traditional family values, nor reflex of any kind of promiscuous, antisocial behavior, avoidance of parenthood, and negation of family. Quite opposite, these families are an outcome of endeavors of homosexuals not to be deprived of family, parenthood and all of other values of stabile, monogamous, emotional/sexual socially accepted and legally recognized and regulated conventional family. .

  17. Role of Serum Adiponectin and Vitamin D in Prediabetes and Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anindita; Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Roy, Debashree; Poddar, Jit; Roy, Tapan Kumar Sinha; Karnam, Srikanth Arliganur

    2017-06-01

    The roles of deficient or deranged insulin, adiponectin and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels regulating food intake, energy metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism and body weight have been reported in the pathogenesis of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, their congruity in the etiology of diabetes mellitus is unknown. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the roles of these parameters together and to establish their interrelationship in patients with prediabetes and diabetes. The preliminary cross-sectional study included 77 persons with type 2 diabetes who were matched for age, sex and body mass index (BMI); 73 persons with prediabetes; and 52 healthy control subjects. Fasting serum levels of adiponectin, insulin and 25(OH)D were measured by commercially available immune assay kits, and routine biochemical parameters were analyzed in all study groups. The results show statistically significant lower levels of serum adiponectin and serum 25(OH)D and higher serum insulin levels in persons with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes with respect to controls. The changes in the serum adiponectin or serum 25(OH)D in persons with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes were found to be inversely correlated with the serum levels of insulin. Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis, with 25(OH)D, insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as the variables, revealed that serum adiponectin levels might be an independent risk factor for the progression of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in subjects. The association of these hormones might act as a significant predictor of progression of prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. Decreased serum adiponectin levels might be an independent risk factor for progression to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, which may help in developing experimental models of the disease or in identifying biomarkers or disease-modifying drugs. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  18. Metabolic syndrome, alcohol consumption and genetic factors are associated with serum uric acid concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Stibůrková

    Full Text Available Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans, and increased serum uric acid concentrations lead to gout. The objective of the current study was to identify factors that are independently associated with serum uric acid concentrations in a cohort of Czech control individuals.The cohort consisted of 589 healthy subjects aged 18-65 years. We studied the associations between the serum uric acid concentration and the following: (i demographic, anthropometric and other variables previously reported to be associated with serum uric acid concentrations; (ii the presence of metabolic syndrome and the levels of metabolic syndrome components; and (iii selected genetic variants of the MTHFR (c.665C>T, c.1286A>C, SLC2A9 (c.844G>A, c.881G>A and ABCG2 genes (c.421C>A. A backward model selection procedure was used to build two multiple linear regression models; in the second model, the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met replaced the metabolic syndrome-related variables.The models had coefficients of determination of 0.59 and 0.53. The serum uric acid concentration strongly correlated with conventional determinants including male sex, and with metabolic syndrome-related variables. In the simplified second model, the serum uric acid concentration positively correlated with the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met, and this model retained the explanatory power of the first model. Moderate wine drinking did not increase serum uric acid concentrations, and the urate transporter ABCG2, unlike MTHFR, was a genetic determinant of serum uric acid concentrations.Metabolic syndrome, moderate wine drinking and the c.421C>A variant in the ABCG gene are independently associated with the serum uric acid concentration. Our model indicates that uric acid should be clinically monitored in persons with metabolic syndrome.

  19. The sex and sex determination in Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Yan, Xing-hong; Aruga, Yusho

    2013-01-01

    Pyropia haitanensis has a biphasic life cycle with macroscopic gametophytic blade (n) and microscopic filamentous conchocelis (2n) phase. Its gametophytic blades have long been believed to be mainly dioecious. However, when crossing the red mutant (R, ♀) with the wild type (W, ♂), the parental colors were segregated in F1 blades, of which 96.1% were linearly sectored with 2-4 color sectors. When color sectors were excised from the color-sectored blades and cultured singly, 99.7% of the color sectors appeared to be unisexual with an equal sex ratio. Although the sex of color sector did not genetically link with its color, the boundaries of both sex and color sectors coincided precisely. About 87.9% of the examined color-sectored blades were monoecious and the percentage increased with the number of color sectors of a blade. The gametophytic blades from each conchocelis strain produced by parthenogenesis of the excised color sectors were unisexual and unicolor, showing the same sex and color as their original sectors. These results indicate that most of the sexually reproduced Py. haitanensis blades are monoecious, and their sex is controlled by segregation of a pair of alleles during meiosis of conchospore, forming a sex-sectored tetrad. During the subsequent development of blades, one or two lower cell(s) of the tetrad contribute mainly to rhizoid formation, and rarely show their sexual phenotype, leading to reduced frequency of full sex phenotype of the meiotic blades. Moreover, the aberrant segregations of sex genes or color genes in a few of F1 blades were probably due to gene conversions, but there was no sex transfer in Py. haitanensis.

  20. Serum steroid levels in intact and endocrine ablated BALB/c nude mice and their intact littermates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Svenstrup, B; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was made of the serum steroid levels found in intact and endocrine ablated nude mice of both sexes and in their intact homozygous littermates. The results showed that nude mice have a normal steroidogenesis, but with decreased levels of circulating steroids compared to those...

  1. Study of serum lipids in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Anju

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty fresh and untreated patients of leprosy constituted the study group. Fifty, age and sex matched healthy individuals formed the controls. Ridly and Jopling system of classification was used in the study. Majority i.e 21 cases were of BT group, 12 of BB, 7 of BL, 9 of LL and one case was of TT leprosy. The serum triglyceride level was lower than normal in TT, showed no alteration in BT or BB and was insignificantly increased in bL and LL patients. The total cholesterol was lowerthan normal in TT, showed no alteration in BT or BB and was insignificantly increased in Bland LL patients. The total cholesterol was lower than normal in TT, whereas in BT, BB, BL and LL groups the levels were statistically decreased. The HDL cholesterol was within normal range in TT, significantly decreased in BT and LL patients, showed no significant alteration in BB and was insignificantly decreased in BL group. The LDL cholesterol in TT was low but was not so low statistically when compared with the controls, whereas in BT, BB, BL and LL groups the levels were statistically decreased. The VLDL cholesterol was within normal range in TT and BT, was raised insignificantly in 3 of 12 cases of BB, was within normal range in BL and in LL leprosy it was raised in one out of 9 cases. In the absence of any derangement of liver function tests, it can be concluded that leprosy per se leads to alterations in lipid metabolism. However, no correlation could be established between the group/type of leprosy, bacterial indices and levels of different lipid fractions in the present study.

  2. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ghisleni

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women. Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  3. Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels within Normal Range Have Different Associations with Augmentation Index and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Nondrinkers and Drinkers: A Chinese Community-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate whether serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels within normal range were associated with augmentation index (AIx and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers in Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods. There were 4165 participants with serum ALT levels within normal range. Results. Alcohol drinking was observed in 1173 participants (28.2%. In multivariate analysis, serum ALT levels of nondrinkers were independently associated with age, sex, body mass index (BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c, and AIx, while serum ALT levels of drinkers were independently associated with age, sex, BMI, triglyceride, and LDL-c (p<0.05 for all. Conclusions. Associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with age, sex, body height and weight, and blood lipid were simultaneously present in participants with and without alcohol drinking, while associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with AIx, blood pressure, and glucose were seen in nondrinkers rather than in drinkers. These findings not only provide the evidence that serum ALT levels, even within the normal range, have different associations with arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers but also are helpful in understanding the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms linking the hepatic function to arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors.

  4. Development of LC-MS/MS confirmatory method for the determination of testosterone in bovine serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the European Union the use of steroid growth promoters is prohibited under Council Directive 96/22/EC. For effective control of illegal use of natural steroids, highly sensitive analytical methods are required, because sex hormones can be present in very low concentrations in biological samples. The aim of the study was to develop a confirmatory method for the detection of testosterone in bovine serum at ppt level.

  5. Serum xanthine oxidase profile in stressed Marwari sheep from arid tracts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maan R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to determine serum xanthine oxidase profile in stressed Marwari breed of sheep belonging to arid tracts in Rajasthan, India. Extreme hot and cold ambiences were considered as stress conditions to the animals. Blood samples were collected to obtain sera during moderate, extreme hot and cold ambiences. The mean value of serum xanthine oxidase during moderate ambience was 93.33±1.11 mU L-1.The mean value of serum xanthine oxidase was significantly (p≤0.05higher during hot and significantly (p≤0.05 lower during cold ambiences as compared to moderate mean value serving as control. The sex and age effects were significant (p≤0.05 in all ambiences. The mean values were significantly (p≤0.05 higher in males than females. In each ambience the age effect showed a significant (p≤0.05 increase in the mean values being highest in the animals of 2.5-4.5 years of age. The effects of extreme ambiences were observed on the male and female animals of all age groups as revealed by various interactions studied viz. ambience X age; ambience X sex and age X sex (p≤0.01. Further sex effect was present in the animals of each age group. It can be concluded that serum xanthine oxidase can be used as an effective marker to assess oxidative stress in these animals. Mean values obtained from large number of animals during moderate ambience will help in providing physiological reference values for future research and clinical interpretations.

  6. Serum microRNA-122 predicts survival in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Waidmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. MicroRNAs (miRs circulating in the blood are an emerging new class of biomarkers. In particular, the serum level of the liver-specific miR-122 might be a clinically useful new parameter in patients with acute or chronic liver disease. AIM: Here we investigated if the serum level of miR-122 might be a prognostic parameter in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: 107 patients with liver cirrhosis in the test cohort and 143 patients in the validation cohort were prospectively enrolled into the present study. RNA was extracted from the sera obtained at the time of study enrollment and the level of miR-122 was assessed. Serum miR-122 levels were assessed by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR and were compared to overall survival time and to different complications of liver cirrhosis. RESULTS: Serum miR-122 levels were reduced in patients with hepatic decompensation in comparison to patients with compensated liver disease. Patients with ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal syndrome had significantly lower miR-122 levels than patients without these complications. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the miR-122 serum levels were associated with survival independently from the MELD score, sex and age. CONCLUSIONS: Serum miR-122 is a new independent marker for prediction of survival of patients with liver cirrhosis.

  7. Serum carotenoids and colorectal cancer risk: A case-control study in Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Lu, Min-Shan; Fang, Yu-Jing; Xu, Ming; Huang, Wu-Qing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2017-10-01

    Previous epidemiological studies on the association between circulating carotenoids and the risk of colorectal cancer drew inconclusive conclusions. This study aimed to examine serum carotenoids in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. One case-control study beginning from July 2010, consecutively recruited 538 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 564 age (5-year interval) and sex frequency-matched controls. Serum levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were detected by HPLC. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence internal (CI) after adjusting for various confounders. Serum levels of α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene were found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. The adjusted ORs of the highest quartile relative to the lowest quartile serum level were 0.49 (95% CIs 0.33-0.72) for α-carotene, 0.44 (95% CIs 0.29-0.66) for β-cryptoxanthin, and 0.36 (95% CIs 0.24-0.54) for lycopene, respectively. The association between serum β-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin and colorectal cancer risk was not statistically significant. The results indicated that the incidence of colorectal cancer was associated with lower serum levels of α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene among Chinese population residing in Guangdong. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Association Between Serum Triglycerides and Cerebral Amyloidosis in Cognitively Normal Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo Jung; Byun, Min Soo; Yi, Dahyun; Choe, Young Min; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Baek, Hye Won; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyun Jung; Han, Ji Young; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Woo, Jong Inn; Lee, Dong Young

    2016-08-01

    Although many preclinical studies have suggested the possible linkage between dyslipidemia and cerebral amyloid deposition, the association between serum lipid measures and cerebral amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition in human brain is still poorly known. We aimed to investigate the association in cognitively normal (CN) elderly individuals. Cross-sectional study. University hospital dementia clinic. 59 CN elderly. The study measures included comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological assessment based on the CERAD protocol, magnetic resonance imaging and (11)C-labelled Pittsburgh Compound B positron emission tomography scans, and quantification for serum lipid biomarkers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that a higher serum triglycerides level was associated with heavier global cerebral Aβ deposition even after controlling age, sex, and apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype. Serum apolipoprotein B also showed significant positive association with global cerebral Aβ deposition, but the significance disappeared after controlling serum triglycerides level. No association was found between other lipid measures and global cerebral Aβ deposition. The findings suggest that serum triglycerides are closely associated with cerebral amyloidosis, although population-based prospective studies are needed to provide further evidence of the causative effect of triglycerides on cerebral amyloidosis. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between Serum Cortisol and DHEA-S Levels and Response to Antipsychotic Treatment in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoja Babinkostova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that alterations in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. AIM: To compare serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to evaluate their association with the response to antipsychotic treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this clinical prospective study were included 60 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy age and sex matched control subjects. Clinical evaluation of patients was performed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. A questionnaire for socio-demographic and clinical data collection was used. For the purposes of the study, the examined group was divided in two subgroups: responders and nonresponders. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels were measured at baseline in all participants and after 3 and 6 weeks of the antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia. RESULTS: Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels in comparison to the control group. Responders had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels compared with nonresponders. CONCLUSION: Elevated serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and they may be related to positive response to antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia.

  10. Talk to Your Kids about Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic En español Talk to Your Kids about Sex Browse Sections The Basics Overview Bodies and Puberty ... healthy expectations for their relationships. Talk about opposite-sex and same-sex relationships. When you talk about ...

  11. Fungal Sex: The Basidiomycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marco A; Bakkeren, Guus; Sun, Sheng; Hood, Michael E; Giraud, Tatiana

    2017-06-01

    Fungi of the Basidiomycota, representing major pathogen lineages and mushroom-forming species, exhibit diverse means to achieve sexual reproduction, with particularly varied mechanisms to determine compatibilities of haploid mating partners. For species that require mating between distinct genotypes, discrimination is usually based on both the reciprocal exchange of diffusible mating pheromones, rather than sexes, and the interactions of homeodomain protein signals after cell fusion. Both compatibility factors must be heterozygous in the product of mating, and genetic linkage relationships of the mating pheromone/receptor and homeodomain genes largely determine the complex patterns of mating-type variation. Independent segregation of the two compatibility factors can create four haploid mating genotypes from meiosis, referred to as tetrapolarity. This condition is thought to be ancestral to the basidiomycetes. Alternatively, cosegregation by linkage of the two mating factors, or in some cases the absence of the pheromone-based discrimination, yields only two mating types from meiosis, referred to as bipolarity. Several species are now known to have large and highly rearranged chromosomal regions linked to mating-type genes. At the population level, polymorphism of the mating-type genes is an exceptional aspect of some basidiomycete fungi, where selection under outcrossing for rare, intercompatible allelic variants is thought to be responsible for numbers of mating types that may reach several thousand. Advances in genome sequencing and assembly are yielding new insights by comparative approaches among and within basidiomycete species, with the promise to resolve the evolutionary origins and dynamics of mating compatibility genetics in this major eukaryotic lineage.

  12. Sex Hormones and Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men (n...... = 4615) and women (n = 4724) with measurements of endogenous sex hormones during the 1981-1983 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, were followed for up to 29 years for incident IS, with no loss to follow-up. Mediation analyses assessed whether risk of IS was mediated through...

  13. Adolescents, sex, and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2012-04-01

    In the absence of effective sex education in the United States, the media have arguably become the leading sex educator for children and teenagers. Considerable research now exists that attests to the ability of the media to influence adolescents' attitudes and beliefs about sex and sexuality. In addition, new research has found a significant link between exposure to sexual content in the media and earlier onset of sexual intercourse. Although there is little research on the behavioral effects of "new" media, they are discussed as well. Suggestions for clinicians, parents, the federal government, and the entertainment industry are provided.

  14. Whose crazy investment in sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandlis, Lane R

    2011-01-01

    By probing the processes of exclusion of transsexuals from the political sphere, this article offers contributions to social and political theory through an examination of the processes of exclusion from the category "human." This article considers how the erasure of investment in their own embodied sex constructs a platform from which to blame others for sex/gender variance, as well as to justify that blaming. Bringing together Giorgio Agamben, Georges Bataille, Judith Butler, and Nikolas Rose with transphobia, medicalization in psychiatry, law, and ethopolitics, this article questions whose investment in sexed embodiment counts and why that investment might be seen as "crazy."

  15. Serum Antibody Biomarkers for ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    typically developing control. US, unaffected sibling control. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...typically developing (TD) children (e.g., Warren et al., 1990; Singh, 2009). The goal of this study is to identify a serum antibody biomarker for ASD using...50% less IgG1 antibody in ASD boys vs . TD boys (p=0.0096). The level of ASD1 binding to the AM group was the same as to the ASD boys. These data

  16. Further characterization of serum alkaline phosphatase from male and female beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amacher, D E; Higgins, C V; Schomaker, S J; Clay, R J

    1989-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) from the sera of both male and female beagle dogs was partially purified and then analyzed for the presence of AP isoenzymes having intestinal or osseous characteristics as detected by bromotetramisole inhibition or wheat germ lectin agarose electrophoresis, respectively. The sera from both sexes were similar in regard to the presence of AP isoenzymes with intestinal (16 vs. 20%) or osseous (19 vs. 23%) characteristics, but serum AP from the male had a greater sialic acid content and only the male serum contained a detectable constitutive acidic (pI = 3.4) AP isoenzyme. This was similar to a serum AP isoenzyme previously found elevated in the sera of dogs afflicted with hyperadrenocorticalism or of dogs treated with certain corticosteroids.

  17. SPE-HPLC purification of endocrine disrupting compounds from human serum for assessment of xenoestrogenic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, P.S.; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of xenoestrogenic activity in human serum samples requires the removal of endogenous sex hormones to assure that the activity measured originates from xenobiotic compounds only. Serum samples representing high, medium and lower accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were...... measured by ERE-CALUX was validated and considered to be a valuable tool to assess the combined ER effect of lipophilic serum POPs where additive/synergistic and agonistic/antagonistic effects are integrated giving an overall estimate of exposure and bioactivity....... for the study. MVLN cells, stably transfected with an estrogen receptor (ER) luciferase reporter vector (ERE-CALUX), were exposed to the reconstituted SPE-HPLC extracts for determination of the integrated estrogenic activity. The effects of PCBs were analyzed by direct in vitro exposure of PCBs (138, 153...

  18. Testosterone replacement elevates the serum uric acid levels in patients with female to male gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Masami; Sugimoto, Morito; Ariyoshi, Yuichi; Mahmood, Sabina; Araki, Motoo; Ishii, Kazushi; Nasu, Yasutomo; Nagai, Atsushi; Kumon, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) results from a disagreement between a person's biological sex and the gender to which he or she identifies. With respect to the treatment of female to male GID, testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is available. The uric acid (UA) level can be influenced by testosterone; however, the early effects and dose-dependency of TRT on the serum UA concentration have not been evaluated in this population. We herein conducted a dose-response analysis of TRT in 160 patients with female to male GID. The TRT consisted of three treatment groups who received intramuscular injections of testosterone enanthate: 125 mg every two weeks, 250 mg every three weeks and 250 mg every two weeks. Consequently, serum UA elevation was observed after three months of TRT and there was a tendency toward testosterone dose-dependency. The onset of hyperuricemia was more prevalent in the group who received the higher dose. We also demonstrated a positive correlation between increased levels of serum UA and serum creatinine. Since the level of serum creatinine represents an individual's muscle volume and the muscle is a major source of purine, which induces UA upregulation, the serum UA elevation observed during TRT is at least partially attributed to an increase in muscle mass. This is the first study showing an association between serum UA elevation and a TRT-induced increase in muscle mass. The current study provides important information regarding TRT for the follow-up and management of the serum UA levels in GID patients.

  19. Disentangling the benefits of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary advantage of sexual reproduction remains one of the most fundamental questions in evolutionary biology. Most of the current hypotheses rely on the fact that sex increases genetic variation, thereby enhancing the efficiency of natural selection; an important body of theoretical work has defined the conditions under which sex can be favoured through this effect. Over the last decade, experimental evolution in model organisms has provided evidence that sex indeed allows faster rates of adaptation. A new study on facultatively sexual rotifers shows that increased rates of sex can be favoured during adaptation to new environmental conditions and explores the cause of this effect. The results provide support for the idea that the benefits of increasing genetic variation may compensate for the short-term costs of sexual reproduction.

  20. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a spinal cord injury? play_arrow What about oral sex after a spinal cord injury? ... injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  1. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Guy W. Fried, MD Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How ... spinal cord injury? play_arrow Can men and women still have sex after a spinal cord injury? ...

  2. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility ... injury? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  3. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injury? play_arrow Can men and women still have sex after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How is sexual function in women affected by a spinal cord injury? play_arrow ...

  4. Sex differences, gender and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; McClellan, Michele L; Reed, Beth Glover

    2017-01-02

    This review discusses alcohol and other forms of drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural, and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain after exposure to drugs of abuse and whether addiction results from drug-taking experiences. In addition, the basic laboratory evidence for sex differences is discussed within the context of four types of sex/gender differences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal ... male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and fertility after a spinal cord ...

  6. Sex differences in cardiovascular function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, František; Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 207, č. 4 (2013), s. 584-587 ISSN 1748-1708 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : heart * vascular * risk factors * sex Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.251, year: 2013

  7. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, ...

  8. Sex and Fertility After SCI

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    Full Text Available ... Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury ... 2525 info@facingdisability.com SIGN UP FOR OUR NEWSLETTER Your email address * This iframe contains the logic ...

  9. Sex and Fertility After SCI

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    Full Text Available ... male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and fertility after a spinal cord ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  10. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  11. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Can men and women still have sex after a spinal ... injury? play_arrow How is sexual function in men affected by a spinal cord injury ? play_arrow ...

  12. Centile values for serum lipids and blood pressure for Asian Indian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhingra Vibha

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reference data for plasma lipids and blood pressure are not available for Asian Indian adolescents. This study aimed to develop representative age- and sex- specific percentile reference data for serum lipids [total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, non-HDL cholesterol] and blood pressure for urban Asian Indian adolescents aged 14–18 years. The sample consisted of 680 boys and 521 girls aged 14–18 years from the cross-sectional population survey, Epidemiological Study of Adolescents and Young Adults (ESAY for whom the data for serum lipid levels and blood pressure were recorded. Smoothed age- and sex- specific 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th and 95th percentiles where derived using LMS regression. Results Percentile-based reference data for serum lipids and blood pressure are presented for adolescent Asian Indian boys and girls for the first time. Asian Indian adolescents had lower levels of serum TC, LDL-C and HDL-C and higher TG than their counterparts in the USA. Interesting trends in TC and HDL-C levels where observed, which might reflect changes in dietary pattern and physical activity in this age group in India. Conclusion These reference data could be used to identify adolescents with an elevated risk of developing dyslipidemia, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders, to plan and implement preventive policies, and to study temporal trends.

  13. Gender socialization and sex affilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić Saduša F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author's depth interviews with students of the University of Nis checked for the possibility of receptivity to sexual stereotypes and conditioning of sexual/gender socialization by sexual group affiliation. Examined the experiences and attitudes of students of both sexes regarding early gender socialization and it's characteristically stereotypes, stereotypes about dressing, instrumentalization of sexuality, the influence of parents/environment on the formation of sexual morality, own the gender socialization in the family, twin rules for the socialization of children of different gender and sex/gender roles in marriage. Belonging to the sex group has no effect on susceptibility to sexual stereotypes regarding early gender socialization and dressing. Difference may be seen in the effort to comment on and evaluate the wear behavior of girls more than a young man dressing, which may be an indicator for further research had sexual dimorphism in terms of dressing and nudity. It seems that the experience of respondents of both sexes are dependent primarily from the general family atmosphere (closeness, openness to communicate with each other, the absence of the traditional gender division of roles in the family/emotional distance from the parent of the opposite sex or of both parents, the rigidity, the strict division of gender roles in the family. In the first case, where both parents are involved in the upbringing of the child, relationships are intimate with both, and vice versa. Therefore, we can conclude about the lack of connection between the sex of the child and separated upbringing (traditional: the mother confides sexual education of women, a father of male child in the first case, and a link to another should only check to prove it. Sex does not condition susceptibility to stereotypes about education and gender roles. Traditionally, transitional and modern attitudes are equally represented in subjects of both sexes.

  14. Sex Differences in Drug Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...

  15. SEX DIFFERENCES, GENDER AND ADDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jill B.; McClellan, Michele L.; Reed, Beth Glover

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses alcohol/other drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain afte...

  16. Serum testosterone levels of HbSS (sickle cell disease male subjects in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adediran Adewumi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility is a major problem in sickle cell disease patients, especially in males. In addition to low serum testosterone, other abnormalities involving the accessory sex organs, such as the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland, as well as marked decrease in ejaculate volume may be observed in male HbSS patients. Hence, the need to study the role of sex hormones as a cause of infertility in male HbSS patients. Methods An unmatched case-control study was performed using seventy-five consenting subjects from Lagos University Teaching Hospital. These included 47 patients with haemoglobin phenotype SS from the Sickle cell clinic and 28 volunteered medical students and members of staff with haemoglobin phenotype AA. Demographic data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 5 mls of blood was collected from each subject between 9.00 am & 11.am, and assayed for serum testosterone concentration. Results The concentrations of serum testosterone in HbSS patients ranged from 0.2 to 4.3 ng/ml with a mean of 1.28 ± 0.72 ng/ml whilst the values in HbAA controls ranged from 1.2 to 6.9 ng/ml with a mean of 2.63 ± 1.04 ng/ml. Seven (25.0% of the 28 controls had serum testosterone concentration lower than the quoted reference (normal range whereas 44 (93.6% of the 47 HbSS subjects had serum testosterone concentration lower than the reference range. Conclusion Overall, subjects with HbSS have significantly lower mean serum testosterone than HbAA controls.

  17. Serum resistin level among healthy subjects: relationship to anthropometric and metabolic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Chu; Li, Tsai-Chung; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Wang, Hui-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2005-04-01

    Resistin is a novel adipocyte-secreted hormone that has been proposed to be the link between obesity and diabetes, although little appears to be known regarding the physiological role of resistin in human beings. We aimed to explore the relationship between serum resistin level and certain anthropometric and metabolic parameters. Seventy-one healthy subjects with a mean body mass index of 23 kg/m 2 or greater were recruited in this study. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio, and blood pressure were recorded. Insulin resistance was measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Fasting serum resistin, insulin and plasma glucose, lipid profiles, and uric acid levels were measured. The results revealed that serum resistin level did not correlate with any markers for adiposity, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, or uric acid level for either sex. Serum resistin level correlated negatively with fasting insulin level (gamma=-0.455, P=.006) and HOMA (gamma=-0.455, P=.006) in women but not in men. Serum resistin level only correlated negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level in men (gamma=-0.347, P=.038); there was no correlation between serum resistin level and lipid profiles in women. Multiple linear regression analysis using the logarithm of resistin as a dependent variable revealed that only HDL-C level (beta=-.058, P=.019) was an independent significant predictor for resistin in men; however, the analysis revealed that HDL-C level (beta=-.044, P=.029) and HOMA (beta=-.719, P=.004) were independent significant predictors for resistin in women. In conclusion, resistin is not related to adiposity, blood pressure, insulin resistance, fasting plasma glucose level, and most lipid profiles. Resistin correlates negatively with HDL-C level for both sexes. The role of resistin in metabolic syndrome warrants further investigation.

  18. Reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Lamb, Gavin C; Schoeman, Johan P; Hooijberg, Emma H; Heinrich, Sonja K; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2016-02-26

    Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivity-status, age, sex and haemolysis score on the tested serum analytes were investigated. The biochemistry analytes that were measured were sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, urea and creatinine. The 90% confidence interval of the reference limits was obtained using the non-parametric bootstrap method. Reference intervals were preferentially determined by the non-parametric method and were as follows: sodium (128 mmol/L - 166 mmol/L), potassium (3.9 mmol/L - 5.2 mmol/L), magnesium (0.8 mmol/L - 1.2 mmol/L), chloride (97 mmol/L - 130 mmol/L), urea (8.2 mmol/L - 25.1 mmol/L) and creatinine (88 µmol/L - 288 µmol/L). Reference intervals from the current study were compared with International Species Information System values for cheetahs and found to be narrower. Moreover, age, sex and haemolysis score had no significant effect on the serum analytes in this study. Separate reference intervals for captive and free-ranging cheetahs were also determined. Captive cheetahs had higher urea values, most likely due to dietary factors. This study is the first to establish reference intervals for serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs according to international guidelines. These results can be used for future health and disease assessments in both captive and free-ranging cheetahs.

  19. Reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin C. Hudson-Lamb

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivity-status, age, sex and haemolysis score on the tested serum analytes were investigated. The biochemistry analytes that were measured were sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, urea and creatinine. The 90% confidence interval of the reference limits was obtained using the non-parametric bootstrap method. Reference intervals were preferentially determined by the non-parametric method and were as follows: sodium (128 mmol/L – 166 mmol/L, potassium (3.9 mmol/L – 5.2 mmol/L, magnesium (0.8 mmol/L – 1.2 mmol/L, chloride (97 mmol/L – 130 mmol/L, urea (8.2 mmol/L – 25.1 mmol/L and creatinine (88 µmol/L – 288 µmol/L. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with International Species Information System values for cheetahs and found to be narrower. Moreover, age, sex and haemolysis score had no significant effect on the serum analytes in this study. Separate reference intervals for captive and free-ranging cheetahs were also determined. Captive cheetahs had higher urea values, most likely due to dietary factors. This study is the first to establish reference intervals for serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs according to international guidelines. These results can be used for future health and disease assessments in both captive and free-ranging cheetahs.

  20. The significance of monitoring sex hormones levels after ovarian tissue auto-transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiuwei; Xu Peizhen; Yu Bin; Zhou Hong

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the significance of monitoring serum sex hormones levels after ovarian tissue auto-transplantation. Methods: Twenty-five patients with stage IV recurrent endometriosis after one or two times of conservative surgeries underwent radical surgery. Their ovarian tissue fragments were transplanted to greater omentum. Serum follicle-stimulation hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E 2 ) levels were measured monthly since fourth month post-operatively. After E 2 was increased, based body temperature was measured and vaginal hormone cytology was examined weekly for maturation index (MI) to assess the ovulatory phase and luteal phase in those with viable ovarian tissues. Serum levels of FSH, LH and E 2 in ovulatory phase and luteal phase were determined 20 women with viable ovarian tissues for three cycles as well as in 20 normal sexually mature women and 20 operative menopausal women. Results: There were 12 cases who had increasing of E 2 at four months post operatively and 8 cases more at six months. The other 5 cases with low serum E 2 levels and high FSH and LH levels at 12 months were designated as failures. The survival rate of transplanted ovarian tissue was 80.0%. There were no significant differences of the serum FSH, LH and E 2 levels in ovulatory phase and luteal phase between women with viable grafted ovarian tissues and normal sexually mature women. Conclusion: Monitoring of sex hormones is a good means to assess the viability of the transplanted ovarian tissue fragments

  1. Association Between Serum Levels of Uric Acid and Blood Pressure Tracking in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bohyun; Lee, Hye Ah; Lee, Sung Hee; Park, Bo Mi; Park, Eun Ae; Kim, Hae Soon; Cho, Su Jin; Park, Hyesook

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that high levels of serum uric acid of very early life are a result of the in-utero environment and may lead to elevated blood pressure (BP) in adulthood. However, serum uric acid levels can change throughout life. We investigated the effect of serum uric acid levels in childhood on the BP tracking and analysed BP according to changes in serum uric acid levels in early life. A total of 449 children from the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort study underwent at least 2 follow-up examinations. Data were collected across 3 check-up cycles. Serum uric acid levels, BP, and anthropometric characteristics were assessed at 3, 5, and 7 years of age. Children with a serum uric acid level higher than the median values had significantly increased systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP at 3 years of age. Baseline serum uric acid levels measured at 3 years of age, significantly affected subsequent BP in the sex and body mass index adjusted longitudinal data analysis (P uric acid over time, subjects with high uric acid levels at both 3 and 5 years of age had the highest SBP at 7 years of age. These findings suggest the importance of maintaining an adequate level of serum uric acids from the early life. Appropriate monitoring and intervention of uric acid levels in a high-risk group can reduce the risk of a future increased BP. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Serum OPN expression for identification of gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis and its influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiejun; Sun, Liping; He, Caiyun; Gong, Yuehua; Xu, Qian; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Most studies have found that osteopontin (OPN) expression level is related to the poor prognosis of gastric cancer. However, few studies have examined the relationship between OPN expression and gastric precancerous diseases, and the potential role of OPN in the formation and development of GC. We investigated the relationships between serum OPN levels and the risks of gastric cancer (GC) and its precancerous disease, to explore the diagnostic efficacy of serum OPN level for GC and atrophic gastritis and its influencing factors. A total of 1,452 patients were enrolled, including 609 with mild superficial gastritis (SG), 594 with atrophic gastritis (AG) and 249 with GC. The levels of serum OPN and serum Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum OPN levels increased from mild SG (1.99 ± 1.91 ng/ml) to AG (2.37 ± 2.27 ng/ml) to GC (5.94 ± 4.52 ng/ml) (P ≤ 0.002), along with increasing severity of gastric disease. OPN levels were significantly higher in patients with GC compared with the non-cancer population (2.17 ± 2.10, P < 0.0001). Serum OPN level was positively correlated with age and was higher in men than women, but was not correlated with H. pylori infection status. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.805, the optimal cutoff was 2.56 ng/ml and the sensitivity and specificity were 74.3% and 71.8%, respectively, for the ability of serum OPN to discriminate GC. Serum OPN expression was closely related to the risks of GC and AG, and it might be a useful marker for the discrimination of GC. OPN level was positively correlated with age and male sex, but was not affected by H. pylori infection, and it was promoted by smoking and drinking, in patients with mild SG.

  3. Association of serum vitamin D concentrations with dietary patterns in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, Vijay; Martineau, Bernadette; Van Fleit, William Edmund

    2018-06-04

    Because children have been advised on the dangers of sun exposure, diet is an important contributor of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. Aim of this study was to determine whether serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with any specific dietary patterns in US children. Data from 2 cycles of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 for individuals aged 2 to ≤19 y, were used to study relation between dietary patterns and serum 25(OH)D. We derived 2 major dietary patterns based on the food frequency questionnaire data. These were labeled as High-Fat-Low-Vegetable Dietary (HFLVD) pattern and Prudent Dietary (PD) pattern. In multivariate adjusted analysis, there was no significant relationship between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and tertiles of HFLVD and PD dietary pattern scores in all subjects, boys, and girls. When dietary patterns scores were used as a continuous variable in adjusted analysis, children (all) with higher PD contribution scores to overall diet showed a significant positive relation with serum 25(OH)D (β = 59.1, P = 0.017). When data were stratified by sex, a significant positive relation was observed in girls between serum 25(OH)D concentration and PD pattern scores (β = 82.1, P = 0.015). A significant negative relation was observed in girls between serum 25(OH)D and HFLVD pattern scores (β = - 88.5, P = 0.016). Overall, serum 25(OH)D were associated with PD pattern but not with HFLVD pattern in US children. In public health perspective, it is important to encourage children, especially girls who are consuming HFLVD pattern to shift to healthier diet.

  4. Common Genetic Components of Obesity Traits and Serum Leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann L; Benyamin, Beben; Visscher, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    To estimate common and distinct genetic influences on a panel of obesity-related traits and serum leptin level in adults. In a cross-sectional study of 625 Danish, adult, healthy, monozygotic, and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs of both genders, we carried out detailed anthropometry (height, weight...... components, which suggests that it is important to distinguish between the different phenotypes in the search for genes involved in the development of obesity.Obesity (2008) doi:10.1038/oby.2008.440........ For leptin vs. the various measures of overall and local fatness the correlations ranged from 0.54 to 0.74 in men and from 0.48 to 0.75 in women. All correlations were significantly different genetic...

  5. 125I Radioimmunoassay of serum ursodeoxycholyl conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, A.; Ross, P.E.; Bouchier, I.A.D.

    1983-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for serum ursodeoxycholic conjugates using an iodine-125 ligand has been developed. The bile acid was present in normal fasting serum (0.19 +- SD 0.19 μmol/l, n=24) and 2-hour post-prandial serum (0.8 +- SD 0.8 μmol/l, n=16). Gallstone patients undergoing oral ursodeoxycholic acid therapy had significantly higher post-prandial serum levels (21.5 +- SD 14.0 μmol/l, n=15) by radioimmunoassay. Gas liquid chromatography analysis indicated that in normal serum ursodeoxycholic acid was totally conjugated, whereas sera from gallstone patients contained a proportion as the free bile acid (10.2 +- SD 8.1 μmol/l, n=15). Following an oral dose of ursodeoxycholic acid, both unconjugated and conjugated forms of the bile acid appeared in the serum of healthy individuals. (Auth.)

  6. Adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michod, Richard E; Bernstein, Harris; Nedelcu, Aurora M

    2008-05-01

    Explaining the adaptive value of sex is one of the great outstanding problems in biology. The challenge comes from the difficulty in identifying the benefits provided by sex, which must outweigh the substantial costs of sex. Here, we consider the adaptive value of sex in viruses, bacteria and fungi, and particularly the information available on the adaptive role of sex in pathogenic microorganisms. Our general theme is that the varied aspects of sex in pathogens illustrate the varied issues surrounding the evolution of sex generally. These include, the benefits of sex (in the short- and long-term), as well as the costs of sex (both to the host and to the pathogen). For the benefits of sex (that is, its adaptive value), we consider three hypotheses: (i) sex provides for effective and efficient recombinational repair of DNA damages, (ii) sex provides DNA for food, and (iii) sex produces variation and reduces genetic associations among alleles under selection. Although the evolution of sex in microbial pathogens illustrates these general issues, our paper is not a general review of theories for the evolution of sex in all organisms. Rather, we focus on the adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens and conclude that in terms of short-term benefits, the DNA repair hypothesis has the most support and is the most generally applicable hypothesis in this group. In particular, recombinational repair of DNA damages may substantially benefit pathogens when challenged by the oxidative defenses of the host. However, in the long-term, sex may help get rid of mutations, increase the rate of adaptation of the population, and, in pathogens, may infrequently create new infective strains. An additional general issue about sex illustrated by pathogens is that some of the most interesting consequences of sex are not necessarily the reasons for which sex evolved. For example, antibiotic resistance may be transferred by bacterial sex, but this transfer is probably not the reason sex

  7. Sex reassignment surgery in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokrungvaranont, Prayuth; Tiewtranon, Preecha

    2004-11-01

    Many years ago Thai society considered transsexualism (Gender identity disorder or Gender dysphoria) which is commonly known as Kathoey (a word originally used to denote hermaphrodites), Sao Prapet Song or Tut (as in 'Tootsie') were low class citizens, dirty dressing and had to hide in a dark corner selling their services as prostitutes. This made us unwilling to do sex reassignment surgery for this group of people because the idea of eradicating normal sexual organs for the purpose that was not accepted by the society. Consequently the authors have experience in cases where these people wandered seeking doctors who had no competency nor enough experience to do the surgery. The authors could not inhibit the desire of these people who usually suffer from gender identity disorder from strongly wishing to change their genital sex to the sex they want. The outcome of the surgery was not satisfactory for the patients. There were complications and sequelae which caused the authors to correct them later which might be more difficult than doing the original surgery. In addition there were more studies about the etiology and affect of the disorder on these people that changed the social point of view. The women who wanted to be a him and men who would like to be a her should be considered as patients who need to be cured to set the harmony about their genetic sex and the desire to be the opposite sex and also to be regarded by others as a member of that other sex. The treatments of transsexualism usually begin with conventional psychiatric and endocrinological treatment to adjust the mind to the body. For those who failed conservative treatment in adjusting the mind to the body then sex reassignment surgery will be the only way to transform their body to their mind and give the best result in properly selected patients. Preecha Tiewtranon, the pioneer in sex reassignment surgery in Thailand, did his transsexualism case in 1975 together with Dr. Prakob Thongpeaw. Sex

  8. Radioimmunoassay of thyrotropin concentrated from serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisula, B.C.; Louvet, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method for concentrating human TSH (hTSH) from serum for use in RIAs is described. The method takes advantage of the affinity of the plant lectin, concanavalin A, for the carbohydrate portion of the hTSH molecule. The hTSH from 2.5 ml serum was adsorbed to concanavalin A covalently linked to sepharose and then radioimmunoassayed using the hTSH antiserum and hTSH for iodination distributed by the National Pituitary Agency. For the RIA standard curve, the hTSH reference preparation was concentrated from a serum wwith undetectable hTSH in order to correct for recovery and to control for nonspecific effects. The percentage of serum hTSH extracted from 2.5 ml serum with the concentration procedure was 76.6 +- 3.4% (mean +- SD). The coefficient of correlation between serum hTSH, determined with the concentration procedure, and serum hTSH determined without was 0.979 (P < 0.001). Over 95% of normal adult men and women had detectable levels of serum hTSH, ranging from < 0.56 to 4.0 μU/ml. The mean of detectable serum hTSH levels in normal adult women (n = 11) was 1.54 +- 1.03 μU/ml (mean +- SD) and in normal men (n = 9) was 2.02 +- 1.15 μU/ml (mean +- SD). Clinically hyperthyroid patients with diffuse and nodular toxic goiters (n = 8) and patients with hypothyroidism secondary to pituitary disease (n = 6), four of whom were taking replacement doses of thyroid hormone, had undetectable serum hTSH levels. Serum hTSH in patients with primary hypothyroidism uniformly exceeded the normal range. This hTSH concentrating procedure enhances the effective sensitivity and, therefore, the clinical utility of the RIA for hTSH in serum

  9. Sex differences in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chaoliang; Li, Juan; Tai, Wai Lydia; Yao, Weifeng; Zhao, Bo; Hong, Junmou; Shi, Si; Wang, Song; Xia, Zhongyuan

    2017-01-01

    Sex differences have been increasingly highlighted in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in clinical practice. In CRPS type I (CRPS-I), although inflammation and oxidative stress have been implicated in its pathogenesis, whether pain behavior and the underlying mechanism are sex-specific is unclear. In the present study, we sought to explore whether sex differences have an impact on inflammation, oxidative stress, and pain sensitivity in CRPS-I. Chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP) was established in both male and female mice as an animal model of CRPS-I. Edema and mechanical allodynia of bilateral hind paws were assessed after reperfusion. Blood samples were analyzed for serum levels of oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines. Both male and female mice developed edema. Male mice developed CPIP at day 3 after reperfusion; female mice developed CPIP at day 2 after reperfusion. Female mice displayed significantly earlier and higher mechanical allodynia in the ischemic hind paw, which was associated with higher serum levels of IL-2, TNF-α, isoprostanes, 8 OhdG, and malondialdehyde at day 2 after reperfusion. Moreover, female mice showed significantly lower SOD and IL-4 compared to male mice at day 2 after reperfusion. Our results indicate that sex differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress states may play a central role in the sex-specific nociceptive hypersensitivity in CRPS-I, and offer a new insight into pharmacology treatments to improve pain management with CRPS.

  10. Sex differences in the brain-an interplay of sex steroid hormones and sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor

    2016-09-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of brain function, many questions remain unanswered. The ultimate goal of studying the brain is to understand the connection between brain structure and function and behavioural outcomes. Since sex differences in brain morphology were first observed, subsequent studies suggest different functional organization of the male and female brains in humans. Sex and gender have been identified as being a significant factor in understanding human physiology, health and disease, and the biological differences between the sexes is not limited to the gonads and secondary sexual characteristics, but also affects the structure and, more crucially, the function of the brain and other organs. Significant variability in brain structures between individuals, in addition to between the sexes, is factor that complicates the study of sex differences in the brain. In this review, we explore the current understanding of sex differences in the brain, mostly focusing on preclinical animal studies. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. Serum lipids in hypothyroidism: Our experience

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, Archana; Lal, Ashok Kumar

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine whether the screening of lipid profile is justified in patients with hypothyroidism we estimated serum lipids in cases having different levels of serum TSH. 60 patients of hypothyroidism in the age group of 20 to 60 yrs were studied for thyroid profile over a period of one year. On the basis of serum TSH level the cases were divided into three groups: In the first group TSH concentration was 8.8±2.99 μlU/ml, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 8.8±1.07, whereas serum total chol...

  12. Vitamin D is associated with bioavailability of androgens in eumenorrheic women with prior pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhr, Daniel L; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Alkhalaf, Zeina; Omosigho, Ukpebo R; Connell, Matthew T; Silver, Robert M; Kim, Keewan; Perkins, Neil J; Holland, Tiffany L; Plowden, Torie C; Schisterman, Enrique F; Mumford, Sunni L

    2018-06-01

    Prior studies have reported mixed results regarding relationships between vitamin D, androgens, and sex hormone-binding globulin in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. However, less is known regarding these associations in eumenorrheic, premenopausal women. Our objective was to study the relationships between serum vitamin D and androgen biomarkers in eumenorrheic women with a history of pregnancy loss who were attempting pregnancy. This was an analysis of a cohort of 1191 participants from the Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction trial (2006-2012). Participants were attempting to conceive, aged 18-40 years, with 1-2 documented prior pregnancy losses and no history of infertility, and recruited from 4 academic medical centers in the United States. Serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) and hormone concentrations were measured at baseline. Vitamin D concentration was negatively associated with free androgen index (percentage change [95% confidence interval, -5% (-8% to -2%)] per 10 ng/mL increase) and positively associated with sex hormone-binding globulin (95% confidence interval, 4% [2-7%]), although not with total testosterone, free testosterone, or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, race, income, education, physical activity, and season of blood draw. Overall, vitamin D was associated with sex hormone-binding globulin and free androgen index in eumenorrheic women with prior pregnancy loss, suggesting that vitamin D may play a role in the bioavailability of androgens in eumenorrheic women. We are limited in making assessments regarding directionality, given the cross-sectional nature of our study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Increasing insulin resistance accentuates the effect of triglyceride-associated loci on serum triglycerides during 5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Johanne M; Andersson, Ehm Astrid; Allin, Kristine H

    2016-01-01

    Blood concentrations of triglycerides are influenced by genetic factors as well as a number of environmental factors, including adiposity and glucose homeostasis. The aim was to investigate the association between a serum triglyceride weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) and changes in fasting serum...... triglyceride level over 5 years and to test whether the effect of the wGRS was modified by 5 year changes of adiposity, insulin resistance, and lifestyle factors. A total of 3,474 nondiabetic individuals from the Danish Inter99 cohort participated in both the baseline and 5 year follow-up physical examinations...... and had information on the wGRS comprising 39 genetic variants. In a linear regression model adjusted for age, sex, and baseline serum triglyceride, the wGRS was associated with increased serum triglyceride levels over 5 years [per allele effect = 1.3% (1.0-1.6%); P = 1.0 × 10(-17)]. This triglyceride...

  14. A Review of The Sex EDcyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jeff; Andelloux, Megan

    2012-01-01

    While virtually all sex education books for teenagers focus on sexual health, Jo Langford's "The Sex EDcyclopedia" offers comprehensive and empowering information specifically for teen males about their sexuality and how it may be positively experienced. This review examines the strengths of "The Sex EDcyclopedia" as a sex education resource and…

  15. Serum adipocytokine levels in patients with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Uslu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Adipose tissue, besides its main function as an energy storage depot, is currently considered an endocrine organ that secretes several self-produced cytokines. Leptin and resistin play an important role in energy homeostasis, glucose, lipid metabolism and regulation of body weight. The aim of the current study was to determine the concentration of leptin and resistin in pre-operational and post-operational periods of patients diagnosed as colorectal cancer.Materials and methods: The body mass index (BMI and values of leptin and resistin in blood at diagnosis were measured in 12 colorectal cancer patients in pre- and post-operational periods and in 12 age- and sex-matched controls. Serum leptin and resistin concentrations were measured by ELISA method.Results: Decreased leptin (1.95±0.62 ng/ml and resistin (4.32±1.83 ng/ml levels were found in pre-operational group compared with the control group (leptin: 6.12±0.82 ng/ml; resistin: 10.75±1.46 ng/ml (p0.05.Conclusion: We conclude that serum concentration of leptin and resistin may have a role in patients with colorectal cancers. Further studies are needed to investigate the possible prognostic value of leptin and resistin in clinical practice of patients with colorectal cancers.

  16. Evaluation the Effect Garlet Tablet on Serum Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Emami

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Some investigators reported significant effect of garlic on serum cholesterol reduction. In addition, Iranian culture has specific belief on herbs and garlic in this regard. Our goal in this study was to evaluate the effect of garlet tablets on serum lipid profile.Materials & Methods: Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups for evaluation of the effect of garlic on their lipid profile. The first group was low fat regimen group and the second was garlet tablet regimen group. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured in both groups. Then, after two months of these regimens administration, these items were measured again and were compared.Results: Mean age, sex and baseline initial lipid levels were similar in both groups. Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were decreased significantly in the garlic regimen group (in spite of non significant reduction in the other group. Triglyceride and HDL levels were not changed significantly in both regimen groups. Conclusion: Garlet tablet administration has more significant reductive effect on cholestrol level than low cholesterol diet.

  17. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of fatty liver and relations with body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Young Deog; Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kwon, K. H.; Kim, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hepatic fatty infiltration appears as an area of increased echogenicity. And many factors concerned to fatty infiltration. With 65 cases of fatty liver and 42 cases of normal group, we analyzed fatty liver with grading and attempt to find relations between grade of fatty liver and levels of body index, serum triglyceride, and serum lipid. And compared fatty liver with normal control group. Patients with fatty liver are higher percentage of supra-normal value in body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride than normal control group. As fatty infiltration progressed, serum lipid, serum trig-lyceride and body index are also increased. Conclusively ultrasonographic examination of liver with serum triglyceride, serum lipid, and body index are simple method, useful follow-up examination of fatty liver, and preventive routine check-up of chronic liver disease

  18. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, Birgit; Petersen, S

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between bone mineral content...... content was measured at term (mean gestational age 41 weeks) by dual energy x ray absorptiometry and corrected for body size. RESULTS: Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly negatively associated with serum phosphate (p mineral content was not associated with mean serum alkaline...... and serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate. METHODS: Serum alkaline phosphatase and phosphate were measured at weekly intervals during admission in 108 premature infants of gestational age below 32 weeks (mean (SD) gestational age 29 (2) weeks; mean (SD) birth weight 1129 (279) g). Bone mineral...

  19. Associations of vitamin D status and vitamin D-related polymorphisms with sex hormones in older men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafiq, R.; van Schoor, Natasja M; Sohl, E.; Zillikens, M Carola; Oosterwerff, M.M.; Schaap, L; Lips, P; de Jongh, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evidence regarding relationships of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with sex hormones and gonadotropin concentrations remains inconsistent. Polymorphisms in vitamin D-related genes may underly these relationships. Our aim was to examine the relationship of vitamin D status and

  20. Prenatal sex hormones (maternal and amniotic fluid) and gender-related play behavior in 13-month-old Infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, C.; Goozen, S.H.M. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone levels were measured in the second trimester of pregnancy in maternal serum and amniotic fluid, and related to direct observations of gender-related play behavior in 63 male and 63 female offspring at age 13 months. During a structured play session, sex