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Sample records for serum samples tested

  1. Comparative evaluation of blood and serum samples in rapid immunochromatographic tests for visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Khanal, Basudha; Tiwary, Puja; Mudavath, Shyam Lal; Tiwary, Narendra K; Singh, Rupa; Koirala, Kanika; Boelaert, Marleen; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam

    2013-12-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based on the detection of specific antibodies in serum are commonly used for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Several commercial kits are available, and some of them allow the use of whole-blood samples instead of serum. An RDT is much more user-friendly for blood samples than for serum samples. In this study, we examined the sensitivities and specificities of six different commercially available immunochromatographic tests for their accuracy in detecting Leishmania infection in whole blood and serum of parasitologically confirmed VL cases. This study was performed in areas of India and Nepal where VL is endemic. A total of 177 confirmed VL cases, 208 healthy controls from areas of endemicity (EHCs), 26 malaria patients (MP), and 37 tuberculosis (TB) patients were enrolled. The reproducibilities of the blood and serum results and between-reader and between-laboratory results were tested. In India, the sensitivities of all the RDTs ranged between 94.7 and 100.0%, with no significant differences between whole blood and serum. The specificities ranged between 92.4 and 100.0%, except for the specificity of the Onsite Leishmania Ab RevB kit, which was lower (33.6 to 42.0%). No differences in specificities were observed for blood and serum. In Nepal, the sensitivities of all the test kits, for whole-blood as well as serum samples, ranged between 96.3 and 100.0%, and the specificities ranged between 90.1 and 96.1%, again with the exception of that of the Onsite Leishmania Ab RevB test, which was markedly lower (48.7 to 49.3%). The diagnostic accuracies of all the tests, except for one brand, were excellent for the whole-blood and serum samples. We conclude that whole blood is an adequate alternative for serum in RDTs for VL, with sensitivities and specificities comparable to those obtained in serum samples, provided that the test kit is of overall good quality.

  2. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  3. Proteome profiling analysis of human ovarian cancer serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognetti, F.; Citro, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry represents a powerful tool in cancer research to discovery of potential bio markers through peak identification from serum profiling. By using high resolution MALDITOF and bioinformatic analysis almost 400 serum sample homogeneously distributed between biopsy confirmed ovarian cancer and high risk serum samples were analyzed. Each serum sample run in duplicate and whole serum sample preparation procedure has been performed by Hamilton Star Robot in order to reduce bias and the replicates with a low Pearson coefficient are removed. After automated reverse phase magnetic beads separation the samples were tested in MALDI-TOF

  4. Collection and Characterization of Samples for Establishment of a Serum Repository for Lyme Disease Diagnostic Test Development and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins, Claudia R.; Sexton, Christopher; Young, John W.; Ashton, Laura V.; Pappert, Ryan; Beard, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    Serological assays and a two-tiered test algorithm are recommended for laboratory confirmation of Lyme disease. In the United States, the sensitivity of two-tiered testing using commercially available serology-based assays is dependent on the stage of infection and ranges from 30% in the early localized disease stage to near 100% in late-stage disease. Other variables, including subjectivity in reading Western blots, compliance with two-tiered recommendations, use of different first- and second-tier test combinations, and use of different test samples, all contribute to variation in two-tiered test performance. The availability and use of sample sets from well-characterized Lyme disease patients and controls are needed to better assess the performance of existing tests and for development of improved assays. To address this need, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health prospectively collected sera from patients at all stages of Lyme disease, as well as healthy donors and patients with look-alike diseases. Patients and healthy controls were recruited using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Samples from all included patients were retrospectively characterized by two-tiered testing. The results from two-tiered testing corroborated the need for novel and improved diagnostics, particularly for laboratory diagnosis of earlier stages of infection. Furthermore, the two-tiered results provide a baseline with samples from well-characterized patients that can be used in comparing the sensitivity and specificity of novel diagnostics. Panels of sera and accompanying clinical and laboratory testing results are now available to Lyme disease serological test users and researchers developing novel tests. PMID:25122862

  5. [The comparative study of specificity of test-systems in diagnostic of HIV-infection on categories of samples of blood serum of pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipova, I N; Khodak, N M; Puzirev, V F; Burkov, A N; Ulanova, T I

    2015-03-01

    The detection of false positive serological reactions (FPSR) on HIV-infection under screening examination of pregnant women is an actual problem of practical health care. The original observations testify that under analysis of the same samples of blood serum of pregnant women using screening immune enzyme test-systems of various manufacturers the unmatched data concerning FPSR can be obtained. The purpose of this study was to implement comparative evaluation of specificity of immune enzyme test-systems of three different manufacturers: "DS-IFA-HIV-AGAT-SCREEN" ("Diagnostic Systems"), "Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag-Ab" "Bio Rad" France) and "The CombiBest HIV-1,2 AG/AT" ("Vector-Best" Novosibirsk). The sampling of 440 samples of blood serums of pregnant women from various medical institutions of Nizhnii Novgorod was analyzed. The results of the study demonstrated that FPSR were detected in all test-systems and at that spectrum of samples differed. The identical specificity of compared test-systems amounted to 98.64%. The alternative approach to FPSR to HIV issue under screening examinations of pregnant women was proposed. The proposed mode consisted of consistent application of two test-systems of fourth generation with different format of setup of reaction.

  6. [Cultivation of a permanent fish cell line in serum-free media special experiences with a cytotoxicity test for waste water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlpoth, Martin; Rusche, Brigitte

    1997-01-01

    The use of fetal calf serum (FCS) as standard medium additive for the cell cultivation must be regarded critically from the point of view of animal welfare as well as for scientific reasons and makes it necessary to look for alternatives. In the last years an in vitro cytotoxicity assay for the testing of industrial waste waters with the permanent fish cell line RTG-2 was established and pre-validated as an alternative to the fish test with the golden orfe. The application of FCS is also a special problem with regard to the testing of waste waters in a cytotoxicity test so that FCS-alternatives were tested. The RTG-2 cells were successfully adapted to the two solvents Basal Medium Supplement (BMS) and Ultroser-G (U-G) that are used to replace serum. The characterisation of these adapted cell lines showed no significant differences in growth rate, adhesion rate, viability and sensitivity to chemicals in comparison to the original RTG-2 cells. On the determination of the cytotoxicity of industrial waste waters the RTG-2 cells adapted to the BMS medium indicated a clearly higher toxicity of the waste water samples than the original RTG-2 cells. This result confirms the thesis that serum components react with waste water elements and thus change the bio-availability of toxic compounds.

  7. METABOLITE CHARACTERIZATION IN SERUM SAMPLES FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    fasting 10 mL of blood sample from each individual was taken and was allowed to clot in plastic tube for 2 h at room temperature. The serum was collected by centrifugation. The samples were stored under liquid nitrogen for NMR analysis. Before NMR analysis, 600 µL of the samples were taken in a 5 mm high quality NMR ...

  8. METABOLITE CHARACTERIZATION IN SERUM SAMPLES FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Metabonomics offers a distinct advantage over other tests as it can be ... Metabolic profiling in heart disease has also been successfully ... resonances of the small metabolites showing fingerprints of serum metabolomic profile (Figure. 3).

  9. A competitive immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of Hg(2+) in water, human serum and urine samples using immunochromatographic test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Pei; Chu, Yanxin; Liu, Chunwei; Guo, Xun; Zhao, Kang; Li, Jianguo; Du, Haijing; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Hong; Deng, Anping

    2016-02-04

    An immunochromatographic test (ICT) strip was developed for ultrasensitive competitive immunoassay of Hg(2+). This strategy was achieved by combining the easy-operation and rapidity of ICT with the high sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Monoclonal antibody (mAb) against Hg(2+) and Raman active substance 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) dual labelled gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared as an immunoprobe. The Raman scattering intensity of MBA on the test line of the ICT strip was measured for quantitative determination of Hg(2+). The ICT was able to directly detect Hg(2+) without complexing due to the specific recognition of the mAb with Hg(2+). The IC50 and limit of detection (LOD) of the assay for Hg(2+) detection were 0.12 ng mL(-1) and 0.45 pg mL(-1), respectively. There was no cross-reactivity (CR) of the assay with other nineteen ions and the ICT strips could be kept for 5 weeks without loss of activity. The recoveries of the assay for water, human serum and urine samples spiked with Hg(2+) were in range of 88.3-107.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.5-9.5% (n = 3). The proposed ICT was used for the detection of Hg(2+) in urine samples collected from Occupational Disease Hospital and the results were confirmed by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS). The assay exhibited high sensitivity, selectivity, stability, precision and accuracy, demonstrating a promising method for the detection of trace amount of Hg(2+) in environmental water samples and biological serum and urine samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A competitive immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of Hg"2"+ in water, human serum and urine samples using immunochromatographic test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She, Pei; Chu, Yanxin; Liu, Chunwei; Guo, Xun; Zhao, Kang; Li, Jianguo; Du, Haijing; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Hong; Deng, Anping

    2016-01-01

    An immunochromatographic test (ICT) strip was developed for ultrasensitive competitive immunoassay of Hg"2"+. This strategy was achieved by combining the easy-operation and rapidity of ICT with the high sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Monoclonal antibody (mAb) against Hg"2"+ and Raman active substance 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) dual labelled gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared as an immunoprobe. The Raman scattering intensity of MBA on the test line of the ICT strip was measured for quantitative determination of Hg"2"+. The ICT was able to directly detect Hg"2"+ without complexing due to the specific recognition of the mAb with Hg"2"+. The IC_5_0 and limit of detection (LOD) of the assay for Hg"2"+ detection were 0.12 ng mL"−"1 and 0.45 pg mL"−"1, respectively. There was no cross-reactivity (CR) of the assay with other nineteen ions and the ICT strips could be kept for 5 weeks without loss of activity. The recoveries of the assay for water, human serum and urine samples spiked with Hg"2"+ were in range of 88.3–107.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.5–9.5% (n = 3). The proposed ICT was used for the detection of Hg"2"+ in urine samples collected from Occupational Disease Hospital and the results were confirmed by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS). The assay exhibited high sensitivity, selectivity, stability, precision and accuracy, demonstrating a promising method for the detection of trace amount of Hg"2"+ in environmental water samples and biological serum and urine samples. - Highlights: • The proposed ICT was able to directly detect Hg"2"+ without formation of Hg"2"+-ligand complex. • The proposed ICT exhibited high sensitivity, specificity, stability, precision and accuracy for Hg"2"+ detection. • The proposed ICT was applicable for the detection of trace amount of Hg"2"+ in water, human serum and urine samples.

  11. A competitive immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of Hg{sup 2+} in water, human serum and urine samples using immunochromatographic test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, Pei; Chu, Yanxin [The Key Lab of Health Chemistry & Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Soochow University, Renai Road 199, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Chunwei; Guo, Xun [OptoTrace (Suzhou) Technologies, Inc., STE 316, Building 4, No. 218, Xinghu Street, bioBAY, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhao, Kang [The Key Lab of Health Chemistry & Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Soochow University, Renai Road 199, Suzhou 215123 (China); Li, Jianguo, E-mail: lijgsd@suda.edu.cn [The Key Lab of Health Chemistry & Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Soochow University, Renai Road 199, Suzhou 215123 (China); Du, Haijing; Zhang, Xiang [The Key Lab of Health Chemistry & Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Soochow University, Renai Road 199, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wang, Hong [OptoTrace (Suzhou) Technologies, Inc., STE 316, Building 4, No. 218, Xinghu Street, bioBAY, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215123 (China); Deng, Anping, E-mail: denganping@suda.edu.cn [The Key Lab of Health Chemistry & Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Soochow University, Renai Road 199, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2016-02-04

    An immunochromatographic test (ICT) strip was developed for ultrasensitive competitive immunoassay of Hg{sup 2+}. This strategy was achieved by combining the easy-operation and rapidity of ICT with the high sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Monoclonal antibody (mAb) against Hg{sup 2+} and Raman active substance 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) dual labelled gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared as an immunoprobe. The Raman scattering intensity of MBA on the test line of the ICT strip was measured for quantitative determination of Hg{sup 2+}. The ICT was able to directly detect Hg{sup 2+} without complexing due to the specific recognition of the mAb with Hg{sup 2+}. The IC{sub 50} and limit of detection (LOD) of the assay for Hg{sup 2+} detection were 0.12 ng mL{sup −1} and 0.45 pg mL{sup −1}, respectively. There was no cross-reactivity (CR) of the assay with other nineteen ions and the ICT strips could be kept for 5 weeks without loss of activity. The recoveries of the assay for water, human serum and urine samples spiked with Hg{sup 2+} were in range of 88.3–107.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.5–9.5% (n = 3). The proposed ICT was used for the detection of Hg{sup 2+} in urine samples collected from Occupational Disease Hospital and the results were confirmed by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS). The assay exhibited high sensitivity, selectivity, stability, precision and accuracy, demonstrating a promising method for the detection of trace amount of Hg{sup 2+} in environmental water samples and biological serum and urine samples. - Highlights: • The proposed ICT was able to directly detect Hg{sup 2+} without formation of Hg{sup 2+}-ligand complex. • The proposed ICT exhibited high sensitivity, specificity, stability, precision and accuracy for Hg{sup 2+} detection. • The proposed ICT was applicable for the detection of trace amount of Hg{sup 2+} in water, human serum and urine samples.

  12. Test sample handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test sample handling apparatus using automatic scintillation counting for gamma detection, for use in such fields as radioimmunoassay, is described. The apparatus automatically and continuously counts large numbers of samples rapidly and efficiently by the simultaneous counting of two samples. By means of sequential ordering of non-sequential counting data, it is possible to obtain precisely ordered data while utilizing sample carrier holders having a minimum length. (U.K.)

  13. Metabolite characterization in serum samples from normal healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolite characterization in serum samples from normal healthy human subjects by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. D Misra, U Bajpai. Abstract. One and two dimensional NMR spectroscopy has been employed to characterize the various metabolites of serum control healthy samples. Two dimensional heteronuclear ...

  14. Smart management of sample dilution using an artificial neural network to achieve streamlined processes and saving resources: the automated nephelometric testing of serum free light chain as case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ialongo, Cristiano; Pieri, Massimo; Bernardini, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Saving resources is a paramount issue for the modern laboratory, and new trainable as well as smart technologies can be used to allow the automated instrumentation to manage samples more efficiently in order to achieve streamlined processes. In this regard the serum free light chain (sFLC) testing represents an interesting challenge, as it usually causes using a number of assays before achieving an acceptable result within the analytical range. An artificial neural network based on the multi-layer perceptron (MLP-ANN) was used to infer the starting dilution status of sFLC samples based on the information available through the laboratory information system (LIS). After the learning phase, the MLP-ANN simulation was applied to the nephelometric testing routinely performed in our laboratory on a BN ProSpec® System analyzer (Siemens Helathcare) using the N Latex FLC kit. The MLP-ANN reduced the serum kappa free light chain (κ-FLC) and serum lambda free light chain (λ-FLC) wasted tests by 69.4% and 70.8% with respect to the naïve stepwise dilution scheme used by the automated analyzer, and by 64.9% and 66.9% compared to a "rational" dilution scheme based on a 4-step dilution. Although it was restricted to follow-up samples, the MLP-ANN showed good predictive performance, which alongside the possibility to implement it in any automated system, made it a suitable solution for achieving streamlined laboratory processes and saving resources.

  15. Reproducibility of Serum Potassium Values in Serum From Blood Samples Stored for Increasing Times Prior to Centrifugation and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Aaron; Lu, Chuanyong; Sun, Yi; Garcia, Rafael; Rets, Anton; Alexis, Herol; Saad, Heba; Eid, Ikram; Harris, Loretta; Marshall, Barbara; Tafani, Edlira; Pincus, Matthew R

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this work was to determine if immediate versus postponed centrifugation of samples affects the levels of serum potassium. Twenty participants donated normal venous blood that was collected in four serum separator tubes per donor, each of which was analyzed at 0, 1, 2, or 4 hr on the Siemens Advia 1800 autoanalyzer. Coefficients of variation (CVs) for potassium levels ranged from 0% to 7.6% with a mean of 3 ± 2%. ANOVA testing of the means for all 20 samples showed a P-value of 0.72 (>0.05) indicating that there was no statistically significant difference between the means of the samples at the four time points. Sixteen samples were found to have CVs that were ≤5%. Two samples showed increases of potassium from the reference range to levels higher than the upper reference limit, one of which had a 4-hr value that was within the reference or normal range (3.5-5 mEq/l). Overall, most samples were found to have reproducible levels of serum potassium. Serum potassium levels from stored whole blood collected in serum separator tubes are, for the most part, stable at room temperature for at least 4 hr prior to analysis. However, some samples can exhibit significant fluctuations of values. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Evaluation of the Aptima HBV Quant assay vs. the COBAS TaqMan HBV test using the high pure system for the quantitation of HBV DNA in plasma and serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalasta, Gunnar; Börner, Anna; Speicher, Andrea; Enders, Martin

    2018-03-28

    Proper management of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection requires monitoring of plasma or serum HBV DNA levels using a highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification test. Because commercially available assays differ in performance, we compared herein the performance of the Hologic Aptima HBV Quant assay (Aptima) to that of the Roche Cobas TaqMan HBV test for use with the high pure system (HPS/CTM). Assay performance was assessed using HBV reference panels as well as plasma and serum samples from chronically HBV-infected patients. Method correlation, analytical sensitivity, precision/reproducibility, linearity, bias and influence of genotype were evaluated. Data analysis was performed using linear regression, Deming correlation analysis and Bland-Altman analysis. Agreement between the assays for the two reference panels was good, with a difference in assay values vs. target 0.98). The two assays had similar bias and precision across the different genotypes tested at low viral loads (25-1000 IU/mL). Aptima has a performance comparable with that of HPS/CTM, making it suitable for use for HBV infection monitoring. Aptima runs on a fully automated platform (the Panther system) and therefore offers a significantly improved workflow compared with HPS/CTM.

  17. Collecting Samples for Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Creatinine Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D ... that used for CSF in that they require aspiration of a sample of the fluid through a ...

  18. Serum leptin and insulin tests in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yin; Jiang Xiaojin; Leng Xiumei

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance and the relations of leptin and insulin on obesity group. Methods: Leptin and insulin were tested with radioimmunoassay (RIA) in pre-obesity group and obesity group respectively. Results: Serum leptin and insulin levels were significantly elevated in obesity group compare with the controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Changing with insulin, the elevation of leptin in obesity group has been identified as an important agent of diabetes mellitus (DM)

  19. Radioenzymatic assay for trimethoprim in very small serum samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Yogev, R; Melick, C; Tan-Pong, L

    1985-01-01

    A modification of the methotrexate radioassay kit (supplied by New England Enzyme Center) enabled determination of trimethoprim levels in 5-microliter serum samples. An excellent correlation between this assay and high-pressure liquid chromatography assay was found. These preliminary results suggest that with this method rapid determination of trimethoprim levels in very small samples (5 to 10 microliters) can be achieved.

  20. Radioenzymatic assay for trimethoprim in very small serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogev, R.; Melick, C.; Tan-Pong, L.

    1985-01-01

    A modification of the methotrexate radioassay kit (supplied by New England Enzyme Center) enabled determination of trimethoprim levels in 5-microliter serum samples. An excellent correlation between this assay and high-pressure liquid chromatography assay was found. These preliminary results suggest that with this method rapid determination of trimethoprim levels in very small samples (5 to 10 microliters) can be achieved

  1. Serum Dried Samples to Detect Dengue Antibodies: A Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Maldonado-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dried blood and serum samples are useful resources for detecting antiviral antibodies. The conditions for elution of the sample need to be optimized for each disease. Dengue is a widespread disease in Mexico which requires continuous surveillance. In this study, we standardized and validated a protocol for the specific detection of dengue antibodies from dried serum spots (DSSs. Methods. Paired serum and DSS samples from 66 suspected cases of dengue were collected in a clinic in Veracruz, Mexico. Samples were sent to our laboratory, where the conditions for optimal elution of DSSs were established. The presence of anti-dengue antibodies was determined in the paired samples. Results. DSS elution conditions were standardized as follows: 1 h at 4°C in 200 µl of DNase-, RNase-, and protease-free PBS (1x. The optimal volume of DSS eluate to be used in the IgG assay was 40 µl. Sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 93.3%, and kappa concordance of 0.87 were obtained when comparing the antidengue reactivity between DSSs and serum samples. Conclusion. DSS samples are useful for detecting anti-dengue IgG antibodies in the field.

  2. Tests on standard concrete samples

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Compression and tensile tests on standard concrete samples. The use of centrifugal force in tensile testing has been developed by the SB Division and the instruments were built in the Central workshops.

  3. Gleeble Testing of Tungsten Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    temperature on an Instron load frame with a 222.41 kN (50 kip) load cell . The samples were compressed at the same strain rate as on the Gleeble...ID % RE Initial Density (cm 3 ) Density after Compression (cm 3 ) % Change in Density Test Temperature NT1 0 18.08 18.27 1.06 1000 NT3 0...4.1 Nano-Tungsten The results for the compression of the nano-tungsten samples are shown in tables 2 and 3 and figure 5. During testing, sample NT1

  4. Mechanized toxicological serum tests in screening hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallbach, J; Guder, W G

    1991-09-01

    A spectrum of quantitative and qualitative methods was adapted to the RA-1000/RA-XT selective analyser for the purpose of excluding or detecting common types of intoxication in the emergency laboratory of our primary care community hospital. Ethanol and salicylates (measured photometrically) and acetaminophen (measured immunologically by EMIT tox) were quantitatively analysed in serum. immunological group tests (EMIT tox) for barbiturates, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants and related compounds were used for qualitative analysis. Well established clinical chemical methods (aspartarte aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, pseudocholinesterase, glucose and lactate) were applied to the serum samples using the same selective analyser. Within and between run precision, accuracy, recovery and detection ranges (linearity) fulfilled the recommendations of forefield toxicological analysis for all methods. Ethanol (g/l), measured photometrically with the RA-1000 analyser, agreed with the reference method (headspace gas-chromatography) with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.99 (y = 0.06 + 0.98x). Acetaminophen and salicylates showed correlation coefficients greater than 0.94 and greater than 0.99, when compared with manual colorimetric procedures (acetaminophen (mg/l): y = -3.22 + 0.896x; salicylates (mg/l): y = -2.1 + 1x). Qualitative group tests for barbiturates, benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants measured with the RA-1000 analyser were in good agreement with the EMIT single test procedure. The ranges of the quantitative methods allowed quantification of analytes from therapeutic (non-toxic) to very high levels in undiluted samples (ethanol 0.05 up to 4 g/l; salicylates 32 up to 1200 mg/l and acetaminophen 1.9 up to 200 mg/l). The low detection limits of the qualitative tests allowed the recognition of compounds in plasma that were present in low concentrations and/or displayed only minor reactivity with the antibodies

  5. Spectrophotometric assay of creatinine in human serum sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Krishnegowda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new spectrophotometric method for the analysis of creatinine concentration in human serum samples is developed. The method explores the oxidation of p-methylamino phenol sulfate (Metol in the presence of copper sulfate and creatinine which yields an intense violet colored species with maximum absorbance at 530 nm. The calibration graph of creatinine by fixed time assay ranged from 4.4 to 620 μM. Recovery of creatinine in human serum samples varied from 101% to 106%. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.145 μM and 0.487 μM respectively. Sandell’s sensitivity was 0.112 μg cm−2 and molar absorptivity was 0.101 × 104 L mol−1 cm−1. Within day precision was 2.5–4.8% and day-to-day precision range was 3.2–7.8%. The robustness and ruggedness of the method expressed in RSD values ranged from 0.78% to 2.12% and 1.32% to 3.46% respectively, suggesting that the developed method was rugged. This method provides good sensitivity and is comparable to standard Jaffe’s method with comparatively less interference from foreign substances.

  6. Retrospective analysis of dengue specific IgM reactive serum samples

    OpenAIRE

    Nemai Bhattacharya; Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay; Indranil Bhattacharjee; Hiranmoy Mukherjee; Srabani Talukdar; Ruby Mondal; Netai Pramanick; Goutam Chandra; Amiya K. Hati

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a retrospective analysis of dengue cases in Kolkata, on the basis of presence of anti-dengue IgM in their sera and presence or absence of anti-dengue IgG and dengue specific Non structural 1 (NS1) antigen in each of the serum sample. Methods: Sample was tested quantitatively employing ELISA technique, using Biorad test kits, with a view to get a more comprehensive picture of dengue in an urban endemic area and also to evaluate individual cases. Results: Th...

  7. Evaluation of serum lysyl oxidase as a blood test for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S T; Weston, C J; Hepburn, E; Damery, S; Hejmadi, R K; Morton, D G; Middleton, G; Ismail, T; Adams, D H

    2014-06-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression is elevated in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue and associated with disease progression. A blood test may form a more acceptable diagnostic test for CRC although LOX has not previously been measured in the serum. We therefore sought to determine the clinical usefulness of a serum LOX test for CRC in a symptomatic population. Adult patients referred to a hospital colorectal clinic with bowel symptoms completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample for serum LOX measurement. Associations between presenting symptoms, serum LOX concentrations and outcomes of investigations were tested by univariate and multivariate analyses to determine if serum LOX was clinically useful in the prediction of CRC. LOX expression in CRC and adjacent colon biopsies was evaluated by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. Thirty-one cases of colorectal cancer and 16 high-risk polyps were identified from a total of 962 participants. There was no association between serum LOX concentration and the presence of CRC, high-risk polyps or cancers at any site. LOX expression was significantly increased in CRC tissue compared to adjacent colon. Despite overexpression of LOX in CRC tissue, elevated serum levels could not be demonstrated. Serum LOX measurement is therefore not a clinically useful test for CRC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Serum chromium levels sampled with steel needle versus plastic IV cannula. Does method matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Overgaard, Søren

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Modern metal-on-metal (MoM) joint articulations releases metal ions to the body. Research tries to establish how much this elevates metal ion levels and whether it causes adverse effects. The steel needle that samples the blood may introduce additional chromium to the sample thereby...... causing bias. This study aimed to test that theory. METHODS: We compared serum chromium values for two sampling methods, steel needle and IV plastic cannula, as well as sampling sequence in 16 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: We found statistically significant chromium contamination from the steel needle...... with mean differences between the two methods of 0.073 ng/mL, for the first sample, and 0.033 ng/mL for the second. No difference was found between the first and second plastic sample. The first steel needle sample contained an average of 0.047 ng/mL more than the second. This difference was only borderline...

  9. Serum Chrome levels sampled with steel needle vs. plastic IV cannula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Overgaard, Søren

    2010-01-01

    . This study aimed to test that theory. Method: We compared serum chromium values for two sampling methods, steel needle and IV plastic cannula, as well as sampling sequence in 16 healthy volunteers. Results: We found statistically significant chromium contamination from the steel needle with mean differences......  Modern Metal-on-metal (MoM) joint articulations releases metal ions to the body. Research tries to establish how much this elevates metal ion levels and whether it causes adverse effects. The steel needle that samples the blood may introduce additional chromium to the sample thereby causing bias...... between the two methods of 0.073 ng/mL, for the first sample, and 0.033 ng/mL for the second. No difference was found between the first and second plastic sample. The first steel needle sample contained an average of 0.047 ng/mL more than the second. This difference was only borderline significant...

  10. Analysis of human serum by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: improved sample preparation and data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govorukhina, N I; Reijmers, T H; Nyangoma, S O; van der Zee, A G J; Jansen, R C; Bischoff, R

    2006-07-07

    Discovery of biomarkers is a fast developing field in proteomics research. Liquid chromatography coupled on line to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has become a powerful method for the sensitive detection, quantification and identification of proteins and peptides in biological fluids like serum. However, the presence of highly abundant proteins often masks those of lower abundance and thus generally prevents their detection and identification in proteomics studies. To perform future comparative analyses of samples from a serum bank of cervical cancer patients in a longitudinal and cross-sectional manner, methodology based on the depletion of high-abundance proteins followed by tryptic digestion and LC-MS has been developed. Two sample preparation methods were tested in terms of their efficiency to deplete high-abundance serum proteins and how they affect the repeatability of the LC-MS data sets. The first method comprised depletion of human serum albumin (HSA) on a dye ligand chromatographic and immunoglobulin G (IgG) on an immobilized Protein A support followed by tryptic digestion, fractionation by cation-exchange chromatography, trapping on a C18 column and reversed-phase LC-MS. The second method included depletion of the six most abundant serum proteins based on multiple immunoaffinity chromatography followed by tryptic digestion, trapping on a C18 column and reversed-phase LC-MS. Repeatability of the overall procedures was evaluated in terms of retention time and peak area for a selected number of endogenous peptides showing that the second method, besides being less time consuming, gave more repeatable results (retention time: <0.1% RSD; peak area: <30% RSD). Application of an LC-MS component detection algorithm followed by principal component analysis (PCA) enabled discrimination of serum samples that were spiked with horse heart cytochrome C from non-spiked serum and the detection of a concentration trend, which correlated to the amount of spiked horse heart

  11. Performance of polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis using serum, urine, and cyst fluid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Dr; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a chronic zoonosis which presents with variable clinical manifestations. Currently the diagnosis of this disease is based on radiological findings and serological tests which lack specificity. Although antigen detection from the cyst fluid is the most specific, it is seldom done due to the complications involved. Detecting the presence of Echinococcus granulosus specific deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could provide a definitive diagnosis of CE. An in-house PCR assay was devised to detect E. granulosus specific DNA in serum, urine and hydatid cyst fluid. The ability of the PCR to detect E. granulosus in the above mentioned samples were observed in comparison with other antigen and antibody detection tests. Serum samples from surgically confirmed patients of CE with ruptured cysts contained the corresponding DNA while the in the majority of cases who had an intact cyst had no DNA of E. granulosus in their serum. DNA of E. granulosus was not found to be excreted in urine. PCR performed equal to antigen detection ELISA while testing hydatid cyst fluid samples. Serum and urine might not serve as useful samples for the molecular diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis. However, PCR can be useful on serum samples to detect ruptured hydatid cysts and on hydatid cyst fluid to confirm the parasitic diagnosis.

  12. Blood serum components and serum protein test of Hybro-PG broilers of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRL Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood serum samples of HYBRO PG broilers were analyzed, with 30 samples collected from 21-day-old broilers (G1, 30 from 35-day-old birds (G2, and 30 from 42-day-old birds (G3, with the aim of establishing normal values of some blood serum parameters. The activities of the enzymes gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, serum levels of total calcium, calcium ion, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chlorides, creatinine, uric acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, total and indirect and direct bilirubin, and electrophoretic profile of serum proteins in acrylamide (SDS-PAGE and agarose gel were determined. There was no influence of age on total bilirubin and albumin levels. All the other evaluated parameters presented differences in at least one age group. Protein electrophoretic profile also changed as a function of age. The obtained results can be considered as normal for the studied ages, and therefore be used as references for the interpretation of laboratory exams of broilers of this genetic line in the evaluated ages.

  13. Serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2 Determination is Influenced by Sample Incubation Temperature in Healthy Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Jerin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2 production by platelets is a specific test for assessment of platelet cyclooxygenase (COX-1 activity following administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sample incubation at 37 °C for one hour on serum TXB2 concentration in comparison with incubation at room temperature. A total of 54 blood samples for serum TXB2 measurements were collected from six healthy beagle dogs into two separate serum tubes. While one group of tubes was incubated in a 37 °C water bath, the second group of tubes was left to coagulate at room temperature, both for one hour. Serum TXB2 concentrations were measured by ELISA. The mean concentration (± SD of serum TXB2 in the group of samples that were incubated at 37 °C was significantly (P 2 concentration in healthy beagle dogs and demonstrate that validated methods for assessment of COX-1 activity by measurement of serum TXB2 should be used in order to make results more reliable and comparable between different studies. The results of this study might be of great help in planning NSAID studies in dogs by providing the information that TXB2 generation by platelets is influenced profoundly by incubation temperature.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Samples Showing Weak Serum Reaction on AutoVue System Causing ABO Blood Typing Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Su Yeon; Lee, Ju Mi; Kim, Hye Lim; Sin, Kyeong Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Ji; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus; Kim, Hyung Hoi

    2017-03-01

    ABO blood typing in pre-transfusion testing is a major component of the high workload in blood banks that therefore requires automation. We often experienced discrepant results from an automated system, especially weak serum reactions. We evaluated the discrepant results by the reference manual method to confirm ABO blood typing. In total, 13,113 blood samples were tested with the AutoVue system; all samples were run in parallel with the reference manual method according to the laboratory protocol. The AutoVue system confirmed ABO blood typing of 12,816 samples (97.7%), and these results were concordant with those of the manual method. The remaining 297 samples (2.3%) showed discrepant results in the AutoVue system and were confirmed by the manual method. The discrepant results involved weak serum reactions (serum reactions, samples from patients who had received stem cell transplants, ABO subgroups, and specific system error messages. Among the 98 samples showing ≤1+ reaction grade in the AutoVue system, 70 samples (71.4%) showed a normal serum reaction (≥2+ reaction grade) with the manual method, and 28 samples (28.6%) showed weak serum reaction in both methods. ABO blood tying of 97.7% samples could be confirmed by the AutoVue system and a small proportion (2.3%) needed to be re-evaluated by the manual method. Samples with a 2+ reaction grade in serum typing do not need to be evaluated manually, while those with ≤1+ reaction grade do.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Samples Showing Weak Serum Reaction on AutoVue System Causing ABO Blood Typing Discrepancies

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Su Yeon; Lee, Ju Mi; Kim, Hye Lim; Sin, Kyeong Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Ji; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus; Kim, Hyung-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Background ABO blood typing in pre-transfusion testing is a major component of the high workload in blood banks that therefore requires automation. We often experienced discrepant results from an automated system, especially weak serum reactions. We evaluated the discrepant results by the reference manual method to confirm ABO blood typing. Methods In total, 13,113 blood samples were tested with the AutoVue system; all samples were run in parallel with the reference manual method according to...

  16. Effect of using heat-inactivated serum with the Abbott human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III antibody test.

    OpenAIRE

    Jungkind, D L; DiRenzo, S A; Young, S J

    1986-01-01

    The Abbott enzyme immunoassay (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) antibody was evaluated to determine the effect of using heat-inactivated (56 degrees C for 30 min) serum as the sample. Each of 58 nonreactive serum samples gave a higher A492 value when tested after heat inactivation. Ten of the samples became reactive after heating. Heat-inactivated serum should not be used in the current Abbott HTLV-III antibody test, because thi...

  17. Testing of serum atherogenicity in cell cultures: questionable data published

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Jargin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a large series of studies was reported that culturing of smooth muscle cells with serum from atherosclerosis patients caused intracellular lipid accumulation, while serum from healthy controls had no such effect. Cultures were used for evaluation of antiatherogenic drugs. Numerous substances were reported to lower serum atherogenicity: statins, trapidil, calcium antagonists, garlic derivatives etc. On the contrary, beta-blockers, phenothiazines and oral hypoglycemics were reported to be pro-atherogenic. Known antiatherogenic agents can influence lipid metabolism and cholesterol synthesis, intestinal absorption or endothelium-related mechanisms. All these targets are absent in cell monocultures. Inflammatory factors, addressed by some antiatherogenic drugs, are also not reproduced. In vivo, relationship between cholesterol uptake by cells and atherogenesis must be inverse rather than direct: in familial hypercholesterolemia, inefficient clearance of LDL-cholesterol by cells predisposes to atherosclerosis. Accordingly, if a pharmacological agent reduces cholesterol uptake by cells in vitro, it should be expected to elevate cholesterol in vivo. Validity of clinical recommendations, based on serum atherogenicity testing in cell monocultures, is therefore questionable. These considerations pertain also to the drugs developed on the basis of the cell culture experiments.

  18. Clinical, radiological and molecular diagnosis correlation in serum samples from patients with osteoarticular tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe García-Elorriaga

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Nested PCR in serum samples is a rapid, highly sensitive and specific modality for OTB detection. PCR should be performed in addition to clinical evaluation, imaging studies, acid-fast bacilli staining, culture and histopathology diagnosis, if possible.

  19. Serum Protein Profile Study of Clinical Samples Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Laser Induced Fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Ukendt, Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya

    2009-01-01

    The serum protein profiles of normal subjects, patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, and oral cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography combined with Laser Induced Fluorescence detection (HPLC-LIF). Serum protein profiles of the above three classes were tested for estab...

  20. Pre-analytical sample quality: metabolite ratios as an intrinsic marker for prolonged room temperature exposure of serum samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Anton

    Full Text Available Advances in the "omics" field bring about the need for a high number of good quality samples. Many omics studies take advantage of biobanked samples to meet this need. Most of the laboratory errors occur in the pre-analytical phase. Therefore evidence-based standard operating procedures for the pre-analytical phase as well as markers to distinguish between 'good' and 'bad' quality samples taking into account the desired downstream analysis are urgently needed. We studied concentration changes of metabolites in serum samples due to pre-storage handling conditions as well as due to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. We collected fasting serum samples and subjected aliquots to up to four freeze-thaw cycles and to pre-storage handling delays of 12, 24 and 36 hours at room temperature (RT and on wet and dry ice. For each treated aliquot, we quantified 127 metabolites through a targeted metabolomics approach. We found a clear signature of degradation in samples kept at RT. Storage on wet ice led to less pronounced concentration changes. 24 metabolites showed significant concentration changes at RT. In 22 of these, changes were already visible after only 12 hours of storage delay. Especially pronounced were increases in lysophosphatidylcholines and decreases in phosphatidylcholines. We showed that the ratio between the concentrations of these molecule classes could serve as a measure to distinguish between 'good' and 'bad' quality samples in our study. In contrast, we found quite stable metabolite concentrations during up to four freeze-thaw cycles. We concluded that pre-analytical RT handling of serum samples should be strictly avoided and serum samples should always be handled on wet ice or in cooling devices after centrifugation. Moreover, serum samples should be frozen at or below -80°C as soon as possible after centrifugation.

  1. Serum sample containing endogenous antibodies interfering with multiple hormone immunoassays. Laboratory strategies to detect interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena García-González

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endogenous antibodies (EA may interfere with immunoassays, causing erroneous results for hormone analyses. As (in most cases this interference arises from the assay format and most immunoassays, even from different manufacturers, are constructed in a similar way, it is possible for a single type of EA to interfere with different immunoassays. Here we describe the case of a patient whose serum sample contains EA that interfere several hormones tests. We also discuss the strategies deployed to detect interference. Subjects and methods: Over a period of four years, a 30-year-old man was subjected to a plethora of laboratory and imaging diagnostic procedures as a consequence of elevated hormone results, mainly of pituitary origin, which did not correlate with the overall clinical picture. Results: Once analytical interference was suspected, the best laboratory approaches to investigate it were sample reanalysis on an alternative platform and sample incubation with antibody blocking tubes. Construction of an in-house ‘nonsense’ sandwich assay was also a valuable strategy to confirm interference. In contrast, serial sample dilutions were of no value in our case, while polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation gave inconclusive results, probably due to the use of inappropriate PEG concentrations for several of the tests assayed. Conclusions: Clinicians and laboratorians must be aware of the drawbacks of immunometric assays, and alert to the possibility of EA interference when results do not fit the clinical pattern. Keywords: Endogenous antibodies, Immunoassay, Interference, Pituitary hormones, Case report

  2. Acceptance test procedure for core sample trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure is to provide instruction and documentation for acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks, HO-68K-4600 and HO-68K-4647. The rotary mode core sample trucks were based upon the design of the second core sample truck (HO-68K-4345) which was constructed to implement rotary mode sampling of the waste tanks at Hanford. Acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks will verify that the design requirements have been met. All testing will be non-radioactive and stand-in materials shall be used to simulate waste tank conditions. Compressed air will be substituted for nitrogen during the majority of testing, with nitrogen being used only for flow characterization

  3. Resolution of a serum sample mix-up through the use of short tandem repeat DNA typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert W; Pritchard, Jane K

    2004-12-01

    A sample mix-up occurred in a tissue procurement laboratory in which aliquots of serum from two tissue donors were accidentally mislabeled. The clues to the apparent mixup involved discrepant Hepatitis C test results. In an attempt to resolve the apparent mix up, DNA typing was performed using serum samples as a possible source of genomic DNA. Two hundred microliter aliquots of two reference sera and aliquots prepared from them were subjected to DNA extraction. PCR amplification of 9 STR loci was performed on the extracts and amplicons were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. About 1 microg/ml of DNA was recovered from all serum samples and was of sufficient quality to direct the amplification of most, if not all STR loci allowing the mislabeled specimens to be traced to the proper tissue donor. Serum is a useful source of genomic DNA for STR analysis in situations in which such samples are the only source of DNA for testing. Interestingly, one of the tissue donors on life support and repeatedly receiving blood products, exhibited a mixed DNA profile indicative of the presence of DNA from multiple individuals in the bloodstream.

  4. Serum neutralization as a differential serological test for classical swine fever virus and other pestivirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes J.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum neutralization tests (SN were performed against classical swine fever virus (CSFV, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV and border disease virus (BDV on samples of swine serum collected for screening of antibodies to CSFV, in order to determine the SN value as a differential serological test. Ninety-nine sera out of a sample of 16,664 were positive for antibodies to pestiviruses in an ELISA test which did not distinguish antibodies to different pestiviruses. When submitted to SN, 81 sera were positive for CSFV antibodies only. In 17 sera, crossreactive antibodies to either CSFV, BVDV or BDV were detected. In most of these sera (13 out of 17 the differences between SN titres against the three viruses were not sufficient to estimate which was the most likely antibody-inducing virus. It was concluded that, for the SN to be useful in such differentiation, it is essential to examine a sample which must include a representative number of sera from the same farm where suspect animals were detected. When isolated serum samples are examined, such as those obtained with the sampling strategy adopted here, the SN may give rise to inconclusive results.

  5. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.

    2008-01-01

    of whole blood samples at low temperatures and rapid isolation of plasma and serum. Effects of different handling procedures for all markers studied are given. DBSS proved to be a robust and convenient way to handle samples for immunoassay analysis of inflammatory markers in whole blood Udgivelsesdato......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected...... and stored for other purposes, justifies the study hereof. Blood samples were stored for 0, 4, 24, and 48 h at 4 degrees C, room temperature (RT), and at 35 degrees C, respectively, before they were separated into serum or plasma and frozen. Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) were stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 7...

  6. Study of Zn/Cu ratio and oligoelements in serum samples for cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue-Meru, M. P.; Jimenez, E.; Hernandez, E.; Rojas, A.; Greaves, E.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study methods for cancer diagnosis based on trace element determination in serum blood samples. TXRF technique was selected for the analysis, due to its simultaneous and multi-elemental character, the very small amount of sample required and the high sensitivity. For the study, blood samples were collected from normal individuals (Blood donors and students), classified by age and sex in order to obtain reference normal values for the elements Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and additionally, Ca and K. Samples from cancer patients before treatment and under treatment were collected at the oncological Service (BADAN-Lara), and were also classified by age and sex. The TXRF procedure used was developed in a previous work and involves the direct analysis and the use of Compton peak as Internal Standard. All the samples were analyzed by the routine clinical test (blood chemistry). Elemental concentrations and clinical data were processed with the statistical package Minitab-Windows, in order to establish the respective correlation. Concerning to elemental concentrations, significant differences were found in Zn/Cu ratio between normal individuals group and the cancer patients group. (author)

  7. Airflow Test of Acoustic Board Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Jensen, Lise Mellergaard

    In the laboratory of Indoor Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University an airflow test on 2x10 samples of acoustic board were carried out the 2nd of June 2012. The tests were carried out for Rambøll and STO AG. The test includes connected values of volume flow...

  8. Comparison of Brucella immunoglobulin M and G flow assays with serum agglutination and 2-mercaptoethanol tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeytinoğlu, Ayşin; Turhan, Ajda; Altuğlu, Imre; Bilgiç, Altinay; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnostic value of Brucella IgM/IgG flow assays was evaluated in comparison with serum agglutination and 2-mercaptoethanol tests by testing a selection of serum samples submitted to the laboratory because of clinical suspicion of brucellosis. All 39 admission and 11 follow-up samples that

  9. Comparison of miRNA quantitation by Nanostring in serum and plasma samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Foye

    Full Text Available Circulating microRNAs that are associated with specific diseases have garnered much attention for use in diagnostic assays. However, detection of disease-associated miRNA can be affected by several factors such as release of contaminating cellular miRNA during sample collection, variations due to amplification of transcript for detection, or controls used for normalization for accurate quantitation. We analyzed circulating miRNA in serum and plasma samples obtained concurrently from 28 patients, using a Nanostring quantitative assay platform. Total RNA concentration ranged from 32-125 μg/ml from serum and 30-220 μg/ml from plasma. Of 798 miRNAs, 371 miRNAs were not detected in either serum or plasma samples. 427 were detected in either serum or plasma but not both, whereas 151 miRNA were detected in both serum and plasma samples. The diversity of miRNA detected was greater in plasma than in serum samples. In serum samples, the number of detected miRNA ranged from 3 to 82 with a median of 17, whereas in plasma samples, the number of miRNA detected ranged from 25 to 221 with a median of 91. Several miRNA such as miR451a, miR 16-5p, miR-223-3p, and mir25-3p were highly abundant and differentially expressed between serum and plasma. The detection of endogenous and exogenous control miRNAs varied in serum and plasma, with higher levels observed in plasma. Gene expression stability identified candidate invariant microRNA that were highly stable across all samples, and could be used for normalization. In conclusion, there are significant differences in both the number of miRNA detected and the amount of miRNA detected between serum and plasma. Normalization using miRNA with constant expression is essential to minimize the impact of technical variations. Given the challenges involved, ideal candidates for blood based biomarkers would be those that are indifferent to type of body fluid, are detectable and can be reliably quantitated.

  10. 30 CFR 14.5 - Test samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR BELTS General Provisions § 14.5 Test samples. Upon request by MSHA, the applicant must submit 3 precut, unrolled, flat conveyor belt...

  11. Testing a groundwater sampling tool: Are the samples representative?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaback, D.S.; Bergren, C.L.; Carlson, C.A.; Carlson, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    A ground water sampling tool, the HydroPunch trademark, was tested at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina to determine if representative ground water samples could be obtained without installing monitoring wells. Chemical analyses of ground water samples collected with the HydroPunch trademark from various depths within a borehole were compared with chemical analyses of ground water from nearby monitoring wells. The site selected for the test was in the vicinity of a large coal storage pile and a coal pile runoff basin that was constructed to collect the runoff from the coal storage pile. Existing monitoring wells in the area indicate the presence of a ground water contaminant plume that: (1) contains elevated concentrations of trace metals; (2) has an extremely low pH; and (3) contains elevated concentrations of major cations and anions. Ground water samples collected with the HydroPunch trademark provide in excellent estimate of ground water quality at discrete depths. Groundwater chemical data collected from various depths using the HydroPunch trademark can be averaged to simulate what a screen zone in a monitoring well would sample. The averaged depth-discrete data compared favorably with the data obtained from the nearby monitoring wells

  12. Estimating Sample Size for Usability Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Cazañas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One strategy used to assure that an interface meets user requirements is to conduct usability testing. When conducting such testing one of the unknowns is sample size. Since extensive testing is costly, minimizing the number of participants can contribute greatly to successful resource management of a project. Even though a significant number of models have been proposed to estimate sample size in usability testing, there is still not consensus on the optimal size. Several studies claim that 3 to 5 users suffice to uncover 80% of problems in a software interface. However, many other studies challenge this assertion. This study analyzed data collected from the user testing of a web application to verify the rule of thumb, commonly known as the “magic number 5”. The outcomes of the analysis showed that the 5-user rule significantly underestimates the required sample size to achieve reasonable levels of problem detection.

  13. Sampling analytical tests and destructive tests for quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.; Pasquini, S.; Jouan, A.; Angelis, de; Hreen Taywood, H.; Odoj, R.

    1990-01-01

    In the context of the third programme of the European Communities on the monitoring of radioactive waste, various methods have been developed for the performance of sampling and measuring tests on encapsulated waste of low and medium level activity, on the one hand, and of high level activity, on the other hand. The purpose was to provide better quality assurance for products to be stored on an interim or long-term basis. Various testing sampling means are proposed such as: - sampling of raw waste before conditioning and determination of the representative aliquot, - sampling of encapsulated waste on process output, - sampling of core specimens subjected to measurement before and after cutting. Equipment suitable for these sampling procedures have been developed and, in the case of core samples, a comparison of techniques has been made. The results are described for the various analytical tests carried out on the samples such as: - mechanical tests, - radiation resistance, - fire resistance, - lixiviation, - determination of free water, - biodegradation, - water resistance, - chemical and radiochemical analysis. Every time it was possible, these tests were compared with non-destructive tests on full-scale packages and some correlations are given. This word has made if possible to improve and clarify sample optimization, with fine sampling techniques and methodologies and draw up characterization procedures. It also provided an occasion for a first collaboration between the laboratories responsible for these studies and which will be furthered in the scope of the 1990-1994 programme

  14. Outgassing tests on iras solar panel samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premat, G.; Zwaal, A.; Pennings, N. H.

    1980-01-01

    Several outgassing tests were carried out on representative solar panel samples in order to determine the extent of contamination that could be expected from this source. The materials for the construction of the solar panels were selected as a result of contamination obtained in micro volatile condensable materials tests.

  15. Determination of carbamazepine in serum and saliva samples by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Snežana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Carbamazepine is antiepileptic drug widely used for the treatment of epilepsy. Due to low therapeutic index of carbamazepine there is a need for routine measuring its concentrations in biological fluids. The aim of the study was to describe a method for concomitant determination of carbamazepine in the serum and saliva. Methods. Separation of the drug from matrix is achieved by reversedphase chromatography on a C18 column, with a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (65:34:1 at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min. Detection was effected by ultra-violet absorption at 285 nm. The total run time was 5 min. Samples were prepared by alkaline extraction (pH 10 using chlorophorm. Results. Calibration curves were in the range 0.1-5 μg/mL for serum and saliva samples. Mean recoveries of spiked serum and saliva were 97.59 and 92.30%, respectively. Limits of detection (LOD of carbamazepine in serum and saliva were 0.166 and 0.178 μg/mL, respectively. Limits of quantification (LOQ in the serum and saliva were 0.237 and 0.226 μg/mL, respectively. The method precision was carried out with coefficient of variation of 2.10% and 4.03% for the serum and saliva, respectively. The obtained data showed that there was a strong correlation between saliva and serum concentrations (r = 0.9481, p < 0.001. Conclusion. The method described here is rapid, precise, accurate and simple, and can be used for quantitative determination of carbamazepine in human serum and saliva after therapy applying. Saliva samples could be used as an alternative matrix for therapeutic drug monitoring of this antiepileptic drug.

  16. Determination of carbamazepine in serum and saliva samples by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordević, Snezana; Kilibarda, Vesna; Stojanović, Tomislav

    2009-05-01

    Carbamazepine is antiepileptic drug widely used for the treatment of epilepsy. Due to low therapeutic index of carbamazepine there is a need for routine measuring its concentrations in biological fluids. The aim of the study was to describe a method for concomitant determination of carbamazepine in the serum and saliva. Separation of the drug from matrix is achieved by reversed-phase chromatography on a C18 column, with a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (65:34:1) at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min. Detection was effected by ultra-violet absorption at 285 nm. The total run time was 5 min. Samples were prepared by alkaline extraction (pH 10) using chlorophorm. Calibration curves were in the range 0.1-5 microg/mL for serum and saliva samples. Mean recoveries of spiked serum and saliva were 97.59 and 92.30%, respectively. Limits of detection (LOD) of carbamazepine in serum and saliva were 0.166 and 0.178 microg/mL, respectively. Limits of quantification (LOQ) in the serum and saliva were 0.237 and 0.226 microg/mL, respectively. The method precision was carried out with coefficient of variation of 2.10% and 4.03% for the serum and saliva, respectively. The obtained data showed that there was a strong correlation between saliva and serum concentrations (r = 0.9481, p < 0.001). The method described here is rapid, precise, accurate and simple, and can be used for quantitative determination of carbamazepine in human serum and saliva after therapy applying. Saliva samples could be used as an alternative matrix for therapeutic drug monitoring of this antiepileptic drug.

  17. Retrospective analysis of dengue specific IgM reactive serum samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemai Bhattacharya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a retrospective analysis of dengue cases in Kolkata, on the basis of presence of anti-dengue IgM in their sera and presence or absence of anti-dengue IgG and dengue specific Non structural 1 (NS1 antigen in each of the serum sample. Methods: Sample was tested quantitatively employing ELISA technique, using Biorad test kits, with a view to get a more comprehensive picture of dengue in an urban endemic area and also to evaluate individual cases. Results: This reconstructed study revealed that of those 91 dengue cases, 70.3% (64 and 29.7% (27 were suffering from secondary and primary dengue respectively, showing that number of secondary dengue cases were much more than that of primary dengue cases with a possibility of emergence of DHF. A small proportion of cases 18.7% (17 were reactive for NS1. The duration of fever in NS1 antigen positive cases varied between 5 and 7 days. Of 17 NS1 reactive cases, 10 (10.9% and 7 (7.7% were suffering from secondary and primary dengue respectively. Conclusions: Early detection of primary and secondary dengue cases would be facilitated by utilizing all three parameters (NS1 antigen, anti-dengue IgM and IgG helping to evaluate, monitor and treat a dengue case effectively.

  18. Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2014-03-01

    Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013

  19. Accuracy of cotinine serum test to detect the smoking habit and its association with periodontal disease in a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, A; Martínez, P-J; Giraldo, A; Gualtero, D-F; Ardila, C-M; Contreras, A; Duarte, S; Lafaurie, G-I

    2017-07-01

    The validity of the surveys on self-reported smoking status is often questioned because smokers underestimate cigarette use and deny the habit. It has been suggested that self-report should be accompanied by cotinine test. This report evaluates the usefulness of serum cotinine test to assess the association between smoking and periodontal status in a study with a large sample population to be used in studies with other serum markers in epidemiologic and periodontal medicine researches. 578 patients who were part of a multicenter study on blood biomarkers were evaluated about smoking and its relation to periodontal disease. Severity of periodontal disease was determinate using clinical attachment loss (CAL). Smoking was assessed by a questionnaire and a blood sample drawn for serum cotinine determination. The optimal cut-off point for serum cotinine was 10 ng/ml. Serum cotinine showed greater association with severity of CAL than self-report for mild-moderate CAL [OR 2.03 (CI95% 1.16-3.53) vs. OR 1.08 (CI95% 0.62-1.87) ] advanced periodontitis [OR 2.36 (CI95% 1.30- 4.31) vs. OR 2.06 (CI95% 0.97-4.38) ] and extension of CAL > 3 mm [ OR 1.78 (CI95% 1.16-1.71) vs. 1.37 (CI95% 0.89-2.11)]. When the two tests were evaluated together were not shown to be better than serum cotinine test. Self-reported smoking and serum cotinine test ≥ 10ng/ml are accurate ,complementary and more reliable methods to assess the patient's smoking status and could be used in studies evaluating serum samples in large population and multicenter studies. The serum cotinine level is more reliable to make associations with the patient's periodontal status than self-report questionnaire and could be used in multicenter and periodontal medicine studies.

  20. Forward selection two sample binomial test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Fai; Wong, Weng-Kee; Lin, Miao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Fisher’s exact test (FET) is a conditional method that is frequently used to analyze data in a 2 × 2 table for small samples. This test is conservative and attempts have been made to modify the test to make it less conservative. For example, Crans and Shuster (2008) proposed adding more points in the rejection region to make the test more powerful. We provide another way to modify the test to make it less conservative by using two independent binomial distributions as the reference distribution for the test statistic. We compare our new test with several methods and show that our test has advantages over existing methods in terms of control of the type 1 and type 2 errors. We reanalyze results from an oncology trial using our proposed method and our software which is freely available to the reader. PMID:27335577

  1. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in human serum and urine samples from a residentially exposed community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Rachel Rogers; Moore, Susan McAfee; Tierney, Bruce C; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Campbell, Sean; Woudneh, Million B; Fisher, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are considered chemicals of emerging concern, in part due to their environmental and biological persistence and the potential for widespread human exposure. In 2007, a PFAS manufacturer near Decatur, Alabama notified the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) it had discharged PFAS into a wastewater treatment plant, resulting in environmental contamination and potential exposures to the local community. To characterize PFAS exposure over time, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) collected blood and urine samples from local residents. Eight PFAS were measured in serum in 2010 (n=153). Eleven PFAS were measured in serum, and five PFAS were measured in urine (n=45) from some of the same residents in 2016. Serum concentrations were compared to nationally representative data and change in serum concentration over time was evaluated. Biological half-lives were estimated for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) using a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. In 2010 and 2016, geometric mean PFOA and PFOS serum concentrations were elevated in participants compared to the general U.S. In 2016, the geometric mean PFHxS serum concentration was elevated compared to the general U.S. Geometric mean serum concentrations of PFOA, PFOS, and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were significantly (p≤0.0001) lower (49%, 53%, and 58%, respectively) in 2016 compared to 2010. Half-lives for PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS were estimated to be 3.9, 3.3, and 15.5years, respectively. Concentrations of PFOA in serum and urine were highly correlated (r=0.75) in males. Serum concentrations of some PFAS are decreasing in this residentially exposed community, but remain elevated compared to the U.S. general population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Clinical evaluation of a Mucorales-specific real-time PCR assay in tissue and serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Jan; Lackner, Michaela; Ensinger, Christian; Risslegger, Brigitte; Morton, Charles Oliver; Nachbaur, David; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Einsele, Hermann; Heinz, Werner J; Loeffler, Juergen

    2016-12-01

    Molecular diagnostic assays can accelerate the diagnosis of fungal infections and subsequently improve patient outcomes. In particular, the detection of infections due to Mucorales is still challenging for laboratories and physicians. The aim of this study was to evaluate a probe-based Mucorales-specific real-time PCR assay (Muc18S) using tissue and serum samples from patients suffering from invasive mucormycosis (IMM). This assay can detect a broad range of clinically relevant Mucorales species and can be used to complement existing diagnostic tests or to screen high-risk patients. An advantage of the Muc18S assay is that it exclusively detects Mucorales species allowing the diagnosis of Mucorales DNA without sequencing within a few hours. In paraffin-embedded tissue samples this PCR-based method allowed rapid identification of Mucorales in comparison with standard methods and showed 91 % sensitivity in the IMM tissue samples. We also evaluated serum samples, an easily accessible material, from patients at risk from IMM. Mucorales DNA was detected in all patients with probable/proven IMM (100 %) and in 29 % of the possible cases. Detection of IMM in serum could enable an earlier diagnosis (up to 21 days) than current methods including tissue samples, which were gained mainly post-mortem. A screening strategy for high-risk patients, which would enable targeted treatment to improve patient outcomes, is therefore possible.

  3. Standardization and application of indirect ELISA for diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis in bovine blood serum samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Moraes Cunha de Mesquita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Mesquita S.M.C., Mansur F.J., Nascimento E.R., Barreto M.L. & Kimura L.M.S. [Standardization and application of indirect ELISA for diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis in bovine blood serum samples.] Padroniza- ção e aplicação de ELISA indireto para diagnóstico de Mycoplasma bovis em amostras de soro sanguíneo bovino. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:101-107, 2015. Universidade Federal Fluminense, Faculdade de Veteriná- ria, Rua Vital Brazil Filho, 64, Vital Brazil, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brasil. E-mail: samira.veterinaria@gmail.com International researchers presented results indicating frequent involvement of Mycoplasma spp. as a causative agent of mastitis in cattle, associating its presence with significant economic losses to farmers. Mycoplasma bovis is the species most reported and relevant, because it causes more severe disease. The level of antibodies against M. bovis remains high for several months and can be detected by ELISA. The aim of this work was to develop an indirect ELISA with whole cell antigen of M. bovis (strain Donetta PG 45 with subsequent application in bovine blood serum samples for detection of antibodies against M. bovis. The immunization of cows A and B by inoculating an immunogen against M. bovis to obtain hyperimmune blood serum was the first stage of this work, then the stage of standardization of ELISA was proceeded. The concentration of 2 mg of antigen/mL for coating the microtiter plates was decided by statistical analyses. The optical density value 0,2 was determined as the limit of reactivity discrimination of samples (the cut-off point. The hyperimmune blood serum sample of the cow A (collected 30 days after immunization was chosen as the positive control and, the fetal calf serum was chosen as negative control of the assay. In addition, the ideal optimal dilutions found for blood serum samples was 1:400 and for conjugate was 1:10.000 and the substrate used was the ortho

  4. Serial Sampling of Serum Protein Biomarkers for Monitoring Human Traumatic Brain Injury Dynamics: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, Eric Peter; Zeiler, Frederick Adam; Ercole, Ari; Mondello, Stefania; Büki, András; Bellander, Bo-Michael; Helmy, Adel; Menon, David K; Nelson, David W

    2017-01-01

    The proteins S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), and neurofilament light (NF-L) have been serially sampled in serum of patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) in order to assess injury severity and tissue fate. We review the current literature of serum level dynamics of these proteins following TBI and used the term "effective half-life" ( t 1/2 ) in order to describe the "fall" rate in serum. Through searches on EMBASE, Medline, and Scopus, we looked for articles where these proteins had been serially sampled in serum in human TBI. We excluded animal studies, studies with only one presented sample and studies without neuroradiological examinations. Following screening (10,389 papers), n  = 122 papers were included. The proteins S100B ( n  = 66) and NSE ( n  = 27) were the two most frequent biomarkers that were serially sampled. For S100B in severe TBI, a majority of studies indicate a t 1/2 of about 24 h, even if very early sampling in these patients reveals rapid decreases (1-2 h) though possibly of non-cerebral origin. In contrast, the t 1/2 for NSE is comparably longer, ranging from 48 to 72 h in severe TBI cases. The protein GFAP ( n  = 18) appears to have t 1/2 of about 24-48 h in severe TBI. The protein UCH-L1 ( n  = 9) presents a t 1/2 around 7 h in mild TBI and about 10 h in severe. Frequent sampling of these proteins revealed different trajectories with persisting high serum levels, or secondary peaks, in patients with unfavorable outcome or in patients developing secondary detrimental events. Finally, NF-L ( n  = 2) only increased in the few studies available, suggesting a serum availability of >10 days. To date, automated assays are available for S100B and NSE making them faster and more practical to use. Serial sampling of brain-specific proteins in serum reveals different temporal trajectories that should be

  5. Serial Sampling of Serum Protein Biomarkers for Monitoring Human Traumatic Brain Injury Dynamics: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Peter Thelin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe proteins S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1, and neurofilament light (NF-L have been serially sampled in serum of patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI in order to assess injury severity and tissue fate. We review the current literature of serum level dynamics of these proteins following TBI and used the term “effective half-life” (t1/2 in order to describe the “fall” rate in serum.Materials and methodsThrough searches on EMBASE, Medline, and Scopus, we looked for articles where these proteins had been serially sampled in serum in human TBI. We excluded animal studies, studies with only one presented sample and studies without neuroradiological examinations.ResultsFollowing screening (10,389 papers, n = 122 papers were included. The proteins S100B (n = 66 and NSE (n = 27 were the two most frequent biomarkers that were serially sampled. For S100B in severe TBI, a majority of studies indicate a t1/2 of about 24 h, even if very early sampling in these patients reveals rapid decreases (1–2 h though possibly of non-cerebral origin. In contrast, the t1/2 for NSE is comparably longer, ranging from 48 to 72 h in severe TBI cases. The protein GFAP (n = 18 appears to have t1/2 of about 24–48 h in severe TBI. The protein UCH-L1 (n = 9 presents a t1/2 around 7 h in mild TBI and about 10 h in severe. Frequent sampling of these proteins revealed different trajectories with persisting high serum levels, or secondary peaks, in patients with unfavorable outcome or in patients developing secondary detrimental events. Finally, NF-L (n = 2 only increased in the few studies available, suggesting a serum availability of >10 days. To date, automated assays are available for S100B and NSE making them faster and more practical to use.ConclusionSerial sampling of brain-specific proteins in serum reveals

  6. Mixing and sampling tests for Radiochemical Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinger, M.N.; Marfin, H.R.; Hunt, B.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes results and test procedures used to evaluate uncertainly and basis effects introduced by the sampler systems of a radiochemical plant, and similar parameters associated with mixing. This report will concentrate on experiences at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant. Mixing and sampling tests can be conducted to establish the statistical parameters for those activities related to overall measurement uncertainties. Density measurements by state-of-the art, commercially availability equipment is the key to conducting those tests. Experience in the U.S. suggests the statistical contribution of mixing and sampling can be controlled to less than 0.01 % and with new equipment and new tests in operating facilities might be controlled to better accuracy [ru

  7. Predictors of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations among a Sample of Egyptian Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mones M. Abu Shady

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D status among a sample of Egyptian schoolchildren and to evaluate predictors of deficiency and insufficiency. Subjects and Methods. A cross-sectional study comprising 200 prepubescent schoolchildren aged from 9 to 11 years was performed. A questionnaire including frequency of midday sun exposure, milk intake, physical activity, and level of maternal education was taken. Body mass index (BMI was calculated; serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD], serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone were measured. Results. Vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OHD < 20 ng/mL] was detected in 11.5% of subjects while its insufficiency (serum 25(OHD is between 20 and 29.9 ng/mL was detected in 15%. Results revealed that obesity, low physical activity, low sun exposure, and low maternal education level are significant predictors of insufficiency, though female gender, low maternal education level, and low milk intake are significant predictors of deficiency. Lower serum phosphorus and higher serum parathyroid hormone were significantly associated with both deficiency and insufficiency (p<0.05. Conclusion. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are common among schoolchildren in Egypt. Food fortification, vitamin D supplementation, and increasing maternal awareness about the importance of physical activity and exposure of their children to ultraviolet light may help to overcome this problem.

  8. Comparison of Bovine coronavirus-specific and Bovine respiratory syncytial virus-specific antibodies in serum versus milk samples detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, Anna; Blanco-Penedo, Isabel; Fall, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Bovine coronavirus (BCV; Betacoronavirus 1) and Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) are significant causes of enteric and respiratory disease in beef and dairy cattle throughout the world. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are widely used to detect serum antibodies for herd monitoring and prevalence studies. In dairy herds, milk is more readily collected than serum. Hence, in order to investigate the test agreement between serum and milk, both serum and milk samples from 105 cows in 27 dairy herds were analyzed in parallel for presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies to BCV and BRSV. The Bland-Altman analyses of data demonstrated good agreement between serum and milk antibody titers for both viruses. The results indicate milk samples are sufficient for surveillance of antibodies to BCV and BRSV.

  9. Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in paired serum and urine samples using polymerase chain reaction-based systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ximenes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF aims to eliminate this disease by the year 2020. However, the development of more specific and sensitive tests is important for the success of the GPELF. The present study aimed to standardise polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based systems for the diagnosis of filariasis in serum and urine. Twenty paired biological urine and serum samples from individuals already known to be positive for Wuchereria bancrofti were collected during the day. Conventional PCR and semi-nested PCR assays were optimised. The detection limit of the technique for purified W. bancrofti DNA extracted from adult worms was 10 fg for the internal systems (WbF/Wb2 and 0.1 fg by using semi-nested PCR. The specificity of the primers was confirmed experimentally by amplification of 1 ng of purified genomic DNA from other species of parasites. Evaluation of the paired urine and serum samples by the semi-nested PCR technique indicated only two of the 20 tested individuals were positive, whereas the simple internal PCR system (WbF/Wb2, which has highly promising performance, revealed that all the patients were positive using both samples. This study successfully demonstrated the possibility of using the PCR technique on urine for the diagnosis of W. bancrofti infection.

  10. Tests on CANDU fuel elements sheath samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, S.; Uta, O.; Mincu, M.; Prisecaru, I.

    2016-01-01

    This work is a study of the behavior of CANDU fuel elements after irradiation. The tests are made on ring samples taken from fuel cladding in INR Pitesti. This paper presents the results of examinations performed in the Post Irradiation Examination Laboratory. By metallographic and ceramographic examination we determinate that the hydride precipitates are orientated parallel to the cladding surface. A content of hydrogen of about 120 ppm was estimated. After the preliminary tests, ring samples were cut from the fuel rod, and were subject of tensile test on an INSTRON 5569 model machine in order to evaluate the changes of their mechanical properties as consequence of irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on a microscope model TESCAN MIRA II LMU CS with Schottky FE emitter and variable pressure. The analysis shows that the central zone has deeper dimples, whereas on the outer zone, the dimples are tilted and smaller. (authors)

  11. Improvement of western blot test specificity for detecting equine serum antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, M G; Mansfield, L S; Kaneene, J B; Murphy, A J; Brown, C M; Schott, H C; Fox, J C

    2000-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a neurological disease of horses and ponies caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. The purposes of this study were to develop the most stringent criteria possible for a positive test result, to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the EPM Western blot antibody test, and to assess the ability of bovine antibodies to Sarcocystis cruzi to act as a blocking agent to minimize false-positive results in the western blot test for S. neurona. Sarcocystis neurona merozoites harvested from equine dermal cell culture were heat denatured, and the proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in a 12-20% linear gradient gel. Separated proteins were electrophoretically transferred to polyvinylidene fluoride membranes and blocked in 1% bovine serum albumin and 0.5% Tween-Tris-buffered saline. Serum samples from 6 horses with S. neurona infections (confirmed by culture from neural tissue) and 57 horses without infections (horses from the Eastern Hemisphere, where S. neurona does not exist) were tested by Western blot. Horses from both groups had reactivity to the 62-, 30-, 16-, 13-, 11-, 10.5-, and 10-kD bands. Testing was repeated with another step. Blots were treated with bovine S. cruzi antibodies prior to loading the equine samples. After this modification of the Western blot test, positive infection status was significantly associated with reactivity to the 30- and 16-kD bands (Pblot had a sample sensitivity of 100% and sample specificity of 98%. It is concluded that the specificity of the Western blot test is improved by blocking proteins not specific to S. neurona and using reactivity to the 30- and 16-kD bands as the criterion for a positive test.

  12. Quantitative profiling of serum samples using TMT protein labelling, fractionation and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, John; Timms, John F

    2011-08-01

    Blood-borne biomarkers are urgently required for the early detection, accurate diagnosis and prognosis of disease. Additionally, improved methods of profiling serum and plasma proteins for biomarker discovery efforts are needed. Herein, we report a quantitative method based on amino-group labelling of serum proteins (rather than peptides) with isobaric tandem mass tags (TMT) and incorporating immune-based depletion, gel-based and strong anion exchange separation of proteins prior to differential endoproteinase treatment and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We report a generally higher level of quantitative coverage of the serum proteome compared to other peptide-based isobaric tagging approaches and show the potential of the method by applying it to a set of unique samples that pre-date the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Laboratory Tests of Bitumen Samples Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshin, E. R.; Usmanov, S. A.; Khasanov, D. I.; Khamidullina, G. S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the elastic and acoustic properties of bitumen core samples. The travel velocities of the ultrasonic P- and S-waves were determined under in-situ simulation conditions. The resulting data were then used to calculate dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. The authors studied the correlation between the elasticity and the permeability and porosity. In addition, the tests looked into how the acoustic properties had changed with temperature rise.

  14. Serum auto-antibody testing for early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is generate prototype-tests suitable for randomized prospective validation of auto-antibody based diagnostic testing using serum samples. Tumours can stimulate the production of auto-antibodies against autologous cellular proteins known as TAAs (tumour associated antigens). This discovery has lead to a possibility of using the auto-antibodies as serological tools for the early diagnosis and management of breast cancer. The recombinant proteins expressed by the SEREX clones, identified from screenings of brain and lung tumour, were used for the production of the protein microarrays and macroarrays. The protein microarrays showed better correlation between the replicates of the serum samples used. The optimized protocols were used for the subsequent experiments. A sizable panel of 642 clone-proteins was selected by marker-screening on protein macroarrays with 38000 clones. These 642 clone-proteins were used to generate protein microarrays that differentiated serum samples from breast cancer patients and controls. Antigenic peptide motifs were identified by in-silico analysis of 642 clone-proteins and peptide arrays were generated using synthetically generated peptides. Comparative studies between protein microarrays and peptide microarrays were done using breast cancer and healthy control samples. Simultaneously, SEREX strategy was used for the identification of the immunogenic TAAs. I identified 192 cDNA expression clones derived from breast cancer tissue samples and the selection was done using breast cancer sera. The genes corresponding to these clones were found over-represented for the pathways that are known to be associated with cancers. These genes showed typical features of TAAs, like over-expression, mutations and fusion genes. (author)

  15. Microcontroller-based system for estimate of calcium in serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelamegam, Periyaswmy; Jamaludeen, Abdul Sheriff; Ragendran, Annamalai; Murugrananthan, Krishanamoorthy

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a microcontroller-based control unit was designed and constructed for the estimation of serum calcium in blood samples. The proposed optoelectronic instrument used a red light emitting diode (LED) as a light source and photodiode as a sensor. The performance of the system was compared with that of a commercial instrument in measuring calcium ion. The quantitative analysis of calcium in a catalyst using arsenazo III as colorimetric reagent was used to test the device. The calibration curve for calcium binding with arsenazo III was drawn to check the range of linearity, which was between 0.1 to 4.5 mM L⁻¹. The limit of detection (LOD) is 0.05 mM L⁻¹. Absorbance changes over the pH range of 2-12 were determined to optimize the assay, with maximum absorption at pH 9.0. Interferences in absorbance from monovalent (K+ and Na+) and divalent (Mg²+) cations were also studied. The results show that the system works successfully.

  16. Evaluation of Sample Handling Effects on Serum Vitamin E and Cholesterol Concentrations in Alpacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Lear

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical cases of vitamin E deficiencies have been diagnosed in camelids and may indicate that these species are more sensitive to inadequate vitamin E in hay-based diets compared to other ruminant and equine species. In bovine, cholesterol has been reported to affect vitamin E concentrations. In order to evaluate vitamin E deficiencies in camelids, the effects of collection and storage of the blood samples prior to processing were necessary. Reports vary as to factors affecting vitamin E and cholesterol in blood samples, and diagnostic laboratories vary in instructions regarding sample handling. Blood was collected from healthy alpacas and processed under conditions including exposure to fluorescent light, serum and red blood cell contact, tube stopper contact, temperature, and hemolysis. Serum vitamin E and cholesterol concentrations were then measured. Statistical analyses found that the vitamin E concentrations decreased with prolonged contact with the tube stopper and with increasing hemolysis. Vitamin E concentration variations were seen with other factors but were not significant. Time prior to serum separation and individual animal variation was found to alter cholesterol concentrations within the sample, yet this finding was clinically unremarkable. No correlation was seen between vitamin E and cholesterol concentration, possibly due to lack of variation of cholesterol.

  17. Respondent-Driven SamplingTesting Assumptions: Sampling with Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barash Vladimir D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Classical Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS estimators are based on a Markov Process model in which sampling occurs with replacement. Given that respondents generally cannot be interviewed more than once, this assumption is counterfactual. We join recent work by Gile and Handcock in exploring the implications of the sampling-with-replacement assumption for bias of RDS estimators. We differ from previous studies in examining a wider range of sampling fractions and in using not only simulations but also formal proofs. One key finding is that RDS estimates are surprisingly stable even in the presence of substantial sampling fractions. Our analyses show that the sampling-with-replacement assumption is a minor contributor to bias for sampling fractions under 40%, and bias is negligible for the 20% or smaller sampling fractions typical of field applications of RDS.

  18. Tracer gas diffusion sampling test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts are under way to employ active and passive vapor extraction to remove carbon tetrachloride from the soil in the 200 West Area an the Hanford Site as part of the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action. In the active approach, a vacuum is applied to a well, which causes soil gas surrounding the well to be drawn up to the surface. The contaminated air is cleaned by passage through a granular activated carbon bed. There are questions concerning the radius of influence associated with application of the vacuum system and related uncertainties about the soil-gas diffusion rates with and without the vacuum system present. To address these questions, a series of tracer gas diffusion sampling tests is proposed in which an inert, nontoxic tracer gas, sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ), will be injected into a well, and the rates of SF 6 diffusion through the surrounding soil horizon will be measured by sampling in nearby wells. Tracer gas tests will be conducted at sites very near the active vacuum extraction system and also at sites beyond the radius of influence of the active vacuum system. In the passive vapor extraction approach, barometric pressure fluctuations cause soil gas to be drawn to the surface through the well. At the passive sites, the effects of barometric ''pumping'' due to changes in atmospheric pressure will be investigated. Application of tracer gas testing to both the active and passive vapor extraction methods is described in the wellfield enhancement work plan (Rohay and Cameron 1993)

  19. Quality assesment for the analysis of PCDDs/PCDFs in individual human serum samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, F [IIQAB-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Ecotechnologies, Lab. of Dioxins; Abad, E; Llerena, J J; Caixach, J; Rivera, J

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this work was to optimise a relevant methodology for the ultratrace analysis of PCDDs/PCDFs in individual human serum samples. In order to carry out the study, different strategies including the elaboration of quality control samples, parallel sample analysis, control blanks and a number of quality assurance measures were implemented as analytical current practices. Some of the main drawbacks in the analysis of PCDDs/PCDFs in these kind of samples come from two conflicting aspects: the small sample size and the low levels expected to be found. Taking this into account, an unavoidable compromise between the sample amount and the minimum analytical requirements, mainly the detection limit (LOD), is mandatory. To reach this goal C{sub 18} solid phase extraction was used to remove the analytes from the matrix. Clean up was performed by solid-liquid adsorption chromatography using a variety of adsorbents. Instrumental analysis was achieved by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Finally, the optimised methodology was applied to evaluate the potential impact in general population living in the surroundings of an obsolete municipal waste incinerator plant (MWI). Thus, more than 400 individuals serum samples potentially exposed to the emission of the incinerator and people not exposed were considered in this study.

  20. Restricted access carbon nanotubes for direct extraction of cadmium from human serum samples followed by atomic absorption spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Adriano F; Barbosa, Valéria M P; Bettini, Jefferson; Luccas, Pedro O; Figueiredo, Eduardo C

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new sorbent that is able to extract metal ions directly from untreated biological fluids, simultaneously excluding all proteins from these samples. The sorbent was obtained through the modification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with an external bovine serum albumin (BSA) layer, resulting in restricted access carbon nanotubes (RACNTs). The BSA layer was fixed through the interconnection between the amine groups of the BSA using glutaraldehyde as cross-linker. When a protein sample is percolated through a cartridge containing RACNTs and the sample pH is higher than the isoelectric point of the proteins, both proteins from the sample and the BSA layer are negatively ionized. Thus, an electrostatic repulsion prevents the interaction between the proteins from the sample on the RACNTs surface. At the same time, metal ions are adsorbed in the CNTs (core) after their passage through the chains of proteins. The Cd(2+) ion was selected for a proof-of-principle case to test the suitability of the RACNTs due to its toxicological relevance. RACNTs were able to extract Cd(2+) and exclude almost 100% of the proteins from the human serum samples in an online solid-phase extraction system coupled with thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.24 and 0.80 μg L(-1), respectively. The sampling frequency was 8.6h(-1), and the intra- and inter-day precisions at the 0.80, 15.0, and 30.0 μg L(-1) Cd(2+) levels were all lower than 10.1% (RSD). The recoveries obtained for human blood serum samples fortified with Cd(2+) ranged from 85.0% to 112.0%. The method was successfully applied to analyze Cd(2+) directly from six human blood serum samples without any pretreatment, and the observed concentrations ranged from

  1. Factors in selecting serum samples for use in determining the positive/negative threshold (cut-off) in ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    The threshold (cut-off) that defines whether a test result is seropositive or seronegative is calculated by testing serum samples from a subpopulation of animals that is assumed to represent the target population in all aspects. For this proposition to be true, it is essential to consider the variables in the target population that must be represented in the subpopulation. Without representation of the variables in the subpopulation, it is likely that the cut-off selected for the test will be errant and will misclassify animals as to their infection status. The purpose of this paper is to identify a few of the principal variables that need to be taken into account when selecting a subpopulation of animals for test validation. (author)

  2. Can serums be replaced by Mueller‑Hinton agar in germ tube test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The germ tube test (GTT) is inexpensive, easy, and well‑defined test that differentiates Candida albicans (excluding Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana) from other species. The aim of this study was to evaluate various serums (i.e., human, rabbit, horse, and fetal bovine serum) used in the GTT and ...

  3. Histoplasma Urinary Antigen Testing Obviates the Need for Coincident Serum Antigen Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, Diane; Procop, Gary W; Ansari, Mohammad Q

    2018-03-07

    Serum and urine antigen (SAg, UAg) detection are common tests for Histoplasma capsulatum. UAg detection is more widely used and reportedly has a higher sensitivity. We investigated whether SAg detection contributes meaningfully to the initial evaluation of patients with suspected histoplasmosis. We reviewed 20,285 UAg and 1,426 SAg tests ordered from 1997 to 2016 and analyzed paired UAg and SAg tests completed on the same patient within 1 week. We determined the positivity rate for each test. Of 601 paired specimens, 542 were concurrent negatives and 48 were concurrent positives (98% agreement). Medical records were available for eight of 11 pairs with discrepant results. UAg was falsely positive in six instances, truly positive once, and falsely negative once. These findings support using a single antigen detection test, rather than both UAg and SAg, as an initial screen for suspected histoplasmosis. This aligns with the current practice of most physicians.

  4. Tests of gas sampling electromagnetic shower calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Carithers, W.; Day, C.; Johnson, K.J.; Wenzel, W.A.; Videau, H.

    1983-01-01

    An electromagnetic shower gas-sampling calorimeter has been tested in both Geiger and proportional discharge modes for incident electron energies in the range 0.125-16 GeV. The 0.2 radiation length-thick layers were lead-fiberglass laminates with cathode strips normal to the sense wires. The 5x10 mm 2 Geiger cells were formed with uniformly spaced nylon fibers perpendicular to the wires. Proportional mode measurements were carried out in the pressure range 1-10 atm. A Monte Carlo simulation is in good agreement with measured shower characteristics and has been used to predict the behavior for oblique of incidence and for various Geiger cell dimensions. (orig.)

  5. Study of cross-reactivity in serum samples from dogs positive for Leishmania sp., Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect fluorescent antibody test Estudo da reatividade cruzada em amostras de soro de cães positivos para Leishmania sp., Babesia canis e Ehrlichia canis, pelo ensaio imunoenzimático indireto e pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trícia Maria F. de Sousa Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available To verify the presence of cross-reaction among leishmaniosis, ehrlichiosis and babesiosis in serological diagnostics used in human visceral leishmaniasis control programs, serum samples from leishmaniasis endemic and non-endemic areas were collected and tested by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFAT and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All serum samples from endemic areas were positive for Leishmania sp., by ELISA and IFAT, 51% positive for Babesia canis and 43% for Ehrlichia canis by IFAT. None of the serum samples from non-endemic areas were positive for Leishmania sp., by IFAT, but 67% were positive for B. canis and 78% for E. canis using the same test. When tested by ELISA for Leishmania sp., four samples from non-endemic area were positive. These dogs were then located and no clinical signs, parasites or antibody was detected in new tests for a six month period. Only one of these 4 samples was positive for B. canis by IFAT and ELISA and three for E. canis by IFAT. The results of the work suggest a co-infection in the endemic area and no serological cross-reaction among these parasites by IFAT and ELISA.Para verificar a existência de reação cruzada entre leishmaniose visceral, erliquiose e babesiose, nos testes sorológicos utilizados em programas de controle da leishmaniose visceral humana, amostras de soro canino provenientes de áreas endêmicas e não endêmicas para essa enfermidade, foram testadas pela Reação de Imunofluorescência (RIFI e Ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA. Todos os soros provenientes de área endêmica foram positivos para Leishmania sp pelo ELISA e RIFI, 51% para Babesia canis e 43% para Ehrlichia canis pela RIFI. Pela RIFI, nenhum dos soros provenientes de área não endêmica foi positivo para Leishmania sp, sendo 67% positivos para B. canis e 78% para E. canis pelo mesmo teste. Quando testados pelo ELISA para Leishmania sp., quatro soros da área não endêmica foram positivos. Os cães foram localizados

  6. An attempt to validate serum and plasma as sample matrices for analyses of polychlorobiphenylols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, J.; Bergman, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Bignert, A. [Museum of Natural History (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) form hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs), as reported both from wildlife and from experimental animal studies already in the early 1970s'. However, the interest increased in OH-PCBs from the mid 1990s' depending on the discovery that some OHPCB congeners are strongly retained in the blood of birds, fish and mammals, including humans. The interest is linked to the fact that OH-PCBs is strongly, but reversibly, bound to the blood protein transthyretin (TTR). It is reasonable to believe that the strong TTR binding may have toxicological impact, probably related to endocrine type effects. Importantly, OH-PCBs are present in blood at far higher concentrations than in any other compartment in the body, which is dependent on the physico-chemical characteristics of the phenols. Analyses of OH-PCBs have thus been concentrated to whole blood, plasma or serum. Still there is no comparison between the three sample types even though it is clear that whole blood is not optimal due to the large proportion of haemoglobin in the sample that make the clean up more difficult than if plasma or serum is selected for analysis. In the present study we have addressed two questions: First we have looked at any potential differences in the analytical results of OH-PCBs when using serum and plasma for extraction and clean up; Second, the serum and plasma applied in the validation has been unfrozen, frozen (at -20 C) for two months and frozen for twenty months, respectively.

  7. Relationship between CT scans and serum tests for diagnosing tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcela de; Pina, Diana R.; Giacomini, Guilherme; Alvarez, Matheus; Pavan, Ana Luiza M.; Pereira, Paulo C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the oldest infectious diseases in the world and still affects humanity today. Since 1993, the World Health Organization (WHO) considers TB as a global emergency. The clinical history of the individual, the serum exams and particularly, the imaging examination of the thorax, are used for diagnostic confirmation and monitoring of disease. TB is a chronic disease that usually evolves with pulmonary sequelae that must be monitored. The exam of the image more precise to assess the radiological patterns found in these patients is high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), which aids in medical diagnosis and permit the determination of the area affected by radiological abnormalities of pulmonary tuberculosis. The best known of such modifications by means of exams or more accurate techniques is of extreme importance. Therefore, this study aimed to show the quantification, performed by algorithms, of the areas affected by the radiological abnormalities of TB through the HRCT, and compared with serum exams. We studied 16 patients with confirmed diagnosis of TB. The serum exams evaluated included: hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin, speed hemo sedimentation and C-reactive protein. With the values of serum exams we observed that patients have anemia, low albumin levels and inflammatory activity, corroborating imaging exams, which show severe impairment of lung area due to the inflammation caused by disease activity. (author)

  8. Can serums be replaced by Mueller‑Hinton agar in germ tube test?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-03

    Mar 3, 2016 ... various serums (i.e., human, rabbit, horse, and fetal bovine serum) used in the GTT and Mueller‑Hinton agar (MHA). Materials and Methods: Fifty species isolated from various clinical samples that were defined as C. albicans by both conventional and DNA sequence analysis methods were included in the ...

  9. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tognon

    Full Text Available Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18-65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses.

  10. Effect of haemolysis and repeated freeze-thawing cycles on wild boar serum antibody testing by ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boadella Mariana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring wildlife diseases is needed to identify changes in disease occurrence. Wildlife blood samples are valuable for this purpose but are often gathered haemolysed. To maximise information, sera often go through repeated analysis and freeze-thaw cycles. Herein, we used samples of clean and haemolysed Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa serum stored at -20°C and thawed up to five times to study the effects of both treatments on the outcome of a commercial ELISA test for the detection of antibodies against Suid Herpesvirus 1 (ADV. Results The estimated prevalence of antibodies against ADV was 50-53% for clean and haemolysed sera. Hence, haemolysis did not reduce the mean observed serum antibody prevalence. However, 10 samples changed their classification after repeated freeze-thawing. This included 3 (15% of the clean sera and 7 (41% of the haemolysed sera. Conclusions We recommend (1 establishing more restrictive cut-off values when testing wildlife sera, (2 recording serum quality prior to sample banking, (3 recording the number of freezing-thawing cycles and (4 store sera in various aliquots to reduce repeated usage. For instance, sera with more than 3 freeze-thaw cycles and a haemolysis of over 3 on a scale of 4 should better be discarded for serum antibody monitoring. Even clean (almost not haemolysed sera should not go through more than 5 freeze-thaw cycles.

  11. Quantitation of 14C-oxaliplatin concentrations in human serum samples by using accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki; Shiraishi, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of human pharmacokinetics is important for development of new drugs. Microdosing studies have been proposed as means of obtaining human pharmacokinetics information at early stages of drug development. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has high detection sensitivity and is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we used the AMS microdosing facility at Yamagata University to measure the concentration of 14 C in 14 C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum samples. The calibration curve of 14 C concentration in serum was linear, and the correlation coefficient was 0.9994. The precision, accuracy, and stability values obtained (freeze and thaw cycles, and short- and long-term stability) satisfied the criteria. The mean background 14 C concentrations in samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers were 1.635dpm/mL in blood and 0.56dpm/mL in plasma. These results suggest the suitability of AMS-based quantitation for analyzing samples from microdosing studies. (author)

  12. High throughput and accurate serum proteome profiling by integrated sample preparation technology and single-run data independent mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Zheng, Jiaxin; Yu, Quan; Chen, Wendong; Xing, Jinchun; Chen, Chenxi; Tian, Ruijun

    2018-03-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based serum proteome analysis is extremely challenging due to its high complexity and dynamic range of protein abundances. Developing high throughput and accurate serum proteomic profiling approach capable of analyzing large cohorts is urgently needed for biomarker discovery. Herein, we report a streamlined workflow for fast and accurate proteomic profiling from 1μL of blood serum. The workflow combined an integrated technique for highly sensitive and reproducible sample preparation and a new data-independent acquisition (DIA)-based MS method. Comparing with standard data dependent acquisition (DDA) approach, the optimized DIA method doubled the number of detected peptides and proteins with better reproducibility. Without protein immunodepletion and prefractionation, the single-run DIA analysis enables quantitative profiling of over 300 proteins with 50min gradient time. The quantified proteins span more than five orders of magnitude of abundance range and contain over 50 FDA-approved disease markers. The workflow allowed us to analyze 20 serum samples per day, with about 358 protein groups per sample being identified. A proof-of-concept study on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) serum samples confirmed the feasibility of the workflow for large scale serum proteomic profiling and disease-related biomarker discovery. Blood serum or plasma is the predominant specimen for clinical proteomic studies while the analysis is extremely challenging for its high complexity. Many efforts had been made in the past for serum proteomics for maximizing protein identifications, whereas few have been concerned with throughput and reproducibility. Here, we establish a rapid, robust and high reproducible DIA-based workflow for streamlined serum proteomic profiling from 1μL serum. The workflow doesn't need protein depletion and pre-fractionation, while still being able to detect disease-relevant proteins accurately. The workflow is promising in clinical application

  13. Cross-sectional study of serum antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona in cats tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Mary G; Murphy, Alice J; Vrable, Ruth A; Vanzo, Nicole E; Lewis, Stacy K; Sheline, Katherine D; Kaneene, John B; Mansfield, Linda S

    2002-08-15

    To determine apparent seroprevalence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona in a population of domestic cats previously tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. Cross-sectional study. Serum from 196 domestic cats. Banked serum samples submitted to the Michigan State University Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory for T. gondii diagnostic testing were tested for antibodies against S. neurona by use of an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test and a western blot test. Submission records were analyzed to determine descriptive statistics and test for associations between positive results of a test for S. neurona and other variables in the data set. 10 of 196 (5%) samples yielded positive results for antibodies against S. neurona by use of western blot analysis, whereas 27 samples yielded positive results by use of the IFA. No association was found between S. neurona western blot test results and T. gondii test results, age, sex, or the reason for T. gondii testing. The S. neurona IFA titer was positively and significantly associated with positive results of western blot analysis. Domestic cats are not likely to play a substantial role as intermediate hosts in the natural life cycle of S. neurona. Results indicate that natural infection of domestic cats may occur, and small animal practitioners should be aware of this fact when evaluating cats with neurologic disease. The S. neurona IFA test had lower specificity than western blot analysis.

  14. A Schistosoma haematobium-specific real-time PCR for diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis in serum samples of international travelers and migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnops, Lieselotte; Soentjens, Patrick; Clerinx, Jan; Van Esbroeck, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis by microscopy and serological tests may be elusive in travelers due to low egg load and the absence of seroconversion upon arrival. There is need for a more sensitive diagnostic test. Therefore, we developed a real-time PCR targeting the Schistosoma haematobium-specific Dra1 sequence. The PCR was evaluated on urine (n = 111), stool (n = 84) and serum samples (n = 135), and one biopsy from travelers and migrants with confirmed or suspected schistosomiasis. PCR revealed a positive result in 7/7 urine samples, 11/11 stool samples and 1/1 biopsy containing S. haematobium eggs as demonstrated by microscopy and in 22/23 serum samples from patients with a parasitological confirmed S. haematobium infection. S. haematobium DNA was additionally detected by PCR in 7 urine, 3 stool and 5 serum samples of patients suspected of having schistosomiasis without egg excretion in urine and feces. None of these suspected patients demonstrated other parasitic infections except one with Blastocystis hominis and Entamoeba cyst in a fecal sample. The PCR was negative in all stool samples containing S. mansoni eggs (n = 21) and in all serum samples of patients with a microscopically confirmed S. mansoni (n = 22), Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 1), Ancylostomidae (n = 1), Strongyloides stercoralis (n = 1) or Trichuris trichuria infection (n = 1). The PCR demonstrated a high specificity, reproducibility and analytical sensitivity (0.5 eggs per gram of feces). The real-time PCR targeting the Dra1 sequence for S. haematobium-specific detection in urine, feces, and particularly serum, is a promising tool to confirm the diagnosis, also during the acute phase of urogenital schistosomiasis.

  15. Wet sample digestion for quantification of vanadium(V) in serum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, G.; Vogt, W.; Jacob, K.

    1999-01-01

    Three types of pressure digestion systems used prior to the determination of the ultratrace element vanadium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry were evaluated: The high-pressure ashing (HPA) system, the DAB III pressure digestion system and the pressurized microwave digestion (PMD) system. Complete sample digestion and no loss of graphite tube sensitivity as well as reliable vanadium values could only be achieved with HPA digests of freeze-dried serum. The mean recovery rate was 98% and no loss of tube sensitivity could be observed. Using non-lyophilized serum the mean recovery rate was 70%. The DAB III digestion system, vicarious for closed pressure digestion in steel bombs with an allowable temperature up to about 200C, cannot be recommended to mineralize human biological material for vanadium determinations, because the remaining not completely decomposed organic compounds extracted together with the vanadium-cupferron complex caused a marked carbon-buildup and formation of carbides in the graphite tube were found to change the shape of the absorption signals distinctly, and to decline the tube sensitivity strongly (about 25%) so that reliable results cannot be achieved. The recovery rate was too low in general (about 50%). In addition, a subsequent treatment of the DAB III digests with perchloric acid was unsuccessful. The PMD system proved to be not suited, because the samples became highly contaminated by vanadium possibly from the titan seal. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Evaluation of maternal serum alpha-foetoprotein assay using dry blood spot samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C; Guerrero, J M; Elorza, F L; Molinero, P; Goberna, R

    1988-02-01

    The quantification of alpha-foetoprotein in dry blood spots from pregnant women was evaluated, using a conventional radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a monospecific antibody. The stability of alpha-foetoprotein in dry blood spots on filter paper was evaluated with respect to mailing, distances travelled, and the existence of high summer temperatures in our region. The results obtained show that the blood alpha-foetoprotein is stable on dry filter spots sent by mail and is stable for up to four weeks at 4, 25 and 37 degrees C. The analytical method used has a minimal detectable concentration of 10 +/- 1.9 international kilo-units/l. Both inter- and intra-assay variabilities are smaller than 10% and this method can provide results comparable with those of conventional serum assays. Results from dry blood spots and serum samples (the latter analysed by both RIA and two-site enzyme immunoassay) exhibited a good correlation (r = 0.98 and r = 0.97, p less than 0.001). The design of the assay and the nature of the samples make this method suitable for a screening programmes for the antenatal detection of open neural tube defects.

  17. Comparison of parasite loads in serum and blood samples from patients in acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Carolina; Teherán, Aníbal; Flórez, Carolina; Ramírez, Juan David

    2018-04-17

    Molecular methods have been developed for the detection and quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood samples from patients with Chagas disease. However, aspects of sample processing necessary for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), such as the addition of guanidine hydrochloride to whole blood samples, may limit timely access to molecular diagnosis. We analysed 169 samples from serum and guanidine-EDTA blood (GEB) obtained from patients in acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease. We applied qPCR targeted to the satellite DNA region. Finally, we compared the parasite loads and cycle of threshold values of the qPCR. The results confirmed the usefulness of serum samples for the detection and quantification of parasite DNA in patients with Chagas disease, especially in the acute phase. However, the parasite loads detected in serum samples from patients in the chronic phase were lower than those detected in GEB samples. The epidemiological implications of the findings are herein discussed.

  18. Slurry sampling in serum blood for mercury determination by CV-AFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda, Pedro R.; Gil, Raul A.; Moyano, Susana; De Vito, Irma; Martinez, Luis D.

    2009-01-01

    The heavy metal mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin known to have a serious health impact even at relatively low concentrations. A slurry method was developed for the sensitive and precise determination of mercury in human serum blood samples by cold vapor generation coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). All variables related to the slurry formation were studied. The optimal hydrochloric concentration and tin(II) chloride concentration for CV generation were evaluated. Calibration within the range 0.1-10 μg L -1 Hg was performed with the standard addition method, and compared with an external calibration. Additionally, the reliability of the results obtained was evaluated by analyzing mercury in the same samples, but submitted to microwave-assisted digestion method. The limit of detection was calculated as 25 ng L -1 and the relative standard deviation was 3.9% at levels around of 0.4 μg L -1 Hg

  19. A Novel Genetic Group of Bovine Hepacivirus in Archival Serum Samples from Brazilian Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio W. Canal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV (genus Hepacivirus; family Flaviviridae is a major human pathogen causing persistent infection and hepatic injury. Recently, emerging HCV-like viruses were described infecting wild animals, such as bats and rodents, and domestic animals, including dogs, horses, and cattle. Using degenerate primers for detecting bovine pestiviruses in a 1996 survey three bovine serum samples showed a low identity with the genus Pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family. A virus could not be isolated in cell culture. The description of bovine hepaciviruses (BovHepV in 2015 allowed us to retrospectively identify the sequences as BovHepV, with a 88.9% nucleotide identity. In a reconstructed phylogenetic tree, the Brazilian BovHepV samples grouped within the bovine HCV-like cluster in a separated terminal node that was more closely related to the putative bovine Hepacivirus common ancestor than to bovine hepaciviruses detected in Europe and Africa.

  20. Total protein concentration and diagnostic test results for gray wolf (Canis lupus) serum using Nobuto filter paper strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Rocio F.; Sepúlveda, Carolina; Ip, Hon S.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Nobuto filter paper strips are widely used for storing blood-serum samples, but the recovery of proteins from these strips following rehydration is unknown. Poor recovery of proteins could reduce the concentration of antibodies and antigens and reduce the sensitivity of diagnostic assays. We compared the protein concentration, and its association with test sensitivity, of eluted Nobuto strip samples with paired sera. We collected and froze serum from five gray wolves (Canis lupus) for 8 mo. When thawed, we used a spectrophotometer (absorbance 280 nm) to determine the serum protein concentration for paired sera and Nobuto eluates for each animal in 2-fold serial dilutions. Total protein concentration was similar for both sample storage methods (Nobuto eluates and control sera), except for the undiluted samples in which Nobuto eluates had higher total protein concentrations. Both sample storage methods appear to produce similar results using the SNAP® 4Dx® Test to detect antibodies against pathogens causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and ehrlichiosis as well as antigen for canine heartworm disease.

  1. 46 CFR 160.050-5 - Sampling, tests, and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... one from which any sample ring life buoy failed the buoyancy or strength test, the sample shall... ring life buoys with this subpart. The manufacturer shall provide means to secure any test that is not... procedures. Table 160.050-5(e)—Sampling for Buoyancy Tests Lot size Number of life buoys in sample 100 and...

  2. Sample Size Determination for Rasch Model Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxler, Clemens

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with supplementing statistical tests for the Rasch model so that additionally to the probability of the error of the first kind (Type I probability) the probability of the error of the second kind (Type II probability) can be controlled at a predetermined level by basing the test on the appropriate number of observations.…

  3. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan D; Patterson, Donald G; Pintar, Adam L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis.

  4. Liquid chromatographic determination of pioglitazone in pharmaceuticals, serum and urine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abro, K.; Memon, N.; Bhanger, M.I.; Mahesar, S.A.; Parveen, S.

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and reliable analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection (221 nm) has been developed for the determination of the anti-hyper glycemic agent Pioglitazone in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids (serum and urine) after clean-up with solid-phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Chromolith Performance RP-18e (10 4.6mm) column using mobile phase composition of acetonitrile: mixed phosphate buffer (pH 2.5; 10mM) (30:70, v/v) with a flow rate of 2.0mL/min. The total run time was 2 min. under optimized conditions. The calibration curve was found to be linear in the range of 1-10 mu g mL/sup -1/ with regression coefficient of 0.9996, and the lower limit of detection 72 ng/20 mu L injection. The method has been validated for the system suitability, linearity, precision and accuracy, limits of detection, specificity, stability and robustness. The %recovery of Pioglitazone in pharmaceutical formulations was found to be 104.7%. The assay has been applied successfully to the pharmaceutical Tablet samples and biological fluids (serum and urine) of healthy volunteers. (author)

  5. Radioimmunologic determination of alphafetoproteins concentration in blood serum samples and in the amniotic fluid in healthy pregnant women in the 2 trimester of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalba, P; Krupa, B; Rozmus, M; Brudnik, K; Kokocinska, D; Rajs, M [Slaska Akademia Medyczna, Katowice (Poland)

    1980-01-01

    Radioimmunologic technique of double antibodies was used for the determination of alphafetoprotein (AFP) concentrations in blood serum samples from 223 healthy, pregnant women with single pregnancies and in amniotic fluid samples from 43 donors. The gestational age during samples collection was 10 to 25 weeks. The AFP preparation for the test was supplied by the International Agency of Cancer Research, anti-AFP antibodies produced by Behringwerke and personally produced rabbit antiglobulin antibodies. The results of the AFP determinations in the blood and amniotic fluid samples were presented in tables in form of medians. The serum AFP concentrations overranging the double medians value were met in 8.5%, overranging the triple medians - in 2.6%. Repeat determinations decreased the number of false positive results for about 50%. The results permit to issue a conclusion that the used technique is fully applicable for scan examinations in prenatal diagnosis of fetal nervous system malformations.

  6. Serum sample levels of bromine, iron, scandium and zinc in preschool children of Atayal and Bunun aborigines living in central Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien-Yi Chen; Ding-Bang Lin; Yuan-Yaw Wei

    2006-01-01

    This study determined bromine, iron, scandium and zinc serum levels in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children living in remote mountainous areas to increase the understanding of the social, cultural, nutrient and ethnic background of the Taiwanese children. Seventy-three serum samples were taken from two ethnic groups of preschool children, Atayal aborigines (AAPC) and Bunun aborigines (BAPC). Sera of these children were freeze dried. Trace elements in sera were identified by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The accuracy and precision of INAA was evaluated using certified reference materials: Tomato Leaves (NIST-SRM 1570a) and Lichen (IAEA-336). Statistical analysis identified several different patterns for ethnic groups, gender and age via the two-tailed Student's t-test. Analytical results showed that the ranges of Br, Fe, Sc and Zn in sera were somewhat wide. The Zn serum levels (p < 0.05) and Br serum levels (p < 0.01) in the AAPC were significantly lower than those in the BAPC. However, there were no significant differences in Fe or Sc serum levels between the two groups. Analytical results were compared to published data for different counties. This study is the first investigating trace elements in Taiwanese aborigines and can be used to establish a much-needed serum element database. (author)

  7. The effect of sample storage on the performance and reproducibility of the galactomannan EIA test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpton, George; White, P Lewis; Barnes, Rosemary A

    2014-08-01

    Galactomannan enzyme immune assay (GM EIA) is a nonculture test for detecting invasive aspergillosis (IA) forming a key part of diagnosis and management. Recent reports have questioned the reproducibility of indices after sample storage. To investigate this, 198 serum samples (72 from cases and 126 from controls) and 61 plasma samples (24 from cases and 37 from controls), initially tested between 2010 and 2013, were retested to determine any change in index. Data were also collected on circulatory protein levels for false-positive serum samples. Serum indices significantly declined on retesting (median: initial, 0.50, retest, 0.23; P < 0.0001). This was shown to be diagnosis dependent as the decline was apparent on retesting of control samples (median: initial 0.50, retest 0.12; P < 0.0001), but was not evident with case samples (median: initial, 0.80, retest, 0.80; P = 0.724). Plasma samples showed little change on reanalysis after long-term storage at 4°C. Retesting after freezing showed a decrease in index values for controls (median: initial 0.40, retest 0.26; P = 0.0505), but no significant change in cases. Circulatory proteins showed a correlation between serum albumin concentration and difference in index value on retesting. Overall, this study suggests that a lack of reproducibility in GM EIA positivity is only significant when disease is absent. Retesting after freezing helps to differentiate false-positive GM EIA results and, with consecutive positivity, could help to improve accuracy in predicting disease status. The freezing of samples prior to testing could potentially reduce false-positivity rates and the need to retest. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Comparing identified and statistically significant lipids and polar metabolites in 15-year old serum and dried blood spot samples for longitudinal studies: Comparing lipids and metabolites in serum and DBS samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, Jennifer E. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Casey, Cameron P. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Stratton, Kelly G. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Zink, Erika M. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Kim, Young-Mo [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Zheng, Xueyun [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Monroe, Matthew E. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Weitz, Karl K. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Bloodsworth, Kent J. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Orton, Daniel J. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Ibrahim, Yehia M. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Moore, Ronald J. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Lee, Christine G. [Department of Medicine, Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Research Service, Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland OR USA; Pedersen, Catherine [Department of Medicine, Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Orwoll, Eric [Department of Medicine, Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Smith, Richard D. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Baker, Erin S. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-02-05

    The use of dried blood spots (DBS) has many advantages over traditional plasma and serum samples such as smaller blood volume required, storage at room temperature, and ability for sampling in remote locations. However, understanding the robustness of different analytes in DBS samples is essential, especially in older samples collected for longitudinal studies. Here we analyzed DBS samples collected in 2000-2001 and stored at room temperature and compared them to matched serum samples stored at -80°C to determine if they could be effectively used as specific time points in a longitudinal study following metabolic disease. Four hundred small molecules were identified in both the serum and DBS samples using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) and LC-ion mobility spectrometry-MS (LC-IMS-MS). The identified polar metabolites overlapped well between the sample types, though only one statistically significant polar metabolite in a case-control study was conserved, indicating degradation occurs in the DBS samples affecting quantitation. Differences in the lipid identifications indicated that some oxidation occurs in the DBS samples. However, thirty-six statistically significant lipids correlated in both sample types indicating that lipid quantitation was more stable across the sample types.

  9. Use of serum and blood samples on filter paper to improve the surveillance of Dengue in Pacific Island Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Maite; Roche, Claudine; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Aaskov, John; Viallon, Jérôme; Marfel, Maria; Lalita, Paul; Elbourne-Duituturaga, Salanieta; Chanteau, Suzanne; Musso, Didier; Pavlin, Boris I; Harrison, Dustin; Kool, Jacob L; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai

    2012-09-01

    In Pacific Island Countries (PICs) the epidemiology of dengue is characterized by long-term transmission of a single dengue virus (DENV) serotype. The emergence of a new serotype in one island country often indicates major outbreaks with this serotype will follow in other PICs. Filter paper (FP) cards on which whole blood or serum from dengue suspected patients had been dried was evaluated as a method for transportation of this material by standard mail delivery throughout the Pacific. Twenty-two FP-dried whole blood samples collected from patients in New Caledonia and Wallis & Futuna Islands, during DENV-1 and DENV-4 transmission, and 76 FP-dried sera collected from patients in Yap State, Majuro (Republic of Marshall Islands), Tonga and Fiji, before and during outbreaks of DENV-2 in Yap State and DENV-4 in Majuro, were tested for the presence of DENV RNA, by serotype specific RT-PCR, at the Institut Louis Malardé in French Polynesia. The serotype of DENV could be determined, by a variety of RT-PCR procedures, in the FP-dried samples after more than three weeks of transport at ambient temperatures. In most cases, the sequencing of the envelope gene to genotype the viruses also was possible. The serotype and genotype of DENV can be determined from FP-dried serum or whole blood samples transported over thousands of kilometers at ambient, tropical, temperatures. This simple and low-cost approach to virus identification should be evaluated in isolated and resource poor settings for surveillance for a range of significant viral diseases. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Vigorous decontamination tests of steel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostinelli, A.; Bregani, F.; Pascali, R.; Ronchetti, C.

    1982-01-01

    Among operative deCommissioning problems, the chemical decontamination of metallic surfaces of LWR, mainly with the use of high vigorous reagents, is being studied in particular. ENEL research activities, partially financed by the European Community Commission, began at the end of 1980, and are being developed by CRTN, Centro di Ricerca Termica e Nucleare, in close connection with ENEL-DPT and CISE. The main aim is the identification, development, and assessment of vigorous decontamination techniques taking into account the amount and disposal cost of liquid radwaste. The test materials come from the primary loop of the BWR-Garigliano plant. Activity levels, mainly due to 60 Co, range from about 0.01 μCi/cm 2 for predecontaminated material to some μCi/cm 2 for virgin material. Moreover, traces of 90 Sr-Y beta pure emitter and alpha emitters are monitored. Research is at first carried out by screening static tests for the optimization of etching static parameters (time, temperature, reagent concentrations). Reagent effectiveness will then be tested in a special experimental loop (DECO), in dynamic conditions simulating in-situ real procedures of decontamination. Hydrofluoric, nitric and hydrochloric acids and mixtures of them have been used for the first tests. Sometimes total oxide removal is possible, and when this takes place, the final contamination levels are in accordance with limits indicated for unrestricted release materials in some countries. 18 references, 13 figures, 5 tables

  11. Effects of coagulation temperature on measurements of complement function in serum samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Sturfelt, G; Junker, A

    1992-01-01

    Blood samples from 15 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 15 healthy blood donors were allowed to coagulate for one hour at room temperature, followed by one hour at 4 or 37 degrees C. The complement activity of the serum samples was assessed by three different functional assays...

  12. Usefulness of in-house real time PCR for HBV DNA quantification in serum and oral fluid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilho, Moyra Machado; Mendonça, Ana Carolina da Fonseca; Bezerra, Cristianne Sousa; do Espirito-Santo, Márcia Paschoal; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Nabuco, Leticia Cancella; Villela-Nogueira, Cristiane Alves; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo

    2018-06-01

    For quantification of hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV DNA), commercial assays are used with serum or plasma samples, but oral fluid samples could be an alternative for HBV diagnosis due to ease of collection. This study aims to develop in-house real time PCR using synthetic curve for HBV DNA quantification for serum and oral fluid samples. Samples were collected from 103 individuals (55 HBsAg reactive and HBV DNA reactive by commercial assay and 48 without HBV markers) and submitted to two in-house real time PCR assays for HBV pre-S/S region with different standard curves: qPCR plasmidial and qPCR synthetic. A total of 27 serum samples were HBV DNA positive by qPCR plasmidial and 40 with qPCR synthetic (72% and 85% of concordance, respectively). Quantitative PCR synthetic presented efficiency of 99% and sensitivity of 2log10 copies/mL. Among oral fluid samples, five and ten were detected using qPCR plasmidial and synthetic, respectively. This study demonstrated that qPCR synthetic using serum samples could be used as alternative for HBV DNA quantification due to its sensitivity. In addition, it was possible to quantify HBV DNA in oral fluid samples suggesting the potential of this specimen for molecular diagnosis of HBV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization and validation of CEDIA drugs of abuse immunoassay tests in serum on Hitachi 912.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Katrin M; Musshoff, Frank; Schmithausen, Ricarda; Stockhausen, Sarah; Madea, Burkhard

    2011-10-10

    Due to sensitive limits of detection of chromatographic methods and low limit values regarding the screening of drugs under the terms of impairment in safe driving (§ 24a StVG, Street Traffic Law in Germany), preliminary immunoassay (IA) tests should be able to detect also low concentrations of legal and illegal drugs in serum in forensic cases. False-negatives should be avoided, the rate of false-positive samples should be low due to cost and time. An optimization of IA cutoff values and a validation of the assay is required for each laboratory. In a retrospective study results for serum samples containing amphetamine, methylenedioxy derivatives, cannabinoids, benzodiazepines, cocaine (metabolites), methadone and opiates obtained with CEDIA drugs of abuse reagents on a Hitachi 912 autoanalyzer were compared with quantitative results of chromatographic methods (gas or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS or LC/MS)). Firstly sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and overall misclassification rates were evaluated by contingency tables and compared to ROC-analyses and Youden-Indices. Secondly ideal cutoffs were statistically calculated on the basis of sensitivity and specificity as decisive statistical criteria with focus on a high sensitivity (low rates of false-negatives), i.e. using the Youden-Index. Immunoassay (IA) and confirmatory results were available for 3014 blood samples. Sensitivity was 90% or more for nearly all analytes: amphetamines (IA cutoff 9.5 ng/ml), methylenedioxy derivatives (IA cutoff 5.5 ng/ml), cannabinoids (IA cutoff 14.5 ng/ml), benzodiazepines (IA cutoff >0 ng/ml). Test of opiates showed a sensitivity of 86% for a IA cutoff value of >0 ng/ml. Values for specificity ranged between 33% (methadone, IA cutoff 10 ng/ml) and 90% (cocaine, IA cutoff 20 ng/ml). Lower cutoff values as recommended by ROC analyses were chosen for most tests to decrease the rate of false-negatives. Analyses enabled

  14. ' ORAL GLUCOSE-TOLERANCE TESTS AND SERUM INSULIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :s of the pellagra and kwashior- kor groups. on admission as well as after recovery, were compared with each other for significant differences at the 5°~ level of significance using variance analyses." The same tests were done in both groups to ...

  15. 40 CFR 205.171-3 - Test motorcycle sample selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test motorcycle sample selection. 205... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.171-3 Test motorcycle sample selection. A test motorcycle to be used for selective enforcement audit testing...

  16. Sample Preparation Strategies for the Effective Quantitation of Hydrophilic Metabolites in Serum by Multi-Targeted HILIC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisavet Tsakelidou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of endogenous interferences of serum in multi-targeted metabolite profiling HILIC-MS/MS analysis was investigated by studying different sample preparation procedures. A modified QuEChERS dispersive SPE protocol, a HybridSPE protocol, and a combination of liquid extraction with protein precipitation were compared to a simple protein precipitation. Evaluation of extraction efficiency and sample clean-up was performed for all methods. SPE sorbent materials tested were found to retain hydrophilic analytes together with endogenous interferences, thus additional elution steps were needed. Liquid extraction was not shown to minimise matrix effects. In general, it was observed that a balance should be reached in terms of recovery, efficient clean-up, and sample treatment time when a wide range of metabolites are analysed. A quick step for removing phospholipids prior to the determination of hydrophilic endogenous metabolites is required, however, based on the results from the applied methods, further studies are needed to achieve high recoveries for all metabolites.

  17. Serum cadmium levels in a sample of blood donors in the Western Amazon, Brazil, 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Ricardo Maia da Costa de Faro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the distribution of serum cadmium (Cd levels in blood donors in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil. Blood samples were obtained from 922 volunteer blood donors from 18 to 65 years of age at the Hemoacre blood center in 2010-2011. Mean serum Cd was 0.37µg/L (95%CI: 0.33-0.41. Increased serum Cd was associated with lower schooling; individuals with less than five years of schooling showed a mean Cd of 0.61µg/L (95%CI: 0.34-0.89, compared to 0.34µg/L (95%CI: 0.28-0.40 among those with more than nine years of schooling. Mean serum Cd was three times higher among smokers. Smoking showed a positive association with Cd level, with an OR of 12.36 (95%CI: 7.70-19.84. Meanwhile, serum Cd was lower among individuals that regularly drank tea, as compared to non-tea drinkers. Serum Cd levels were mostly below the reference value (88.3% of participants. Mean serum Cd in the current study indicates that in general the population studied here is not exposed to worrisome Cd levels.

  18. Stability of BDNF in Human Samples Stored Up to 6 Months and Correlations of Serum and EDTA-Plasma Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Maryna; Schlögl, Haiko; Sacher, Julia; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Kaiser, Jochen; Stumvoll, Michael; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2017-06-03

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important neural growth factor, has gained growing interest in neuroscience, but many influencing physiological and analytical aspects still remain unclear. In this study we assessed the impact of storage time at room temperature, repeated freeze/thaw cycles, and storage at -80 °C up to 6 months on serum and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-plasma BDNF. Furthermore, we assessed correlations of serum and plasma BDNF concentrations in two independent sets of samples. Coefficients of variations (CVs) for serum BDNF concentrations were significantly lower than CVs of plasma concentrations ( n = 245, p = 0.006). Mean serum and plasma concentrations at all analyzed time points remained within the acceptable change limit of the inter-assay precision as declared by the manufacturer. Serum and plasma BDNF concentrations correlated positively in both sets of samples and at all analyzed time points of the stability assessment ( r = 0.455 to r s = 0.596; p plasma up to 6 months. Due to a higher reliability, we suggest favoring serum over EDTA-plasma for future experiments assessing peripheral BDNF concentrations.

  19. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tao; Hossain, Mahmud; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Izmirlian, Grant; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Weijun; Leach, Robin; Thompson, Ian M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srinivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2012-08-03

    Sandwich immunoassay is the standard technique used in clinical labs for quantifying protein biomarkers for disease detection, monitoring and therapeutic intervention. Albeit highly sensitive, the development of a specific immunoassay is rather time-consuming and associated with extremely high cost due to the requirement for paired immunoaffinity reagents of high specificity. Recently, mass spectrometry-based methods, specifically selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS), have been increasingly applied to measure low abundance biomarker candidates in tissue and biofluids, owing to high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of assay configuration, and great multiplexing capability. In this study, we report for the first time the development of immunoaffinity depletion-based workflows and SRM-MS assays that enable sensitive and accurate quantification of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum without the requirement for specific PSA antibodies. With stable isotope dilution and external calibration, low ng/mL level detection of both total and free PSA was consistently achieved in both PSA-spiked female serum samples and actual patient serum samples. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained when SRM PSA assays and conventional immunoassays were applied to the same samples showed very good correlation (R2 values ranging from 0.90 to 0.99) in several independent clinical serum sample sets, including a set of 33 samples assayed in a blinded test. These results demonstrate that the workflows and SRM assays developed here provide an attractive alternative for reliably measuring total and free PSA in human blood. Furthermore, simultaneous measurement of free and total PSA and many other biomarkers can be performed in a single analysis using high-resolution liquid chromatographic separation coupled with SRM-MS.

  20. Pneumatic tube-transported blood samples in lithium heparinate gel separator tubes may be more susceptible to haemolysis than blood samples in serum tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckel-Frohnhöfer, Nicole; Hübner, Ulrich; Hummel, Björn; Geisel, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    Pneumatic tube systems are widely used in hospitals. Advantages are high speed and rapid availability of the samples. However, the transportation by pneumatic tube promotes haemolysis. Haemolysis interferes with many spectrophotometric assays and is a common problem in clinical laboratories. The haemolysis index (HI) as a semi-quantitative representation of the level of haemolysis was compared in unpaired tube-transported and hand-delivered routine lithium heparinate plasma samples (n = 1368 and n = 837, respectively). Additionally, the HI distribution was measured in lithium heparinate plasma samples with a HI above the threshold value of 20 and in paired serum samples after transportation by pneumatic tube system. HI values above 20 can interfere with the selected assays: Creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. These parameters were determined to demonstrate how haemolysis affects the results. 17.5% of the tube-transported plasma samples and 2.6% of the hand-delivered plasma samples had a HI above 20. The median HI in pneumatic tube-transported lithium heparinate plasma was 85 and 33 in the paired serum samples. The median HI difference between paired plasma and serum was 46. Blood samples in lithium heparinate tubes may be substantially more susceptible to haemolysis by pneumatic tube transportation than serum tube samples. Although our results cannot be universally applied to laboratories with different pneumatic tube systems, it is recommended that each laboratory evaluate carefully the degree of haemolysis after the transportation by the own pneumatic tube system and in terms of the sample type.

  1. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Evaluation of HER2/neu oncoprotein in serum & tissue samples of women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja Shukla

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest that elevated serum HER2 level was associated with a clinicopathological aggressive phenotype of breast carcinoma and was related to tissue HER2 overexpression. Therefore, serum HER2 may be useful for monitoring the course of the disease and response to treatment.

  3. Evaluation of nested polymerase chain reaction for the early detection of Leptospira spp. DNA in serum samples from patients with leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Roberta Morozetti; Romero, Eliete Caló

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) in human serum samples of patients with clinical manifestations of leptospirosis. The cases of leptospirosis were defined by the microagglutination test (MAT). The samples were collected in 2010. Of 1042 serum samples collected from 521 patients, 28 (5.4%) were considered positive cases of leptospirosis, and 493 (94.6%) were negative. Twenty-three confirmed cases had no MAT-detectable antibodies in the acute sample (mean of 5.6 days after onset). Nested PCR was positive in 22/23 (95.7%) patients during the acute phase of the disease, with negative results by MAT. Nested PCR was negative in all convalescent serum samples with positive results by MAT. All negative cases of leptospirosis were negative by nested PCR. The nested PCR is an alternative diagnostic tool for early detection of leptospires in sera during the first 7 days of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A computational platform for MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry data: application to serum and plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, Dante; Petrucci, Francesca; Pieragostino, Damiana; Del Boccio, Piero; Sacchetta, Paolo; Candiano, Giovanni; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Federici, Giorgio; Di Ilio, Carmine; Urbani, Andrea

    2010-01-03

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is becoming the gold standard for biomarker discovery. Several MS-based bioinformatics methods have been proposed for this application, but the divergence of the findings by different research groups on the same MS data suggests that the definition of a reliable method has not been achieved yet. In this work, we propose an integrated software platform, MASCAP, intended for comparative biomarker detection from MALDI-TOF MS data. MASCAP integrates denoising and feature extraction algorithms, which have already shown to provide consistent peaks across mass spectra; furthermore, it relies on statistical analysis and graphical tools to compare the results between groups. The effectiveness in mass spectrum processing is demonstrated using MALDI-TOF data, as well as SELDI-TOF data. The usefulness in detecting potential protein biomarkers is shown comparing MALDI-TOF mass spectra collected from serum and plasma samples belonging to the same clinical population. The analysis approach implemented in MASCAP may simplify biomarker detection, by assisting the recognition of proteomic expression signatures of the disease. A MATLAB implementation of the software and the data used for its validation are available at http://www.unich.it/proteomica/bioinf. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of human albumin in serum and urine samples by constant-energy synchronous fluorescence method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Bagheri, Habibollah; Afkhami, Abbas

    2015-08-01

    A sensitive spectrofluorimetric method using constant-energy synchronous fluorescence technique is proposed for the determination of human albumin without separation. In this method, no reagent was used for enhancement of the fluorescence signal of albumin in the solution. Effects of some parameters, such as energy difference between excitation and emission monochromators (ΔE), emission and excitation slit widths and scan rate of wavelength were studied and the optimum conditions were established. For this purpose factorial design and response surface method were employed for optimization of the effective parameters on the fluorescence signal. The results showed that the scan rate of the wavelength has no significant effect on the analytical signal. The calibration curve was linear in the range 0.1-220.0 µg mL(-1) of albumin with a detection limit of 7.0 × 10(-3)  µg mL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSD) for six replicate measurements of albumin were calculated as 2.2%, 1.7% and 1.3% for 0.5, 10.0 and 100.0 µg mL(-1) albumin, respectively. Furthermore the proposed method has been employed for the determination of albumin in human serum and urine samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. microRNA Biomarker Discovery and High-Throughput DNA Sequencing Are Possible Using Long-term Archived Serum Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounge, Trine B; Lauritzen, Marianne; Langseth, Hilde; Enerly, Espen; Lyle, Robert; Gislefoss, Randi E

    2015-09-01

    The impacts of long-term storage and varying preanalytical factors on the quality and quantity of DNA and miRNA from archived serum have not been fully assessed. Preanalytical and analytical variations and degradation may introduce bias in representation of DNA and miRNA and may result in loss or corruption of quantitative data. We have evaluated DNA and miRNA quantity, quality, and variability in samples stored up to 40 years using one of the oldest prospective serum collections in the world, the Janus Serumbank, a biorepository dedicated to cancer research. miRNAs are present and stable in archived serum samples frozen at -25°C for at least 40 years. Long-time storage did not reduce miRNA yields; however, varying preanalytical conditions had a significant effect and should be taken into consideration during project design. Of note, 500 μL serum yielded sufficient miRNA for qPCR and small RNA sequencing and on average 650 unique miRNAs were detected in samples from presumably healthy donors. Of note, 500 μL serum yielded sufficient DNA for whole-genome sequencing and subsequent SNP calling, giving a uniform representation of the genomes. DNA and miRNA are stable during long-term storage, making large prospectively collected serum repositories an invaluable source for miRNA and DNA biomarker discovery. Large-scale biomarker studies with long follow-up time are possible utilizing biorepositories with archived serum and state-of-the-art technology. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Direct determination of lead in human urine and serum samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and permanent modifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrada, Daniel; Pinto, Frederico G.; Magalhaes, Cristina Goncalves; Nunes, Berta R.; Silva, Jose Bento Borba da; Franco, Milton B.

    2006-01-01

    The object of the present study was the development of alternative methods for the direct determination of lead in undigested samples of human urine and serum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Thus, some substances have been investigated to act as chemical modifiers. Volumes of 20 μL of diluted samples, 1 + 1, v/v for urine and 1 + 4, v/v for serum, with HNO 3 1% v/v and 0.02% v/v of cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) were prepared directly in the autosampler cups and placed into the graphite furnace. For modifiers in solutions 10 μL were used. Pyrolysis and atomization temperature curves were used in all optimizations in the matrixes diluted as exposed. For urine with permanent iridium (500 μg), the best pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 900 and 1600 deg C, respectively, with a characteristic mass of 12 pg (recommended of 10 pg), with symmetrical absorption pulses and corrected background. Spiked urine samples presented recoveries between 86 and 112% for Ir permanent. The analysis results of certified urine samples are in agreement with certified values (95% of confidence) for two levels of the metal. For serum, good results were obtained with the mixture of Zr+Rh or Ir+Rh as permanent modifiers, with characteristic masses of 9.8 and 8.1 pg, respectively. Recoveries from spiked serum samples varied between 98.6 and 100.1% (Ir+Rh) and between 93.9 and 105.2% (Zr+Rh). In both recovery studies, the relative standard deviation (n=3) was lower than 7%. Calibration for both samples were made with aqueous calibration curves and presented r 2 higher than 0.99. The limits of detection were 0.7 μg L -1 for serum samples, with Zr+Rh permanent, and 1.0 μg L -1 for urine with iridium permanent. (author)

  8. Direct determination of lead in human urine and serum samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and permanent modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrada Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the present study was the development of alternative methods for the direct determination of lead in undigested samples of human urine and serum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS. Thus, some substances have been investigated to act as chemical modifiers. Volumes of 20 µL of diluted samples, 1 + 1, v/v for urine and 1 + 4, v/v for serum, with HNO3 1% v/v and 0.02% v/v of cetil trimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC were prepared directly in the autosampler cups and placed into the graphite furnace. For modifiers in solutions 10 µL were used. Pyrolysis and atomization temperature curves were used in all optimizations in the matrixes diluted as exposed. For urine with permanent iridium (500 µg, the best pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 900 and 1600 ºC, respectively, with a characteristic mass of 12 pg (recommended of 10 pg, with symmetrical absorption pulses and corrected background. Spiked urine samples presented recoveries between 86 and 112% for Ir permanent. The analysis results of certified urine samples are in agreement with certified values (95% of confidence for two levels of the metal. For serum, good results were obtained with the mixture of Zr+Rh or Ir+Rh as permanent modifiers, with characteristic masses of 9.8 and 8.1 pg, respectively. Recoveries from spiked serum samples varied between 98.6 and 100.1% (Ir+Rh and between 93.9 and 105.2% (Zr+Rh. In both recovery studies, the relative standard deviation (n=3 was lower than 7%. Calibration for both samples were made with aqueous calibration curves and presented r² higher than 0.99. The limits of detection were 0.7 µg L-1 for serum samples, with Zr+Rh permanent, and 1.0 µg L-1 for urine with iridium permanent.

  9. Evaluation of Serum Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Concentration as a Diagnostic Test for Hyperthyroidism in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M E; Guterl, J N; Nichols, R; Rishniw, M

    2015-01-01

    In humans, measurement of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration is commonly used as a first-line discriminatory test of thyroid function. Recent reports indicate that canine TSH (cTSH) assays can be used to measure feline TSH and results can help diagnose or exclude hyperthyroidism. To investigate the usefulness of cTSH measurements as a diagnostic test for cats with hyperthyroidism. Nine hundred and seventeen cats with untreated hyperthyroidism, 32 euthyroid cats suspected of having hyperthyroidism, and 131 clinically normal cats. Prospective study. Cats referred to the Animal Endocrine Clinic for suspected hyperthyroidism were evaluated with serum T4, T3, free T4 (fT4), and TSH concentrations. Thyroid scintigraphy was used as the gold standard to confirm or exclude hyperthyroidism. Median serum TSH concentration in the hyperthyroid cats (hyperthyroid cats had measurable TSH concentrations (≥0.03 ng/mL), whereas 114 (69.9%) of the 163 euthyroid cats had detectable concentrations. Combining serum TSH with T4 or fT4 concentrations lowered the test sensitivity of TSH from 98.0 to 97.0%, but markedly increased overall test specificity (from 69.9 to 98.8%). Serum TSH concentrations are suppressed in 98% of hyperthyroid cats, but concentrations are measurable in a few cats with mild-to-moderate hyperthyroidism. Measurement of serum TSH represents a highly sensitive but poorly specific test for diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and is best measured in combination with T4 and fT4. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Soluble CD44 concentration in the serum and peritoneal fluid samples of patients with different stages of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Farhad; Aryaee, Hadis; Mirzajani, Ebrahim; Yasin, Ashraf Ale; Fathi, Abdolsatar

    2015-09-01

    Endometriosis is a gynecological disease defined by the histological presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity, most commonly implanted over visceral and peritoneal surface within the female pelvis. CD44 is a membrane protein expressed by human endometrial cells, and it has been shown to promote the adhesion of endometrial cells. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of soluble CD44 (sCD44) in the serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) samples of patients with different stages of endometriosis. 39 PF and serum samples from normal healthy and 130 samples from different stages of patients with endometriosis (33 cases of stage I, 38 stage II, 30 stage III and 29 stage IV) were included in this study. Total protein concentration (TPC) and the level of s-cMet in the serum were determined by Bio-Rad protein assay based on the Bradford dye procedure and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. No significant change in the TPC was seen in the serum of patients with endometriosis when compared to normal controls. Results obtained demonstrated that all serum and peritoneal fluid samples, presented sCD44 expression, whereas, starting from stages I to IV endometriosis, a significant increase of sCD44 expression was observed as compared to control group. The results of this study show that a high expression of sCD44 is correlated with advanced stages of endometriosis. It is also concluded that the detection of serum and/or peritoneal fluid sCD44 may be useful in classifying endometriosis.

  11. Influence of common preanalytical variations on the metabolic profile of serum samples in biobanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliniaux, Ophélie; Gaillard, Gwenaelle; Lion, Antoine; Cailleu, Dominique; Mesnard, François; Betsou, Fotini

    2011-01-01

    A blood pre-centrifugation delay of 24 h at room temperature influenced the proton NMR spectroscopic profiles of human serum. A blood pre-centrifugation delay of 24 h at 4°C did not influence the spectroscopic profile as compared with 4 h delays at either room temperature or 4°C. Five or ten serum freeze–thaw cycles also influenced the proton NMR spectroscopic profiles. Certain common in vitro preanalytical variations occurring in biobanks may impact the metabolic profile of human serum.

  12. Influence of common preanalytical variations on the metabolic profile of serum samples in biobanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliniaux, Ophelie [University of Picardie Jules Verne, Laboratoire de Phytotechnologie EA 3900-BioPI (France); Gaillard, Gwenaelle [Biobanque de Picardie (France); Lion, Antoine [University of Picardie Jules Verne, Laboratoire de Phytotechnologie EA 3900-BioPI (France); Cailleu, Dominique [Batiment Serres-Transfert, rue de Mai/rue Dallery, Plateforme Analytique (France); Mesnard, Francois, E-mail: francois.mesnard@u-picardie.fr [University of Picardie Jules Verne, Laboratoire de Phytotechnologie EA 3900-BioPI (France); Betsou, Fotini [Integrated Biobank of Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2011-12-15

    A blood pre-centrifugation delay of 24 h at room temperature influenced the proton NMR spectroscopic profiles of human serum. A blood pre-centrifugation delay of 24 h at 4 Degree-Sign C did not influence the spectroscopic profile as compared with 4 h delays at either room temperature or 4 Degree-Sign C. Five or ten serum freeze-thaw cycles also influenced the proton NMR spectroscopic profiles. Certain common in vitro preanalytical variations occurring in biobanks may impact the metabolic profile of human serum.

  13. Serum insulin like growth factor-1 is associated with working memory, executive function and selective attention in a sample of healthy, fit older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellar, D; Glickman, E L; Juvancic-Heltzel, J; Gunstad, J

    2011-03-31

    The present study examined the association between serum insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations and cognitive function in a sample of healthy, fit older adults (age: 70.8±9.3 years, body mass index (BMI): 27.3±5.7). Participants reported to the laboratory and basic anthropometric data were collected, followed by a fasted blood draw to quantify serum IGF-1. Participants then underwent cognitive testing that included the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE), Trail Making Test A and B, Ruff's 2 and 7 test of selective attention and Letter Number Sequencing. Results showed the participants were generally cognitively intact (MMSE 27.6±1.8). Significant partial correlations (controlled for age, gender and years of education) emerged between serum IGF-1 concentrations and the total (r=0.381, P=0.030) and longest trial (r=0.455, P=0.011) on Letter Number Sequencing. Similar partial correlations yielded significant relationships between serum IGF-1 and Ruff's Automatic Detection Errors (r=-0.495, P=0.006), Controlled Speed Errors (r=-0.598, P=0.002) and errors made on the Trial Making Test part B (r=-0.466, P=0.010). These findings suggest that fasting levels of serum IGF-1 are related to higher levels of cognitive performance in healthy older adults, including working memory, selective attention and executive function. Further work is needed to more clearly determine possible mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. On the Representativeness of Norming Samples for Aptitude Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sims, William

    2003-01-01

    ...). We regressed aptitude test scores on demographics and concluded that: ̂ Norming sample for aptitude tests must be representative of the target population with respect to age, race"ethnicity, gender, respondent's education, and mother's...

  15. The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mycoplasma hominis antibodies in infertile women serum samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Friis Svenstrup, Helle; Fedder, Jens

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Besides Chlamydiae trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis may also cause infertility due to damage of the Fallopian tubes. Therefore serum samples from infertile women were analyzed for antibodies to M. hominis. METHODS: Sera from 304 infertile women were investigat...

  16. A sup 125 I-radioimmunoassay for measuring androstenedione in serum and in blood-spot samples from neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, S.; Wallace, A.M.; Cook, B. (Stobhill Hospital, Glasgow (England))

    1989-08-01

    We developed a radioimmunoassay with a gamma-emitting radioligand to measure androstenedione in human serum and in dried blood-spot samples from newborns. Antisera were raised in rabbits against androstenedione linked to bovine serum albumin at positions 3, 6, or 11 on the steroid nucleus. Radioligands were prepared by linking ({sup 125}I)iodohistamine at positions 3, 6, or 11. Linkages were through either carboxymethyloxime or hemisuccinate bridges. All label and antibody combinations were examined, and the most sensitive and specific combination (antiserum raised against androstenedione-3-carboxymethyloxime-bovine serum albumin with an androstenedione-carboxymethyloxime-({sup 125}I)iodohistamine label) was selected for full evaluation. We report the performance of these selected reagents in an immunoassay for androstenedione in both serum and dried blood-spot samples from neonates. We measured concentrations of androstenedione in serum under normal and pathological conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and polycystic ovarian disease. Diurnal variation in normal men was observed. Androstenedione was measured in blood spots from neonates born at term or prematurely, with respiratory distress syndrome, or with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

  17. A 125I-radioimmunoassay for measuring androstenedione in serum and in blood-spot samples from neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.; Wallace, A.M.; Cook, B.

    1989-01-01

    We developed a radioimmunoassay with a gamma-emitting radioligand to measure androstenedione in human serum and in dried blood-spot samples from newborns. Antisera were raised in rabbits against androstenedione linked to bovine serum albumin at positions 3, 6, or 11 on the steroid nucleus. Radioligands were prepared by linking [ 125 I]iodohistamine at positions 3, 6, or 11. Linkages were through either carboxymethyloxime or hemisuccinate bridges. All label and antibody combinations were examined, and the most sensitive and specific combination (antiserum raised against androstenedione-3-carboxymethyloxime-bovine serum albumin with an androstenedione-carboxymethyloxime-[ 125 I]iodohistamine label) was selected for full evaluation. We report the performance of these selected reagents in an immunoassay for androstenedione in both serum and dried blood-spot samples from neonates. We measured concentrations of androstenedione in serum under normal and pathological conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and polycystic ovarian disease. Diurnal variation in normal men was observed. Androstenedione was measured in blood spots from neonates born at term or prematurely, with respiratory distress syndrome, or with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

  18. A One-Sample Test for Normality with Kernel Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kellner , Jérémie; Celisse , Alain

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new one-sample test for normality in a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS). Namely, we test the null-hypothesis of belonging to a given family of Gaussian distributions. Hence our procedure may be applied either to test data for normality or to test parameters (mean and covariance) if data are assumed Gaussian. Our test is based on the same principle as the MMD (Maximum Mean Discrepancy) which is usually used for two-sample tests such as homogeneity or independence testing. O...

  19. Estimation of sample size and testing power (part 5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo

    2012-02-01

    Estimation of sample size and testing power is an important component of research design. This article introduced methods for sample size and testing power estimation of difference test for quantitative and qualitative data with the single-group design, the paired design or the crossover design. To be specific, this article introduced formulas for sample size and testing power estimation of difference test for quantitative and qualitative data with the above three designs, the realization based on the formulas and the POWER procedure of SAS software and elaborated it with examples, which will benefit researchers for implementing the repetition principle.

  20. Limited interlaboratory comparison of Schmallenberg virus antibody detection in serum samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Poel, W. H. M.; Cay, B.; Zientara, S.

    2014-01-01

    Eight veterinary institutes in seven different countries in Europe participated in a limited interlaboratory comparison trial to evaluate laboratory performances of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) antibody detection in serum. Seven different sheep sera and three different cattle sera were circulated, a...

  1. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum antibody by ELISA and serum plate agglutination test of laying chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zulfekar Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG is important avian pathogen responsible for chronic respiratory disease of chicken and turkeys, which result in large economic loss for the poultry industry. The objectives of this study were determination of seroprevalence of MG antibody of commercial layer chicken at laying period in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 563 blood samples were collected randomly from selected commercial layer chickens at laying period during the period from July to December, 2013. Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA and serum plate agglutination (SPA test were performed to detect the presence of antibodies against MG. Results: Of 563 samples, 64.47% and 56.13% showed an overall prevalence of MG antibodies in iELISA and SPA test respectively. Prevalence of MG was recorded the highest (69.63% at 50-55 weeks of age compared with lowest (53.26% at 56-61 weeks of age (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.05 effect of breed were observed in the seroprevalence of MG infection in layer birds in the present study. The overall, 68.77%, 63.74% and 59.37% prevalence were found respectively in sonali, ISA Brown and White leg horn. The prevalence of MG antibodies was the highest (70.13% in December followed by November (68%, October (65.67%, August (63.46%, September (58.54% and July (51.78% month. The seroprevalence of MG antibodies was higher (69.63% in most of the large flocks and lower (56.82% in small flocks. Conclusion: Therefore, might be suggested that the commercial layer farms should be routinely checked to monitor MG infection and the reactor birds should be culled since MG organism has the potential to transmit vertically. The correlation between MG antibody in month and flock size was not significant (p=0.359 and p=0.868, respectively.

  2. Estimations of cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation of lipoproteins in serum samples of some Nigerian female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Adeyeye

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples (serum were collected to determine some biochemical parameters: total glycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C in 53 female subjects in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria using the Reflotron® (an auto analyser, supported with the use of questionnaire to get information on age and sex. Age range of the subjects was 18–80 years. The TG levels in all the subjects were < 200 mg/dL; only one subject (1.89% had TC < 200 mg/dL; nine subjects (17.0% had HDL-C ≤ 35 mg/dL; for LDL-C only one subject (1.89% had a desirable level of < 130 mg/dL; for VLDL-C 29 subjects (54.7% had values 17.2 mg/dL and above. For therapeutic decision-making, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C, were calculated. In TC/HDL-C, three subjects (5.66% had values < 4.4 and in LDL-C/HDL-C, 41 subjects (77.4% had values < 4.5. Hence, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C and slightly LDL-C/HDL-C and VLDL-C in the subjects could lead to increase coronary heart diseases. Results were matched for the age and sex of subjects.

  3. 7 CFR 28.952 - Testing of samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing of samples. 28.952 Section 28.952 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... processing tests of the properties of cotton samples and report the results thereof to the persons from whom...

  4. Analysis of performance of a PCR-based assay to detect DNA of Aspergillus fumigatus in whole blood and serum: a comparative study with clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Martínez, Leticia; Gago, Sara; Buitrago, María J; Gomez-Lopez, Alicia; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    The performance of a real-time PCR-based assay was retrospectively analyzed (according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycosis Study Group criteria) in the samples of patients with invasive aspergillosis. A total of 711 serial samples (356 whole-blood and 355 serum samples) from 38 adult patients were analyzed. The Aspergillus fumigatus PCR assay results were positive for 89 of 356 (25%) whole-blood samples and 90 of 355 (25.35%) serum samples. Positive PCR results were seen in 29 of 31 (93.5%) patients for which serum was analyzed and in 31 of 33 (93.9%) cases with whole-blood specimens. Both blood and serum samples were available in 26 cases, and significant differences were not observed in this subgroup of cases. The average number of threshold cycles (C(T)) for positive blood samples was 37.6, and the average C(T) for serum was 37.4. The DNA concentration ranged between 2 and 50 fg per μl of sample, with average DNA concentrations of 10.2 and 11.7 fg in positive blood and serum samples, respectively (P > 0.01). The performance of this PCR-based quantitative assay was similar for both serum and blood samples. We recommend serum samples as the most convenient hematological sample to use for Aspergillus DNA quantification when serial determinations are done.

  5. Performance Evaluation of Commercial Dengue Diagnostic Tests for Early Detection of Dengue in Clinical Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Nur Akmalina Mat Jusoh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The shattering rise in dengue virus infections globally has created a need for an accurate and validated rapid diagnostic test for this virus. Rapid diagnostic test (RDT and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR diagnostic detection are useful tools for diagnosis of early dengue infection. We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic performance of nonstructural 1 (NS1 RDT and real-time RT-PCR diagnostic kits in 86 patient serum samples. Thirty-six samples were positive for dengue NS1 antigen while the remaining 50 were negative when tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Commercially available RDTs for NS1 detection, RTK ProDetect™, and SD Bioline showed high sensitivity of 94% and 89%, respectively, compared with ELISA. GenoAmp® Trioplex Real-Time RT-PCR and RealStar® Dengue RT-PCR tests presented a comparable kappa agreement with 0.722. The result obtained from GenoAmp® Real-Time RT-PCR Dengue test showed that 14 samples harbored dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1, 8 samples harbored DENV-2, 2 samples harbored DENV-3, and 1 sample harbored DENV-4. 1 sample had a double infection with DENV-1 and DENV-2. The NS1 RDTs and real-time RT-PCR tests were found to be a useful diagnostic for early and rapid diagnosis of acute dengue and an excellent surveillance tool in our battle against dengue.

  6. Chemometrics enhanced HPLC-DAD performance for rapid quantification of carbamazepine and phenobarbital in human serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosough, Maryam; Ghafghazi, Shiva; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes development and validation of a simple and efficient bioanalytical procedure for simultaneous determination of phenobarbital and carbamazepine in human serum samples using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) regarding a fast elution methodology in less than 5 min. Briefly, this method consisted of a simple deproteinization step of serum samples followed by HPLC analysis on a Bonus-RP column using an isocratic mode of elution with acetonitrile/K2HPO4 (pH=7.5) buffer solution (45:55). Due to the presence of serum endogenous components as non-calibrated components in the sample, second-order calibration based on multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS), has been applied on a set of absorbance matrices collected as a function of retention time and wavelengths. Acceptable resolution and quantification results were achieved in the presence of matrix interferences and the second-order advantage was fully exploited. The average recoveries for carbamazepine and phenobarbital were 89.7% and 86.1% and relative standard deviation values were lower than 9%. Additionally, computed elliptical joint confidence region (EJCR) confirmed the accuracy of the proposed method and indicated the absence of both constant and proportional errors in the predicted concentrations. The developed method enabled the determination of the analytes in different serum samples in the presence of overlapped profiles, while keeping experimental time and extraction steps at minimum. Finally, the serum concentration levels of carbamazepine in three time intervals were reported for morphine-dependents who had received carbamazepine for treating their neuropathic pain. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Photocleavage-based affinity purification of biomarkers from serum: Application to multiplex allergy testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wan

    Full Text Available Multiplex serological immunoassays, such as implemented on microarray or microsphere-based platforms, provide greater information content and higher throughput, while lowering the cost and blood volume required. These features are particularly attractive in pediatric food allergy testing to facilitate high throughput multi-allergen analysis from finger- or heel-stick collected blood. However, the miniaturization and microfluidics necessary for creating multiplex assays make them highly susceptible to the "matrix effect" caused by interference from non-target agents in serum and other biofluids. Such interference can result in lower sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility and quantitative accuracy. These problems have in large part prevented wide-spread implementation of multiplex immunoassays in clinical laboratories. We report the development of a novel method to eliminate the matrix effect by utilizing photocleavable capture antibodies to purify and concentrate blood-based biomarkers (a process termed PC-PURE prior to detection in a multiplex immunoassay. To evaluate this approach, it was applied to blood-based allergy testing. Patient total IgE was purified and enriched using PC-PURE followed by multiplex microsphere-based detection of allergen-specific IgEs (termed the AllerBead assay. AllerBead was formatted to detect the eight most common pediatric food allergens: milk, soy, wheat, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fin fish and shellfish, which account for >90% of all pediatric food allergies. 205 serum samples obtained from Boston Children's Hospital were evaluated. When PC-PURE was employed with AllerBead, excellent agreement was obtained with the standard, non-multiplex, ImmunoCAP® assay (average sensitivity above published negative predictive cutoffs = 96% and average Pearson r = 0.90; average specificity = 97%. In contrast, poor ImmunoCAP®-correlation was observed when PC-PURE was not utilized (average sensitivity above published negative

  8. Correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer and serum glucose concentration measured by an automated biochemical analyzer for canine and feline blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauk, Barbara S; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Wallace, Koranda A; Hess, Rebecka S

    2015-06-15

    To investigate the correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer (POCG) and serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer. Prospective clinical study. 96 blood samples from 80 dogs and 90 blood samples from 65 cats. Serum, plasma, and whole blood were obtained from each blood sample. The glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a POCG were compared with the serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer by use of the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and Bland-Altman plots. For both canine and feline samples, glucose concentrations in serum and plasma measured by the POCG were more strongly correlated with the serum glucose concentration measured by the biochemical analyzer (ρc, 0.98 for both canine serum and plasma; ρc, 0.99 for both feline serum and plasma) than was that in whole blood (ρc, 0.62 for canine samples; ρc, 0.90 for feline samples). The mean difference between the glucose concentrations determined by the biochemical analyzer and the POCG in serum, plasma, and whole blood was 0.4, 0.3, and 31 mg/dL, respectively, for canine samples and 7, 6, and 32 mg/dL, respectively, for feline samples. Results indicated that use of a POCG to measure glucose concentrations in serum or plasma may increase the accuracy and reliability of diagnostic and treatment decisions associated with glucose homeostasis disorders in dogs and cats.

  9. Sample Size Determination for One- and Two-Sample Trimmed Mean Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Wei-Ming; Olejnik, Stephen; Guo, Jiin-Huarng

    2008-01-01

    Formulas to determine the necessary sample sizes for parametric tests of group comparisons are available from several sources and appropriate when population distributions are normal. However, in the context of nonnormal population distributions, researchers recommend Yuen's trimmed mean test, but formulas to determine sample sizes have not been…

  10. Antinuclear, Cytoskeletal, Antineuronal Antibodies in the Serum Samples of Children with Tic Disorders and Obsessive Compulsive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işık Görker

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available streptococcus infections in the development of tic and obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD is controversial. The autoimmune hypothesis states that during infection, formation of autoantibodies leads to an autoimmune disorder, which in turn results in movement disorders, tic disorders and/or OCD. In order to test this hypothesis, we assayed these antibodies in children and adolescents diagnosed with tic disorders and/or OCD.Material and Methods: Children and adolescents who were diagnosed with either tic disorders or OCD according to DSM-IV criteria (n=28, were compared with healthy controls (n=15 having similar age and gender characteristics. Regardless of a streptococcus infection history, serum samples of all patients and controls underwent antinuclear, cytoskeletal, and antineuronal antibody assay using indirect immunofluorescence.Results: The rates of antinuclear antibody positivity were 21% and 20% in the patient and control groups respectively (p>0.05. Antineuronal antibody was positive in 2 (7% of 28 patients versus in 1 (6% of 15 controls (p>0.05.Conclusion: These results suggest that such antibodies may not be involved in the pathogenesis of tic disorders/OCD.

  11. Serum copper and zinc concentrations in a representative sample of the Canarian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Romero, Carlos; Henríquez Sánchez, Patricia; López Blanco, Félix; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Serra Majem, Lluis

    2002-01-01

    Serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations of 395 individuals (187 males + 208 females) living in Canary Islands were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 1.10 +/- 0.25 mg/L and 1.16 +/- 0.52 mg/L respectively. Our data were similar to other data published in other Spanish regions. Individuals from Lanzarote presented a mean Cu and Zn concentrations higher (p EL Hierro showed the lowest (p 0.05) among the different age intervals. No clear trends in the serum Cu and Zn concentrations were observed when drinking and smoking habits were considered. The increase of physical exercise reduced (p < 0.05) the serum Cu concentrations.

  12. Prevalence of parvovirus B19 and parvovirus V9 DNA and antibodies in paired bone marrow and serum samples from healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heegaard, Erik D; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Heilmann, Carsten J; Hornsleth, Allan

    2002-03-01

    Parvovirus B19 (hereafter referred to as B19) exhibits a marked tropism to human bone marrow (BM), and infection may lead to erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, hydrops fetalis, and various hematologic disorders. Recently, a distinct parvovirus isolate termed V9 with an unknown clinical spectrum was discovered. In contrast to the many studies of B19 serology and viremia, valid information on the frequency of B19 or V9 DNA in the BM of healthy individuals is limited. To develop a reference value, paired BM and serum samples from healthy subjects were tested for the presence of B19 and V9 DNA and specific antibodies. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) was not found in any of the serum samples. The prevalence of IgG showed a gradual and steady increase from 37% in children aged 1 to 5 years to 87% in people aged >50 years. When 190 well-characterized subjects were examined, B19 DNA was detected in the BM of 4 individuals (2.1%; 95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 5.3%) while none of the paired serum samples showed evidence of circulating viral DNA. V9 DNA was not found in any of the BM or serum samples. The finding of B19 DNA probably indicated a primary infection in one 7-year-old individual and reinfection or reactivation of persistent infection in the remaining three persons, aged 47 to 58 years. Serving as a benchmark for future studies, these findings are useful when interpreting epidemiologic data, performing BM transplantation, or considering clinical implications of parvovirus infection.

  13. SELDI-TOF MS of quadruplicate urine and serum samples to evaluate changes related to storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traum, Avram Z; Wells, Meghan P; Aivado, Manuel; Libermann, Towia A; Ramoni, Marco F; Schachter, Asher D

    2006-03-01

    Proteomic profiling with SELDI-TOF MS has facilitated the discovery of disease-specific protein profiles. However, multicenter studies are often hindered by the logistics required for prompt deep-freezing of samples in liquid nitrogen or dry ice within the clinic setting prior to shipping. We report high concordance between MS profiles within sets of quadruplicate split urine and serum samples deep-frozen at 0, 2, 6, and 24 h after sample collection. Gage R&R results confirm that deep-freezing times are not a statistically significant source of SELDI-TOF MS variability for either blood or urine.

  14. Correlation of Cadmium and Magnesium in the Blood and Serum Samples of Smokers and Non-Smokers Chronic Leukemia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Noman; Afridi, Hasan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Muhammad Balal; Bilal, Muhammad; Akhtar, Asma; Khan, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    It was studied that cancer-causing processes are related with the disproportions of essential and toxic elements in body tissues and fluid. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the levels of magnesium (Mg) and cadmium (Cd) in serum and blood samples of smokers and nonsmokers who have chronic myeloid (CML) and lymphocytic (CLL) leukemia, age ranged 31-50 years. For comparative study, age-matched smokers and nonsmoker males were chosen as controls/referents. The levels of elements in patient were analyzed before any treatment by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after microwave assisted acid digestion. The validation of the method was done by using certified reference materials of serum and blood samples. The resulted data indicated that the adult male smokers and nonsmokers have two- to fourfold higher levels of Cd in the blood and sera samples as compared to the referents (p blood and serum samples of both types of leukemia patients as related to referent values. The resulted data indicates significant negative correlation among Mg and Cd in leukemia patients and smoker referents. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of these elements in pathogenesis of chronic leukemia.

  15. Acceptance test report for core sample trucks 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Report is to provide documentation for the acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4, designated as HO-68K-4600 and HO-68K-4647, respectively. This report conforms to the guidelines established in WHC-IP-1026, ''Engineering Practice Guidelines,'' Appendix M, ''Acceptance Test Procedures and Reports.'' Rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4 were based upon the design of the second core sample truck (HO-68K-4345) which was constructed to implement rotary mode sampling of the waste tanks at Hanford. Successful completion of acceptance testing on June 30, 1995 verified that all design requirements were met. This report is divided into four sections, beginning with general information. Acceptance testing was performed on trucks 3 and 4 during the months of March through June, 1995. All testing was performed at the ''Rock Slinger'' test site in the 200 West area. The sequence of testing was determined by equipment availability, and the initial revision of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) was used for both trucks. Testing was directed by ICF-KH, with the support of WHC Characterization Equipment Engineering and Characterization Project Operations. Testing was completed per the ATP without discrepancies or deviations, except as noted

  16. Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Heliana B. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 354 serum samples from inhabitants who frequent the Clinical Laboratory in Catalão, Goiás, in the central-western region of Brazil, were collected from June to August, 2002. The samples were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in order to detect anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies. Reactive and inconclusive samples were tested by Western blotting (WB. Considering WB as a confirmation, the frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above population was 11.3% (CI 5.09 - 17.51. The immunodominant bands most frequently recognized in WB were 64-68 kDa (97.5% and 47-52 kDa (80%. The percentage of seropositivity to cysticercosis was significantly higher for individuals residing in areas without sewage systems (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, the results indicate a probable endemic situation of cysticercosis in this population. These results reinforce the urgent need for control and prevention measures to be taken by the local public health services.

  17. Estimation of sample size and testing power (Part 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo

    2011-12-01

    This article introduces the definition and sample size estimation of three special tests (namely, non-inferiority test, equivalence test and superiority test) for qualitative data with the design of one factor with two levels having a binary response variable. Non-inferiority test refers to the research design of which the objective is to verify that the efficacy of the experimental drug is not clinically inferior to that of the positive control drug. Equivalence test refers to the research design of which the objective is to verify that the experimental drug and the control drug have clinically equivalent efficacy. Superiority test refers to the research design of which the objective is to verify that the efficacy of the experimental drug is clinically superior to that of the control drug. By specific examples, this article introduces formulas of sample size estimation for the three special tests, and their SAS realization in detail.

  18. Test plan for core sampling drill bit temperature monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    At WHC, one of the functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System division is sampling waste tanks to characterize their contents. The push-mode core sampling truck is currently used to take samples of liquid and sludge. Sampling of tanks containing hard salt cake is to be performed with the rotary-mode core sampling system, consisting of the core sample truck, mobile exhauster unit, and ancillary subsystems. When drilling through the salt cake material, friction and heat can be generated in the drill bit. Based upon tank safety reviews, it has been determined that the drill bit temperature must not exceed 180 C, due to the potential reactivity of tank contents at this temperature. Consequently, a drill bit temperature limit of 150 C was established for operation of the core sample truck to have an adequate margin of safety. Unpredictable factors, such as localized heating, cause this buffer to be so great. The most desirable safeguard against exceeding this threshold is bit temperature monitoring . This document describes the recommended plan for testing the prototype of a drill bit temperature monitor developed for core sampling by Sandia National Labs. The device will be tested at their facilities. This test plan documents the tests that Westinghouse Hanford Company considers necessary for effective testing of the system

  19. Detection and serotyping of dengue virus in serum samples by multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR-ligase detection reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S; Pingle, M R; Muñoz-Jordán, J; Rundell, M S; Rondini, S; Granger, K; Chang, G-J J; Kelly, E; Spier, E G; Larone, D; Spitzer, E; Barany, F; Golightly, L M

    2008-10-01

    The detection and successful typing of dengue virus (DENV) from patients with suspected dengue fever is important both for the diagnosis of the disease and for the implementation of epidemiologic control measures. A technique for the multiplex detection and typing of DENV serotypes 1 to 4 (DENV-1 to DENV-4) from clinical samples by PCR-ligase detection reaction (LDR) has been developed. A serotype-specific PCR amplifies the regions of genes C and E simultaneously. The two amplicons are targeted in a multiplex LDR, and the resultant fluorescently labeled ligation products are detected on a universal array. The assay was optimized using 38 DENV strains and was evaluated with 350 archived acute-phase serum samples. The sensitivity of the assay was 98.7%, and its specificity was 98.4%, relative to the results of real-time PCR. The detection threshold was 0.017 PFU for DENV-1, 0.004 PFU for DENV-2, 0.8 PFU for DENV-3, and 0.7 PFU for DENV-4. The assay is specific; it does not cross-react with the other flaviviruses tested (West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Kunjin virus, Murray Valley virus, Powassan virus, and yellow fever virus). All but 1 of 26 genotypic variants of DENV serotypes in a global DENV panel from different geographic regions were successfully identified. The PCR-LDR assay is a rapid, sensitive, specific, and high-throughput technique for the simultaneous detection of all four serotypes of DENV.

  20. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    This report describes the experimental and sampling design developed to assess sampling approaches and methods for detecting contamination in a building and clearing the building for use after decontamination. An Idaho National Laboratory (INL) building will be contaminated with BG (Bacillus globigii, renamed Bacillus atrophaeus), a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (BA). The contamination, sampling, decontamination, and re-sampling will occur per the experimental and sampling design. This INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test is being planned by the Validated Sampling Plan Working Group (VSPWG). The primary objectives are: 1) Evaluate judgmental and probabilistic sampling for characterization as well as probabilistic and combined (judgment and probabilistic) sampling approaches for clearance, 2) Conduct these evaluations for gradient contamination (from low or moderate down to absent or undetectable) for different initial concentrations of the contaminant, 3) Explore judgment composite sampling approaches to reduce sample numbers, 4) Collect baseline data to serve as an indication of the actual levels of contamination in the tests. A combined judgmental and random (CJR) approach uses Bayesian methodology to combine judgmental and probabilistic samples to make clearance statements of the form "X% confidence that at least Y% of an area does not contain detectable contamination” (X%/Y% clearance statements). The INL-2 experimental design has five test events, which 1) vary the floor of the INL building on which the contaminant will be released, 2) provide for varying the amount of contaminant released to obtain desired concentration gradients, and 3) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. Desirable contaminant gradients would have moderate to low concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations down to zero in other rooms. Such gradients would provide a range of contamination levels to challenge the sampling

  1. Radioimmunological assay of alpha-fetoprotein concentrations in blood serum samples from women in the first half of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomanski, M.; Grzes, A.

    1977-01-01

    In 66 unpregnant women and in 199 pregnant subjects (in the first half of pregnancy) the alpha-fetoprotein (α-FP) concentrations were determined in peripheric blood-serum samples. The α-FP was determined using radioimmunoo-assay technique where the addition of I 125 labelled protein was preceded by 3 hours lasting preincubation period. The free protein was separated from the bound by means of precipitation with a mixture of 96% ethanol and 34.5% ammonium acetate in a ratio 77.5 : 22.5. The patients were grouped into 5 subgroups according to the gestational age. The mean values of α-FP concentration demonstrated a steady increase along with the advancement of gestation. It is suggested that the concentration of this protein in the blood-serum samples may serve as a valuable parameter for the study of gestation development and the state of the fetus. (author)

  2. A highly selective and sensitive Tb3+-acetylacetone photo probe for the assessment of acetazolamide in pharmaceutical and serum samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, A. O.

    2018-04-01

    A novel, simple, sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of Acetazolamide in pharmaceutical tablets and serum samples using photo probe Tb3+-ACAC. The Acetazolamide can remarkably quench the luminescence intensity of Tb3+-ACAC complex in DMSO at pH 6.8 and λex = 350 nm. The quenching of luminescence intensity of Tb3+-ACAC complex especially the electrical band at λem = 545 nm is used for the assessment of Acetazolamide in the pharmaceutical tablet and serum samples. The dynamic range found for the determination of Acetazolamide concentration is 4.49 × 10-9-1.28 × 10-7 mol L-1, and the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) are (4.0 × 10-9 and 1.21 × 10-8) mol L-1, respectively.

  3. Evaluation of the accuracy of serum MMP-9 as a test for colorectal cancer in a primary care population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colbourne Lynne

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bowel cancer is common and is a major cause of death. Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials estimates that screening for colorectal cancer using faecal occult blood (FOB test reduces mortality from colorectal cancer by 16%. However, FOB testing has a low positive predictive value, with associated unnecessary cost, risk and anxiety from subsequent investigation, and is unacceptable to a proportion of the target population. Increased levels of an enzyme called matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 have been found to be associated with colorectal cancer, and this can be measured from a blood sample. Serum MMP-9 is potentially an accurate, low risk and cost-effective population screening tool. This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of serum MMP-9 as a test for colorectal cancer in a primary care population. Methods/Design People aged 50 to 69 years, who registered in participating general practices in the West Midlands Region, will be asked to complete a questionnaire that asks about symptoms. Respondents who describe any colorectal symptoms (except only abdominal bloating and/or anal symptoms and are prepared to provide a blood sample for MMP9 estimation and undergo a colonoscopy (current gold standard investigation will be recruited at GP based clinics by a research nurse. Those unfit for colonoscopy will be excluded. Colonoscopies will be undertaken in dedicated research clinics. The accuracy of MMP-9 will be assessed by comparing the MMP-9 level with the colonoscopy findings, and the combination of factors (e.g. symptoms and MMP-9 level that best predict a diagnosis of malignancy (invasive disease or polyps will be determined. Discussion Colorectal cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Most colorectal cancers arise from adenomas and there is a period for early detection by screening, but available tests have risks, are unacceptable to many, have high false positive rates or are expensive. This study will

  4. The relationships between sixteen perfluorinated compound concentrations in blood serum and food, and other parameters, in the general population of South Korea with proportionate stratified sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Young; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kang, Dong-Mug; Hwang, Yong-Sik; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-02-01

    Serum samples were collected from volunteers of various ages and both genders using a proportionate stratified sampling method, to assess the exposure of the general population in Busan, South Korea to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). 16 PFCs were investigated in serum samples from 306 adults (124 males and 182 females) and one day composite diet samples (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) from 20 of the serum donors, to investigate the relationship between food and serum PFC concentrations. Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid were the dominant PFCs in the serum samples, with mean concentrations of 8.4 and 13 ng/mL, respectively. Perfluorotridecanoic acid was the dominant PFC in the composite food samples, ranging from studies. We confirmed from the relationships between questionnaire results and the PFC concentrations in the serum samples, that food is one of the important contribution factors of human exposure to PFCs. However, there were no correlations between the PFC concentrations in the one day composite diet samples and the serum samples, because a one day composite diet sample is not necessarily representative of a person's long-term diet and because of the small number of samples taken. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Test of a sample container for shipment of small size plutonium samples with PAT-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, E.; Aigner, H.; Deron, S.

    1981-11-01

    A light-weight container for the air transport of plutonium, to be designated PAT-2, has been developed in the USA and is presently undergoing licensing. The very limited effective space for bearing plutonium required the design of small size sample canisters to meet the needs of international safeguards for the shipment of plutonium samples. The applicability of a small canister for the sampling of small size powder and solution samples has been tested in an intralaboratory experiment. The results of the experiment, based on the concept of pre-weighed samples, show that the tested canister can successfully be used for the sampling of small size PuO 2 -powder samples of homogeneous source material, as well as for dried aliquands of plutonium nitrate solutions. (author)

  6. Testing of Small Graphite Samples for Nuclear Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Chapman

    2010-11-01

    Accurately determining the mechanical properties of small irradiated samples is crucial to predicting the behavior of the overal irradiated graphite components within a Very High Temperature Reactor. The sample size allowed in a material test reactor, however, is limited, and this poses some difficulties with respect to mechanical testing. In the case of graphite with a larger grain size, a small sample may exhibit characteristics not representative of the bulk material, leading to inaccuracies in the data. A study to determine a potential size effect on the tensile strength was pursued under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant program. It focuses first on optimizing the tensile testing procedure identified in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard C 781-08. Once the testing procedure was verified, a size effect was assessed by gradually reducing the diameter of the specimens. By monitoring the material response, a size effect was successfully identified.

  7. Relationship between first trimester aneuploidy screening test serum analytes and placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büke, Barış; Akkaya, Hatice; Demir, Sibel; Sağol, Sermet; Şimşek, Deniz; Başol, Güneş; Barutçuoğlu, Burcu

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between first trimester serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (fβhCG) MoM values and placenta accreta in women who had placenta previa. A total of 88 patients with placenta previa who had first trimester aneuploidy screening test results were enrolled in the study. Nineteen of these patients were also diagnosed with placenta accreta. As probable markers of excessive placental invasion, serum PAPP-A and fβhCG MoM values were compared in two groups with and without placenta accreta. Patients with placenta accreta had higher statistically significant serum PAPP-A (1.20 versus 0.865, respectively, p = 0.045) and fβhCG MoM (1.42 versus 0.93, respectively, p = 0.042) values than patients without accreta. Higher first trimester serum PAPP-A and fβhCG MoM values seem to be associated with placenta accreta in women with placenta previa. Further studies are needed to use these promising additional tools for early detection of placenta accreta.

  8. In-Pipe Wireless Communication for Underground Sampling and Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Nhan D.T.; Le, Duc V.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an effective and low- cost wireless communication system for extremely long and narrow pipes that can replay the extant wire system in underground sensor network applications such as soil sampling and testing with the Cone Penetration Test (CPT), the most widely used

  9. A comparative study of some physico-chemical properties of human serum albumin samples from different sources--I : Some physico-chemical properties of isoionic human serum albumin solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dröge, J.H.M.; Janssen, L.H.M.; Wilting, J.

    1982-01-01

    Human serum albumin samples from different sources were investigated. The fatty acid content of the albumin before and after deionization on a mixed bed ion-exchange column varied from sample to sample. When an albumin sample from one source was deionized under standard conditions the amount of

  10. Multiple stage MS in analysis of plasma, serum, urine and in vitro samples relevant to clinical and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Golo M; Maurer, Hans H; Meyer, Markus R

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews MS approaches applied to metabolism studies, structure elucidation and qualitative or quantitative screening of drugs (of abuse) and/or their metabolites. Applications in clinical and forensic toxicology were included using blood plasma or serum, urine, in vitro samples, liquids, solids or plant material. Techniques covered are liquid chromatography coupled to low-resolution and high-resolution multiple stage mass analyzers. Only PubMed listed studies published in English between January 2008 and January 2015 were considered. Approaches are discussed focusing on sample preparation and mass spectral settings. Comments on advantages and limitations of these techniques complete the review.

  11. Operability test procedure for PFP wastewater sampling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Document provides instructions for performing the Operability Test of the 225-WC Wastewater Sampling Station which monitors the discharge to the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility from the Plutonium Finishing Plant. This Operability Test Procedure (OTP) has been prepared to verify correct configuration and performance of the PFP Wastewater sampling system installed in Building 225-WC located outside the perimeter fence southeast of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The objective of this test is to ensure the equipment in the sampling facility operates in a safe and reliable manner. The sampler consists of two Manning Model S-5000 units which are rate controlled by the Milltronics Ultrasonic flowmeter at manhole No.C4 and from a pH measuring system with the sensor in the stream adjacent to the sample point. The intent of the dual sampling system is to utilize one unit to sample continuously at a rate proportional to the wastewater flow rate so that the aggregate tests are related to the overall flow and thereby eliminate isolated analyses. The second unit will only operate during a high or low pH excursion of the stream (hence the need for a pH control). The major items in this OTP include testing of the Manning Sampler System and associated equipment including the pH measuring and control system, the conductivity monitor, and the flow meter

  12. A Fault Sample Simulation Approach for Virtual Testability Demonstration Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; QIU Jing; LIU Guanjun; YANG Peng

    2012-01-01

    Virtual testability demonstration test has many advantages,such as low cost,high efficiency,low risk and few restrictions.It brings new requirements to the fault sample generation.A fault sample simulation approach for virtual testability demonstration test based on stochastic process theory is proposed.First,the similarities and differences of fault sample generation between physical testability demonstration test and virtual testability demonstration test are discussed.Second,it is pointed out that the fault occurrence process subject to perfect repair is renewal process.Third,the interarrival time distribution function of the next fault event is given.Steps and flowcharts of fault sample generation are introduced.The number of faults and their occurrence time are obtained by statistical simulation.Finally,experiments are carried out on a stable tracking platform.Because a variety of types of life distributions and maintenance modes are considered and some assumptions are removed,the sample size and structure of fault sample simulation results are more similar to the actual results and more reasonable.The proposed method can effectively guide the fault injection in virtual testability demonstration test.

  13. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS reg-sign) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U 3 O 8 . Profiles developed for U 3 O 8 samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills

  14. Estimation of sample size and testing power (Part 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo

    2012-01-01

    Sample size estimation is necessary for any experimental or survey research. An appropriate estimation of sample size based on known information and statistical knowledge is of great significance. This article introduces methods of sample size estimation of difference test for data with the design of one factor with two levels, including sample size estimation formulas and realization based on the formulas and the POWER procedure of SAS software for quantitative data and qualitative data with the design of one factor with two levels. In addition, this article presents examples for analysis, which will play a leading role for researchers to implement the repetition principle during the research design phase.

  15. Comparative evaluation of serum, FTA filter-dried blood and oral fluid as sample material for PRRSV diagnostics by RT-qPCR in a small-scale experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinrigl, Adolf; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Wodak, Eveline; Schmoll, Friedrich; Sattler, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Recently, research into alternative sample materials, such as oral fluid or filter-dried blood has been intensified, in order to facilitate cost-effective and animal-friendly sampling of individuals or groups of pigs for diagnostic purposes. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-RNA detection by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) in serum, FTA filter-dried blood and oral fluid sampled from individual pigs. Ten PRRSV negative pigs were injected with an EU-type PRRSV live vaccine. Blood and oral fluid samples were taken from each pig before, and 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after vaccination. All samples were then analyzed by PRRSV RT-qPCR. In serum, eight often pigs tested RT-qPCR positive at different time points post infection. Absolute quantification showed low serum PRRSV-RNA loads in most samples. In comparison to serum, sensitivity of PRRSV-RNA detection was strongly reduced in matched FTA filter-dried blood and in oral fluid from the same pigs. These results indicate that with low PRRSV-RNA loads the diagnostic sensitivity of PRRSV-RNA detection by RT-qPCR achieved with serum is currently unmatched by either FTA filter-dried blood or oral fluid.

  16. Prospective Evaluation of Serum β-Glucan Testing in Patients With Probable or Proven Fungal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angebault, Cécile; Lanternier, Fanny; Dalle, Frédéric; Schrimpf, Cécile; Roupie, Anne-Laure; Dupuis, Aurélie; Agathine, Aurélie; Scemla, Anne; Paubelle, Etienne; Caillot, Denis; Neven, Bénédicte; Frange, Pierre; Suarez, Felipe; d'Enfert, Christophe; Lortholary, Olivier; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in invasive fungal diseases (IFD). Serum (1-3)-β-d-glucan (BG) is believed to be an early IFD marker, but its diagnostic performance has been ambiguous, with insufficient data regarding sensitivity at the time of IFD diagnosis (TOD) and according to outcome. Whether its clinical utility is equivalent for all types of IFD remains unknown. Methods. We included 143 patients with proven or probable IFD (49 invasive candidiasis, 45 invasive aspergillosis [IA], and 49 rare IFD) and analyzed serum BG (Fungitell) at TOD and during treatment. Results. (1-3)-β-d-glucan was undetectable at TOD in 36% and 48% of patients with candidemia and IA, respectively; there was no correlation between negative BG results at TOD and patients' characteristics, localization of infection, or prior antifungal use. Nevertheless, patients with candidemia due to Candida albicans were more likely to test positive for BG at TOD (odds ratio = 25.4, P = .01) than patients infected with other Candida species. In 70% of the patients with a follow-up, BG negativation occurred in >1 month for candidemia and >3 months for IA. A slower BG decrease in patients with candidemia was associated with deep-seated localizations (P = .04). Thirty-nine percent of patients with rare IFD had undetectable BG at TOD; nonetheless, all patients with chronic subcutaneous IFD tested positive at TOD. Conclusions. Undetectable serum BG does not rule out an early IFD, when the clinical suspicion is high. After IFD diagnostic, kinetics of serum BG are difficult to relate to clinical outcome. PMID:27419189

  17. The Comparison Of TSH IRMA Serum Level With TRH Test Value In Healthy People Who Are Suspected To Have Hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshavarz zirak A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sub clinical hyperthyroidism is a state of subnormal serum TSH and T3,T4 within normal range, although usually without overt clinical manifestation but many disastrous complications especially in senile patient. In Iranian people, serum TSH is generally assayed by IRMA method. This study is aimed to determine the value of low serum TSH in these patients, better management and decision when encountered. Materials and Methods: The populations under study are guys with serum TSH lower than 0.5mu/l and normal thyroid hormones without known thyroidal and non-thyroidal illness. A basal serum TSH and TSH 30 minutes after TRH injection intra venous were sampled and correlation of clinical signs and symptoms and basal TSH with sub clinical hyperthyroidism was considered. Results: The population under study was categorized into five groups and prevalence of sub clinical hyperthyroidism was noted. In patients with b.TSH equal or lower than 0.1mu/l, 100%, 0.1-0.2mu/l, 75%, 0.2-0.3mu/l, 38.5%, 0.3-0.4mu/l, 14.3% and TSH levels greater than 0.4mu/l, were all normal. After analyzing of these data and determination of sensitivity and specificity of IRMA, it was concluded that IRMA is not sufficient to distinguish sub clinical hyperthyroidism, although there is a good linear (r=0.68; P<0.001 and cubic (r=0.79; P<0.001 relationship between b.TSH and d.TSH. Conclusion: Since TRH test is not cost effective for all cases, TSH levels lower than 0.25mu/l, can be considered as sub clinical hyperthyroidism and levels more than 0.4mu/l, as normal. In cases with TSH level between 0.25 and 0.4mu/l, TRH test is needed in high-risk patients.

  18. A Comprehensive Software and Database Management System for Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation by Radionuclide Plasma Sampling and Serum Creatinine Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation by plasma sampling method is considered as the gold standard. However, this method is not widely used because the complex technique and cumbersome calculations coupled with the lack of availability of user-friendly software. The routinely used Serum Creatinine method (SrCrM) of GFR estimation also requires the use of online calculators which cannot be used without internet access. We have developed user-friendly software "GFR estimation software" which gives the options to estimate GFR by plasma sampling method as well as SrCrM. We have used Microsoft Windows(®) as operating system and Visual Basic 6.0 as the front end and Microsoft Access(®) as database tool to develop this software. We have used Russell's formula for GFR calculation by plasma sampling method. GFR calculations using serum creatinine have been done using MIRD, Cockcroft-Gault method, Schwartz method, and Counahan-Barratt methods. The developed software is performing mathematical calculations correctly and is user-friendly. This software also enables storage and easy retrieval of the raw data, patient's information and calculated GFR for further processing and comparison. This is user-friendly software to calculate the GFR by various plasma sampling method and blood parameter. This software is also a good system for storing the raw and processed data for future analysis.

  19. Failure-censored accelerated life test sampling plans for Weibull distribution under expected test time constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, D.S.; Chun, Y.R.; Kim, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper considers the design of life-test sampling plans based on failure-censored accelerated life tests. The lifetime distribution of products is assumed to be Weibull with a scale parameter that is a log linear function of a (possibly transformed) stress. Two levels of stress higher than the use condition stress, high and low, are used. Sampling plans with equal expected test times at high and low test stresses which satisfy the producer's and consumer's risk requirements and minimize the asymptotic variance of the test statistic used to decide lot acceptability are obtained. The properties of the proposed life-test sampling plans are investigated

  20. Significance of the combined tests application in serum and liquor of patients with suspected neurosyphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Mihailo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tertiary syphilis develops in 8-40% of untreated patients. It is most commonly manifested in the form of neurosyphilis, which can be asymptomatic taking the form of tabes dorsalis or progressive paralyze. Nowadays, in the developed countries, progressive paralyze is a rather rare disease, although the incidence of this disease has been rising within the last decades. Case report. We reported a 74-year-old male with the clinical image of dementia showing psychotic symptoms. On cytobiochemical examination of cerebrospinal liquor, hyperproteinorhacmia of 0.70 g/l with the normal number of cells was revealed. Computed tomography of the brain showed the marked cortical cerebral and cerebellar reduction changes with multiple ischemic lesions. Within a routine examination of patients with demention, we performed serologic reactions to syphilis out of which the Veneral Disease Researc Laboratory (VDRL test in serum and liquor was unreactive, while the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPNA test in serum and liquor was positive. Positivity in serum and liquor was additionally confirmed by the Western blot method and fluoroscent treponema antibody (FTA test. The treatment with benzathine fenylpenicilline 2.4 g once weekly resulted in significant improving the psychotic symptoms of the disease even after two weeks. Conclusion. This case report showed that within the differential diagnostics in patients with demention or psychotic disorder it is obligatory to consider syphilis of the nervous system, as well as to apply a combination of various tests which, besides the typical liquor findings, significantly improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Such approach is especially important regarding the fact that neurosyphilis can remain clinically quite asymptomatic for a long period, which could lead to late therapy, while, on the contrary, an adequate and timely treatment can contribute to a significant recovery of any patients.

  1. Comparison of PRRSV Nucleic Acid and Antibody Detection in Pen-Based Oral Fluid and Individual Serum Samples in Three Different Age Categories of Post-Weaning Pigs from Endemically Infected Farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick De Regge

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is the causative agent of an economically important disease in swine. Since it has been shown that PRRSV and PRRSV specific antibodies can be detected in oral fluid, many different aspects have been studied to show that oral fluid could be a worthy alternative diagnostic sample to serum for monitoring and surveillance of this disease. Thorough field evaluations are however missing to convincingly show its usefulness under representative field conditions.Pen-based oral fluid samples and serum samples from all individual pigs in the corresponding pens were collected from post-weaning pigs of three different age categories in eight endemically PRRSV infected farms and one PRRSV free farm in Belgium. All samples were tested by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and ELISA to detect PRRSV RNA and PRRSV specific antibodies, respectively.While the relative specificity of PRRSV detection by qRT-PCR in pen-based oral fluid compared to serum collected from individual pigs was high in all age categories (>90%, the relative sensitivity decreased with the age of the pigs (89, 93 and 10% in 8-12w, 16-20w and 24-28w old pigs, respectively. The latter correlated with a lower percentage of PRRSV positive pigs in serum/pen in the different age categories (55, 29 and 6%, respectively. Irrespective of the age category, pen-based oral fluid samples were always found PCR positive when at least 30% of the individual pigs were positive in serum. PRRSV specific antibody detection in oral fluid by ELISA showed a 100% relative sensitivity to detection in serum since oral fluid samples were always positive as soon as one pig in the pen was positive in serum. On the other hand, two false positive oral fluid samples in 11 pens without serum positive pigs were found, resulting in a relative specificity of 82%. Indications are however present that the oral fluid result indicated the

  2. Test plan for the Sample Transfer Canister system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Sample Transfer Canister will be used by the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP) for the transport of small quantity liquid samples that meet the definition of a limited quantity radioactive material, and may also be corrosive and/or flammable. These samples will be packaged and shipped in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulation 49 CFR 173.4, ''Exceptions for small quantities.'' The Sample Transfer Canister is of a ''French Can'' design, intended to be mated with a glove box for loading/unloading. Transport will typically take place north of the Wye Barricade between WRAP and the 222-S Laboratory. The Sample Transfer Canister will be shipped in an insulated ice chest, but the ice chest will not be a part of the small quantity package during prototype testing

  3. Characterizing concentrations of diethylene glycol and suspected metabolites in human serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid samples from the Panama DEG mass poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, J G; Hunt, D R; Perala, A; McMartin, K E; Bartels, M J; Lewis, L S; McGeehin, M A; Flanders, W D

    2013-12-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) mass poisoning is a persistent public health problem. Unfortunately, there are no human biological data on DEG and its suspected metabolites in poisoning. If present and associated with poisoning, the evidence for use of traditional therapies such as fomepizole and/or hemodialysis would be much stronger. To characterize DEG and its metabolites in stored serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens obtained from human DEG poisoning victims enrolled in a 2006 case-control study. In the 2006 study, biological samples from persons enrolled in a case-control study (42 cases with new-onset, unexplained AKI and 140 age-, sex-, and admission date-matched controls without AKI) were collected and shipped to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta for various analyses and were then frozen in storage. For this study, when sufficient volume of the original specimen remained, the following analytes were quantitatively measured in serum, urine, and CSF: DEG, 2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (HEAA), diglycolic acid, ethylene glycol, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid. Analytes were measured using low resolution GC/MS, descriptive statistics calculated and case results compared with controls when appropriate. Specimens were de-identified so previously collected demographic, exposure, and health data were not available. The Wilcoxon Rank Sum test (with exact p-values) and bivariable exact logistic regression were used in SAS v9.2 for data analysis. The following samples were analyzed: serum, 20 case, and 20 controls; urine, 11 case and 22 controls; and CSF, 11 samples from 10 cases and no controls. Diglycolic acid was detected in all case serum samples (median, 40.7 mcg/mL; range, 22.6-75.2) and no controls, and in all case urine samples (median, 28.7 mcg/mL; range, 14-118.4) and only five (23%) controls (median, urine diglycolic acid (both OR > 999; exact p sample results were excluded and two from the same case were averaged, yielding

  4. CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTUAL WASTE TEST WITH TANK 5F SAMPLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, D.

    2007-01-01

    The initial phase of bulk waste removal operations was recently completed in Tank 5F. Video inspection of the tank indicates several mounds of sludge still remain in the tank. Additionally, a mound of white solids was observed under Riser 5. In support of chemical cleaning and heel removal programs, samples of the sludge and the mound of white solids were obtained from the tank for characterization and testing. A core sample of the sludge and Super Snapper sample of the white solids were characterized. A supernate dip sample from Tank 7F was also characterized. A portion of the sludge was used in two tank cleaning tests using oxalic acid at 50 C and 75 C. The filtered oxalic acid from the tank cleaning tests was subsequently neutralized by addition to a simulated Tank 7F supernate. Solids and liquid samples from the tank cleaning test and neutralization test were characterized. A separate report documents the results of the gas generation from the tank cleaning test using oxalic acid and Tank 5F sludge. The characterization results for the Tank 5F sludge sample (FTF-05-06-55) appear quite good with respect to the tight precision of the sample replicates, good results for the glass standards, and minimal contamination found in the blanks and glass standards. The aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion data also show good agreement between the two dissolution methods. Iron dominates the sludge composition with other major contributors being uranium, manganese, nickel, sodium, aluminum, and silicon. The low sodium value for the sludge reflects the absence of supernate present in the sample due to the core sampler employed for obtaining the sample. The XRD and CSEM results for the Super Snapper salt sample (i.e., white solids) from Tank 5F (FTF-05-07-1) indicate the material contains hydrated sodium carbonate and bicarbonate salts along with some aluminum hydroxide. These compounds likely precipitated from the supernate in the tank. A solubility test showed the material

  5. Sample test cases using the environmental computer code NECTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponting, A.C.

    1984-06-01

    This note demonstrates a few of the many different ways in which the environmental computer code NECTAR may be used. Four sample test cases are presented and described to show how NECTAR input data are structured. Edited output is also presented to illustrate the format of the results. Two test cases demonstrate how NECTAR may be used to study radio-isotopes not explicitly included in the code. (U.K.)

  6. Sensitivity Comparison of the Skin Prick Test and Serum and Fecal Radio Allergosorbent Test (RAST in Diagnosis of Food Allergy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Kianifar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis of food allergy is difficult in children. Food allergies are diagnosed using several methods that include medical histories, clinical examinations, skin prick and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE tests, radio-allergosorbent test (RAST, food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. In this study we evaluated allergies to cow's milk, egg, peanut, and fish in children with suspected food allergies with skin prick tests and serum and feces RAST. Methods: Forty-one children with clinical symptoms of food allergies were enrolled in the study. Skin prick tests and serum and fecal RAST were performed and compared with challenge tests. Results: The most common sites of food allergy symptoms were gastrointestinal (82.9% and skin (48.8%. 100% of the patients responded to the challenge tests with cow’s milk, egg, peanut, and fish. 65% of the patients tested positive with the skin prick test, 12.1% tested positive with serum RAST, and 29.2% tested positive with fecal RAST. Conclusions: The skin prick test was more sensitive than serum or fecal RAST, and fecal RAST was more than twice as sensitive as serum RAST.

  7. Determination of some psychotropic drugs in serum and saliva samples by HPLC-DAD and HPLC MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruczynik, A; Wróblewski, K; Szultka-Młyńska, M; Buszewski, B; Karakuła-Juchnowicz, H; Gajewski, J; Morylowska-Topolska, J; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M

    2016-08-05

    A simple, rapid and sensitive HPLC-DAD method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of seven psychotropic drugs (risperidone, citalopram, clozapine,quetiapine, levomepromazine, perazine and aripiprazole) in human serum or saliva samples. The chromatographic analyses were performed on a XSELECT CSH Phenyl-Hexyl column with a mobile phase containing methanol, acetate buffer at pH 3.5 and 0.025mL(-1) diethylamine. The influence of concentration of methanol in injection samples and injection volume on peak symmetry and system efficiency was examined.The full separation of all investigated drugs, good peaks' symmetry and simultaneously high systems efficiency were obtained in applied chromatographic system. The method is suitable for the analysis of investigated drugs in human plasma or saliva for psychiatric patients for control of pharmacotherapy, particularly in combination therapy. HPLC-MS was applied for verification of the presence of drugs and their metabolites in serum and saliva samples from patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stir-bar supported micro-solid-phase extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Basheer, Chanbasha

    2016-07-15

    In present work, a new configuration of micro-solid phase extraction was introduced and termed as stir-bar supported micro-solid-phase extraction (SB-μ-SPE). A tiny stir-bar was packed inside the porous polypropylene membrane along with sorbent material and the edges of membrane sheet were heat sealed to secure the contents. The packing of stir-bar inside the μ-SPE device does not allow the device to stick with the wall or any corner of the sample vial during extraction, which is, however, a frequent observation in routine μ-SPE. Moreover, it enhances effective surface area of the sorbent exposed to sample solution through continuous agitation (motion and rotation). It also completely immerses the SB-μ-SPE device in the sample solution even for non-polar sorbents. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were selected as model compounds and the method performance was evaluated in human serum samples. After extraction, samples were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The factors that affect extraction efficiency of SB-μ-SPE were optimized. Under optimum conditions, a good linearity (0.1-100ngmL(-1)) with coefficients of determinations ranging from 0.9868 to 0.9992 was obtained. Limits of detections were ranged between 0.003 and 0.047ngmL(-1). Acceptable values for inter-day (3.2-9.1%) and intra-day (3.1-7.2%) relative standard deviations were obtained. The optimized method was successfully applied to determine the concentration of PCB congeners in human serum samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for Determination of Crocetin, a constituent of Saffron, in Human Serum Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:The present study reports the development and validation of a sensitive and rapid extraction method beside high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of crocetin in human serum. Materials and Methods:The HPLC method was carried out by using a C18 reversed-phase column and a mobile phase composed of methanol/water/acetic acid (85:14.5:0.5 v/v/v at the flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. The UV detector was set at 423 nm and 13-cis retinoic acid was used as the internal standard. Serum samples were pretreated with solid-phase extraction using Bond Elut C18 (200mg cartridges or with direct precipitation using acetonitrile. Results:The calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.05-1.25 µg/ml for direct precipitation method and 0.5-5 µg/ml for solid-phase extraction. The mean recoveries of crocetin over a concentration range of 0.05-5 µg/ml serum for direct precipitation method and 0.5-5 µg/ml for solid-phase extraction were above 70 % and 60 %, respectively. The intraday coefficients of variation were 0.37- 2.6% for direct precipitation method and 0.64 - 5.43% for solid-phase extraction. The inter day coefficients of variation were 1.69 – 6.03% for direct precipitation method and 5.13-12.74% for solid-phase extraction, respectively. The lower limit of quantification for crocetin was 0.05 µg/ml for direct precipitation method and 0.5 µg/ml for solid-phase extraction. Conclusion: The validated direct precipitation method for HPLC satisfied all of the criteria that were necessary for a bioanalytical method and could reliably quantitate crocetin in human serum for future clinical pharmacokinetic study

  10. ISOLOK VALVE ACCEPTANCE TESTING FOR DWPF SME SAMPLING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.; Hera, K.; Coleman, C.; Jones, M.; Wiedenman, B.

    2011-12-05

    Evaluation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) cycle time identified several opportunities to improve the CPC processing time. Of the opportunities, a focus area related to optimizing the equipment and efficiency of the sample turnaround time for DWPF Analytical Laboratory was identified. The Mechanical Systems & Custom Equipment Development (MS&CED) Section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated the possibility of using an Isolok{reg_sign} sampling valve as an alternative to the Hydragard{reg_sign} valve for taking process samples. Previous viability testing was conducted with favorable results using the Isolok sampler and reported in SRNL-STI-2010-00749 (1). This task has the potential to improve operability, reduce maintenance time and decrease CPC cycle time. This report summarizes the results from acceptance testing which was requested in Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0036 (2) and which was conducted as outlined in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNL-RP-2011-00145 (3). The Isolok to be tested is the same model which was tested, qualified, and installed in the Sludge Receipt Adjustment Tank (SRAT) sample system. RW-0333P QA requirements apply to this task. This task was to qualify the Isolok sampler for use in the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) sampling process. The Hydragard, which is the current baseline sampling method, was used for comparison to the Isolok sampling data. The Isolok sampler is an air powered grab sampler used to 'pull' a sample volume from a process line. The operation of the sampler is shown in Figure 1. The image on the left shows the Isolok's spool extended into the process line and the image on the right shows the sampler retracted and then dispensing the liquid into the sampling container. To determine tank homogeneity, a Coliwasa sampler was used to grab samples at a high and low location within the mixing tank. Data from

  11. Changes in alt, ast and alp values of plasma and serum samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were obtained from a total of 20 patients that presented with cases of liver malfunction at the Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria. The enzyme assays were carried out immediately upon sample collection and separation to obtain the baseline value (BV), and thereafter at specified ...

  12. Measuring Student Achievement in Travel and Tourism. Sample Test Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Business Education.

    The sample test items included in this document are intended as a resource for teachers of Marketing and Distributive Education programs with emphasis on hospitality and recreation marketing, and tourism and travel services marketing. The related curriculum material has been published in the Travel and Tourism syllabus, an advanced-level module in…

  13. 40 CFR 205.57-2 - Test vehicle sample selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pursuant to a test request in accordance with this subpart will be selected in the manner specified in the... then using a table of random numbers to select the number of vehicles as specified in paragraph (c) of... with the desig-nated AQL are contained in Appendix I, -Table II. (c) The appropriate batch sample size...

  14. Post-Decontamination Vapor Sampling and Analytical Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-12

    is decontaminated that could pose an exposure hazard to unprotected personnel. The chemical contaminants may include chemical warfare agents (CWAs... decontamination process. Chemical contaminants can include chemical warfare agents (CWAs) or their simulants, nontraditional agents (NTAs), toxic industrial...a range of test articles from coupons, panels, and small fielded equipment items. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Vapor hazard; vapor sampling; chemical warfare

  15. A novel PMT test system based on waveform sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, S.; Ma, L.; Ning, Z.; Qian, S.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, X.; Wang, Z.; Yu, B.; Gao, F.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Comparing with the traditional test system based on a QDC and TDC and scaler, a test system based on waveform sampling is constructed for signal sampling of the 8"R5912 and the 20"R12860 Hamamatsu PMT in different energy states from single to multiple photoelectrons. In order to achieve high throughput and to reduce the dead time in data processing, the data acquisition software based on LabVIEW is developed and runs with a parallel mechanism. The analysis algorithm is realized in LabVIEW and the spectra of charge, amplitude, signal width and rising time are analyzed offline. The results from Charge-to-Digital Converter, Time-to-Digital Converter and waveform sampling are discussed in detailed comparison.

  16. Testing Homogeneity in a Semiparametric Two-Sample Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukun Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a two-sample homogeneity testing problem, in which one sample comes from a population with density f(x and the other is from a mixture population with mixture density (1−λf(x+λg(x. This problem arises naturally from many statistical applications such as test for partial differential gene expression in microarray study or genetic studies for gene mutation. Under the semiparametric assumption g(x=f(xeα+βx, a penalized empirical likelihood ratio test could be constructed, but its implementation is hindered by the fact that there is neither feasible algorithm for computing the test statistic nor available research results on its theoretical properties. To circumvent these difficulties, we propose an EM test based on the penalized empirical likelihood. We prove that the EM test has a simple chi-square limiting distribution, and we also demonstrate its competitive testing performances by simulations. A real-data example is used to illustrate the proposed methodology.

  17. Harmonisation of microbial sampling and testing methods for distillate fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, G.C.; Hill, E.C. [ECHA Microbiology Ltd., Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    Increased incidence of microbial infection in distillate fuels has led to a demand for organisations such as the Institute of Petroleum to propose standards for microbiological quality, based on numbers of viable microbial colony forming units. Variations in quality requirements, and in the spoilage significance of contaminating microbes plus a tendency for temporal and spatial changes in the distribution of microbes, makes such standards difficult to implement. The problem is compounded by a diversity in the procedures employed for sampling and testing for microbial contamination and in the interpretation of the data obtained. The following paper reviews these problems and describes the efforts of The Institute of Petroleum Microbiology Fuels Group to address these issues and in particular to bring about harmonisation of sampling and testing methods. The benefits and drawbacks of available test methods, both laboratory based and on-site, are discussed.

  18. Centrifugation protocols: tests to determine optimal lithium heparin and citrate plasma sample quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeski, Goce; Solano, Connie; Petroff, Mark K; Hynd, Matthew

    2011-05-01

    Currently, no clear guidelines exist for the most appropriate tests to determine sample quality from centrifugation protocols for plasma sample types with both lithium heparin in gel barrier tubes for biochemistry testing and citrate tubes for coagulation testing. Blood was collected from 14 participants in four lithium heparin and one serum tube with gel barrier. The plasma tubes were centrifuged at four different centrifuge settings and analysed for potassium (K(+)), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), glucose and phosphorus (Pi) at zero time, poststorage at six hours at 21 °C and six days at 2-8°C. At the same time, three citrate tubes were collected and centrifuged at three different centrifuge settings and analysed immediately for prothrombin time/international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, derived fibrinogen and surface-activated clotting time (SACT). The biochemistry analytes indicate plasma is less stable than serum. Plasma sample quality is higher with longer centrifugation time, and much higher g force. Blood cells present in the plasma lyse with time or are damaged when transferred in the reaction vessels, causing an increase in the K(+), LD and Pi above outlined limits. The cells remain active and consume glucose even in cold storage. The SACT is the only coagulation parameter that was affected by platelets >10 × 10(9)/L in the citrate plasma. In addition to the platelet count, a limited but sensitive number of assays (K(+), LD, glucose and Pi for biochemistry, and SACT for coagulation) can be used to determine appropriate centrifuge settings to consistently obtain the highest quality lithium heparin and citrate plasma samples. The findings will aid laboratories to balance the need to provide the most accurate results in the best turnaround time.

  19. Surface plasmon resonance immunoassay analysis of pituitary hormones in urine and serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Juan; Calle, Ana; Rodríguez-Frade, José Miguel; Mellado, Mario; Lechuga, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Direct determination of four pituitary peptide hormones: human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH), growth hormone (hGH), follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH), and luteinizing hormone (hLH) has been carried out using a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor. A commercial SPR biosensor was employed. The immobilization of the hormones was optimized and monoclonal antibodies were selected in order to obtain the best sensor performance. Assay parameters as running buffer and regeneration solution composition or antibody concentration were adjusted to achieve a sensitive analyte detection. The performance of the assays was assessed in buffer solution, serum and urine, showing sensitivity in the range from 1 to 6 ng/mL. The covalent attachment of the hormones ensured the stability of the SPR signal through repeated use in up to 100 consecutive assay cycles. Mean intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were all <7%, while batch-assay variability using different sensor surfaces was <5%. Taking account both the excellent reutilization performance and the outstanding reproducibility, this SPR immunoassay method turns on a highly reliable tool for endocrine monitoring in laboratory and point-of-care (POC) settings.

  20. Identification of Reliable Reference Genes for Quantification of MicroRNAs in Serum Samples of Sulfur Mustard-Exposed Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, Sedigheh; Shamsara, Mehdi; Khateri, Shahriar; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Ghorbanmehr, Nassim; Tavallaei, Mahmood; Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Mowla, Seyed Javad

    2015-01-01

    In spite of accumulating information about pathological aspects of sulfur mustard (SM), the precise mechanism responsible for its effects is not well understood. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis. Accurate normalization using appropriate reference genes, is a critical step in miRNA expression studies. In this study, we aimed to identify appropriate reference gene for microRNA quantification in serum samples of SM victims. In this case and control experimental study, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we evaluated the suitability of a panel of small RNAs including SNORD38B, SNORD49A, U6, 5S rRNA, miR-423-3p, miR-191, miR-16 and miR-103 in sera of 28 SM-exposed veterans of Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988) and 15 matched control volunteers. Different statistical algorithms including geNorm, Normfinder, best-keeper and comparative delta-quantification cycle (Cq) method were employed to find the least variable reference gene. miR-423-3p was identified as the most stably expressed reference gene, and miR- 103 and miR-16 ranked after that. We demonstrate that non-miRNA reference genes have the least stabil- ity in serum samples and that some house-keeping miRNAs may be used as more reliable reference genes for miRNAs in serum. In addition, using the geometric mean of two reference genes could increase the reliability of the normalizers.

  1. A novel colorimetric method based on copper nanoclusters with intrinsic peroxidase-like for detecting xanthine in serum samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengyu; Niu, Qianqian; Mou, Mingyao; Wu, Yi; Liu, Xiaoxuan; Liao, Shenghua

    2017-07-01

    A facile strategy for detecting xanthine in serum samples by copper nanocluster (CuNCs) with high intrinsic peroxidase-like activity was reported. Firstly, a simple, mild and time-saving method for preparing CuNCs was developed, in which dithiothreitol (DTT) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used as reductant and stabilizer, respectively. The as-prepared CuNCs exhibited a fluorescence emission at 590 nm with a quantum yield (QY) of approximately 5.29%, the fluorescence intensity of the as-prepared CuNCs exhibited no considerable change when stored under ambient condition with the lifetime is 1.75 μs. Moreover, the as-prepared CuNCs exhibited high intrinsic peroxidase-like activity with lower K m ( K m = 8.90 × 10-6 mol L-1) for H2O2, which indicated that CuNCs have a higher affinity for H2O2. Compared with natural enzyme, the as-synthesized CuNCs are more catalytic stable over a wide range of pH (4.0 13.0) and temperature (4 80 °C). Finally, an indirect method for sensing xanthine was established because xanthine oxidase can catalyse the oxidation of xanthine to produce H2O2. Xanthine could be detected as low as 3.8 × 10-7 mol L-1 with a linear range from 5.0 × 10-7 to 1.0 × 10-4 mol L-1. These results proved that the proposed method is sensitive and accurate and could be successfully applied to the determination of xanthine in the serum sample with satisfaction.

  2. Quality standards for sample collection in coagulation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2012-09-01

    Preanalytical activities, especially those directly connected with blood sample collection and handling, are the most vulnerable steps throughout the testing process. The receipt of unsuitable samples is commonplace in laboratory practice and represents a serious problem, given the reliability of test results can be adversely compromised following analysis of these specimens. The basic criteria for an appropriate and safe venipuncture are nearly identical to those used for collecting blood for clinical chemistry and immunochemistry testing, and entail proper patient identification, use of the correct technique, as well as appropriate devices and needles. There are, however, some peculiar aspects, which are deemed to be particularly critical when collecting quality specimens for clot-based tests, and these require clearer recognition. These include prevention of prolonged venous stasis, collection of nonhemolyzed specimens, order of draw, and appropriate filling and mixing of the primary collection tubes. All of these important preanalytical issues are discussed in this article, and evidence-based suggestions as well as recommendations on how to obtain a high-quality sample for coagulation testing are also illustrated. We have also performed an investigation aimed to identify variation of test results due to underfilling of primary blood tubes, and have identified a clinically significant bias in test results when tubes are drawn at less than 89% of total fill for activated partial thromboplastin time, less than 78% for fibrinogen, and less than 67% for coagulation factor VIII, whereas prothrombin time and activated protein C resistance remain relatively reliable even in tubes drawn at 67% of the nominal volume. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Detection of Candida albicans Sap2 in cancer patient serum samples by an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The secreted aspartyl proteinases 2 (Sap2 of Candida albicans (C. albicans is a potential marker of candididasis. It is a virulence factor associated with adherence and tissue invasion. Aim: In order to detect Sap2 in clinical sera, we developed an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Materials and Methods: Polyclonal antibodies were produced for Sap2 by injecting Sap2 into a New Zealand White inbred rabbit. They could be used at a dilution exceeding 1:1200 in an indirect ELISA, and detected Sap2 concentration up to 1 ng/mL. Results: Of the 286 cancer serum samples tested, 16.8% were found as candidiasis. The test was simple and economical to perform and had a level of sensitivity for detection of low-titer positive sera; thus, it may be proven to be of value in epidemiological studies on candidiasis.

  4. Detection of Candida albicans Sap2 in cancer patient serum samples by an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yicun; Gao, Xiang; Zhi Gang, J U; Liu, Jingyuan; Dong, Shuai; Wang, Li

    2013-01-01

    The secreted aspartyl proteinases 2 (Sap2) of Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a potential marker of candididasis. It is a virulence factor associated with adherence and tissue invasion. In order to detect Sap2 in clinical sera, we developed an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Polyclonal antibodies were produced for Sap2 by injecting Sap2 into a New Zealand White inbred rabbit. They could be used at a dilution exceeding 1:1200 in an indirect ELISA, and detected Sap2 concentration up to 1 ng/mL. Of the 286 cancer serum samples tested, 16.8% were found as candidiasis. The test was simple and economical to perform and had a level of sensitivity for detection of low-titer positive sera; thus, it may be proven to be of value in epidemiological studies on candidiasis.

  5. Validation of 2 commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for adiponectin determination in canine serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia; Ceron, José J

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to validate 2 commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for adiponectin in dogs, 1 canine-specific and 1 originally designed for measurements in humans. Intra-assay and interassay precision was evaluated by multiple measurements in canine serum samples, and assay accuracy was indirectly determined by linearity under dilution. Interference caused by hemolysis and lipemia was also studied. Both assays were subsequently used for measuring adiponectin concentrations in clinically healthy dogs and those with different grades of obesity. The intra-assay and inter-assay precision was less than 7.5% and 13.5% in serum samples with low and high adiponectin concentrations, respectively. Lipemia and hemolysis did not affect the results of any of the assays. Both assays were able to differentiate lean dogs from those that were overweight or obese on the basis of the measured adiponectin concentrations. From these results it can be concluded that canine adiponectin concentrations can be measured reliably by means of the 2 ELISAs evaluated in this study.

  6. Spectrofluorimetric quantification of bilirubin using yttrium-norfloxacin complex as a fluorescence probe in serum samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammad; Alam, Al-Mahmnur [Department of Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hak Lee, Sang, E-mail: shlee@knu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ho Kim, Young, E-mail: youngkim@knu.ac.kr [Research Institute of Advanced Energy Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyu-Man [School of Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hyub Oh, Sang [Center for Gas Analysis, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    A simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed to determine trace amounts of bilirubin (BR) using yttrium (Y{sup 3+})-norfloxacin (NFLX) complex as a fluorescence (FL) probe. NFLX can form a stable binary complex with Y{sup 3+} and markedly enhances the weak FL signal of the NFLX. The FL intensity of the Y{sup 3+}-NFLX complex decreased significantly in the presence of BR in a buffer solution at pH=7.2. Under optimal conditions, the FL intensity decreased according to the BR concentration and showed a good linear relationship in the range of 0.03-2.3 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of BR with a correlation coefficient of 0.9988. The limit of detection for the determination of BR was 2.8 ng mL{sup -1} with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.55% for five replicate determination of 0.05 {mu}g mL{sup -1} BR. The presented method offers higher sensitivity with simple instrumentation and was applied successfully in detecting BR at low concentrations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weak FL signal of NFLX was enhanced at 419 nm by forming binary complex with Y{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The FL intensity of Y{sup 3+}-NFLX complex was quenched markedly in the presence of ATP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NFLX can transfer energy to Y{sup 3+} and BR and form the Y{sup 3+}-NFLX-ATP ternary complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reduced FL intensity of the system was correlated with the concentration of BR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is applied to determine BR at low concentration (2.8 ng mL{sup -1}) in serum.

  7. Comparison of Salivary Anti Helicobacter pylori IgG with Serum IgG and Bacteriological Tests in Detecting Helicobacter pylori Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ghasemian safaei

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detecting anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori specific IgG antibodies in specimens of oral fluid and serum with bacteriological tests. Methods: Antral biopsy specimens, as well as serum and oral fluid samples were collected from 97 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The presence or absence of current H. pylori infection was determined by culture, histology and urease detection. Anti-H. pylori specific IgG was detected in serum and oral fluid, using an established lab-made, and a commercial ELISA kit. The obtained data were compared with results of bacteriological tests. Results: In all, 62 (64% of 97 patients were positive for H. pylori by one or more of the gold standard tests (culture, histology and urease detection. Lab-made enzyme-linked immunoassay of oral fluid had a sensitivity and specificity of 92% and 83% respectively. A sensitivity and specificity of 87% and 83%, respectively, was obtained with the commercial kit. Lab-made enzyme-linked immunoassay of serum samples had a sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 88%, respectively. A sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 86% was obtained with the commercial kit. Conclusion: Detection of anti-H. pylori specific IgG in oral fluid by ELISA is comparable in sensitivity and specificity with serum based methods. Oral fluid based ELISA could provide a reliable, non-invasive method for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Saliva testing may have a role in epidemiological studies. Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, ELISA, Oral fluid

  8. Automatic data acquisition and on-line analysis of trace element concentration in serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.

    1978-01-01

    A completely automated system has been developed to determine the trace element concentration in biological samples by measuring charged particle induced X-rays. A CDC-3100 computer with ADC and CAMAC interface is employed to control the data collection apparatus, acquire data and perform simultaneously the analysis. The experimental set-up consists of a large square plexiglass chamber in which a commercially available 750H Kodak Carousel is suitably arranged as a computer controlled sample changer. A method of extracting trace element concentrations using reference spectra is presented and an on-line program has been developed to easily and conveniently obtain final results at the end of each run. (Auth.)

  9. Clinical evaluation of serum bile acids as a new liver function test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffl, H; Pristautz, H; Parsche, P; Passath, A; Leb, G [Graz Univ. (Austria). Medizinische Klinik

    1980-01-01

    In a randomized patient material, with various histologically verified hepatobiliary diseases, the serum levels of Cholyl glycine (CG) and Sulfolithocholyl glycine (SLCG) were compared with each other. SLCG levels are a more sensitive parameter and permit a more significant differentiation between fatty and normal livers and between cases with and without portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis. There were poor correlations between the hitherto routinely performed laboratory tests and the SLCG levels, but good correlations between SLCG and defined parenchymal liver diseases. The publication ends with the presentation of a newly developed SLCG-stimulation test, which provides a staging of parenchymal liver diseases without unnecessary requirements of time and material and with minimal stress to the patients.

  10. Testing results of Monte Carlo sampling processes in MCSAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnera, I.; Cruz, C.; Abreu, Y.; Leyva, A.; Correa, C.; Demydenko, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Monte Carlo Simulation of Atom Displacements (MCSAD) is a code implemented by the authors to simulate the complete process of atom displacement (AD) formation. This code makes use of the Monte Carlo (MC) method to sample all the processes involved in the gamma and electronic radiation transport through matter. The kernel of the calculations applied to this code relies on a model based on an algorithm developed by the authors, which firstly splits out multiple electron elastic scattering events from those single ones at higher scattering angles and then, from the last one, sampling those leading to AD at high transferred atomic recoil energies. Some tests have been developed to check the sampling algorithms with the help of the corresponding theoretical distribution functions. Satisfactory results have been obtained, which indicate the strength of the methods and subroutines used in the code. (Author)

  11. Estimation of sample size and testing power (part 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo

    2012-03-01

    The design of one factor with k levels (k ≥ 3) refers to the research that only involves one experimental factor with k levels (k ≥ 3), and there is no arrangement for other important non-experimental factors. This paper introduces the estimation of sample size and testing power for quantitative data and qualitative data having a binary response variable with the design of one factor with k levels (k ≥ 3).

  12. Summary of Test Results for Daya Bay Rock Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Dobson, Patrick; Nakagawa, Seiji

    2004-01-01

    A series of analytical tests was conducted on a suite of granitic rock samples from the Daya Bay region of southeast China. The objective of these analyses was to determine key rock properties that would affect the suitability of this location for the siting of a neutrino oscillation experiment. This report contains the results of chemical analyses, rock property measurements, and a calculation of the mean atomic weight

  13. Data Quality Objectives For Selecting Waste Samples To Test The Fluid Bed Steam Reformer Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banning, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing. The type, quantity and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluid bed steam reformer (FBSR). A determination of the adequacy of the FBSR process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the FBSR process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used to test the FBSR process. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the testing criteria.

  14. The correlation between histological gastritis staging- 'OLGA/OLGIM' and serum pepsinogen test in assessment of gastric atrophy/intestinal metaplasia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoteng; Lu, Bin; Meng, Lina; Fan, Yihong; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Meng

    2017-08-01

    Serum pepsinogen (PG) test, as an indicator of gastric mucosal atrophy, reflects the functional and morphologic status of gastric mucosal and it is suggested to serve as a useful predictive marker for patients with gastric cancer (GC). The available classifications of gastritis, known as the Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) and Operative Link on Gastritis Intestinal Metaplasia (OLGIM), integrating the severity and topography of atrophy/intestinal metaplasia (IM), have been gradually accepted and used in screening for GC in recent years. To assess whether serum pepsinogen test, including PGI, PGII, PGI/PGII and gastrin-17 (G-17) could reflect the extent and topography of gastric mucosal atrophy/IM. Furthermore, to discuss the relationship between OLGA/OLGIM staging system and serum pepsinogen test in assessment of gastric atrophy/IM. The OLGA/OLGIM ranks the gastric staging according to both the topography and the severity of gastric atrophy/IM. A retrospective study was conducted with 331 patients who underwent endoscopy with consecutive biopsy sampling and reassessed according to OLGA/OLGIM staging system. Serum pepsinogen test, including PGI, PGII, PGI/PGII and G-17, as well as serological Helicobacter pylori (Hp) antibody were also measured. Results were presented as gastritis stage, serum pepsinogen level and Hp status. Baseline characteristics were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for continuous data and Pearson's χ 2 test for categorical data. A logistic regression model was used for the correlation analysis between OLGA/OLGIM and serological pepsinogen test. A total of 177 non-atrophic gastritis and 154 atrophic gastritis were analyzed, among which 40 were antrum atrophy, 32 were corpus atrophy and 82 were pan-atrophy. All patients were assessed applying the OLGA/OLGIM criteria with a mean age of 54.7 ± 10.8 years. Patients among OLGA/OLGIM Stage III-IV were presented with a lower level of serum PGI and PGI/PGII (p  15

  15. Acute Changes in Creatine Kinase Serum Levels in Adults Submitted a Static Stretching and Maximal Strength Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Bara Filho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Strength and flexibility are common components of a training program and their maximal values are obtained through specific tests. However, little information about the damage effect of these training procedures in a skeletal muscle is known. Objective: To verify a serum CK changes 24 h after a sub maximal stretching routine and after the static flexibility and maximal strength tests. Methods: the sample was composed by 14 subjects (man and women, 28 ± 6 yr. physical education students. The volunteers were divided in a control group (CG and experimental group (EG that was submitted in a stretching routine (EG-ST, in a maximal flexibility static test (EG-FLEX and in 1-RM test (EG-1-RM, with one week interval among tests. The anthropometrics characteristics were obtained by digital scale with stadiometer (Filizola, São Paulo, Brasil, 2002. The blood samples were obtained using the IFCC method with reference values 26-155 U/L. The De Lorme and Watkins technique was used to access maximal maximal strength through bench press and leg press. The maximal flexibility test consisted in three 20 seconds sets until the point of maximal discomfort. The stretching was done in normal movement amplitude during 6 secons. Results: The basal and post 24 h CK values in CG and EG (ST; Flex and 1 RM were respectively 195,0 ± 129,5 vs. 202,1 ± 124,2; 213,3 ± 133,2 vs. 174,7 ± 115,8; 213,3 ± 133,2 vs. 226,6 ± 126,7 e 213,3 ± 133,2 vs. 275,9 ± 157,2. It was only observed a significant difference (p = 0,02 in the pre and post values inGE-1RM. Conclusion: only maximal strength dynamic exercise was capable to cause skeletal muscle damage.

  16. New method for simultaneous determination of 55Fe and 59Fe in blood serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saukkonen, H.; Uhlenius, R.

    1978-01-01

    Routine methods for the measurement of 55 Fe and 59 Fe activities in biological samples are frequently required in metabolic studies of iron. A new simple method for the simultaneous determination of 59 Fe and 55 Fe concentration in 5 cm 3 samples of blood is described and carefully evaluated. Before the measurement of the activity, organic matter was eliminated by HNO 3 -HClO 4 wet ashing and iron was electroplated onto a copper plate. The accuracy of results was studied by assessing samples, which contained known amounts of radioactivity and determining the counts per nanocurie in each case. The accuracy of the results of 59 Fe and 55 Fe determinations was found to be about 5%. The method has been routinely used to determine iron resorption in patients using the double isotope method. The determination proved to be satisfactory and not too laborious. When performing the yield determination there is a way of detecting and correcting mistakes or incompleteness in different stages of the measurement, thus leading to a high degree of reliability. (T.G.)

  17. Detection of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus DNA in Serum Samples of Healthy Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Elisa; Rotondo, John C.; Marracino, Luisa; Selvatici, Rita; Bononi, Ilaria; Torreggiani, Elena; Touzé, Antoine; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro G.

    2017-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has been detected in 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC). In the host, the MCPyV reservoir remains elusive. MCPyV DNA sequences were revealed in blood donor buffy coats. In this study, MCPyV DNA sequences were investigated in the sera (n = 190) of healthy blood donors. Two MCPyV DNA sequences, coding for the viral oncoprotein large T antigen (LT), were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods and DNA sequencing. Circulating MCPyV sequences were detected in sera with a prevalence of 2.6% (5/190), at low-DNA viral load, which is in the range of 1–4 and 1–5 copies/μl by real-time PCR and droplet digital PCR, respectively. DNA sequencing carried out in the five MCPyV-positive samples indicated that the two MCPyV LT sequences which were analyzed belong to the MKL-1 strain. Circulating MCPyV LT sequences are present in blood donor sera. MCPyV-positive samples from blood donors could represent a potential vehicle for MCPyV infection in receivers, whereas an increase in viral load may occur with multiple blood transfusions. In certain patient conditions, such as immune-depression/suppression, additional disease or old age, transfusion of MCPyV-positive samples could be an additional risk factor for MCC onset. PMID:29238698

  18. Proteomic profiling of renal allograft rejection in serum using magnetic bead-based sample fractionation and MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Weiguo; Huang, Liling; Dai, Yong; Chen, Jiejing; Yan, Qiang; Huang, He

    2010-12-01

    Proteomics is one of the emerging techniques for biomarker discovery. Biomarkers can be used for early noninvasive diagnosis and prognosis of diseases and treatment efficacy evaluation. In the present study, the well-established research systems of ClinProt Micro solution incorporated unique magnetic bead sample preparation technology, which, based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), have become very successful in bioinformatics due to its outstanding performance and reproducibility for discovery disease-related biomarker. We collected fasting blood samples from patients with biopsy-confirmed acute renal allograft rejection (n = 12), chronic rejection (n = 12), stable graft function (n = 12) and also from healthy volunteers (n = 13) to study serum peptidome patterns. Specimens were purified with magnetic bead-based weak cation exchange chromatography and analyzed with a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. The results indicated that 18 differential peptide peaks were selected as potential biomarkers of acute renal allograft rejection, and 6 differential peptide peaks were selected as potential biomarkers of chronic rejection. A Quick Classifier Algorithm was used to set up the classification models for acute and chronic renal allograft rejection. The algorithm models recognize 82.64% of acute rejection and 98.96% of chronic rejection episodes, respectively. We were able to identify serum protein fingerprints in small sample sizes of recipients with renal allograft rejection and establish the models for diagnosis of renal allograft rejection. This preliminary study demonstrated that proteomics is an emerging tool for early diagnosis of renal allograft rejection and helps us to better understand the pathogenesis of disease process.

  19. Frictional sliding tests on combined coal-rock samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A test system was developed to understand the sliding mechanism of coal-rock structure. The test system was composed by a double-shear testing model and an acousto-optic monitoring system in association with a digital camera and an acoustic emission (AE instrument. The tests can simulate the movement of activated faults and the sliding in coal-rock structure. In this regard, instable sliding conditions of coal-rock samples, sliding types under different conditions, displacement evolution law, and AE characteristics during sliding process were investigated. Several sliding types were monitored in the tests, including unstable continuous sliding, unstable discontinuous sliding, and stable sliding. The sliding types have close relation with the axial loads and loading rates. Larger axial load and smaller loading rate mean that unstable sliding is less likely to occur. The peak shear stress was positively correlated with the axial load when sliding occurred, whereas the displacement induced by unstable sliding was uncorrelated with the axial load. A large number of AE events occurred before sliding, and the AE rate decreased after stable sliding. The results show that the tests can well simulate the process of structural instability in a coal bump, and are helpful in the understanding of fault activation and the physical processes during squeezing process of roof and floor.

  20. Inert medium (helium) irradiation testing of pressure tube samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancuta, M.; Radu, V.; Stefan, V.; Preda, M.

    2001-01-01

    Irradiation tests currently performed in C-5 capsule aim at obtaining data and information concerning behavior to irradiation of pressure tubes of CANDU type fuel channel, to evidence the factors limiting operation life span. A calculation code for analysis and prediction of pressure tube behavior should be based upon periodical inspection results, post irradiation examination of the removed from reactor pressure tubes as well as on the experimental results obtained with materials subjected to irradiation conditions identical with the operational ones. Mechanical behavior analysis should focus both complex thermal-mechanical type stresses and mechanical properties alteration under irradiation. The experimental results should be applied: - to evaluate the irradiation effects upon mechanical properties of Zr-2.5% Nb exposed to fluences up to 10 21 n·cm -2 ; - to gather data concerning the real stress / real deformation characteristic from which characteristic quantities can be deduced as, for instance, elasticity modulus, plasticity modulus, exponent of stress term in the Tsu-Berteles relation, to be used within the CANTUP simulation code describing pressure tube behavior, currently developed at INR Pitesti; - to develop prediction methods of pressure tube behavior and merging with in-service inspection procedure in order to forecast the life span and the proper timing for replacement before major failures occur. The samples irradiated in C-5 capsule were extracted from the ends of Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tubes resulting from Cernavoda NPP Unit 1. The samples for tensile tests were extracted on longitudinal and transversal directions of the pressure tube. The tests were carried out under following conditions: - test environment temperature, 260 - 280 deg.C; - testing medium, helium at 1 - 6 b pressure; - neutron flux (E n > 1 MeV), 1 - 2 · 10 13 ncm -2 s -1 ; - neutron fluence (E n > 1 MeV), 4 · 10 20 ncm -2 . The following characteristics were obtained from tensile

  1. The effect of a non-denaturing detergent and a guanidinium-based inactivation agent on the viability of Ebola virus in mock clinical serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, J E; Easterbrook, L; Pitman, J; Anderson, D; Roddy, S; Bailey, D; Vipond, R; Bruce, C B; Roberts, A D

    2017-12-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa required the rapid testing of clinical material for the presence of potentially high titre Ebola virus (EBOV). Safe, fast and effective methods for the inactivation of such clinical samples are required so that rapid diagnostic tests including downstream analysis by RT-qPCR or nucleotide sequencing can be carried out. One of the most commonly used guanidinium - based denaturing agents, AVL (Qiagen) has been shown to fully inactivate EBOV once ethanol is added, however this is not compatible with the use of automated nucleic acid extraction systems. Additional inactivation agents need to be identified that can be used in automated systems. A candidate inactivation agent is Triton X-100, a non-denaturing detergent that is frequently used in clinical nucleic acid extraction procedures and has previously been used for inactivation of EBOV. In this study the effect of 0.1% and 1.0% Triton X-100 (final concentration 0.08% and 0.8% respectively) alone and in combination with AVL on the viability of EBOV (10 6 TCID 50 /ml) spiked into commercially available pooled negative human serum was tested. The presence of viable EBOV in the treated samples was assessed by carrying out three serial passages of the samples in Vero E6 cells (37°C, 5% CO 2 , 1 week for each passage). At the end of each passage the cells were observed for evidence of cytopathic effect and samples were taken for rRT-PCR analysis for the presence of EBOV RNA. Before cell culture cytotoxic components of AVL and Triton X-100 were removed from the samples using size exclusion spin column technology or a hydrophobic adsorbent resin. The results of this study showed that EBOV spiked into human serum was not fully inactivated when treated with either 0.1% (v/v) Triton X-100 for 10 mins or 1.0% (v/v) Triton X-100 for 20 mins (final concentrations 0.08% and 0.8% Triton X-100 respectively). AVL alone also did not consistently provide complete inactivation. Samples treated

  2. Comparison of diagnostic methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in serum and blood samples from AIDS patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcos Vinicius; Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Vicentini, Adriana Pardini

    2018-01-01

    Background Although early and rapid detection of histoplasmosis is essential to prevent morbidity and mortality, few diagnostic tools are available in resource-limited areas, especially where it is endemic and HIV/AIDS is also epidemic. Thus, we compared conventional and molecular methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in sera and blood from HIV/AIDS patients. Methodology We collected a total of 40 samples from control volunteers and patients suspected of histoplasmosis, some of whom were also infected with other pathogens. Samples were then analyzed by mycological, serological, and molecular methods, and stratified as histoplasmostic with (group I) or without AIDS (group II), uninfected (group III), and infected with HIV and other pathogens only (group IV). All patients were receiving treatment for histoplasmosis and other infections at the time of sample collection. Results Comparison of conventional methods with nested PCR using primers against H. capsulatum 18S rRNA (HC18S), 5.8S rRNA ITS (HC5.8S-ITS), and a 100 kDa protein (HC100) revealed that sensitivity against sera was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by immunoblotting, double immunodiffusion, PCR with HC18S, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was equally high for double immunodiffusion, immunoblotting and PCR with HC100, followed for PCR with HC18S and HC5.8-ITS. Against blood, sensitivity was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by PCR with HC18S, Giemsa staining, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was highest for Giemsa staining and PCR with HC100, followed by PCR with HC18S and HC5.8S-ITS. PCR was less efficient in patients with immunodeficiency due to HIV/AIDS and/or related diseases. Conclusion Molecular techniques may detect histoplasmosis even in cases with negative serology and mycology, potentially enabling early diagnosis. PMID:29342162

  3. Comparison of diagnostic methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in serum and blood samples from AIDS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cristina Dantas

    Full Text Available Although early and rapid detection of histoplasmosis is essential to prevent morbidity and mortality, few diagnostic tools are available in resource-limited areas, especially where it is endemic and HIV/AIDS is also epidemic. Thus, we compared conventional and molecular methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in sera and blood from HIV/AIDS patients.We collected a total of 40 samples from control volunteers and patients suspected of histoplasmosis, some of whom were also infected with other pathogens. Samples were then analyzed by mycological, serological, and molecular methods, and stratified as histoplasmostic with (group I or without AIDS (group II, uninfected (group III, and infected with HIV and other pathogens only (group IV. All patients were receiving treatment for histoplasmosis and other infections at the time of sample collection.Comparison of conventional methods with nested PCR using primers against H. capsulatum 18S rRNA (HC18S, 5.8S rRNA ITS (HC5.8S-ITS, and a 100 kDa protein (HC100 revealed that sensitivity against sera was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by immunoblotting, double immunodiffusion, PCR with HC18S, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was equally high for double immunodiffusion, immunoblotting and PCR with HC100, followed for PCR with HC18S and HC5.8-ITS. Against blood, sensitivity was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by PCR with HC18S, Giemsa staining, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was highest for Giemsa staining and PCR with HC100, followed by PCR with HC18S and HC5.8S-ITS. PCR was less efficient in patients with immunodeficiency due to HIV/AIDS and/or related diseases.Molecular techniques may detect histoplasmosis even in cases with negative serology and mycology, potentially enabling early diagnosis.

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Residues in Serum Samples of Autopsied Individuals from Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramandla Ramesh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in human blood sera samples (n = 650 obtained at autopsy from individuals who died of drug abuse, alcohol toxicity, homicide, suicide and other unknown causes. The analyzed samples from decedents revealed the presence of PAHs of which B(aP was the most predominant one, followed by benzo(bfluoranthene and benzo(kfluoranthene. The other PAHs detected sporadically and measured were benzo(g,h,iperylene, acenaphthene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene The mean concentrations of PAHs were greater in the twenties to fifties age groups compared to others. The PAH residue levels detected were high in African Americans compared to Caucasians, Asians, and Hispanics. It appears that environmental exposure, dietary intake and in some cases occupational exposure may have contributed to the PAH body burden. While the PAH residue concentrations measured fall within the range of those reported for healthy adults elsewhere, in isolated cases, the concentrations detected were high, calling the need for a reduction in PAH emissions and human biomonitoring studies for purposes of risk assessment.

  5. Research on test of product based on spatial sampling criteria and variable step sampling mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruihong; Han, Yueping

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an effective approach for online testing the assembly structures inside products using multiple views technique and X-ray digital radiography system based on spatial sampling criteria and variable step sampling mechanism. Although there are some objects inside one product to be tested, there must be a maximal rotary step for an object within which the least structural size to be tested is predictable. In offline learning process, Rotating the object by the step and imaging it and so on until a complete cycle is completed, an image sequence is obtained that includes the full structural information for recognition. The maximal rotary step is restricted by the least structural size and the inherent resolution of the imaging system. During online inspection process, the program firstly finds the optimum solutions to all different target parts in the standard sequence, i.e., finds their exact angles in one cycle. Aiming at the issue of most sizes of other targets in product are larger than that of the least structure, the paper adopts variable step-size sampling mechanism to rotate the product specific angles with different steps according to different objects inside the product and match. Experimental results show that the variable step-size method can greatly save time compared with the traditional fixed-step inspection method while the recognition accuracy is guaranteed.

  6. Failure analysis of burst tested fuel tube samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaprabu, C.; Ramana Rao, S.V.; Srivatsava, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    The Total Circumferential Elongation (TCE) is an important parameter for evaluation of ductility of the Zircaloy-4 fuel tubes for the PHWR reactors. The TCE values of the fuel tubes were obtained using the burst testing technique. In some lots there is a variation in the values of the TCE. To investigate the reasons for such a large variation in the TCE, samples were selected at appropriate intervals and sectioned at the fractured portion. The surface morphology of the fractured surfaces was examined under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). The morphologies show segregation of elements at specific locations. Energy dispersive spectra was obtained from those segregated particles. According to the magnitude of TCE value the samples were classified into low, intermediate and high ductility. Low ductility samples were found to contain large amount of segregations along the thickness direction of the tube. This forms a brittle region and a path for the easy crack growth along thickness direction. In the case of intermediate samples the segregation occurred in fewer locations compared to low ductile samples and also confined to the circumferential direction of the outside surface of the tube. Due to this, probability of crack formation at the surface of the tube could be high. But crack growth would be slower in the ductile matrix along the thickness direction resulting in the enhancement of TCE value compared to the low ductile sample. In the high ductile samples, the segregations were very scarce and found to be isolated and embedded in the ductile matrix. The mode of failure in these types of samples was found to be purely ductile. Cracks were found to originate solely from the micro voids in the material. As the probability of crack formation and its propagation is low, very high TCE values were observed in these samples. Microstructural observations of fractured surfaces and EDAX analysis was able to identify the

  7. Mineralogic and petrologic investigation of post-test core samples from the Spent Fuel Test - Climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, F.J.; Beiriger, J.

    1985-02-01

    We have characterized a suite of samples taken subsequent to the end of the Spent Fuel Test - Climax by petrographic and microanalytical techniques and determined their mineral assemblage, modal properties, and mineral chemistry. The samples were obtained immediately adjacent to the canister borehole at a variety of depths and positions within the canister drift, as well as radially outward from each canister hole. This method of sampling allows variations in post-test mineralogic properties to be evaluated on the basis of (1) depth along a particular canister hole and (2) position within the canister drift, with respect to the heat and radiation sources, and with respect to the pre - test samples. In no case did we find any significant correlation between the mineralogical properties and variables listed above. In short, the Spent Fuel Test - Climax has produced no identifiable mineralogical response in the Climax quartz monzonite. 12 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Comprehensive metabolic characterization of serum osteocalcin action in a large non-diabetic sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Entenmann

    Full Text Available Recent research suggested a metabolic implication of osteocalcin (OCN in e.g. insulin sensitivity or steroid production. We used an untargeted metabolomics approach by analyzing plasma and urine samples of 931 participants using mass spectrometry to reveal further metabolic actions of OCN. Several detected relations between OCN and metabolites were strongly linked to renal function, however, a number of associations remained significant after adjustment for renal function. Intermediates of proline catabolism were associated with OCN reflecting the implication in bone metabolism. The association to kynurenine points towards a pro-inflammatory state with increasing OCN. Inverse relations with intermediates of branch-chained amino acid metabolism suggest a link to energy metabolism. Finally, urinary surrogate markers of smoking highlight its adverse effect on OCN metabolism. In conclusion, the present study provides a read-out of metabolic actions of OCN. However, most of the associations were weak arguing for a limited role of OCN in whole-body metabolism.

  9. Comprehensive metabolic characterization of serum osteocalcin action in a large non-diabetic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entenmann, Lukas; Pietzner, Maik; Artati, Anna; Hannemann, Anke; Henning, Ann-Kristin; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Völzke, Henry; Nauck, Matthias; Adamski, Jerzy; Wallaschofski, Henri; Friedrich, Nele

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggested a metabolic implication of osteocalcin (OCN) in e.g. insulin sensitivity or steroid production. We used an untargeted metabolomics approach by analyzing plasma and urine samples of 931 participants using mass spectrometry to reveal further metabolic actions of OCN. Several detected relations between OCN and metabolites were strongly linked to renal function, however, a number of associations remained significant after adjustment for renal function. Intermediates of proline catabolism were associated with OCN reflecting the implication in bone metabolism. The association to kynurenine points towards a pro-inflammatory state with increasing OCN. Inverse relations with intermediates of branch-chained amino acid metabolism suggest a link to energy metabolism. Finally, urinary surrogate markers of smoking highlight its adverse effect on OCN metabolism. In conclusion, the present study provides a read-out of metabolic actions of OCN. However, most of the associations were weak arguing for a limited role of OCN in whole-body metabolism.

  10. USFDA-GUIDELINE BASED VALIDATION OF TESTING METHOD FOR RIFAMPICIN IN INDONESIAN SERUM SPECIMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko Raharjo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarding a new regulation from Indonesia FDA (Badan POM-RI, all new non patent drugs should show bioequivalence with the originator drug prior to registration. Bioequivalence testing (BE-testing has to be performed to the people that represented of population to which the drug to be administrated. BE testing need a valid bio-analytical method for certain drug target and group of population. This research report specific validation of bio-analysis of Rifampicin in Indonesian serum specimen in order to be used for BE testing. The extraction was performed using acetonitrile while the chromatographic separation was accomplished on a RP 18 column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm, with a mobile phase composed of KH2PO4 10 mM-Acetonitrile (40:60, v/v and UV detection was set at 333 nm. The method shown specificity compared to blank serum specimen with retention time of rifampicin at 2.1 min. Lower limit of quantification (LLOQ was 0.06 µg/mL with dynamic range up to 20 µg/mL (R>0.990. Precision of the method was very good with coefficient of variance (CV 0.58; 7.40 and 5.56% for concentration at 0.06, 5, 15 µg/mL, respectively. Accuracies of the method were 3.22; 1.94; 1.90% for concentration 0.06, 5 and 15 µg/mL respectively. The average recoveries were 97.82, 95.50 and 97.31% for concentration of rifampicin 1, 5 and 5 µg/mL, respectively. The method was also shown reliable result on stability test on freezing-thawing, short-term and long-term stability as well as post preparation stability. Validation result shown that the method was ready to be used for Rifampicin BE testing with Indonesian subject.   Keywords: Rifampicin, Validation, USFDA-Guideline

  11. Evaluation of rapid diagnostic test kits for feline leukemia virus infection using samples from naturally infected cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayou Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Feline leukemia virus (FeLV is a potentially life-threatening oncogenic retrovirus. The p27 viral core protein is produced by the virus in infected feline cells, is found in the cytoplasm in several blood cells and can be free in the serum and plasma. ELISA or particle-based immunoassay are commonly used to detect the presence of the p27 core protein in samples obtained from blood. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of several in-clinic tests: the SNAP Feline Triple Test (IDEXX Laboratories, the WITNESS FeLV-FIV Test (Zoetis and the VetScan Feline FeLV/FIV Rapid Test (Abaxis. Methods The sample population (100 positive, 105 negative samples consisted of serum and plasma samples submitted to IDEXX’s worldwide reference laboratory for feline retrovirus testing. Virus isolation and reverse transcriptase PCR results were not available and so samples were judged to be positive or negative based on the results of the ViraCHEK FeLV (Zoetis microtiter plate assay. Results The percentage of samples positive and negative for FeLV p27 antigen using the three in-clinic tests compared with the ViraCHEK method were as follows: IDEXX Feline Triple (positive 98.0%, negative 100%; Zoetis WITNESS (positive 79.0%, negative 97.1%; Abaxis VetScan (positive 73.0%, negative 97.1%. Conclusions and relevance The SNAP Feline Triple Test demonstrated a high level of agreement for FeLV-positive and FeLV-negative samples when assessed in this model. Results of FeLV assays can vary among tests.

  12. Evaluation of rapid diagnostic test kits for feline leukemia virus infection using samples from naturally infected cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiayou; O'Connor, Thomas; Beall, Melissa; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Lappin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a potentially life-threatening oncogenic retrovirus. The p27 viral core protein is produced by the virus in infected feline cells, is found in the cytoplasm in several blood cells and can be free in the serum and plasma. ELISA or particle-based immunoassay are commonly used to detect the presence of the p27 core protein in samples obtained from blood. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of several in-clinic tests: the SNAP Feline Triple Test (IDEXX Laboratories), the WITNESS FeLV-FIV Test (Zoetis) and the VetScan Feline FeLV/FIV Rapid Test (Abaxis). The sample population (100 positive, 105 negative samples) consisted of serum and plasma samples submitted to IDEXX's worldwide reference laboratory for feline retrovirus testing. Virus isolation and reverse transcriptase PCR results were not available and so samples were judged to be positive or negative based on the results of the ViraCHEK FeLV (Zoetis) microtiter plate assay. The percentage of samples positive and negative for FeLV p27 antigen using the three in-clinic tests compared with the ViraCHEK method were as follows: IDEXX Feline Triple (positive 98.0%, negative 100%); Zoetis WITNESS (positive 79.0%, negative 97.1%); Abaxis VetScan (positive 73.0%, negative 97.1%). The SNAP Feline Triple Test demonstrated a high level of agreement for FeLV-positive and FeLV-negative samples when assessed in this model. Results of FeLV assays can vary among tests.

  13. Feasibility tests of a high resolution sampling radial drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huth, J.

    1985-01-01

    The design concept and results of feasibility tests for a vertex detector intended for use in the TPC-PEP4/9 experiment are presented. The detector is based on a slow radial drift in dimethyl ether. High resolution localization of the avalanches at the sense wire is accomplished with nearby pickup wires and the utilization of waveform sampling electronics. The avalanche angular coordinate measurements, combined with knowledge of the electric field distribution and drift velocity permit reconstruction of the trajectory using essentially all track information. Measurements with a test chamber constructed to study characteristics of avalanche localization indicate that the recoverable track information in one centimeter of dimethyl ether at 1.5 atm is equivalent to 30 measurements of 40 μm accuracy. (orig.)

  14. Results from tests of TFL Hydragard sampling loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    When the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is operational, processed radioactive sludge will be transferred in batches to the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), where glass frit will be added and the contents concentrated by boiling. Batches of the slurry mixture are transferred from the SME to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT). Hydragard reg-sign sampling systems are used on the SME and the MFT for collecting slurry samples in vials for chemical analysis. An accurate replica of the Hydragard sampling system was built and tested in the thermal Fluids Laboratory (TFL) to determine the hydragard accuracy. It was determined that the original Hydragard valve frequently drew a non-representative sample stream through the sample vial that ranged from frit enriched to frit depleted. The Hydragard valve was modified by moving the plunger and its seat backwards so that the outer surface of the plunger was flush with the inside diameter of the transfer line when the valve was open. The slurry flowing through the vial accurately represented the composition of the slurry in the reservoir for two types of slurries, different dilution factors, a range of transfer flows and a range of vial flows. It was then found that the 15 ml of slurry left in the vial when the Hydragard valve was closed, which is what will be analyzed at DWPF, had a lower ratio of frit to sludge as characterized by the lithium to iron ratio than the slurry flowing through it. The reason for these differences is not understood at this time but it is recommended that additional experimentation be performed with the TFL Hydragard loop to determine the cause

  15. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology...

  16. Replacement of serum with ocular fluid for cryopreservation of immature testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothana, Lavanya; Devi, Lalitha; Venna, Naresh Kumar; Pentakota, Niharika; Varma, Vivek Phani; Jose, Jedy; Goel, Sandeep

    2016-12-01

    Cryopreservation of immature testis is a feasible approach for germplasm preservation of male animals. Combinations of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and foetal bovine serum (FBS) are used for testis cryopreservation. However, an alternative to FBS is needed, because FBS is expensive. Buffalo ocular fluid (BuOF), a slaughter house by-product, could be an economical option. The objective of the present study was to assess whether BuOF can replace FBS for cryopreservation of immature mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) testes. Results showed that rodent and buffalo testes frozen in DMSO (10% for rodents and 20% for buffalo) with 20% FBS or BuOF had similar numbers of viable and DNA-damaged cells (P > 0.05). The expression of cell proliferation- (PCNA) and apoptosis-specific proteins (Annexin V and BAX/BCL2 ratio) were also comparable in mouse and buffalo testes frozen in DMSO with FBS or BuOF (P > 0.05). Interestingly, rat testis frozen in DMSO with BuOF had lower expression of Annexin V protein than testis frozen in DMSO with FBS (P  0.05). These findings provide evidence that BuOF has potential to replace FBS for cryopreservation of immature rodent and buffalo testis. Further investigation is needed to explore whether BuOF can replace FBS for testis cryopreservation of other species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers: An effective adsorbent for solid phase extraction and slurry sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric analysis of cadmium and lead in water, hair, food and cigarette samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Erkan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Ocsoy, Ismail [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Nanotechnology Research Center (ERNAM), Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Ozdemir, Nalan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa, E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey)

    2016-02-04

    Herein, the synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers (BSA-NFs) through the building blocks of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and copper(II) ions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and their use as adsorbent for cadmium and lead ions are reported. The BSA-NFs, for the first time, were efficiently utilized as novel adsorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE) of cadmium and lead ions in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. The method is based on the separation and pre-concentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by BSA-NFs prior to determination by slurry analysis via flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The analytes were adsorbed on BSA-NFs under the vortex mixing and then the ion-loaded slurry was separated and directly introduced into the flame AAS nebulizer by using a hand-made micro sample introduction system to eliminate a number of drawbacks. The effects of analytical key parameters, such as pH, amount of BSA-NFs, vortexing time, sample volume, and matrix effect of foreign ions on adsorbing of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were systematically investigated and optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were calculated as 0.37 μg L{sup −1} and 8.8 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. The relative standard deviation percentages (RSDs) (N = 5) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 7.2%, and 5.0%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed procedure was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (TMDA-53.3 Fortified Water, TMDA-70 Fortified Water, SPS-WW2 Waste Water, NCSDC-73349 Bush Branches and Leaves) and by addition/recovery analysis. The quantitative recoveries were obtained for the analysis of certified reference materials and addition/recovery tests. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of cadmium and lead in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. - Highlights: • The synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers is reported. • The nanoflowers were utilized for solid phase microextraction of

  18. Effect of centrifuge test on blood serum lipids index of cadet pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wochyński, Zbigniew; Kowalczuk, Krzysztof; Kłossowski, Marek; Sobiech, Krzysztof A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relationship between the lipid index (WS) in the examined cadets and duration of exposure to +Gz in the human centrifuge. The study involved 19 first-year cadets of the Polish Air Force Academy in Dęblin. Tests in the human centrifuge were repeated twice, i.e. prior to (test I) and 45 days after (test II). After exposure to +Gz, the examined cadets were divided into 2 groups. Group I (N=11) included cadets subjected to a shorter total duration of exposure to +Gz, while group II (N=8) included cadets with a longer total duration of exposure to +Gz. Total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), and apolipoproteins A1 and B were assayed in blood serum prior to (assay A) and after (assay B) both exposures to +Gz. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) level was estimated from the Friedewald formula. WS is an own mathematical algorithm. WS was higher in group II, assay A - 10.0 and B - 10.08 of test I in the human centrifuge than in group I where the WS values were 6.91 and 6.96, respectively. WS was also higher in group II in assay A - 10.0 and B -10.1 of test II in the human centrifuge than in group I - 6.96 and 6.80, respectively. The higher value of WS in group II, both after the first and second exposure to +Gz in human centrifuge, in comparison with group I, indicated its usefulness for determination of the maximum capability of applying acceleration of the interval type during training in the human centrifuge.

  19. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Hossain, Mahmud; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Izmirlian, Grant; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Wei-Jun; Leach, Robin J.; Thompson, Ian M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) has been more frequently applied to measure low abundance biomarker candidates in tissues and biofluids, owing to its high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of assay configuration, and exceptional multiplexing capability. In this study, we report for the first time the development of immunoaffinity depletion-based workflows and SRM-MS assays that enable sensitive and accurate quantification of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum without the requirement for specific PSA antibodies. Low ng/mL level detection of both total and free PSA was consistently achieved in both PSA-spiked female serum samples and actual patient serum samples. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained when SRM PSA assays and conventional immunoassays were applied to the same samples showed good correlation in several independent clinical serum sample sets. These results demonstrate that the workflows and SRM assays developed here provide an attractive alternative for reliably measuring candidate biomarkers in human blood, without the need to develop affinity reagents. Furthermore, the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers, including the free and bound forms of PSA, can be performed in a single multiplexed analysis using high-resolution liquid chromatographic separation coupled with SRM-MS. PMID:22846433

  20. Meteorological testing and analysis of sampling equipment for wet deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, P.; Jobst, S.; Harder, C.

    1989-01-01

    11 rain collector types for wet deposition were subjected to a field test. Two of the nine types were identically constructed. The following measured values were analyzed: amount of rainfall, electrical conductivity, pH value, Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 = , NH 4 + , Na + , K + , Ca ++ , Mg ++ , Fe, Pb, Cu, Cd. The analysis was restricted to rainfall. In a basic study structural and statistical analyses of precipitations were made in order to find out from which extent of intensity resp. rain volume per rainfall the precipitations are important for wet deposition. Some sensors required intensities of nearly 1 mm/h in order to recognize all rainfalls. In order to reach a better standardization of the measuring technique the funnel geometry should be standardized. The current technique is not suited for correctly registering the deposition which is connected with light and very light rainfall. It was found out in rinsing tests with diluted HNO 3 that considerable amounts of trace metals accumulate at funnel walls and in headers, although the collecting device had been subjected to a thorough acid purification before. For the determination of the wet deposition of the trace metals problems arise if the samples are filtered and the filters are not analyzed. In that case particle-bound metals which are suspended in raindrops will not be registered. After comparing the equipment some of the devices were improved in order to eliminate known sources of contamination. (orig./KW) [de

  1. An optical sensor for the determination of digoxin in serum samples based on a molecularly imprinted polymer membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniagua Gonzalez, Gema; Fernandez Hernando, Pilar; Durand Alegria, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and testing of a molecularly imprinted polymer membrane for digoxin analysis. Digoxin-specific bulk polymer was obtained by the UV initiated co-polymerisation of methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in acetonitrile as porogen. After extracting the template analyte, the ground polymer particles were mixed with plasticizer polyvinyl chloride to form a MIP membrane. A reference polymer membrane was prepared from the same mixture of monomers but with no template. The resultant membrane morphologies were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The imprinted membrane was tested as the recognition element in a digoxin-sensitive fluorescence sensor; sensor response was measured using standard solutions of digoxin at concentrations of up to 4 x 10 -3 mg L -1 . The detection limit was 3.17 x 10 -5 mg L -1 . Within- and between-day relative standard deviations RSD (n = 5) were in the range 4.5-5.5% and 5.5-6.5% respectively for 0 and 1 x 10 -3 mg L -1 digoxin concentrations. A selectivity study showed that compounds of similar structure to digoxin did not significantly interfere with detection for interferent concentrations at 10, 30 and 100 times higher than the digoxin concentration. This simply manufactured MIP membrane showed good recognition characteristics, a high affinity for digoxin, and provided satisfactory results in analyses of this analyte in human serum.

  2. An optical sensor for the determination of digoxin in serum samples based on a molecularly imprinted polymer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paniagua Gonzalez, Gema [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez Hernando, Pilar, E-mail: pfhernando@ccia.uned.es [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), 28040 Madrid (Spain); Durand Alegria, J. S. [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-04-13

    This paper reports the synthesis and testing of a molecularly imprinted polymer membrane for digoxin analysis. Digoxin-specific bulk polymer was obtained by the UV initiated co-polymerisation of methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in acetonitrile as porogen. After extracting the template analyte, the ground polymer particles were mixed with plasticizer polyvinyl chloride to form a MIP membrane. A reference polymer membrane was prepared from the same mixture of monomers but with no template. The resultant membrane morphologies were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The imprinted membrane was tested as the recognition element in a digoxin-sensitive fluorescence sensor; sensor response was measured using standard solutions of digoxin at concentrations of up to 4 x 10{sup -3} mg L{sup -1}. The detection limit was 3.17 x 10{sup -5} mg L{sup -1}. Within- and between-day relative standard deviations RSD (n = 5) were in the range 4.5-5.5% and 5.5-6.5% respectively for 0 and 1 x 10{sup -3} mg L{sup -1} digoxin concentrations. A selectivity study showed that compounds of similar structure to digoxin did not significantly interfere with detection for interferent concentrations at 10, 30 and 100 times higher than the digoxin concentration. This simply manufactured MIP membrane showed good recognition characteristics, a high affinity for digoxin, and provided satisfactory results in analyses of this analyte in human serum.

  3. Detection of Anti-Leptospira IgM Antibody in Serum Samples of Suspected Patients Visiting National Public Health Laboratory, Teku, Kathmandu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Dahal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a globally distributed zoonosis with varied clinical outcomes and multiorgan involvement in humans. In this study conducted from July 2011 to December 2011, 178 serum samples from patients suspected of leptospirosis were tested by Panbio IgM ELISA at National Public Health Laboratory, Kathmandu, out of which 51 (28.65% were positive for anti-Leptospira IgM antibody. Leptospirosis was more common in people in their 2nd and 3rd decades of their life which together comprised 56.86% of the total positive cases. Most of those tested positive were farmers followed by students and housewives. Both animal contact and water contact seemed to play significant roles in disease transmission. Symptoms were vague with the most common being fever, headache, myalgia, abdominal pain, vomiting, jaundice, and diarrhoea. Life style heavily dominated by agronomical and farming activities in Nepal is conducive to leptospirosis transmission. Leptospirosis seems to be a significant public health problem in Nepal but is underestimated. In resource poor countries like Nepal where laboratories performing MAT or maintaining cultures are rarely available, serological test like ELISA could well depict the scenario of the disease prevalence.

  4. Glyco-centric lectin magnetic bead array (LeMBA − proteomics dataset of human serum samples from healthy, Barrett׳s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok K. Shah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes serum glycoprotein biomarker discovery and qualification datasets generated using lectin magnetic bead array (LeMBA – mass spectrometry techniques, “Serum glycoprotein biomarker discovery and qualification pipeline reveals novel diagnostic biomarker candidates for esophageal adenocarcinoma” [1]. Serum samples collected from healthy, metaplastic Barrett׳s esophagus (BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC individuals were profiled for glycoprotein subsets via differential lectin binding. The biomarker discovery proteomics dataset consisting of 20 individual lectin pull-downs for 29 serum samples with a spiked-in internal standard chicken ovalbumin protein has been deposited in the PRIDE partner repository of the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the data set identifier PRIDE: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD002442. Annotated MS/MS spectra for the peptide identifications can be viewed using MS-Viewer (〈http://prospector2.ucsf.edu/prospector/cgi-bin/msform.cgi?form=msviewer〉 using search key “jn7qafftux”. The qualification dataset contained 6-lectin pulldown-coupled multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS data for 41 protein candidates, from 60 serum samples. This dataset is available as a supplemental files with the original publication [1].

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of dopamine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical, banana, urine and serum samples by potassium ferricyanide-Fe(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Zhang, Yan; Li, Quanmin

    2009-12-01

    In the present work, we developed a simple, sensitive and inexpensive method to determine dopamine hydrochloride using potassium ferricyanide-Fe(III) by spectrophotometry. The results show that Fe(III) is deoxidized to Fe(II) by dopamine hydrochloride at pH 4.0, and then Fe(II) reacts with potassium ferricyanide to form a soluble prussian blue (KFe(III)[Fe(II)(CN)6]). The absorbance of this product was monitored over time using a spectrophotometer at an absorption maximum of 735 nm, and the amount of dopamine hydrochloride could be calculated based on the absorbance. A good linear relationship of the concentration of dopamine hydrochloride versus absorbance was observed, and a linear regression equation of A = 0.022 + 0.16921C (microg mL(-1)) was obtained. Moreover, the apparent molar absorption coefficient for the indirect determination of dopamine hydrochloride was 3.2 x 10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1). This described method has been used to determine dopamine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical, banana, urine and serum samples with satisfactory results.

  6. Performance of an Optimized Paper-Based Test for Rapid Visual Measurement of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT in Fingerstick and Venipuncture Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidhartha Jain

    Full Text Available A paper-based, multiplexed, microfluidic assay has been developed to visually measure alanine aminotransferase (ALT in a fingerstick sample, generating rapid, semi-quantitative results. Prior studies indicated a need for improved accuracy; the device was subsequently optimized using an FDA-approved automated platform (Abaxis Piccolo Xpress as a comparator. Here, we evaluated the performance of the optimized paper test for measurement of ALT in fingerstick blood and serum, as compared to Abaxis and Roche/Hitachi platforms. To evaluate feasibility of remote results interpretation, we also compared reading cell phone camera images of completed tests to reading the device in real time.96 ambulatory patients with varied baseline ALT concentration underwent fingerstick testing using the paper device; cell phone images of completed devices were taken and texted to a blinded off-site reader. Venipuncture serum was obtained from 93/96 participants for routine clinical testing (Roche/Hitachi; subsequently, 88/93 serum samples were captured and applied to paper and Abaxis platforms. Paper test and reference standard results were compared by Bland-Altman analysis.For serum, there was excellent agreement between paper test and Abaxis results, with negligible bias (+4.5 U/L. Abaxis results were systematically 8.6% lower than Roche/Hitachi results. ALT values in fingerstick samples tested on paper were systematically lower than values in paired serum tested on paper (bias -23.6 U/L or Abaxis (bias -18.4 U/L; a correction factor was developed for the paper device to match fingerstick blood to serum. Visual reads of cell phone images closely matched reads made in real time (bias +5.5 U/L.The paper ALT test is highly accurate for serum testing, matching the reference method against which it was optimized better than the reference methods matched each other. A systematic difference exists between ALT values in fingerstick and paired serum samples, and can be

  7. Evaluation of two new commercial tests for the diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection using NS1 antigen detection in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussart, Philippe; Petit, Laure; Labeau, Bhety; Bremand, Laetitia; Leduc, Alexandre; Moua, David; Matheus, Séverine; Baril, Laurence

    2008-08-20

    We compared the performance of two new commercial tests for the detection of dengue NS1 protein during the clinical phase of dengue virus (DENV) infection-an immunochromatographic test allowing rapid detection of the NS1 antigen, Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP (Bio-Rad Laboratories - Marnes La Coquette, France), and a two-step sandwich-format microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), pan-E Dengue Early ELISA (Panbio - Brisbane, Australia)-with a one-step sandwich-format microplate ELISA, the Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag test (Bio-Rad). We tested 272 serum samples from patients with dengue disease. Of these, 222 were from patients with acute infection of one of the four dengue serotypes, detected by RT-PCR and/or virus isolation. Forty-eight acute-phase serum samples from patients not infected with dengue virus were also included. The sensitivity of the Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag test on acute serum samples (n = 222) was 87.4% (95% confidence interval: 82.3% to 91.5%); that of Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP was 81.5% (95% CI: 75.8% to 86.4%) after 15 minutes and 82.4% (95% CI: 76.8% to 87.2%) after 30 minutes. Both tests had a specificity of 100% (97.5% CI, one-sided test: 92.6% to 100.0%). The pan-E Dengue Early ELISA had a sensitivity of 60.4% (95% CI: 53.4% to 66.8%) and a specificity of 97.9% (95% CI: 88.9% to 99.9%). Our findings support the use of diagnostic tools based on the NS1 antigen detection for the diagnosis of acute DENV infection. The immunochromatographic test, Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP-the first rapid diagnostic test for DENV infection-was highly sensitive and specific, and would therefore be a suitable first-line test in the field. The pan-E Dengue Early ELISA was less sensitive than the Platelia test; this two-step ELISA should be combined with DENV IgM antibody detection for the diagnosis of DENV infection.

  8. Evaluation of two new commercial tests for the diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection using NS1 antigen detection in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Dussart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We compared the performance of two new commercial tests for the detection of dengue NS1 protein during the clinical phase of dengue virus (DENV infection-an immunochromatographic test allowing rapid detection of the NS1 antigen, Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP (Bio-Rad Laboratories - Marnes La Coquette, France, and a two-step sandwich-format microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, pan-E Dengue Early ELISA (Panbio - Brisbane, Australia-with a one-step sandwich-format microplate ELISA, the Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag test (Bio-Rad. METHODS: We tested 272 serum samples from patients with dengue disease. Of these, 222 were from patients with acute infection of one of the four dengue serotypes, detected by RT-PCR and/or virus isolation. Forty-eight acute-phase serum samples from patients not infected with dengue virus were also included. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag test on acute serum samples (n = 222 was 87.4% (95% confidence interval: 82.3% to 91.5%; that of Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP was 81.5% (95% CI: 75.8% to 86.4% after 15 minutes and 82.4% (95% CI: 76.8% to 87.2% after 30 minutes. Both tests had a specificity of 100% (97.5% CI, one-sided test: 92.6% to 100.0%. The pan-E Dengue Early ELISA had a sensitivity of 60.4% (95% CI: 53.4% to 66.8% and a specificity of 97.9% (95% CI: 88.9% to 99.9%. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the use of diagnostic tools based on the NS1 antigen detection for the diagnosis of acute DENV infection. The immunochromatographic test, Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP-the first rapid diagnostic test for DENV infection-was highly sensitive and specific, and would therefore be a suitable first-line test in the field. The pan-E Dengue Early ELISA was less sensitive than the Platelia test; this two-step ELISA should be combined with DENV IgM antibody detection for the diagnosis of DENV infection.

  9. On Wasserstein Two-Sample Testing and Related Families of Nonparametric Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaditya Ramdas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonparametric two-sample or homogeneity testing is a decision theoretic problem that involves identifying differences between two random variables without making parametric assumptions about their underlying distributions. The literature is old and rich, with a wide variety of statistics having being designed and analyzed, both for the unidimensional and the multivariate setting. Inthisshortsurvey,wefocusonteststatisticsthatinvolvetheWassersteindistance. Usingan entropic smoothing of the Wasserstein distance, we connect these to very different tests including multivariate methods involving energy statistics and kernel based maximum mean discrepancy and univariate methods like the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, probability or quantile (PP/QQ plots and receiver operating characteristic or ordinal dominance (ROC/ODC curves. Some observations are implicit in the literature, while others seem to have not been noticed thus far. Given nonparametric two-sample testing’s classical and continued importance, we aim to provide useful connections for theorists and practitioners familiar with one subset of methods but not others.

  10. Utility of testing for monoclonal bands in serum of patients with suspected osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B.; Andersen, Ivan; Christensen, Susanne S.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether measuring monoclonal bands (M component) in serum should be part of the investigation of patients referred to osteoporosis clinics. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross sectional, observational study. SETTING: Referral centre for osteoporosis in a university hospital...

  11. Performance test of SAUNA xenon mobile sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Dan; Yang Bin; Yang Weigeng; Jia Huaimao; Wang Shilian; Li Qi; Zhao Yungang; Fan Yuanqing; Chen Zhanying; Chang Yinzhong; Liu Shujiang; Zhang Xinjun; Wang Jun

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the structure and basic functions of SAUNA noble gas xenon mobile sampling system are introduced. The sampling capability of this system is about 2.2 mL per day, as a result from a 684-h operation. The system can be transported to designated locations conveniently to collect xenon sample for routine or emergency environment monitoring. (authors)

  12. Comparison of immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoglobulin G avidity techniques for screening of anti: Toxoplasma antibodies among single serum sample pregnant women in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrangiz Rajaii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital toxoplasmosis is that pregnant women acquire the infection during gestation; diagnosis of the acute infection during pregnancy is a complex subject of maternal toxoplasmosis. Thus, the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG and/or IgM Toxoplasma antibodies in a single serum sample drawn during gestation cannot be used to define whether the infection was recently acquired or chronic. Materials and Methods: At this cross-sectional descriptive study, sera of 391 pregnant women examined and compared. They were in an age range of 21-35 years, referred by gynecologists and infectious disease specialists, during March 2012-April 2013. They have referred, 215 (54.98%, 102 (26%, 74 (18.92% in the first, second and third trimesters of gestation, respectively. For each of them, a questionnaire was completed and serum samples were prepared in an equal condition, examined according to the procedures of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and IgG Avidity techniques. Results: We have found 111 (28.38% seronegative and 280 (71.61% seropositive cases by IIF and 124 (31.70% seronegative, 267 (68.28% seropositive cases by ELISA. The IgG avidity test confirmed 45 (69.23% and 7 (10.76% doubtful cases of IgM test in IIF and ELISA techniques. Conclusions: This study highlights how to manage pregnant women with toxoplasmosis, especially in a single serum sample condition.

  13. Monoclonal antibody-based dipstick assay: a reliable field applicable technique for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection using human serum and urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, Zeinab; Mohamed, Salwa; Hendawy, Mohamed; Rabia, Ibrahim; Attia, Mohy; Shaker, Zeinab; Diab, Tarek M

    2013-02-01

    A field applicable diagnostic technique, the dipstick assay, was evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing human Schistosoma mansoni infection. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) against S. mansoni adult worm tegumental antigen (AWTA) was employed in dipstick and sandwich ELISA for detection of circulating schistosome antigen (CSA) in both serum and urine samples. Based on clinical and parasitological examinations, 60 S. mansoni-infected patients, 30 patients infected with parasites other than schistosomiasis, and 30 uninfected healthy individuals were selected. The sensitivity and specificity of dipstick assay in urine samples were 86.7% and 90.0%, respectively, compared to 90.0% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity of sandwich ELISA. In serum samples, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.3% and 91.7% for dipstick assay vs. 91.7% and 95.0% for sandwich ELISA, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of dipstick assay in urine and serum samples was 88.3% and 90.0%, while it was 90.8% and 93.3% for sandwich ELISA, respectively. The diagnostic indices of dipstick assay and ELISA either in serum or in urine were statistically comparable (P>0.05). In conclusion, the dipstick assay offers an alternative simple, rapid, non-invasive technique in detecting CSA or complement to stool examinations especially in field studies.

  14. Ultratrace analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasuga, T.; Senthilkumar, K.; Watanabe, K.; Takemori, H. [Shimadzu Techno Research, Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Shoda, T. [Ehime Univ. Medical Research Center, Matsuyama (Japan); Kuroda, Y. [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. for Neuroscience, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In the present study, we established pretreatment and high sensitivity analytical method of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of humans for the first time. Analyzing serum and CSF samples from humans found unique because PCBs behavior and metabolism could be discerned. Furthermore, so far studies reported concentrations of OH-PCBs in wildlife samples obtained by HRGC-LRMS or GC-ECD data. In this study, we established cleanup and analytical methods by high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) using 1 mL of sample. Mainly, total PCBs and OH-PCBs in the CSF were extracted by specialized developed method. Using this method, PCBs and OH-PCBs could be determined swiftly. Based on this method, major OH-PCB congeners were detected from human, serum, CSF, control serum and Rhesus monkey plasma. Present methodology developed based on the isotope dilution technique using OH-PCBs standard and thus we suggest the present methodology could apply for ultra trace analysis of OHPCBs as well as total PCBs in human samples.

  15. Variation of calcium, copper and iron levels in serum, bile and stone samples of patients having different types of gallstone: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mustafa; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Sirajuddin; Bilal, Muhammad; Akhtar, Asma; Khan, Sabir; Kadar, Salma

    2017-08-01

    Epidemiological data among the human population has shown a significantly increased incidence of gallstone (GS) disease worldwide. It was studied that some essential (calcium) and transition elements (iron and copper) in bile play an important role in the development of GS. The estimation of calcium, copper and iron were carried out in the serum, gall bladder bile and different types of GS (cholesterol, mixed and pigmented) of 172 patients, age ranged 20-55years. For comparative purpose age matched referents not suffering from GS diseases were also selected. Biliary concentrations of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) were correlated with their concentrations in serum and different types of GS samples. The ratio of Ca, Fe and Cu in bile with serum was also calculated. Understudy metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy after acid decomposition of matrices of selected samples. The Ca concentrations in serum samples were significantly higher in patients with pigmented GS as compared to controls (p0.001). The contents of Cu and Fe in serum and bile of all patients (except female cholesterol GS patient have low serum iron concentration) were found to be higher than control, but difference was significant in those patients who have pigmented GS. The concentration of Ca, Fe and Cu in different types GS were found in the order, Pigmented>mixed>cholesterol. The bile/serum ratio for Ca, Cu and Fe was found to be significantly higher in pigmented GS patients. Gall bladder bile was slightly alkaline in patients as compared to referents. The density of bile was found to be higher in patients as compared to the referents. Various functional groups present in different types of GS samples were confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. The higher density and pH of bile, elevated concentrations of transition elements in all types of biological samples (serum, bile and GS), could be an important factor for the formation of different types of

  16. Transfer of test samples and wastes between post-irradiation test facilities (FMF, AGF, MMF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Yasukazu; Suzuki, Kazuhisa; Ebihara, Hikoe; Matsushima, Yasuyoshi; Kashiwabara, Hidechiyo

    1975-02-01

    Wide review is given on the problems associated with the transfer of test samples and wastes between post-irradiation test facilities, FMF (Fuel Monitoring Facility), AGF (Alpha Gamma Facility), and MMF (Material Monitoring Facility) at the Oarai Engineering Center, PNC. The test facilities are connected with the JOYO plant, an experimental fast reactor being constructed at Oarai. As introductory remarks, some special features of transferring irradiated materials are described. In the second part, problems on the management of nuclear materials and radio isotopes are described item by item. In the third part, the specific materials that are envisaged to be transported between JOYO and the test facilities are listed together with their geometrical shapes, dimensions, etc. In the fourth part, various routes and methods of transportation are explained with many block charts and figures. Brief explanation with lists and drawings is also given to transportation casks and vessels. Finally, some future problems are discussed, such as the prevention of diffusive contamination, ease of decontamination, and the identification of test samples. (Aoki, K.)

  17. Principles of Work Sample Testing. 1. A Non-Empirical Taxonomy of Test Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    UNIVERSITY % ’ Bowling Green , Ohio 43403 e April 1979 Contract DAHC 19-77-C-0007 Cj Prepared for U.S. ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTEfor the BEHAVIORAL and...inferring changes in enotionality, and GSR is said to be a measure of emotion . Much of psychological measurement is derived measurement, but it is...ARI TECHNICAL REPORT TR-79-A8 Principles of Work Sample Testingi I. A Non-Empirical Taxonomy of Test Uses b y Robert M. Guion BOWLING GREEN STATE

  18. The relative performance of bivariate causality tests in small samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, J..R.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Causality tests have been applied to establish directional effects and to reduce the set of potential predictors, For the latter type of application only bivariate tests can be used, In this study we compare bivariate causality tests. Although the problem addressed is general and could benefit

  19. Bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers: An effective adsorbent for solid phase extraction and slurry sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric analysis of cadmium and lead in water, hair, food and cigarette samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Erkan; Ocsoy, Ismail; Ozdemir, Nalan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-02-04

    Herein, the synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers (BSA-NFs) through the building blocks of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and copper(II) ions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and their use as adsorbent for cadmium and lead ions are reported. The BSA-NFs, for the first time, were efficiently utilized as novel adsorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE) of cadmium and lead ions in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. The method is based on the separation and pre-concentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by BSA-NFs prior to determination by slurry analysis via flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The analytes were adsorbed on BSA-NFs under the vortex mixing and then the ion-loaded slurry was separated and directly introduced into the flame AAS nebulizer by using a hand-made micro sample introduction system to eliminate a number of drawbacks. The effects of analytical key parameters, such as pH, amount of BSA-NFs, vortexing time, sample volume, and matrix effect of foreign ions on adsorbing of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were systematically investigated and optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were calculated as 0.37 μg L(-)(1) and 8.8 μg L(-)(1), respectively. The relative standard deviation percentages (RSDs) (N = 5) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 7.2%, and 5.0%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed procedure was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (TMDA-53.3 Fortified Water, TMDA-70 Fortified Water, SPS-WW2 Waste Water, NCSDC-73349 Bush Branches and Leaves) and by addition/recovery analysis. The quantitative recoveries were obtained for the analysis of certified reference materials and addition/recovery tests. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of cadmium and lead in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fabrication of an electrochemical nanoaptasensor based on AuNPs for ultrasensitive determination of cocaine in serum sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushani, Mahmoud; Shahdost-fard, Faezeh

    2016-01-01

    Herein we describe an ultrasensitive electrochemical nanoaptasensor for the detection of one of the most dangerous narcotic drugs available, cocaine. The nanoaptasensor was constructed by the covalent attachment of a 5′-NH 2 -3′-gold nanoparticles terminated aptamer on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode which was deposited with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs/GCE). It is worth noting that the interaction of the cysteamine stable self-assembled monolayer on the AuNPs/GCE surface and the covalent attachment of terephthalaldehyde via amide coupling with the amine groups in the cysteamine and aptamer, respectively, resulted in the covalent attachment of the aptamer to AuNPs/GCE. The presence of gold nanoparticles both on surface of the glassy carbon electrode and in the end of the aptamer, can provide advantages such as increase of active surface area, high acceleration of the electron transfer and improved electrochemical signal, respectively. The decrease in the peak current of [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3−/4− as the probe redox with increase of cocaine concentration, in differential pulse voltammetry as the measuring technique, from 5 pM up to 5 nM was linear and an unprecedented detection limit of 0.5 pM was yielded. Furthermore, the effect of some common analgesic drugs as the potential interferents were investigated and also, to evaluate practical application of the proposed nanoaptasensor human blood serum sample as a real sample was used. Simple preparation, low operation cost, speed and validity are the decisive factors of this method motivating its application to biosensing investigation. - Highlights: • An electrochemical nanoaptasensor for the detection of cocaine is presented. • An AuNPs terminated aptamer was covalent bonded on the surface of the AuNPs/GCE. • The presence of AuNPs has many advantages and improved electrochemical signal. • Two linear ranges from 5 pM up to 5 nM and an unprecedented LOD of 0.5 pM were yielded. • It will shed light on new

  1. Fabrication of an electrochemical nanoaptasensor based on AuNPs for ultrasensitive determination of cocaine in serum sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushani, Mahmoud, E-mail: mahmoudroushani@yahoo.com; Shahdost-fard, Faezeh

    2016-04-01

    Herein we describe an ultrasensitive electrochemical nanoaptasensor for the detection of one of the most dangerous narcotic drugs available, cocaine. The nanoaptasensor was constructed by the covalent attachment of a 5′-NH{sub 2}-3′-gold nanoparticles terminated aptamer on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode which was deposited with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs/GCE). It is worth noting that the interaction of the cysteamine stable self-assembled monolayer on the AuNPs/GCE surface and the covalent attachment of terephthalaldehyde via amide coupling with the amine groups in the cysteamine and aptamer, respectively, resulted in the covalent attachment of the aptamer to AuNPs/GCE. The presence of gold nanoparticles both on surface of the glassy carbon electrode and in the end of the aptamer, can provide advantages such as increase of active surface area, high acceleration of the electron transfer and improved electrochemical signal, respectively. The decrease in the peak current of [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−} as the probe redox with increase of cocaine concentration, in differential pulse voltammetry as the measuring technique, from 5 pM up to 5 nM was linear and an unprecedented detection limit of 0.5 pM was yielded. Furthermore, the effect of some common analgesic drugs as the potential interferents were investigated and also, to evaluate practical application of the proposed nanoaptasensor human blood serum sample as a real sample was used. Simple preparation, low operation cost, speed and validity are the decisive factors of this method motivating its application to biosensing investigation. - Highlights: • An electrochemical nanoaptasensor for the detection of cocaine is presented. • An AuNPs terminated aptamer was covalent bonded on the surface of the AuNPs/GCE. • The presence of AuNPs has many advantages and improved electrochemical signal. • Two linear ranges from 5 pM up to 5 nM and an unprecedented LOD of 0.5 pM were yielded. • It will shed

  2. Enhanced Sampling and Analysis, Selection of Technology for Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svoboda, John; Meikrantz, David

    2010-02-01

    The focus of this study includes the investigation of sampling technologies used in industry and their potential application to nuclear fuel processing. The goal is to identify innovative sampling methods using state of the art techniques that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements. This report details the progress made in the first half of FY 2010 and includes a further consideration of the research focus and goals for this year. Our sampling options and focus for the next generation sampling method are presented along with the criteria used for choosing our path forward. We have decided to pursue the option of evaluating the feasibility of microcapillary based chips to remotely collect, transfer, track and supply microliters of sample solutions to analytical equipment in support of aqueous processes for used nuclear fuel cycles. Microchip vendors have been screened and a choice made for the development of a suitable microchip design followed by production of samples for evaluation by ANL, LANL, and INL on an independent basis.

  3. REDESIGN OF CERNS QUADRUPOLE RESONATOR FOR TESTING OF SUPERCONDUCTING SAMPLES

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pozo Romano, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    The quadrupole resonator (QPR) was constructed in 1997 to measure the surface resistance of niobium samples at 400 MHz, the technology and RF frequency chosen for the LHC. It allows measurement of the RF properties of superconducting films deposited on disk-shaped metallic substrates. The samples are used to study different coatings which is much faster than the coating, stripping and re-coating of sample cavities. An electromagnetic and mechanical re-design of the existing QPR has been done with the goal of doubling the magnetic peak fields on the samples. Electromagnetic simulations were carried out on a completely parametrized model, using the existings QPR as baseline and modifying its dimensions. The aim was to optimize the measurement range and resolution by increasing the ratio between the magnetic peak fields on the sample and in the cavity. Increasing the average magnetic field on the sample leads to a more homogenous field distribution over the sample. Some of the modifications were based on t...

  4. An evaluation of multiplex bead-based analysis of cytokines and soluble proteins in archived lithium heparin plasma, EDTA plasma and serum samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Line; Sørensen, Brita Singers; Eriksen, Jesper Grau

    2016-01-01

    -13, and VEGF, LH plasma levels vs. EDTA plasma: IL-2 and IL-4. CONCLUSION: Stored serum, LH plasma, and EDTA plasma from clinical trials can be used for analysis of circulating cytokines and proteins. Variations in measurements occur, but are within reasonable ranges. The optimal type of media...... in plasma and serum from 86 head and neck cancer patients and 33 controls were evaluated: EGFR, leptin, OPN, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, IL-2, IL-13, PDGF-bb, TNF, PAI-1, SDF-1a, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, eotaxin, G-CSF, VEGF, GRO-a, and HGF. RESULTS: The correlation between measurements of the same samples analyzed...... on different dates was reasonable. However, samples run on different dates could exhibit different absolute values. The 75th percentile of the fold differences for samples run on different dates was 2.2. No significant difference was found between one and four freeze-thaw cycles (except for HGF...

  5. Serum Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) Activity: A Novel Screening Test to Differentiate HIV Monoinfection From HIV-HBV and HIV-HCV Coinfections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Mohammad; Rahbari, Rizgar; Khatooni, Zahed; Naseri, Nima; Najafi, Adel; Khodadadi, Iraj

    2016-05-01

    CD4(+) cell count, the common HIV infection screening test, is costly and unable to differentiate HIV monoinfection from its concurrent infection with hepatitis B or C virus. We aimed to ascertain diagnostic value of serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity as a useful tool to differentiate HIV mono- and co-infection. Blood samples were collected from 30 HIV-HBV and 30 HIV-HCV coinfected patients, 33 HIV positive subjects, and 72 controls. CD4(+) cell count, serum total ADA (tADA), and ADA1, and ADA2 isoenzyme activities were determined and their sensitivity and specificity were computed. tADA and ADA2 activities were significantly higher and CD4(+) counts were markedly lower in all patients compared with controls. Strong inverse agreements between CD4(+) cell counts and both tADA and ADA2 activities were observed. Serum tADA and ADA1 activities showed the highest specificity and the highest sensitivity, respectively, for differentiating HIV monoinfection from HIV-HBV and HIV-HCV coinfections. We showed strong agreement and correlation between CD4(+) cell count and ADA enzyme activity. Based on high ADA sensitivity and specificity, it is concluded that determination of ADA activity might be a novel diagnostic tool to distinguish of HIV monoinfection from its coinfection with HBV or HCV. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Statistics of sampling for microbiological testing of foodborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the many recent advances in protocols for testing for pathogens in foods, a number of challenges still exist. For example, the microbiological safety of food cannot be completely ensured by testing because microorganisms are not evenly distributed throughout the food. Therefore, since it i...

  7. Hand-held optical sensor using denatured antibody coated electro-active polymer for ultra-trace detection of copper in blood serum and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sutapa; Dhawangale, Arvind; Mukherji, Soumyo

    2018-07-01

    An optimum copper concentration in environment is highly desired for all forms of life. We have developed an ultrasensitive copper sensor which functions from femto to micro molar concentration accurately (R 2 = 0.98). The sensor is based on denatured antibody immunoglobulin G (IgG), immobilized on polyaniline (PAni) which in turn is the coating on the core of an optical fiber. The sensing relies on changes in evanescent wave absorbance in the presence of the analyte. The sensor showed excellent selectivity towards Cu (II) ions over all other metal ions. The sensor was tested with lake and marine water samples to determine unknown concentrations of copper ions and the recovery results were within 90-115%, indicating reasonable accuracy. We further integrated the fiber-optic sensor with a miniaturized hand-held instrumentation platform to develop an accurate and field deployable device which can broadly be applicable to determine Cu (II) concentration in a wide range of systems - natural water bodies, soil as well as blood serum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Implementation of a SPR immunosensor for the simultaneous detection of the 22K and 20K hGH isoforms in human serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Juan-Franco, Elena; Rodríguez-Frade, J M; Mellado, M; Lechuga, Laura M

    2013-09-30

    We have implemented a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) immunosensor based on a sandwich assay for the simultaneous detection of the two main hGH isoforms, of 22 kDa (22K) and 20 kDa (20K). An oriented-antibody sensor surface specific for both hormone isoforms was assembled by using the biotin-streptavidin system. The immunosensor functionality was checked for the direct detection of the 22K hGH isoform in buffer, which gave high specificity and reproducibility (intra and inter-assay mean coefficients of variation of 8.23% and 9% respectively). The selective determination of the 22K and 20K hGH isoforms in human serum samples in a single assay was possible by using two specific anti-hGH monoclonal antibodies. The detection limit for both hormone isoforms was 0.9 ng mL(-1) and the mean coefficient of variation was below 7.2%. The excellent reproducibility and sensitivity obtained indicate the high performance of this immunosensor for implementing an anti-doping test. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimum sample size allocation to minimize cost or maximize power for the two-sample trimmed mean test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiin-Huarng; Luh, Wei-Ming

    2009-05-01

    When planning a study, sample size determination is one of the most important tasks facing the researcher. The size will depend on the purpose of the study, the cost limitations, and the nature of the data. By specifying the standard deviation ratio and/or the sample size ratio, the present study considers the problem of heterogeneous variances and non-normality for Yuen's two-group test and develops sample size formulas to minimize the total cost or maximize the power of the test. For a given power, the sample size allocation ratio can be manipulated so that the proposed formulas can minimize the total cost, the total sample size, or the sum of total sample size and total cost. On the other hand, for a given total cost, the optimum sample size allocation ratio can maximize the statistical power of the test. After the sample size is determined, the present simulation applies Yuen's test to the sample generated, and then the procedure is validated in terms of Type I errors and power. Simulation results show that the proposed formulas can control Type I errors and achieve the desired power under the various conditions specified. Finally, the implications for determining sample sizes in experimental studies and future research are discussed.

  10. [Guidelines concerning sample reception and request recording of laboratory tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, P; Dhondt, J L; Drouard, L; Houlbert, C; Soubiran, P; Szymanowicz, A

    2010-12-01

    The process is described to help to achieve the requirements of the ISO 15189 standard. The precautions to be respected for a correct recording of the request are specified. The criteria for traceability are formalized. A logogram illustrates the propositions of attitude to be followed when occurs nonconformities. Then, we propose guidelines for the treatment of the identification uncertainties of the primary sample. An algorithm is proposed to formalize the process and treat the situations which can be met with an irreplaceable or critical sample.

  11. Performing IgE serum testing due to bioinformatics matches in the allergenicity assessment of GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard E

    2008-10-01

    Proteins introduced into genetically modified (GM) organisms through genetic engineering must be evaluated for their potential to cause allergic disease under various national laws and regulations. The Codex Alimentarius Commission guidance document (2003) calls for testing of serum IgE binding to the introduced protein if the gene was from an allergenic source, or the sequence of the transferred protein has >35% identity in any segment of 80 or more amino acids to a known allergen or shares significant short amino acid identities. The Codex guidance recognized that the assessment will evolve based on new scientific knowledge. Arguably, the current criteria are too conservative as discussed in this paper and they do not provide practical guidance on serum testing. The goals of this paper are: (1) to summarize evidence supporting the level of identity that indicates potential risk of cross-reactivity for those with existing allergies; (2) to provide example bioinformatics results and discuss their interpretation using published examples of proteins expressed in transgenic crops; and (3) to discuss key factors of experimental design and methodology for serum IgE tests to minimize the rate of false negative and false positive identification of potential allergens and cross-reactive proteins.

  12. Defined culture medium for stem cell differentiation: applicability of serum-free conditions in the mouse embryonic stem cell test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeling, Christian; Schlechter, Katharina; Buesen, Roland; Spielmann, Horst; Luch, Andreas; Seiler, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    The embryonic stem cell test (EST) is a validated method to assess the developmental toxicity potency of chemicals. It was developed to reduce animal use and allow faster testing for hazard assessment. The cells used in this method are maintained and differentiated in media containing foetal calf serum. This animal product is of considerable variation in quality, and individual batches require extensive testing for their applicability in the EST. Moreover, its production involves a large number of foetuses and possible animal suffering. We demonstrate the serum-free medium and feeder cell-free maintenance of the mouse embryonic stem cell line D3 and investigate the use of specific growth factors for induction of cardiac differentiation. Using a combination of bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone morphogenetic protein-4, activin A and ascorbic acid, embryoid bodies efficiently differentiated into contracting myocardium. Additionally, examining levels of intracellular marker proteins by flow cytometry not only confirmed differentiation into cardiomyocytes, but demonstrated significant differentiation into neuronal cells in the same time frame. Thus, this approach might allow for simultaneous detection of developmental effects on both early mesodermal and neuroectodermal differentiation. The serum-free conditions for maintenance and differentiation of D3 cells described here enhance the transferability and standardisation and hence the performance of the EST. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Sample Preparation and Testing Procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology,. 3. Murray Rix ... the application of laboratory testing and ... clay, tropical red clay, lateritic clay and laterite, ..... grading curves using mass and modified mass.

  14. Tissue and serum samples of patients with papillary thyroid cancer with and without benign background demonstrate different altered expression of proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiaty Iryani Abdullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC is mainly diagnosed using fine-needle aspiration biopsy. This most common form of well-differentiated thyroid cancer occurs with or without a background of benign thyroid goiter (BTG. Methods In the present study, a gel-based proteomics analysis was performed to analyse the expression of proteins in tissue and serum samples of PTC patients with (PTCb; n = 6 and without a history of BTG (PTCa; n = 8 relative to patients with BTG (n = 20. This was followed by confirmation of the levels of proteins which showed significant altered abundances of more than two-fold difference (p < 0.01 in the tissue and serum samples of the same subjects using ELISA. Results The data of our study showed that PTCa and PTCb distinguish themselves from BTG in the types of tissue and serum proteins of altered abundance. While higher levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT and heat shock 70 kDa protein were associated with PTCa, lower levels of A1AT, protein disulfide isomerase and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 N seemed apparent in the PTCb. In case of the serum proteins, higher abundances of A1AT and alpha 1-beta glycoprotein were detected in PTCa, while PTCb was associated with enhanced apolipoprotein A-IV and alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG. The different altered expression of tissue and serum A1AT as well as serum AHSG between PTCa and PTCb patients were also validated by ELISA. Discussion The distinctive altered abundances of the tissue and serum proteins form preliminary indications that PTCa and PTCb are two distinct cancers of the thyroid that are etiologically and mechanistically different although it is currently not possible to rule out that they may also be due other reasons such as the different stages of the malignant disease. These proteins stand to have a potential use as tissue or serum biomarkers to discriminate the three different thyroid neoplasms although this requires further validation in clinically

  15. Neutron-Irradiated Samples as Test Materials for MPEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Ronald James; Rapp, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Plasma Material Interaction (PMI) is a major concern in fusion reactor design and analysis. The Material-Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) will explore PMI under fusion reactor plasma conditions. Samples with accumulated displacements per atom (DPA) damage produced by fast neutron irradiations in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be studied in the MPEX facility. This paper presents assessments of the calculated induced radioactivity and resulting radiation dose rates of a variety of potential fusion reactor plasma-facing materials (such as tungsten). The scientific code packages MCNP and SCALE were used to simulate irradiation of the samples in HFIR including the generation and depletion of nuclides in the material and the subsequent composition, activity levels, gamma radiation fields, and resultant dose rates as a function of cooling time. A challenge of the MPEX project is to minimize the radioactive inventory in the preparation of the samples and the sample dose rates for inclusion in the MPEX facility

  16. Rapid and sensitive lateral flow immunoassay method for determining alpha fetoprotein in serum using europium (III) chelate microparticles-based lateral flow test strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Rong-Liang; Xu, Xu-Ping; Liu, Tian-Cai; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Wang, Xian-Guo; Ren, Zhi-Qi [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, Guangdong (China); Hao, Fen [DaAn Gene Co. Ltd. of Sun Yat-sen University, 19 Xiangshan Road, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Wu, Ying-Song, E-mail: wg@smu.edu.cn [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, Guangdong (China)

    2015-09-03

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a primary marker for many diseases including various cancers, is important in clinical tumor diagnosis and antenatal screening. Most immunoassays provide high sensitivity and accuracy for determining AFP, but they are expensive, often complex, time-consuming procedures. A simple and rapid point-of-care system that integrates Eu (III) chelate microparticles with lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) has been developed to determine AFP in serum with an assay time of 15 min. The approach is based on a sandwich immunoassay performed on lateral flow test strips. A fluorescence strip reader was used to measure the fluorescence peak heights of the test line (H{sub T}) and the control line (H{sub C}); the H{sub T}/H{sub C} ratio was used for quantitation. The Eu (III) chelate microparticles-based LFIA assay exhibited a wide linear range (1.0–1000 IU mL{sup −1}) for AFP with a low limit of detection (0.1 IU mL{sup −1}) based on 5ul of serum. Satisfactory specificity and accuracy were demonstrated and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) for AFP were both <10%. Furthermore, in the analysis of human serum samples, excellent correlation (n = 284, r = 0.9860, p < 0.0001) was obtained between the proposed method and a commercially available CLIA kit. Results indicated that the Eu (III) chelate microparticles-based LFIA system provided a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for determining AFP in serum, indicating that it would be suitable for development in point-of-care testing. - Highlights: • Europium (III) chelate microparticles was used as a label for LIFA. • Quantitative detection by using H{sub T}/H{sub C} ratio was achieved. • LIFA for simple and rapid AFP detection in human serum. • The sensitivity and linearity was more excellent compared with QD-based ICTS. • This method could be developed for rapid point-of-care screening.

  17. Performance of an adult Brazilian sample on the Trail Making Test and Stroop Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Repiso Campanholo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The Trail Making Test (TMT and Stroop Test (ST are attention tests widely used in clinical practice and research. The aim of this study was to provide normative data for the adult Brazilian population and to study the influence of gender, age and education on the TMT parts A and B, and ST cards A, B and C. Methods: We recruited 1447 healthy subjects aged ≥18 years with an educational level of 0-25 years who were native speakers of Portuguese (Brazilian. The subjects were evaluated by the Matrix Reasoning and Vocabulary subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III, along with the TMTA, TMTB and ST A, B and C. Results: Among the participants, mean intellectual efficiency was 103.20 (SD: 12.0, age 41.0 (SD: 16.4 years and education 11.9 (SD: 5.6 years. There were significant differences between genders on the TMTA (p=0.002, TMTB (p=0.017 and STC (p=0.024. Age showed a positive correlation with all attention tests, whereas education showed a negative correlation. Gender was not found to be significant on the multiple linear regression model, but age and education maintained their interference. Conclusion: Gender did not have the major impact on attentional tasks observed for age and education, both of which should be considered in the stratification of normative samples.

  18. Analysis of ethyl glucuronide in human serum by capillary electrophoresis with sample self-stacking and indirect detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánková, Ludmila; Caslavska, J.; Malášková, Hana; Gebauer, Petr; Thormann, W.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1081, č. 1 (2005), s. 2-8 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ethyl glucuronide * capillary electrophoresis * serum Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.096, year: 2005

  19. Reliability of Serum Metabolites over a Two-Year Period: A Targeted Metabolomic Approach in Fasting and Non-Fasting Samples from EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaintre, David; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Key, Timothy J.; Onland Moret, N. Charlotte; Scalbert, Augustin; Rinaldi, Sabina; Ferrari, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although metabolic profiles have been associated with chronic disease risk, lack of temporal stability of metabolite levels could limit their use in epidemiological investigations. The present study aims to evaluate the reliability over a two-year period of 158 metabolites and compare reliability over time in fasting and non-fasting serum samples. Methods Metabolites were measured with the AbsolueIDQp180 kit (Biocrates, Innsbruck, Austria) by mass spectrometry and included acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, hexoses, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins. Measurements were performed on repeat serum samples collected two years apart in 27 fasting men from Turin, Italy, and 39 non-fasting women from Utrecht, The Netherlands, all participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Reproducibility was assessed by estimating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) in multivariable mixed models. Results In fasting samples, a median ICC of 0.70 was observed. ICC values were fasting samples, the median ICC was 0.54. ICC values were fasting as compared to fasting samples, with a statistically significant difference for 19–36% of acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins. Conclusion A single measurement per individual may be sufficient for the study of 73% and 52% of the metabolites showing ICCs >0.50 in fasting and non-fasting samples, respectively. ICCs were higher in fasting samples that are preferable to non-fasting. PMID:26274920

  20. Simultaneous UHPLC-UV analysis of hydroxychloroquine, minocycline and doxycycline from serum samples for the therapeutic drug monitoring of Q fever and Whipple's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Nicholas; Richez, Magali; Raoult, Didier; Chabriere, Eric

    2017-08-15

    A fast UHPLC-UV method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of Hydroxychloroquine, Minocycline and Doxycycline drugs from 100μL of human serum samples. Serum samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and injected into a phenyl hexyl reverse phase column. Compounds were separated using a mobile phase linear gradient and monitored by UV detection at 343nm. Chloroquine and Oxytetracycline were used as internal standards. Lower and upper limits of quantifications, as well as the other levels of calibration, were validated with acceptable accuracy (<15% deviation) and precision (<15% coefficient of variation) according to the European Medicines Agency guidelines. This new method enables cost and time reduction and was considered suitable for the clinical laboratory. It is the first published assay for the therapeutic drug monitoring of patients diagnosed with Q fever or Whipple's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 40 CFR 205.160-2 - Test sample selection and preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test sample selection and preparation... sample selection and preparation. (a) Vehicles comprising the sample which are required to be tested... maintained in any manner unless such preparation, tests, modifications, adjustments or maintenance are part...

  2. Small Sample Robust Testing for Normality against Pareto Tails

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stehlík, M.; Fabián, Zdeněk; Střelec, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 7 (2012), s. 1167-1194 ISSN 0361-0918 Grant - others:Aktion(CZ-AT) 51p7, 54p21, 50p14, 54p13 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : consistency * Hill estimator * t-Hill estimator * location functional * Pareto tail * power comparison * returns * robust tests for normality Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.295, year: 2012

  3. Apparatus for Crossflow Filtration Testing of High Level Waste Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.

    1998-05-01

    Remotely-operated experimental apparatuses for verifying crossflow filtration of high level nuclear waste have been constructed at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These units have been used to demonstrate filtration processes at the Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The current work covers the design considerations for experimentation as well as providing results from testing at SRS

  4. The EGG 57-CO B-12 absorption test, in the evaluation of patients with low serum B-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinow, R.M.; Carmel, R.; Siegel, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Schilling Test (ST) is the standard test for diagnosing vitamin B-12 malabsorption (MA). However, patients with subtle gastric dysfunction may have normal ST, but impaired absorption of B-12 given with food. The authors have adapted an Egg B-12 Absorption Test (EBAT) in which 57-Co cyanocobalamin (57-Co B-12) is mixed with scrambled egg to evaluate this phenomenon in patients with low serum B-12, normal ST and possible subtle MA. Lyophilized egg yolk is reconstituted and mixed with 57-Co- B-12 of equal dose to that of ST. The authors studied 46 individuals: 13 controls, 5 patients with known pernicious anemia (PA), in addition to 28 patients with low serum B-12 levels and normal ST. ST/EBAT ratios were calculated. Twenty-eight test patients excreted 13.3% on ST and 3.5% on EBAT. Mean ST/EBAT ratio was 8.2 (1.4-35.9). Five had EBAT results in the PA range (<1%) and ST/EBAT ratios (14.4-35.9) that were significantly elevated. This group is also evaluated with pepsinogen I/II ratios, gastric analysis, deoxyuridine suppression tests, anti intrinsic factor, and antiparietal cell antibodies. The authors' results indicate that the EBAT can differentiate between PA and non PA patients, and that some patients with low serum B-12 levels and normal ST may, in fact, have subtle MA. The EBAT, combined with ST/EBAT ratio, may provide a means for identifying this group of patients

  5. RENAL FUNCTION TEST ON THE BASIS OF SERUM CREATININE AND UREA IN TYPE-2 DIABETICS AND NONDIABETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type-2 diabetes mellitus has quickly become a global health problem due to rapidly increasing population growth, aging, urbanization and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major causes of chronic renal failure. Both serum urea and creatinine are widely used to assess the function of kidney. This study was conducted to observe the impaired renal function in type 2 diabetics and compare with non-diabetics controls. Method: To determine the incidence of renal dysfunction in diabetics in Nepalgunj medical college and Hospital , Nepalgunj , Banke, Nepal , blood samples from 100 diabetic subjects and 100 non-diabetic controls were taken between the period 1st February  , 2012  to  31st January , 2013 for investigation of  plasma glucose fasting(FPG, blood urea and serum creatinine. These biochemical parameters were determined by using a fully automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: Our findings showed that the level of blood urea (P<0.0001, 95%Cl and serum creatinine (P≈0.0004,95%Cl were significantly higher in type 2 diabetics as compared to non-diabetics in both male and female. There was no significant difference between diabetic male and female. 15 out of 100 diabetes samples have high urea level whereas 7 out of 100 had increased creatinine level. In control only 3 samples had high urea value and 1 had high creatinine level. There was statistical significant increased in urea level with increased in blood sugar level. Conclusion: Blood urea and creatinine is widely accepted to assess the renal functions. Good control of blood glucose level is absolute requirement to prevent progressive renal impairment.

  6. Comparison of 2 electronic cowside tests to detect subclinical ketosis in dairy cows and the influence of the temperature and type of blood sample on the test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwersen, M; Klein-Jöbstl, D; Pichler, M; Roland, L; Fidlschuster, B; Schwendenwein, I; Drillich, M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of 2 electronic hand-held devices [FreeStyle Precision (FSP), Abbott GmbH & Co. KG, Wiesbaden, Germany and GlucoMen LX Plus (GLX), A. Menarini GmbH, Vienna, Austria] for measuring β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in dairy cows. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate (1) the diagnostic performance of the devices, (2) the effect of the type of blood sample, and (3) the influence of the ambient temperature on the determined results. A total of 415 blood samples from lactating Holstein and Simmental cows were collected and analyzed with both devices (whole blood) and in a laboratory (serum). Correlation coefficients between whole-blood and serum BHBA concentrations were highly significant, with 94% for the FSP and 80% for the GLX device. Based on thresholds for subclinical ketosis of 1.2 and 1.4 mmol of BHBA/L, results obtained with the hand-held devices were evaluated by receiver operating characteristics analyses. This resulted in adjusted thresholds of 1.2 and 1.4 mmol/L for the FSP and 1.1 and 1.3 mmol/L for the GLX device. Applying these thresholds, sensitivities were 98 and 100% for the FSP and 80 and 86% for the GLX device, respectively. Corresponding specificities were 90 and 97% for the FSP and 87 and 96% for the GLX device, respectively. Additionally, concentrations of BHBA were tested with both devices in whole blood, EDTA-added whole blood, and in their resulting serum and plasma, collected from 65 animals. Determined BHBA concentrations were similar within each device for whole and EDTA-added blood, and in serum and plasma, but differed between whole blood and serum and between EDTA-added blood and plasma. Blood samples with low (0.4 mmol/L), medium (1.1 mmol/L), and high (1.6 mmol/L) BHBA concentrations were stored between +5 to +32°C and analyzed repeatedly at temperature levels differing by 4°C. Additionally, devices and test strips were stored at equal conditions and used for measurement

  7. Prevalence of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV in Mardan, Hangu and Kohat District of Pakistan; Comparative Analysis of PPRV Suspected serum samples using Competitive ELISA (cELISA and Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misbah Aslam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits Ruminants (PPR is an acute, febrile, highly contagious and economically important viral disease of small ruminants. However PPR is more prevalent in sheep and goat. Competitive ELISA, Virus neutrilization test, and RT-PCR are the available techniques for diagnosis of PPR which give rapid detection where as Agar gel immunodiffusion and Counter immunoelectrophoresis were previously used for PPR detection. In this study two serological techniques were compared for PPR diagnosis. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative sensitivity of both techniques for PPR detection. For this purpose one hundred and sixty PPR suspected serum samples collected from goats and sheep flocks (unvaccinated from three Districts of NWFP including Mardan, Hangu and Kohat were analyzed in National Veterinary Laboratories, Islamabad. Out of these 160 samples, fifty (50 were found positive for PPR antibodies with cELISA (Prevalence = 31.25%. The cELISA positive serum samples however gave negative results when tested with AGID although the control well was always positive. Thus it was concluded that cELISA technique is more sensitive and specific than AGID for PPR antibody detection. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 89-92

  8. Validation of a serum neutralization test for detection of antibodies specific to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in infected common and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabon, J; Louboutin, L; Castric, J; Bergmann, S; Bovo, G; Matras, M; Haenen, O; Olesen, N J; Morin, T

    2017-05-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a serious infective, notifiable disease affecting common carp and varieties. In survivors, infection is generally characterized by a subclinical latency phase with restricted viral replication. The CyHV-3 genome is difficult to detect in such carrier fish that represent a potential source of dissemination if viral reactivation occurs. In this study, the analytical and diagnostic performance of an alternative serum neutralization (SN) method based on the detection of CyHV-3-specific antibodies was assessed using 151 serum or plasma samples from healthy and naturally or experimentally CyHV-3-infected carp. French CyHV-3 isolate 07/108b was neutralized efficiently by sera from carp infected with European, American and Taiwanese CyHV-3 isolates, but no neutralization was observed using sera specific to other aquatic herpesviruses. Diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity and repeatability of 95.9%, 99.0% and 99.3%, respectively, were obtained, as well as a compliance rate of 89.9% in reproducibility testing. Neutralizing antibodies were steadily detected in infected carp subjected to restrictive or permissive temperature variations over more than 25 months post-infection. The results suggest that this non-lethal diagnostic test could be used in the future to improve the epidemiological surveillance and control of CyHV-3 disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. On the matched pairs sign test using bivariate ranked set sampling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BVRSS) is introduced and investigated. We show that this test is asymptotically more efficient than its counterpart sign test based on a bivariate simple random sample (BVSRS). The asymptotic null distribution and the efficiency of the test are derived.

  10. Operability test procedure for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System Exhausters 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WSaldo, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a procedure for performing operability testing of the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System Exhausters 3 ampersand 4. Upon completion of testing activities an operability testing report will be issued

  11. TESTING IN SITU ASSEMBLY WITH THE KEPLER PLANET CANDIDATE SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Brad M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Murray, Norm, E-mail: hansen@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: murray@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2013-09-20

    We present a Monte Carlo model for the structure of low-mass (total mass <25 M{sub ⊕}) planetary systems that form by the in situ gravitational assembly of planetary embryos into final planets. Our model includes distributions of mass, eccentricity, inclination, and period spacing that are based on the simulation of a disk of 20 M{sub ⊕}, forming planets around a solar-mass star, and assuming a power-law surface density distribution that drops with distance a as ∝ a {sup –1.5}. The output of the Monte Carlo model is then subjected to the selection effects that mimic the observations of a transiting planet search such as that performed by the Kepler satellite. The resulting comparison of the output to the properties of the observed sample yields an encouraging agreement in terms of the relative frequencies of multiple-planet systems and the distribution of the mutual inclinations when moderate tidal circularization is taken into account. The broad features of the period distribution and radius distribution can also be matched within this framework, although the model underpredicts the distribution of small period ratios. This likely indicates that some dissipation is still required in the formation process. The most striking deviation between the model and observations is in the ratio of single to multiple systems in that there are roughly 50% more single-planet candidates observed than are produced in any model population. This suggests that some systems must suffer additional attrition to reduce the number of planets or increase the range of inclinations.

  12. Trends in serum creatinine testing in Oxfordshire, UK, 1993-2013: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Jason; Shine, Brian; McFadden, Emily; Stevens, Richard; Lasserson, Daniel; Perera, Rafael

    2015-12-16

    To determine how many kidney function tests are done, on whom, how frequently they are performed and how they have changed over time. Retrospective study of all serum creatinine, urine albumin and urine creatinine tests. Primary and secondary care in Oxfordshire from 1993 to 2013. Unselected population of 1,220,447 people. The total number of creatinine and urinary protein tests ordered from primary and secondary care and the number of tests per year stratified by categories of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The frequency of testing in patients having their kidney function monitored. Creatinine requests from primary care increased steadily from 1997 and exceeded 220,000 requests in 2013. Tests corresponding to normal kidney function (eGFR >60/mL/min/1.73 m(2)) constituted 59% of all kidney function tests in 1993 and accounted for 83% of all tests in 2013. Test corresponding to chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3-5 declined after 2007. Reduced kidney function, albuminuria, male gender, diabetes and age were independently associated with more frequent monitoring. For a female patient between 61 and 80 years and with stage 3a CKD, the average number of serum creatinine tests (95% CI) was 3.23/year (3.19 to 3.26) and for a similar woman with diabetes, the average number of tests was 5.50 (5.44 to 5.56) tests per year. There has been a large increase in the number of kidney function tests over the past two decades. However, we found little evidence that this increase is detecting more CKD. Tests are becoming more frequent in people with and without evidence of renal impairment. Future work using a richer data source could help unravel the underlying reasons for the increased testing and determine how much is necessary and useful. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Molecular detection of Borrelia bissettii DNA in serum samples from patients in the Czech Republic with suspected borreliosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Růžek, Daniel; Piskunova, N.; Mallátová, N.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 292, č. 2 (2009), s. 274-281 ISSN 0378-1097 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/1479 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia bissettii in human serum * causative agent * co-infection * co-detection of different species * phylogenetic analysis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2009

  14. ELISA Cut-off Point for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis; a Comparison with Serum Agglutination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a world-wide disease, which has a diverse clinical manifestation, and its diagnosis has to be proven by laboratory data. Serum agglutination test (SAT is the most-widely used test for diagnosing brucellosis. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA can also determine specific antibody classes against brucella. It is a sensitive, simple and rapid test, which could be an acceptable alternative to SAT with fewer limitations, however, like any other new test it should be further evaluated and standardized for various populations. This study was planned to determine an optimal cut-off point, for ELISA which would offer maximum sensitivity and specificity for the test when compared to SAT.Methods: Four hundred and seven patients with fever and other compatible symptoms of brucellosis were enrolled in the study. Serum agglutination test, 2-Mercaptoethanol test, and ELISA were performed on their sera. Results: The cut-off point of 53 IU/ml of ELISA-IgG yielded the maximal sensitivity and specificity comparing to the other levels of ELISA-IgG, and was considered the best cut off-point of ELISA-IgG to diagnose acute brucellosis. At this cut-off, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 84.09%, 85.38%, 62.20, 94.90, 5.75, 0.18, respectively.Conclusion: The best cut-off point of ELISA-IgG is 53 IU/ml, which yields the maximal sensitivity and specificity to diagnose acute brucellosis.

  15. Ultrasonic energy enhanced the efficiency of advance extraction methodology for enrichment of trace level of copper in serum samples of patients having neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Mariam S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Ali, Jamshed; Akhtar, Asma

    2017-07-01

    An innovative dual dispersive ionic liquid based on ultrasound assisted microextraction (UDIL-μE), for the enrichment of trace levels of copper ion (Cu 2+ ), in serum (blood) of patients suffering from different neurological disorders. The enriched metal ions were subjected to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). In the UDIL-μE method, the extraction solvent, ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C 4 mim][PF 6 ], was dispersed into the aqueous samples using an ultrasonic bath. The(PAN) 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol was used as ligand for the complexation of Cu ion in IL (as extracting solvent). The various variables such as sonication time, pH, concentration of complexing agent, time and rate of centrifugation, IL volume that affect the extraction process were optimized. The enhancement factor (EF) and detection limit (LOD) was found under favorable condition was 31 and 0.36μgL -1 , respectively. Reliability of the proposed method was checked by relative standard deviation (%RSD), which was found to be <5%. The accuracy of developed procedure was assured by using certified reference material (CRM) of blood serum. The developed procedure was applied successfully to the analysis of concentration of Cu ion in blood serum of different neurological disorders subjects and referents of same age group. It was observed that the levels of Cu ion was two folds higher in serum samples of neurological disorders patients as related to normal referents of same age group. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Multiple sclerosis test or the 4 humors: cerebrospinal fluid serum, tears and saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehninger Gatti, C.; Buzo Del Puerto, R.; Chouza Antelo, C.; Scotti Bianchi, C.; Cibils, D.; Alcantara Pelaez, J.; Gomez, A.; Heuguerot Oliveira, C.

    1994-01-01

    4 were studied biological fluids easily accessible to the immune exploration (cerebrospinal fluid, serum, tears and saliva) in 25 patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) during a push clinical disease. The level of interleukin-2 receptor soluble (RsIL-2) was significantly increased by at least 3 of these 4 fluids, compared with normal controls. The sensitivity and specificity of its determination for the diagnosis of the condition was higher than other immunochemical parameters, oligoclonal distribution (OD) of immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain imbalance-and-evoked electrophysiological studies. This method is used to establish a more accurate diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis as well as to monitor its biological activity with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (Author) [es

  17. Validation of an indirect ELISA to detect antibodies against BoHV-1 in bovine and guinea-pig serum samples using ISO/IEC 17025 standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreño, Viviana; Romera, S Alejandra; Makek, Lucia; Rodriguez, Daniela; Malacari, Darío; Maidana, Silvina; Compaired, Diego; Combessies, Gustavo; Vena, María Marta; Garaicoechea, Lorena; Wigdorovitz, Andrés; Marangunich, Laura; Fernandez, Fernando

    2010-10-01

    Two ELISAs to quantify antibodies to BoHV-1 in the sera of cattle and immunized guinea pigs were developed and validated using ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The cut-off value of the assay was established at 20% positivity of a high positive control for screening of cattle. Using this threshold, the assay properly classified the OIE bovine reference sera EU1, EU2 and EU3. For vaccine potency testing, a cut-off of 40% was selected for both species. The reliability of the assays, given by their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, using the threshold of 40% was 89.7% and 100%, respectively, for bovines and 94.9% and 100% for guinea pigs, respectively. There was almost perfect agreement between the ELISA and virus neutralization results. In addition, after vaccination, there was a good correlation between the neutralizing and ELISA antibody titers of the serum from the same bovine or guinea pig, sampled at 60 and 30 days post-vaccination, respectively (R(bovine)=0.88, R(guinea pig)=0.92; p<0.0001). A similar correlation was observed when analyzing the mean antibody titers of groups of vaccinated animals (R(bovine)=0.95 and R(guinea pig)=0.97; p<0.0001), indicating the relevance of the ELISAs for batch to batch vaccine potency testing in the target species and in the laboratory animal model. The intermediate precision of the assays expressed as the relative coefficient of variation (CV) of the positive control assayed over a 3-year period in the same laboratory was 22.2% for bovines and 23.1% for guinea pigs. The reproducibility of both techniques obtained in inter-laboratory assays was CV=12.4% for bovines and CV approximately 0 for guinea pigs, which met the requirements of the OIE (CV<30%). The validated ELISAs represent important methods for vaccine potency testing and for controlling BoHV-1 infections. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Total Effective Xenoestrogen Burden in Serum Samples and Risk for Breast Cancer in a Population-Based Multicase–Control Study in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Fernández, Mariana F.; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Whelan, Denis; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Llorca, Javier; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Guevara, Marcela; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Barriuso-Lapresa, Laura; Tusquets, Ignasi; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Aragonés, Nuria; Olea, Nicolás; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollán, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most studies on endocrine-disrupting chemicals and breast cancer have focused on single compounds and have produced inconclusive findings. Objectives: We assessed the combined estrogenic effects of mixtures of xenoestrogens in serum and their relationship to breast cancer risk. Methods: A total of 186 incident pretreatment breast cancer cases and 196 frequency-matched controls were randomly sampled from a large population-based multicase–control study in Spain. The total effective xenoestrogen burden attributable to organohalogenated xenoestrogens (TEXB-α) and endogenous hormones and more polar xenoestrogens (TEXB-β) was determined in serum samples using high-performance liquid chromatography and E-Screen bioassay. Odds ratios for breast cancer comparing tertiles of serum TEXB-α and TEXB-β were estimated using logistic models, and smooth risk trends were obtained using spline models. Results: Cases had higher geometric mean TEXB-α and TEXB-β levels (8.32 and 9.94 Eeq pM/mL, respectively) than controls (2.99 and 5.96 Eeq pM/mL, respectively). The fully adjusted odds ratios for breast cancer (95% confidence intervals) comparing the second and third tertiles of TEXB-α with the first tertile were 1.77 (0.76, 4.10) and 3.45 (1.50, 7.97), respectively, and those for TEXB-β were 2.35 (1.10, 5.03) and 4.01 (1.88, 8.56), respectively. A steady increase in risk was evident across all detected TEXB-α levels and a sigmoidal trend was observed for TEXB-β. Individual xenoestrogens showed weak and opposing associations with breast cancer risk. Conclusions: This is the first study to show a strong positive association between serum total xenoestrogen burden and breast cancer risk, highlighting the importance of evaluating xenoestrogen mixtures, rather than single compounds, when studying hormone-related cancers. Citation: Pastor-Barriuso R, Fernández MF, Castaño-Vinyals G, Whelan D, Pérez-Gómez B, Llorca J, Villanueva CM, Guevara M, Molina-Molina JM

  19. Clinical usefulness of serum free light chains measurement in patients with multiple myeloma: comparative analysis of two different tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kubicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are two commercially available tests for measurement of serum free light chains (sFLC in multiple myeloma (MM patients – Freelite and N Latex FLC. The aim of this study was to perform an assessment and direct comparison of the usefulness of the methods in routine clinical practice.Methods: 40 refractory/relapsed MM patients underwent routine disease activity assessment studies, along with sFLC analysis using both assays. Correlation and concordance between the tests and sensitivity of studied methods of sFLC assessment were established. Special attention was focused on sFLC results in patients finally evaluated after completing the treatment. Results: A weak correlation for the measurement of both κ [Passing–Bablok slope (PB = 0.7681] and λ chains [(PB = 1.542] was found. Using Bland–Altman plots, a bias of 0.0467 (κ and -0.2133 (λ between the measurements was documented. The concordance coefficient equaled 0.87 for κ, 0.62 for λ and 0.52 for κ/λ ratio. Ten patients had an abnormal Freelite assay κ/λ ratio and normal N Latex FLC κ/λ ratio. Three of these patients had negative serum protein electrophoresis results and fulfilled diagnostic criteria of stringent complete remission (sCR according to N Latex FLC (but not according to Freelite. When the κ/λ ratio obtained by both methods was compared to patients’ serum/urine protein electrophoresis and immunofixation results, sensitivity of Freelite and N Latex FLC was established to be 62.5% and 41%, respectively. Conclusions: There was no strong correlation or concordance between the two assays, and the sensitivity in terms of sFLC detection was different. This may cause problems when diagnosis of sCR is considered.

  20. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... samples for diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic... for diagnostic testing. (b) The authorized laboratory must identify each egg as to the breeding flock...

  1. Neutralizing antibodies against two HIV-1 strains in consecutively collected serum samples: cross neutralization and association to HIV-1 related disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Nielsen, C M; Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    97 sera collected during a 10-year period from 10 HIV-1 infected individuals were tested for neutralizing capacity against a virus isolate FICPH-22 obtained from a Danish AIDS patient, and the laboratory strain HTLV-IIIB. Three patterns of serum neutralizing activity were demonstrated: (a) patients...... developing high neutralizing activity against both HIV strains; (b) patients developing high neutralizing activity against the Danish virus isolate; and (c) patients developing only low titers of neutralizing antibodies (NA) against both HIV strains. The HTLV-IIIB strain was less sensitive to serum...... neutralization than the FICPH-22 isolate and the appearance of NA against HTLV-IIIB was typically lacking several years behind that against FICPH-22 indicating a broadening of the NA response over time. No difference in clinical outcome was observed comparing patients reaching high titers of NA and patients...

  2. Longitudinal Study of Hepatitis A Infection by Saliva Sampling: The Kinetics of HAV Markers in Saliva Revealed the Application of Saliva Tests for Hepatitis A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado Leon, Luciane Almeida; de Almeida, Adilson José; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Tourinho, Renata Santos; Villela, Daniel Antunes Maciel; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing numbers of studies investigating hepatitis A diagnostic through saliva, the frequency and the pattern of hepatitis A virus (HAV) markers in this fluid still remains unknown. To address this issue, we carried on a longitudinal study to examine the kinetics of HAV markers in saliva, in comparison with serum samples. The present study followed-up ten patients with acute hepatitis A infection during 180 days post diagnosis (dpd). Total anti-HAV was detected in paired serum and saliva samples until the end of the follow-up, showing a peak titer at 90th. However, total anti-HAV level was higher in serum than in saliva samples. This HAV marker showed a probability of 100% to be detected in both serum and saliva during 180 dpd. The IgM anti-HAV could be detected in saliva up to 150 dpd, showing the highest frequency at 30th, when it was detected in all individuals. During the first month of HAV infection, this acute HAV marker showed a detection probability of 100% in paired samples. The detection of IgM anti-HAV in saliva was not dependent on its level in serum, HAV-RNA detection and/or viral load, since no association was found between IgM anti-HAV positivity in saliva and any of these parameter (p>0.05). Most of the patients (80%) were found to contain HAV-RNA in saliva, mainly at early acute phase (30th day). However, it was possible to demonstrate the HAV RNA presence in paired samples for more than 90 days, even after seroconversion. No significant relationship was observed between salivary HAV-RNA positivity and serum viral load, demonstrating that serum viral load is not predictive of HAV-RNA detection in saliva. Similar viral load was seen in paired samples (on average 104 copies/mL). These data demonstrate that the best diagnostic coverage can be achieved by salivary anti-HAV antibodies and HAV-RNA tests during 30–90 dpd. The long detection and high probability of specific-HAV antibodies positivity in saliva samples make the assessment of

  3. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003540.htm Protein electrophoresis - serum To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood ...

  4. Test plan for evaluating the performance of the in-tank fluidic sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The PHMC will provide Low Activity Wastes (LAW) tank wastes for final treatment by a privatization contractor from double-shell feed tanks, 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104, Concerns about the inability of the baseline ''grab'' sampling to provide large volume samples within time constraints has led to the development of a conceptual sampling system that would be deployed in a feed tank riser, This sampling system will provide large volume, representative samples without the environmental, radiation exposure, and sample volume impacts of the current base-line ''grab'' sampling method. This test plan identifies ''proof-of-principle'' cold tests for the conceptual sampling system using simulant materials. The need for additional testing was identified as a result of completing tests described in the revision test plan document, Revision 1 outlines tests that will evaluate the performance and ability to provide samples that are representative of a tanks' content within a 95 percent confidence interval, to recovery from plugging, to sample supernatant wastes with over 25 wt% solids content, and to evaluate the impact of sampling at different heights within the feed tank. The test plan also identifies operating parameters that will optimize the performance of the sampling system

  5. Optimization of Diagnostic Elisa - Based Tests for the Detection of Auto-Antibodies Against Tumor Antigens in Human Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Štefatić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer types worldwide and it continues to be a serious public health problem. Early detection and diagnosis are of great importance in cancer management. At present, diagnostic blood tests are based on the detection of tumor-associated markers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, the cancer antigen CA19-9 for gastrointestinal cancer, CA15-3 for breast cancer or CA125 for ovarian cancer. The lack of sensitivity and specificity of these markers prevents their general use in cancer screening of an average risk population. Therefore, new cancer biomarkers or better screening methods are necessary to improve the diagnostics of the disease. This study was directed to the optimization of a diagnostic, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA based test to identify and validate new serum markers, such as extracellular Protein Kinase A (ecPKA and Nicotinamide A-Meth- yltransferase (NNMT. In this type of assay, the cancer antigens are quantified indirectly - by detecting the presence of auto-antibodies against tumor proteins in human serum. The result of the optimization and validation process was in the case of ecPKA a reproducible and stable assay. In case of NNMT the assay was probably not sensitive enough.

  6. Testing of Alignment Parameters for Ancient Samples: Evaluating and Optimizing Mapping Parameters for Ancient Samples Using the TAPAS Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike H. Taron

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput sequence data retrieved from ancient or other degraded samples has led to unprecedented insights into the evolutionary history of many species, but the analysis of such sequences also poses specific computational challenges. The most commonly used approach involves mapping sequence reads to a reference genome. However, this process becomes increasingly challenging with an elevated genetic distance between target and reference or with the presence of contaminant sequences with high sequence similarity to the target species. The evaluation and testing of mapping efficiency and stringency are thus paramount for the reliable identification and analysis of ancient sequences. In this paper, we present ‘TAPAS’, (Testing of Alignment Parameters for Ancient Samples, a computational tool that enables the systematic testing of mapping tools for ancient data by simulating sequence data reflecting the properties of an ancient dataset and performing test runs using the mapping software and parameter settings of interest. We showcase TAPAS by using it to assess and improve mapping strategy for a degraded sample from a banded linsang (Prionodon linsang, for which no closely related reference is currently available. This enables a 1.8-fold increase of the number of mapped reads without sacrificing mapping specificity. The increase of mapped reads effectively reduces the need for additional sequencing, thus making more economical use of time, resources, and sample material.

  7. Sample preparation of tank 241-C-106 grab samples and testing For compatibility with tank 241-AY-102 supernate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    This test plan describes a sample separation method which will be used to obtain physical measurements and separated 241-C-106 solids and supernate fractions. In addition compatibility of tank 241-C-106 sludge with tank 241-AY-102 supernate will be determined

  8. A new dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using ionic liquid based microemulsion coupled with cloud point extraction for determination of copper in serum and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Salma Aslam; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Mariam Shahzadi; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Khan, Naeemullah; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Shah, Faheem

    2016-04-01

    A simple and rapid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure based on ionic liquid assisted microemulsion (IL-µE-DLLME) combined with cloud point extraction has been developed for preconcentration copper (Cu(2+)) in drinking water and serum samples of adolescent female hepatitits C (HCV) patients. In this method a ternary system was developed to form microemulsion (µE) by phase inversion method (PIM), using ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C4mim][PF6]) and nonionic surfactant, TX-100 (as a stabilizer in aqueous media). The Ionic liquid microemulsion (IL-µE) was evaluated through visual assessment, optical light microscope and spectrophotometrically. The Cu(2+) in real water and aqueous acid digested serum samples were complexed with 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) and extracted into IL-µE medium. The phase separation of stable IL-µE was carried out by the micellar cloud point extraction approach. The influence of of different parameters such as pH, oxine concentration, centrifugation time and rate were investigated. At optimized experimental conditions, the limit of detection and enhancement factor were found to be 0.132 µg/L and 70 respectively, with relative standard deviation <5%. In order to validate the developed method, certified reference materials (SLRS-4 Riverine water) and human serum (Sero-M10181) were analyzed. The resulting data indicated a non-significant difference in obtained and certified values of Cu(2+). The developed procedure was successfully applied for the preconcentration and determination of trace levels of Cu(2+) in environmental and biological samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Free leptin index and PAPP-A: a first trimester maternal serum screening test for pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedley, Paula L; Placing, Sophie; Wøjdemann, Karen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prophylaxis with low-dose aspirin may reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia (PE) if introduced in first trimester. The performance of first trimester maternal serum screening for PE using free leptin index (fLI) and PAPP-A, where fLI = leptin/leptin soluble receptor was studied. METHODS: F......: First trimester serum samples from 126 PE pregnancies and 289 control pregnancies were studied. fLI and PAPP-A were converted into gestational age and maternal weight independent log MoM values of PAPP-A and fLI. The screening performance of markers was studied by receiver......-operator-characteristics curves. The performance of population screening was estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. RESULTS: fLI was significantly (p controls [mean log MoM -0.0368 (SD: 0.3132)] and PAPP-A was significantly (p ....0133 (SD: 0.2661)] compared to controls [mean log MoM 0.0474 (SD: 0.2521)] in PE pregnancies. There was no correlation between fLI and PAPP-A in control or PE pregnancies. Combined fLI and PAPP-A screening for PE had estimated population detection rates of 22% and 35% for false positives rates of 6% and 12...

  10. Robustness to non-normality of various tests for the one-sample location problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle K. McDougall

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of the normal distribution assumption on the power and size of the sign test, Wilcoxon's signed rank test and the t-test when used in one-sample location problems. Power functions for these tests under various skewness and kurtosis conditions are produced for several sample sizes from simulated data using the g-and-k distribution of MacGillivray and Cannon [5].

  11. The Effects of Test Length and Sample Size on Item Parameters in Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Alper; Anil, Duygu

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of sample size and test length on item-parameter estimation in test development utilizing three unidimensional dichotomous models of item response theory (IRT). For this purpose, a real language test comprised of 50 items was administered to 6,288 students. Data from this test was used to obtain data sets of…

  12. [Trend of the selenium supply of cattle in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Denmark. Retrospective analysis of serum samples of the years 2006-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A; Freude, B

    2016-01-01

    An optimal selenium supply of cattle is essential, because an insufficiency can lead to health disorders and reduced performance. The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the selenium supply of cattle in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Denmark. Serum samples from 45  068 cattle with unknown clinical status originating from countries all across Europe, which had been sent by veterinarians to the IDEXX Laboratory Ludwigsburg, Germany, between January 1st, 2006 and June 30th, 2015, were routinely analyzed for the selenium concentration by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. A total of 40  949 samples (30  462 from Germany, 4004 from Austria, 3232 from Switzerland, 3251 from Denmark) were included in the evaluation. Results were categorized as follows: 50-150 µg/l: sufficient supply,  150 µg/l: supply too high. During the observation period, a generalized trend towards a decreasing selenium supply was clear. Denmark showed the best selenium supply (77.4% of samples indicating a sufficient supply); however, even in this country a tendency towards a deterioration was seen. A very poor situation with a strongly decreasing selenium supply was observed in Austria, followed by Germany (38% and 30% of samples, respectively, indicating an undersupply). For Switzerland, a constantly poor selenium supply was found (49% of samples indicating an undersupply). Due to the ongoing trend of a selenium undersupply in cattle herds, it is recommended to control the serum selenium concentration annually and supplement this trace element via mineral food when necessary.

  13. Evaluation of the Luciferase Assay-Based In Vitro Elicitation Test for Serum IgE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Results: The area under the ROC curves was highest in the EXiLE test (0.977, followed by CAP-FEIA (0.926 and degranulation (0.810. At an optimal cutoff range (1.648-1.876 calculated from the ROC curve of the EXiLE test, sensitivity and specificity were 0.944 and 0.917, respectively. A 95% positive predictive value was given at a cutoff level of 2.054 (fold increase in luciferase expression by logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: In contrast to in vivo tests, the EXiLE test appears to be a useful tool in diagnosing patients suspected of having IgE-dependent EW allergy without the risk of severe systemic reactions.

  14. Serial monitoring of Mucorales DNA load in serum samples of a patient with disseminated mucormycosis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Tomonari; Nakazawa, Yozo; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Sano, Kenji; Yaguchi, Takashi; Motobayashi, Mitsuo; Saito, Shoji; Noda, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Norimoto; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Honda, Takayuki; Koike, Kenichi

    2014-08-01

    Mucormycosis is a fatal complication in immunocompromised patients, and is additionally difficult to diagnose due to the lack of useful serum biomarkers. Using a quantitative PCR approach, we retrospectively analyzed Mucorales DNA load in sera collected serially from a 3-year-old patient with chronic granulomatous disease, who died of multi-organ failure probably due to dissemination of Rhizomucor pusillus, which was detected from necropsy specimens. Mucorales DNA load was below the detection limit on days 9, 2, and 4 after unrelated bone marrow transplantation. Rhizomucor DNA was first detected on day 14 (1.6 × 10(3) copies/mL), and subsequently fluctuated between 1.3 × 10(3) and 37.2 × 10(3) copies/mL until day 43. Rhizomucor achieved a peak value of 940.0 × 10(3) copies/mL on day 48 the day before death. The detection or fluctuation of Rhizomucor DNA appeared to be associated with corticosteroid dosages or C-reactive protein levels. This specific, noninvasive, and highly quantitative assay may be useful for the early diagnosis of mucormycosis and prediction of disease progression.

  15. Bovine milk sampling efficiency for pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) detection test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, H. K. da; Cassoli, L.D.; Pantoja, J.F.C.; Cerqueira, P.H.R.; Coitinho, T.B.; Machado, P.F.

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to verify whether the time of day at which a milk sample is collected and the possible carryover in the milking system may affect pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results in dairy cows. In experiment one, we evaluated the effect of time of day at which the milk sample is collected from 51 cows. In experiment two, which evaluated the possible occurrence of carryover in the milk meter milking system, milk samples from 94 cows belonging to two different farms were used. The samples were subjected to pregnancy test using ELISA methodology to measure PAG concentrations and to classify the samples as positive (pregnant), negative (nonpregnant), or suspicious (recheck). We found that the time of milking did not affect the PAG levels. As to the occurrence of carryover in the milk meter, the PAG levels of the samples collected from Farm-2 were heavily influenced by a carryover effect compared with the samples from Farm-1. Thus, milk samples submitted to a pregnancy test can be collected during the morning or the evening milking. When the sample is collected from the milk meters, periodic equipment maintenance should be noted, including whether the milk meter is totally drained between different animals’ milking and equipment cleaning between milking is performed correctly to minimize the occurrence of carryover, thereby avoiding the effect on PAG levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results. Therefore, a single milk sample can be used for both milk quality tests and pregnancy test.

  16. Bovine milk sampling efficiency for pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) detection test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, H. K. da; Cassoli, L.D.; Pantoja, J.F.C.; Cerqueira, P.H.R.; Coitinho, T.B.; Machado, P.F.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to verify whether the time of day at which a milk sample is collected and the possible carryover in the milking system may affect pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results in dairy cows. In experiment one, we evaluated the effect of time of day at which the milk sample is collected from 51 cows. In experiment two, which evaluated the possible occurrence of carryover in the milk meter milking system, milk samples from 94 cows belonging to two different farms were used. The samples were subjected to pregnancy test using ELISA methodology to measure PAG concentrations and to classify the samples as positive (pregnant), negative (nonpregnant), or suspicious (recheck). We found that the time of milking did not affect the PAG levels. As to the occurrence of carryover in the milk meter, the PAG levels of the samples collected from Farm-2 were heavily influenced by a carryover effect compared with the samples from Farm-1. Thus, milk samples submitted to a pregnancy test can be collected during the morning or the evening milking. When the sample is collected from the milk meters, periodic equipment maintenance should be noted, including whether the milk meter is totally drained between different animals’ milking and equipment cleaning between milking is performed correctly to minimize the occurrence of carryover, thereby avoiding the effect on PAG levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results. Therefore, a single milk sample can be used for both milk quality tests and pregnancy test.

  17. [Testing for BTV, BVDV and BHV-1 in blood samples of new world camelids kept in middle Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Lena; Nieper, Hermann; Volkery, Janine; Fürll, Manfred; Wittek, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibility of camelids for infectious agents which may result in severe economic losses or which are strictly regulated for epidemiological reasons in farm animals potentially causes a mutual risk of transmission. This study aimed to investigate the presence of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), bluetongue virus (BTV) and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as well as the presence of pestivirus antigen in new world camelids in Central Germany. Therefore 107 serum samples from 93 alpacas and lamas from this region which had been obtained from 2007 to 2009 were examined using ELISA, serum neutralisation test, RT-PCR and a pestivirus specific gene probe. All sample were negative for BHV-1 antibodies. Antibodies against BVDV-1 could be detected in four animals, titres reaching from 1:64 to > 1:256. One animal was positive for BTV antibodies in the year 2008. This animal had been tested negative for BTV antibodies in 2007. It can be concluded that up to now, these viruses seem to be of minor importance as pathogens in new world camelids in Central Germany. Therefore the risk of infection originating from new world camelids for production animals could be considered to be rather low in this region at the moment. However, it must be taken into consideration that these animals due to lack of antibodies are fully susceptible in case of occurrence of one of these viruses. For maintenance and improvement of the present status, general hygienic precautions should be applied; direct and indirect contact between animals from different herds must be avoided and virological diagnostic and quarantine should be required trading these animals.

  18. 36 CFR 9.42 - Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys. Any technical data gathered... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys. 9.42 Section 9.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... to Subpart U of Part 431—Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors Step 1. The first...

  20. 40 CFR 205.171-2 - Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Systems § 205.171-2 Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation. (a)(1) Exhaust systems... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation. 205.171-2 Section 205.171-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  1. Test plan for K Basin Sludge Canister and Floor Sampling Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meling, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the test plan and procedure forms for conducting the functional and operational acceptance testing of the K Basin Sludge Canister and Floor Sampling Device(s). These samplers samples sludge off the floor of the 100K Basins and out of 100K fuel storage canisters

  2. Page sample size in web accessibility testing: how many pages is enough?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velleman, Eric Martin; van der Geest, Thea

    2013-01-01

    Various countries and organizations use a different sampling approach and sample size of web pages in accessibility conformance tests. We are conducting a systematic analysis to determine how many pages is enough for testing whether a website is compliant with standard accessibility guidelines. This

  3. Acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in women living in rural and urban areas of ... Conclusion: Acceptability of self-sampling for HPV testing was similarly excellent in both groups despite their difference in terms ... cancer is the leading cause of death caused by cancer in.

  4. Group SkSP-R sampling plan for accelerated life tests

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muhammad Aslam

    2017-09-15

    Sep 15, 2017 ... SkSP-R sampling; life test; Weibull distribution; producer's risk; ... designed a sampling plan under a time-truncated life test .... adjusted using an acceleration factor. ... where P is the probability of lot acceptance for a single.

  5. Matrix removal in state of the art sample preparation methods for serum by charged aerosol detection and metabolomics-based LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimek, Denise; Francesconi, Kevin A; Mautner, Anton; Libiseller, Gunnar; Raml, Reingard; Magnes, Christoph

    2016-04-07

    Investigations into sample preparation procedures usually focus on analyte recovery with no information provided about the fate of other components of the sample (matrix). For many analyses, however, and particularly those using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), quantitative measurements are greatly influenced by sample matrix. Using the example of the drug amitriptyline and three of its metabolites in serum, we performed a comprehensive investigation of nine commonly used sample clean-up procedures in terms of their suitability for preparing serum samples. We were monitoring the undesired matrix compounds using a combination of charged aerosol detection (CAD), LC-CAD, and a metabolomics-based LC-MS/MS approach. In this way, we compared analyte recovery of protein precipitation-, liquid-liquid-, solid-phase- and hybrid solid-phase extraction methods. Although all methods provided acceptable recoveries, the highest recovery was obtained by protein precipitation with acetonitrile/formic acid (amitriptyline 113%, nortriptyline 92%, 10-hydroxyamitriptyline 89%, and amitriptyline N-oxide 96%). The quantification of matrix removal by LC-CAD showed that the solid phase extraction method (SPE) provided the lowest remaining matrix load (48-123 μg mL(-1)), which is a 10-40 fold better matrix clean-up than the precipitation- or hybrid solid phase extraction methods. The metabolomics profiles of eleven compound classes, comprising 70 matrix compounds showed the trends of compound class removal for each sample preparation strategy. The collective data set of analyte recovery, matrix removal and matrix compound profile was used to assess the effectiveness of each sample preparation method. The best performance in matrix clean-up and practical handling of small sample volumes was showed by the SPE techniques, particularly HLB SPE. CAD proved to be an effective tool for revealing the considerable differences between the sample preparation methods. This detector can

  6. Application of cloud point preconcentration and flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of cadmium and zinc ions in urine, blood serum and water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Shokrollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and selective cloud point extraction procedure is described for the preconcentration and atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions in water and biological samples, after complexation with 3,3',3",3'"-tetraindolyl (terephthaloyl dimethane (TTDM in basic medium, using Triton X-114 as nonionic surfactant. Detection limits of 3.0 and 2.0 µg L-1 and quantification limits 10.0 and 7.0 µg L-1were obtained for Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions, respectively. Relative standard deviation was 2.9 and 3.3, and enrichment factors 23.9 and 25.6, for Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions, respectively. The method enabled determination of low levels of Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions in urine, blood serum and water samples.

  7. Association between serum alkaline phosphatase and coronary artery calcification in a sample of primary cardiovascular prevention patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panh, Loïc; Ruidavets, Jean Bernard; Rousseau, Hervé; Petermann, Antoine; Bongard, Vanina; Bérard, Emilie; Taraszkiewicz, Dorota; Lairez, Olivier; Galinier, Michel; Carrié, Didier; Ferrières, Jean

    2017-05-01

    A high level of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is associated with an increased risk of mortality and myocardial infarction. ALP hydrolyses inorganic pyrophosphate, which is a strong inhibitor of calcium phosphate deposition. The aim of this study was to determine whether ALP is associated with the coronary artery calcium score (CACS). We examined the association of CACS, assessed by computed tomography scanning, and ALP, in 500 patients consecutively recruited, free of cardiovascular disease. The CACS were categorized into two groups: no calcification (CACS = 0) (n = 187) and with calcification (CACS>0) (n = 313). ALP activity was divided into three tertile groups: low ALP level (66 IU/L). The mean age was 60.9 ± 10.8 years, 49.6% of the patients were women. ALP ranged from 22 to 164 IU/L (mean 62.6 IU/L, SD 19.3). In univariate analysis, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, statin use (p = 0.001), and ALP (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with CACS. After adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, only age (p = 0.001) and sex (p = 0.001) were independently associated with CACS. Compared to the tertile group with low levels of ALP, the intermediate tertile group [OR 2.11, 95% CI (1.12; 3.96), p = 0.02], as well as the high tertile group [OR 3.89, 95% CI (2.01; 7.54), p = 0.001)], was independently associated with CACS. In patients free of cardiovascular disease, high ALP levels are positively and independently associated with coronary artery calcification. The metabolic pathway of ALP and inorganic pyrophosphate could be a target for new therapies against vascular calcification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrofracturing test system and method of determining material characteristics of electrofractured material samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Glover, Steven F.; Pfeifle, Tom; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Broome, Scott Thomas; Gardner, William Payton

    2017-08-01

    A device for electrofracturing a material sample and analyzing the material sample is disclosed. The device simulates an in situ electrofracturing environment so as to obtain electrofractured material characteristics representative of field applications while allowing permeability testing of the fractured sample under in situ conditions.

  9. Gas liquid sampling for closed canisters in KW Basin - test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkoff, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    Test procedures for the gas/liquid sampler. Characterization of the Spent Nuclear Fuel, SNF, sealed in canisters at KW-Basin is needed to determine the state of storing SNF wet. Samples of the liquid and the gas in the closed canisters will be taken to gain characterization information. Sampling equipment has been designed to retrieve gas and liquid from the closed canisters in KW basin. This plan is written to outline the test requirements for this developmental sampling equipment

  10. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  11. Comparison of serum pools and oral fluid samples for detection of porcine circovirus type 2 by quantitative real-time PCR in finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gitte Blach; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Haugegaard, John

    2018-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) diagnostics in live pigs often involves pooled serum and/or oral fluid samples for group-level determination of viral load by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The purpose of the study was to compare the PCV2 viral load determined by q......PCR of paired samples at the pen level of pools of sera (SP) from 4 to 5 pigs and the collective oral fluid (OF) from around 30 pigs corresponding to one rope put in the same pen. Pigs in pens of 2 finishing herds were sampled by cross-sectional (Herd 1) and cross-sectional with follow-up (Herd 2) study designs....... In Herd 1, 50 sample pairs consisting of SP from 4 to 5 pigs and OF from around 23 pigs were collected. In Herd 2, 65 sample pairs consisting of 4 (SP) and around 30 (OF) pigs were collected 4 times at 3-week intervals. A higher proportion of PCV2-positive pens (86% vs. 80% and 100% vs. 91%) and higher...

  12. A large-scale radiometric micro-quantitative complement fixation test for serum antibody titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengali, Z.H.; Levine, P.H.; Das, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    A micro-quantitative complement fixation (CF) procedure based on 51 Cr release is described. The method employs 50% hemolysis as end point and the alternation equation to calculate the amount of complement involved in the hemolytic reaction. Compared to the conventional CF tests, the radiometric procedure described here is very precise and consistently reproducible. Also, since only 3 4-fold dilutions of sera are used for the titration of antibodies over a wide range of concentrations, the test is very concise and is economical to perform. Its format is amenable to automation and computerization. This radioimetric CF procedure is thus most useful for large-scale immunological research and epidemiological surveilance studies. (Auth.)

  13. Performance of the Angio Detect™ in-clinic test kit for detection of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in dog samples from Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jiayou; Schnyder, Manuela; Willesen, Jakob L.

    2017-01-01

    of the Angio Detect test kit by comparing Angio Detect testing results using serum or plasma samples with the results of Baermann-Wetzel testing using matched fecal samples. Samples from 214 dogs [with clinically suspected (N = 195) or diagnosed angiostrongylosis (N = 19)] were used for this evaluation......; sensitivity of the Angio Detect test was 97.1% (95%CI: 85.1%–99.9%). The Angio Detect test was negative for 177 of 179 samples that were negative by the Baermann-Wetzel test; specificity was 98.9% (95%CI: 96.0%–99.9%). In cross-reactivity testing, all 89 samples from dogs confirmed to be infected with other...... common nematodes (Dirofilaria immitis, D. repens, Crenosoma vulpis, hookworms, ascarids, or whipworms) were all negative for A. vasorum by the Angio Detect antigen test. Angio Detect provides a rapid and reliable method for diagnosis of A. vasorum in clinically suspected dogs at risk for infection...

  14. Analysis of small sample size studies using nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Alvarado, Luis A

    2017-06-30

    Experimental studies in biomedical research frequently pose analytical problems related to small sample size. In such studies, there are conflicting findings regarding the choice of parametric and nonparametric analysis, especially with non-normal data. In such instances, some methodologists questioned the validity of parametric tests and suggested nonparametric tests. In contrast, other methodologists found nonparametric tests to be too conservative and less powerful and thus preferred using parametric tests. Some researchers have recommended using a bootstrap test; however, this method also has small sample size limitation. We used a pooled method in nonparametric bootstrap test that may overcome the problem related with small samples in hypothesis testing. The present study compared nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method corresponding to parametric, nonparametric, and permutation tests through extensive simulations under various conditions and using real data examples. The nonparametric pooled bootstrap t-test provided equal or greater power for comparing two means as compared with unpaired t-test, Welch t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and permutation test while maintaining type I error probability for any conditions except for Cauchy and extreme variable lognormal distributions. In such cases, we suggest using an exact Wilcoxon rank sum test. Nonparametric bootstrap paired t-test also provided better performance than other alternatives. Nonparametric bootstrap test provided benefit over exact Kruskal-Wallis test. We suggest using nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method for comparing paired or unpaired means and for validating the one way analysis of variance test results for non-normal data in small sample size studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Different goodness of fit tests for Rayleigh distribution in ranked set sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Al-Omari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different goodness of fit tests for the Rayleigh distribution are considered based on simple random sampling (SRS and ranked set sampling (RSS techniques. The performance of the suggested estimators is evaluated in terms of the power of the tests by using Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the suggested RSS tests perform better than their counterparts  in SRS.

  16. Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-20

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

  17. Microbiological analyses of samples from the H-Area injection well test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Franck, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Microbial populations in well water from monitoring wells at the test site were one to three orders of magnitude higher than well water from the Cretaceous aquifer (used as dilution water for the tests) or from a control well adjacent to the test site facility. Coupons samples placed in monitoring and control wells demonstrated progressive adhesion by microbes to materials used in well construction. Samples of material scraped from test well components during abandonment of the test site project revealed the presence of a variety of attached microbes including iron bacteria. Although the injection wells at the actual remediation facility for the F- and H-Area seepage basins remediation project are expected to be subjected to somewhat different conditions (e.g. considerably lower iron concentrations) than was the case at the test site, the potential for microbiologically mediated clogging and fouling within the process should be considered. A sampling program that includes microbiological testing is highly recommended

  18. The first DC performance test and analysis of CC conductor short sample at ASIPP conductor test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yi; Wu Yu; Liu Huajun; Long Feng; Qian Li; Ren Zhibin; Li Shaolei; Liu Bo; Chen Jinglin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study the first DC performance experiments of ITER correction coil conductor short sample have been carried out in ASIPP test facility. ► A CC conductor short sample was fabricated and tested to confirm the capability of this test facility for qualification tests of CC conductors. ► There is no obvious impact of cycling on DC performance measurement. ► Those measured results of current sharing temperature are in agreement with the expected results from strand scaling - Abstract: The first DC performance experiments of ITER correction coil (CC) conductor short sample have been carried out in the conductor test facility of Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS (ASIPP) in January this year. Those experiments aim to investigate the DC performance of ITER CC conductor. The tested conductor short sample is bended as a half circle with the diameter of 270 mm to meet the background magnetic field shape. The half circle part of sample is longer than the final twist pitch. The current sharing temperature (T cs ) in the 3.86 T external magnetic field (B ex ), ≤12 kA could be measured including the critical current (I c ) run. There is no obvious impact of 1000 cycles on DC performance. Those measured T cs results are in agreement with the expected results from strand scaling.

  19. Performances on Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Color Trails Test, and modified Stroop test in a healthy, elderly Danish sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Jørgensen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    This study presents Danish data for the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Color Trails Test (CTT), and a modified Stroop test from 100 subjects aged 60-87 years. Among the included demographic variables, age had the highest impact on test performances. Thus, the study presents separate data...

  20. First Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Tsuji, Kouichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigación (SIdI), Laboratorio de TXRF, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Margui, Eva [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Girona (Spain); Streli, Christina [TU Wien, Atominstitut,Radiation Physics, Vienna (Austria); Pepponi, Giancarlo [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Trento (Italy); Stosnach, Hagen [Bruker Nano GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Yamada, Takashi [Rigaku Corporation, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan); Vandenabeele, Peter [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Maina, David M.; Gatari, Michael [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya); Shepherd, Keith D.; Towett, Erick K. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi (Kenya); Bennun, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción (Chile); Custo, Graciela; Vasquez, Cristina [Gerencia Química, Laboratorio B025, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, San Martín (Argentina); Depero, Laura E., E-mail: laura.depero@unibs.it [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples, involving 18 laboratories in 10 countries are presented and discussed. The test was performed within the framework of the VAMAS project, interlaboratory comparison of TXRF spectroscopy for environmental analysis, whose aim is to develop guidelines and a standard methodology for biological and environmental analysis by means of the TXRF analytical technique. - Highlights: • The discussion of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples (18 laboratories of 10 countries) is reported. • Drinking, waste, and desalinated water samples were tested. • Data dispersion sources were identified: sample concentration, preparation, fitting procedure, and quantification. • The protocol for TXRF analysis of drinking water is proposed.

  1. 40 CFR 80.582 - What are the sampling and testing methods for the fuel marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the sampling and testing... commercially available diesel fuel which meets the applicable industry consensus and federal regulatory...) Qualification of test methods approved by voluntary consensus-based standards bodies. Any standard test method...

  2. Using Set Covering with Item Sampling to Analyze the Infeasibility of Linear Programming Test Assembly Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitzing, Hiddo A.

    2004-01-01

    This article shows how set covering with item sampling (SCIS) methods can be used in the analysis and preanalysis of linear programming models for test assembly (LPTA). LPTA models can construct tests, fulfilling a set of constraints set by the test assembler. Sometimes, no solution to the LPTA model exists. The model is then said to be…

  3. Operability test report for rotary mode core sampling system number 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the successful completion of operability testing for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) system number-sign 3. The Report includes the test procedure (WHC-SD-WM-OTP-174), exception resolutions, data sheets, and a test report summary

  4. Excited state interaction between Hydrochlorothiazide and europium ion in PMMA polymer and its application as optical sensor for Hydrochlorothiazide in tablet and serum samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, M.S., E-mail: Mohamed_sam@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt); Othman, A.M. [Environmental Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute, Menofiea University (Egypt); Youssef, A.O. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt); El-Raghi, E. [Environmental Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute, Menofiea University (Egypt)

    2012-08-15

    This paper reports on a facile technique combined with a simple, sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of hydrochlorothiazide. In methanol, at pH 8.3 and {lambda}{sub ex}=340, hydrochlorothiazide can remarkably enhance the luminescence intensity of the Eu{sup 3+} ion doped in polymethylmethacrylate polymer (PMMA) matrix. This could be due to the energy transfer from hydrochlorothiazide to Eu{sup 3+} in the excited stated. At the optimized experimental conditions, the enhancement of the characteristic emission band (617 nm) of Eu{sup 3+} ion doped PMMA is directly proportional to the concentration of hydrochlorothiazide with a dynamic range of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}-1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} and detection limit of 8.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1}. Application of the suggested method was successfully applied to the determination of hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical preparations and human serum samples, with high percentage of recovery, good accuracy and precision. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCT was determined by europium sensitized by HCT in PMMA polymer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Band at 617 nm of Eu{sup 3+} ion ({sup 5}D{sub 0}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 2}) is sensitive to HCT concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recovery and R.S.D for tablets serum samples in proposed method were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Method is verified for HCT determination in real samples with no interferences.

  5. Validity of the reduced-sample insulin modified frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test using the nonlinear regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Anne E; Luercio, Marcella F; Frempong, Barbara A; Ricks, Madia; Sen, Sabyasachi; Kushner, Harvey; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K

    2009-02-01

    The disposition index, the product of the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) and the acute insulin response to glucose, is linked in African Americans to chromosome 11q. This link was determined with S(I) calculated with the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model and data from the reduced-sample insulin-modified frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT). However, the application of the nonlinear regression approach to calculate S(I) using data from the Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT has been challenged as being not only inaccurate but also having a high failure rate in insulin-resistant subjects. Our goal was to determine the accuracy and failure rate of the Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT using the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model. With S(I) from the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT considered the standard and using the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model, we compared the agreement between S(I) from the Full- and Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT protocols. One hundred African Americans (body mass index, 31.3 +/- 7.6 kg/m(2) [mean +/- SD]; range, 19.0-56.9 kg/m(2)) had FSIGTs. Glucose (0.3 g/kg) was given at baseline. Insulin was infused from 20 to 25 minutes (total insulin dose, 0.02 U/kg). For the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT, S(I) was calculated based on the glucose and insulin samples taken at -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,10, 12, 14, 16, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 150, and 180 minutes. For the Reduced-Sample-FSIGT, S(I) was calculated based on the time points that appear in bold. Agreement was determined by Spearman correlation, concordance, and the Bland-Altman method. In addition, for both protocols, the population was divided into tertiles of S(I). Insulin resistance was defined by the lowest tertile of S(I) from the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT. The distribution of subjects across tertiles was compared by rank order and kappa statistic. We found that the rate of failure of resolution of S(I) by

  6. Patch testing and allergen-specific serum IgE and IgG antibodies in the diagnosis of canine adverse food reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethlehem, Simone; Bexley, Jennifer; Mueller, Ralf S

    2012-02-15

    Adverse food reaction (AFR) is a common differential diagnosis for pruritic dogs. The only way to diagnose AFR is an elimination diet of 6-8 weeks with a protein and a carbohydrate source not previously fed. In humans, patch testing has been shown to be a useful tool to diagnose food allergies. In veterinary medicine, serum food allergen-specific antibody testing is widely offered to identify suitable ingredients for such diets. The aim of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictability of patch testing with and serum antibody testing for a variety of common food stuffs. Twenty-five allergic dogs underwent an elimination diet and individual rechallenge with selected food stuffs, food patch testing and serum testing for food-antigen specific IgE and IgG. Eleven clinically normal control dogs only were subjected to patch and serum testing. The sensitivity and specificity of the patch test were 96.7 and 89.0% respectively, negative and positive predictability were 99.3 and 63.0%. For IgE and IgG the sensitivity was 6.7 and 26.7%, specificity were 91.4 and 88.3%, the negative predictive values 80.7 and 83.7% and the positive predictive values were 15.4 and 34.8%. Based on these results, a positive reaction of a dog on these tests is not very helpful, but a negative result indicates that this antigen is tolerated well. We conclude that patch testing (and to a lesser degree serum testing) can be helpful in choosing ingredients for an elimination diet in a dog with suspected AFR. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Screening and Monitoring Coeliac Disease: Multicentre Trial of a New Serum Antibody Test Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Devine

    1994-01-01

    average interassay CV was 6.4% for IgA and 4.3% for IgG (n=3. By defining a positive te st as both IgA and IgG elevated, a sensitivity of 93% in untreated coeliacs (n=75 was observed. The corresponding specificities in healthy adults (n=130 and healthy children (n=77 were >99% and 100% respectively, while in patients with other gastrointestinal disorders (disease controls the specificity was 94% (n=129. The test was also useful in monitoring patients, with anti-gliadin IgA and IgG falling for up to a year after commencing a gluten-free diet (GFD (12 adults. In some patients however, antibody levels did not reach the normal cutpoint after many months on a GFD, which may reflect the patients ' poor adherence to their gluten free diet. The test was superior to the Pharmacia anti-gliadin ELISA, and should be useful as an aid to the diagnosis of coeliac disease, as well as in the follow-up of treated patients.

  8. Elevated serum CA 19-9 at screening tests: underlying conditions and role of abdominopelvic CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Yang [University of Louisville, Department of Radiology and Molecular Imaging Research Center, Louisville, KY (United States); Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Young [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bundang CHA Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bundang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To investigate underlying conditions of patients with elevated CA 19-9 at screening tests and to evaluate diagnostic performance of abdominopelvic CT. One hundred and thirteen patients with elevated CA 19-9 (>37 U/ml) who underwent abdominopelvic CT in a screening program were selected. Underlying conditions were determined by reviewing all available data and follow-up records. Patients were categorized into malignancy, benign, and normal/non-related disease groups. Their mean CA 19-9 and percent of patients with CA 19-9 ≥ 100 U/ml were compared. Diagnostic sensitivity of CT for detecting underlying conditions of elevated CA 19-9 was analysed. Seventeen patients (17/113, 15 %) had 17 elevated CA 19-9-related malignancies, and 55 patients (55/113, 48.7 %) had 70 benign diseases. Mean CA 19-9 and percent of patients with CA 19-9 ≥ 100 U/ml in the malignancy group were significantly higher than in the two other groups. CT detected all except one malignant lesion with a detection sensitivity of 94.1 % (16/17). Of 70 CA 19-9-related benign diseases, CT detected 34 benign diseases (48.6 %) providing an alternative diagnosis for elevated CA 19-9. Abdominopelvic CT is not only useful in detecting malignancies, but can also diagnose alternative benign causes of elevated CA 19-9 in asymptomatic screening tests. (orig.)

  9. Relationship between Serum Levels of Metalloproteinase-8 and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 and Exercise Test Results in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mieczkowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity as a part of the lifestyle is a significant factor influencing health condition. Exercises that require stamina are of particular importance. Oxygen metabolism, which is a significant part of all longer training processes, has an influence on cardiovascular and respiratory system functioning as well as all the processes taking part in maintenance of efficient homeostasis. Presentation of the correlation between exercise test results and MMP-8 (metalloproteinase-8 and TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 levels was attempted in this work. MMP-8 is a proteolytic enzyme taking part in progression of diseases related to process of ageing. 62 healthy women in postmenopausal period were qualified for the study (mean age: 54±3.6. There was exercise test on the treadmill according to Bruce’s protocol performed. MMP-8 and TIMP-1 serum levels were measured. There was statistically important correlation between increased level of MMP-8 and increased level of TIMP-1 with lower results of exercise test observed. The conducted study provides further biochemical arguments for prophylactic role of physical activity, which lowers the risk of noninfectious diseases, typical for middle adulthood, by influencing physical capacity.

  10. Sequential combined test, second trimester maternal serum markers, and circulating fetal cells to select women for invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Guanciali Franchi

    Full Text Available From January 1st 2013 to August 31st 2016, 24408 pregnant women received the first trimester Combined test and contingently offered second trimester maternal serum screening to identify those women who would most benefit from invasive prenatal diagnosis (IPD. The screening was based on first trimester cut-offs of ≥1:30 (IPD indicated, 1:31 to 1:899 (second trimester screening indicated and ≤1:900 (no further action, and a second trimester cut-off of ≥1:250. From January 2014, analysis of fetal cells from peripheral maternal blood was also offered to women with positive screening results. For fetal Down syndrome, the overall detection rate was 96.8% for a false-positive rate of 2.8% resulting in an odds of being affected given a positive result (OAPR of 1:11, equivalent to a positive predictive value (PPV of 8.1%. Additional chromosome abnormalities were also identified resulting in an OAPR for any chromosome abnormality of 1:6.6 (PPV 11.9%. For a sub-set of cases with positive contingent test results, FISH analysis of circulating fetal cells in maternal circulation identified 7 abnormal and 39 as normal cases with 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity. We conclude that contingent screening using conventional Combined and second trimester screening tests is effective but can potentially be considerably enhanced through the addition of fetal cell analysis.

  11. EPINEPHRINE CONCENTRATION IN WILD BOAR (SUS SCROFA L. SERUM AFTER REPEATED ELISA TESTED FREEZE-THAWING CYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neška Vukšić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples for determining of epinephrine concentration and biochemical parameters in the blood serum of wild boars were taken from 42 healthy wild boars, both sexes, during the hunting season. All animals in good condition, body weight 20 to 95 kg, were divided into two groups up to 50 kg (group A and up to 95 kg (Group B. Epinephrine concentration was determined by ELISA twice: one week after taking samples and a month after repeated freezing at -80°C. It was higher in relation to the reference value of domestic pigs and human (109.45 pg/ml in A and 119.54 pg/ml in B group. Repeated freezing and re-analysis after a month were resulted in lower concentrations of epinephrine (12% in young and 11.17% in adult animal, but without statistical significance (P>0.05. Biochemical analysis results’ show increased glucose and triglycerides concentrations compared to the reference values, while other indicators were observed within or slightly increased referring to the normal range. The correlation between glucose and epinephrine was not determined.

  12. Magnetic immunoassay using CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as fluorescent probes to detect the level of DNA methyltransferase 1 in human serum sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu F

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fei Yu,1,* Ya-min Xiong,1,* Song-cheng Yu,1 Lei-liang He,1 Shan-shan Niu,1 Yu-ming Wu,1 Jie Liu,1 Ling-bo Qu,2 Li-e Liu,1 Yong-jun Wu1 1College of Public Health, 2College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1, a dominant enzyme responsible for the transfer of a methyl group from the universal methyl donor to the 5-position of cytosine residues in DNA, is essential for mammalian development and closely related to cancer and a variety of age-related chronic diseases. DNMT1 has become a useful biomarker in early disease diagnosis and a potential therapeutic target in cancer therapy and drug development. However, till now, most of the studies on DNA methyltransferase (MTase detection have focused on the prokaryote MTase and its activity.Methods: A magnetic fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA using CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as fluorescent probes was proposed for the rapid and sensitive detection of the DNMT1 level in this study. Key factors that affect the precision and accuracy of the determination of DNMT1 were optimized.Results: Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection was 0.1 ng/mL, the linear range was 0.1–1,500 ng/mL, the recovery was 91.67%–106.50%, and the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-assays were respectively 5.45%–11.29% and 7.03%–11.25%. The cross-reactivity rates with DNA methyltransferases 3a and 3b were only 4.0% and 9.4%, respectively. Furthermore, FLISA was successfully used to detect the levels of DNMT1 in human serum samples, and compared with commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits. The results revealed that there was a good correlation between FLISA and commercial ELISA kits (correlation coefficient r=0.866, p=0.001. The linear scope of FLISA was broader than ELISA, and the measurement time was much shorter

  13. Detection of Human Epididymis Protein 4 (HE4) in Human Serum Samples Using a Specific Monoclonal Antibody-Based Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijun; Lv, Zhiqiang; Shao, Jing; Xu, Ying; Luo, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yuming; Hu, Yang; Zhang, Wenji; Luo, Shuhong; Fang, Jianmin; Wang, Ying; Duan, Chaohui; Huang, Ruopan

    2016-09-01

    The human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) may have high specificity in the detection of malignant diseases, making the development of an immunoassay for HE4 essential. In our study, a fusion gene was constructed encoded with the HE4 protein. This protein was then produced in the bacterial cells (Escherichia coli) and used to immunize mice in order to eventually generate hybridomas specific to HE4. The hybridoma supernatants were then screened, and four positive anti-HE4 cell lines were selected. These cell lines produce monoclonal antibodies against HE4 epitopes, as demonstrated in the Western blot as well as by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using the developed antibodies, we successfully identified several good antibody pairs from the hybridomas, which allowed for the development of a sandwich ELISA to measure HE4 levels. By using the HE4 ELISA, we measured HE4 levels of 60 clinical human serum samples. Compared with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved kit (Roche), our results showed a strong positive correlation to those of the FDA-approved kit. In summary, highly sensitive antibody pairs were screened against HE4, and a sandwich ELISA was developed as an accurate analytical tool for the detection of HE4 in human serum, which could be especially valuable for diagnosing ovarian carcinomas. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. tscvh R Package: Computational of the two samples test on microarray-sequencing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajriyah, Rohmatul; Rosadi, Dedi

    2017-12-01

    We present a new R package, a tscvh (two samples cross-variance homogeneity), as we called it. This package is a software of the cross-variance statistical test which has been proposed and introduced by Fajriyah ([3] and [4]), based on the cross-variance concept. The test can be used as an alternative test for the significance difference between two means when sample size is small, the situation which is usually appeared in the bioinformatics research. Based on its statistical distribution, the p-value can be also provided. The package is built under a homogeneity of variance between samples.

  15. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (§ 864.3260...

  16. Develpoment of a procedure for the determination of chromium in samples of urine and serum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, I.; Hamm, V.; Knoechel, A.; Sen Gupta, R.

    1993-01-01

    Since the mid-fifties the possibility of a causal relationship between deficient chromium and insulin metabolism and the manifestation of certain varieties of diabetes mellitus has been presumed. The determination of the chromium status under pathophysiological conditions may be helpful for the study of this problem. For these purposes an analytical procedure as reference system was developed which allows the determination of chromium in biological matrices down to the concentration of 0.33 ng/ml. It is based on NAA and is used in the framework of a commonly used procedure based on GF-AAS. For its application blood and urine samples are freeze-dried and irradiated. After wet digestion with HNO 3 in a microwave combustion system chromium is separated for measurement from the matrix nuclides with the help of the ion-exchanger Cellex-P. THe individual steps of the procedure were evaluated by means of tracer experiments. (orig.)

  17. Develpoment of a procedure for the determination of chromium in samples of urine and serum by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, I [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry; Hamm, V [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry; Knoechel, A [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry; Sen Gupta, R [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry

    1993-06-01

    Since the mid-fifties the possibility of a causal relationship between deficient chromium and insulin metabolism and the manifestation of certain varieties of diabetes mellitus has been presumed. The determination of the chromium status under pathophysiological conditions may be helpful for the study of this problem. For these purposes an analytical procedure as reference system was developed which allows the determination of chromium in biological matrices down to the concentration of 0.33 ng/ml. It is based on NAA and is used in the framework of a commonly used procedure based on GF-AAS. For its application blood and urine samples are freeze-dried and irradiated. After wet digestion with HNO[sub 3] in a microwave combustion system chromium is separated for measurement from the matrix nuclides with the help of the ion-exchanger Cellex-P. THe individual steps of the procedure were evaluated by means of tracer experiments. (orig.)

  18. Design of sample analysis device for iodine adsorption efficiency test in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jinnan

    2015-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, iodine adsorption efficiency test is used to check the iodine adsorption efficiency of the iodine adsorber. The iodine adsorption efficiency can be calculated through the analysis of the test sample, and thus to determine if the performance of the adsorber meets the requirement on the equipment operation and emission. Considering the process of test and actual demand, in this paper, a special device for the analysis of this kind of test sample is designed. The application shows that the device is with convenient operation and high reliability and accurate calculation, and improves the experiment efficiency and reduces the experiment risk. (author)

  19. Drilling induced damage of core samples. Evidences from laboratory testing and numerical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanaro, Flavio

    2008-01-01

    Extensive sample testing in uniaxial and Brazilian test conditions were carried out for the Shobasama and MIU Research Laboratory Site (Gifu Pref., Japan). The compressive and tensile strength of the samples was observed to be negatively correlated to the in-situ stress components. Such correlation was interpreted as stress-release induced sample damage. Similar stress conditions were then numerically simulated by means of the BEM-DDM code FRACOD 2D in plane strain conditions. This method allows for explicitly consider the influence of newly initiated or propagating fractures on the stress field and deformation of the core during drilling process. The models show that already at moderate stress levels some fracturing of the core during drilling might occur leading to reduced laboratory strength of the samples. Sample damage maps were produced independently from the laboratory test results and from the numerical models and show good agreement with each other. (author)

  20. A new supramolecular based liquid solid microextraction method for preconcentration and determination of trace bismuth in human blood serum and hair samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahe, Hadi; Chamsaz, Mahmoud

    2016-11-01

    A simple and reliable supramolecule-aggregated liquid solid microextraction method is described for preconcentration and determination of trace amounts of bismuth in water as well as human blood serum and hair samples. Catanionic microstructures of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants, dissolved in deionized water/propanol, are used as a green solvent to extract bismuth (III)-diethyldithiocarbamate complexes by dispersive microextraction methodology. The extracted solid phase is easily removed and dissolved in 50 μL propanol for subsequent measurement by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). The procedure benefits the merits of supramolecule aggregates' properties and dispersive microextraction technique using water as the main component of disperser solvent, leading to direct interaction with analyte. Phase separation behavior of extraction solvent and different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of bismuth ion such as salt concentration, pH, centrifugation time, amount of chelating agent, SDS:CTAB mole ratio, and solvent amounts were thoroughly optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.3-6 μg L -1 Bi (III) with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.16 μg L -1 (S/N = 3). The relative standard deviations (RSD) of determination were obtained to be 5.1 and 6.2 % for 1 and 3 μg L -1 of Bi (III), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied as a sensitive and accurate technique for determination of bismuth ion in human blood serum, hair samples, and a certified reference material.

  1. Autologous serum skin test as an indicator of chronic autoimmune urticaria in a tertiary care hospital in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikramkumar, Adaikalampillai Ganapathy; Kuruvila, Sheela; Ganguly, Satyaki

    2014-12-01

    Autologous serum skin test (ASST) is a simple in-vivo clinical test for the detection of basophil histamine releasing activity and to diagnose chronic autoimmune urticaria (CAU) among chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) patients. Diagnosing these patients is also important as they may need high doses of antihistamines and systemic corticosteroids during acute exacerbations. The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of CAU among cases of CSU by using ASST. This was a cross-sectional study done among 48 patients presenting with CSU. Detailed history, physical examination and routine investigations were recorded for all patients. ASST was done on all the 48 patients. Of the 48 patients included in the study, 20 patients (41.6%) were ASST positive, while the remaining 28 (58%) were ASST negative. The median duration of disease in both ASST positive and negative patients was 1 year. ASST positivity was higher (66.6%) among patients with a history of round shaped weals, though not statistically significant. ASST positivity was seen in 5 (71.4%) out of seven patients with systemic involvement, which was again not statistically significant. Our study did not show any significant difference between patients with and without antibodies regarding mean age and sex distribution, clinical morphology of individual weals, duration, severity, systemic symptoms, angioedema, atopy, and association with other autoimmune conditions.

  2. Women’s experience with home-based self-sampling for human papillomavirus testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, Farhana; Mullins, Robyn; English, Dallas R.; Simpson, Julie A.; Drennan, Kelly T.; Heley, Stella; Wrede, C. David; Brotherton, Julia M. L.; Saville, Marion; Gertig, Dorota M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing cervical screening coverage by reaching inadequately screened groups is essential for improving the effectiveness of cervical screening programs. Offering HPV self-sampling to women who are never or under-screened can improve screening participation, however participation varies widely between settings. Information on women’s experience with self-sampling and preferences for future self-sampling screening is essential for programs to optimize participation. The survey was conducted as part of a larger trial (“iPap”) investigating the effect of HPV self-sampling on participation of never and under-screened women in Victoria, Australia. Questionnaires were mailed to a) most women who participated in the self-sampling to document their experience with and preference for self-sampling in future, and b) a sample of the women who did not participate asking reasons for non-participation and suggestions for enabling participation. Reasons for not having a previous Pap test were also explored. About half the women who collected a self sample for the iPap trial returned the subsequent questionnaire (746/1521). Common reasons for not having cervical screening were that having Pap test performed by a doctor was embarrassing (18 %), not having the time (14 %), or that a Pap test was painful and uncomfortable (11 %). Most (94 %) found the home-based self-sampling less embarrassing, less uncomfortable (90 %) and more convenient (98 %) compared with their last Pap test experience (if they had one); however, many were unsure about the test accuracy (57 %). Women who self-sampled thought the instructions were clear (98 %), it was easy to use the swab (95 %), and were generally confident that they did the test correctly (81 %). Most preferred to take the self-sample at home in the future (88 %) because it was simple and did not require a doctor’s appointment. Few women (126/1946, 7 %) who did not return a self-sample in the iPap trial returned the questionnaire

  3. Prevalence of antileptospiral serum antibodies in dogs in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 474 serum samples from client owned Irish dogs were tested for the presence of antibodies against serovars Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, Autumnalis, Pomona, Altodouro, Grippotyphosa, Mozdok, Hardjobovis and Ballum. Six percent of dogs presented to veterinary practitioners for...

  4. Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of mixer pumps in tank 241-AZ-101. The primary purpose of the mixer pump test (MPT) is to demonstrate that the two 300 horsepower mixer pumps installed in tank 241-AZ-101 can mobilize the settled sludge so that it can be retrieved for treatment and vitrification. Sampling will be performed in accordance with Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999) and Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis (Mulkey 1999). The sampling will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications

  5. The Bootstrap, the Jackknife, and the Randomization Test: A Sampling Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J L

    1999-10-01

    A simple sampling taxonomy is defined that shows the differences between and relationships among the bootstrap, the jackknife, and the randomization test. Each method has as its goal the creation of an empirical sampling distribution that can be used to test statistical hypotheses, estimate standard errors, and/or create confidence intervals. Distinctions between the methods can be made based on the sampling approach (with replacement versus without replacement) and the sample size (replacing the whole original sample versus replacing a subset of the original sample). The taxonomy is useful for teaching the goals and purposes of resampling schemes. An extension of the taxonomy implies other possible resampling approaches that have not previously been considered. Univariate and multivariate examples are presented.

  6. Validation of basophil histamine release against the autologous serum skin test and outcome of serum-induced basophil histamine release studies in a large population of chronic urticaria patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platzer, M H; Grattan, C E H; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    the immunoglobulin E (IgE) or the high affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) and serum-induced histamine release (HR) from basophils and mast cells. We have examined the correlation between the ASST and a new basophil histamine-releasing assay (the HR-Urtikaria test) in a group of well-characterized CU patients...... and subsequently determined the frequency of HR-Urticaria-positive sera from a larger population of CU patients....

  7. The impact of screening-test negative samples not enumerated by MPN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; de Knegt, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    that includes false negative results from the screening, and a third that considers the entire data set. The relative sensitivity of the screening test was also calculated assuming as gold standard samples with confirmed Salmonella. Salmonella was confirmed by a reference laboratory in 29 samples either...

  8. Small Sample Properties of the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with Discontinuous and Dependent Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Chlass; Jens J. Krueger

    2007-01-01

    This Monte-Carlo study investigates sensitivity of the Wilcoxon signed rank test to certain assumption violations in small samples. Emphasis is put on within-sample-dependence, between-sample dependence, and the presence of ties. Our results show that both assumption violations induce severe size distortions and entail power losses. Surprisingly, these consequences do vary substantially with other properties the data may display. Results provided are particularly relevant for experimental set...

  9. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Empirical Testing. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K. Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. In this paper, the results of empirical tests intended to assess the accuracy of acceptance sampling plan calculators implemented for six variable distributions are presented.

  10. Pigeons exhibit higher accuracy for chosen memory tests than for forced memory tests in duration matching-to-sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Allison; Santi, Angelo

    2011-03-01

    Following training to match 2- and 8-sec durations of feederlight to red and green comparisons with a 0-sec baseline delay, pigeons were allowed to choose to take a memory test or to escape the memory test. The effects of sample omission, increases in retention interval, and variation in trial spacing on selection of the escape option and accuracy were studied. During initial testing, escaping the test did not increase as the task became more difficult, and there was no difference in accuracy between chosen and forced memory tests. However, with extended training, accuracy for chosen tests was significantly greater than for forced tests. In addition, two pigeons exhibited higher accuracy on chosen tests than on forced tests at the short retention interval and greater escape rates at the long retention interval. These results have not been obtained in previous studies with pigeons when the choice to take the test or to escape the test is given before test stimuli are presented. It appears that task-specific methodological factors may determine whether a particular species will exhibit the two behavioral effects that were initially proposed as potentially indicative of metacognition.

  11. Optimizing human semen cryopreservation by reducing test vial volume and repetitive test vial sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian F S; Ohl, Dana A; Parker, Walter R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate optimal test vial (TV) volume, utility and reliability of TVs, intermediate temperature exposure (-88°C to -93°C) before cryostorage, cryostorage in nitrogen vapor (VN2) and liquid nitrogen (LN2), and long-term stability of VN2 cryostorage of human semen. DESIGN......: Prospective clinical laboratory study. SETTING: University assisted reproductive technology (ART) laboratory. PATIENT(S): A total of 594 patients undergoing semen analysis and cryopreservation. INTERVENTION(S): Semen analysis, cryopreservation with different intermediate steps and in different volumes (50......-1,000 μL), and long-term storage in LN2 or VN2. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Optimal TV volume, prediction of cryosurvival (CS) in ART procedure vials (ARTVs) with pre-freeze semen parameters and TV CS, post-thaw motility after two- or three-step semen cryopreservation and cryostorage in VN2 and LN2. RESULT...

  12. Rapid detection of cytomegalovirus in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum samples by polymerase chain reaction: correlation of virus isolation and clinical outcome for patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K K; Vestbo, Jørgen; Benfield, T

    1997-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and serum samples from 153 patients with pulmonary symptoms who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and underwent BAL were examined for the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) by conventional culture and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR...... technique than conventional culture. Detection of CMV DNA in BAL fluid or serum predicted subsequent development of extrapulmonary CMV disease but not death for HIV-infected patients with pulmonary symptoms....

  13. June 2012 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on June 26-27, 2012, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface and the addendum to the 'Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan' completed in 2008. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated).

  14. May 2011 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on May 10-11, 2011, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface and the addendum to the 'Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan' completed in 2008. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated)

  15. [Utilization of self-sampling kits for HPV testing in cervical cancer screening - pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondryášová, H; Koudeláková, V; Drábek, J; Vaněk, P; Slavkovský, R; Hajdúch, M

    2015-12-01

    To get initial experience with alternative sampling (self-sampling) for HPV testing as the means of cervical cancer screening program. Original work. Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University in Olomouc. Based on expression of interest, 215 self-sampling kits were posted to women. Evalyn(®) Brush Vaginal swabs obtained by self-sampling were analyzed for the presence of HPV infection by Cobas 4800 HPV (Roche) followed by genotyping using PapilloCheck(®) HPV-Screening (Greiner Bio-One). Sixty women randomly chosen from our sample were sent a questionnaire focused on their experience with self-sampling. One hundred seventy-four of 215 (81%) distributed self-sampling devices have been delivered to analysis. All cervicovaginal swabs were sampled correctly and it was possible to analyze them by Cobas 4800 HPV test. Similarly, 98% (171/174) samples were analyzable by PapilloCheck(®) HPV-Screening.One hundred twenty-five (72%) of 174 tested samples were HPV negative. Low risk HPV infection was detected only in 7 samples (4%), and high risk HPV (hrHPV) infection was present in 42 samples (24%). The most frequently detected hrHPV genotypes were HPV16 (11/42; 26%) and HPV53 (6/42; 14%). HrHPV co-infection was detected in 10 cases, in 5 of them lrHPV infection was find also.Of the 60 questionnaires, 48 (80%) were returned. From this group, 47 (98%) women rated their experience with self-sampling device as good to excellent. User manual of self-sampling device was considered good to excellent by all women (100%). All women also rated the convenience of self-sampling device using as good to excellent. As expected, most of the women (n = 42 [88%]) preferred self-sampling to physician sampling. Cervicovaginal self-sampling leads to valid results of HPV screening using two molecular genetics methods and was accepted by Czech women very well. The self-sampling as an opportunity to participate in cervical cancer

  16. Advances in paper-based sample pretreatment for point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui Hua; Yang, Hui; Choi, Jane Ru; Gong, Yan; Feng, Shang Sheng; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Huang, Qing Sheng; Shi, Jun Ling; Mei, Qi Bing; Xu, Feng

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, paper-based point-of-care testing (POCT) has been widely used in medical diagnostics, food safety and environmental monitoring. However, a high-cost, time-consuming and equipment-dependent sample pretreatment technique is generally required for raw sample processing, which are impractical for low-resource and disease-endemic areas. Therefore, there is an escalating demand for a cost-effective, simple and portable pretreatment technique, to be coupled with the commonly used paper-based assay (e.g. lateral flow assay) in POCT. In this review, we focus on the importance of using paper as a platform for sample pretreatment. We firstly discuss the beneficial use of paper for sample pretreatment, including sample collection and storage, separation, extraction, and concentration. We highlight the working principle and fabrication of each sample pretreatment device, the existing challenges and the future perspectives for developing paper-based sample pretreatment technique.

  17. 76 FR 69585 - Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification Regarding Representative Samples for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... 1107 Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification Regarding Representative Samples for... [CPSC Docket No. CPSC-2011-0082] Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification Regarding... to Product Certification.'' The proposed rule was intended to implement what was then known as...

  18. Performances on five verbal fluency tests in a healthy, elderly Danish sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Jørgensen, Kasper; Vogel, Asmus

    2013-01-01

    Verbal fluency tests are widely used as measures of language and executive functions. This study presents data for five tests; semantic fluency (animals, supermarket items and alternating between cities and professions), lexical fluency (s-words), and action fluency (verbs) based on a sample of 100...

  19. Proposed optical test of Bell's inequalities not resting upon the fair sampling assumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Emilio

    2004-01-01

    Arguments are given against the fair sampling assumption, used to claim an empirical disproof of local realism. New tests are proposed, able to discriminate between quantum mechanics and a restricted, but appealing, family of local hidden-variables models. Such tests require detectors with efficiencies just above 20%

  20. Power and Sample Size Calculations for Logistic Regression Tests for Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhushan

    2014-01-01

    Logistic regression is a popular method for detecting uniform and nonuniform differential item functioning (DIF) effects. Theoretical formulas for the power and sample size calculations are derived for likelihood ratio tests and Wald tests based on the asymptotic distribution of the maximum likelihood estimators for the logistic regression model.…

  1. Sample Size Calculation for Estimating or Testing a Nonzero Squared Multiple Correlation Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, K.; Xia, Yanping

    2008-01-01

    The problems of hypothesis testing and interval estimation of the squared multiple correlation coefficient of a multivariate normal distribution are considered. It is shown that available one-sided tests are uniformly most powerful, and the one-sided confidence intervals are uniformly most accurate. An exact method of calculating sample size to…

  2. Testing the normality assumption in the sample selection model with an application to travel demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, B.; Koning, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we introduce a test for the normality assumption in the sample selection model. The test is based on a flexible parametric specification of the density function of the error terms in the model. This specification follows a Hermite series with bivariate normality as a special case.

  3. Testing the normality assumption in the sample selection model with an application to travel demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klauw, B.; Koning, R.H.

    In this article we introduce a test for the normality assumption in the sample selection model. The test is based on a flexible parametric specification of the density function of the error terms in the model. This specification follows a Hermite series with bivariate normality as a special case.

  4. The changing and its interaction of determining serum gastrin levels and helicobacter pylori test during chronic atrophic gastritis into gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Weijuan; Yang Yongqing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the changing and its interaction of determining serum gastrin levels and Helicobacter pylori test during chronic atrophic gastritis into gastric cancer. Methods: RIA and 13 C-urea breath test ( 13 C-UBT) determined the Gs levels and Hp infection rate in 63 rate cases (first visit) patients, 48 cases (after one year return visit) patients, 35 cases (after three year return visit) patients and 30 cases (after five years return visit) patients with CAG 90 cases patients with gastric cancer (and different position) and 61 cases normal controls. They all were done study compared. Results: Serum Gs levels in 63 cases (first visit) patients, 48 cases (after one year return visit) patients, 35 cases (after three year return visit) patients and 30 cases (after five years return visit) patient with CAG were significantly higher (t=4.716, 5.218, 5.624, 6.179, 6.5772, all P 0.05). Serum Gs levels in 90 cases with gastric cancer (and different position) was significantly higher (t=4.221, P<0.05; t=4.436, P<0.01) than 61 cases normal controls and the highest serum Gs level was found in cancer of cardia and fundus. And Hp infection rate was 88.8%. Conclusion: The early diagnosis on gastric cancer was very important by determining serum Gs and Hp infection rate. (authors)

  5. Chemical decontamination for decommissioning purposes. (Vigorous decontamination tests of steel samples in a special test loop)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregani, F.; Pascali, R.; Rizzi, R.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the research activities described was to develop vigorous decontamination techniques for decommissioning purposes, taking into account the cost of treatment of the radwaste, to achieve possibly unrestricted release of the treated components, and to obtain know-how for in situ hard decontamination. The decontamination procedures for strong decontamination have been optimized in static and dynamic tests (DECO-loop). The best values have been found for: (i) hydrochloric acid: 4 to 5% vol. at low temperature, 0.7 to 1% vol. at high temperature (80 0 C); (ii) hydrofluoric plus nitric acid: 1.5% vol. HF + 5% vol. HNO 3 at low temperature; 0.3 to 0.5% vol. HF + 2.5 to 5% vol. HNO 3 at high temperature. High flow rates are not necessary, but a good re-circulation of the solution is needed. The final contamination levels, after total oxide removal, are in accordance with limits indicated for unrestricted release of materials in some countries. The arising of the secondary waste is estimated. Decontamination of a 10 m 2 surface would typically produce 0.5 to 3.0 kg of dry waste, corresponding to 1.6 to 10 kg of concrete conditioned waste

  6. A GMM-Based Test for Normal Disturbances of the Heckman Sample Selection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pfaffermayr

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Heckman sample selection model relies on the assumption of normal and homoskedastic disturbances. However, before considering more general, alternative semiparametric models that do not need the normality assumption, it seems useful to test this assumption. Following Meijer and Wansbeek (2007, the present contribution derives a GMM-based pseudo-score LM test on whether the third and fourth moments of the disturbances of the outcome equation of the Heckman model conform to those implied by the truncated normal distribution. The test is easy to calculate and in Monte Carlo simulations it shows good performance for sample sizes of 1000 or larger.

  7. Comparison between sensitivity of autologous skin serum test and autologous plasma skin test in patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria for detection of antibody against IgE or IgE receptor (FcεRIα).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi, Vahid; Movahedi, Masoud; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Aghamohamadi, Asghar; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Ghareguzlou, Mohammad; Shafiei, Alireza; Soheili, Habib; Sanajian, Nahal

    2011-06-01

    Intradermal injection of autologous serum and plasma elicit a cutaneous reactivity in almost 45-60% of patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU). This reactivity is associated with the presence of auto antibodies against IgE or IgE receptors. This study was carried out to compare the cutaneous reactivity of autologous serum and plasma skin tests in a series of patients with CIU for diagnosis of auto antibodies against IgE or IgE receptor. Fifty eight patients with CIU were injected intradermally with autologous serum and plasma (anticoagulated by citrate). Histamine was used as positive control and normal saline as negative control. The study group was checked by routine laboratory tests (CBC, U/A etc), allergens with skin prick tests, and serum IgE level, and auto antibodies against thyroid as well. Duration of urticaria was another factor which was assessed.There was no significant difference between positive ASST and positive APST patients for the above mentioned tests. 77.6% of the patients were Positive for APST and 65.5% were ASST positive. Duration of urticaria was longer in patients with positive ASST and APST than ASST and APST negative patients, although the difference was not statistically significant.Autologus serum skin test (ASST) and autologous plasma skin test (APST) could be used for estimation of duration and severity of urticaria and planning for the treatment.

  8. Sample and injection manifolds used to in-place test of nuclear air-cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Dangui; Li Xinzhi; Hou Jianrong; Qiao Taifei; Wu Tao; Zhang Jirong; Han Lihong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: According to the regulations of nuclear safety rules and related standards, in-place test of the nuclear air-cleaning systems should be carried out before and during operation of the nuclear facilities, which ensure them to be in good condition. In some special conditions, the use of sample and injection manifolds is required to make the test tracer and ventilating duct air fully mixed, so as to get the on-spot typical sample. Methods: This paper introduces the technology and application of the sample and injection manifolds in nuclear air-cleaning system. Results: Multi point injection and multi point sampling technology as an effective experimental method, has been used in a of domestic and international nuclear facilities. Conclusion: The technology solved the problem of uniformly of on-spot injection and sampling,which plays an important role in objectively evaluating the function of nuclear air-cleaning system. (authors)

  9. A Note on Confidence Interval for the Power of the One Sample Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In introductory statistics texts, the power of the test of a one-sample mean when the variance is known is widely discussed. However, when the variance is unknown, the power of the Student's -test is seldom mentioned. In this note, a general methodology for obtaining inference concerning a scalar parameter of interest of any exponential family model is proposed. The method is then applied to the one-sample mean problem with unknown variance to obtain a (1−100% confidence interval for the power of the Student's -test that detects the difference (−0. The calculations require only the density and the cumulative distribution functions of the standard normal distribution. In addition, the methodology presented can also be applied to determine the required sample size when the effect size and the power of a size test of mean are given.

  10. Affinity study on bovine serum albumin's peptides to amphiphilic gold nanoparticles: A test of epitopes and non-epitopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming; Li, Wanrong; Yang, Mingming; Huang, Xiufeng; Bai, Zhijun; Liu, Yushuang; Cai, Weijun; Wang, Yuqin; Zhang, Feng

    2017-09-01

    It is an inevitable event that nanoparticles (NPs) will encounter proteins/peptides in nano-medicine, so it has been significant to know their interaction mechanism before in vivo applications. Previously, a 105-amino-acid sequence had been reported as the binding site between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and amphiphilic polymer coated gold nanoparticles (AP-AuNPs) along with a mortise-tenon joint hypothesis. This article tested the affinity difference between two epitope peptide sequences such as: LGEYGFQNALIVR (S1), DAFLGSFLYEYSR (S2) and one non-epitope peptide sequence as: FDEHVKLVNELTEF (S3). With the photoluminescent amino acid residues, the fluorescence quenching method based on the nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) principle was able to study the thermodynamics of the current binding system. The binding constants (Ka) were determined and followed the order as: Ka-S1 > Ka-S2 >> Ka-S3. Moreover, Hill constants indicated that cooperativity only presented in the interactions of AP-AuNP with either S1 or S2, but not for S3. Moreover, gel electrophoresis, surface plasmon resonance, atomic force microscopy and three dimensional fluorescence microscopy were all also used to comprehensively analyse the binding interaction mechanism. These results further provided useful information to better understand the mortise-tenon joint, which might find applications to nanofabrication and biomedicine.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of one versus two sample faecal immunochemical testing for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, S Lucas; van Roon, Aafke H C; Reijerink, Jacqueline C I Y; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Habbema, J Dik F; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Leerdam, Monique E; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2013-05-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of a single faecal immunochemical test (FIT) are limited. The performance of FIT screening can be improved by increasing the screening frequency or by providing more than one sample in each screening round. This study aimed to evaluate if two-sample FIT screening is cost-effective compared with one-sample FIT. The MISCAN-colon microsimulation model was used to estimate costs and benefits of strategies with either one or two-sample FIT screening. The FIT cut-off level varied between 50 and 200 ng haemoglobin/ml, and the screening schedule was varied with respect to age range and interval. In addition, different definitions for positivity of the two-sample FIT were considered: at least one positive sample, two positive samples, or the mean of both samples being positive. Within an exemplary screening strategy, biennial FIT from the age of 55-75 years, one-sample FIT provided 76.0-97.0 life-years gained (LYG) per 1000 individuals, at a cost of € 259,000-264,000 (range reflects different FIT cut-off levels). Two-sample FIT screening with at least one sample being positive provided 7.3-12.4 additional LYG compared with one-sample FIT at an extra cost of € 50,000-59,000. However, when all screening intervals and age ranges were considered, intensifying screening with one-sample FIT provided equal or more LYG at lower costs compared with two-sample FIT. If attendance to screening does not differ between strategies it is recommended to increase the number of screening rounds with one-sample FIT screening, before considering increasing the number of FIT samples provided per screening round.

  12. Sample damage investigation by laboratory testing and DDM modelling by FRACOD2D of Brazilian tests on Toki granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanaro, Flavio; Sato, Toshinori; Funato, Akio

    2008-01-01

    Numerical scooping calculations by means of FRACOD 2D had shown that Brazilian test models present a bend in the relation between the sample deformation perpendicularly to the loading direction and the load itself. The input 'direct' tensile strength of the rock could be re-obtained based on the numerical load at the bend. In this study, a similar technique is applied to specially designed Brazilian tests on Toki granite (Gifu, Japan) which also exhibits such bend for a tensile stress in the centre of the samples of about 2.6 MPa. However, the samples show a wide range of Brazilian tensile strengths that appear to be negatively correlated to the level of in-situ stress at the depth where the samples were taken. The correlation was interpreted as an effect of sample damage due to drilling in a stressed rock mass. Numerical models were designed with various preexist ent crack patterns to simulate the sample damage. The numerical results show Brazilian peak strength results ranging between 6.7 and 13.0 MPa, which are very realistic considering that the laboratory Brazilian tensile strength was observed to vary between 4.1 and 11.3 MPa. These values are all larger than the stress at the bend which is then interpreted as the tensile strength of the weakest grains in the granite. It is also shown that the occurrence of newly initiated cracks at the bend completely changes the stress distribution and failure mechanism of the samples: this explains why the Brazilian tensile strength should be higher than the 'direct' tensile strength of the rock from uniaxial tests. (author)

  13. Reliability of different methods used for forming of working samples in the laboratory for seed testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opra Branislava

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The testing of seed quality starts from the moment a sample is formed in a warehouse during processing or packaging of the seed. The seed sampling as the process of obtaining the working sample also assumes each step undertaken during its testing in the laboratory. With the aim of appropriate forming of a seed sample in the laboratory, the usage of seed divider is prescribed for large seeded species (such as seed the size of wheat or larger (ISTA Rules, 1999. The aim of this paper was the comparison of different methods used for obtaining the working samples of maize and wheat seeds using conical, soil and centrifugal dividers. The number of seed of added admixtures confirmed the reliability of working samples formation. To each maize sample (1000 g 10 seeds of the following admixtures were added: Zea mays L. (red pericarp, Hordeum vulgäre L., Triticum aestivum L., and Glycine max (L. Merr. Two methods were used for formation of maze seed working sample. To wheat samples (1000 g 10 seeds of each of the following species were added: Avena saliva (hulled seeds, Hordeum vulgäre L., Galium tricorne Stokes, and Polygonum lapatifolmm L. For formation of wheat seed working samples four methods were used. Optimum of 9, but not less than 7 seeds of admixture were due to be determined in the maize seed working sample, while for wheat, at least one seed of admixture was expected to be found in the working sample. The obtained results confirmed that the formation of the maize seed working samples was the most reliable when centrifugal divider, the first method was used (average of admixture - 9.37. From the observed admixtures the seed of Triticum aestivum L. was the most uniformly distributed, the first method also being used (6.93. The second method gains high average values satisfying the given criterion, but it should be used with previous homogenization of the sample being tested. The forming of wheat seed working samples is the most reliable if the

  14. DWPF Sample Vial Insert Study-Statistical Analysis of DWPF Mock-Up Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.P. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-09-18

    This report is prepared as part of Technical/QA Task Plan WSRC-RP-97-351 which was issued in response to Technical Task Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-970132 submitted by DWPF. Presented in this report is a statistical analysis of DWPF Mock-up test data for evaluation of two new analytical methods which use insert samples from the existing HydragardTM sampler. The first is a new hydrofluoric acid based method called the Cold Chemical Method (Cold Chem) and the second is a modified fusion method.Either new DWPF analytical method could result in a two to three fold improvement in sample analysis time.Both new methods use the existing HydragardTM sampler to collect a smaller insert sample from the process sampling system. The insert testing methodology applies to the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) and the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) samples.The insert sample is named after the initial trials which placed the container inside the sample (peanut) vials. Samples in small 3 ml containers (Inserts) are analyzed by either the cold chemical method or a modified fusion method. The current analytical method uses a HydragardTM sample station to obtain nearly full 15 ml peanut vials. The samples are prepared by a multi-step process for Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis by drying, vitrification, grinding and finally dissolution by either mixed acid or fusion. In contrast, the insert sample is placed directly in the dissolution vessel, thus eliminating the drying, vitrification and grinding operations for the Cold chem method. Although the modified fusion still requires drying and calcine conversion, the process is rapid due to the decreased sample size and that no vitrification step is required.A slurry feed simulant material was acquired from the TNX pilot facility from the test run designated as PX-7.The Mock-up test data were gathered on the basis of a statistical design presented in SRT-SCS-97004 (Rev. 0). Simulant PX-7 samples were taken in the DWPF Analytical Cell Mock

  15. HUBUNGAN AUTOLOGOUS SERUM SKIN TEST/ASST DENGAN KEPARAHAN KLINIS URTIKARIA KRONIK IDIOPATIK DI RSUP Dr. MOH HOESIN PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryadi Tjekyan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Severity of Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria In RSUP Dr. Moh. Hoesin Palembang. There were differences in clinical finding among authors about autologous serum skin test/ASST result in chronic idiopathic urtikaria/CIU. Tanus et al (1996 reported there was no significant differences in clinical features of CIU, whereas Sabroe et al (1999 found significant differences in duration and itch of CIU patients. The prevalence of urticaria in General Hospital Dr. Moh. Hoesin Palembang showed increased tendency but there was no data about CIU and the severity of clinical features. The objectives of this study were to find out the significant correlation between ASST and severity of clinical features of CIU, and compared the difference of clinical features of CIU with and without positive ASST. This study was an observational analytic study, with cross sectional design. Fifty four subjects included in this study after following selection. Ethical approval was obtained from Bioethics and Humanities Unit, Faculty of Medicine Sriwijaya University and Dr. Moh. Hoesin Hospital Palembang. The clinical feature of 54 patients with CIU were evaluated. The data of physical examination and the anamnesis about clinical scores collected and analyzed using SPSS software and Spierman correlation was used to analyze the correlation between clinical severity of CIU and ASST result. Student’s t-test was used to analyze the differences in clinical severity of CIU with and without positive ASST. There was significant correlation between the severity clinical feature of CIU and ASST result (p=0,00 ; R=0,598. Patients with positif ASST results (46,3% had more duration of illness (0,00, higher pruritus score (0,00, and angiodema score (0,024. The CIU patients with severity clinical score of 27 (cut-off point, 11 times more likely to develop autoimmune urticaria than the patients with cut-off below 27 (p=0,00.

  16. A two-sample Bayesian t-test for microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimmic Matthew W

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining whether a gene is differentially expressed in two different samples remains an important statistical problem. Prior work in this area has featured the use of t-tests with pooled estimates of the sample variance based on similarly expressed genes. These methods do not display consistent behavior across the entire range of pooling and can be biased when the prior hyperparameters are specified heuristically. Results A two-sample Bayesian t-test is proposed for use in determining whether a gene is differentially expressed in two different samples. The test method is an extension of earlier work that made use of point estimates for the variance. The method proposed here explicitly calculates in analytic form the marginal distribution for the difference in the mean expression of two samples, obviating the need for point estimates of the variance without recourse to posterior simulation. The prior distribution involves a single hyperparameter that can be calculated in a statistically rigorous manner, making clear the connection between the prior degrees of freedom and prior variance. Conclusion The test is easy to understand and implement and application to both real and simulated data shows that the method has equal or greater power compared to the previous method and demonstrates consistent Type I error rates. The test is generally applicable outside the microarray field to any situation where prior information about the variance is available and is not limited to cases where estimates of the variance are based on many similar observations.

  17. A simple nomogram for sample size for estimating sensitivity and specificity of medical tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Rajeev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity and specificity measure inherent validity of a diagnostic test against a gold standard. Researchers develop new diagnostic methods to reduce the cost, risk, invasiveness, and time. Adequate sample size is a must to precisely estimate the validity of a diagnostic test. In practice, researchers generally decide about the sample size arbitrarily either at their convenience, or from the previous literature. We have devised a simple nomogram that yields statistically valid sample size for anticipated sensitivity or anticipated specificity. MS Excel version 2007 was used to derive the values required to plot the nomogram using varying absolute precision, known prevalence of disease, and 95% confidence level using the formula already available in the literature. The nomogram plot was obtained by suitably arranging the lines and distances to conform to this formula. This nomogram could be easily used to determine the sample size for estimating the sensitivity or specificity of a diagnostic test with required precision and 95% confidence level. Sample size at 90% and 99% confidence level, respectively, can also be obtained by just multiplying 0.70 and 1.75 with the number obtained for the 95% confidence level. A nomogram instantly provides the required number of subjects by just moving the ruler and can be repeatedly used without redoing the calculations. This can also be applied for reverse calculations. This nomogram is not applicable for testing of the hypothesis set-up and is applicable only when both diagnostic test and gold standard results have a dichotomous category.

  18. Adaptive designs for the one-sample log-rank test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rene; Faldum, Andreas; Kwiecien, Robert

    2017-09-22

    Traditional designs in phase IIa cancer trials are single-arm designs with a binary outcome, for example, tumor response. In some settings, however, a time-to-event endpoint might appear more appropriate, particularly in the presence of loss to follow-up. Then the one-sample log-rank test might be the method of choice. It allows to compare the survival curve of the patients under treatment to a prespecified reference survival curve. The reference curve usually represents the expected survival under standard of the care. In this work, convergence of the one-sample log-rank statistic to Brownian motion is proven using Rebolledo's martingale central limit theorem while accounting for staggered entry times of the patients. On this basis, a confirmatory adaptive one-sample log-rank test is proposed where provision is made for data dependent sample size reassessment. The focus is to apply the inverse normal method. This is done in two different directions. The first strategy exploits the independent increments property of the one-sample log-rank statistic. The second strategy is based on the patient-wise separation principle. It is shown by simulation that the proposed adaptive test might help to rescue an underpowered trial and at the same time lowers the average sample number (ASN) under the null hypothesis as compared to a single-stage fixed sample design. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  19. A cryogenic tensile testing apparatus for micro-samples cooled by miniature pulse tube cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L B; Liu, S X; Gu, K X; Zhou, Y; Wang, J J

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a cryogenic tensile testing apparatus for micro-samples cooled by a miniature pulse tube cryocooler. At present, tensile tests are widely applied to measure the mechanical properties of materials; most of the cryogenic tensile testing apparatus are designed for samples with standard sizes, while for non-standard size samples, especially for microsamples, the tensile testing cannot be conducted. The general approach to cool down the specimens for tensile testing is by using of liquid nitrogen or liquid helium, which is not convenient: it is difficult to keep the temperature of the specimens at an arbitrary set point precisely, besides, in some occasions, liquid nitrogen, especially liquid helium, is not easily available. To overcome these limitations, a cryogenic tensile testing apparatus cooled by a high frequency pulse tube cryocooler has been designed, built and tested. The operating temperatures of the developed tensile testing apparatus cover from 20 K to room temperature with a controlling precision of ±10 mK. The apparatus configurations, the methods of operation and some cooling performance will be described in this paper. (paper)

  20. Operability test report for core sample truck number one flammable gas modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report primarily consists of the original test procedure used for the Operability Testing of the flammable gas modifications to Core Sample Truck No. One. Included are exceptions, resolutions, comments, and test results. This report consists of the original, completed, test procedure used for the Operability Testing of the flammable gas modifications to the Push Mode Core Sample Truck No. 1. Prior to the Acceptance/Operability test the truck No. 1 operations procedure (TO-080-503) was revised to be more consistent with the other core sample truck procedures and to include operational steps/instructions for the SR weather cover pressurization system. A draft copy of the operations procedure was used to perform the Operability Test Procedure (OTP). A Document Acceptance Review Form is included with this report (last page) indicating the draft status of the operations procedure during the OTP. During the OTP 11 test exceptions were encountered. Of these exceptions four were determined to affect Acceptance Criteria as listed in the OTP, Section 4.7 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

  1. A note on Poisson goodness-of-fit tests for ionizing radiation induced chromosomal aberration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Manuel; González, J E; Di Giorgio, Marina; Barquinero, J F

    2018-05-18

    To present Poisson exact goodness-of-fit tests as alternatives and complements to the asymptotic u-test, which is the most widely used in cytogenetic biodosimetry, to decide whether a sample of chromosomal aberrations in blood cells comes from an homogeneous or inhomogeneous exposure. Three Poisson exact goodness-of-fit test from the literature are introduced and implemented in the R environment. A Shiny R Studio application, named GOF Poisson, has been updated for the purpose of giving support to this work. The three exact tests and the u-test are applied in chromosomal aberration data from clinical and accidental radiation exposure patients. It is observed how the u-test is not an appropriate approximation in small samples with small yield of chromosomal aberrations. Tools are provided to compute the three exact tests, which is not as trivial as the implementation of the u-test. Poisson exact goodness-of-fit tests should be considered jointly to the u-test for detecting inhomogeneous exposures in the cytogenetic biodosimetry practice.

  2. Evaluation of adrenal function in patients with hypothalamic and pituitary disorders : comparison of serum cortisol, urinary free cortisol and the human-corticotrophin releasing hormone test with the insulin tolerance test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, RPF; Pasterkamp, SH; Beentjes, JAM; Sluiter, WJ

    OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate the performance of screening tests (serum cortisol and 24-h urinary free cortisol) and the human-corticotrophin releasing hormone (h-CRH) test in the assessment of adrenal function in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders. DESIGN Summary receiver

  3. Magnetic solid phase extraction of gemfibrozil from human serum and pharmaceutical wastewater samples utilizing a β-cyclodextrin grafted graphene oxide-magnetite nano-hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, Hossein; Talleb, Zeynab

    2015-03-01

    A magnetic solid phase extraction method based on β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) grafted graphene oxide (GO)/magnetite (Fe3O4) nano-hybrid as an innovative adsorbent was developed for the separation and pre-concentration of gemfibrozil prior to its determination by spectrofluorometry. The as-prepared β-CD/GO/Fe3O4 nano-hybrid possesses the magnetism property of Fe3O4 nano-particles that makes it easily manipulated by an external magnetic field. On the other hand, the surface modification of GO by β-CD leads to selective separation of the target analyte from sample matrices. The structure and morphology of the synthesized adsorbent were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The experimental factors affecting the extraction/pre-concentration and determination of the analyte were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range between 10 and 5000 pg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9989. The limit of detection and enrichment factor for gemfibrozil were 3 pg mL(-1) and 100, respectively. The maximum sorption capacity of the adsorbent for gemfibrozil was 49.8 mg g(-1). The method was successfully applied to monitoring gemfibrozil in human serum and pharmaceutical wastewaters samples with recoveries in the range of 96.0-104.0% for the spiked samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The test about blood serum capabilities in maintaining the quality of bull spermatozoa during storage in cep diluent at refrigerator temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducha, Nur

    2018-03-01

    The storage of spermatozoa requires a protective material from cold shock events and the presence of free radicals.In CEP diluent contain BSA, that was used as spermatozoa protection. This study aim was to examine the ability of cow blood serum in replacing BSA as spermatozoa protective in CEP diluent. Fresh semen from Limousin bull was diluted with CEP diluent + BSA as control, in the treatment group were CEP without BSA, but replaced with 3%, 5%, and 7% serum from fresh blood. Spermatozoa quality tests included motility and viability. The motility of spermatozoa was observed by two people using a light microscope with 200 X magnification at temperature of 37°C. The method of viability observation was eosin nigrosin staining, and observed under a light microscope with 400 X magnification. The results showed that the replacement of cow blood serum with various concentrations gave different effects on the quality of spermatozoa. The best motility and viability of the treatment group was at serum concentrations of 5% after eight days storage and was not significantly different from the controls. The conclusion in this study was cow blood serum can replace BSA in CEP diluents.

  5. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form

  6. The application of variable sampling method in the audit testing of insurance companies' premium income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovković Biljana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the procedure of audit sampling using the variable sampling methods for conducting the tests of income from insurance premiums in insurance company 'Takovo'. Since the incomes from the insurance premiums from vehicle insurance and third-party vehicle insurance have the dominant share of the insurance company's income, the application of this method will be shown in the audit examination of these incomes - incomes from VI and TPVI premiums. For investigating the applicability of these methods in testing the income of other insurance companies, we shall implement the method of variable sampling in the audit testing of the premium income from the three leading insurance companies in Serbia, 'Dunav', 'DDOR' and 'Delta Generali' Insurance.

  7. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart K of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... yields a 97.5 percent confidence level for a one-tailed t-test. Step 7. Compare the mean of the first sample (X 1) with the lower control limit (LCL1) to determine one of the following: (i) If the mean of... from Step 5. Compare the combined sample mean (X 2) to the lower control limit (LCL2) to find one of...

  8. Testing and sampling of deep brine aquifers in the Palo Duro Basin, West Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyling, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is investigating the Palo Duro Basin of West Texas along with locations in Nevada, Washington, Utah, Mississippi and Louisiana as potential sites for storage of high-level nuclear waste. Ten wells have been drilled to depths between 3000 and 8300 feet. Testing and sampling of deep test zones requires advance planning and analysis of what must be obtained from the well. Various alternatives are available depending on data needs. In this particular instance, both hydrologic and geochemical data were required. The methods chosen were field proven methods used in the oil field industry for many years. Short term testing has included conventional oil-field-type drill stem tests and drill stem equipment with surface pressure readout. Long term testing has consisted of a series of production and recovery tests. Fluid sampling was performed in two stages. The first was at the well head under an imposed pressure of several hundred psi. The second fluid samples were collected downhole at the production zone under pressures close to ambient pressure. The geochemical data and hydrologic data can be used as independent checks on each other in many cases. Test results from the well along with examination of recovered core provided maximum data for each well. 5 references, 8 figures

  9. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  10. Salmonella testing of pooled pre-enrichment broth cultures for screening multiple food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, W R; Olsen, R A; Hunter, J E

    1972-04-01

    A method has been described for testing multiple food samples for Salmonella without loss in sensitivity. The method pools multiple pre-enrichment broth cultures into single enrichment broths. The subsequent stages of the Salmonella analysis are not altered. The method was found applicable to several dry food materials including nonfat dry milk, dried egg albumin, cocoa, cottonseed flour, wheat flour, and shredded coconut. As many as 25 pre-enrichment broth cultures were pooled without apparent loss in the sensitivity of Salmonella detection as compared to individual sample analysis. The procedure offers a simple, yet effective, way to increase sample capacity in the Salmonella testing of foods, particularly where a large proportion of samples ordinarily is negative. It also permits small portions of pre-enrichment broth cultures to be retained for subsequent individual analysis if positive tests are found. Salmonella testing of pooled pre-enrichment broths provides increased consumer protection for a given amount of analytical effort as compared to individual sample analysis.

  11. Compressive and Flexural Tests on Adobe Samples Reinforced with Wire Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhio, G. A.; Al-Tawil, Y. M. Y.; Syed Mohsin, S. M.; Gul, Y.; Ramli, N. I.

    2018-03-01

    Adobe is an economical, naturally available, and environment friendly construction material that offers excellent thermal and sound insulations as well as indoor air quality. It is important to understand and enhance the mechanical properties of this material, where a high degree of variation is reported in the literature owing to lack of research and standardization in this field. The present paper focuses first on the understanding of mechanical behaviour of adobe subjected to compressive stresses as well as flexure and then on enhancing the same with the help of steel wire mesh as reinforcement. A total of 22 samples were tested out of which, 12 cube samples were tested for compressive strength, whereas 10 beams samples were tested for modulus of rupture. Half of the samples in each category were control samples i.e. without wire mesh reinforcement, whereas the remaining half were reinforced with a single layer of wire mesh per sample. It has been found that the compressive strength of adobe increases by about 43% after adding a single layer of wire mesh reinforcement. The flexural response of adobe has also shown improvement with the addition of wire mesh reinforcement.

  12. Does the time interval between antimüllerian hormone serum sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation affect its predictive ability in in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Nelson, Scott M; Stoop, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response.......To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response....

  13. Acceptance sampling for attributes via hypothesis testing and the hypergeometric distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samohyl, Robert Wayne

    2017-10-01

    This paper questions some aspects of attribute acceptance sampling in light of the original concepts of hypothesis testing from Neyman and Pearson (NP). Attribute acceptance sampling in industry, as developed by Dodge and Romig (DR), generally follows the international standards of ISO 2859, and similarly the Brazilian standards NBR 5425 to NBR 5427 and the United States Standards ANSI/ASQC Z1.4. The paper evaluates and extends the area of acceptance sampling in two directions. First, by suggesting the use of the hypergeometric distribution to calculate the parameters of sampling plans avoiding the unnecessary use of approximations such as the binomial or Poisson distributions. We show that, under usual conditions, discrepancies can be large. The conclusion is that the hypergeometric distribution, ubiquitously available in commonly used software, is more appropriate than other distributions for acceptance sampling. Second, and more importantly, we elaborate the theory of acceptance sampling in terms of hypothesis testing rigorously following the original concepts of NP. By offering a common theoretical structure, hypothesis testing from NP can produce a better understanding of applications even beyond the usual areas of industry and commerce such as public health and political polling. With the new procedures, both sample size and sample error can be reduced. What is unclear in traditional acceptance sampling is the necessity of linking the acceptable quality limit (AQL) exclusively to the producer and the lot quality percent defective (LTPD) exclusively to the consumer. In reality, the consumer should also be preoccupied with a value of AQL, as should the producer with LTPD. Furthermore, we can also question why type I error is always uniquely associated with the producer as producer risk, and likewise, the same question arises with consumer risk which is necessarily associated with type II error. The resolution of these questions is new to the literature. The

  14. A Note on Confidence Interval for the Power of the One Sample Test

    OpenAIRE

    A. Wong

    2010-01-01

    In introductory statistics texts, the power of the test of a one-sample mean when the variance is known is widely discussed. However, when the variance is unknown, the power of the Student's -test is seldom mentioned. In this note, a general methodology for obtaining inference concerning a scalar parameter of interest of any exponential family model is proposed. The method is then applied to the one-sample mean problem with unknown variance to obtain a ( 1 − ) 100% confidence interval for...

  15. Experimental Investigation Of Microbially Induced Corrosion Of Test Samples And Effect Of Self-assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure Of Test Samples To Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, And Biochemical Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Laurinavichius, K S

    1998-01-01

    Experimental Investigation Of Microbially Induced Corrosion Of Test Samples And Effect Of Self-assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure Of Test Samples To Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, And Biochemical Studies

  16. Characterization of a low-level radioactive waste grout: Sampling and test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.F.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1992-12-01

    WHC manages and operates the grout treatment facility at Hanford as part of a DOE program to clean up wastes stored at federal nuclear production sites. PNL provides support to the grout disposal program through pilot-scale tests, performance assessments, and formulation verification activities. in 1988 and 1989, over one million gallons of a low-level radioactive liquid waste was processed through the facility to produce a grout waste that was then deposited in an underground vault. The liquid waste was phosphate/sulfate waste (PSW) generated in decontamination of the N Reactor. PNL sampled and tested the grout produced during the second half of the PSW campaign to support quality verification activities prior to grout vault closure. Samples of grout were obtained by inserting nested-tube samplers into the grout slurry in the vault. After the grout had cured, the inner tube of the sampler was removed and the grout samples extracted. Tests for compressive strength, sonic velocity, and leach testing were used to assess grout quality; results were compared to those from pilot-scale test grouts made with a simulated PSW. The grout produced during the second half of the PSW campaign exceeded compressive strength and leachability formulation criteria. The nested tube samplers were effective in collecting samples of grout although their use introduced greater variability into the compressive strength data

  17. A Third Moment Adjusted Test Statistic for Small Sample Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Johnny; Bentler, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Goodness of fit testing in factor analysis is based on the assumption that the test statistic is asymptotically chi-square; but this property may not hold in small samples even when the factors and errors are normally distributed in the population. Robust methods such as Browne's asymptotically distribution-free method and Satorra Bentler's mean scaling statistic were developed under the presumption of non-normality in the factors and errors. This paper finds new application to the case where factors and errors are normally distributed in the population but the skewness of the obtained test statistic is still high due to sampling error in the observed indicators. An extension of Satorra Bentler's statistic is proposed that not only scales the mean but also adjusts the degrees of freedom based on the skewness of the obtained test statistic in order to improve its robustness under small samples. A simple simulation study shows that this third moment adjusted statistic asymptotically performs on par with previously proposed methods, and at a very small sample size offers superior Type I error rates under a properly specified model. Data from Mardia, Kent and Bibby's study of students tested for their ability in five content areas that were either open or closed book were used to illustrate the real-world performance of this statistic.

  18. Acceptance Sampling Plans Based on Truncated Life Tests for Sushila Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Ibrahim Al-Omari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An acceptance sampling plan problem based on truncated life tests when the lifetime following a Sushila distribution is considered in this paper. For various acceptance numbers, confidence levels and values of the ratio between fixed experiment time and particular mean lifetime, the minimum sample sizes required to ascertain a specified mean life were found. The operating characteristic function values of the suggested sampling plans and the producer’s risk are presented. Some tables are provided and the results are illustrated by an example of a real data set.

  19. DWPF Sample Vial Insert Study-Statistical Analysis of DWPF Mock-Up Test Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    This report is prepared as part of Technical/QA Task Plan WSRC-RP-97-351 which was issued in response to Technical Task Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-970132 submitted by DWPF. Presented in this report is a statistical analysis of DWPF Mock-up test data for evaluation of two new analytical methods which use insert samples from the existing HydragardTM sampler. The first is a new hydrofluoric acid based method called the Cold Chemical Method (Cold Chem) and the second is a modified fusion method.Both new methods use the existing HydragardTM sampler to collect a smaller insert sample from the process sampling system. The insert testing methodology applies to the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) and the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) samples. Samples in small 3 ml containers (Inserts) are analyzed by either the cold chemical method or a modified fusion method. The current analytical method uses a HydragardTM sample station to obtain nearly full 15 ml peanut vials. The samples are prepared by a multi-step process for Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis by drying, vitrification, grinding and finally dissolution by either mixed acid or fusion. In contrast, the insert sample is placed directly in the dissolution vessel, thus eliminating the drying, vitrification and grinding operations for the Cold chem method. Although the modified fusion still requires drying and calcine conversion, the process is rapid due to the decreased sample size and that no vitrification step is required.A slurry feed simulant material was acquired from the TNX pilot facility from the test run designated as PX-7.The Mock-up test data were gathered on the basis of a statistical design presented in SRT-SCS-97004 (Rev. 0). Simulant PX-7 samples were taken in the DWPF Analytical Cell Mock-up Facility using 3 ml inserts and 15 ml peanut vials. A number of the insert samples were analyzed by Cold Chem and compared with full peanut vial samples analyzed by the current methods. The remaining inserts were analyzed by

  20. 90Sr and 137Cs in environmental samples from Dolon near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastberger, M; Steinhäusler, F; Gerzabek, M H; Hubmer, A; Lettner, H

    2000-09-01

    The (90)Sr and (137)Cs activities of soil, plant, and milk samples from the village of Dolon, located close to the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan, were determined. The areal deposition at the nine sampling sites is in the range of sites both nuclides mainly have remained in the top 6 cm of the soil profiles; at others they were partly transported into deeper soil layers since the deposition. For most of the samples the (90)Sr yield after destruction of the soil matrix is significantly higher than after extracting with 6 M HCl indicating that (90)Sr is partly associated with fused silicates. The low mean (90)Sr activity concentrations of vegetation samples (14 Bq kg(-1) dw) and milk samples (0.05 Bq kg(-1) fw) suggest that this has favorable consequences in terms of limiting its bioavailability.

  1. Cone penetrometer tests and HydroPunch sampling: A screening technique for plume definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolley, M.; Kappmeyer, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Cone penetrometer tests and HydroPunch sampling were used to define the extent of volatile organic compounds in ground water. The investigation indicated that the combination of the these techniques is effective for obtaining ground water samples for preliminary plume definition. HydroPunch samples can be collected in unconsolidated sediments and the analytical results obtained from these samples are comparable to those obtained from adjacent monitoring wells. This sampling method is a rapid and cost-effective screening technique for characterizing the extent of contaminant plumes in soft sediment environments. Use of this screening technique allowed monitoring wells to be located at the plume boundary, thereby reducing the number of wells installed and the overall cost of the plume definition program

  2. Quantitative determination of minerals in Nevada Test Site samples by x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1983-07-01

    The external standard intensity ratio technique has been developed into a routine procedure for quantitatively determining mineralogic compositions of Nevada Test Site (NTS) samples by x-ray diffraction. This technique used ratios of x-ray intensity peaks from the same run which eliminates many possible errors. Constants have been determined for each of thirteen minerals commonly found in NTS samples - quartz, montmorillonite, illite, clinoptilolite, cristobalite, feldspars, calcite, dolomite, hornblende, kaolinite, muscovite, biotite, and amorphous glass. Ratios of the highest intensity peak of each mineral to be quantified in the sample and the highest intensity peak of quartz are used to calculate sample composition. The technique has been tested on samples with three to eleven components representative of geologic environments at NTS, and is accurate to 7.0 wt % of the total sample. The minimum amount of each of these minerals detectable by x-ray diffraction has also been determined. QUANTS is a computer code that calculates mineral contents and produces a report sheet. Constants for minerals in NTS samples other than those listed above can easily be determined, and added to QUANTS at any time

  3. Location tests for biomarker studies: a comparison using simulations for the two-sample case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinhardt, M O; Ziegler, A

    2013-01-01

    Gene, protein, or metabolite expression levels are often non-normally distributed, heavy tailed and contain outliers. Standard statistical approaches may fail as location tests in this situation. In three Monte-Carlo simulation studies, we aimed at comparing the type I error levels and empirical power of standard location tests and three adaptive tests [O'Gorman, Can J Stat 1997; 25: 269 -279; Keselman et al., Brit J Math Stat Psychol 2007; 60: 267- 293; Szymczak et al., Stat Med 2013; 32: 524 - 537] for a wide range of distributions. We simulated two-sample scenarios using the g-and-k-distribution family to systematically vary tail length and skewness with identical and varying variability between groups. All tests kept the type I error level when groups did not vary in their variability. The standard non-parametric U-test performed well in all simulated scenarios. It was outperformed by the two non-parametric adaptive methods in case of heavy tails or large skewness. Most tests did not keep the type I error level for skewed data in the case of heterogeneous variances. The standard U-test was a powerful and robust location test for most of the simulated scenarios except for very heavy tailed or heavy skewed data, and it is thus to be recommended except for these cases. The non-parametric adaptive tests were powerful for both normal and non-normal distributions under sample variance homogeneity. But when sample variances differed, they did not keep the type I error level. The parametric adaptive test lacks power for skewed and heavy tailed distributions.

  4. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant

  5. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-07-10

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant.

  6. Recommended procedures for performance testing of radiobioassay laboratories: Volume 2, In vitro samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenrick, H.W.; MacLellan, J.A.

    1988-11-01

    Draft American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard N13.30 (Performance Criteria for Radiobioassay) was developed for the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to help ensure that bioassay laboratories provide accurate and consistent results. The draft standard specifies the criteria for defining the procedures necessary to establish a bioassay performance-testing laboratory and program. The bioassay testing laboratory will conduct tests to evaluate the performance of service laboratories. Pacific Northwest Laboratory helped develop testing procedures as part of an effort to evaluate the performance criteria by testing the existing measurement capabilities of various bioassay laboratories. This report recommends guidelines for the preparation, handling, storage, distribution, shipping, and documentation of in vitro test samples (artificial urine and fecal matter) for indirect bioassay. The data base and recommended records system for documenting radiobioassay performance at the service laboratories are also presented. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  7. Fatigue testing on samples from Zircaloy-4 tubes type SEU-43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaru, V.; Ionescu, V.; Nitu, A.; Ionescu, D.; Voicu, F.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the testing of samples worked from Zicaloy-4 tubes (as-received.. metallurgical state), utilized in the composition of the CANDU SEU-43 fuel bundle. These tests are intended to simulate their behaviour in a power cycling process inside the reactor. The testing process is of low cycle fatigue type, done outside of the reactor, on ''C-ring'' samples, cut along the transversal direction. These samples are tested at 1%, 2% and 3% amplitude deformation, at room temperature. The calibration curves for both types of tube (small and big diameter) are determined by using the finite element analyses with the ANSYS computer code. The cycling test results are in the form of a fatigue life curve (N-e) for zircaloy-4 used in the SEU-43 fuel bundle. The curve is determined by the experimental dependency between the number of cycles to fracture and the deformation amplitude. The low cycle fatigue mechanical tests done at room temperature together with electronic microscopy analyses have reflected the characteristic behaviour of the zircaloy-4 metal in the given environment conditions. (authors)

  8. [Detection of serum proteins in the patients of lung adenocarcinoma by the method of magnetic bead based sample fractionation and MALDI-TOF-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Lun-Xu; Yuan, Quan; Li, Xiao-Liang; Huang, Na; Yang, Xiao-Dong

    2010-05-01

    To screen the serum proteins related to human lung adenocarcinoma using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) technology. The blood samples were collected from 10 patients of lung adenocarcinoma before and one week after the surgery, while 10 healthy subjects were used as control. The differential protein expression between the two groups and the change of those proteins after surgery were studied by ClinProt magnetic bead enrichment and MALDI-TOF-MS. Six protein peaks were identified, 2 of them were highly expressed protein biomarkers with relative molecular weights of 2661, 2991, and increased after the surgery, 4 of them were lowly expressed protein biomarkers with relative molecular weights of 4091, 4210, 4644, 5336, which continuously decreased after the surgery. ClinProt magnetic bead enrichment and MALDI-TOF-MS is a quick, easy and sensitive method of proteomics. The differential expressed proteins may be the latent tumor marker of lung adenocarcinoma. The alteration of those proteins after surgery might be helpful to assess the therapeutic effect and prognosis.

  9. Sensitive and selective spectrophotometric assay of piroxicam in pure form, capsule and human blood serum samples via ion-pair complex formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Nina; Keyhanian, Fereshteh

    2014-09-01

    A simple, accurate and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the rapid determination of piroxicam (PX) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method involves formation of stable yellow colored ion-pair complexes of the amino derivative (basic nitrogen) of PX with three sulphonphthalein acid dyes namely; bromocresol green (BCG), bromothymol blue (BTB), bromophenol blue (BPB) in acidic medium. The colored species exhibited absorption maxima at 438, 429 and 432 nm with molar absorptivity values of 9.400 × 103, 1.218 × 103 and 1.02 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 for PX-BCG, PX-BTB and PX-BPB complexes, respectively. The effect of optimum conditions via acidity, reagent concentration, time and solvent were studied. The reactions were extremely rapid at room temperature and the absorbance values remained constant for 48 h. Beer’s law was obeyed with a good correlation coefficient in the concentration ranges 1-100 μg mL-1 for BCG, BTB complexes and 1-95 μg mL-1 for BPB complex. The composition ratio of the ion-pair complexes were found to be 1:1 in all cases as established by Job’s method. No interference was observed from common additives and excipients which may be present in the pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of PX in capsule and human blood serum samples with good accuracy and precision.

  10. Oral pathology follow-up by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy on tissue and blood serum samples: an application of wavelet and multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, I.; Camerlingo, C.; Zenone, F.; Perna, G.; Capozzi, V.; Cirillo, N.; Gaeta, G. M.; De Mol, E.; Lepore, M.

    2009-02-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a potentially fatal autoimmune disease that cause blistering of the skin and oral cavity. It is characterized by disruption of cell-cell adhesion within the suprabasal layers of epithelium, a phenomenon termed acantholysis Patients with PV develop IgG autoantibodies against normal constituents of the intercellular substance of keratinocytes. The mechanisms by which such autoantibodies induce blisters are not clearly understood. The qualitative analysis of such effects provides important clues in the search for a specific diagnosis, and the quantitative analysis of biochemical abnormalities is important in measuring the extent of the disease process, designing therapy and evaluating the efficacy of treatment. Improved diagnostic techniques could permit the recognition of more subtle forms of disease and reveal incipient lesions clinically unapparent, so that progression of potentially severe forms could be reversed with appropriate treatment. In this paper, we report the results of our micro-Raman spectroscopy study on tissue and blood serum samples from ill, recovered and under therapy PV patients. The complexity of the differences among their characteristic Raman spectra has required a specific strategy to obtain reliable information on the illness stage of the patients For this purpose, wavelet techniques and advanced multivariate analysis methods have been developed and applied to the experimental Raman spectra. Promising results have been obtained.

  11. Evaluation of autologous serum skin test and skin prick test reactivity to house dust mite in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU is a common skin disorder with etiology that is not well understood. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of autologous serum skin test (ASST and skin prick testing (SPT to house dust mite (HDM in 862 CSU cases in China. Clinical features, courses and treatment responses were also recorded. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive ASST was 46.3%, and patients aged 30-39 years had the highest positive rate (52.1%. Positive SPT to HDM was seen in 153 patients (17.7% with the highest positive rate (34.2% in patients aged 20 or less. Patients with positive ASST had higher urticaria activity scores (UAS (4.18±0.65 vs. 3.67±0.53 but lower positive rates of HDM (24.6% vs. 37.6%, as compared with those with negative ASST (odds ratio (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.38-2.47. Patients could be categorized into four groups based on the results of ASST and SPT to HDM and patients with positive ASST and positive SPT to HDM had the highest disease activity scores, experienced higher frequencies of angioedema, diseases duration, and required higher dosage of loratadine every month, compared with other subgroups (P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CSU showed varied responses of positive ASST and varied sensitivity to HDM, Patients with positive ASST and/or positive SPT had more disease activity compared with patients with negative ASST and/or negative SPT. Further classification can be made based on the result of SPT and ASST.

  12. β-trace protein as a diagnostic marker for perilymphatic fluid fistula: a prospective controlled pilot study to test a sample collection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann-Harildstad, Gregor; Stenklev, Niels Christian; Myrvoll, Elin; Jablonski, Greg; Klingenberg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of perilymphatic fluid (PLF) fistula is still challenging. Perilymphatic fluid fistula is one possible complication after stapedotomy or cochlear implant surgery. We have performed a prospective diagnostic pilot study to further investigate β-trace protein (β-TP) as a marker for PLF fistula. In this pilot study, we tested the sensitivity of the β-TP marker using a simple method for sample collection from the tympanic cavity. Prospective controlled diagnostic study. Two-center tertiary referral hospitals. A total of 35 adult patients undergoing ear surgery were included. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: 1) 19 patients undergoing stapedotomy were investigated for PLF fistula in samples obtained from the tympanic cavity and 2) 16 patients undergoing myringoplasty were investigated for PLF fistula in samples from the tympanic cavity. This group served as the control. Mean age +/- SD at surgery was 49.9 +/- 8.0 years in the study group and 39.69 +/- 15.47 years in the control group. β-Trace protein (prostaglandin D synthase) in tympanic cavity samples and serum samples was analyzed. The samples were collected by gradually filling the tympanic cavity with 100 to 200 μl sodium chloride and by immediately collecting a volume of 60 to 100 μl in a mucus specimen set container. The concentration of β-TP was quantified using laser nephelometry. The median β-TP in the study group was 0.8 mg/L (range, 0.05-4.5 mg/L). In the control group, the median β-TP value was 0.16 mg/L (range, 0.01-0.36 mg/L). Thirty-five percent of the values in the study group were below the highest value in the negative control group. The β-TP values of the tympanic cavity samples were significantly higher in the study group than in controls (p = 0.0001). The serum values were 0.55 +/- 0.18 and 0.53 +/- 0.11 mg/L, respectively. It may be feasible to test for PLF fistula using β-TP in samples from the tympanic cavity. Our results, however, suggest a relative low diagnostic

  13. Sample size for estimation of the Pearson correlation coefficient in cherry tomato tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Giacomini Sari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the required sample size for estimation of the Pearson coefficient of correlation between cherry tomato variables. Two uniformity tests were set up in a protected environment in the spring/summer of 2014. The observed variables in each plant were mean fruit length, mean fruit width, mean fruit weight, number of bunches, number of fruits per bunch, number of fruits, and total weight of fruits, with calculation of the Pearson correlation matrix between them. Sixty eight sample sizes were planned for one greenhouse and 48 for another, with the initial sample size of 10 plants, and the others were obtained by adding five plants. For each planned sample size, 3000 estimates of the Pearson correlation coefficient were obtained through bootstrap re-samplings with replacement. The sample size for each correlation coefficient was determined when the 95% confidence interval amplitude value was less than or equal to 0.4. Obtaining estimates of the Pearson correlation coefficient with high precision is difficult for parameters with a weak linear relation. Accordingly, a larger sample size is necessary to estimate them. Linear relations involving variables dealing with size and number of fruits per plant have less precision. To estimate the coefficient of correlation between productivity variables of cherry tomato, with a confidence interval of 95% equal to 0.4, it is necessary to sample 275 plants in a 250m² greenhouse, and 200 plants in a 200m² greenhouse.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of one versus two sample faecal immunochemical testing for colorectal cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Goede (Luuk); A.H.C. Roon (Aafke); J.C.I.Y. Reijerink (Jacqueline); A.J. van Vuuren (Hanneke); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M.E. van Leerdam (Monique); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective The sensitivity and specificity of a single faecal immunochemical test (FIT) are limited. The performance of FIT screening can be improved by increasing the screening frequency or by providing more than one sample in each screening round. This study aimed to evaluate if

  15. 21 CFR 211.110 - Sampling and testing of in-process materials and drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICALS Production and Process Controls § 211.110 Sampling and testing of in-process materials and drug... capsule weight variation; (2) Disintegration time; (3) Adequacy of mixing to assure uniformity and... production process, e.g., at commencement or completion of significant phases or after storage for long...

  16. 40 CFR 80.580 - What are the sampling and testing methods for sulfur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... [email protected] from the ASTM Web site of http://www.astm.org. (i) ASTM standard method D2622-05 (“ASTM... methods for sulfur? 80.580 Section 80.580 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... the sampling and testing methods for sulfur? The sulfur content of diesel fuel and diesel fuel...

  17. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-09-01

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested [1,2] and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [5]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi 2/Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  18. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-01-01

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [5]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi 2 /Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  19. Testing of a Microfluidic Sampling System for High Temperature Electrochemical MC&A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nichols, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-11-27

    This report describes the preliminary validation of a high-temperature microfluidic chip system for sampling of electrochemical process salt. Electroanalytical and spectroscopic techniques are attractive candidates for improvement through high-throughput sample analysis via miniaturization. Further, microfluidic chip systems are amenable to micro-scale chemical processing such as rapid, automated sample purification to improve sensor performance. The microfluidic chip was tested to determine the feasibility of the system for high temperature applications and conditions under which microfluidic systems can be used to generate salt droplets at process temperature to support development of material balance and control systems in a used fuel treatment facility. In FY13, the project focused on testing a quartz microchip device with molten salts at near process temperatures. The equipment was installed in glove box and tested up to 400°C using commercial thermal transfer fluids as the carrier phase. Preliminary tests were carried out with a low-melting halide salt to initially characterize the properties of this novel liquid-liquid system and to investigate the operating regimes for inducing droplet flow within candidate carrier fluids. Initial results show that the concept is viable for high temperature sampling but further development is required to optimize the system to operate with process relevant molten salts.

  20. 43 CFR 11.64 - Injury determination phase-testing and sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the American Society for Testing and Materials, and the American Public Health Association. (iii) Methods selected for air sampling and analysis shall be methods... stresses simulated; (B) How the model approximates the geohydrological framework of the assessment area; (C...

  1. Acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in women living in rural and urban areas of Madagascar. Materials and methods: Participants were recruited in a health care center (urban group) and smaller affiliated dispensaries (rural group). They were invited to perform ...

  2. Test Sample for the Spatially Resolved Quantification of Illicit Drugs on Fingerprints Using Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muramoto, S.; Forbes, T.P.; van Asten, A.C.; Gillen, G.

    2015-01-01

    A novel test sample for the spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs on the surface of a fingerprint using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated. Calibration curves relating the signal

  3. Use of PCR on lymph-node sample as test of cure of visceral leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, O. F.; Kager, P. A.; Zijlstra, E. E.; El-Hassan, A. M.; Oskam, L.

    1997-01-01

    When the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to test lymph-node aspirates from 35 patients from eastern Sudan, who had had visceral leishmaniasis but were believed cured, leishmanial DNA was detected in samples from 14 of the patients. There were no significant differences between the

  4. 77 FR 72205 - Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification Regarding Representative Samples for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... testing periodically and when there has been a material change in the product's design or manufacturing... control data during product manufacture; and using manufacturing techniques with intrinsic manufacturing... sample in the production population an equal probability of being selected (75 FR at 28349 through 28350...

  5. Strength and deformability of hollow concrete blocks: correlation of block and cylindrical sample test results

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, C. S.; Hanai, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with correlations among mechanical properties of hollow blocks and those of concrete used to make them. Concrete hollow blocks and test samples were moulded with plastic consistency concrete, to assure the same material in all cases, in three diferente levels of strength (nominally 10 N/mm², 20 N/mm² and 30 N/mm²). The mechanical properties and structural behaviour in axial compression and tension tests were determined by standard tests in blocks and cylinders. Stress and str...

  6. Daily self-sampling for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanner, Karin; Wikström, Ingrid; Gustavsson, Inger; Wilander, Erik; Lindberg, Julia Hedlund; Gyllensten, Ulf; Olovsson, Matts

    2015-12-01

    Self-sampling for HPV as part of primary screening is a well-tolerated method for women not attending organized Pap smear screening and could increase coverage of cervical cancer screening. To investigate if the prevalence of HR-HPV varies from day to day in infected women and if one single sample is reliable for detecting an ongoing infection. This is a prospective cohort study on 12 premenopausal and 13 postmenopausal women performing daily self-sampling for HR-HPV testing. They were all HR-HPV-positive 1-3 months ago. Postmenopausal women were sampled for 28 days and premenopausal women sampled during bleeding-free days in one menstrual cycle. A possible difference in viral load between the estrogen-dominated proliferative phase and the progesterone-dominated secretory phase was analyzed. Consistent results throughout the sampling period were observed for 19 women, with either a daily presence of HPV (14 women) or no HPV at all during the sampling period (5 women). Of 607 samples from 25 women, 596 were consistently positive or negative for HPV during the sampling period and 11 were inconsistent (2%). There was no difference in HPV copy number between the estrogen dominated proliferative or progesterone dominated secretory menstrual cycle phases. The major finding was a high degree of consistency concerning HR-HPV positivity and negativity of HR-HPV in vaginal fluid during a sustained period of daily self-sampling. It does not appear to matter whether the sample is collected in the proliferative or secretory phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the results of SEM and TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a BPRML (WSi2/Si with fundamental layer thickness of 3 nm) with a Dual Beam FIB (focused ion beam)/SEM technique. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize x-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with x-ray microscopes is in progress.

  8. A novel approach for small sample size family-based association studies: sequential tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilk, Ozlem; Rajabli, Farid; Dungul, Dilay Ciglidag; Ozdag, Hilal; Ilk, Hakki Gokhan

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) to overcome the problem of limited samples in studies related to complex genetic diseases. The results of this novel approach are compared with the ones obtained from the traditional transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) on simulated data. Although TDT classifies single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to only two groups (SNPs associated with the disease and the others), SPRT has the flexibility of assigning SNPs to a third group, that is, those for which we do not have enough evidence and should keep sampling. It is shown that SPRT results in smaller ratios of false positives and negatives, as well as better accuracy and sensitivity values for classifying SNPs when compared with TDT. By using SPRT, data with small sample size become usable for an accurate association analysis.

  9. A technique for extracting blood samples from mice in fire toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, T. J.; Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of adequate blood samples from moribund and dead mice has been a problem because of the small quantity of blood in each animal and the short time available between the animals' death and coagulation of the blood. These difficulties are particularly critical in fire toxicity tests because removal of the test animals while observing proper safety precautions for personnel is time-consuming. Techniques for extracting blood samples from mice were evaluated, and a technique was developed to obtain up to 0.8 ml of blood from a single mouse after death. The technique involves rapid exposure and cutting of the posterior vena cava and accumulation of blood in the peritoneal space. Blood samples of 0.5 ml or more from individual mice have been consistently obtained as much as 16 minutes after apparent death. Results of carboxyhemoglobin analyses of blood appeared reproducible and consistent with carbon monoxide concentrations in the exposure chamber.

  10. Fault Sample Generation for Virtual Testability Demonstration Test Subject to Minimal Maintenance and Scheduled Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual testability demonstration test brings new requirements to the fault sample generation. First, fault occurrence process is described by stochastic process theory. It is discussed that fault occurrence process subject to minimal repair is nonhomogeneous Poisson process (NHPP. Second, the interarrival time distribution function of the next fault event is proposed and three typical kinds of parameterized NHPP are discussed. Third, the procedure of fault sample generation is put forward with the assumptions of minimal maintenance and scheduled replacement. The fault modes and their occurrence time subject to specified conditions and time period can be obtained. Finally, an antenna driving subsystem in automatic pointing and tracking platform is taken as a case to illustrate the proposed method. Results indicate that both the size and structure of the fault samples generated by the proposed method are reasonable and effective. The proposed method can be applied to virtual testability demonstration test well.

  11. Randomized comparison of vaginal self-sampling by standard vs. dry swabs for Human papillomavirus testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eperon, Isabelle; Vassilakos, Pierre; Navarria, Isabelle; Menoud, Pierre-Alain; Gauthier, Aude; Pache, Jean-Claude; Boulvain, Michel; Untiet, Sarah; Petignat, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate if human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (Self-HPV) using a dry vaginal swab is a valid alternative for HPV testing. Women attending colposcopy clinic were recruited to collect two consecutive Self-HPV samples: a Self-HPV using a dry swab (S-DRY) and a Self-HPV using a standard wet transport medium (S-WET). These samples were analyzed for HPV using real time PCR (Roche Cobas). Participants were randomized to determine the order of the tests. Questionnaires assessing preferences and acceptability for both tests were conducted. Subsequently, women were invited for colposcopic examination; a physician collected a cervical sample (physician-sampling) with a broom-type device and placed it into a liquid-based cytology medium. Specimens were then processed for the production of cytology slides and a Hybrid Capture HPV DNA test (Qiagen) was performed from the residual liquid. Biopsies were performed if indicated. Unweighted kappa statistics (κ) and McNemar tests were used to measure the agreement among the sampling methods. A total of 120 women were randomized. Overall HPV prevalence was 68.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 59.3–77.2) by S-WET, 54.4% (95% CI 44.8–63.9) by S-DRY and 53.8% (95% CI 43.8–63.7) by HC. Among paired samples (S-WET and S-DRY), the overall agreement was good (85.7%; 95% CI 77.8–91.6) and the κ was substantial (0.70; 95% CI 0.57-0.70). The proportion of positive type-specific HPV agreement was also good (77.3%; 95% CI 68.2-84.9). No differences in sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade one (CIN1) or worse between the two Self-HPV tests were observed. Women reported the two Self-HPV tests as highly acceptable. Self-HPV using dry swab transfer does not appear to compromise specimen integrity. Further study in a large screening population is needed. ClinicalTrials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01316120

  12. Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings.

  13. Abbreviated sampling and analysis plan for planning decontamination and decommissioning at Test Reactor Area (TRA) facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The objective is to sample and analyze for the presence of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents within certain areas of the Test Reactor Area (TRA), prior to D and D activities. The TRA is composed of three major reactor facilities and three smaller reactors built in support of programs studying the performance of reactor materials and components under high neutron flux conditions. The Materials Testing Reactor (MTR) and Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) facilities are currently pending D/D. Work consists of pre-D and D sampling of designated TRA (primarily ETR) process areas. This report addresses only a limited subset of the samples which will eventually be required to characterize MTR and ETR and plan their D and D. Sampling which is addressed in this document is intended to support planned D and D work which is funded at the present time. Biased samples, based on process knowledge and plant configuration, are to be performed. The multiple process areas which may be potentially sampled will be initially characterized by obtaining data for upstream source areas which, based on facility configuration, would affect downstream and as yet unsampled, process areas. Sampling and analysis will be conducted to determine the level of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents present in designated areas within buildings TRA-612, 642, 643, 644, 645, 647, 648, 663; and in the soils surrounding Facility TRA-611. These data will be used to plan the D and D and help determine disposition of material by D and D personnel. Both MTR and ETR facilities will eventually be decommissioned by total dismantlement so that the area can be restored to its original condition

  14. Sampling and physical and actinide characterization of colloids from the Grimsel test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longworth, G.; Ivanovich, M.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of groundwater from a granite fracture at the Grimsel test site in Switzerland have been collected as part of a second intercomparison of groundwater colloid sampling and characterization techniques carried out by members of the Coco Club (colloids and complexes) sponsored by the CEC. This report describes the Harwell contribution to this exercise. The bulk of naturally occurring actinides were found to reside in solution with 10 particles/I (detection limit ∼50 nm) for samples determined by three laboratories. The colloids were shown to be negatively charged using microelectrophoresis and to be relatively stable. There was evidence of a reduction in the pH of the water after storage due to air contamination. This work has served to identify the problems associated with colloid sampling and characterization techniques

  15. Basic distribution free identification tests for small size samples of environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, A.G.; Musmeci, F.

    1998-01-01

    Testing two or more data sets for the hypothesis that they are sampled form the same population is often required in environmental data analysis. Typically the available samples have a small number of data and often then assumption of normal distributions is not realistic. On the other hand the diffusion of the days powerful Personal Computers opens new possible opportunities based on a massive use of the CPU resources. The paper reviews the problem introducing the feasibility of two non parametric approaches based on intrinsic equi probability properties of the data samples. The first one is based on a full re sampling while the second is based on a bootstrap approach. A easy to use program is presented. A case study is given based on the Chernobyl children contamination data [it

  16. Physical and chemical parameters acquisition in situ, in deep clay. Development of sampling and testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajudie, A.; Coulon, H.; Geneste, P.

    1991-01-01

    Knowledge of deep formation for radioactive waste disposal requires field-tests or bench-scale experiments on samples of the site material. In the case of clay massifs the taking of cores and the sampling of these are particularly difficult. The most suitable materials and techniques were selected from a study of clay colling and conservation methods. These were used for a series of core samples taken at Mol in Belgium. Subsequently permeability measurements were carried out in laboratory on samples from vertical drilling and compared with in situ measurements. The latter were made by horizontal drillings from the shaft excavation of the underground facility HADES at Mol. There is a good overall agreement between the results of the two types of measurements. 25 figs.; 4 tabs.; 12 refs.; 16 photos

  17. Standardizing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data from four Nordic population samples using the Vitamin D Standardization Program protocols: Shedding new light on vitamin D status in Nordic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashman, Kevin D; Dowling, Kirsten G; Škrabáková, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    for the European Union are of variable quality making it difficult to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency across member states. As a consequence of the widespread, method-related differences in measurements of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) developed...... protocols for standardizing existing serum 25(OH)D data from national surveys around the world. The objective of the present work was to apply the VDSP protocols to existing serum 25(OH)D data from a Danish, a Norwegian, and a Finnish population-based health survey and from a Danish randomized controlled...

  18. Survey of serum concentrations of dioxins, furans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in a small non-random sample of U.S. residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassman, J. [Brooklyn Coll. CUNY, Health and Nutrition Sciences, Brooklyn, New York, NY (United States); Patterson, D.G. Jr.; Needham, L.L. [National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Spencer, D.L.; Masten, S.A. [Environmental Toxicology Program, National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2004-09-15

    This cross sectional assessment of serum dioxin concentrations was conducted as part of a larger study to examine the relationship between dioxin exposure and gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Recent reports indicate that environmental levels of dioxins have declined since the mid-1980's. Except for the recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), there has been little systematic surveillance of serum dioxins levels in the US general population. Here, we report the serum concentrations of 22 congeners of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and their relationship with age, sex, smoking, and meat consumption.

  19. Testing the efficiency of rover science protocols for robotic sample selection: A GeoHeuristic Operational Strategies Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Bartley, J. K.; Chidsey, T. C.; Cohen, B. A.; Gilleaudeau, G. J.; Hynek, B. M.; Kah, L. C.; Minitti, M. E.; Williams, R. M. E.; Black, S.; Gemperline, J.; Schaufler, R.; Thomas, R. J.

    2018-05-01

    The GHOST field tests are designed to isolate and test science-driven rover operations protocols, to determine best practices. During a recent field test at a potential Mars 2020 landing site analog, we tested two Mars Science Laboratory data-acquisition and decision-making methods to assess resulting science return and sample quality: a linear method, where sites of interest are studied in the order encountered, and a "walkabout-first" method, where sites of interest are examined remotely before down-selecting to a subset of sites that are interrogated with more resource-intensive instruments. The walkabout method cost less time and fewer resources, while increasing confidence in interpretations. Contextual data critical to evaluating site geology was acquired earlier than for the linear method, and given a higher priority, which resulted in development of more mature hypotheses earlier in the analysis process. Combined, this saved time and energy in the collection of data with more limited spatial coverage. Based on these results, we suggest that the walkabout method be used where doing so would provide early context and time for the science team to develop hypotheses-critical tests; and that in gathering context, coverage may be more important than higher resolution.

  20. Virtual rough samples to test 3D nanometer-scale scanning electron microscopy stereo photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarrubia, J S; Tondare, V N; Vladár, A E

    2016-01-01

    The combination of scanning electron microscopy for high spatial resolution, images from multiple angles to provide 3D information, and commercially available stereo photogrammetry software for 3D reconstruction offers promise for nanometer-scale dimensional metrology in 3D. A method is described to test 3D photogrammetry software by the use of virtual samples-mathematical samples from which simulated images are made for use as inputs to the software under test. The virtual sample is constructed by wrapping a rough skin with any desired power spectral density around a smooth near-trapezoidal line with rounded top corners. Reconstruction is performed with images simulated from different angular viewpoints. The software's reconstructed 3D model is then compared to the known geometry of the virtual sample. Three commercial photogrammetry software packages were tested. Two of them produced results for line height and width that were within close to 1 nm of the correct values. All of the packages exhibited some difficulty in reconstructing details of the surface roughness.

  1. Reporting altered test results in hemolyzed samples: is the cure worse than the disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Plebani, Mario

    2017-07-26

    The management of laboratory data in unsuitable (hemolyzed) samples remains an almost unresolved dilemma. Whether or not laboratory test results obtained by measuring unsuitable specimens should be made available to the clinicians has been the matter of fierce debates over the past decades. Recently, an intriguing alternative to suppressing test results and recollecting the specimen has been put forward, entailing the definition and implementation of specific algorithms that would finally allow reporting a preanalytically altered laboratory value within a specific comment about its uncertainty of measurement. This approach carries some advantages, namely the timely communication of potentially life-threatening laboratory values, but also some drawbacks. These especially include the challenging definition of validated performance specifications for hemolyzed samples, the need to producing reliable data with the lowest possible uncertainty, the short turnaround time for repeating most laboratory tests, the risk that the comments may be overlooked in short-stay and frequently overcrowded units (e.g. the emergency department), as well as the many clinical advantages of a direct communication with the physician in charge of the patient. Despite the debate remains open, we continue supporting the suggestion that suppressing data in unsuitable (hemolyzed) samples and promptly notifying the clinicians about the need to recollect the samples remains the most (clinically and analytically) safe practice.

  2. Estimation of AUC or Partial AUC under Test-Result-Dependent Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Ma, Junling; George, Stephen; Zhou, Haibo

    2012-01-01

    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) and partial area under the ROC curve (pAUC) are summary measures used to assess the accuracy of a biomarker in discriminating true disease status. The standard sampling approach used in biomarker validation studies is often inefficient and costly, especially when ascertaining the true disease status is costly and invasive. To improve efficiency and reduce the cost of biomarker validation studies, we consider a test-result-dependent sampling (TDS) scheme, in which subject selection for determining the disease state is dependent on the result of a biomarker assay. We first estimate the test-result distribution using data arising from the TDS design. With the estimated empirical test-result distribution, we propose consistent nonparametric estimators for AUC and pAUC and establish the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators. Simulation studies show that the proposed estimators have good finite sample properties and that the TDS design yields more efficient AUC and pAUC estimates than a simple random sampling (SRS) design. A data example based on an ongoing cancer clinical trial is provided to illustrate the TDS design and the proposed estimators. This work can find broad applications in design and analysis of biomarker validation studies.

  3. Evaluation Of ARG-1 Samples Prepared By Cesium Carbonate Dissolution During The Isolok SME Acceptability Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.; Hera, K.; Coleman, C.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) cycle time identified several opportunities to improve the CPC processing time. The Mechanical Systems and Custom Equipment Development (MS and CED) Section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently completed the evaluation of one of these opportunities - the possibility of using an Isolok sampling valve as an alternative to the Hydragard valve for taking DWPF process samples at the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). The use of an Isolok for SME sampling has the potential to improve operability, reduce maintenance time, and decrease CPC cycle time. The SME acceptability testing for the Isolok was requested in Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0036 and was conducted as outlined in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNLRP-2011-00145. RW-0333P QA requirements applied to the task, and the results from the investigation were documented in SRNL-STI-2011-00693. Measurement of the chemical composition of study samples was a critical component of the SME acceptability testing of the Isolok. A sampling and analytical plan supported the investigation with the analytical plan directing that the study samples be prepared by a cesium carbonate (Cs 2 CO 3 ) fusion dissolution method and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The use of the cesium carbonate preparation method for the Isolok testing provided an opportunity for an additional assessment of this dissolution method, which is being investigated as a potential replacement for the two methods (i.e., sodium peroxide fusion and mixed acid dissolution) that have been used at the DWPF for the analysis of SME samples. Earlier testing of the Cs 2 CO 3 method yielded promising results which led to a TTR from Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) to SRNL for additional support and an associated TTQAP to direct the SRNL efforts. A technical report resulting from this

  4. The relation of germ cells per tubule in testes, serum inhibin B and FSH in cryptorchid boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Hogdall, E

    2007-01-01

    At bilateral orchiopexy bilateral biopsies may be indicated to determine fertility potential. It is currently unknown if the serum inhibin B levels at time of orchiopexy reflect the testicular status of the bilaterally cryptorchid child. The aim of this study was to relate the results of inhibin ...

  5. Zinc sulfate treatment of secondary male infertility associated with positive serum and seminal plasma anti-sperm antibody test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar M. Jawad

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, infertile men with elevated level of ASA and poor basic parameters of seminal fluid characters can be treated with zinc sulfate protocol with great chance for decreasing the level of serum and seminal plasma ASA, and alleviating the serious side effects associated with corticosteroids.

  6. Willingness to Provide a Hair Sample for Drug Testing among Electronic Dance Music Party Attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Salomone, Alberto; Cleland, Charles M; Sherman, Scott

    2018-04-25

    Non-disclosure of drug use on surveys is common and many drug users unknowingly ingest adulterant or replacement drugs, which leads to underreporting of use of these drugs. Biological testing can complement survey research, and hair-testing is an appealing method as many drugs are detectable for months post-use. We examined willingness to donate a hair sample to be tested among those surveyed in a population at high risk for consuming adulterated drugs-electronic dance music (EDM) party attendees. We surveyed 933 adults entering EDM parties in New York City in 2017. Hair donation response rates and reasons for refusal were examined from this cross-sectional study. A third (n = 312; 33.4%) provided a hair sample. Lack of interest (21.0%), lack of time (19.8%), not wanting a lock of hair cut (17.7%), and disinterest in having hair cut in public (13.8%) were the main reported reasons for refusal. 4.7% refused because they could not receive results. Past-year drug users were more likely to fear identification than non-users (p<.001). Asian participants were at lower odds of providing a hair sample (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32-0.87), and those reporting past-year use of LSD (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.11-2.35), opioids (nonmedical; aOR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.25-2.99), and/or methamphetamine (aOR = 3.43, 95% CI = 1.36-8.62) were at higher odds of providing a sample than non-users of these drugs. Only a third of participants provided a hair sample and we found individual-level differences regarding willingness to provide a sample. Factors contributing to refusal should be considered to increase response rates and generalizability of results.

  7. Air-deployable oil spill sampling devices review phase 2 testing. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, L.; Dumouchel, A.; Fingas, M.; Brown, C.E.

    2007-01-01

    SAIC Canada tested air deployable oil sampling devices for the Emergencies Science and Technology Division of Environment Canada in order to determine the applicability and status of these devices. The 3 devices tested were: Canada's SABER (sampling autonomous buoy for evidence recovery), the United States' POPEIE (probe for oil pollution evidence in the environment); and, Sweden's SAR Floatation 2000. They were tested for buoyancy properties, drift behaviour and sampler sorbent pickup ratios. The SAR and SABER both had lesser draft and greater freeboard, while the POPEIE had much greater draft than freeboard. All 3 devices could be used for oil sample collection in that their drift characteristics would allow for the SABER and SAR devices to be placed upwind of the slick while the POPEIE device could be placed downwind of an oil spill. The sorbent testing revealed that Sefar sorbent and Spectra sorbent used in the 3 devices had negative pickup ratios for diesel but performance improved as oil viscosity increased. Both sorbents are inert and capable of collecting oil in sufficient volumes for consistent fingerprinting analysis. 10 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  8. Development, validation and testing of a skin sampling method for assessment of metal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Behnaz; Midander, Klara; Lidén, Carola; Julander, Anneli

    2017-07-01

    Nickel, cobalt and chromium are frequent skin sensitizers. Skin exposure results in eczema in sensitized individuals, the risk being related to the skin dose. To develop a self-sampling method for quantification of skin exposure to metals, to validate the method, and to assess its feasibility. Defined metal doses (0.01-5 µg) were applied to the fingers of 5 participants. Skin areas (2 cm 2 ) were sampled with 1% HNO 3 , either as 0.1 ml on a swab, or as 0.5 ml on a wipe. Furthermore, 17 participants performed self-sampling by swab after 2 h of leisure activity. Samples were extracted in 1% HNO 3 and analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The sampling efficiency by swab was 46%, as compared with 93% for acid wipe sampling, for all tested doses. Most metal from the skin dose was detected in the first swab (33-43%). Despite lower sampling efficiency by swab, skin doses of metals following 2 h of leisure activity without hand washing were quantified in all participants, and ranged from 0.0016 to 0.15 µg/cm 2 , from 0.00014 to -0.0020 µg/cm 2 and from 0.00048 to -0.027 µg/cm 2 for nickel, cobalt, and chromium, respectively. The results indicate a future potential of skin sampling by swab to detect and monitor metals on skin by self-sampling. This will contribute to better knowledge of metal skin exposure among dermatitis patients, workers, and the general population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Development of a new protocol for rapid bacterial identification and susceptibility testing directly from urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zboromyrska, Y; Rubio, E; Alejo, I; Vergara, A; Mons, A; Campo, I; Bosch, J; Marco, F; Vila, J

    2016-06-01

    The current gold standard method for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI) is urine culture that requires 18-48 h for the identification of the causative microorganisms and an additional 24 h until the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are available. The aim of this study was to shorten the time of urine sample processing by a combination of flow cytometry for screening and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for bacterial identification followed by AST directly from urine. The study was divided into two parts. During the first part, 675 urine samples were processed by a flow cytometry device and a cut-off value of bacterial count was determined to select samples for direct identification by MALDI-TOF-MS at ≥5 × 10(6) bacteria/mL. During the second part, 163 of 1029 processed samples reached the cut-off value. The sample preparation protocol for direct identification included two centrifugation and two washing steps. Direct AST was performed by the disc diffusion method if a reliable direct identification was obtained. Direct MALDI-TOF-MS identification was performed in 140 urine samples; 125 of the samples were positive by urine culture, 12 were contaminated and 3 were negative. Reliable direct identification was obtained in 108 (86.4%) of the 125 positive samples. AST was performed in 102 identified samples, and the results were fully concordant with the routine method among 83 monomicrobial infections. In conclusion, the turnaround time of the protocol described to diagnose UTI was about 1 h for microbial identification and 18-24 h for AST. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mineralogic and petrologic investigation of pre-test core samples from the spent fuel test-climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, F.J.; Qualheim, B.J.

    1983-12-01

    Pre-test samples obtained from just inside the perimeter of the canister emplacement holes of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax have been characterized by petrographic and microanalytical techniques. The primary quartz monzonite has undergone various degrees of hydrothermal alteration as a result of natural processes. Alteration is most apparent on primary plagioclase and biotite. The most common secondary phases on plagioclase are muscovite and calcite, while the most common secondary phases on biotite are epidote and chlorite. The major alteration zones encountered are localized along filled fractures, i.e. veins. The thickness and mineralogy of the alteration zones can be correlated with the vein mineralogy, becoming wider and more complex mineralogically when the veins contain calcite. 7 references, 10 figures, 4 tables

  11. Sample Processor for Life on Icy Worlds (SPLIce): Design and Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Tori N.; Lee, Anthony K.; Boone, Travis D.; Tan, Ming X.; Chin, Matthew M.; McCutcheon, Griffin C.; Horne, Mera F.; Padgen, Michael R.; Blaich, Justin T.; Forgione, Joshua B.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We report the design, development, and testing of the Sample Processor for Life on Icy Worlds (SPLIce) system, a microfluidic sample processor to enable autonomous detection of signatures of life and measurements of habitability parameters in Ocean Worlds. This monolithic fluid processing-and-handling system (Figure 1; mass 0.5 kg) retrieves a 50-L-volume sample and prepares it to supply a suite of detection instruments, each with unique preparation needs. SPLIce has potential applications in orbiter missions that sample ocean plumes, such as found in Saturns icy moon Enceladus, or landed missions on the surface of icy satellites, such as Jupiters moon Europa. Answering the question Are we alone in the universe? is captivating and exceptionally challenging. Even general criteria that define life very broadly include a significant role for water [1,2]. Searches for extinct or extant life therefore prioritize locations of abundant water whether in ancient (Mars), or present (Europa and Enceladus) times. Only two previous planetary missions had onboard fluid processing: the Viking Biology Experiments [3] and Phoenixs Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) [4]. SPLIce differs crucially from those systems, including its capability to process and distribute L-volume samples and the integration autonomous control of a wide range of fluidic functions, including: 1) retrieval of fluid samples from an evacuated sample chamber; 2) onboard multi-year storage of dehydrated reagents; 3) integrated pressure, pH, and conductivity measurement; 4) filtration and retention of insoluble particles for microscopy; 5) dilution or vacuum-driven concentration of samples to accommodate instrument working ranges; 6) removal of gas bubbles from sample aliquots; 7) unidirectional flow (check valves); 8) active flow-path selection (solenoid-actuated valves); 9) metered pumping in 100 nL volume increments. The SPLIce manifold, made of three thermally fused layers of precision-machined cyclo

  12. Microbiological evaluation of milk samples positive to California Mastitis Test in dairy buffalo cows (Buballus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Sturion

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to observe the microbiological status of CMT positive samples, 734 apparently health mammary quarters from buffalo cows were submitted to physical evaluation, strip cup test and CMT. After milk samples inoculation in 10% ovine blood agar base media and in MacConkey agar and incubation under aerobic condition for 72 hours at 37oC, identification was proceeded. According to CMT, 227 quarters (30,93% were positive, among them 73 (32,16% presented 1+ reaction, 53 (23,35% were 2+ and 101 (44,49% were 3+. Microbiological exams of such samples were positive in 147 (64,76% out of 227 CMT positive samples and among the remaining 72 (31,72% were negative and 8 (3,52 were contaminated. In the 147 microbiological positive samples 204 bacteria were found in pure or associated growth and the most frequent agents were: Corynebacterium sp (59,25%; Staphylococcus sp (17,65% among which 86,11% were coagulase negative and 13,89% were coagulase positive; and Micrococcus sp (6,37%. The results revealed that, excluding the eight contaminated samples, 147 (67,12% quarters out of 219 CMT positive could be considered as bacteria-carrier and that even in a smaller percentage false-positive results can cause problems in a sanitary program for mastitis control in dairy buffalo cows.

  13. Development of a short sample test facility for evaluating superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.R.; Kulkarni, D.G.; Sahni, V.C.; Ravikumar, G.; Patel, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe a short sample test facility we have set up at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). This facility has been used to measure critical currents of NbTi/Cu composite superconducting wires by recording V versus I data at 4.2 K. It offers sample current as large as 1500 A and a transverse magnetic field up to 7.4 T. A power law, V ∼I n( H) is fitted to the resistive transition region to estimate the exponent n, which is a measure of the uniformity of superconducting filaments in composite wires. It is observed that inadequate thermal stabilization of sample wire results in thermal runaway, which limits the V-I data to∼ 2μ V . This in turn affects the reliability of estimated filament uniformity. To mitigate this problem, we have used a sample holder made of OFHC-Cu which enhances thermal stabilization of the sample. With this sample holder, the results of measurements carried out on wires developed by the Atomic Fuel Division, BARC show a high filament uniformity (n ∼ 58). (author)

  14. Robust non-parametric one-sample tests for the analysis of recurrent events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebora, Paola; Galimberti, Stefania; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia

    2010-12-30

    One-sample non-parametric tests are proposed here for inference on recurring events. The focus is on the marginal mean function of events and the basis for inference is the standardized distance between the observed and the expected number of events under a specified reference rate. Different weights are considered in order to account for various types of alternative hypotheses on the mean function of the recurrent events process. A robust version and a stratified version of the test are also proposed. The performance of these tests was investigated through simulation studies under various underlying event generation processes, such as homogeneous and nonhomogeneous Poisson processes, autoregressive and renewal processes, with and without frailty effects. The robust versions of the test have been shown to be suitable in a wide variety of event generating processes. The motivating context is a study on gene therapy in a very rare immunodeficiency in children, where a major end-point is the recurrence of severe infections. Robust non-parametric one-sample tests for recurrent events can be useful to assess efficacy and especially safety in non-randomized studies or in epidemiological studies for comparison with a standard population. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s tests for high-dimensional small sample size data

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Kai

    2015-09-16

    DNA sequencing techniques bring novel tools and also statistical challenges to genetic research. In addition to detecting differentially expressed genes, testing the significance of gene sets or pathway analysis has been recognized as an equally important problem. Owing to the “large pp small nn” paradigm, the traditional Hotelling’s T2T2 test suffers from the singularity problem and therefore is not valid in this setting. In this paper, we propose a shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test for both one-sample and two-sample cases. We also suggest several different ways to derive the approximate null distribution under different scenarios of pp and nn for our proposed shrinkage-based test. Simulation studies show that the proposed method performs comparably to existing competitors when nn is moderate or large, but it is better when nn is small. In addition, we analyze four gene expression data sets and they demonstrate the advantage of our proposed shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test.

  16. Strength and deformability of hollow concrete blocks: correlation of block and cylindrical sample test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Barbosa

    Full Text Available This paper deals with correlations among mechanical properties of hollow blocks and those of concrete used to make them. Concrete hollow blocks and test samples were moulded with plastic consistency concrete, to assure the same material in all cases, in three diferente levels of strength (nominally 10 N/mm², 20 N/mm² and 30 N/mm². The mechanical properties and structural behaviour in axial compression and tension tests were determined by standard tests in blocks and cylinders. Stress and strain analyses were made based on concrete’s modulus of elasticity obtained in the sample tests as well as on measured strain in the blocks’ face-shells and webs. A peculiar stress-strain analysis, based on the superposition of effects, provided an estimation of the block load capacity based on its deformations. In addition, a tentative method to preview the block deformability from the concrete mechanical properties is described and tested. This analysis is a part of a broader research that aims to support a detailed structural analysis of blocks, prisms and masonry constructions.

  17. Shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s tests for high-dimensional small sample size data

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Kai; Pang, Herbert; Tong, Tiejun; Genton, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    DNA sequencing techniques bring novel tools and also statistical challenges to genetic research. In addition to detecting differentially expressed genes, testing the significance of gene sets or pathway analysis has been recognized as an equally important problem. Owing to the “large pp small nn” paradigm, the traditional Hotelling’s T2T2 test suffers from the singularity problem and therefore is not valid in this setting. In this paper, we propose a shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test for both one-sample and two-sample cases. We also suggest several different ways to derive the approximate null distribution under different scenarios of pp and nn for our proposed shrinkage-based test. Simulation studies show that the proposed method performs comparably to existing competitors when nn is moderate or large, but it is better when nn is small. In addition, we analyze four gene expression data sets and they demonstrate the advantage of our proposed shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test.

  18. Robustness to non-normality of common tests for the many-sample location problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmeri Khan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of deviating from the normal distribution assumption when considering the power of two many-sample location test procedures: ANOVA (parametric and Kruskal-Wallis (non-parametric. Power functions for these tests under various conditions are produced using simulation, where the simulated data are produced using MacGillivray and Cannon's [10] recently suggested g-and-k distribution. This distribution can provide data with selected amounts of skewness and kurtosis by varying two nearly independent parameters.

  19. Pumping test and fluid sampling report - Sawyer No. 1 well, Palo Duro Basin, Texas: unanalyzed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report describes pumping test and fluid sampling activities performed at the Sawyer No. 1 well, Donley County, Texas. Sawyer No. 1 well is located along the eastern margin of the Palo Duro Basin in an area of active dissolution within the Permian salt section. These data were collected by Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation working in conjunction with the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology as part of a nationwide program to identify potential locations for a nuclear waste repository. These data support studies to determine the hydrologic characteristics of deep water-bearing formations. Formation fluid studies samples were analyzed in order to evaluate fluid migration and age relationships in the Permian Basin. These data were collected from June until October, 1981. Zone isolation for pump testing was accomplished in November, 1981. These data are preliminary. They have been neither analyzed nor evaluated

  20. Evaluation of ELISA screening test for detecting aflatoxin in biogenic dust samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, J.T.

    1996-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic chemical that is sometimes produced when agricultural commodities are infested by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. Parasiticus. Aflatoxin has been found to be present in air samples taken around persons handling materials likely to be contaminated. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of using an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit that was developed to screen for aflatoxin in bulk agricultural commodities, to an air sample. Samples were taken from two environments likely to be contaminated with aflatoxin, a dairy farm feed mixing operation and a peanut bagging operation. The dust collected from these environments was considered to be biogenic, in that it originated primarily from biological materials.

  1. Methodic aspects of autoclave tests of compact samples on cyclic crack resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhmurskij, V.I.; Gnyp, I.P.; Popov, A.A.; Tarasyuk, G.P.; Dutsyak, I.Z.; Timonin, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory autoclave LAKIM-25 was created for investigation of cyclic and static crack resistance of vessel materials of power plants under the conditions close to operation ones. It enables to investigate the cyclic crack resistance of standard samples of up to 25 mm thickness in water at 623 K and 18 MPa. The friction force changes during tests from 6.1 up to 6.4 kN, therefore it is necessary to correct regularly the force of sample loading, recording the s-n diagram on a drum of UMEh-10TM plant. The periodic record of loading diagram coincides with respect to time with the necessity of controlling the change of sample pliability during crack propagation

  2. Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight in a Sample of Highly Educated Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tyler M; Basner, Mathias; Nasrini, Jad; Hermosillo, Emanuel; Kabadi, Sushila; Roalf, David R; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J; Ruparel, Kosha; Port, Allison M; Jackson, Chad T; Dinges, David F; Gur, Ruben C

    2017-10-01

    Neuropsychological changes that may occur due to the environmental and psychological stressors of prolonged spaceflight motivated the development of the Cognition Test Battery. The battery was designed to assess multiple domains of neurocognitive functions linked to specific brain systems. Tests included in Cognition have been validated, but not in high-performing samples comparable to astronauts, which is an essential step toward ensuring their usefulness in long-duration space missions. We administered Cognition (on laptop and iPad) and the WinSCAT, counterbalanced for order and version, in a sample of 96 subjects (50% women; ages 25-56 yr) with at least a Master's degree in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM). We assessed the associations of age, sex, and administration device with neurocognitive performance, and compared the scores on the Cognition battery with those of WinSCAT. Confirmatory factor analysis compared the structure of the iPad and laptop administration methods using Wald tests. Age was associated with longer response times (mean β = 0.12) and less accurate (mean β = -0.12) performance, women had longer response times on psychomotor (β = 0.62), emotion recognition (β = 0.30), and visuo-spatial (β = 0.48) tasks, men outperformed women on matrix reasoning (β = -0.34), and performance on an iPad was generally faster (mean β = -0.55). The WinSCAT appeared heavily loaded with tasks requiring executive control, whereas Cognition assessed a larger variety of neurocognitive domains. Overall results supported the interpretation of Cognition scores as measuring their intended constructs in high performing astronaut analog samples.Moore TM, Basner M, Nasrini J, Hermosillo E, Kabadi S, Roalf DR, McGuire S, Ecker AJ, Ruparel K, Port AM, Jackson CT, Dinges DF, Gur RC. Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for spaceflight in a sample of highly educated adults. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):937-946.

  3. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, A. L. II [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-03-03

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  4. Measurement of flat samples with rough surfaces by Magnetic Adaptive Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomáš, Ivan; Kadlecová, Jana; Vértesy, G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2012), s. 1441-1444 ISSN 0018-9464. [Conference on Soft Magnetic Materials (SMM20) /20./. Kos Island, 18.09.2011-22.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1323 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic contact * magnetic adaptive testing * magnetically open samples * magnetic NDE Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.422, year: 2012

  5. Testing the entrepreneurial intention model on a two-country sample

    OpenAIRE

    Liñán, Francisco; Chen, Yi-Wen

    2006-01-01

    This paper tests the Entrepreneurial Intention Model -which is adapted from the Theory of Planned Behavior- on a sample of 533 individuals from two quite different countries: one of them European (Spain) and the other South Asian (Taiwan). A newly developed Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (EIQ) has being used which tries to overcome some of the limitations of previous instruments. Structural equations techniques were used in the empirical analysis. Results are generally...

  6. Testing the entrepreneurial intention model on a two-country sample

    OpenAIRE

    Liñán, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    This paper tests the Entrepreneurial Intention Model -which is adapted from the Theory of Planned Behavior- on a sample of 533 individuals from two quite different countries: one of them European (Spain) and the other South Asian (Taiwan). A newly developed Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (EIQ) has being used which tries to overcome some of the limitations of previous instruments. Structural equations techniques were used in the empirical analysis. Results are generally satisfactory, ...

  7. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material

  8. Multiple sample setup for testing the hydrothermal stability of adsorbents in thermal energy storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Fabian; Laevemann, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    Thermal energy storage based on adsorption and desorption of water on an adsorbent can achieve high energy storage densities. Many adsorbents lose adsorption capacity when operated under unfavourable hydrothermal conditions during adsorption and desorption. The stability of an adsorbent against stressing hydrothermal conditions is a key issue for its usability in adsorption thermal energy storage. We built an experimental setup that simultaneously controls the hydrothermal conditions of 16 samples arranged in a matrix of four temperatures and four water vapour pressures. This setup allows the testing of potential adsorbents between temperatures of 50 °C and 350 °C and water vapour pressures of up to 32 kPa. A measurement procedure that allows the detection of the hydrothermal stability of an adsorbent after defined time spans has been designed. We verified the functionality of the multiple sample measurements with a microporous adsorbent, a zeolite NaMSX. The hydrothermal stability of this zeolite is tested by water uptake measurements. A standard deviation lower than 1% of the 16 samples for detecting the hydrothermal stability enables setting different conditions in each sample cell. Further, we compared the water uptake measurements by measuring their adsorption isotherms with the volumetric device BELSORP Aqua 3 from Bel Japan. (paper)

  9. Report of testing and sampling of municipal supply well PM-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Richard J.; Longmire, Patrick; Rogers, David B.; Mullen, Ken

    1999-01-01

    During drilling of regional aquifer characterization borehole R-25, located in the western part of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at Technical Area (TA) 16, groundwater samples were collected from perched zones of saturation and the regional aquifer that contained elevated levels of high explosive (HE) compounds. One of the nearest Los Alamos County municipal supply wells potentially located down gradient from borehole R-25 is PM-4, located on Mesita del Buey at the west end of TA-54. During the winter of 1998 and 1999 the pump in PM-4 had been removed from the well for scheduled maintenance by the Los Alamos County Public Utilities Department (PUD). Because the pump was removed from PM-4, the opportunity existed to enter the well to (1) perform tests to determine where within the regional aquifer groundwater entered the well and (2) collect groundwater samples from the producing zones for analyses to determine if HE contaminants were present in discrete zones within the regional aquifer. The report of the activities that were performed during March 1999 for the testing and sampling of municipal supply well PM-4 is provided. The report provides a description of the field activities associated with the two phases of the project, including (1) the results of the static and dynamic spinner log surveys, and (2) a description of the sampling activities and the field-measured groundwater quality parameters that were obtained during sampling activities. This report also provides the analytical results of the groundwater samples and a brief discussion of the results of the project

  10. Testing an Impedance Non-destructive Method to Evaluate Steel-Fiber Concrete