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Sample records for serum retinol acts

  1. Vitamin A intake and elevated serum retinol levels in children and young adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Asim; Graham-Maar, Rose C; Schall, Joan I; Zemel, Babette S; Stallings, Virginia A

    2008-03-01

    Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) are at risk for fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, including vitamin A. Recent evidence suggests current practices of vitamin A intake results in elevated serum retinol. Serum retinol was assessed in 78 subjects (8 to 25 years old) with CF and PI by high performance liquid chromatography, and compared to the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data of subjects of similar age and gender. Vitamin A intake, anthropometry and FEV(1) were measured, and their relationship to serum retinol status was assessed. Median (range) serum retinol was 80 microg/dL (33 to 208) in subjects with CF; 58% were above the NHANES reference range (30 to 72 microg/dL). Total vitamin A intake from diet and supplements was high (608+431% Recommended Dietary Allowance). Serum retinol was not correlated with vitamin A intake, age or gender, and was inversely correlated with weight and height z scores (r=-0.28, p<0.05) in the subjects with CF. Both vitamin A intake and serum retinol were elevated in subjects with CF and PI, corroborating recent evidence of elevated serum retinol in preadolescent children with CF. These findings indicate the need for further study of dosing and monitoring care practices of vitamin A, to ensure adequacy and to avoid toxicity.

  2. Associations of Serum Retinol, α-Tocopherol, and γ-Tocopherol with Biomarkers among Healthy Japanese Men

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    Yu Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinol, α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol are fat-soluble vitamins acting as antioxidants via the prevention of lipid oxidation. Little is known about circulatory levels in healthy individuals. The present cross-sectional study aimed at elucidating the relationship between these antioxidants and clinical biomarkers in 206 male (median age 41 years, range 23–67 employees from companies located in the Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Subjects younger than 40 years (n = 94 showed a positive association of the frequency of alcohol consumption with the circulating retinol (β = 0.344, p = 0.001 and γ-tocopherol levels (β = 0.219, p = 0.041, and an inverse association of fast insulin with serum retinol (β = −0.301, p = 0.009. In participants older than 40 years (n = 112 we found that an inverse association of HOMA-R with serum retinol (β = −0.262, p = 0.021, α-tocopherol (β = −0.236, p = 0.035, and γ-tocopherol levels (β = −0.224, p = 0.052; and cigarette smoking was inversely associated with the levels of serum α-tocopherol (β = −0.286, p = 0.008 and γ-tocopherol (β = −0.229, p = 0.040. We further found negative relationships between serum ferritin and the retinol (β = −0.211, p = 0.032 and α-tocopherol levels (β = −0.223, p = 0.022 in men over 40 years of age. The present study suggests that the circulatory levels of antioxidant vitamins may modulate the action of insulin and that higher levels of iron might decrease the levels of antioxidant vitamins in the blood.

  3. Measles severity and serum retinol (vitamin A) concentration among children in the United States.

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    Butler, J C; Havens, P L; Sowell, A L; Huff, D L; Peterson, D E; Day, S E; Chusid, M J; Bennin, R A; Circo, R; Davis, J P

    1993-06-01

    Studies in developing countries have shown that children with measles have low serum retinol concentrations and that lower retinol levels are associated with measles-related mortality. Vitamin A therapy has been shown to reduce mortality among African children with acute measles. To determine whether serum retinol concentration is low among children with measles in the United States and to determine whether retinol concentration is associated with illness severity. Pediatric referral hospital and clinic in Milwaukee, WI, during the measles outbreak of 1989-1990. One hundred fourteen patients < or = 5 years of age evaluated for serologically confirmed measles with serum obtained within 5 days following rash onset. Serum retinol concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Clinical data were collected by hospital record review. A modified Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) score was used to assess physiologic instability as a measure of illness severity. Retinol concentrations ranged from 0.25 to 1.18 mumol/L (median 0.58 mumol/L); 82 (72%) patients had low retinol concentration (< or = 0.70 mumol/L). Median retinol concentrations were lower among hospitalized patients (0.56 vs 0.70, P = .006) and patients with pneumonia (0.52 vs 0.64, P = .02) but higher among children with otitis media (0.63 vs 0.54, P = .01). Higher modified PRISM scores, reflecting greater physiologic instability, were associated with lower retinol concentration (beta coefficient -.0147, P = .025). In multivariate analysis, higher modified PRISM scores were associated with lower retinol concentration (beta coefficient -.0144, P = .025) even after controlling for hospitalization, presence of complications, race, age, receipt of Aid to Families With Dependent Children, gender, and interval from rash onset until serum was collected. Among these children with measles in an urban United States community, retinol concentrations were depressed, and the degree of depression

  4. The correlation study of serum retinol binding protein 4 and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Fusong; Cheng Xingbo; Li Huijuan; Zhu Bei; Fan Huaying; Zhang Hui; Shi Yaofang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association of Retinol binding protein 4(RBP4) with carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: ELISA was used to detect the serum RBP4 level in 100 T2DM in 39 of which carotid atherosclerosis was observed and in the 30 controls, transthyretin (TTR) and other clinical index were also tested. Results: Serum RBP4 level and RBP4/ TTR were significantly higher in T2DM with/without carotid atherosclerosis than that in the controls (P 0, OR>1, P<0.1). Conclusion: Serum RBP4 may be a novel risk factor for diabetes with atherosclerosis. Importantly, the RBP4/TTR ratio is more valuable than serum RBP4 concentration to used to evaluate risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis in T2DM. (authors)

  5. Interpretation of Serum Retinol Data From Latin America and the Caribbean.

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    Cediel, Gustavo; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Lòpez de Romaña, Daniel; Cori, Héctor; La Frano, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, the general socioeconomic situation in Latin America and the Caribbean countries has improved, and many vitamin A programs have been implemented in an attempt to reduce vitamin A deficiency in the region. To examine vitamin A status in Latin America and the Caribbean based on serum retinol concentrations and to contrast available data published before and after 1998. A systematic review was performed. National surveys or representative studies that reported vitamin A status were selected. Ten national surveys and six representative studies were identified. Data for children under 6 years of age indicate that Guatemala and Nicaragua have practically eradicated vitamin A deficiency (less than 2% prevalence of serum retinol Colombia, Mexico, and Haiti it is a severe public health problem (prevalence from 24.3% to 32.0%). Disadvantaged groups (indigenous people and those of Afro-Colombian descent) have the highest rates of deficiency. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency is under 20% in school-children and adult women. When data published before and after 1998 for children under 6 years of age were compared, most Central American countries had a reduction in the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (p < .05), whereas in South American countries, the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency increased over time (p < .05). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children under 6 years of age has decreased in many Central American countries, but vitamin A deficiency still remains a public health problem in numerous Latin America and Caribbean countries, especially among disadvantaged and vulnerable groups. Because of issues with the accuracy of the serum retinol biomarker reflecting body stores, these results must be interpreted with caution.

  6. Serum Retinol Levels in Pregnant Adolescents and Their Relationship with Habitual Food Intake, Infection and Obstetric, Nutritional and Socioeconomic Variables.

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    Spíndola Garcêz, Laís; de Sousa Paz Lima, Geania; de Azevedo Paiva, Adriana; Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz, Suzana; Lázaro Gomes, Erica Ivana; Nunes, Valéria Sutti; Cotta de Faria, Eliana; de Barros-Mazon, Sílvia

    2016-10-25

    Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation ( p = 0.008) and pre-gestational nutritional status ( p = 0.002), and negatively with the trimester ( p = 0.001). The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence.

  7. Influência da resposta inflamatória de fase aguda nos níveis séricos de retinol e da proteína de ligação do retinol em pacientes com AIDS Influence of acute-phase inflammatory response on serum levels of retinol and retinol binding protein in HIV/AIDS patients

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    Fábio Fernandes Neves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a hiporretinolemia constitui fator prognóstico independente em pacientes com AIDS, e a atividade inflamatória causa redução dos níveis séricos deste nutriente na população em geral. Entretanto, faltam estudos que avaliem o impacto da atividade inflamatória sobre o nível sérico do retinol em pacientes com AIDS. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados transversalmente 41 pacientes internados por complicações da AIDS, que tiveram quantificados alguns marcadores de inflamação (proteína C reativa e fator de necrose tumoral alfa e concentrações séricas de retinol e da proteína de ligação do retinol. RESULTADOS: apesar da baixa (14,6% prevalência de hiporretinolemia evidenciou-se correlação negativa dos marcadores de inflamação com os níveis séricos de retinol e de sua proteína de ligação nos pacientes com AIDS. CONCLUSÕES: a atividade inflamatória de fase aguda está associada a baixos níveis séricos de retinol em indivíduos com AIDS.INTRODUCTION: Hyporetinolemia is an independent prognostic factor in AIDS patients. Inflammatory activity causes a reduction in the serum levels of this nutrient in the general population. However, there are no studies assessing the impact of inflammatory activity on the serum retinol level in AIDS patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional assessment was conducted on 41 patients hospitalized due to AIDS complications. Inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and serum retinol and retinol binding protein concentrations were quantified. RESULTS: Despite the low (14.6% prevalence of hyporetinolemia, a significant negative correlation was observed between the inflammatory markers and the serum retinol and retinol binding protein levels in AIDS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Acute-phase inflammatory activity is associated with low serum retinol levels in individuals with AIDS.

  8. The CDC VITAL-EQA program, external quality assurance for serum retinol, 2003-2006.

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    Haynes, Bridgette M H; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Jain, Ram B; Pfeiffer, Christine M

    2008-04-01

    With approximately 127 million preschool children currently suffering from vitamin A deficiency globally, it is important for affected countries to have the capacity to determine the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and to monitor the progress being made to eradicate this problem through supplementation and fortification programs. The VITamin A Laboratory-External Quality Assurance program (VITAL-EQA) administered by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was developed in 2003 to help predominantly less developed countries to assess and improve their ability to accurately and precisely measure serum retinol, and more recently other nutritional indicators. Twice each year, laboratories test serum samples in duplicate over the course of 3 days. Results are returned and troubleshooting is performed if needed. Measurement accuracy improved for 2 laboratories and declined for 2 laboratories, whereas the remainder of laboratories participating in >1 round showed consistently acceptable performance. Precision improved for 7 laboratories, declined for 4 laboratories, and remained at retinol testing in laboratories throughout the world.

  9. Blood serum retinol levels in Asinara white donkeys reflect albinism-induced metabolic adaptation to photoperiod at Mediterranean latitudes.

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    Cappai, Maria Grazia; Lunesu, Maria Grazia Antonietta; Accioni, Francesca; Liscia, Massimo; Pusceddu, Mauro; Burrai, Lucia; Nieddu, Maria; Dimauro, Corrado; Boatto, Gianpiero; Pinna, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Previous works on albinism form of Asinara white donkeys ( Equus asinus ) identified the mutation leading to the peculiar phenotype spread to all specimens of the breed. Inbreeding naturally occurred under geographic isolation, on Asinara Island, in the Mediterranean Sea. Albino individuals can be more susceptible to develop health problems when exposed to natural sun radiation. Alternative metabolic pathways involved in photoprotection were explored in this trial. Nutrition-related metabolites are believed to contribute to the conservation of Asinara donkeys, in which melanin, guaranteeing photoprotection, is lacking. Biochemical profiles with particular focus on blood serum β-carotene and retinol levels were monitored. Identical natural grazing conditions for both Asinara (albino) and Sardo (pigmented) donkey breeds were assured on same natural pastures throughout the experimental period. A comparative metabolic screening, with emphasis on circulating retinol and nutrient-related metabolites between the two breeds, was carried out over one year. Potential intra- and interspecimen fluctuations of metabolites involved in photoprotection were monitored, both during negative and positive photoperiods. Differences ( p  =   .064) between blood serum concentrations of retinol from Asinara versus Sardo breed donkeys (0.630 vs . 0.490 μg/ml, respectively) were found. Retinol levels of blood serum turned out to be similar in the two groups (0.523 vs . 0.493 μg/ml, respectively, p  =   .051) during the negative photoperiod, but markedly differed during the positive one (0.738 vs. 0.486, respectively, p  =   .016). Blood serum β-carotene levels displayed to be constantly around the limit of sensitivity in all animals of both breeds. Variations in blood serum concentrations of retinol in Asinara white donkeys can reflect the need to cope with seasonal exposure to daylight at Mediterranean latitudes, as an alternative to the lack of melanin. These results may

  10. Evidence that kidney function but not type 2 diabetes determines retinol-binding protein 4 serum levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Andrea; Frey, Simone K; Raila, Jens

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) links adiposity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, circulating RBP4 levels are also affected by kidney function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test whether RBP4 serum levels are primarily associated with kidney...... function or type 2 diabetes....

  11. Retinol sérico en mujeres mexicanas urbanas durante el periodo perinatal Serum retinol in urban Mexican women during the perinatal period

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    Esther Casanueva

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Establecer la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina A durante el embarazo y la lactancia en un grupo de mujeres mexicanas urbanas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se invitó a participar a un grupo de gestantes que acudían a control prenatal, que carecían de patología agregada y contaban con menos de 20 semanas de embarazo. Fueron evaluadas tres veces durante el embarazo y hasta la semana 24 del posparto. La determinación de vitamina A en suero se realizó por cromatografía de líquidos de alta presión. Se consideró como punto de corte para riesgo de deficiencia una concentración de retinol OBJECTIVE. To establish the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy and lactation in a group of urban Mexican women. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A group of pregnant women who attended a prenatal care program were invited to participate. Subjects had no added pathologies and were less than 20 weeks pregnant. Evaluations were performed 3 times during pregnancy until 24 weeks post-partum. Vitamin A levels were determined in serum by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The cut-off point to consider retinol deficiency was < 1.05 µmol/L. RESULTS. During the 3 gestational evaluations, vitamin A levels were 2.34±0.70, 2.41±1.03 and 1.86±0.66 µmol/L, respectively, which shows a significant decrease. However, only 1/30 was situated below the accepted cut-off point to consider risk of deficiency, and none for deficiency. During post-partum , concentrations remained relatively constant, approximately 2.10 µmol/L. Lactation had no impact on serum retinol levels, while weight loss did. CONCLUSIONS. No cases of vitamin A deficiency were found in the studied population during the perinatal period. Maternal weight loss affects post-partum retinol levels.

  12. The survey of serum retinol of the children aged 0~4 years in Zhejiang Province, China

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    Wu Lingling

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A can have a positive impact on growth and development of children, but vitamin A deficiency (VAD was found to be a public health problem in Zhejiang Province, China in 1998. There have been no studies on this topic in Zhejiang Province recently. This study was designed to evaluate the serum retinol levels of children aged 0~4 years in Zhejiang Province, southeast China. This epidemiological data will help design supplementation strategies for vitamin A in high-risk groups and improve their vitamin A status. Methods Children were randomly recruited for this study using a stratified sampling method. A blood sample was collected from each child. Assessment included C-reactive protein (CRP, serum retinol measured with HPLC and a questionnaire completed providing for family information and nutritional status. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors for VAD in children. Results A group of 357 subjects aged 1 day to 4 years were recruited. The mean plasma retinol concentration was 1.653 (sd 0.47 μmol/L. There were 3.08% (11/357 of children affected with VAD, and 7.28% (26/357 of children had low vitamin A status, but none of the children showed any clinical symptoms of VAD. There was no significant difference in the levels of plasma retinol and the incidence rate of VAD between male and female children. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that living in urban region, having parents with good education and taking vitamin A capsule regularly prevented children from VAD, whereas being young (less than 2 years old was a risk factor. Conclusion Low vitamin A status remains a nutritional problem in Zhejiang Province. The high-risk group in this study were young, dwelled in rural regions, had parents with poor education and did not take a regular vitamin A containing supplement.

  13. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol and their correlation with sperm DNA damage in normospermic and infertile men

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    Taiebeh Ghyasvand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress in reproductive system leads to sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane lipid peroxidation and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of male infertility, especially in idiopathic cases. Antioxidants such as carotenoids function against free radical damages. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol in serum and their relationship with sperm DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in infertile and normospermic males. Materials and Methods: Sixty two infertile men and 71 normospermic men participated in this study. Blood and semen samples were collected from all subjects. Sperm DNA damage was measured using TUNEL method. Carotenoids, retinol, and malonedildehyde in serum were also determined. Results: DNA fragmentation was higher in infertile group comparing to control group. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and, vitamin A in infertile men were significantly lower than normospermic men (p< 0.001, =0.005, and =0.003 respectively. While serum MDA was not significantly different between two groups, MDA in seminal plasma of infertile men was significantly higher than control group (p< 0.001. Conclusion: We concluded that lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol can reduce sperm DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation through their antioxidant effect. Therefore the DNA fragmentation assay and determination of antioxidants factors such as lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol, along with sperm analysis can be useful in diagnosis and treatment of men with idiopathic infertility.

  14. [Iron status and serum retinol levels among children and adolescents attended by a Family Health Strategy team in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State].

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    Mariath, Aline Brandão; Giachini, Rubia Mara; Lauda, Laíz Guedes; Grillo, Luciane Peter

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this article is to determine prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiencies among children and adolescents attended by a Family Health Strategy team in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State, and to assess relations between iron status and serum retinol. A nutritional census of the families was carried out. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected. Hemoglobin concentration, hematocrite, serum iron and retinal were determined. Thirty-one out of the 156 enrolled families participated in the study. Only 39.1% of the children and 62.0% of the adolescents had their blood samples collected. Mean per capita income was 1.68+/-1.00 minimum wages. None of the parents was illiterate and most families (80.6%) owned their homes. All homes had public sewage and water supply, and 87.1% were made of brickwork. Iron deficiency was diagnosed in 16.7% of the children and 19.3% of the adolescents. Only one child had vitamin A deficiency. Significant correlations were found between serum iron and retinol among children, and among adolescents between serum retinol and hemoglobin concentration and hematocrite. We found mild prevalences of iron and vitamin A deficiencies, possibly due to the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.

  15. Increased consumption of dietary cholesterol, lutein, and zeaxanthin as egg yolks does not decrease serum concentrations and lipoprotein distribution of other carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols.

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    Vishwanathan, Rohini; Gendron, Candice M; Goodrow-Kotyla, Elizabeth F; Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2010-11-01

    We have previously reported that consumption of lutein and zeaxanthin as 2 and 4 egg yolks per day for 5 weeks significantly increased serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in older adults taking cholesterol-lowering statins. We hypothesized that increased consumption of eggs, lutein, and zeaxanthin may correlate with decreased absorption of other carotenoids and increased absorption of vitamins A and E, thus affecting their serum concentrations and lipoprotein distribution. Fifty-two subjects aged at least 60 years consumed 2 egg yolks per day followed by 4 egg yolks per day for 5 weeks each with a 4-week egg-free period at baseline and between the 2 interventions. Mean serum β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and retinol concentrations did not change during the 2 and 4 egg yolk phases. Mean serum α-cryptoxanthin and γ-tocopherol concentrations did not change after the 2 egg yolk phase, but increased by 47% (P egg yolk phase. The percentage distribution of carotenoids and tocopherols between the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and non-HDL fractions was not significantly different during the egg yolk phases compared with baseline despite the significant increases in lutein and zeaxanthin carried on HDL and non-HDL fractions. In conclusion, increased dietary cholesterol, lutein, and zeaxanthin consumed as egg yolks did not decrease the absorption of other carotenoids, and increased γ-tocopherol but not retinol as evidenced by their serum and lipoprotein concentrations. Two and 4 egg yolk consumption increases serum and retinal lutein and zeaxanthin without altering the serum status of the other carotenoids, tocopherol, and retinol. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatores associados à concentração de retinol sérico em lactentes Factores asociados a la concentración de retinol sérico en lactantes Factors associated with the concentration of serum retinol in infants

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    Michele Pereira Netto

    2012-01-01

    érico, se utilizó análisis de regresión lineal múltiple. RESULTADOS: Se identificó 39,6% de prevalencia de la deficiencia de vitamina A. Los factores asociados positivamente al nivel sérico de retinol fueron tiempo de escolaridad paterna e ingestión de proteína. Por otra parte, el número de moradores en el domicilio y la edad del niño estuvieron negativamente asociados. CONCLUSIONES: La hipovitaminosis A se presenta como un problema de Salud Pública entre los lactantes del municipio de Viçosa. Factores socioeconómicos, dietéticos y biológicos se asocian a la deficiencia de la vitamina A en la población infantil.OBJECTIVE: To verify the factors associated with the concentration of retinol in infants assisted in a health public system. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out with 101 infants aged 18-24 months assisted at the health public system in the urban area of Viçosa city, Southeastern Brazil. The retinol concentration was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. In order to identify the dietary practices the 24 hours recall information was obtained. The interviews were accomplished with infant's parents or with their caretakers at home. Evaluation of the variables associated to serum retinol levels was done by multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was 39.6%. The factors positively associated with serum retinol levels were paternal years of education and the diet protein content. On the other hand, the number of household inhabitants and the infant's age were negatively associated with the levels of retinol. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem among infants in Viçosa city. Socioeconomic, dietetic and biological variables are associated to serum concentration of retinol in infants.

  17. Elevated serum triglyceride and retinol-binding protein 4 levels associated with fructose-sweetened beverages in adolescents.

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    Te-Fu Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metabolic effect of fructose in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB has been linked to de novo lipogenesis and uric acid (UA production. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the biological effects of SSB consumption on serum lipid profiles and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 among Taiwanese adolescents. METHODS: We evaluated the anthropometric parameters and biochemical outcomes of 200 representative adolescents (98 boys and 102 girls who were randomly selected from a large-scale cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using multiple regression models adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: Increased SSB consumption was associated with increased waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI values and serum UA, triglyceride (TG and RBP4 levels. Adolescents who consumed >500 ml/day of beverages half-to-heavily sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS exhibited TG and RBP4 levels 22.7 mg/dl and 13.92 ng/ml higher than non-drinkers, respectively. HFCS drinkers with hyperuricemia had higher TG levels than HFCS drinkers with normal UA levels (98.6 vs. 81.6 mg/dl. The intake of HFCS-rich SSBs and high value of BMI (≥24 interactively reinforced RBP4 levels among overweight/obese adolescents. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly correlated with weight-related outcomes and TG and UA concentration among HFCS drinkers (r = 0.253 to 0.404, but not among non-drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: High-quantity HFCS-rich beverage consumption is associated with higher TG and RBP4 levels. Hyperuricemia is likely to intensify the influence of HFCS-rich SSB intake on elevated TG levels, and in overweight and obese adolescents, high BMI may modify the action of fructose on higher circulating levels of RBP4.

  18. A food-based approach introducing orange-fleshed sweet potatoes increased vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children in rural Mozambique.

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    Low, Jan W; Arimond, Mary; Osman, Nadia; Cunguara, Benedito; Zano, Filipe; Tschirley, David

    2007-05-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is widespread and has severe consequences for young children in the developing world. Food-based approaches may be an appropriate and sustainable complement to supplementation programs. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is rich in beta-carotene and is well accepted by young children. In an extremely resource poor area in Mozambique, the effectiveness of introduction of OFSP was assessed in an integrated agriculture and nutrition intervention, which aimed to increase vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children. The 2-y quasi-experimental intervention study followed households and children (n = 741; mean age 13 mo at baseline) through 2 agricultural cycles. In y 2, 90% of intervention households produced OFSP, and mean OFSP plot size in intervention areas increased from 33 to 359 m(2). Intervention children (n = 498) were more likely than control children (n = 243) to eat OFSP 3 or more d in the last wk (55% vs. 8%, P children (median 426 vs. 56 microg retinol activity equivalent, P children and did not increase significantly in control subjects. Integrated promotion of OFSP can complement other approaches and contribute to increases in vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children in rural Mozambique and similar areas in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. SERUM RETINOL DAN STATUS GIZI IBU MENYUSUI MENENTUKAN KADAR VITAMIN A DALAM ASI

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    Sandjaja Sandjaja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: Status vitamin A ibu menyusui dan bayinya telah dibuktikan mempunyai hubungan yang erat. Bayi dari ibu yang menderita kurang vitamin A mempunyai risiko yang tinggi menderita KVA. Asumsinya hubungan tersebut dimediasi oleh kadar vitamin A dalam ASI sebagai sumber vitamin A utama. Tujuan: Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara status vitamin A ibu menyusui dan kadar vitamin A dalam ASI. Metode: Studi dilakukan pada 440 ibu menyusui yang bayinya umur 6-12 bulan di Kabupaten Tasikmalaya dan Ciamis. Serum vitamin A dalam darah dan kadar vitamin A dalam ASI dikumpulkan dan dianalisis dengan metode HPLC. Kovariat antropometri, morbiditas, karakteristik ibu dan bayi yang berperan dalam serum vitamin A dan vitamin A ASI dikumpulkan. Analisis uji-t, ANOVA dan ANCOVA dilakukan untuk menguji peran status vitamin A ibu terhadap vitamin A ASI. Hasil: Hasil studi menunjukkan KVA ibu menyusui berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap rendahnya kadar vitamin A dalam ASI setelah dikontrol oleh kovariat status gizi ibu menyusui. Rerata vitamin A dalam ASI pada ibu yang KVA dan non KVA 47,0 μg/dL dan 88,2 μg/dL. Kesimpulan: Setelah dikontrol oleh kovariat status gizi ibu menyusui, kurang vitamin A pada ibu menyusui berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap rendahnya kadar vitamin A dalam ASI.

  20. Níveis séricos de retinol em escolares de 7 a 17 anos no município do Rio de Janeiro Serum retinol levels in school children, 7 to 17 years old in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Rejane Andréa Ramalho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional quanto à vitamina A em escolares de 7 a 17 anos. Foram analisados 574 escolares, com idade entre 7 e 17 anos, regularmente matriculados na rede municipal de ensino no Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS: Os níveis séricos de retinol foram determinados pelo método Bessey-Lowry modificado e o ponto de corte utilizado para caracterizar inadequação sérica de retinol foi OBJECTIVE: The vitamin A nutritional status assesment in scholars whose age is from 7 to 17 years old is the aim of this study. Data from 574 scholars have been analyzed, they were from 7 to 17 years old, and matriculated in the public educational system of Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: The serum retinol levels were assessed by the modified Bessey-Lowry method and the reference point to qualify the inadequate serum retinol level was <1,05µmol/L. RESULTS: The current study has identified that 10.30% of the scholars have presented low serum retinol levels. Considering the age group, the study shows that the younger scholars can present highier percentages of inadequate serul retinol levels (11.98% for those who is 7 to 10 years old, and 7.92% for those who is from 10 to 17 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Although the serum retinol levels tends to raise according to the age, they are still low and its frequency is relevant to focus the atention to the youngest scholars, including them in micronutrients deficiency combat programs.

  1. Quantitative analyses of ß-carotene and retinol in serum and feces in support of clinical bioavalailability studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, D.; Wang, Y.; Pang, Y.; Liu, A.; Guo, Jian; Bouwman, C.A.; West, C.E.; Breemen, van R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Among more than 50 provitamin carotenoids, beta-carotene is the most metabolically active source of retinol. Despite diets rich in fruits and vegetables containing beta-carotene, vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of blindness and childhood mortality in developing countries. In addition, the

  2. Relationship between Serum and Brain Carotenoids, α-Tocopherol, and Retinol Concentrations and Cognitive Performance in the Oldest Old from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Johnson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in age-related cognitive decline. The dietary antioxidants, carotenoids, tocopherols, and vitamin A may play a role in the prevention or delay in cognitive decline. In this study, sera were obtained from 78 octogenarians and 220 centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Brain tissues were obtained from 47 centenarian decedents. Samples were analyzed for carotenoids, α-tocopherol, and retinol using HPLC. Analyte concentrations were compared with cognitive tests designed to evaluate global cognition, dementia, depression and cognitive domains (memory, processing speed, attention, and executive functioning. Serum lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene concentrations were most consistently related to better cognition (P<0.05 in the whole population and in the centenarians. Only serum lutein was significantly related to better cognition in the octogenarians. In brain, lutein and β-carotene were related to cognition with lutein being consistently associated with a range of measures. There were fewer significant relationships for α-tocopherol and a negative relationship between brain retinol concentrations and delayed recognition. These findings suggest that the status of certain carotenoids in the old may reflect their cognitive function. The protective effect may not be related to an antioxidant effect given that α-tocopherol was less related to cognition than these carotenoids.

  3. Relationships of body mass index with serum carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol at steady-state and in response to a carotenoid-rich vegetable diet intervention in Filipino schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Maramag, Cherry C; Tengco, Lorena W; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Solon, Florentino S

    2008-04-01

    In marginally nourished children, information is scarce regarding the circulating concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols, and physiological factors influencing their circulating levels. We determined the serum concentrations of carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol at steady state and in response to a 9-week vegetable diet intervention in 9-12-year-old girls (n=54) and boys (n=65) in rural Philippines. We determined cross-sectional relationships of BMI (body mass index) with serum micronutrient levels, and whether BMI is a determinant of serum carotenoid responses to the ingestion of carotenoid-rich vegetables. We measured dietary nutrient intakes and assessed inflammation by measurement of serum C-reactive protein levels. The children had low serum concentrations of carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol as compared with published values for similar-aged children in the U.S.A. The low serum retinol levels can be ascribed to inadequate diets and were not the result of confounding due to inflammation. Significant inverse correlations of BMI and serum all-trans-beta-carotene, 13-cis-beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin and alpha-tocopherol (but not beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and retinol) were observed among girls at baseline. The dietary intervention markedly enhanced the serum concentrations of all carotenoids. Changes in serum all-trans-beta-carotene and alpha-carotene (but not changes in lutein, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin) in response to the dietary intervention were inversely associated with BMI in girls and boys. Thus, in Filipino school-aged children, BMI is inversely related to the steady-state serum concentrations of certain carotenoids and vitamin E, but not vitamin A, and is a determinant of serum beta- and alpha-carotene responses, but not xanthophyll responses, to the ingestion of carotenoid-rich vegetable meals.

  4. Concentrações de retinol e de beta-caroteno séricos e perfil nutricional de crianças em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil Serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, and nutritional status of children in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilane Alves Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as concentrações séricas de retinol e beta-caroteno de pré-escolares em Teresina, Piauí, com caracterização do perfil antropométrico e do consumo alimentar. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo 135 crianças em creche municipal, com avaliação do estado nutricional pelos métodos: bioquímico (concentração sérica de retinol e beta-caroteno, antropométrico (índices de peso para estatura - P/E e estatura para idade - E/I e dietético (freqüência de consumo alimentar. RESULTADOS: Observou-se prevalência de deficiência de vitamina A (DVA de 8,9% (IC95%: 4,7 - 15,0% e existência de associação entre suplementação anterior e concentrações de retinol, com maior proporção de crianças com níveis normais de retinol entre as suplementadas (p = 0,025. As concentrações de retinol e de beta-caroteno mostraram-se correlacionadas, porém com força leve a moderada (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene of children in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, and to evaluate their anthropometric profile and consumption of food sources of vitamin A. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 135 children from 36 to 83 months of age who attended a public child day care center. Nutritional status was evaluated by: biochemical (serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, anthropometric (weight for height - W/H and height for age - H/A indexes, and dietary (frequency of consumption of food sources of vitamin A methods. RESULTS: The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD was 8.9% (95%CI: 4.7-15.0%. An association between previous supplementation with vitamin A and serum concentrations of retinol was observed, with a higher proportion of children with normal concentrations of retinol among those supplemented (p=0.025. There was a weak to moderate statistically significant correlation between the concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, (p<0.021. The prevalence of low W/H and low H

  5. Impact of Serum Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Levels on Regulation of Remnant-Like Particles Triglyceride in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Yamaaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 associates with insulin resistance and remnant-like particles triglyceride (RLP-TG elevated in the insulin resistant state, few data exist regarding the relationship between RBP4 and RLP-TG. Subjects and Methods. The study included 92 Japanese type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM male patients (age years, body mass index (BMI  kg/m2, waist circumference (WC  cm, and HbA1c (NGSP %. Patients on medications affecting insulin sensitivity, including fibrates, biguanides, and thiazolidinedione, were excluded. Visceral fat area (VFA and subcutaneous fat area (SFA were measured by computed tomography. Results. RBP4 levels showed a significant positive correlation with RLP-TG ( and , TG ( and , RLP-TG/TG ( and , and age ( and , although there was no significant correlation with VFA, SFA, adiponectin levels, or homeostasis model of assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-R. Multiple regression analysis revealed that RBP4 was an independent determinant of RLP-TG ( but was not a determinant of TG. Conclusions. RBP4 correlates positively with serum RLP-TG independent of fat accumulation in T2DM. RBP4 may regulate remnant metabolism independent of glycemic control in T2DM.

  6. Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with low retinol levels in children aged 1 to 5 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara C.A. Saraiva

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Anemia and iron deficiency were associated with low levels of serum retinol in children aged 1 to 5 years, and a positive correlation was verified between serum retinol and serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. These results indicate the importance of initiatives encouraging the development of new treatments and further research regarding retinol deficiency.

  7. Níveis de retinol e carotenóides séricos e intercorrências gestacionais em puérperas Vitamin A serum and gestational intercurrences in postpartum women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ferreira Campos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre intercorrências gestacionais e níveis de retinol e carotenóides em puérperas atendidas em maternidade pública do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 262 puérperas atendidas na Maternidade Escola da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. O estado nutricional antropométrico foi avaliado pelo do índice de massa corporal pré-gestacional e pelo ganho ponderal gestacional, e foram coletadas informações sobre intercorrências gestacionais nos registros médicos dos prontuários. Foram adotados os pontos de corte 1,05µmol/L e 80µg/dL para definir inadequação dos níveis de retinol e carotenóides séricos, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Quarenta e dois vírgula sete por cento da amostra foi acometida por intercorrências gestacionais, destacando-se anemia (29,0%, inadequação dos níveis de retinol (24,4%, e síndromes hipertensivas da gravidez (5,7%. Observou-se maior proporção de obesidade pré-gestacional entre mulheres com síndromes hipertensivas da gravidez, em comparação com as não portadoras de tal intercorrência. Verificou-se menor nível médio de carotenóides séricos entre as que desenvolveram síndromes hipertensivas da gravidez e 91,7% destas apresentaram inadequação destes nutrientes. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados revelam acometimento importante de mulheres por intercorrências gestacionais e por deficiências nutricionais. Além disso, apontam a obesidade pré-gestacional como um possível fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de síndromes hipertensivas da gravidez e sugerem uma associação entre baixos níveis de carotenóides e tal intercorrência.OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate an association between pregnancy complications and serum retinol and carotenoid levels in puerpere seen at a public maternity of Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: The sample consisted of 262 puerpere seen at the Maternity School of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro

  8. Perfil de retinol no soro e colostro de puérperas atendidas em maternidade pública Brasileira e sua associação com características maternas e obstétricas Perfil de retinol en el suero y calostro de puérperas atendidas en maternidad pública brasileña y su asociación con características maternas y obstétricas Serum and colostrum retinol profile in postpartum women in a Brazilian public maternity and its association with maternal and obstetric characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Queiroz de Lira

    2011-12-01

    corte transversal 97 puérperas sanas que fueron clasificadas respecto a la edad, estado nutricional, paridad, vía de parto, peso al nacimiento y edad gestacional del recién nacido. Tres muestras de calostro y una de suero fueron recogidas en ayuno en el postparto inmediato. El retinol fue analizado por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia. Para caracterizar el estado nutricional en vitamina A se adoptó punto de corte para retinol en el suero (30µg/dL y en el calostro (60µg/dL. RESULTADOS: En el grupo total de puérperas, la concentración mediana de 60µg/dL de retinol en el calostro y 43µg/dL en el suero indicó estado bioquímico adecuado. Sin embargo, al evaluar el individuo, se constató alta prevalencia de DVA subclínica en el suero (15% y calostro (50%. No se verificó influencia de las características maternas, obstétricas y del neonato sobre los niveles de retinol en el suero y en el calostro de las mujeres (p>0,05. CONCLUSIONES: El riesgo de DVA puede ocurrir en gestantes/puérperas independientemente de las características maternas y obstétricas consideradas. Este hecho refuerza la necesidad de la atención especial al seguimiento prenatal de todas las mujeres a fin de prevenir la instalación de la DVA y garantizar la reducción de los índices de morbimortalidad infantil y materna.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between serum and colostrum retinol levels and maternal and obstetric characteristics of women attending a Brazilian public maternity hospital, and to establish the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD in this population. METHODS: This cross sectional study included 97 healthy postpartum women classified according to age, nutritional status, parity, mode of delivery, newborn's weight and gestational age. Three samples of colostrum pool and a single serum sample were collected after overnight fasting in the immediate postpartum period. Retinol was analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. To characterize the

  9. Iron status and serum retinol levels among children and adolescents attended by a Family Health Strategy team in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State

    OpenAIRE

    Mariath, Aline Brandão; Giachini, Rubia Mara; Lauda, Laíz Guedes; Grillo, Luciane Peter

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho visa determinar prevalências de deficiência de ferro e vitamina A em crianças e adolescentes atendidos por equipe de Saúde da Família de Itajaí (SC) e avaliar relações entre o estado de ferro e o retinol sérico. Realizou-se um censo nutricional das famílias cadastradas. Coletaram-se dados socioeconômicos e demográficos. Avaliou-se a concentração de hemoglobina, hematócrito, ferro e retinol séricos. Participaram do estudo 31 das 156 famílias cadastradas. Apenas 39,1% das crianças...

  10. Factors associated with serum retinol, x-tocopherol, carotenoids, and selenium in Hispanics with problems of HIV, chornis hepatitis, chronic hepatitis C, and drug use

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of hepatitis and drug use on nutritional problems in HIV infection have rarely been examined despite the importance of drug use in the global HIV pandemic. We examined the effects of HIV, hepatitis C, and drug use on serum micronutrients in 300 US Hispanic adults. Chronic hepatitis C inf...

  11. Method validation and simultaneous determination of retinol, retinyl palmitate, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and vitamin C in rat serum treated with 7,12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and Plantago major L. by high- performance liquid chromatography using diode-array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Abdulkadi; Oto, Gokhan; Ekin, Suat; Berber, Ismet

    2013-02-01

    A new and simple high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of retinol, retinyl palmitate, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and vitamin C in rat serum treated with Plantago Major L. and 7,12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis was performed utilizing an Inertsil ODS3 reversed phase column with methanol-tetrahydrofuran-water as mobile phase under gradient conditions, at 1.5 mL min(-1) flow rate and 25 °C. Diode-array detection was at 325, 450, 290 and 270 nm (retinol and retinyl palmitate), β-carotene, α-tocopherol and vitamin C, respectively and runnig time 18 min. The high-performance liquid chromatography assay and extraction procedure proposed are simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate. The method was then applied for the determination of retinol, retinyl palmitate, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and vitamin C in rat serum. Results of this study demonstrated that; at 60th day DMBA-treated group, there was a significant decrease in vitamin levels compared to the levels of control group. A significant increase was observed in vitamin levels of 7,12 dimethylbenz[α]anthracene+Plantago Major L.-treated group compared to the DMBA-treated group. Additionally, the results obtained in the study are found to be in agreement with data reported in the literature.

  12. Urinary excretion of retinol in patients with multiple myeloma: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Vladimir; Yermiahu, Tikva; Gorodischer, Rafael

    2003-11-01

    Urinary excretion of vitamin A was studied in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Eight of the 12 patients studied excreted retinol in urine; only one of them had elevated serum creatinine (115-150 micromol/L). There was a highly significant correlation between urinary retinol and serum creatinine (P urine protein (P excretion may be an early manifestation of renal dysfunction in MM patients. The effect of urinary retinol excretion on vitamin A homeostasis in MM deserves further study. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Localization of cellular retinol-binding protein and retinol-binding protein in cells comprising the blood-brain barrier of rat and human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, P.N.; Ong, D.E.; Bok, D.

    1990-01-01

    Brain is not generally recognized as an organ that requires vitamin A, perhaps because no obvious histologic lesions have been observed in severely vitamin A-deficient animals. However, brain tissue does contain cellular vitamin A-binding proteins and a nuclear receptor protein for retinoic acid. In the present study, immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine the cell-specific location of cellular retinol-binding protein in human and rat brain tissue. Cellular retinol-binding protein was localized specifically within the cuboidal epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, two primary sites of the mammalian blood-brain barrier. In addition, autoradiographic procedures demonstrated binding sites for serum retinol-binding protein in the choroidal epithelium. These observations suggest that a significant movement of retinol across the blood-brain barrier may occur

  14. Retinol uptake and esterification in the rate sertoli cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingleton, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism by which Sertoli cells accumulate retinol from retinol-binding protein (RBP) and the cellular metabolism of the accumulated retinol were investigated here using primary cultures of Sertoli cells isolated from 20 day-old rats. Cells incubated with [ 3 H]retinol-RBP accumulated [ 3 H]retinol in a time- and temperature dependent manner. The rate of [ 3 H] retinol accumulation declined when cellular [ 3 H] retinol concentrations reached approximately 0.53 pmol of retinol per μg of cellular DNA, equivalent to the cellular content of cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP). Excess unlabeled retinol-RBP competed with [ 3 H] retinol-RBP for [ 3 H] retinol delivery to the cells but free retinol did not. Furthermore, free [ 3 H] retinol associated with Sertoli cells in a non-saturable manner. The transport constant for specific retinol accumulation from RBP was 1.9 μM, suggesting that any change in the normal circulating retinol-RBP level would directly affect the rate of retinol accumulation. Competition studies and studies using labeled RBP, cellular energy inhibitors, and lysosomal poisons indicated that the specific retinol accumulation by Sertoli cells occurs by interaction with a cell-surface receptor that internalizes retinol without concomitant internalization of RBP. Extraction and HPLC analysis of the radioactivity associated with Sertoli cells after incubation with [ 3 H] retinol-RBP yielded retinol and retinyl esters

  15. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on the urinary retinol excretion in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Bettina; Longardt, Ann Carolin; Loui, Andrea; Bührer, Christoph; Raila, Jens; Schweigert, Florian J

    2016-03-01

    Despite high-dose vitamin A supplementation of very low birth weight infants (VLBW, supplementation on the urinary vitamin A excretion in VLBW infants was investigated. Sixty-three VLBW infants were treated with vitamin A (5000 IU intramuscular, 3 times/week for 4 weeks); 38 untreated infants were classified as control group. On days 3 and 28 of life, retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, and Tamm-Horsfall protein were quantified in urine. On day 3 of life, substantial retinol and RBP4 losses were found in both groups, which significantly decreased until day 28. Notwithstanding, the retinol excretion was higher (P supplementation as compared to infants of the control group. On day 28 of life, the urinary retinol concentrations were predictive for serum retinol concentrations in the vitamin A treated (P supplementation efficacy in VLBW infants. Advanced age and thus postnatal kidney maturation seems to be an important contributor in the prevention of urinary retinol losses.

  16. Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with low retinol levels in children aged 1 to 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Bárbara C A; Soares, Michele C C; Santos, Luana C dos; Pereira, Simone C L; Horta, Paula M

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the occurrence of anemia and iron deficiency in children aged 1 to 5 years and the association of these events and retinol deficiency. This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study conducted in Vitoria, ES, Brazil, between April and August of 2008, with healthy children aged 1 to 5 years (n=692) that lived in areas covered by primary healthcare services. Sociodemographic and economic conditions, dietary intake (energy, protein, iron, and vitamin A ingestion), anthropometric data (body mass index-for-age and height-for-age), and biochemical parameters (ferritin, hemoglobin, and retinol serum) were collected. The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and retinol deficiency was 15.7%, 28.1%, and 24.7%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a higher prevalence of anemia (PR: 4.62, 95% CI: 3.36, 6.34, p<0.001) and iron deficiency (PR: 4.51, 95% CI: 3.30, 6.17, p<0.001) among children with retinol deficiency. The same results were obtained after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic conditions, dietary intake, and anthropometric variables. There was a positive association between ferritin vs. retinol serum (r=0.597; p<0.001) and hemoglobin vs. retinol serum (r=0.770; p<0.001). Anemia and iron deficiency were associated with low levels of serum retinol in children aged 1 to 5 years, and a positive correlation was verified between serum retinol and serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. These results indicate the importance of initiatives encouraging the development of new treatments and further research regarding retinol deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with low retinol levels in children aged 1 to 5 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara C.A. Saraiva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the occurrence of anemia and iron deficiency in children aged 1 to 5 years and the association of these events and retinol deficiency. METHODS: This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study conducted in Vitoria, ES, Brazil, between April and August of 2008, with healthy children aged 1 to 5 years (n = 692 that lived in areas covered by primary healthcare services. Sociodemographic and economic conditions, dietary intake (energy, protein, iron, and vitamin A ingestion, anthropometric data (body mass index-for-age and height-for-age, and biochemical parameters (ferritin, hemoglobin, and retinol serum were collected. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and retinol deficiency was 15.7%, 28.1%, and 24.7%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a higher prevalence of anemia (PR: 4.62, 95% CI: 3.36, 6.34, p < 0.001 and iron deficiency (PR: 4.51, 95% CI: 3.30, 6.17, p < 0.001 among children with retinol deficiency. The same results were obtained after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic conditions, dietary intake, and anthropometric variables. There was a positive association between ferritin vs. retinol serum (r = 0.597; p < 0.001 and hemoglobin vs. retinol serum (r = 0.770; p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia and iron deficiency were associated with low levels of serum retinol in children aged 1 to 5 years, and a positive correlation was verified between serum retinol and serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. These results indicate the importance of initiatives encouraging the development of new treatments and further research regarding retinol deficiency.

  18. Effect of renal replacement therapy on retinol-binding protein 4 isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Simone K; Henze, Andrea; Nagl, Britta

    2009-01-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels are elevated in the serum of patients with kidney dysfunction. We recently showed that RBP4 isoforms including apo-RBP4 (RBP4 not bound to retinol) and RBP4 truncated at the C-terminus (RBP4-L, RBP4-LL) are increased in the serum of patients with kidney dis...... diseases but not in serum of patients with various liver diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of renal replacement therapy on RBP4 isoforms....

  19. Increased retinol-free RBP4 contributes to insulin resistance in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanmin; Lv, Ping; Du, Mengkai; Liang, Zhaoxia; Zhou, Menglin; Chen, Danqing

    2017-07-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a circulating retinol transporter that is strongly associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the RBP4 and retinol level in rat model of gestational diabetes mellitus and the relationship between retinol-free RBP4 (apo-RBP4), retinol-bound RBP4 (holo-RBP4) and insulin resistance. Pregnant rats were administered streptozotocin to induce diabetes. The RBP4 and retinol levels were evaluated in GDM and normal pregnant rats. After then, normal pregnant rats were divided into two groups to receive either apo-RBP4 or vehicle injection. The metabolic parameters and insulin signaling in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver were determined in apo-RBP4 and control groups. Primary human adipocytes were cultured in vitro with different proportions of apo-RBP4 and holo-RBP4 for 24 h. The interaction between RBP4 and STRA6 was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation, and the expression of JAK-STAT pathway and insulin signaling were detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. We found increases in serum RBP4 levels and the RBP4:retinol ratio but not in the retinol levels in GDM rats. Exogenous apo-RBP4 injection attenuated insulin sensitivity in pregnant rats. In vitro, a prolonged interaction between RBP4 and STRA6 was observed when apo-RBP4 was present. In response to increased apo-RBP4 levels, cells showed elevated activation of the JAK2/STAT5 cascade and SOCS3 expression, decreased phosphorylation of IR and IRS1, and attenuated GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake upon insulin stimulation. Apo-RBP4 is a ligand that activates the STRA6 signaling cascade, inducing insulin resistance in GDM.

  20. Liver retinol and carotenoid concentration of rats experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the liver retinol and carotenoid concentration of rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei. Results of the liver retinol determination showed that T. brucei infection led to a progressively significant (P < 0.01) depletion of liver retinol concentration (body vitamin A status) of infected rats from ...

  1. Effect of maternal vitamin A supplementation on retinol concentration in colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evellyn C. Grilo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting and postprandial conditions. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study, with before and after assessments, conducted with 33 patients treated at a public maternity hospital. Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. A second colostrum collection occurred two hours after the first meal of the day, at which time a mega dose of 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate was administered. On the following day, the colostrum was collected again under fasting and postprandial conditions. Serum and colostrum retinol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The serum retinol concentration was 37.3 (16.8-62.2 µg/dL, indicating adequate nutritional status. The colostrum retinol concentration before supplementation was 46.8 (29.7-158.9 µg/dL in fasting and 67.3 (31.1-148.7 µg/dL in postprandial condition (p < 0.05, showing an increase of 43.8%. After supplementation, the values were 89.5 (32.9-264.2 µg/dL and 102.7 (37.3-378.3 µg/dL in fasting and postprandial conditions, respectively (p < 0.05, representing an increase of 14.7%. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A in postpartum resulted in a significant increase of the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting conditions, with an even greater increase after a meal.

  2. Effect of maternal vitamin A supplementation on retinol concentration in colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Evellyn C; Lima, Mayara S R; Cunha, Lahyana R F; Gurgel, Cristiane S S; Clemente, Heleni A; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting and postprandial conditions. This was a quasi-experimental study, with before and after assessments, conducted with 33 patients treated at a public maternity hospital. Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. A second colostrum collection occurred two hours after the first meal of the day, at which time a mega dose of 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate was administered. On the following day, the colostrum was collected again under fasting and postprandial conditions. Serum and colostrum retinol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The serum retinol concentration was 37.3 (16.8-62.2) μg/dL, indicating adequate nutritional status. The colostrum retinol concentration before supplementation was 46.8 (29.7-158.9) μg/dL in fasting and 67.3 (31.1-148.7) μg/dL in postprandial condition (p < 0.05), showing an increase of 43.8%. After supplementation, the values were 89.5 (32.9-264.2) μg/dL and 102.7 (37.3-378.3) μg/dL in fasting and postprandial conditions, respectively (p < 0.05), representing an increase of 14.7%. This study demonstrated that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A in postpartum resulted in a significant increase of the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting conditions, with an even greater increase after a meal. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Retinol and mineral status in grazing foals during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lindomárcia Leonardo da Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to examine serum retinol and some mineral (zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and copper levels in seven Mangalarga Marchador colts aged 329.48 days, reared on pasture in the city of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil, during the dry season. Equines were evaluated for four periods of 45 days during the total study period of five months. The foals had access to Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania pasture, while water and mineral salt lick were provided ad libitum. Blood samples were taken to determine serum retinol and levels of minerals, along with pasture samples to quantify beta-carotene in the grass. The results indicated that retinol levels varied (2.87 to 1.97 µg/dL and remained below the standard levels. The levels of zinc, iron, calcium, and phosphorus did not vary significantly with average values of 36.79 µg/dL, 77.32 µg/dL, 10.33 mg/dL, and 9.99 mg/dL, respectively. However, zinc and calcium remained below standard concentrations of 60-120 µg/dL and 10.8-13.5 mg/dL, respectively, since the beginning of the study. On the other hand, copper and magnesium levels decreased over time (97.76 to 77.56 mg/dL and 2.86 to 2.21 µg/dL, respectively, but showed normal levels for horses during the research. Beta-carotene in grass showed a downward trend over time from 38.53 to 0.09 mg/kg of dry matter. The results also indicated a significant relationship between serum retinol and serum copper levels. Vitamin A supplementation is necessary whenever foals are fed pastures during the dry season.

  4. Retinol analysis in dried blood spots by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, N E; Haitema, T; Brindle, L K; Yamini, S; Humphrey, J H; West, K P

    2000-04-01

    There are many advantages to measuring vitamin A in dried blood spots (DBS) from a finger prick as compared to plasma collected by venipuncture. The advantages include easier collection, transport and storage; accessibility to younger and more remote populations; and decreased risk of disease transmission. We describe a method for the extraction of retinol from DBS for analysis by HPLC and initial comparison to plasma retinol. The effects of various buffers, detergents, antioxidants and chelators were evaluated to establish the most effective approach to elute the retinol: retinol binding protein (holo-RBP) complex from the blood collection cards. The process involves ultrasonic agitation to elute holo-RBP into a phosphate buffer containing an antioxidant and metal chelator. The holo-RBP complex was denatured by the addition of ethanol containing additional antioxidants permitting the extraction of free retinol into hexane. Following solvent evaporation, the extract was dissolved in methanol for HPLC analysis. The initial measured retinol levels in freshly collected DBS declined for 6-10 d whether stored at 25, 4 or -20 degrees C, but remained consistent thereafter (homeostatic). By incorporating a "recovery/volume adjustment" factor, measured retinol values in homeostatic DBS were adjusted to the equivalent of plasma retinol. For 17 normal adults, the correlation coefficient was 0.90 between plasma retinol and adjusted DBS retinol in samples that had been stored at -70 degrees C for < 9 mo. The use of this new sample matrix for vitamin A assessment will allow access to previously unavailable populations.

  5. HIV and other predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Gomo, E; Kæstel, Pernille

    2001-01-01

    ) in Harare, Zimbabwe, who were receiving prenatal care. The statistical effects of age, season, gestational age, gravidity, HIV-1 infection, malaria parasitemia, and serum alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) on serum folate, serum ferritin (log10 transformed), and hemoglobin were estimated by using multiple linear...... regression analyses. RESULTS: Serum folate (x: 11.4 micromol/L) was 0.52-nmol/L (95% CI: 0.04, 1.0) lower in HIV-infected women than in uninfected women and 0.65-nmol/L (0.014, 1.28) lower in weeks 25-35 than in weeks 22-25. Serum ferritin (geometric x: 11.6 microg/L) was 0.93 times (0.86, 0.99) lower in HIV...... predictor of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin. HIV infection was associated with a 12.9-g/L (8.9, 16.8) lower hemoglobin concentration in women with nondepleted iron stores but low serum retinol and a 7-8-g/L lower hemoglobin concentration in women with other combinations of serum ferritin...

  6. Retinol binding protein 4, obesity, and insulin resistance in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldi Noor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity is a global problem. Even in poor and developing countries, obesity has reached alarming levels. In childhood, obesity may lead to insulin resistance. Retinol binding protein (RBP4, secreted primarily by liver and adipose tissues, was recently proposed as a link between obesity and insulin resistance. The role of RBP4 in pediatric obesity and its relationship with insulin resistance have not been well elucidated. Objective To compare RBP4 levels in obese and lean adolescents and to assess for a relationship between RBP4 levels and insulin resistance. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted in three senior high schools in Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia. Subjects were adolescents aged 14-18 years, who were obese or normal weight (n=56. We measured subjects’ body mass index (BMI and serum RBP4 concentrations. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index. Results Similar RBP4 levels were found in the obese and normoweight groups (P>0.05. Higher RBP4 levels were found in the insulin resistant compared to the non-insulin resistant group, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion There is no significant difference in mean RBP4 levels in obese adolescents compared to normoweight adolescents. Nor are mean RBP4 levels significantly different between obese adolescents with and without insulin resistance.

  7. E FFECTS OF AGE AND SEX ON SE RUM RETINOL LEVELS IN MOROCCAN CAMELS (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Y. LYAKTINI; N. GHALIM; B. YAACOUBI

    2013-01-01

    This study has been conducted to investigate the effects of age and sex on the serum levels of retinol in 200 clinically healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius). Camels were divided according to sex into males (n= 99) and females (n= 101) and according to age into 4groups (6 to 12, 12 to 36, 36 to 60 and 60 to 84 months). The study was carried out during the dry season of 2011-2012 in south Moroccan region of Guelmim.Camels used in this trial were grazing naturally on trees and shrubs of Morocca...

  8. Systemic treatment of seborrheic dermatitis with retinol palmitate

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Kalinina; V. I. Albanova; T. A. Belousova; V. I. Nozdrin

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study. Evaluating of the effectiveness of treatment of men with a diagnosis «Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp» by the system using of retinol palmitate. Material and methods. 36 patients every day for 2 months received overnight per os 200000 ME of retinol palmitate, and in the comparison group (39 people) antiseborrheic shampoos have been used. The dynamics of severity of skin oiliness, pruritis, erythema, peeling, infiltration, excoriations has been evaluated in points. Be...

  9. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of nonretinoid retinol binding protein 4 antagonists for the potential treatment of atrophic age-related macular degeneration and Stargardt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Christopher L; Dobri, Nicoleta; Freeman, Emily E; Conlon, Michael P; Chen, Ping; Stafford, Douglas G; Schwarz, Daniel M C; Golden, Kathy C; Zhu, Lei; Kitchen, Douglas B; Barnes, Keith D; Racz, Boglarka; Qin, Qiong; Michelotti, Enrique; Cywin, Charles L; Martin, William H; Pearson, Paul G; Johnson, Graham; Petrukhin, Konstantin

    2014-09-25

    Accumulation of lipofuscin in the retina is associated with pathogenesis of atrophic age-related macular degeneration and Stargardt disease. Lipofuscin bisretinoids (exemplified by N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine) seem to mediate lipofuscin toxicity. Synthesis of lipofuscin bisretinoids depends on the influx of retinol from serum to the retina. Compounds antagonizing the retinol-dependent interaction of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) with transthyretin in the serum would reduce serum RBP4 and retinol and inhibit bisretinoid formation. We recently showed that A1120 (3), a potent carboxylic acid based RBP4 antagonist, can significantly reduce lipofuscin bisretinoid formation in the retinas of Abca4(-/-) mice. As part of the NIH Blueprint Neurotherapeutics Network project we undertook the in vitro exploration to identify novel conformationally flexible and constrained RBP4 antagonists with improved potency and metabolic stability. We also demonstrate that upon acute and chronic dosing in rats, 43, a potent cyclopentyl fused pyrrolidine antagonist, reduced circulating plasma RBP4 protein levels by approximately 60%.

  10. The Relationship Between Retinol/Retinol Binding Protein 4 ratio, resistin and inflammation in non diabetic obese Indonesian men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To verify the correlation between Retinol/RBP4 Ratio, and resistin with inflammation (represented by hsCRP in non-diabetic obese Indonesian menMethods This was a cross sectional study using 125 subjects. Measured parameters were retinol, RBP4, resistin, and hsCRP. Correlation between retinol, RBP4, resistin, hsCRP and Retinol/RBP4 Ratio was calculated. Cut off point of hsCRP were classiied as follows: <1 mg/l for low risk of inflammation, 1-3 mg/l for moderate risk, and 3-10 mg/l for high risk (according to CVD risk. The Retinol/RBP4 ratio was dichotomized into high (>0.9 and low ratio (≤0.9. The cross tabulation test was performed to predict the inflammation trends described by Retinol/RBP4 Ratio and resistin.Results Retinol was found strongly correlated with RBP4 and resistin (r=0.53; p<0.01. A positive but not significant correlation was found between resistin and Retinol/RBP4 Ratio with hsCRP. In high ratio group, 17.6% subjects were found with low risk inflammation, 26.4% with moderate risk, and 20.8% with high risk, in low ratio group, 8% subjects were low risk inflammation, 20% moderate risk, and 7.2% high risk. Combination between ratio and resistin showed that in “high ratio and low resistin” group, 12% subjects have low risk of inflammation and 8% have high risk. Meanwhile in “low ratio and high resistin” group, 3.2% subjects were found having low risk and 13.6% high risk of inflammation.Conclusions Combination between Retinol/RBP4 Ratio and resistin showed better description about the inflammation risk in non-diabetic obese subjects compare to the ratio itself. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:57-63Keywords: Retinol, RBP4, resistin, hsCRP, obesity, inflammation

  11. Systemic treatment of seborrheic dermatitis with retinol palmitate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kalinina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study. Evaluating of the effectiveness of treatment of men with a diagnosis «Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp» by the system using of retinol palmitate. Material and methods. 36 patients every day for 2 months received overnight per os 200000 ME of retinol palmitate, and in the comparison group (39 people antiseborrheic shampoos have been used. The dynamics of severity of skin oiliness, pruritis, erythema, peeling, infiltration, excoriations has been evaluated in points. Before and after the treatment a histological and morphometric study of biopsy material from the affected areas has been carried.The terms of relapses have been set. Results. Retinol palmitate treatment efficiency - 91.7%, antiseborrheic shampoos - 84.6%. Along with the regression of symptoms of the disease in both groups after retinol palmitate treatment significantly declined oiliness of skin; the sizes of sebaceous glands acini and the presence of differentiated sebocytes, the squares of lymphocytic-macrophage clusters in the dermis, the number of keratinocytes with vacuolated cytoplasm have been reduced. Relapses of the disease during a year occured more rare - in 21 patients out of 32 (in the comparison group- in 25 out of 31 and at a later date (in the first 3 months in 2 patients out of 32, in comparison group in 10 out of 31. Identified effects were due to the action of retinol palmitate on the morphogenesis of the sebaceous glands.

  12. Prognostic Importance of Vitamins A, E and Retinol-binding Protein 4 in Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Roman; Čapoun, Otakar; Kalousová, Marta; Hanuš, Tomáš; Zima, Tomáš; Koštířová, Milada; Soukup, Viktor

    2017-07-01

    To assess the prognostic importance of serum levels of retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and vitamin E at the time of diagnosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this prospective study, in a cohort of 102 renal cell carcinoma patients, relationships between serum levels of the aforementioned markers and recurrence-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), as well as cancer-specific survival (CSS), were evaluated. The vitamin A and vitamin E levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while the RBP4 level by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The median follow-up period was 39 months. Renal cell carcinoma recurred in 9 patients; 23 patients died with 12 of them from RCC. The preoperative vitamin E level was associated to RFS (p=0.02). We found a significant relationship between OS and the level of RBP4 (p=0.002), retinol (p=0.037) and vitamin E (p=0.007). The CSS period was significantly associated with the level of RBP4 (p=0.0001) and retinol (p=0.0003). Patients with an RBP4 level less than 21.0 mg/l at the time of diagnosis had a 13.5-times higher risk of death due to RCC progression; this risk was up to 7.7-times higher with vitamin A levels under 0.52 mg/l. Low levels of vitamin A, E and RBP4 at the time of RCC diagnosis are associated with a poorer prognosis after surgery. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  13. Interspecies and seasonal differences of retinol in dairy ruminant´s milk

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Hodulová; Lenka Vorlová; Romana Kostrhounová; Marcela Klimešová-Vyletělová; Jan Kuchtík

    2015-01-01

    Milk is an essential source of macronutrients and among lipophilic vitamins is significant source of retinol. The contribution of milk to the reference daily intake for retinol varies from 11% to 16%, worldwide. The most consumed dairy products are fresh, dehydrated and condensed milk in which the amonuts of retinol are not modified to those of in whole milk. Retinol is essential to ensure a good functionality of the immune system and plays a critical role in vision, reproduction, cell differ...

  14. Effect of low energy diet for eight weeks to adults with overweight or obesity on folate, retinol, vitamin B12, D and e status and the degree of inflammation: a post hoc analysis of a randomized intervention trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Veller, Mette; Kjoelbaek, Louise

    2018-01-01

    ± 11 years with a mean ± SD BMI of 33 ± 4 kg/m2, completed an eight-week low energy diet (LED). Serum concentration of folate, retinol, B12, D and E and C-reactive protein and homocysteine (Hcy) were measured at baseline and at end of the LED. Results: At baseline, 8% of the participants were deficient...... increased (P whereas the concentration of retinol and vitamin E were reduced (P Conclusion: Eight-weeks LED resulted in 13% weight loss and an increase in the serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B12 and D. Baseline adiposity was inversely associated with folate......Background: Obesity is associated with vitamin insufficiency and low grade inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss on folate, retinol, vitamin B12, D and E status and the degree of inflammation. Methods: Out of 110, 85 individuals (75% women) aged 39...

  15. Effect of nanoliposomes on the stabilization of incorporated retinol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... vision, cellular differentiation, organ development during embryonic and fetal development, and membrane .... However, UV light did not significantly affect the stability of retinol in nanoliposomes. .... measurement of cholesterol-containing liposome on mica by atomic force microcopy. J. Colloid Interf. Sci.

  16. Effect of low energy diet for eight weeks to adults with overweight or obesity on folate, retinol, vitamin B12, D and e status and the degree of inflammation: a post hoc analysis of a randomized intervention trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Veller, Mette; Kjoelbaek, Louise

    2018-01-01

    ± 11 years with a mean ± SD BMI of 33 ± 4 kg/m2, completed an eight-week low energy diet (LED). Serum concentration of folate, retinol, B12, D and E and C-reactive protein and homocysteine (Hcy) were measured at baseline and at end of the LED. Results: At baseline, 8% of the participants were deficient...... were positively associated with CRP (P Homocysteine was inversely associated with all vitamins but retinol (P

  17. red palm oil bean-stew improved serum vitamin a and haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hour recall procedure. Serum retinol was measured with High Performance Liquid ... function, academic achievements and physical ability of children makes its deficiency a ... Nutritional status is a critical index of quality of life [13]. It.

  18. Retinol and ascorbate drive erasure of epigenetic memory and enhance reprogramming to naïve pluripotency by complementary mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hore, Timothy Alexander; von Meyenn, Ferdinand; Ravichandran, Mirunalini; Bachman, Martin; Ficz, Gabriella; Oxley, David; Santos, Fátima; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Jurkowski, Tomasz P; Reik, Wolf

    2016-10-25

    Epigenetic memory, in particular DNA methylation, is established during development in differentiating cells and must be erased to create naïve (induced) pluripotent stem cells. The ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes can catalyze the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and further oxidized derivatives, thereby actively removing this memory. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the TET enzymes are regulated, and the extent to which they can be manipulated, are poorly understood. Here we report that retinoic acid (RA) or retinol (vitamin A) and ascorbate (vitamin C) act as modulators of TET levels and activity. RA or retinol enhances 5hmC production in naïve embryonic stem cells by activation of TET2 and TET3 transcription, whereas ascorbate potentiates TET activity and 5hmC production through enhanced Fe 2+ recycling, and not as a cofactor as reported previously. We find that both ascorbate and RA or retinol promote the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells synergistically and enhance the erasure of epigenetic memory. This mechanistic insight has significance for the development of cell treatments for regenenerative medicine, and enhances our understanding of how intrinsic and extrinsic signals shape the epigenome.

  19. Some Anticancer Agents Act on Human Serum Paraoxonase-1 to Reduce Its Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, Zuhal; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2016-08-01

    Human serum paraoxonase (hPON1) is an important antioxidant enzyme. It protects low-density lipoproteins against oxidative stress and prevents atherosclerosis development. Anticancer agents have cardiotoxic effects, and this situation can lead to significant complications. Our aim was to evaluate the in vitro effects of some of the anticancer agents such as cetuximab, paclitaxel, etoposide, docetaxel, and ifosfamide on the activity of hPON1 in this study. For this reason, PON1 was purified from human serum with a specific activity of 3654.2 EU/mg and 16.84% yield using simple chromatographic methods. The five chemotherapeutic agents dose dependently decreased in vitro hPON1 activity. IC50 values for cetuximab, paclitaxel, etoposide, docetaxel, and ifosfamide were 0.0111, 0.042, 0.226, 0.665, and 23.3 mm, respectively. Ki constants were 0.0194, 0.0165, 0.131, 0.291, and 8.973 mm, respectively. The inhibition mechanisms of cetuximab, etoposide, docetaxel, and ifosfamide were non-competitive, and for paclitaxel was competitive. Consequently, inhibition of hPON1 by these anticancer agents may explain some of the cardiotoxic actions of these drugs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Effects of egg and vitamin A supplementation on hemoglobin, retinol status and physical growth levels of primary and middle school students in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiaoyang; Wei, Xiaoping; Tang, Xianqiang; Jiang, Hongpeng; Fan, Zhen; Yu, Qin; Chen, Jie; Liu, Youxue; Li, Tingyu

    2013-01-01

    Lack of protein and vitamin A influences the growth of student in impoverished mountain areas. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of egg and vitamin A supplementation on hemoglobin, serum retinol and anthropometric indices of 10-18 years old students of a low socioeconomic status. A total number of 288 students from four boarding schools were randomly selected by using cluster sampling method in Chongqing, and they were assigned into supplement group and control group non-randomly. Students in supplement group received a single 200,000 international units vitamin A and 1 egg/day (including weekends) for 6 months. The control group did not receive any supplementation. We measured hemoglobin, serum retinol and height and weight at baseline and after supplementation. The supplementation increased the mean hemoglobin concentration by 7.13 g/L compared with 1.38 g/L in control group (pvitamin A supplementation is an effective, convenient, and practical method to improve the levels of hemoglobin, serum retinol and prevent the deterioration of growth in terms of weight for primary and middle school students from outlying poverty-stricken areas. Our intervention did not have a beneficial effect on linear growth.

  1. Growth Inhibition of Refractory Human Gallbladder Cancer Cells by Retinol, and Its Mechanism of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Imai, Masahiko; Hasegawa, Shinya; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Noriko

    2017-04-01

    Among the constituents of the essential nutrient vitamin A, retinol is a potent suppressor of refractory cancer cell growth linked to tumor progression, showing greater efficacy than retinoic acid (RA). However, the mechanisms of retinol action on human refractory cancer are not known well. In the current study, we examined the actions of retinol on proliferation of human gallbladder cancer NOZ C-1 cells. Retinol and RA inhibited the proliferation of human NOZ C-1 cells in dose-dependent manner, while RA was less potent than retinol. Cell incorporation of RA was approximately two-fold higher than retinol and was not correlated with anti-proliferative activity. Retinol did not affect caspase-3 activity or mRNA expression of Bax and Bcl-2, which are associated with apoptosis. In addition, protein expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK)/ERK and p-Akt/Akt were not significantly changed by retinol treatment. In contrast, retinol treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress factors (heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), and DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 9 (DNAJB9)). Furthermore, the number of cells in the G 0 /G 1 phase was increased, while the number of cells in the S phase were decreased by retinol treatment. Retinol increased expression of the autophagy-associated protein, LC3-II. These results indicate that retinol is a potent suppressor of gallbladder cancer cell growth by mechanisms that involve ER stress, which results in autophagy and cell cycle delay. This suggests that retinol might be useful for anticancer prevention and therapy in the clinic.

  2. Aptamer-Conjugated Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles for Reducing Diabetes Risk via Retinol Binding Protein 4 Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Raheleh; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Amanlou, Massoud; Pasalar, Parvin

    2017-06-01

    Inhibition of the binding of retinol to its carrier, retinol binding protein 4, is a new strategy for treating type 2 diabetes; for this purpose, we have provided an aptamer-functionalized multishell calcium phosphate nanoparticle. First, calcium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized and conjugated to the aptamer. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles releases the process of aptamer from nanoparticles and their inhibition function of binding retinol to retinol binding protein 4. After synthesizing and characterizing the multishell calcium phosphate nanoparticles and observing the noncytotoxicity of conjugate, the optimum time (48 hours) and the pH (7.4) for releasing the aptamer from the nanoparticles was determined. The half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) value for inhibition of retinol binding to retinol binding protein 4 was 210 femtomolar (fmol). The results revealed that the aptamer could prevent connection between retinol and retinol binding protein 4 at a very low IC 50 value (210 fmol) compared to other reported inhibitors. It seems that this aptamer could be used as an efficient candidate not only for decreasing the insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes, but also for inhibiting the other retinol binding protein 4-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Serum values of interleukin-10, gamma-interferon and vitamin A in female adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Jorymar Y; Romero, Tania; Ortega, Pablo; Amaya, Daisy

    2007-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects the immunomodulated response mediated by cytokines. However, these studies are controversial. The purpose of the present study was to analyze Interleukin-10, gamma-Interferon and vitamin A serum concentrations in adolescents. Seventy three female, not pregnant adolescents (15.95 +/- 1.10 years old), of a low socioeconomic condition were studied. Serum retinol was determined by HPLC using the Bieri method. International reference standards were considered to define VAD (serum retinol 30 microg/dL). Serum concentrations of Interleukine-10 (IL-10) and gamma-Interferon (gamma-IFN) were detected by an ELISA method (pg/mL). The data were analyzed using the SAS/STAT statistical program; the results were presented as mean +/- Standard deviation and the differences between mean values were analyzed by the ANOVA test. The prevalence of VAD in adolescents was 6.85% (serum retinol <20 microg/dL) and 41.10% adolescents had VAD risk (20-30 microg/dL). Adolescents with VAD showed a significant increase of gamma-IFN serum concentration (p = 0.01). Correlation between serum retinol and gamma-IFN was r = -0.29 (p = 0.01). Adolescents represent a VAD risk group. Low serum levels of retinol were correlated with high levels of gamma-IFN, this cytokine has been associated with chronics inflammatory processes and it can contribute to increase the morbidity and mortality in this population.

  4. Cis-retinol dehydrogenase: 9-cis-retinol metabolism and its effect on proliferation of human MCF7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Jisun; Blaner, William S.; Swisshelm, Karen

    2005-01-01

    9-Cis-retinoic acid (RA) suppresses cancer cell proliferation via binding and activation of nuclear receptors, retinoid X receptors (RXRs). In vivo, 9-cis-RA is formed through oxidation of 9-cis-retinol by cis-retinol dehydrogenase (cRDH), an enzyme that we characterized previously. Since 9-cis-RA is a potent inhibitor of breast cancer cell proliferation, we hypothesized that overexpression of cRDH in breast cancer cells would result in increased production of 9-cis-RA, which in turn would suppress cell proliferation. To investigate this hypothesis, MCF7 human breast carcinoma cells were transduced with cRDH cDNA (LRDHSN/MCF7), and the growth kinetics and retinoid profiles of cells were examined following treatment with 9-cis-retinol. LRDHSN/MCF7 cells showed a marked reduction in cell numbers (60-80%) upon treatment with 9-cis-retinol compared to vehicle alone. Within 24 h of treatment, approximately 75% of the 9-cis-retinol was taken up and metabolized by LRDHSN/MCF7 cells. Despite the rapid uptake and oxidation of 9-cis-retinol to 9-cis-retinal, 9-cis-RA was not formed in these cells. We detect at least one novel metabolite formed from both 9-cis-retinol and 9-cis-retinal that may play a role in inhibition of MCF7 cell proliferation. Our studies demonstrate that 9-cis-retinol in combination with cRDH inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation by production of retinol metabolites other than RA

  5. Retinol metabolism in rats with low vitamin A status: A compartmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, K.C.; Green, M.H.; Green, J.B.; Zech, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    A compartmental model was developed to describe the metabolism of vitamin A in rats with low vitamin A status maintained by a low dietary intake of vitamin A (approximately 2 micrograms retinol equivalents/day). After the IV bolus injection of [3H]retinol in its physiological transport complex, tracer and trace data were obtained from plasma, organs (liver, kidneys, small intestine, eyes, adrenals, testes, lungs, carcass), and tracer data were obtained from urine and feces. The dietary protocol developed for this study resulted in animals having plasma vitamin A levels less than 10 micrograms retinol/dl and total liver vitamin A levels of approximately 1 microgram retinol equivalent. Four compartments were used to model the plasma: one to describe retinol, one to describe the nonphysiological portion of the dose, and two to simulate polar metabolites derived from retinol. The liver required two compartments and a delay, the carcass (small intestine, eyes, adrenals, testes, and lungs, plus remaining carcass) required three compartments, and the kidneys required two. The model predicted a vitamin A utilization rate of 1.65 micrograms retinol equivalents/day with the urine and feces accounting for most of the output. The plasma retinol turnover rate was approximately 20 micrograms retinol equivalents/day; this was 12 times greater than the utilization rate. This indicated that, of the large amount of retinol moving through the plasma each day, less than 10% of this was actually being irreversibly utilized. Similarly, as compared to the whole-body utilization rate, there was a relatively high turnover rate of retinol in the kidneys, carcass, and liver, coupled with a high degree of recycling of vitamin A through these tissues. Of the total vitamin A that entered the liver from all sources including the diet, approximately 86% was mobilized into the plasma

  6. Relationship between Carotenoids, Retinol, and Estradiol Levels in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maggio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2 in a cohort of late post-menopausal women. Methods. We examined 512 women ≥ 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, α-caroten, β-caroten, β-criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998–2000 by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2, as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1 and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2 were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3. Results. After adjustment for age, α-carotene (β ± SE = −0.01 ± 0.004, p = 0.02 and β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.0007 were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. α-Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio (β ± SE = 0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.01. After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2, the inverse relationship between α-carotene (β ± SE = −1.59 ± 0.61, p = 0.01, β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.29

  7. Relationship between Carotenoids, Retinol, and Estradiol Levels in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Marcello; de Vita, Francesca; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Semba, Richard D; Bartali, Benedetta; Cherubini, Antonio; Cappola, Anne R; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-08-05

    In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2) in a cohort of late post-menopausal women. We examined 512 women ≥ 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, α-caroten, β-caroten, β-criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998-2000) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T) levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA) and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2), as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1) and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2) were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3. After adjustment for age, α-carotene (β ± SE = -0.01 ± 0.004, p = 0.02) and β-carotene (β ± SE = -0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.0007) were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. α-Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio (β ± SE = 0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.01). After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2), the inverse relationship between α-carotene (β ± SE = -1.59 ± 0.61, p = 0.01), β-carotene (β ± SE = -0.29 ± 0.08, p = 0.0009), and E2 persisted whereas the

  8. All-trans retinol and retinol-binding protein from embryonic cerebrospinal fluid exhibit dynamic behaviour during early central nervous system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Carolina; Gato, Angel; Bueno, David

    2008-06-11

    Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF) is involved in the regulation of survival, proliferation and neurogenesis of neuroectodermal progenitor cells, as well as in the control of mesencephalic gene expression in collaboration with the isthmic organizer. Recently, we showed the presence of retinol-binding protein (RBP) within the E-CSF proteome. RBP is an all-trans retinol carrier, a molecule that can be metabolized into retinoic acid, a morphogen involved in central nervous system (CNS) morphogenesis and patterning. Here we demonstrate the presence of all-trans retinol within the E-CSF and analyse the dynamics of RBP and all-trans retinol within this fluid, as well as the expression of retinoic acid-synthesizing enzymes during early CNS development. Our results suggest a relationship between the dynamics of these molecules and the early events of CNS patterning.

  9. Effect of thermal processing on retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Héryka M M; Santos, Videanny V A; Medeiros, Vanessa P Q; Silva, Keith H D; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Eggs are a food item of high nutritional value, a source of vitamin A and readily accessible to the general population. Methods This paper analysed the effect of cooking on the retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The retinol levels of hen and quail eggs were also compared. Results The raw egg yolk retinol concentrations of free-range and caged hen eggs were 476.53+/-39.44 and 474.93+/-41.10 microg/100 g and cooked egg yolk concentrations were 393.53+/-24.74 and 379.01+/-30.78 microg/100 g, respectively; quail egg concentration was 636.56+/-32.71 microg retinol/100 g. No significant difference was found between the retinol of free-range and caged hen egg yolks; however, cooking diminished retinol levels, causing a loss of 17 and 20% in the free-range and caged hen egg yolks, respectively. Quail egg retinol concentration was significantly higher than that of the hens. Conclusion The retinol found in 100 g of hen and quail egg yolks could supply around 42 and 70.7% of the vitamin A requirements of an adult man, and is accordingly considered an excellent source of this vitamin.

  10. Effect of retinyl palmitate supplementation on egg yolk retinol and cholesterol concentrations in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, H M M; Dias da Silva, K H; Alves dos Santos, V V; dos Santos Cavalcanti, J; Dimenstein, R

    2008-07-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to assess the incorporation of retinol into quail egg yolk and cholesterol concentration in response to supplementation with different quantities of retinyl palmitate (600, 1200, 2400 and 4800 microg). 2. Supplementations were performed weekly for 4 weeks and the yolk retinol was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. 3. The results showed a progressive increase in the incorporation of retinol into the egg yolk in response to supplementation, reaching values 384% higher than control values. 4. At the end of supplementation we observed a significant decrease in egg yolk retinol concentrations with supplementations of 2400 and 4800 microg, the most enduring showing high retinol contents even after 3 weeks. 5. Supplementation increased egg weight but neither egg production nor cholesterol levels were significantly altered.

  11. Dietary vitamin A intakes of Filipino elders with adequate or low liver vitamin A concentrations as assessed by the deuterated-retinol-dilution method: implications for dietary requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Solon, Florentino S; Fermin, Liza S; Perfecto, Christine S; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M

    2004-04-01

    The vitamin A requirements of elderly humans have not been studied. In a cross-sectional study of 60-88-y-old men (n = 31) and women (n = 31) in rural Philippines, we assessed the dietary intakes of elders with adequate (> or = 0.07 micromol/g) or low (value for elders. The mean (+/- SD) vitamin A intakes of the men and women with adequate vitamin A in liver were 135 +/- 86 and 134 +/- 104 microg retinol activity equivalents (RAE)/d, respectively; intakes of the men and women with low vitamin A in liver were 75 +/- 53 and 60 +/- 27 microg RAE/d, respectively. Total-body vitamin A or liver vitamin A but not serum retinol correlated with dietary RAE, preformed vitamin A, beta-carotene, fat, and protein. An estimated acceptable or sufficient dietary vitamin A intake associated with adequate liver vitamin A concentrations in elders is 6.45 microg RAE/kg body wt; for a reference 76-kg man and a 61-kg woman, these values are approximately 500 and 400 microg RAE/d, respectively. The dietary vitamin A intakes of elders with adequate or low liver vitamin A concentrations as estimated by use of the deuterated-retinol-dilution technique are useful for assessing vitamin A requirements.

  12. Saturation of retinol-binding protein correlates closely to the severity of alcohol-induced liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagnerberger, S.; Schäfer, C.; Bode, C.

    2006-01-01

    Impaired metabolism of retinol has been shown to occur in alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the saturation of retinol-binding protein (RBP) in 6 patients with different stages of ALD. Hospitalized alcohol consumers (n=118) with different stages......: 43.5+/-6.2%; ALD3: 29.0+/-5.1%). The present study indicates that plasma concentrations of retinol and RBP per se do not correlate to severity of ALD, but rather that the retinol/RBP ratio links to the severity of alcohol-induced liver damage. From these results, a reduced availability of retinol...

  13. Plasma concentrations of retinol in obese children and adolescents: relationship to metabolic syndrome components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Teske

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate obese children and adolescents' retinol plasma levels and to correlate them with metabolic syndrome components. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 61 obese children and adolescents (body mass index Z score - ZBMI>+2. Pubertal development, arterial blood pressure, body weight and height for nutritional classification and waist circumference were obtained. A 15mL blood sample was collected (after a 12-hour fasting in a low luminosity room for retinol determination (cut-off inadequate if <30µg/dL, lipid profile (HDL-c, LDL-c, and triglycerides, oral glucose tolerance test (fasting and 120 minutes and for high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results: Mean age was 10.7±2.7 years. There was a predominance of male gender 38/61 (62% and pre-pubertal 35/61 (57% subjects. The average plasmatic retinol was 48.5±18.6ug/dL. Retinol deficiency and severe obesity were observed in 6/61 (10% and 36/61 (59%, respectively. Glucose level at 120 minutes was the independent and predictive variable of plasma retinol levels [β=-0.286 (95%CI -0.013 - -0.001]. Conclusions: An independent and inverse association between plasma retinol levels and glucose tolerance was observed, suggesting an important contribution of this vitamin in the morbidities associated to obesity in children and adolescents.

  14. Xanthine dehydrogenase processes retinol to retinoic acid in human mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibi, Gennaro; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Nicotra, Concetta M A

    2008-06-01

    Retinoic acid is considered to be the active metabolite of retinol, able to control differentiation and proliferation of epithelia. Retinoic acid biosynthesis has been widely described with the implication of multiple enzymatic activities. However, our understanding of the cell biological function and regulation of this process is limited. In a recent study we evidenced that milk xanthine oxidase (E.C. 1.17.3.2.) is capable to oxidize all-trans-retinol bound to CRBP (holo-CRBP) to all-trans-retinaldehyde and then to all-trans-retinoic acid. To get further knowledge regarding this process we have evaluated the biosynthetic pathway of retinoic acid in a human mammary epithelial cell line (HMEC) in which xanthine dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.17.1.4.), the native form of xanthine oxidase, is expressed. Here we report the demonstration of a novel retinol oxidation pathway that in the HMEC cytoplasm directly conduces to retinoic acid. After isolation and immunoassay of the cytosolic protein showing retinol oxidizing activity we identified it with the well-known enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase. The NAD+ dependent retinol oxidation catalyzed by xanthine dehydrogenase is strictly dependent on cellular retinol binding proteins and is inhibited by oxypurinol. In this work, a new insight into the biological role of xanthine dehydrogenase is given.

  15. Testing for the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent Sotatercept/ACE-011 (ActRIIA-Fc) in serum by means of Western blotting and LC-HRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpurgis, Katja; Thomas, Andreas; Vogel, Matthias; Reichel, Christian; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Sotatercept (formerly ACE-011) is a glycosylated, dimeric fusion protein composed of the extracellular domain of the human activin receptor type IIA (ActRIIA) and the Fc region of human IgG1. The protein-based drug candidate acts as a ligand trap which competitively binds to activin A and other members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, thus blocking signalling through ActRIIA. Since the inhibition of activin A was found to significantly increase bone formation and quality, Sotatercept was originally developed for the treatment of diseases involving bone loss. But as the protein therapeutic also stimulates erythropoiesis by a mechanism independent of the EPO receptor, it has been evaluated for the treatment of anaemia in rare blood diseases such as beta thalassemia. Due to its positive effects on erythropoiesis and bone formation, Sotatercept may also be misused as performance-enhancing agent in sports. Within this study, two complementary detection assays for Sotatercept and related ActRIIA-Fc fusion proteins in serum samples were developed. While the first assay combines affinity purification and Western blotting to generically detect ActRIIA-Fc fusion proteins irrespective of their amino acid sequence, the liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method is highly specific for proteolytic peptides originating from the receptor and Fc domain of Sotatercept. Both approaches can readily be modified to include other pharmaceutical proteins such as therapeutic antibodies, and serve as proof-of-concept for the capability of the approach to detect TGF-β inhibitors and Fc fusion proteins in doping control serum samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Interspecies and seasonal differences of retinol in dairy ruminant´s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Hodulová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk is an essential source of macronutrients and among lipophilic vitamins is significant source of retinol. The contribution of milk to the reference daily intake for retinol varies from 11% to 16%, worldwide. The most consumed dairy products are fresh, dehydrated and condensed milk in which the amonuts of retinol are not modified to those of in whole milk. Retinol is essential to ensure a good functionality of the immune system and plays a critical role in vision, reproduction, cell differentiation as well as growth and development and is found only in animal tissues. The aim of our study was to evaluate the interspecies differences in the retinol concentration of whole raw bovine, caprine and ovine milk and to observe seasonal variation of retinol in bulk tank milk samples. Samples of raw milk were colleceted on different farms in the Czech Republic between 2013 and 2014. Retinol was measured by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (325 nm in isocratic mode after alkaline saponification with methanolic potassium hydroxide solution and liquid-liquid extraction into non polar organic solvent of whole raw milk. To avoid vitamin losses or degradation during the procedure, antioxidants were added to the sample extraction media. Our results indicate significant interspecies differences between bovine and ovine milk and caprine and ovine milk. Concentration of retinol is very similar in bovine and caprine milk 0.96 ±0.11 mg/L, 0.94 ±0.25 mg/L, respectively. The mean concentration in sheep´s milk is 1.75 ±0.24 mg/L. The seasonal variation of retinol in raw bovine milk was detected as high significant, with the highest concentration during winter. These results contribute to the nutrition evaluation of milk in the Czech Republic and indicate, that the sheep´s milk is the best source of retinol among the milks of ruminants kept in the Czech Republic, however it is not used in its fluid form for human consumption.

  17. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Skin Brightening/Anti-Aging Cosmeceutical Containing Retinol 0.5%, Niacinamide, Hexylresorcinol, and Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Patricia; Zeichner, Joshua; Berson, Diane

    2016-07-01

    Consumers are increasingly interested in over-the-counter skin care products that can improve the appearance of photodamaged and aging skin. This 10-week, open-label, single- center study enrolled 25 subjects with mild to moderate hyperpigmentation and other clinical stigmata of cutaneous aging including fine lines, sallowness, lack of clarity, and wrinkling. Their mean age was 53.4±7.7 years. The test product contained retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide 4.4%, resveratrol 1%, and hexylresorcinol 1.1% in a moisturizing base. Subjects were provided a skin care regimen including a cleanser, hydrating serum, moisturizer, and an SPF 30 sunscreen for daily use. The test product was applied only at night. The use of this skin brightening/anti-aging cosmeceutical was found to provide statistically significant improvements in all efficacy endpoints by study end. Fine lines, radiance, and smoothness were significantly improved as early as week 2 (P<.001). By week 4, hyperpigmentation, overall skin clarity, evenness of skin tone, and wrinkles showed statistically significant improvement compared to baseline. Mild retinoid dermatitis including flaking and redness occurred early in the study as reflected by tolerability scores. By week 10, subjects reported no stinging, itching, dryness, or tingling. The results of this open-label clinical study suggest that a topical cream containing retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide, resveratrol, and hexylresorcinol is efficacious and tolerable for skin brightening/anti-aging when used with a complementary skin care regimen including SPF 30 sun protection. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):863-868.

  18. Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 as the causative factor and marker of vascular injury related to insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Majerczyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of adipokines involved in the development of insulin resistance is retinol-binding protein 4(RBP4. The physiological role of RBP4 is transport of retinol from the liver to peripheral tissues. One of the first events related to the excessive visceral fat accumulation is the development of inflammation followed by hormonal adipose tissue dysfunction, including excessive RBP4 production. Reduced density of the membrane-type glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 is considered as a direct cause for the stimulation of RBP4 release to the circulation by adipocytes. Circulating RBP4 inhibits the signal pathways stimulated by insulin in skeletal muscle cells, resulting in the development of insulin resistance. Drugs stimulating receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma (PPARγ – thiazolidinediones – inhibit the production of RBP4 by adipose tissue and increase the insulin sensitivity of the tissues. Increased secretion of RBP4 stimulates the expression of adhesion molecules in the endothelial cells, promoting development of atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension. Population studies demonstrated an association between serum RBP4 in the circulation, and the severity of atherosclerosis and risk of the cardiovascular events and type 2 diabetes. It also appears that the rbp4 gene functional polymorphisms may influence the risk of metabolic complications of obesity, including vascular injury. Therefore, the concentration of RBP4 in the circulation may be considered both as the causative factor and marker of chronic vascular injury. This article summarizes the current state of knowledge on the potential role of RBP4 in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, particularly related to insulin resistance.

  19. Application of the deuterated retinol dilution technique to detect changes in hepatic retinol reserves in infants who receive high dose vitamin A supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penny, M.; Lanata, C.; Butron, B.; Haskell, M.; Brown, K.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to determine whether the deuterated retinol dilution technique can detect changes in hepatic vitamin A reserves in Peruvian infants in response to supplementation with vitamin A palmitate. Approximately 40 infants, 9 months of age, will be recruited for the study and randomly assigned to four treatment groups. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be estimated using the deuterated retinol dilution technique before and after administration of a single supplement containing either 0, 7.5, 15, or 30 mg RE as retinyl palmitate in corn oil. Mean hepatic vitamin A reserves will be calculated based on the plasma isotopic ratio of d4-retinol:retinol as per Furr, et. al. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be compared within groups before and after supplementation, and among the four groups. The mean change in hepatic vitamin A reserves across the four treatment groups will be examined in relation to the amount of vitamin A supplement administered, using regression analysis. The results of the pilot study will provide information on the size and variation of hepatic vitamin A reserves in 9-month old Peruvian infants. This information will be useful for calculating samples sizes to evaluate vitamin A intervention strategies by estimating changes in hepatic vitamin A stores in this age group, using the DRD technique. (author)

  20. Waist Circumference was Positively Correlated with Chemerin, Retinol-Binding Protein 4 and hsCRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Herminawati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Central obesity is associated with various chronic metabolic disorders characterized by abnormal cytokine production, increased acute phase reactants, and activation of inflammatory signaling pathways. This study was aimed to investigate the association of waist circumference, chemerin, and retinol binding protein (RBP-4 with inflammation in men with central obesity. METHODS: The research was conducted with a crosssectional design involving 68 centrally obese male subjects aged 30 to 60 years old, with waist circumference (WC >90 cm. All subjects fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Anthropometric parameters, fasting glucose, creatinine, SGOT, SGPT, and hsCRP were measured. Serum concentrations of chemerin and RBP4 were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: The trend lines showed that chemerin, RBP4 and hsCRP increased with WC. Pearson correlation test showed a positively significant correlation between WC and hsCRP (r=0.242, p<0.05; and also between chemerin and hsCRP (r=0.244, p<0.05 and RBP4 (r=0.321, p<0.01. Subjects were stratified into four groups based on their chemerin and RBP4 levels (high chemerin/high RBP4, high chemerin/low RBP4, low chemerin/high RBP4, or low chemerin/low RBP4. Subjects who were in the high chemerin/low RBP4 group were more likely to have high level of inflammation (47.6%, but subjects with high chemerin/high RBP4 showed low level of inflammation (42.9% as compared with the other three groups. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that increased WC was correlated with elevated levels of chemerin, RBP4 and hsCRP. High chemerin was correlated with increased level of RBP4 as well as with high level of inflammation. KEYWORDS: waist circumference, chemerin, RBP4, hsCRP, inflammation.

  1. Relationship between plasma adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 and uric Acid in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Seok; Ihm, Sang-Hyun; Park, Hun-Jun; Shin, Woo-Seung; Kim, Pum-Jun; Chang, Kiyuk; Kim, Hee-Yeol; Youn, Ho-Joong; Chung, Wook-Sung; Seung, Ki Bae; Kim, Jae-Hyung

    2011-04-01

    Adipokines have been suggested for their potential use in tracking the clinical progress in the subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). To investigate the relationship between the serum levels of adipokines {adiponectin and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4)} and the serum level of uric acid in hypertensive (HTN) patients with MS. In this study, 38 totally untreated HTN patients were enrolled. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure (BP) were taken in the 12 HTN patients without MS and the 26 HTN patients with MS. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of adiponectin, RBP4, nitric oxide (NO), glucose, creatinine, uric acid, lipid profile and insulin. The HTN with MS group had significant higher values of body mass index, waist length, serum uric acid and triglyceride levels than the HTN without MS group. Compared to the HTN without MS group, the HTN with MS group showed significantly lower adiponectin (p=0.030), NO (p=0.003) and high density lipoprotein levels (puric acid level (R=-0.413, p=0.036), and serum RBP4 levels positively correlated with uric acid level (R=0.527, p=0.006) in the HTN with MS group. Multiple linear regression analysis using RBP4 and adiponectin levels as the dependent variables showed that uric acid level correlated with serum RBP4 level (p=0.046) and adiponectin level (p=0.044). The HTN with MS group showed a correlation with two types of adipokines (adiponectin, RBP4) and uric acid. Adiponectin, RBP4 and uric acid may be important components associated with MS, especially when associated with hypertension.

  2. Retinol-binding protein 4 is positively associated with bone mineral density in osteopenia and osteoporosis type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Huang, Nana; Cheng, Yu; Li, Liang; Jiang, Wenzhou; Wang, Wei; Wang, Daping; Tang, Yuxiao; Chen, Shulin; Sun, Ying

    2018-02-02

    This study intends to study the association between serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), bone mineral density (BMD), and other bone metabolic related parameters in type 2 diabetic patients older than 50 years, with or without osteopenia or osteoporosis. Patients (n = 274 cases) with type 2 diabetes, hospitalized in the Endocrinology Department of Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital from December 2015 to March 2017, were enrolled in the study. The bone mineral density (BMD) was recorded by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer, and patients were divided into normal bone mineral density group (148 cases), osteopenia (93 cases), and osteoporosis group (33 cases) group. The serum adipokine RBP4 and other biomarkers were determined accordingly. Serum RBP4, body weight, calcium, and body mass index (BMI) demonstrated a positive correlation with BMD at all tested body sites in osteopenia and osteoporosis group compared with normal bone mineral density group. In contrast, age, duration of diabetes, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were inversely correlated with BMD at all tested body sites. In non-adjusted analyses, age, gender, duration of diabetes, and ALP were inversely associated with BMD at the femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine, while, body weight, BMI, and RBP4 were positively associated with BMD at all sites. In multiple regression analyses, adjusted for age, weight, BMI, and other bone-related factors, it was showed a graded stepwise positive association between serum RBP4 and BMD, at all sites. Serum RBP4 was positively associated with BMD at all sites after adjustments for other factors in osteopenia and osteoporosis group compared with normal bone mineral density group of type 2 diabetic patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulation by FSH of the dynamic expression of retinol-binding protein 4 in the mouse ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanwen; Zhao, Yun; Chen, Shuxiong; Chen, Lu; Li, Chunjin; Zhou, Xu

    2018-03-20

    Ovarian retinoid homeostasis plays an important role in the physiological function of the ovary. Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) acts as the mediator for the systemic and intercellular transport of retinol and is heavily involved in cellular retinol influx, efflux, and exchange. However, the expression patterns and regulatory mechanisms of Rbp4 in the ovary remain unclear. The expression pattern of ovarian Rbp4 was examined in immature mice during different developmental stages and in adult mice during different stages of the estrous cycle. The potential regulation and mechanisms of ovarian Rbp4 expression by estrogen and related gonadotropins in mouse ovaries were also investigated. The present study demonstrated that the ovarian expression of Rbp4 remained constant before puberty and increased significantly in the peripubertal period. In adult female mice, the expression of Rbp4 increased at proestrus and peaked at estrus at both the mRNA and protein levels. The protein distribution of RBP4 was mainly localized in the granulosa cell and theca cell layer in follicles. In addition, the expression of Rbp4 was significantly induced by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or FSH + luteinizing hormone (LH) in combination in immature mouse (3 weeks old) ovaries in vivo and in granulosa cells cultured in vitro, both at the mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, treatment with LH or 17β-estradiol did not exhibit any observable effects on ovarian Rbp4 expression. Transcription factors high-mobility group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1), steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), and liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) (which have been previously shown to be involved in activation of Rbp4 transcription), also responded to FSH stimulation. In addition, H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA), and the depletion of HMGA1, SF-1, and LRH-1 by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), resulted in a dramatic loss of the induction of Rbp4 expression by FSH at both the mRNA and protein levels. These data indicate

  4. Interleukin-1 as an injury signal mobilizes retinyl esters in hepatic stellate cells through down regulation of lecithin retinol acyltransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiro Kida

    Full Text Available Retinoids are mostly stored as retinyl esters in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs through esterification of retinol and fatty acid, catalyzed by lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT. This study is designated to address how retinyl esters are mobilized in liver injury for tissue repair and wound healing. Initially, we speculated that acute inflammatory cytokines may act as injury signal to mobilize retinyl esters by down-regulation of LRAT in HSCs. By examining a panel of cytokines we found interleukin-1 (IL-1 can potently down-regulate mRNA and protein levels of LRAT, resulting in mobilization of retinyl esters in primary rat HSCs. To simulate the microenvironment in the space of Disse, HSCs were embedded in three-dimensional extracellular matrix, by which HSCs retaine quiescent phenotypes, indicated by up-regulation of LRAT and accumulation of lipid droplets. Upon IL-1 stimulation, LRAT expression went down together with mobilization of lipid droplets. Secreted factors from Kupffer cells were able to suppress LRAT expression in HSCs, which was neutralized by IL-1 receptor antagonist. To explore the underlying mechanism we noted that the stability of LRAT protein is not significantly regulated by IL-1, indicating the regulation is likely at transcriptional level. Indeed, we found that IL-1 failed to down-regulate recombinant LRAT protein expressed in HSCs by adenovirus, while transcription of endogenous LRAT was promptly decreased. Following liver damage, IL-1 was promptly elevated in a close pace with down-regulation of LRAT transcription, implying their causative relationship. After administration of IL-1, retinyl ester levels in the liver, as measured by LC/MS/MS, decreased in association with down-regulation of LRAT. Likewise, IL-1 receptor knockout mice were protected from injury-induced down-regulation of LRAT. In summary, we identified IL-1 as an injury signal to mobilize retinyl ester in HSCs through down-regulation of LRAT, implying a

  5. Maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations and neonatal bone mineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Händel, Mina N; Moon, Rebecca J.; Titcombe, Philip

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies in older adults and animals have suggested contrasting relations between bone health and different vitamin A compounds. To our knowledge, the associations between maternal vitamin A status and offspring bone development have not previously been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We examin...

  6. The Effect of Sugar Fortification with Vitamin A on Serum Retinol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a public health problem in. Sudan Objectives: The aim of this study is to test the effect of sugar fortified with vitamin A on VA status of Khalwa students (informal education). Methods:Sixty Khalwa students age 6-11 years were included in the study. Each student consumed about ...

  7. Cambios en las concentraciones de retinol, hemoglobina y ferritina en niños palúdicos colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Magdalena Uscátegui

    2009-06-01

    Conclusión. El día 30, la hemoglobina y el retinol aumentaron, y la proteína C reactiva y la ferritina disminuyeron. El suplemento de retinol y antiparasitarios simultáneos previno la reducción de hemoglobina al día 8, sin afectar los cambios en otras variables.

  8. Variation in retinol and carotenoid content of milk and milk products in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, P.J.M.; Roekel-Jansen, van G.C.; Bovenkamp, van de P.; West, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    Retinol and carotenoids were measured in Dutch milk and dairy products using a validated approach based on complete extraction of fat, followed by mild saponification and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Raw milk, full fat milk, semi-skimmed milk and butter contain about 10 ¿g

  9. Genetic variants of retinol-binding protein 4 in adolescents are ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic variants of retinol-binding protein 4 in adolescents are associated with liver function and inflammatory markers but not with obesity and insulin resistance. Chin-Jung Lin Nain-Feng Chu Yi-Jen Hung Dee Pei Chien-Hsing Lee Fone-Ching Hsiao Chieh-Hua Lu Chang-Hsun Hsieh. Research Note Volume 94 Issue 3 ...

  10. Predictors of adipose tissue carotenoid and retinol levels in nine countries: The EURAMIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virtanen, S.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Aro, A.

    1996-01-01

    The adipose tissue carotenoid (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lycopene) and retinol levels and their predictors were determined in 686 male and 339 female middle-aged and elderly subjects from eight European countries and Israel during the years 1991 to 1992. Adipose tissue carotenoid levels in

  11. Genetic variants of retinol-binding protein 4 in adolescents are ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-03

    Sep 3, 2015 ... insulin; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resis- tance; QUICKI, quick insulin sensitivity check index; WBC, white blood cells; CRP, C-reactive protein; GOT, glutamate oxaloac- etate transaminase; GPT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase; RBP4, retinol-binding protein 4. Table 2. Association ...

  12. cis Retinol oxidation regulates photoreceptor access to the retina visual cycle and cone pigment regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shinya; Kefalov, Vladimir J

    2016-11-15

    This study explores the nature of the cis retinol that Müller cells in the retina provide to cones for the regeneration of their visual pigment. We report that the retina visual cycle provides cones exclusively with 11-cis chromophore in both salamander and mouse and show that this selectivity is dependent on the 11-cis-specific cellular retinaldehyde binding protein (CRALBP) present in Müller cells. Even though salamander blue cones and green rods share the same visual pigment, only blue cones but not green rods are able to dark-adapt in the retina following a bleach and to use exogenous 9-cis retinol for pigment regeneration, suggesting that access to the retina visual cycle is cone-specific and pigment-independent. Our results show that the retina produces 11-cis retinol that can be oxidized and used for pigment regeneration and dark adaptation selectively in cones and not in rods. Chromophore supply by the retinal Müller cells (retina visual cycle) supports the efficient pigment regeneration required for cone photoreceptor function in bright light. Surprisingly, a large fraction of the chromophore produced by dihydroceramide desaturase-1, the putative all-trans retinol isomerase in Müller cells, appears to be 9-cis retinol. In contrast, the canonical retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) visual cycle produces exclusively 11-cis retinal. Here, we used the different absorption spectra of 9-cis and 11-cis pigments to identify the isoform of the chromophore produced by the visual cycle of the intact retina. We found that the spectral sensitivity of salamander and mouse cones dark-adapted in the isolated retina (with only the retina visual cycle) was similar to that of cones dark-adapted in the intact eye (with both the RPE and retina visual cycles) and consistent with pure 11-cis pigment composition. However, in mice lacking the cellular retinaldehyde binding protein (CRALBP), cone spectral sensitivity contained a substantial 9-cis component. Thus, the retina visual

  13. Encapsulation and controlled release of retinol from silicone particles for topical delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt Shields, C; White, John P; Osta, Erica G; Patel, Jerishma; Rajkumar, Shashank; Kirby, Nickolas; Therrien, Jean-Philippe; Zauscher, Stefan

    2018-03-28

    Retinol, a derivative of vitamin A, is a ubiquitous compound used to treat acne, reduce wrinkles and protect against conditions like psoriasis and ichthyosis. While retinol is used as the primary active ingredient (AI) in many skin care formulations, its efficacy is often limited by an extreme sensitivity to degrade and toxicity at high concentrations. While microencapsulation is an appealing method to help overcome these issues, few microencapsulation strategies have made a major translational impact due to challenges with complexity, cost, limited protection of the AI and poor control of the release of the AI. We have developed a class of silicone particles that addresses these challenges for the encapsulation, protection and controlled release of retinol and other hydrophobic compounds. The particles are prepared by the sol-gel polymerization of silane monomers, which enables their rapid and facile synthesis at scale while maintaining a narrow size distribution (i.e., CV 85%), (ii) protect retinol from degradation (yielding a half-life 9× greater than unencapsulated retinol) and (iii) slowly release retinol over several hours (at rates from 0.14 to 0.67 μg cm -2  s -1/2 ). To demonstrate that the controlled release of retinol from the particles can reduce irritation, we performed a double blind study on human subjects and found that formulations containing our particles were 12-23% less irritating than identical formulations containing Microsponge® particles (an industry standard by Amcol, Inc.). To show that the silicone particles can elicit a favorable biological response, similar to the Microsponge® particles, we applied both formulations to reconstructed human epidermal tissues and found an upregulation of keratin 19 (K19) and a downregulation of K10, indicating that the reduced irritation observed in the human study was not caused by reduced activity. We also found a decrease in the production of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) compared to formulations

  14. Human Serum Vitamin A and β-Carotene Contents in Relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of the levels of vitamin A (as retinol) and β-carotene in locally consumed foods in relationship to their occurrence in the serum of individuals grouped according to different social groups and sexes was carried out in Kano metropolis. Both raw and prepared foods (meals/snacks) investigated showed the ...

  15. Serum levels of antioxidant vitamins in foetal haemoglobin (HbF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is one of the commonest health problems of Nigerian children. Method: The serum levels of antioxidant vitamins A (retinol), C (ascorbic acid) and E (alpha-tocopherol) were determined in foetal haemogbobin persistent sickle cell anaemic (Hb SS + F), sickle cell anaemic (Hb SS) and ...

  16. Saturation of retinol-binding protein correlates closely to the severity of alcohol-induced liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagnerberger, S.; Schäfer, C.; Bode, C.

    2006-01-01

    Impaired metabolism of retinol has been shown to occur in alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the saturation of retinol-binding protein (RBP) in 6 patients with different stages of ALD. Hospitalized alcohol consumers (n=118) with different stages...... chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods, respectively. No differences were noted in daily retinol intake, but subjects with ALD had significantly lower concentrations of retinol in plasma (ALD1: 1.81+/-0.17 micromol/l [mean+/-S.E.M.]; ALD2: 1.95+/-0.24 micromol/l; ALD3: 0.67+/-0.13 micromol......: 43.5+/-6.2%; ALD3: 29.0+/-5.1%). The present study indicates that plasma concentrations of retinol and RBP per se do not correlate to severity of ALD, but rather that the retinol/RBP ratio links to the severity of alcohol-induced liver damage. From these results, a reduced availability of retinol...

  17. The retinol-binding protein receptor STRA6 regulates diurnal insulin responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliniak, Christy M; Brown, J Mark; Noy, Noa

    2017-09-08

    It has long been appreciated that insulin action is closely tied to circadian rhythms. However, the mechanisms that dictate diurnal insulin sensitivity in metabolic tissues are not well understood. Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been implicated as a driver of insulin resistance in rodents and humans, and it has become an attractive drug target in type II diabetes. RBP4 is synthesized primarily in the liver where it binds retinol and transports it to tissues throughout the body. The retinol-RBP4 complex (holo-RBP) can be recognized by a cell-surface receptor known as st imulated by r etinoic a cid 6 (STRA6), which transports retinol into cells. Coupled to retinol transport, holo-RBP can activate STRA6-driven Janus kinase (JAK) signaling and downstream induction of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) target genes. STRA6 signaling in white adipose tissue has been shown to inhibit insulin receptor responses. Here, we examined diurnal rhythmicity of the RBP4/STRA6 signaling axis and investigated whether STRA6 is necessary for diurnal variations in insulin sensitivity. We show that adipose tissue STRA6 undergoes circadian patterning driven in part by the nuclear transcription factor REV-ERBα. Furthermore, STRA6 is necessary for diurnal rhythmicity of insulin action and JAK/STAT signaling in adipose tissue. These findings establish that holo-RBP and its receptor STRA6 are potent regulators of diurnal insulin responses and suggest that the holo-RBP/STRA6 signaling axis may represent a novel therapeutic target in type II diabetes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Effects of quinones and flavonoids on the reduction of all-trans retinal to all-trans retinol in pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Hirashima, Takaomi; Imamura, Yorishige

    2006-07-01

    We have recently purified a tetrameric carbonyl reductase from the cytosolic fraction of pig heart (pig heart carbonyl reductase). Since pig heart carbonyl reductase efficiently reduces all-trans retinal as the endogenous substrate, it probably plays an important role in retinoid metabolism in the heart. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of quinones and flavonoids on the reduction of all-trans retinal to all-trans retinol catalyzed by pig heart carbonyl reductase, using pig heart cytosol. Of quinones tested, 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, a component of diesel exhaust particles, was the most potent inhibitor for the all-trans retinal reduction, and a significant inhibition was also observed for plumbagin and menadione. The order of the inhibitory potencies for flavonoids was kaempferol > quercetin > genistein > myricetin = apigenin = daidzein. However, the inhibitory potencies of flavonoids were much lower than that of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone. 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone competitively inhibited the all-trans retinal reduction, whereas kaempferol exhibited a mixed-type inhibition. It is likely that 9,10-phenanthrenequinone strongly inhibits the reduction of all-trans retinal to all-trans retinol by acting as the substrate inhibitor of pig heart carbonyl reductase present in pig heart cytosol.

  19. RBP-to-retinol ratio, but not total RBP, is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, C; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Nielsen, A R

    2009-01-01

    , and adipose tissue RBP mRNA levels correlated positively with plasma tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and skeletal muscle TNF-alpha mRNA levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the excess of RBP relative to retinol, assessed as the RBP-to-retinol ratio, is more indicative of T2DM than RBP itself....... Hence, the previously reported insulin resistance in mice induced by overexpression or injection of RBP could be because of higher levels of RBP relative to retinol rather than higher total levels of RBP. Moreover, TNF-alpha may have a role in RBP-mediated adipose to muscle crosstalk....

  20. Effects of retinol on the in vitro development of Bos indicus embryos to blastocysts in two different culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, P F; Oliveira, M A L; Gonçalves, P B D; Montagner, M M; Reichenbach, H-D; Weppert, M; Neto, C C C; Pina, V M R; Santos, M H B

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of retinol on the in vitro development of early embryos of cultured Bos indicus (Expt 1) to the blastocyst stage in medium simplex of optimization (KSOM) or sintetic fluid of oviduct (SOF) or co-cultured (Expt 2) with an oviduct cell monolayer (OCM) in KSOM or SOF. A total of 3149 cumulus-oocyte complexes obtained by aspirating follicles (2-5 mm diameter) from ovaries of slaughtered animals were selected for IVM and incubated in TCM 199 supplemented with 25 mM HEPES at 39 degrees C in air with 5% CO(2) and maximum humidity for 24 h. In vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed in modified defined medium (mDM) medium. Eighteen hours after IVF, cumulus cells were removed and presumptive zygotes were randomly allocated to the experimental groups. Zygotes cultured (Expt 1) in KSOM + retinol, KSOM, SOF + retinol and SOF were incubated in maximum humidity at 39 degrees C, 5% CO(2), 5% O(2) and 90% N(2). Zygotes co-cultured (Expt 2) in KSOM + retinol + OCM, KSOM + OCM, SOF + retinol + OCM and SOF + OCM were incubated at 39 degrees C, 5% CO(2). In both experiments media were partially changed 48 h after IVF and unfertilized ova were removed. Afterwards embryos were kept in culture or co-culture for further 9 days. In Expt 1, blastocyst rates (day 7) were 14.6% (KSOM + retinol), 15.8% (KSOM), 16.4% (SOF + retinol) and 15.9% (SOF). In Expt 2, the blastocyst rates (day 7) were 25.4% (KSOM + retinol + OCM) 14.2% (KSOM + OCM), 24.3% (SOF + retinol + OCM) and 15.9% (SOF + OCM). The same influence profile of retinol was observed in the formation of the expanded (day 9) and hatched (day 11) blastocysts. The results obtained in Expt 2 demonstrated that the addition of 0.28 microg/ml retinol to the embryo culture media used in this study had a significant (p < 0.05) positive effect on bovine early embryonic development, under the conditions tested, and can be used to enhance in vitro embryo production.

  1. Disruption of Retinol (Vitamin A Signaling by Phthalate Esters: SAR and Mechanism Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Chen

    Full Text Available A spectrum of reproductive system anomalies (cryptorchidism, hypospadias, dysgenesis of Wolffian duct-derived tissues and prostate, and reduced sperm production in male rats exposed in utero to phthalate esters (PEs are thought to be caused by PE inhibition of fetal testosterone production. Recently, dibutyl and dipentyl phthalate (DBuP, DPnP were shown to disrupt the retinol signaling pathway (RSP in mouse pluripotent P19 embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro. The RSP regulates the synthesis and cellular levels of retinoic acid (RA, the active metabolite of retinol (vitamin A. In this new study, a total of 26 di- and mono-esters were screened to identify additional phthalate structures that disrupt the RSP and explore their mechanisms of action. The most potent PEs, those causing > 50% inhibition, contained aryl and cycloalkane groups or C4-C6 alkyl ester chains and were the same PEs reported to cause malformations in utero. They shared similar lipid solubility; logP values were between 4 and 6 and, except for PEs with butyl and phenyl groups, were stable for prolonged periods in culture. Mono- and cognate di-esters varied in ability to disrupt the RSP; e.g., DEHP was inactive but its monoester was active while DBuP was active yet its monoester was inactive. DBuP and dibenzyl phthalate both disrupted the synthesis of RA from retinol but not the ability of RA to activate gene transcription. Both PEs also disrupted the RSP in C3H10T1/2 multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Based on this in vitro study showing that some PEs disrupt retinol signaling and previous in vivo studies that vitamin A/RA deficiency and PEs both cause strikingly similar anomalies in the male rat reproductive system, we propose that PE-mediated inhibition of testosterone and RA synthesis in utero are both causes of malformations in male rat offspring.

  2. Metabolic changes in skin caused by Scd1 deficiency: a focus on retinol metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Flowers

    Full Text Available We previously reported that mice with skin-specific deletion of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (Scd1 recapitulated the skin phenotype and hypermetabolism observed in mice with a whole-body deletion of Scd1. In this study, we first performed a diet-induced obesity experiment at thermoneutral temperature (33°C and found that skin-specific Scd1 knockout (SKO mice still remain resistant to obesity. To elucidate the metabolic changes in the skin that contribute to the obesity resistance and skin phenotype, we performed microarray analysis of skin gene expression in male SKO and control mice fed a standard rodent diet. We identified an extraordinary number of differentially expressed genes that support the previously documented histological observations of sebaceous gland hypoplasia, inflammation and epidermal hyperplasia in SKO mice. Additionally, transcript levels were reduced in skin of SKO mice for genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, elongation and desaturation, which may be attributed to decreased abundance of key transcription factors including SREBP1c, ChREBP and LXRα. Conversely, genes involved in cholesterol synthesis were increased, suggesting an imbalance between skin fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Unexpectedly, we observed a robust elevation in skin retinol, retinoic acid and retinoic acid-induced genes in SKO mice. Furthermore, SEB-1 sebocytes treated with retinol and SCD inhibitor also display an elevation in retinoic acid-induced genes. These results highlight the importance of monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis for maintaining retinol homeostasis and point to disturbed retinol metabolism as a novel contributor to the Scd1 deficiency-induced skin phenotype.

  3. Glycosylation is essential for translocation of carp retinol-binding protein across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devirgiliis, Chiara; Gaetani, Sancia; Apreda, Marianna; Bellovino, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Retinoid transport is well characterized in many vertebrates, while it is still largely unexplored in fish. To study the transport and utilization of vitamin A in these organisms, we have isolated from a carp liver cDNA library retinol-binding protein, its plasma carrier. The primary structure of carp retinol-binding protein is very conserved, but presents unique features compared to those of the correspondent proteins isolated and characterized so far in other species: it has an uncleavable signal peptide and two N-glycosylation sites in the NH 2 -terminal region of the protein that are glycosylated in vivo. In this paper, we have investigated the function of the carbohydrate chains, by constructing three mutants deprived of the first, the second or both carbohydrates. The results of transient transfection of wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein in Cos cells followed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis have shown that the absence of both carbohydrate moieties blocks secretion, while the presence of one carbohydrate group leads to an inefficient secretion. Experiments of carp RBP mRNA in vitro translation in a reticulocyte cell-free system in the presence of microsomes have demonstrated that N-glycosylation is necessary for efficient translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Moreover, when Cos cells were transiently transfected with wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein (aa 1-67)-green fluorescent protein fusion constructs and semi-permeabilized with streptolysin O, immunofluorescence analysis with anti-green fluorescent protein antibody revealed that the double mutant is exposed to the cytosol, thus confirming the importance of glycan moieties in the translocation process

  4. Inhibition of retinol oxidation by ethanol in the rat liver and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Menzl, Ina; Feuchter, Anette

    2000-01-01

    the efficiency in the small intestine was negligible (0.20). In the presence of increasing ethanol concentrations (9, 17, and 34 mM), V(max)/K(m) for retinol oxidation decreased in a dose dependent manner to 7.8% of the initial value in the large intestine and to 12% in the liver. The V(max)/K(m) of retinoic...

  5. Relation of Absolute or Relative Adiposity to Insulin Resistance, Retinol Binding Protein-4, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Lim Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCentral fat mass (CFM correlates with insulin resistance and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications; however, peripheral fat mass (PFM is associated with insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of absolute and relative regional adiposity to insulin resistance index and adipokines in type 2 diabetes.MethodsTotal of 83 overweighted-Korean women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled, and rate constants for plasma glucose disappearance (KITT and serum adipokines, such as retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4, leptin, and adiponectin, were measured. Using dual X-ray absorptiometry, trunk fat mass (in kilograms was defined as CFM, sum of fat mass on the lower extremities (in kilograms as PFM, and sum of CFM and PFM as total fat mass (TFM. PFM/TFM ratio, CFM/TFM ratio, and PFM/CFM ratio were defined as relative adiposity.ResultsMedian age was 55.9 years, mean body mass index 27.2 kg/m2, and mean HbA1c level 7.12±0.84%. KITT was positively associated with PMF/TFM ratio, PMF/CFM ratio, and negatively with CFM/TFM ratio, but was not associated with TFM, PFM, or CFM. RBP4 levels also had a significant relationship with PMF/TFM ratio and PMF/CFM ratio. Adiponectin, leptin, and apolipoprotein A levels were related to absolute adiposity, while only adiponectin to relative adiposity. In correlation analysis, KITT in type 2 diabetes was positively related with HbA1c, fasting glucose, RBP4, and free fatty acid.ConclusionThese results suggest that increased relative amount of peripheral fat mass may aggravate insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

  6. Insulin resistance and adiposity in relation to serum β-carotene levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, Jose A; Damaso, Ligeia; Altomare, Astrid; Killen, Kelleigh; Hossain, Jobayer; Balagopal, Prabhakaran Babu

    2012-07-01

    To determine the effects of placebo vs an encapsulated supplement of fruit and vegetable juice concentrate (FVJC) on serum β-carotene levels, insulin resistance, adiposity, and subclinical inflammation in boys. Thirty age-matched prepubertal boys (9 lean and 21 overweight (OW); age range, 6-10 years) were studied. All participants received nutrition counseling and were randomized to receive FVJC or placebo capsules for 6 months. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, lipid corrected β-carotene, serum retinol, glucose, insulin, retinol binding protein-4, leptin, adiponectin, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 were measured before and after the 6-month intervention. Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), acute insulin response to intravenous glucose, along with abdominal fat mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were also determined. Baseline β-carotene concentrations correlated inversely with HOMA-IR, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, and abdominal fat mass (P ≤ .01). FVJC intake increased β-carotene concentrations (P ≤ .001) but did not influence retinol or retinol binding protein-4. Retinol insufficiency <1.047 μM was present in 18% of the entire cohort at baseline and in 37% at 6 months. HOMA-IR decreased after supplementation in the OW cohort, when adjusted for percent weight change (P = .014). The percent change in abdominal fat mass increased in the placebo group and decreased in the FVJC group (P = .029). A 6-month supplementation with FVJC in the presence of nutritional counseling was associated with an increase in serum β-carotene concentrations and a reduction in adiposity in conjunction with an improvement in insulin resistance in OW boys. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fator de crescimento derivado das plaquetas, retinol e insulina na regulação da maturação nuclear de oócitos bovinos e suas conseqüências no desenvolvimento embrionário Platelet-derived growth factor, retinol and insulin in the regulation of bovine oocyte nuclear maturation and their consequent effect in the embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Bortolotto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar as ações do fator de crescimento derivado das plaquetas (PDGF; P, da insulina (I, do retinol (R e de suas associações (PI, PIR, IR e PR na maturação nuclear (MN de oócitos bovinos e suas conseqüências no desenvolvimento embrionário (DE. O meio básico para maturação dos oócitos nos diferentes tratamentos foi o TCM-199 modificado acrescido de PVA (controle. No DE, foram utilizados os grupos R, PIR, IR, um controle negativo (PVA e um controle positivo, contendo soro fetal bovino e gonadotrofinas (SFBHOR. Os fatores P, I, R e suas associações não aceleraram a MN em 7h mas sim após 18h (PThe aim of the present study was to determine the effect of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF; P, insulin (I retinol, (R and their interactions (PI, PIR, IR and PR on oocyte nuclear maturation (NM and, consequent, embryonic development (ED. The basic medium for oocyte maturation in the treatments was the modified TCM-199, supplemented with PVA (control. To study the embryonic development, the oocytes were divided in three treatments, R, PIR e IR, a negative (PVA and a positive control group (containing calf fetal serum and gonadotrophic hormones; FCSHOR. The PDGF, insulin, retinol and their interactions did not change the kinetic of the NM, in seven hours of culture (P=0.4492 but it changed after 18 hours of maturation (P<0.001 except in the treatments R and PR (P<0.001, in which the percentages of metaphase II were, respectively, 4.7% and 8.3%. These results were similar to the control group (0.0%. Considering a significant level of P<0.0001 in comparison to the control group, the higher rates of metaphase II were obtained in the presence of IR (19.0% and PIR (21.3%. The higher rates of MII were observed when the oocytes were matured in the presence of insulin and retinol. In the embryonic development, R (18.3%, PIR (13.9% and IR (10.6% increased the rate of cleavage when compared to PVA group (0.0%; P<0

  8. Identification of SNPs in Cellular Retinol Binding Protein 1 and Cellular Retinol Binding Protein 3 Genes and Their Associations with Laying Performance Traits in Erlang Mountainous Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available CRBP1 (cellular retinol binding protein 1 and CRBP3 (cellular retinol binding protein 3, are important components of the retinoid signaling pathway and take part in vitamin A absorption, transport and metabolism. Based on the role of vitamin A in chicken laying performance, we investigated the polymorphism of CRBP1 and CRBP3 genes in 349 chickens using single strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods. Only one polymorphism was identified in the third intron of CRBP1, two polymorphisms were detected in CRBP3; they were located in the second intron and the third intron respectively. The association studies between these three SNPs and laying performance traits were performed in Erlang mountainous chicken. Notably, the SNP g.14604G>T of CRBP1 was shown to be significantly associated with body weight at first egg (BWFE, age at first egg (AFE, weight at first egg (WFE and total number of eggs with 300 age (EN. The CRBP3 polymorphism g.934C>G was associated with AFE, and the g.1324A>G was associated with AFE and BWFE, but none of these polymorphisms were associated with egg quality traits. Haplotype combinations constructed on these two SNPs of CRBP3 gene were associated with BWFE and AFE. In particular, diplotype H2H2 had positive effect on AFE, BWFE, EN, and average egg-laying interval. We herein describe for the first time basic research on the polymorphism of chicken CRBP1 and CRBP3 genes that is predictive of genetic potential for laying performance in chicken.

  9. Interactions between retinol, α-tocopherol and cholecalciferol need consideration in diets for farmed mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymøller, Lone; Clausen, Tove N; Jensen, Søren K

    2016-03-14

    A sufficient but balanced vitamin supplementation is a prerequisite for a satisfactory growth pattern and an effective immune system in mink and all other species. The fat-soluble vitamins are very sensitive to over- or under-supply because they interact with each other with respect to dose-response and chemical form. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of increasing the amount of retinol in combination with RRR-α-tocopherol or all-rac-α-tocopherol in the feed given to growing mink on their retinol, cholecalciferol and α-tocopherol concentrations in plasma and selected organs. The results showed that the mink met their retinol requirements from the basal diet, but there were no negative effects of supplying various amounts of retinol on their plasma α-tocopherol concentrations. On the other hand, the study showed that the cholecalciferol status in plasma, assessed as the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration, was low when retinol was supplemented in the feed at high levels. In addition, supplementation with RRR-α-tocopherol in the feed negatively affected the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol compared with supplementation with all-rac-α-tocopherol. In general, female mink had higher concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in plasma than male mink.

  10. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus, Round Goby (Neogobius rattan, Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus and Shad (Alosa pontica. Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously using an HPLC system. The highest content of retinol was established in the Sprat (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g and the highest content of alphatocopherol was found in the Black Sea Horse Mackerel (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. The fatty acid (FA composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The content of omega 3 (n3 FAs was significantly higher (p , 0.001 than the content of omega 6 (n6 FAs in each of the analyzed fish samples. The n6/n3 FA ratio was within the recommended range (0.20–1.50 for Sprat, Round Goby and Shad. Relatively high levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol, FA composition, n3/n6 FA and PUFA/SFA ratios indicate that these fish species have good nutritional quality.

    El objeto de la investigación presentada es definir y comparar los lípidos totales, el perfil de ácidos grasos y el contenido de retinol y alfa-tocoferol en el tejido comestible de cuatro especies de peces con importancia comercial del Mar Negro búlgaro —espadín (Sprattus Sprattus, gobio de boca negra (Neogobius Melanostomus, chicharro (Trachurus Trachurus y sábalo del Mar Negro (Caspialosa Pontica. Dos vitaminas liposolubles son analizadas simultáneamente mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. El contenido mayor de retinol se encuentra en el espadín (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g, y de alfa-tocoferol en el chicharro (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. El contenido de ácidos grasos ha sido analizado mediante cromatografía gaseosa/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. El contenido de ácidos grasos (AG

  11. Comparison of adsorptive with extractive stripping voltammetry in electrochemical determination of retinol

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    Milan Sýs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV of retinol at solid glassy carbon electrode (GCE, carbon paste electrode (CPE covered by thin layer of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CPE/MWCNTs and carbon paste electrode covered by thin layer of single layer graphene (CPE/Graphene was compared with an extractive stripping voltammetry (ExSV into silicone oil (SO as lipophilic binder of glassy carbon paste electrode (GCPE. All types of selected working electrodes were characterized by a scanning electron microscopy to determine overall morphology of electrode surfaces together with spatial arrangement of used carbon particles. The retinol, also known as vitamin A1, was chosen as a model analyte because it is the most biologically active representative of retinoids which are classified as a significant group of lipophilic vitamins. Based on this comparison, it was observed that electrochemical method with high sensitivity (ExSV at GPCE is generally characterized by shorter linear range of the calibration curve than in case of AdSV at CPE/MWCNTs or CPE/Graphene. Unlike AdSV at solid GCE, all other tested electrochemical methods could represent suitable analytical tools for monitoring of retinoids in different types of foodstuffs. Especially, content of retinol up to tenths milligrams can be easily determined using ExSV. Additionally, negative interference of chemical species present in real samples is minimal in comparison with direct voltammetric methods performed in supporting electrolytes based on organic solvents due to application of accumulation step in "ex-situ" mode.

  12. Retinol sérico en mujeres mexicanas urbanas durante el periodo perinatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanueva Esther

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Establecer la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina A durante el embarazo y la lactancia en un grupo de mujeres mexicanas urbanas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se invitó a participar a un grupo de gestantes que acudían a control prenatal, que carecían de patología agregada y contaban con menos de 20 semanas de embarazo. Fueron evaluadas tres veces durante el embarazo y hasta la semana 24 del posparto. La determinación de vitamina A en suero se realizó por cromatografía de líquidos de alta presión. Se consideró como punto de corte para riesgo de deficiencia una concentración de retinol < 1.05 µmol/L. RESULTADOS. En las tres evaluaciones durante la gestación las concentraciones de vitamina A fueron de 2.34±0.70, 2.41±1.03 y 1.86±0.66 µmol/L, respectivamente, lo cual muestra una disminución significativa. Sin embargo, sólo 1/30 se ubicó por debajo del punto de corte aceptado para considerar riesgo de deficiencia y ninguno para deficiencia. Durante el posparto las concentraciones se conservaron relativamente constantes, alrededor de 2.10 µmol/L. La práctica de la lactancia no tuvo impacto sobre las concentraciones séricas de retinol, no así la pérdida de peso. CONCLUSIONES. En la población estudiada no se documentaron casos de deficiencia de vitamina A durante el periodo perinatal. La pérdida de peso materna tiene influencia sobre las concentraciones de retinol en el posparto.

  13. Retinol dehydrogenase-10 regulates pancreas organogenesis and endocrine cell differentiation via paracrine retinoic acid signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arregi, Igor; Climent, Maria; Iliev, Dobromir

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A-derived retinoic acid (RA) signals are critical for the development of several organs, including the pancreas. However, the tissue-specific control of RA synthesis in organ and cell lineage development has only poorly been addressed in vivo. Here we show that Retinol dehydrogenase-10 (R......10), a key enzyme in embryonic RA production, has important functions in pancreas organogenesis and endocrine cell differentiation. Rdh10 was expressed in the developing pancreas epithelium and surrounding mesenchyme. Rdh10 null mutant mouse embryos exhibited dorsal pancreas agenesis...

  14. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 in Young Men With Low Versus Normal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Brøns, Charlotte; Friedrichsen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a plasma protein which is elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether RBP4 represents a mechanism underlying the associations between low birth weight (LBW), high-fat diet, and insulin resistance. Forty-six young, lean men with low (n...... with peripheral glucose disposal rate or hepatic insulin resistance index. RBP4 levels were not influenced by overfeeding or related to peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance provoked by the dietary intervention. In conclusion, plasma RBP4 in young men associates with components of the metabolic syndrome...

  15. Impact of vitamin A supplementation through different dosages of red palm oil and retinol palmitate on preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Y S; Alwin Jayakumar, Y; Arumughan, C; Sundaresan, A; Jayalekshmy, A; Suja, K P; Soban Kumar, D R; Deepa, S S; Damodaran, Malathi; Soman, C R; Raman Kutty, V; Sankara Sarma, P

    2002-02-01

    Red palm oil (5 ml and 10 ml), ground nut oil fortified with 400 and 800 retinol equivalent retinol palmitate, and ground nut oil (5 and 10 ml), were administered to six groups of preschool children (four experimental and two control groups) in randomly assigned balwadis of Ramanathapuram District of Tamil Nadu for a period of 7 months, to monitor the difference in the efficacy of the mode of supplementation and the optimum dose for improving vitamin A status. Results show that red palm oil groups recorded more gain in retinol and beta-carotene levels compared to other dosage groups, and that administration of 10 ml did not offer any substantial improvement over the 5-ml daily dose.

  16. Retinol and Riboflavin Supplementation Decreases the Prevalence of Anemia in Chinese Pregnant Women Taking Iron and Folic Acid Supplements 1-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiguo, M.; Schouten, E.G.; Zhang, F.Z.; Kok, F.J.; Yang, F.; Jiang, D.C.; Sun, Y.Y.; Han, X.X.

    2008-01-01

    In rural China, many pregnant women in their third trimester suffer from anemia (48%) and iron deficiency (ID; 42%), often with coexisting deficiencies of retinol and riboflavin. We investigated the effect of retinol and riboflavin supplementation in addition to iron plus folic acid on anemia and

  17. Interactions between retinol, α-tocopherol and cholecalciferol need consideration in diets for farmed mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Clausen, Tove N.; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2016-01-01

    A sufficient but balanced vitamin supplementation is a prerequisite for a satisfactory growth pattern and an effective immune system in mink and all other species. The fat-soluble vitamins are very sensitive to over- or under-supply because they interact with each other with respect to dose....... The results showed that the mink met their retinol requirements from the basal diet, but there were no negative effects of supplying various amounts of retinol on their plasma α-tocopherol concentrations. On the other hand, the study showed that the cholecalciferol status in plasma, assessed as the 25...

  18. Characterization of human short chain dehydrogenase/reductase SDR16C family members related to retinol dehydrogenase 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark K; Lee, Seung-Ah; Belyaeva, Olga V; Wu, Lizhi; Kedishvili, Natalia Y

    2017-10-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) is a bioactive derivative of vitamin A that serves as an activating ligand for nuclear transcription factors, retinoic acid receptors. RA biosynthesis is initiated by the enzymes that oxidize retinol to retinaldehyde. It is well established that retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10, SDR16C4), which belongs to the 16C family of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily of proteins, is the major enzyme responsible for the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde for RA biosynthesis during embryogenesis. However, several lines of evidence point towards the existence of additional retinol dehydrogenases that contribute to RA biosynthesis in vivo. In close proximity to RDH10 gene on human chromosome 8 are located two genes that are phylogenetically related to RDH10. The predicted protein products of these genes, retinol dehydrogenase epidermal 2 (RDHE2, SDR16C5) and retinol dehydrogenase epidermal 2-similar (RDHE2S, SDR16C6), share 59% and 56% sequence similarity with RDH10, respectively. Previously, we showed that the single ortholog of the human RDHE2 and RDHE2S in frogs, Xenopus laevis rdhe2, oxidizes retinol to retinaldehyde and is essential for frog embryonic development. In this study, we explored the potential of each of the two human proteins to contribute to RA biosynthesis. The results of this study demonstrate that human RDHE2 exhibits a relatively low but reproducible activity when expressed in either HepG2 or HEK293 cells. Expression of the native RDHE2 is downregulated in the presence of elevated levels of RA. On the other hand, the protein encoded by the human RDHE2S gene is unstable when expressed in HEK293 cells. RDHE2S protein produced in Sf9 cells is stable but has no detectable catalytic activity towards retinol. We conclude that the human RDHE2S does not contribute to RA biosynthesis, whereas the low-activity RA-sensitive human RDHE2 may have a role in adjusting the cellular levels of RA in accord with

  19. Structural Basis for the Acyltransferase Activity of Lecithin: Retinol Acyltransferase-like Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golczak, Marcin; Kiser, Philip D.; Sears, Avery E.; Lodowski, David T.; Blaner, William S.; Palczewski, Krzysztof (Case Western); (Columbia)

    2012-10-10

    Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase-like proteins, also referred to as HRAS-like tumor suppressors, comprise a vertebrate subfamily of papain-like or NlpC/P60 thiol proteases that function as phospholipid-metabolizing enzymes. HRAS-like tumor suppressor 3, a representative member of this group, plays a key role in regulating triglyceride accumulation and energy expenditure in adipocytes and therefore constitutes a novel pharmacological target for treatment of metabolic disorders causing obesity. Here, we delineate a catalytic mechanism common to lecithin:retinol acyltransferase-like proteins and provide evidence for their alternative robust lipid-dependent acyltransferase enzymatic activity. We also determined high resolution crystal structures of HRAS-like tumor suppressor 2 and 3 to gain insight into their active site architecture. Based on this structural analysis, two conformational states of the catalytic Cys-113 were identified that differ in reactivity and thus could define the catalytic properties of these two proteins. Finally, these structures provide a model for the topology of these enzymes and allow identification of the protein-lipid bilayer interface. This study contributes to the enzymatic and structural understanding of HRAS-like tumor suppressor enzymes.

  20. Expression Profiles of Cellular Retinol-binding Protein, Type II (CRBP II in Erlang Mountainous Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Yin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellular retinol-binding protein II (CRBP II belongs to the family of cellular retinol-binding proteins and plays a major role in absorption, transport, and metabolism of vitamin A. In addition, because vitamin A is correlated with reproductive performance, we measured CRBP II mRNA abundance in erlang mountainous chickens by real-time PCR using the relative quantification method. The expression of CRBP II showed a tissue-specific pattern and egg production rate-dependent changes. The expression was very high (p<0.05 in jejunum and liver, intermediate in kidney, ovary, and oviduct, and lowest (p<0.05 in heart, hypothalamus, and pituitary. In the hypothalamus, oviduct, ovary, and pituitary, CRBP II mRNA abundance were correlated to egg production rate, which increased from 12 wk to 32 wk, peaked at 32 wk relative to the other time points, and then decreased from 32 wk to 45 wk. In contrast, the expression of CRBP II mRNA in heart, jejunum, kidney, and liver was not different at any of the ages evaluated in this study. These data may help to understand the genetic basis of vitamin A metabolism, and suggest that CRBP II may be a candidate gene to affect egg production traits in chickens.

  1. Avaliação da concentração de retinol em leite UHT ("Ultra High Temperature" comercializado em Natal, Rio Grande do Norte Evaluation of the retinol concentration in UHT milk commercialized in Natal, RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Barros Soares

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of micronutrients is a public health problem. Cow milk is a source of retinol. The objective of this study is to evaluate the retinol concentration in milk commercialized in Natal/RN. Ten samples were taken of each brand of UHT milk. Vitamin content was determined by HPLC using the Shimadzu LC-10 AD Chromatograph, coupled to the Shimadzu SPD 10 A UV-VIS Detector and the Shimadzu C-R6A Chromatopac Integrator with Shim-pack CLC-ODS (M column, measuring 4.6 mm x 25 cm. The mobile phase was 100% methanol, with a flow of 1 mL/min. The mean retinol concentration varied between 22.7 ± 4.9 µg/100 mL and 44.1 ± 4.1 µg/100 mL, with the differences statistically significant (p<0.001. Only one of the 7 brands had retinol concentration below the normal requirements for human consumption.

  2. Retinyl β-glucoronide: its occurrence in human serum, chemical synthesis and biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barua, A.B.; Batres, R.O.; Olson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    When retinol is administered to rats, retinyl and retinoyl β-glucuronides appear in the bile. Retinyl or retinoyl β-glucuronide is also synthesized in vitro when rat liver microsomes are incubated with uridinediphosphoglucuronic acid and either retinol or retinoic acid. Retinoyl β-glucuronide, a major metabolite of retinoic acid in a number of tissues, is highly active biologically, has been chemically synthesized, and is found in human blood. The physiological significance of the glucuronides of vitamin A are not known yet. To investigate further its metabolism and possible physiological role, retinyl β-glucuronide was chemically synthesized from retinol and characterized by study of its ultra-violet spectrum (γ/sub max/ 325 nm in methanol, 329 nm in water), 1 H-NMR and mass spectra. Retinyl β-glucuronide was extensively hydrolyzed by bacterial β-glucuronidase to retinol. Retinyl β-glucuronide is soluble in water and was detected in significant amounts in the serum of healthy human adults. The biological activity of synthetic retinyl β-glucuronide was determined in rats by the rat growth bioassay method

  3. A prospective cohort study on intake of retinol, vitamins C and E and carotenoids and prostate cancer risk (Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brants, H.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The roles of retinol, vitamins C and E, and carotenoids as risk factors for prostate carcinoma are still questionable. We evaluated these in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Methods: The cohort study consisted of 58,279 men ages 55-69 years at baseline in 1986. After 6.3 years of follow-up,

  4. Amplification of tumor inducing putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) by vitamin A/retinol from mammary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rohit B. [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Wang, Qingde [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Khillan, Jaspal S., E-mail: khillan@pitt.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Vitamin A supports self renewal of putative CSCs from mammary tumors. •These cells exhibit impaired retinol metabolism into retinoic acid. •CSCs from mammary tumors differentiate into mammary specific cell lineages. •The cells express mammary stem cell specific CD29 and CD49f markers. •Putative CSCs form highly metastatic tumors in NOD SCID mouse. -- Abstract: Solid tumors contain a rare population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are responsible for relapse and metastasis. The existence of CSC however, remains highly controversial issue. Here we present the evidence for putative CSCs from mammary tumors amplified by vitamin A/retinol signaling. The cells exhibit mammary stem cell specific CD29{sup hi}/CD49f{sup hi}/CD24{sup hi} markers, resistance to radiation and chemo therapeutic agents and form highly metastatic tumors in NOD/SCID mice. The cells exhibit indefinite self renewal as cell lines. Furthermore, the cells exhibit impaired retinol metabolism and do not express enzymes that metabolize retinol into retinoic acid. Vitamin A/retinol also amplified putative CSCs from breast cancer cell lines that form highly aggressive tumors in NOD SCID mice. The studies suggest that high purity putative CSCs can be isolated from solid tumors to establish patient specific cell lines for personalized therapeutics for pre-clinical translational applications. Characterization of CSCs will allow understanding of basic cellular and molecular pathways that are deregulated, mechanisms of tumor metastasis and evasion of therapies that has direct clinical relevance.

  5. Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and metabolites: Relation to circulating thyroid hormone and retinol in nestling bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesh, Lillian S; Elliott, Kyle H; Quade, Susan; McKinney, Melissa A; Maisoneuve, France; Garcelon, David K; Sandau, Court D; Letcher, Robert J; Williams, Tony D; Elliott, John E

    2010-06-01

    Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons are global contaminants that are often considered to be endocrine disruptors and include 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The present study examined these compounds and their hydroxylated metabolites or analogues and relationships with circulating thyroid hormones and retinols in plasma from nestling and adult bald eagles in British Columbia, Canada, and California, USA. We also compared our results with published data. Thyroxine (T4) decreased with summation operatorPCB and CB153 in nestling bald eagles, which was congruent with results from nine of 14 other published avian laboratory and field studies. Free thyroid hormone levels also decreased with CB-153 and hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs). Retinol increased with CB118 and CB180 in nestling eagles, decreased with OH-PCBs in a subset of nestlings, and decreased in 7 of 12 PCB published studies. Thyroxine decreased with p,p'-DDE for nestlings and with data reported in one of five other published studies. In our samples, plasma retinol, triiodothyronine (T3), and T4 were independent of summation operatorPBDEs, whereas summation operatorOH-PBDEs were weakly but significantly correlated with increases in T3 and retinol. Adult bald eagles showed no relationship between contaminants and thyroid hormones, which is consistent with other studies of long-lived birds, perhaps because adult birds have time to adjust to contaminant levels. Measurement of circulating thyroid hormones appears to be a more useful biomarker than retinols, given the more consistent response of T4 to PCBs here and reported in the literature. We conclude that current environmental exposures to PCBs in British Columbia and in southern California are associated with significant decreases in T4, suggesting a potential negative effect on the endocrine system of nestling bald eagles. Copyright 2010 SETAC.

  6. Fatty acid profile and cholesterol and retinol contents in different locations of Celta pig breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez, R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profile (total, neutral and polar lipids and cholesterol and retinol contents of the intramuscular -Longissimus dorsi (LD and Psoas major (PM-, adipose -rump, covering Biceps femoris muscle, ventral and dorsal-, perirenal and hepatic fat of the Celta pig breed (Galicia, northwest Spain were evaluated. Oleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, except in the polar lipids of the intramuscular fat, where the most abundant fatty acid was linoleic acid. The fatty acid composition of total and neutral lipids was influenced more by the location than the fatty acids of polar lipids. There were some differences only in minor fatty acids of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat between castrated females and castrated males. The fatty acids of neutral lipids were also more influenced by sex than the fatty acids of polar lipids. The cholesterol and retinol contents showed no significant differences by sex. The LD muscle showed a higher content of intramuscular fat than the PM muscle. The greatest cholesterol values were described in the liver. Subcutaneous locations showed higher cholesterol levels than muscles.Se estudió el perfil de los ácidos grasos y los contenidos en colesterol y retinol en la grasa intramuscular - Longissimus dorsi (LD y Psoas mayor (PM -, subcutánea -grupa, ventral, dorsal y la grasa que rodea al músculo Bíceps femoris -, perirrenal y hepática de cerdos de raza Celta (Galicia, noroeste de España. El ácido oleico fue el ácido graso más importante, excepto en los lípidos polares de la grasa intramuscular, donde el ácido graso más abundante fue el ácido linoleico. La composición de ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales y neutros estuvo más influenciada por la localización grasa que los ácidos grasos de los lípidos polares. Se encontraron ligeras diferencias entre hembras y machos castrados en algunos ácidos grasos minoritarios en la grasa intramuscular y subcutánea. Los ácidos grasos de los l

  7. Urinary beta 2-microglobulin and retinol binding protein: individual fluctuations in cadmium-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormos, G.; Cseh, J.; Groszmann, M.; Timar, M.

    1985-09-01

    Urinary retinol binding protein (RBP) and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) were compared in apparently healthy population groups with and without occupational exposure to cadmium (Cd). The relationship observed in neutral urine was: RBP (micrograms/mmol creatinine) = 0.786 + 0.814 beta 2-m (micrograms/mmol creatinine). This relationship was similar to that reported for patients with various renal diseases. Analysis of urine samples collected weekly from workers exposed occupationally to Cd revealed marked fluctuations, not only in the concentration of the acid-labile beta 2-m but also in the level of the pre-analytically more stable RBP. Therefore, repeated sampling and urine analyses are suggested as means to obtain more reliable data when monitoring Cd-exposed personnel.

  8. Retinol sérico de adolescentes de uma escola da cidade de São Paulo Retinol blood levels in high school students of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Vítolo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os níveis séricos de retinol de 218 adolescentes de ambos os sexos com idade entre 10 e 19 anos, matriculados em colégio da rede privada de ensino da cidade de São Paulo, foi o objetivo deste trabalho. MÉTODOS: Para a avaliação da condição nutricional dos adolescentes, utilizaram-se as medidas antropométricas de peso e altura e também a história dietética. A dosagem de retinol foi realizada pela técnica de espectrofotometria, considerando como níveis séricos inadequados valores OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to examine plasma retinol levels in 218 adolescents of both sexes, ages 10 to 19 years old. All the subjects attended a private high school in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: In order to evaluate the students' nutritional condition, the researchers performed anthropometrical measurements - weight and height - in addition to investigating the subjects' diet history. The retinol level was measured through the spectrophotometer technique, considering as inadequate values of concentration under <1.05µmol/L (30µg/dL. RESULTS: The results indicate that the average intake, according to the age range, was higher than recommended, even though presenting high deviation patterns for both genders. The percentage of teenagers with plasma concentrations of vitamin A under the adequate level was 30% for both genders, and neither the analysis of the correlation between Body Mass Index and plasma concentrations of retinol, nor the analysis of the correlation between the density of vitamin A intake and plasma concentration of retinol, were significant. CONCLUSION: The research findings point out to the need for further investigation of vitamin A concentrations during adolescence, in order to check more accurately whether the low plasma concentration of this nutrient should be considered a risk factor, or the result of the accelerated absorption which takes place in adolescence to fulfill the metabolic

  9. Ethrel-stimulated prolongation of latex flow in the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.): an Hev b 7-like protein acts as a universal antagonist of rubber particle aggregating factors from lutoids and C-serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min-Jing; Cai, Fu-Ge; Tian, Wei-Min

    2016-02-01

    Ethrel is the most effective stimuli in prolonging the latex flow that consequently increases yield per tapping. This effect is largely ascribed to the enhanced lutoid stability, which is associated with the decreased release of initiators of rubber particle (RP) aggregation from lutoid bursting. However, the increase in both the bursting index of lutoids and the duration of latex flow after applying ethrel or ethylene gas in high concentrations suggests that a new mechanism needs to be introduced. In this study, a latex allergen Hev b 7-like protein in C-serum was identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS). In vitro analysis showed that the protein acted as a universal antagonist of RP aggregating factors from lutoids and C-serum. Ethrel treatment obviously weakened the effect of C-serum on RP aggregation, which was closely associated with the increase in the level of the Hev b 7-like protein and the decrease in the level of the 37 kDa protein, as revealed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), western blotting analysis and antibody neutralization. Thus, the increase of the Hev b 7-like protein level or the ratio of the Hev b 7-like protein to the 37 kDa protein in C-serum should be primarily ascribed to the ethrel-stimulated prolongation of latex flow duration. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of vitamin A deficiency in Brazilian preschool children using the serum 30-day dose-response test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, I S; Daneluzzi, J C; Vannucchi, H; Jordão, A A; Ricco, R G; Del Ciampo, L A; Martinelli, C E; Engelberg, A A D; Bonilha, L R C M; Flores, H

    2004-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is endemic in Brazil and health professionals have difficulty in recognizing its subclinical form. In addition, serum retinol concentrations do not always represent vitamin A status in the organism. To identify VAD in preschool children by the serum 30-day dose-response test (+S30DR) and to examine its potential as a tool for the assessment of vitamin A status in the community. A prospective transverse study in which blood samples were obtained from 188 preschool children for the determination of serum retinol concentrations and the children were submitted to ocular inspection and anthropometric measurements. Information about the presence of diarrhea and/or fever during the 15 days preceding the study was also obtained. The children received an oral dose of 200,000 IU vitamin A immediately after the first blood collection. A second blood sample was obtained 30-45 days after supplementation in order to determine the +S30DR. In all, 74.5% (140/188; 95% confidence interval: 68.3-80.7%) of the children presented +S30DR values indicative of low hepatic reserves. The mean serum retinol concentration was significantly lower before supplementation (0.92 and 1.65 micromol/l, respectively; P affect the +S30DR value. The prevalence of VAD in the study group was elevated. +S30DR proved to be a good indicator of subclinical VAD in children from an underdeveloped country.

  11. Retinol-binding protein 4 and insulin resistance are related to body fat in primary and secondary schoolchildren: the Ouro Preto study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ana Paula Pereira; Cândido, Ana Paula Carlos; Nicolato, Roney Luiz de Carvalho; Caldas, Ivo Santana; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that plasma retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and insulin resistance are related to body fat (BF). We aimed to assess the relationship between RBP4 and insulin resistance with obesity in a mixed (skin color) cohort of the Brazilian population. A nested case-control study was conducted in 227 schoolchildren aged 7-14 years. Schoolchildren with a high BF percentage (% BF, ≥ 30 for girls and ≥ 25 for boys) were identified as the obese group (n = 137), and those with lower values were identified as the non-obese group (n = 90). Percentage of body fat (% BF) was determined by tetrapolar bioimpedance (Quantum II, RJL System), RBP4 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Immunology Consultants Laboratory), plasma fasting insulin by chemiluminescent immunoassay (Access(®) Immunoassay System) and insulin resistance by the homeostasis model insulin resistance (IR(HOMA)) index. Serum lipid profile and arterial blood pressure were evaluated. The significant independent risk factors associated with obesity were as follows: male sex, increased serum LDL-C, RBP4 and IR(HOMA). Among children with higher RBP4, the association with obesity increased significantly (from 3.1 to 8.5) in the presence of insulin resistance, when compared to higher RBP4 and non-insulin resistance. IR(HOMA) and RBP4 showed significant associations with obesity and traditional CVD risk factors. They might therefore be used as a marker for CVD risk and have clinical implications in the development of comorbidities associated with obesity.

  12. Treatment of the rat hepatic stellate cell line, PAV-1, by retinol and palmitic acid leads to a convenient model to study retinoids metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvant, Patrick; Abergel, Armand; Partier, Anne; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Rock, Edmond; Sion, Benoit; Motta, Claude; Sapin, Vincent; Azaïs-Bresco, Véronique

    2002-10-01

    The main site of vitamin A storage in the liver is the hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Involvement of HSC in vitamin A metabolism has mainly been studied using primary culture, which represents the most physiological model but technically suffers several drawbacks (yield, low reproducibility, etc.). To circumvent these problems, we have previously established and characterised an immortalised rat HSC line named PAV-1. This study aimed to investigate in PAV-1 and in primary HSC (i) the incorporation of retinol and its esterification, (ii) the cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) content, (iii) the acid retinyl ester hydrolase activity (aREH), (iv) the thermal susceptibility and (v) the lipid composition of the membranes, which may play a crucial role in retinol transport across cellular membrane. In routine conditions of culture, the rate of retinol esterification in PAV-1 was low (5.2%) compared to that obtained with primary HSC (69.9%). Retinol pre-treatment doubled this esterification rate (10.7%) and the CRBP content in PAV-1. The co-incubation with retinol and palmitic acid enabled PAV-1 to esterify retinol with a rate close to that of primary HSC (66.2% vs. 69.9%) and with similar retinyl ester profiles. aREH activity was higher in primary HSC than in PAV-1. Thermal susceptibility and phospholipid composition of membranes in PAV-1 treated cells were similar to those of primary HSC. In conclusion, our study shows that PAV-1 cells treated with retinol and palmitic acid is a sound and convenient model for studying vitamin A mobilisation, a fundamental physiological event occurring in HSC.

  13. Retinol and α-Tocopherol in the Breast Milk of Women after a High-Risk Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sámano, Reyna; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Hernández, Rosa M.; Ramírez, Cristina; Flores Quijano, María E.; Espíndola-Polis, José M.; Veruete, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is scant information about whether, after a high-risk pregnancy, breast milk provides enough vitamins for assuring satisfactory bodily reserves in newborns. Objective: To comparatively evaluate, in women with high-risk and normal pregnancy, the concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in breast milk. Methods: This cross-sectional, analytical study was evaluated with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Informed consent was signed by 95 mothers with a high-risk pregnancy and 32 mothers with a normal pregnancy. From the mothers with a high-risk pregnancy were obtained: 23 samples of colostrum, 24 of transitional milk, and 48 of mature milk. From the normal pregnancy group, 32 mature milk samples were collected. Pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) and the gestational weight gain were noted. Models of logistic regression were constructed to identify the variables related to a low concentration of either retinol or α-tocopherol in breast milk. Results: The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in mature milk was 60 (interquartile range (IQR), 41–90) and 276 (103–450) μg/dL, respectively, for the high-risk pregnancy group, and 76 (65–91) and 673 (454–866) µg/dL, respectively, for the normal pregnancy group (p = 0.001). The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol was similar in the subgroups of mothers with different disorders during gestation. A clear correlation was found between a greater pregestational weight and a lower concentration of retinol (Rho = –0.280, p = 0.006), and between α-tocopherol and retinol in all cases (Rho = 0.463, p = 0.001). Among women having a high-risk pregnancy, those delivering prematurely rather than carrying their pregnancy to term had a reduced concentration of retinol (54 (37–78) vs. 70 (49–106) µg/dL; p = 0.002) and a tendency to a lower concentration of α-tocopherol in breast milk (185 (75–410) vs. 339 (160–500) µg/dL; p = 0.053). Compared to mothers with a

  14. Retinol and α-Tocopherol in the Breast Milk of Women after a High-Risk Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Sámano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is scant information about whether, after a high-risk pregnancy, breast milk provides enough vitamins for assuring satisfactory bodily reserves in newborns. Objective: To comparatively evaluate, in women with high-risk and normal pregnancy, the concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in breast milk. Methods: This cross-sectional, analytical study was evaluated with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Informed consent was signed by 95 mothers with a high-risk pregnancy and 32 mothers with a normal pregnancy. From the mothers with a high-risk pregnancy were obtained: 23 samples of colostrum, 24 of transitional milk, and 48 of mature milk. From the normal pregnancy group, 32 mature milk samples were collected. Pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI and the gestational weight gain were noted. Models of logistic regression were constructed to identify the variables related to a low concentration of either retinol or α-tocopherol in breast milk. Results: The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in mature milk was 60 (interquartile range (IQR, 41–90 and 276 (103–450 μg/dL, respectively, for the high-risk pregnancy group, and 76 (65–91 and 673 (454–866 µg/dL, respectively, for the normal pregnancy group (p = 0.001. The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol was similar in the subgroups of mothers with different disorders during gestation. A clear correlation was found between a greater pregestational weight and a lower concentration of retinol (Rho = –0.280, p = 0.006, and between α-tocopherol and retinol in all cases (Rho = 0.463, p = 0.001. Among women having a high-risk pregnancy, those delivering prematurely rather than carrying their pregnancy to term had a reduced concentration of retinol (54 (37–78 vs. 70 (49–106 µg/dL; p = 0.002 and a tendency to a lower concentration of α-tocopherol in breast milk (185 (75–410 vs. 339 (160–500 µg/dL; p = 0.053. Compared to mothers with

  15. Quantitative secretion and maximal secretion capacity of retinol, b-carotene and a-tocopherol into cows' milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Kjær, Anna Kirstin Bjørnbak; Hermansen, John Erik

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the contents of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene in plasma, milk and milk fat from 38 Holstein-Friesian cows were followed during their ®rst lactation, and the quantitative and kinetic relationships for secretion of a-tocopherol and b-carotene from blood into milk were determined....... The cows were assigned to three groups such that all cows in the same group had the same sire. Milk yield and milk fat content differed with stage of lactation, but not according to sire. The plasma concentrations of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene differed with stage of lactation; in addition...... on increasing milk and milk fat yield will result in a steady dilution in the milk fat of these vitamins and antioxidants important for the immune defence of the cows and oxidative stability of milk products. The genetic variation found offers the possibility of utilizing these variations in breeding systems....

  16. Retinol activates tyrosine hydroxylase acutely by increasing the phosphorylation of serine40 and then serine31 in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelain, Daniel P; Moreira, Jose C F; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Dickson, Phillip W; Dunkley, Peter R

    2007-12-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of the catecholamines. It has been reported that retinol (vitamin A) modulates tyrosine hydroxylase activity by increasing its expression through the activation of the nuclear retinoid receptors. In this study, we observed that retinol also leads to an acute activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells and this was shown to occur via two distinct non-genomic mechanisms. In the first mechanism, retinol induced an influx in extracellular calcium, activation of protein kinase C and serine40 phosphorylation, leading to tyrosine hydroxylase activation within 15 min. This effect then declined over time. The retinol-induced rise in intracellular calcium then led to a second slower mechanism; this involved an increase in reactive oxygen species, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and serine31 phosphorylation and the maintenance of tyrosine hydroxylase activation for up to 2 h. No effects were observed with retinoic acid. These results show that retinol activates tyrosine hydroxylase via two sequential non-genomic mechanisms, which have not previously been characterized. These mechanisms are likely to operate in vivo to facilitate the stress response, especially when vitamin supplements are taken or when retinol is used as a therapeutic agent.

  17. Efficacy of retinol palmitate eye drops for dry eye in rabbits with lacrimal gland resection

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    Odaka A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Akito Odaka,1 Hiroshi Toshida,2 Toshihiko Ohta,2 Nobuhito Tabuchi,3,4 Daisuke Koike,4 Chikako Suto,3 Akira Murakami31Human and Environmental Safety Evaluation Center, Lion Corporation, Kanagawa, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 4Pharmaceutical Research Laboratories No 1, Research and Development Headquarters, Lion Corporation, Kanagawa, JapanPurpose: We examined the efficacy of retinol palmitate (VApal for dry eyes using dry eye model rabbits whose lacrimal glands were resected.Materials and methods: After alkaline injury on keratoconjunctival epithelium, VApal eye drops were administered 6 times a day for 7 days. The efficacy of VApal was also compared with that of 0.1% hyaluronic acid eye drops.Results: The fluorescein staining and rose bengal scores showed a significant decrease compared with the score in the vehicle group at 7 days (P < 0.05 in the 1000 IU/mL VApal group and at both 3 days (P < 0.05 and 7 days (P < 0.01 in the 1500 IU/mL VApal group. Histological examination revealed recovery of the corneal epithelium, and PAS staining disclosed the recovery of mucin-producing lower palpebral conjunctival goblet cells after 7 days in the 1500 IU/mL VApal group compared with the vehicle group. Results from impression cytology showed a significant increase in density of conjunctival goblet cells compared with that in the vehicle group after 7 days in the 1000 IU/mL VApal group and after 3 and 7 days in the 1500 IU/mL VApal group. There were no significant changes in tear flow in either group. Topical application of VApal at 1500 IU/mL showed greater improvement than 0.1% hyaluronic acid in both fluorescein and rose bengal score and in the density of conjunctival goblet cells.Conclusion: It is suggested that VApal is effective for the improvement of keratoconjunctival epithelial damage associated with

  18. Distribution of vitamins A (retinol) and E (α-tocopherol) in polar bear kidney: Implications for biomarker studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Jakobsen, J; Sonne, C; Dietz, R

    2011-08-15

    Vitamins A and E content of inner organs, among these the kidneys, are increasingly being used as an indicator of adverse effects caused to the organism by e.g. environmental contaminants. In general, only a renal sub sample is used for analyses, and it is thus essential to know which part of the organ to sample in order to get a representative value for this important biomarker. The aim here was to assess the distribution of vitamins A (retinol) and E (α-tocopherol) within the polar bear multireniculate kidney (i.e. polar vs. medial position) and also within the cortex vs. medulla of each separate renculi. The results showed no significant difference between the medial and polar renculi with regards to either retinol (p=0.44) or α-tocopherol (p=0.75). There were, however, significant differences between cortex and medulla for both vitamins (retinol, p=0.0003; α-tocopherol, pbear kidneys. Prior to analysis, the renculi should be separated into medulla and cortex. The results indicated no significant differences between renculi from different parts of the kidney. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lesinurad, a novel, oral compound for gout, acts to decrease serum uric acid through inhibition of urate transporters in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jeffrey; Tan, Philip K; Hyndman, David; Liu, Sha; Iverson, Cory; Nanavati, Payal; Hagerty, David T; Manhard, Kimberly; Shen, Zancong; Girardet, Jean-Luc; Yeh, Li-Tain; Terkeltaub, Robert; Quart, Barry

    2016-10-03

    Excess body burden of uric acid promotes gout. Diminished renal clearance of uric acid causes hyperuricemia in most patients with gout, and the renal urate transporter (URAT)1 is important for regulation of serum uric acid (sUA) levels. The URAT1 inhibitors probenecid and benzbromarone are used as gout therapies; however, their use is limited by drug-drug interactions and off-target toxicity, respectively. Here, we define the mechanism of action of lesinurad (Zurampic®; RDEA594), a novel URAT1 inhibitor, recently approved in the USA and Europe for treatment of chronic gout. sUA levels, fractional excretion of uric acid (FE UA ), lesinurad plasma levels, and urinary excretion of lesinurad were measured in healthy volunteers treated with lesinurad. In addition, lesinurad, probenecid, and benzbromarone were compared in vitro for effects on urate transporters and the organic anion transporters (OAT)1 and OAT3, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) activity. After 6 hours, a single 200-mg dose of lesinurad elevated FE UA 3.6-fold (p uric acid. Lesinurad also has a favorable selectivity and safety profile, consistent with an important role in sUA-lowering therapy for patients with gout.

  20. Retinol Promotes In Vitro Growth of Proximal Colon Organoids through a Retinoic Acid-Independent Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taichi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Retinol (ROL, the alcohol form of vitamin A, is known to control cell fate decision of various types of stem cells in the form of its active metabolite, retinoic acid (RA. However, little is known about whether ROL has regulatory effects on colonic stem cells. We examined in this study the effect of ROL on the growth of murine normal colonic cells cultured as organoids. As genes involved in RA synthesis from ROL were differentially expressed along the length of the colon, we tested the effect of ROL on proximal and distal colon organoids separately. We found that organoid forming efficiency and the expression level of Lgr5, a marker gene for colonic stem cells were significantly enhanced by ROL in the proximal colon organoids, but not in the distal ones. Interestingly, neither retinaldehyde (RAL, an intermediate product of the ROL-RA pathway, nor RA exhibited growth promoting effects on the proximal colon organoids, suggesting that ROL-dependent growth enhancement in organoids involves an RA-independent mechanism. This was confirmed by the observation that an inhibitor for RA-mediated gene transcription did not abrogate the effect of ROL on organoids. This novel role of ROL in stem cell maintenance in the proximal colon provides insights into the mechanism of region-specific regulation for colonic stem cell maintenance.

  1. [Effects of retinol acid and triiodothyronine on alleviating the impairment of cognitive function by sleep deprivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Ma, Qiang; Chen, Xue-Wei; Xu, Chuan-Xiang; An, Gai-Hong; Cui, Bo; She, Xiao-Jun

    2013-07-01

    To explore the effects of retinol acid (RA) and triiodothyronine (T3) on alleviating the impairment of cognitive function by sleep deprivation (SD). Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: control group (C group), sleep deprivation group (SD group), sleep deprivation + RA group (SD + RA group) and sleep deprivation + T3 group (SD + T3 group). Open field test (OFT) was used to observe the nervous behavior of the rats after SD and electrophysiological brain stereotactic method was used to test long-term potentiation (LTP) in dentate gyrus (DG) of the rats. Ng protein expression was determined by Western blot. Compared with the SD group, the number of crossing in OFT, the changes of amplitude of population spike (PS) and the expression of Ng protein in hippocampus were higher significantly in the SD + RA and SD + T3 groups. All of these had not significant difference comparing with the C group. RA and T3 may alleviate the restrain state of neural system after SD by augmenting the expression of Ng protein in hippocampus.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization, and Retinol Stabilization of Fatty Amide-β-cyclodextrin Conjugates

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    Hwanhee Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphilic cyclodextrin (CD has been the object of growing scientific attention because of its two recognition sites, the cavity and the apolar heart, formed by self-assembly. In the present study, mono[6-deoxy-6-(octadecanamido]-β-CD and mono[6-deoxy-6-(octadecenamido]-β-CD were successfully synthesized by reacting mono-6-amino-6-deoxy-β-CD with N-hydroxysuccinimide esters of corresponding fatty acids in DMF. The structures were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The amphiphilic β-CDs were able to form self-assembled nano-vesicles in water, and the supramolecular architectures were characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. Using the cavity-type nano-vesicles, all-trans-retinol was efficiently encapsulated; it was then stabilized against the photo-degradation. Therefore, the present fatty amide-β-CD conjugate will be a potential molecule for carrier systems in cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications.

  3. Synthesis and secretion of interstitial retinol-binding protein by the human retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollyfield, J.G.; Fliesler, S.J.; Rayborn, M.E.; Fong, S.L.; Landers, R.A.; Bridges, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    Interstitial retinol-binding protein (IRBP) is a soluble glycoprotein present between the retina and pigmented epithelium, which may function to shuttle vitamin A derivatives between these tissues. While previous studies have shown that the retina is solely responsible for IRBP synthesis, the specific retinal cell(s) in which this occurs has not been established. Since the carbohydrate moiety of IRBP contains fucose, the authors have analyzed the sites of incorporation of 3 H-fucose in the human retina in vitro, using autoradiography. Following a 30-min pulse incubation, all retinal layers exhibited incorporation of label; however, the rod photoreceptor inner segments contained one- to two-fold more radioactivity than was present in any other retinal compartment. In autoradiographs of retinas recovered following a 4 hr chase incubation, all retinal layers retained similar levels of radioactivity with the exception of the rod photoreceptors, cone photoreceptors and cells in the inner nuclear layer, which lost 75, 11, and 14 percent, respectively of the radioactivity present immediately following the 30-min pulse. Proteins present in the chase incubation medium were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. The principal labeled component in the chase medium was identified as IRBP by immunoprecipitation with antibovine-IRBP immunoglobulins

  4. Urinary retinol binding protein is a marker of the extent of interstitial kidney fibrosis.

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    Nicolas Pallet

    Full Text Available Currently, a non-invasive method to estimate the degree of interstitial fibrosis (IF in chronic kidney disease is not available in routine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the measurement of urinary low molecular weight (LMW protein concentrations as a method to determine the extent of IF. The urines specimen from 162 consecutive patients who underwent renal biopsy were used in the analysis. Numerical quantification software based on the colorimetric analysis of fibrous areas was used to assess the percentage IF. Total proteinuria, albuminuria, and the urinary levels of retinol binding protein (RBP, alpha1-microglobulin (α1MG, beta 2-microglobulin (β2MG, transferrin, and IgG immunoglobulins were measured. There was a significant correlation between the degree of IF and the RBP/creatinine (creat ratio (R2: 0.11, p25% of the parenchyma was 95% when using a threshold of 20 mg/g creat. In conclusion, RBP appears to be a quantitative and non-invasive marker for the independent prediction of the extent of kidney IF. Because methods for the measurement of urinary RBP are available in most clinical chemistry departments, RBP measurement is appealing for implementation in the routine care of patients with chronic kidney disease.

  5. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 and Lipids Prospectively Measured During Early to Mid-Pregnancy in Relation to Preeclampsia and Preterm Birth Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendola, Pauline; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Mills, James L; Zhang, Cuilin; Tsai, Michael Y; Liu, Aiyi; Yeung, Edwina H

    2017-06-01

    Maternal retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and lipids may relate to preeclampsia and preterm birth risk but longitudinal data are lacking. This study examines these biomarkers longitudinally during pregnancy in relation to preeclampsia and preterm birth risk. Maternal serum samples from the Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention (CPEP) trial were analyzed at baseline: average 15 gestational weeks; mid-pregnancy: average 27 weeks; and at >34 weeks. We measured RBP4, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)). Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for preterm preeclampsia (n = 63), term preeclampsia (n = 104), and preterm delivery (n = 160) associated with RBP4 and lipids at baseline and mid-pregnancy compared with controls (n = 136). Longitudinal trajectories across pregnancy were assessed using mixed linear models with fixed effects. Adjusted models included clinical and demographic factors. RBP4 concentrations at baseline and mid-pregnancy were associated with a 4- to 8-fold increase in preterm preeclampsia risk but were not associated with term preeclampsia. RBP4 measured mid-pregnancy was also associated with preterm birth (OR = 6.67, 95% CI: 1.65, 26.84). Higher triglyceride concentrations in mid-pregnancy were associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk for both preeclampsia and preterm birth. Longitudinal models demonstrate that both preterm preeclampsia and preterm birth cases had elevated RBP4 throughout gestation. Elevated RBP4 is detectable early in pregnancy and its strong relation with preterm preeclampsia merits further investigation and confirmation to evaluate its potential use as a predictor, particularly among high-risk women. © Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of American Journal of Hypertension Ltd 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employees(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Serum Antioxidants Are Associated with Serum Reproductive Hormones and Ovulation among Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Sunni L; Browne, Richard W; Schliep, Karen C; Schmelzer, Jonathan; Plowden, Torie C; Michels, Kara A; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Zarek, Shvetha M; Perkins, Neil J; Messer, Lynne C; Radin, Rose G; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is growing that the equilibrium between reactive oxygen species and antioxidants plays a vital role in women's reproductive health. The objective of this study was to evaluate variations in serum antioxidant concentrations across the menstrual cycle and associations between antioxidants and reproductive hormones and anovulation among healthy women. The BioCycle Study, a prospective cohort, followed 259 women aged 18-44 y for up to 2 menstrual cycles. Serum fat-soluble vitamin and micronutrient (α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, retinol, lutein, lycopene, and β-carotene), ascorbic acid, and reproductive hormone concentrations were measured 5-8 times/cycle. We used weighted linear mixed models to assess associations between antioxidants and hormone concentrations, after adjustment for age, race, body mass index, parity, sleep, pain medication use, total energy intake, concurrent hormones, serum cholesterol, F2-isoprostanes, and other antioxidants. Generalized linear models were used to identify associations with anovulation. Serum antioxidant concentrations varied across the menstrual cycle. Retinol and α-tocopherol were associated with higher estradiol [RR: 1.00 pg/mL (95% CI: 0.67, 1.34 pg/mL); RR: 0.02 pg/mL (95% CI: 0.003, 0.03 pg/mL), respectively] and testosterone [RR: 0.61 ng/dL (95% CI: 0.44, 0.78 ng/dL); RR: 0.01 ng/dL (95% CI: 0.001, 0.01 ng/dL), respectively]. Ascorbic acid was associated with higher progesterone (RR: 0.15 ng/mL; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.25 ng/mL) and with lower follicle-stimulating hormone (RR: -0.06 mIU/mL; 95% CI: -0.09, -0.03 mIU/mL). The ratio of α- to γ-tocopherol was associated with an increased risk of anovulation (RR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.06). These findings shed new light on the intricate associations between serum antioxidants and endogenous hormones in healthy premenopausal women and support the hypothesis that concentrations of serum vitamins affect steroidogenesis even after adjustment for oxidative stress. © 2016 American

  7. Urine retinol-binding protein 4: a functional biomarker of the proximal renal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norden, Anthony G W; Lapsley, Marta; Unwin, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of retinol-binding protein 4 in urine (uRBP4) is arguably the most sensitive biomarker for loss of function of the human proximal renal tubule. Megalin- and cubilin-receptor-mediated endocytosis normally absorbs > 99% of the approximately 1.5 g/24 h of protein filtered by the renal glomerulus. When this fails there is "tubular proteinuria," comprising uRBP4, albumin, and many other proteins and peptides. This tubular proteinuria is a consistent feature of the renal Fanconi syndrome (FS) and measurement of uRBP4 appears to be an excellent screening test for FS. FS occurs in rare inherited renal diseases including cystinosis, Dent disease, Lowe syndrome, and autosomal dominant FS. Acquired FS occurs in paraproteinemias, tubulointerstitial renal disease, oncogenic osteomalacia, Chinese herbs nephropathy, and Balkan endemic nephropathy. Though poorly understood, FS may be associated with HIV disease and antiretroviral treatment; cadmium poisoning may cause FS. In addition to FS, uRBP4 measurement has a different role: the early detection of acute kidney injury. Urine RBP4 comprises several isoforms, including intact plasma RBP4, MW 21.07 kDa, and C-terminal truncated forms, des-L- and des-LL-RBP4, also probably plasma derived. In FS, uRBP4 levels are about 104-fold above the upper limit of normal and small increments are frequently seen in carriers of some inherited forms of FS and in acquired disease. The very high levels in disease, frequent assay nonlinearity, lack of defined calibrants, and multiple uRBP4 isoforms make accurate assay challenging; top-down mass spectrometry has brought advances. Assays for uRBP4 with defined molecular targets allowing good interlaboratory comparisons are needed.

  8. Topical Retinol Restores Type I Collagen Production in Photoaged Forearm Skin within Four Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Production of type I collagen (COL1, the major structural protein of the skin, declines during aging, leading to skin thinning and becoming fragile, which increases the risk of bruising and wound healing disorders in the elderly. Topical treatments that can restore COL1 synthesis and ultimately COL1 content in aged skin hold promise to improve skin health. Much effort has been spent on developing agents that can safely and effectively enhance COL1 synthesis in aged skin. However, how fast and to what extent COL1 production in aged skin can be enhanced by a topical treatment remains unclear. Herein, we investigated a four-week topical retinol (ROL treatment. A one-day occlusion of ROL (0.4% or vehicle was applied on photoaged forearms of elderly (>65 years old subjects once a week for four weeks. Vehicle was also applied on forearms of young (23–33 years subjects in the same manner. Skin samples were obtained one week after the last treatment and analyzed for COL1 synthesis. We found that the ROL treatment increased the level of COL1 mRNA (2.3-fold and proCOL1 protein (1.8-fold in photoaged forearms to levels similar to that of young forearms within four weeks. Our study proves the concept that reduced COL1 production in aged skin can be readily restored. In addition, our study provides an evidence-based foundation for developing COL1-enhancing topical agents, and establishes a reliable and practical efficacy test for evaluating such agents.

  9. Retinol dehydrogenase 13 protects the mouse retina from acute light damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Cui, Xiaofang; Gu, Qing; Chen, Yan; Zhou, Jia; Kuang, Ying; Wang, Zhugang; Xu, Xun

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether retinol dehydrogenase 13 (RDH13) can protect the retina from acute light-induced damage. We generated Rdh13 knockout mice using molecular biologic methods and assessed the associated morphological and functional changes under room-light conditions by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scotopic electroretinography. Then, the light-damage model was established by exposure to diffuse white light (3,000 lx) for 48 h. Twenty-four h after light exposure, H&E was used for the histological evaluation. The thickness of the outer-plus-inner-segment and the outer nuclear layer was measured on sections parallel to the vertical meridian of the eye. An electroretinography test was performed to assess the functional change. Furthermore, the impairment of mitochondria was detected by TEM. Finally, the expression of cytochrome c (CytC) and other apoptosis-related proteins was detected by western blot. We found that there was no obvious difference in phenotype or function between Rdh13 knockout and wild-type mice. In Rdh13(-/-) mice subjected to intense light exposure, the photoreceptor outer-plus-inner-segment and outer nuclear layer were dramatically shorter, and the amplitudes of a- and b-waves under scotopic conditions were significantly attenuated. Distinctly swollen mitochondria with disrupted cristae were observed in the photoreceptor inner segments of Rdh13(-/-) mice. Increased expression levels of CytC, CytC-responsive apoptosis proteinase activating factor-1 (Apaf-1) and caspases 3, and other mitochondria apoptosis-related genes (nuclear factor-kappa B P65 [P65] and B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein [Bax]) were observed in Rdh13(-/-) mice. Rdh13 can protect the retina against acute light-induced retinopathy. The mechanism may involve inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

  10. An immunohistochemical study of retinol-binding protein (RBP) in livers of free-living polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from east Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heier, Annabelle; Sonne, Christian; Gröne, Andrea; Leifsson, Pall S; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W; Bacciarini, Luca N

    2005-09-01

    From 1999 to 2002 samples from 114 free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were collected in the municipality of Scoresby Sound, East Greenland, to detect levels of organochlorines and potential histopathologic changes. Livers of 16 female polar bears from this group were evaluated histologically and analyzed for hepatic retinol-binding protein by immunohistochemistry. Retinol-binding protein is the main transport protein for retinol, an important vitamin A metabolite in the polar bear. Only mild pathologic changes were noted on histologic evaluation of the livers. Small lymphocytic or lymphohistiocytic infiltrates were present in all the livers. Small lipid granulomas, mild periportal fibrosis, and bile duct proliferation were found in several cases. Immunohistochemistry for retinol-binding protein of hepatic tissue from free-ranging polar bears showed no distinct difference in staining intensity by a number of criteria: age, season (fasting and nonfasting), or lactation status. The staining was diffuse to finely stippled in the cytoplasm and showed very little variation among the animals. Because of the lack of macroscopic changes and the absence of severe histologic liver lesions, these polar bears were assumed to be healthy. The diffuse cytoplasmic retinol-binding protein staining in hepatocytes of free-ranging polar bears varies markedly from the prominent granular, less intense staining of captive polar bears investigated previously.

  11. Serum Antioxidant Associations with Metabolic Characteristics in Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Adolescents with Severe Obesity: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Stenzel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the inadequacy of some antioxidant nutrients in severely obese adolescents, this study aimed to assess the relationship between antioxidant micronutrients status and metabolic syndrome components in metabolically healthy obesity (MHO and unhealthy obesity (MUO. We performed an observational study in severely obese adolescents (body mass index > 99th percentile and they were classified into MHO or MUO, according to the criteria adapted for adolescents. Anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical variables were analyzed to characterize the sample of adolescents. The serum antioxidant nutrients assessed were retinol, β-carotene, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, zinc and selenium. A total of 60 adolescents aged 17.31 ± 1.34 years were enrolled. MHO was identified in 23.3% of adolescents. The MHO group showed lower frequency of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (14.3% vs. 78.3%, p < 0.001 when compared to MUO. A correlation was found between retinol and β-carotene concentrations with glycemia (r = −0.372; p = 0.011 and r = −0.314; p = 0.034, respectively and between Vitamin E with waist circumference (r = −0.306; p = 0.038 in the MUO group. The current study shows that some antioxidant nutrients status, specifically retinol, β-carotene, and Vitamin E, are negatively associated with metabolic alterations in MUO. Further studies are necessary to determine the existing differences in the serum antioxidant profile of metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese adolescents.

  12. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  13. Characterization of a dehydrogenase activity responsible for oxidation of 11-cis-retinol in the retinal pigment epithelium of mice with a disrupted RDH5 gene. A model for the human hereditary disease fundus albipunctatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jang, G.F.; Hooser, J.P. van; Kuksa, V.; McBee, J.K.; He, Y.G.; Janssen, J.J.M.; Driessen, C.A.G.G.; Palczewski, K.

    2001-01-01

    In the vertebrate retina, the final step of visual chromophore production is the oxidation of 11-cis-retinol to 11-cis-retinal. This reaction is catalyzed by 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenases (11-cis-RDHs), prior to the chromophore rejoining with the visual pigment apo-proteins. The RDH5 gene encodes a

  14. Influência de variáveis socioeconômicas e de saúde materno-infantil sobre os níveis de retinol no colostro humano Retinol levels in human colostrum: influence of child, maternal and socioeconomic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dimenstein

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar os níveis de retinol no colostro de lactantes moradoras da cidade de Natal (RN e sua relação com as variáveis socioeconômicas e de saúde materno-infantil. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 42 nutrizes saudáveis, entre 18 e 39 anos, até 48 horas pós-parto. Foram aplicados questionários para a coleta de dados socioeconômicos, antropométricos e dietéticos. O estado nutricional antropométrico foi determinado pelo índice de massa corpórea e os dados de consumo alimentar em vitamina A foram obtidos pelo inquérito dietético de história alimentar, sendo a análise realizada pelo programa Virtual Nutri. Foram coletados 2 ml de colostro, e a determinação do retinol foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. RESULTADOS: A maioria das nutrizes apresentou baixa condição socioeconômica e baixo grau de escolaridade. Entre as nutrizes, 55% apresentavam um consumo de vitamina A adequado, com uma média de ingestão de 1.398,8 µgRE/dia. O valor médio de retinol no colostro foi 93,1+51,1 µgRE/100 ml. Quando relacionado aos níveis de retinol no leite, as variáveis renda (p = 0,503, escolaridade (p = 0,708 e peso ao nascer do bebê (p = 0,499 não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Entretanto, houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o nível de retinol no leite e o estado nutricional na gestação (p = 0,016. CONCLUSÃO: A não-influência de variações socioeconômicas nos níveis de retinol do colostro sugere a existência de um mecanismo de adaptação da glândula mamária na manutenção dos níveis adequados de retinol para atender às necessidades diárias do lactente.OBJECTIVES: To determine colostrum retinol levels in breastfeeding women from the city of Natal, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, and to investigate the relationship between retinol levels in colostrum and child, maternal and socioeconomic variables. METHODS: Forty-two healthy women aged 18 to 39 years were

  15. Changes in plasma retinol of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) in response to dietary or in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of a penta-brominated diphenyl ether mixture, DE-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Katrina M; Bird, David M; Ritchie, J Ian; Shutt, J Laird; Letcher, Robert J; Fernie, Kim J

    2010-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are ubiquitous, lipophilic, and bioaccumulative brominated flame retardants. Plasma retinol concentrations of captive adult American kestrels were assessed at the beginning of the breeding season following 3 wk of daily dietary exposure to vehicle (control), low (0.3 ng/g wet weight [ww]), or high (1.6 ng/g ww) concentrations of DE-71 and in their 25-d-old nestlings following embryonic exposure by maternal deposition to environmentally relevant low (291 ± 48 ng/g ww) or high (1111 ± 160 ng/g ww) sum (Σ) PBDE concentrations. Unexpectedly, low in ovo concentrations of total-α-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were detected. Plasma retinol concentrations of adult males exposed to higher DE-71 concentrations were negatively correlated with in ovo ΣPBDE, BDE-100, and HBCD levels. Maternal (13%) and nestling (11%) retinol levels were lower in the low-exposure group compared to respective controls, and biologically significant since their retinol levels were correlated with hatching success and growth, respectively. Maternal retinol levels were also correlated with BDE-153. The underlying mechanisms may involve (1) PBDE exposure, hydroxylated (OH-) metabolites, and subsequent changes in retinol mobilization; (2) decreased maternal food consumption; and (3) reduced maternal retinol yolk deposits. The apparent lack of retinol changes in the high-exposure kestrel may reflect compensation occurring, either by increased mobilization and transportation of retinol, and/or higher food consumption in these birds. When highly mobile as evidenced during reproduction or development, retinol concentrations of adult and nestling kestrels are sensitive to environmentally relevant PBDE and HBCD levels.

  16. Reproducibility of Retinol Binding Protein 4 and Omentin-1 Measurements over a Four Months Period: A Reliability Study in a Cohort of 207 Apparently Healthy Participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Wittenbecher

    Full Text Available The reliability of single time point measurements of the novel adipokines retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 in the blood has not been evaluated in large samples yet. The present study aimed to assess the amount of biological variation of these two adipokines within individuals. The study sample comprised 207 participants (124 women and 83 men from Potsdam (Germany and surrounding areas, with an average age of 56.5 years (SD 4.2. Blood samples were collected from each participant twice, approximately four months apart. Using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, the concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 were determined in EDTA plasma. As indicators of reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were calculated from the repeated biomarker measurements. The ICCs for repeated retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 measurements were 0.77 (95% CI 0.71, 0.82 and 0.83 (95% CI 0.78, 0.87, respectively, indicating for both adipokines excellent reliability. ICCs were stable across strata according to sex, age, BMI, and blood pressure. Thus, for epidemiological studies it seems reasonable to rely on concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 in samples from a single time point if repeated measurements are not available.

  17. Blood concentrations of carotenoids and retinol and lung cancer risk: an update of the WCRF-AICR systematic review of published prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Leila; Vieira, Ana Rita; Aune, Dagfinn; Stevens, Christophe; Vingeliene, Snieguole; Navarro Rosenblatt, Deborah A; Chan, Doris; Greenwood, Darren C; Norat, Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Carotenoids and retinol are considered biomarkers of fruits and vegetables intake, and are of much interest because of their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties; however, there is inconsistent evidence regarding their protective effects against lung cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies of blood concentrations of carotenoids and retinol, and lung cancer risk. We identified relevant prospective studies published up to December 2014 by searching the PubMed and several other databases. We calculated summary estimates of lung cancer risk for the highest compared with lowest carotenoid and retinol concentrations and dose-response meta-analyses using random effects models. We used fractional polynomial models to assess potential nonlinear relationships. Seventeen prospective studies (18 publications) including 3603 cases and 458,434 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Blood concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, total carotenoids, and retinol were significantly inversely associated with lung cancer risk or mortality. The summary relative risk were 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.80) per 5 μg/100 mL of α-carotene (studies [n] = 5), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76-0.94) per 20 μg/100 mL of β-carotene (n = 9), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.54-0.81) per 100 μg/100 mL of total carotenoids (n = 4), and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.73-0.90) per 70 μg/100 mL of retinol (n = 8). In stratified analysis by sex, the significant inverse associations for β-carotene and retinol were observed only in men and not in women. Nonlinear associations were observed for β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene, with stronger associations observed at lower concentrations. There were not enough data to conduct stratified analyses by smoking. In conclusion, higher blood concentrations of several carotenoids and retinol are associated with reduced lung cancer risk. Further studies in never and former smokers are needed to rule out confounding by smoking

  18. Associations between retinol-binding protein 4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in recently postmenopausal women: cross-sectional analyses from the KEEPS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Gary

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The published literature regarding the relationships between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis is conflicting, likely due, in part, to limitations of frequently used RBP4 assays. Prior large studies have not utilized the gold-standard western blot analysis of RBP4 levels. Methods Full-length serum RBP4 levels were measured by western blot in 709 postmenopausal women screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Cross-sectional analyses related RBP4 levels to cardiometabolic risk factors, carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT, and coronary artery calcification (CAC. Results The mean age of women was 52.9 (± 2.6 years, and the median RBP4 level was 49.0 (interquartile range 36.9-61.5 μg/mL. Higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with higher triglycerides (age, race, and smoking-adjusted partial Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.10; P = 0.01, but were unrelated to blood pressure, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, and CIMT levels (all partial Spearman correlation coefficients ≤0.06, P > 0.05. Results suggested a curvilinear association between RBP4 levels and CAC, with women in the bottom and upper quartiles of RBP4 having higher odds of CAC (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 2.10 [1.07-4.09], 2.00 [1.02-3.92], 1.64 [0.82-3.27] for the 1st, 3rd, and 4th RBP4 quartiles vs. the 2nd quartile. However, a squared RBP4 term in regression modeling was non-significant (P = 0.10. Conclusions In these healthy, recently postmenopausal women, higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with elevations in triglycerides and with CAC, but not with other risk factors or CIMT. These data using the gold standard of RBP4 methodology only weakly support the possibility that perturbations in RBP4 homeostasis may be an additional risk factor for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT

  19. Serum Carotenoids Are Inversely Associated with RBP4 and Other Inflammatory Markers in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipeng Jing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Carotenoids may be inversely associated with inflammatory markers (i.e., TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β. However, data are scarce on retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 in humans. We examined the associations among serum carotenoids, RBP4 and several inflammatory markers in a Chinese population. (2 Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study included 3031 participants (68% males aged 40–75 years in Guangzhou, China. Serum concentrations of carotenoids, RBP4, and inflammatory markers were measured. (3 Results: Generally, serum individual and total carotenoids were significantly and inversely associated with retinol-adjusted RBP4, RBP4, hsCRP, MCP1, and TNF-alpha levels. Age- and gender-adjusted partial correlation coefficients between total carotenoids and the above inflammatory markers were −0.129, −0.097, −0.159, −0.079, and −0.014 (all p < 0.01, except for TNF-alpha with p >0.05, respectively. The multivariate-adjusted values of partial correlation coefficients for these inflammation-related markers were −0.098, −0.079, −0.114, −0.090, and −0.079 (all p < 0.01, respectively. Among the individual carotenoids, those with the most predominant association were lutein-zeaxanthin and total carotenoids for retinol-adjusted RBP4 and RBP4, alpha- and beta-carotene for hsCRP, and alpha-carotene for MCP1 and TNF-alpha. No significant associations were observed for IL-6 and IL-1beta. (4 Conclusions: Serum carotenoids were inversely associated with RBP4, hsCRP, MCP1 and TNF-alpha among middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.

  20. Antioxidant Vitamin Status in the Serum and Amniotic Fluid of Women with Premature Rupture of the Fetal Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bridget M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the status of antioxidant vitamins in women with premature rupture of the fetal membranes. Specimens of blood and amniotic fluid were obtained from 80 pregnant subjects included both smokers and non-smokers during the third trimester. The concentrations of ascorbic acid (ASA), beta -carotene, retinol and alpha -tocopherol in serum and amniotic fluid were determined. The experimental group consisted of those subjects with PROM while the control subjects were those with normal pregnancy. No statistical differences were found between the PROM and control groups in retinol and vitamin E concentrations in amniotic fluid and serum. Serum ASA concentrations of PROM subjects were not different from controls, but the PROM subjects had significantly lower amniotic fluid ASA concentrations. However, in a study with fewer subjects a lower serum ASA concentration in the PROM subjects was observed. The ratio of amniotic fluid ASA concentration to ASA serum concentration was significantly lower in PROM patients than in controls in both studies. This suggests that low levels of ASA in the amniotic fluid, but not in serum is better associated with PROM. A low amniotic fluid concentration of ASA may reflect an inefficient transfer and/or increased fetal utilization. Alterations in ASA concentration in the amniotic fluid may affect the integrity of the chorioamnion leading to PROM. beta -Carotene was not found in the amniotic fluid. Serum beta-carotene levels were significantly lower in the PROM group compared to the control group. Low concentrations of beta-carotene in maternal serum in smokers not only associated with poor maternal outcome (PROM) but also compromised the fetal outcome (decreased birth weight). Maintenance of adequate serum beta-carotene concentration and amniotic fluid ASA in smokers may result in better maternal and fetal outcome. This study demonstrated that nutrition is an important factor in the prevention of PROM.

  1. Concentrations of retinol, 3,4-didehydroretinol, and retinyl esters in plasma of free-ranging birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K; Raila, J; Altenkamp, R; Schmidt, D; Dietrich, R; Hurtienne, A; Wink, M; Krone, O; Brunnberg, L; Schweigert, F J

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated vitamin A compounds in the plasma of healthy free-ranging Central European raptors with different feeding strategies. Plasma samples of nestlings of white-tailed sea eagle [white-tailed sea eagle (WTSE), Haliaeetus albicilla) (n = 32), osprey (Pandion haliaetus) (n = 39), northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) (n = 25), common buzzard (Buteo buteo) (n = 31), and honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus) (n = 18) and adults of WTSE (n = 10), osprey (n = 31), and northern goshawk (n = 45) were investigated with reversed-phase-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). In WTSE, northern goshawks and common buzzards retinol were the main plasma component of vitamin A, whilst in ospreys and honey buzzards, 3,4-didehydroretinol predominated. The median of the retinol plasma concentration in the nestlings group ranged from 0.12 to 3.80 μm and in the adult group from 0.15 to 6.13 μm. Median plasma concentrations of 3,4-didehydroretinol in nestlings ranged from 0.06 to 3.55 μm. In adults, northern goshawks had the lowest plasma concentration of 3,4-didehydroretinol followed by WTSE and ospreys. The plasma of all investigated species contained retinyl esters (palmitate, oleate, and stearate). The results show considerable species-specific differences in the vitamin A plasma concentrations that might be caused by different nutrition strategies. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Serum proteomic analysis reveals potential serum biomarkers for occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis caused by trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peiwu; Ren, Xiaohu; Huang, Zhijun; Yang, Xifei; Hong, Wenxu; Zhang, Yanfang; Zhang, Hang; Liu, Wei; Huang, Haiyan; Huang, Xinfeng; Wu, Desheng; Yang, Linqing; Tang, Haiyan; Zhou, Li; Li, Xuan; Liu, Jianjun

    2014-08-17

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent with widespread occupational exposure and also a major environmental contaminant. Occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene (OMLDT) is an autoimmune disease and it has become one major hazard in China. In this study, sera from 3 healthy controls and 3 OMLDT patients at different disease stages were used for a screening study by 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Eight proteins including transthyretin (TTR), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), haptoglobin, clusterin, serum amyloid A protein (SAA), apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein C-III and apolipoprotein C-II were found to be significantly altered among the healthy, acute-stage, healing-stage and healed-stage groups. Specifically, the altered expression of TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin were further validated by Western blot analysis and ELISA. Our data not only suggested that TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin could serve as potential serum biomarkers of OMLDT, but also indicated that measurement of TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin or their combination could help aid in the diagnosis, monitoring the progression and therapy of the disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Degradação de α-Tocoferol, retinol e ácido ascórbico durante processamento e armazenamento de rações para camarão α-Tocopherol, retinol and ascorbic acid degradation during the processing and storage of shrimp food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilmara Vieira Pedrosa

    2011-04-01

    development. Retinol, -tocopherol, and ascorbic acid are vitamins that act in several metabolic processes, therefore they are indispensable in animal food due to their antioxidant effects that protect these animals against oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vitamin losses during the diet processing and in the storage period. Eight isoproteic diets were formulated with different levels of vitamin A, E and C that were processed with temperatures up to 70º C. After the production and 60 days of storage, the vitamins were analyzed and quantified in order to discover the losses during the processing and post-storage. It was observed that the vitamin A suffered loss of up to 99.56%, vitamin E had its maximum loss value of 93.5% and vitamin C with 70% of loss, during the processing. During the storage period the losses were lower. It can be concluded that the vitamins are extremely sensitive to the factors that occur during the production and food storage, causing considerable vitamin losses.

  4. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor are increased and correlate with malnutrition, immunosuppression involving MDSCs and systemic inflammation in patients with cancer of the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Izumi; Shibata, Masahiko; Gonda, Kenji; Yazawa, Takashi; Shimura, Tatsuo; Anazawa, Takayuki; Suzuki, Satoshi; Sakurai, Kenichi; Koyama, Yoshihisa; Ohto, Hitoshi; Tomita, Ryouichi; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Takenoshita, Seiichi

    2013-05-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) reportedly has an important role in the progression of malignant neoplasms and has been reported to induce myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that appear in cancer and inflammation. In the present study, serum concentrations of VEGF were measured in patients with digestive system cancer and the correlations with nutritional damage, immune suppression and systemic inflammation were analyzed. A significant increase in VEGF serum levels was observed in patients with esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancers compared with healthy volunteers. Levels of VEGF were inversely correlated with the serum concentrations of albumin, prealbumin and retinol-binding protein. The serum concentrations of VEGF were inversely correlated with the production of interleukin (IL)-12 and correlated with MDSC counts. VEGF levels were also correlated with neutrophil and neutrophil/lymphocyte counts and inversely correlated with lymphocyte count. Serum VEGF levels were divided at a cutoff of 500 pg/ml, with levels of prealbumin and retinol-binding protein significantly decreased in patients with higher VEGF levels. The stimulation index and IL-12 production were significantly decreased in the group with higher VEGF levels and MDSC counts tended to be higher in this group. These results demonstrated that increased production of VEGF was correlated with systemic inflammation, nutritional impairment and the inhibition of cell-mediated immunity involving MDSCs.

  5. β-carotene and retinol contents in the meat of herbivorous ungulates with a special reference to their public health importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Morshdy, Alaa Eldin; Eldesoky, Kamal Ibrahim; Nakayama, Shouta; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate total carotenoids, β-carotene and retinol concentrations in the livers and muscles of some ungulates (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats and horses) in comparison with the Wistar rats as a control. Cattle and horses had the highest contents of total carotenoids and β-carotene. Unexpectedly, sheep was the highest accumulator of retinol with a mean concentration of 203 ± 23.34 µg/g, while the least accumulator was buffalo, having a mean value of 58.28 ± 13.77 µg/g. Livers had higher contents of the examined phytochemicals than muscles. Consumption of these tissues may provide human with some needs from these important phytochemicals, though ingestion of livers, especially that of the sheep, is not advisable for the pregnant women.

  6. Retinol-binding protein 4 in twins: regulatory mechanisms and impact of circulating and tissue expression levels on insulin secretion and action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Friedrichsen, Martin; Vaag, Allan

    2009-01-01

    expression was not associated with circulatory RBP4. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our data indicate that RBP4 levels in plasma, skeletal muscle, and fat may be linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in a secondary and noncausal manner.......OBJECTIVE: Retinol-binding protein (RBP) 4 is an adipokine of which plasma levels are elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aims of the study were to identify determinants of plasma RBP4 and RBP4 mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and skeletal muscle and to investigate....... Plasma RBP4 was elevated in type 2 diabetes and increased with duration of disease. Plasma RBP4 correlated inversely with peripheral, but not hepatic, insulin sensitivity. However, the association disappeared after correction for covariates, including plasma adiponectin. Plasma retinol, and not RBP4...

  7. Serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochna Viola, E.M.; Diaz de Domingo, N.B.; Lazarowski, A.

    1981-01-01

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis. (author) [es

  8. Effects of quinones and flavonoids on the reduction of all-trans retinal to all-trans retinol in pig heart

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada, Hideaki; Hirashima, Takaomi; Imamura, Yorishige; シマダ, ヒデアキ; ヒラシマ, タカオミ; イマムラ, ヨリシゲ; 島田, 秀昭; 平島, 隆臣; 今村, 順茂

    2006-01-01

    We have recently purified a tetrameric carbonyl reductase from the cytosolic fraction of pig heart (pig heart carbonyl reductase). Since pig heart carbonyl reductase efficiently reduces all-trans retinal as the endogenous substrate, it probably plays an important role in retinoid metabolism in the heart. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of quinones and flavonoids on the reduction of all-trans retinal to all-trans retinol catalyzed by pig heart carbonyl r...

  9. Retinol, α-tocopherol, and selected minerals in breast milk of lactating women with full-term infants in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyesook; Jung, Byung-Mun; Lee, Bum-Noh; Kim, Yun-Je; Jung, Ji A; Chang, Namsoo

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to measure fat-soluble vitamins and minerals in breast milk of Korean lactating mothers who exclusively breastfed their babies. Breast milk samples were collected from 334 mothers. Concentrations of retinol and α-tocopherol were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet spectrometry while concentrations of minerals were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Retinol and α-tocopherol contents of breast milk were 39.58 ± 19.64 µg/dL and 0.23 ± 0.13 mg/dL, respectively. Average sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels in breast milk were 11.11 ± 5.16, 38.56 ± 9.01, 27.87 ± 6.10, 13.56 ± 3.30, and 3.05 ± 0.65 mg/dL, respectively. Contents of trace elements such as iron, zinc, copper, and manganese were 40.26 ± 46.21, 98.40 ± 62.47, 24.09 ± 9.03, and 0.90 ± 1.63 µg/dL, respectively. Fat-soluble vitamin concentration was positively correlated with total fat in milk samples, but no significant differences were observed in levels of retinol, α-tocopherol, or minerals based on whether or not lactating women were taking dietary supplements. Micronutrient contents of breast milk samples from Korean lactating women were comparable to those of other nations. Retinol and α-tocopherol levels were correlated and also with total fat in breast milk.

  10. Retinoid and carotenoid status in serum and liver among patients at high-risk for liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Yachana; Deaton, Ryan J; Enk, Erika; Jin, Ming; Petrauskaite, Milita; Dong, Linlin; Goldenberg, Joseph R; Cotler, Scott J; Jensen, Donald M; van Breemen, Richard B; Gann, Peter H

    2016-02-29

    Approximately 2.7 million Americans are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV patients with cirrhosis form the largest group of persons at high risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Increased oxidative stress is regarded as a major mechanism of HCV-related liver disease progression. Deficiencies in retinoid and carotenoid antioxidants may represent a major modifiable risk factor for disease progression. This study aims to identify key predictors of serum antioxidant levels in patients with HCV, to examine the relationship between retinoid/carotenoid concentrations in serum and hepatic tissue, to quantify the association between systemic measures of oxidative stress and antioxidant status, and to examine the relationship between retinoids and stellate cell activation. Patients undergoing liver biopsy (n = 69) provided fasting blood, fresh tissue, urine and completed a diet history questionnaire. Serum and questionnaire data from healthy volunteers (n = 11), normal liver tissue from public repositories and patients without liver disease (n = 11) were also collected. Urinary isoprostanes, serum and tissue retinoid concentrations were obtained by UHPLC-MS-MS. Immunohistochemistry for αSMA was performed on FFPE sections and subsequently quantified via digital image analysis. Associations between urinary isoprostanes, αSMA levels, and retinoids were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients and non-parametric tests were utilized to test differences among disease severity groups. There was a significant inverse association between serum retinol, lycopene, and RBP4 concentrations with fibrosis stage. Serum β-carotene and lycopene were strongly associated with their respective tissue concentrations. There was a weak downward trend of tissue retinyl palmitate with increasing fibrosis stage. Tissue retinyl palmitate was inversely and significantly correlated with hepatic αSMA expression, a marker for hepatic stellate cell activation (r = -0

  11. Nutritional status of iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and anemia in children 1 to 11 years old: Results of the Ensanut 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Salvador; Cruz, Vanessa de la; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rebollar, Rosario; Contreras-Manzano, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    To describe the frequency of anemia, iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and predictors of anemia among Mexican children from Ensanut 2012. Hemoglobin, ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, retinol and folate concentrations were measured in 2 678 children aged 1-4 y and 4 275 children aged 5-11 y. Adjusted logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. In preschoolers and scholars, the overall prevalence of anemia was 20.4 and 9.7%, iron deficiency 14 and 9.3%, low vitamin B12 (LB12S) 1.9 and 2.6%; Folate 0.30 and 0%, and retinol depletion (VADp) 15.7 and 2.3%, respectively. ID and VADp were negatively associated with Hb (coefficient: -0.38 and -0.45, p<0.05); a higher log-CRP was associated with higher risk for anemia and VADp (OR=1.13 and OR=2.1, p<0.05, respectively). Iron deficiency, anemia and VADp are some of the main nutritional problems among Mexican infants.

  12. Nutritional status of iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and anemia in children 1 to 11 years old. Results of the Ensanut 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Villalpando

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the frequency of anemia, iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and predictors of anemia among Mexican children from Ensanut 2012. Materials and methods. Hemoglobin, ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, retinol and folate concentrations were measured in 2 678 children aged 1-4 y and 4 275 children aged 5-11 y. Adjusted logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. Results. In preschoolers and scholars, the overall prevalence of anemia was 20.4 and 9.7%, iron deficiency 14 and 9.3%, low vitamin B12 (LB12S 1.9 and 2.6%; Folate 0.30 and 0%, and retinol depletion (VADp 15.7 and 2.3%, respectively. ID and VADp were negatively associated with Hb (coefficient: -0.38 and -0.45, p<0.05; a higher log-CRP was associated with higher risk for anemia and VADp (OR=1.13 and OR=2.1, p<0.05, respectively. Conclusions. Iron deficiency, anemia and VADp are some of the main nutritional problems among Mexican infants

  13. Organohalogens in A Whale-Blubber-Supplemented Diet Affects Hepatic Retinol and Renal Tocopherol Concentrations in Greenland Sled Dogs (Canis familiaris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, M.; Sonne, C.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2010-01-01

    ) blubber (exposed dogs) or uncontaminated (control group) porcine fat for up to 12 to 21 mo of age. The daily intake of 50-200 g whale blubber (mean: 112 g) constituted between 10.4 and 11.7 mu g/kg body weight Sigma organohalogen contaminants (OHC) (or between 4.6 and 6.1 mu g/kg body weight Sigma...... polychlorinated biphenyls [PCB]). Retinol was approximately 18% and -tocopherol 22% higher in the diet of the exposed dogs compared to controls. In adipose tissue, mean of sigma OHC was 92 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and 5005 ng/g lw for all control (n = 12) and exposed dogs (n = 10), respectively. Hepatic retinol...... observed between kidney retinol and sigma-chlordane-related compounds (sigma CHL) and dieldrin concentrations. Hepatic -tocopherol concentrations were significantly lower in exposed compared to controls, most likely due to a combination by OHC exposure and high dietary intake of unsaturated fatty acids...

  14. Proteomics Analysis for Finding Serum Markers of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushan Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of peptide ligand library beads (PLLB and 1D gel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (1DGel-LC-MS/MS was employed to analyze serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer and from healthy controls. Proteomic analysis identified 1200 serum proteins, among which 57 proteins were upregulated and 10 were downregulated in the sera from cancer patients. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 is highly upregulated in the ovarian cancer serum samples. ELISA was employed to measure plasma concentrations of RBP4 in 80 samples from ovarian cancer patients, healthy individuals, myoma patients, and patients with benign ovarian tumor, respectively. The plasma concentrations of RBP4 ranging from 76.91 to 120.08 ng/mL with the mean value 89.13±1.67 ng/mL in ovarian cancer patients are significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (10.85±2.38 ng/mL. Results were further confirmed with immunohistochemistry, demonstrating that RBP4 expression levels in normal ovarian tissue were lower than those in ovarian cancer tissues. Our results suggested that RBP4 is a potential biomarker for diagnostic of screening ovarian cancer.

  15. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  16. Effect of Retinol Palmitate on Corneal and Conjunctival Mucin Gene Expression in a Rat Dry Eye Model After Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Nobuhito; Toshida, Hiroshi; Koike, Daisuke; Odaka, Akito; Suto, Chikako; Ohta, Toshihiko; Murakami, Akira

    We examined the wound-healing effect of retinol palmitate (VApal) on mucin gene and protein expressions in a rat dry eye model based on lacrimal gland (LG) resection after injury. The rat dry eye model was prepared by surgical resection of the main LG in male Long-Evans rats. After alkaline injury of the central part of the lower palpebral conjunctiva bilaterally, VApal eye drops at 1,500 IU/mL in one eye and a vehicle in the fellow eye were both administered 6 times a day for 7 days. The expression of mucin gene and protein was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the cornea and conjunctiva of MUC1, MUC4, MUC16, and MUC5AC after 1, 3, (5), and 7 days of treatment with VApal. Significant decreases in fluorescein-stained areas and rose bengal scores were observed in VApal-treated dry eyes compared with vehicle-treated dry eyes at both 3 (P eye model after injury. VApal also promoted conjunctival MUC16 expression. These results indicate that VApal has efficacy in improving keratoconjunctival epithelial damage associated with decreased tear production.

  17. Association among retinol-binding protein 4, small dense LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL levels in dyslipidemia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia; Shi, Yong-hui; Niu, Dong-mei; Li, Han-qing; Zhang, Chun-ni; Wang, Jun-jun

    2012-06-01

    To investigate retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels and their associations in dyslipidemia subjects. We determined RBP4, sdLDL-C, ox-LDL levels in 150 various dyslipidemia subjects and 50 controls. The correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were performed. The RBP4, sdLDL-C and ox-LDL levels were found increased in various dyslipidemia subjects. The sdLDL-C levels were positively correlated with RBP4 (r=0.273, P=0.001) and ox-LDL (r=0.273, P=0.001). RBP4 levels were also correlated with ox-LDL (r=0.167, P=0.043). The multiple regression analysis showed that only sdLDL-C was a significant independent predictor for RBP4 (β coefficient=0.219, P=0.009; adjusted R(2)=0.041) and ox-LDL (β coefficient=0.253, P=0.003; adjusted R(2)=0.057) levels, respectively. The independent associations of sdLDL-C with RBP4 and ox-LDL were observed in dyslipidemia subjects. RBP4 may play an important role in lipid metabolism of atherosclerosis, particularly in formation of sdLDL. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Diagnostic values of prealbumin and retinol-binding protein for liver damage caused by different degrees of neonatal asphyxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yun-Su; Guo, Yan; Cheng, Rui; Zhou, Xiao-Guang; Cao, Zhao-Lan

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the diagnostic values of prealbumin (PAB) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) for liver damage caused by mild or severe asphyxia. A retrospective analysis was performed on 185 neonates (including 84 premature infants and 101 full-term infants) with asphyxia. Based on the Apgar score, they were divided into two groups: mild asphyxia group (n=150) and severe asphyxia group (n=35). The levels of PAB, RBP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured and compared. Their diagnostic values for liver damage were evaluated by ROC curve analysis. The premature infants in the severe asphyxia group had significantly higher AST level and significantly lower levels of PAB and RBP than those in the mild asphyxia group (Pasphyxia group had a significantly lower PAB level than those in the mild asphyxia group (Pasphyxia group and in the full-term infants in both mild and severe asphyxia group (Pasphyxia groups also showed a significant improvement in AST level (Pasphyxia in full-term and preterm infants. PAB can be used as an indicator of liver damage caused by asphyxia in neonates, and can be used to assess the degree of asphyxia.

  19. PAV-1, a new rat hepatic stellate cell line converts retinol into retinoic acid, a process altered by ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvant, Patrick; Sapin, Vincent; Abergel, Armand; Schmidt, Carsten K; Blanchon, Loïc; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie Cécile; Rosenbaum, Jean; Bommelaer, Gilles; Rock, Edmond; Dastugue, Bernard; Nau, Heinz; Azaïs-Braesco, Véronique

    2002-08-01

    During liver fibrogenesis or long term culture, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) evolved from "quiescent" to activated phenotype called "myofibroblast-like", a transition prevented by retinoic acid (RA). Little is known about RA generation by HSCs. Our study aimed to check the ability of these cells to produce RA from retinol (Rol) and the alterations of this metabolic step by ethanol. To study this metabolic pathway, primary cultures of HSCs represent the most physiological model but technically suffer several drawbacks. To circumvent these problems, an immortalized rat HSC line (named PAV-1) has been established. We validated PAV-1 cell line as a convenient model to study retinoids metabolism by HSCs. Then, we showed that PAV-1 cells express Rol-binding proteins (RBPs), enzymes and nuclear receptors involved in RA signaling pathway. We also demonstrated in situ generation of functional all-trans-RA (ATRA), using transient transfections with a RA-sensitive reporter gene, in situ modulation of tissue transglutaminase (tTG) activity and HPLC experiments. This production was Rol dose-dependent; 4-methylpyrazole, citral, and ethanol-inhibited which argues in favor of an enzymatic process.In conclusion, we first demonstrate in situ RA generation from Rol in a newly immortalized rat HSC line, named PAV-1. Inhibition of RA production by ethanol in PAV-1 and recent data, suggesting fundamental role of RA to prevent fibrosis development in the liver, allow us to hypothesize that Rol metabolism could be a primary target for ethanol during development of hepatic fibrosis.

  20. Toxicogenetic study of omeprazole and the modulatory effects of retinol palmitate and ascorbic acid on Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Antonio Lima; de Meneses, Ag-Anne Pereira Melo; Santos, José Victor de Oliveira; Dos Reis, Antonielly Campinho; de Lima, Rosália Maria Tôrres; da Mata, Ana Maria Oliveira Ferreira; Paz, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim; Alves, Leane Brunelle Dos Santos; Shaw, Subrata; Uddin, Shaikh Jamal; Rouf, Razina; Das, Asish Kumar; Dev, Shrabanti; Shil, Manik Chandra; Shilpi, Jamil A; Khan, Ishaq N; Islam, Muhammad Torequl; Ali, Eunüs S; Mubarak, Mohammad S; Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; E Sousa, João Marcelo de Castro; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de Carvalho

    2018-04-05

    Omeprazole (OME) is a proton pump inhibitor used for the treatment of various gastric and intestinal disease; however, studies on its effects on the genetic materials are still restricted. The present study aimed to evaluate possible toxicogenic effects of OME in Allium cepa meristems with the application of cytogenetic biomarkers for DNA damage, mutagenic, toxic and cytotoxic effects. Additionally, retinol palmitate (RP) and ascorbic acid (AA) were also co-treated with OME to evaluate possible modulatory effects of OME-induced cytogenetic damages. OME was tested at 10, 20 and 40 μg/mL, while RP and AA at 55 μg/mL and 352.2 μg/mL, respectively. Copper sulphate (0.6 μg/mL) and dechlorinated water were used as positive control and negative control, respectively. The results suggest that OME induced genotoxicity and mutagenicity in A. cepa at all tested concentrations. It was noted that cotreatment of OME with the antioxidant vitamins RP and/or AA significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited and/or modulated all toxicogenic damages induced by OME. These observations demonstrate their antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, antitoxic and anticitotoxic effects in A. cepa. This study indicates that application of antioxidants may be useful tools to overcome OME-induced toxic effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between serum and brain carotenoids, a-tocopherol and retinol concentrations and cognitive performance in the oldest old from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress is involved in age-related cognitive decline. The dietary antioxidants, carotenoids, tocopherols and vitamin A may play a role in the prevention or delay in cognitive decline. In this study sera were obtained from 78 octogenarians and 220 centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian St...

  2. Estudo das variações dos níveis de retinol no colostro humano de parturientes a termo e pré-termo Study of retinol level variations of human colostrum among parturient women with term and pre-term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illana Louise Pereira de Melo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar as variações dos níveis de retinol no colostro de parturientes a termo e pré-termo. MÉTODOS: foram analisadas amostras de leite de 78 lactantes, sendo metade delas mães de recém-nascidos prematuros. As amostras de colostro foram obtidas por expressão manual de uma mama, até 72 horas após o parto, no turno vespertino e no início da mamada, até atingir um volume de 2,0 ml. A determinação do retinol foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência e os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística através do teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: o valor médio do retinol no colostro de mães a termo (n = 39 e pré-termo (n = 39 foram, respectivamente, 89,4 ± 46,1 mig/dL e 55,6 ± 27,7 mig/dL. A diferença entre as médias foi estatisticamente significante (p OBJECTIVES: to analyze retinol levels variations in the colostrum of term and pre-term parturient women. METHODS: colostrum samples of 78 lactating women, half of which were mothers of premature newborns, were analyzed. The samples were manually extracted from one breast until 2.0 ml were obtained. They were collected up to 72 hours after birth, during the morning hours and right before nursing. Retinol levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed by the T-test for means comparison. RESULTS: the mean retinol values in the colostrums of women with term (n = 39 and pre-term newborns (n = 39 were 89,4 ± 46,1 mug/dL and 55,6 ± 27,7 mug/dL, respectively. The difference of means was considered statistically significant at (p < 0,001. Human milk meets the need for Vitamin A in the term newborn. However, for the premature newborn, it only supplied 66% of the needs. CONCLUSIONS: results suggest that exclusive use of human milk does not meet the needs of pre-term newborn completely and that a Vitamin A supplement for the mother is necessary in order to reduce Vitamin A risk deficiency.

  3. 75 FR 20771 - Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and Analogous Products and Patent Term Restoration; Nonsubstantive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 102, 103, 104, 108, 112, 113, 114, 116, and 124 Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and... Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: We are amending the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act... to below as the regulations), contain provisions implementing the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act, as amended...

  4. Adjusting retinol-binding protein concentrations for inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Leila M; Namaste, Sorrel Ml; Williams, Anne M; Engle-Stone, Reina; Addo, O Yaw; Suchdev, Parminder S; Wirth, James P; Temple, Victor; Serdula, Mary; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A

    2017-07-01

    Background: The accurate estimation of the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is important in planning and implementing interventions. Retinol-binding protein (RBP) is often used in population surveys to measure vitamin A status, but its interpretation is challenging in settings where inflammation is common because RBP concentrations decrease during the acute-phase response. Objectives: We aimed to assess the relation between RBP concentrations and inflammation and malaria in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6-59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y) and to investigate adjustment algorithms to account for these effects. Design: Cross-sectional data from 8 surveys for PSC ( n = 8803) and 4 surveys for WRA ( n = 4191) from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were analyzed individually and combined with the use of a meta-analysis. Several approaches were explored to adjust RBP concentrations in PSC in inflammation and malaria settings as follows: 1 ) the exclusion of subjects with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations >5 mg/L or α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations >1 g/L, 2 ) the application of arithmetic correction factors, and 3 ) the use of a regression correction approach. The impact of adjustment on the estimated prevalence of VAD (defined as inflammation. Depending on the approach used to adjust for inflammation (CRP+AGP), the estimated prevalence of VAD decreased by a median of 11-18 percentage points in PSC compared with unadjusted values. There was no added effect of adjusting for malaria on the estimated VAD after adjusting for CRP and AGP. Conclusions: The use of regression correction (derived from internal data), which accounts for the severity of inflammation, to estimate the prevalence of VAD in PSC in regions with inflammation and malaria is supported by the analysis of the BRINDA data. These findings contribute to the evidence on adjusting for

  5. Adjusting retinol-binding protein concentrations for inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Victor; Serdula, Mary; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A

    2017-01-01

    Background: The accurate estimation of the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is important in planning and implementing interventions. Retinol-binding protein (RBP) is often used in population surveys to measure vitamin A status, but its interpretation is challenging in settings where inflammation is common because RBP concentrations decrease during the acute-phase response. Objectives: We aimed to assess the relation between RBP concentrations and inflammation and malaria in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6–59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15–49 y) and to investigate adjustment algorithms to account for these effects. Design: Cross-sectional data from 8 surveys for PSC (n = 8803) and 4 surveys for WRA (n = 4191) from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were analyzed individually and combined with the use of a meta-analysis. Several approaches were explored to adjust RBP concentrations in PSC in inflammation and malaria settings as follows: 1) the exclusion of subjects with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations >5 mg/L or α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations >1 g/L, 2) the application of arithmetic correction factors, and 3) the use of a regression correction approach. The impact of adjustment on the estimated prevalence of VAD (defined as inflammation. Depending on the approach used to adjust for inflammation (CRP+AGP), the estimated prevalence of VAD decreased by a median of 11–18 percentage points in PSC compared with unadjusted values. There was no added effect of adjusting for malaria on the estimated VAD after adjusting for CRP and AGP. Conclusions: The use of regression correction (derived from internal data), which accounts for the severity of inflammation, to estimate the prevalence of VAD in PSC in regions with inflammation and malaria is supported by the analysis of the BRINDA data. These findings contribute to the evidence on adjusting for

  6. Analysis of molecular forms of urine Retinol-Binding Protein in Fanconi Syndrome and design of an accurate immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burling, Keith A; Cutillas, Pedro R; Church, David; Lapsley, Marta; Norden, Anthony G W

    2012-02-18

    Retinol-Binding Protein in urine (uRBP), a biomarker for the proximal renal tubular disease of congenital and acquired Fanconi Syndrome (FS) occurs in multiple forms. However these have not had quantitative mass spectrometric (MS) analysis, nor is there a validated assay for defined molecular species of uRBP with linearity on sample dilution. A 'Top-down' MS approach identified distinct forms of uRBP differing by only one amino acid. Based on this, we designed a dual-monoclonal antibody-based fluorescence immunoassay calibrated with intact plasma RBP4. LC-MS showed that uRBP in FS (one Dent disease urine) comprised intact plasma RBP4 and C-terminal-truncated RBP4, desL-RBP4 and desLL-RBP4 in molar ratio 2:2:1. DELFIA® assay calibrated with plasma RBP4, formulated with two monoclonal antibodies (HyTest, Finland), mAb48 for capture and biotinylated-mAb42 for detection, provided good sensitivity (1 μg/L), working range>500 μg/L and good linearity on sample dilution. The three predominant forms of uRBP were equipotent over the assay working range. uRBP reference range was <3 μg/mmol creatinine and FS patients had concentrations of 1000-5000 μg/mmol creatinine. Using 'Top-down' MS analysis of uRBP we devised an accurate, linear, fluorescence immunoassay with defined RBP molecular targets optimal for uRBP measurement. Discrimination of elevated uRBP from the upper limit of normal was some 10-fold greater than previous assays. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vitamin A transport and the transmembrane pore in the cell-surface receptor for plasma retinol binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhong

    Full Text Available Vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids play diverse and crucial functions from embryogenesis to adulthood and are used as therapeutic agents in human medicine for eye and skin diseases, infections and cancer. Plasma retinol binding protein (RBP is the principal and specific vitamin A carrier in the blood and binds vitamin A at 1:1 ratio. STRA6 is the high-affinity membrane receptor for RBP and mediates cellular vitamin A uptake. STRA6 null mice have severely depleted vitamin A reserves for vision and consequently have vision loss, even under vitamin A sufficient conditions. STRA6 null humans have a wide range of severe pathological phenotypes in many organs including the eye, brain, heart and lung. Known membrane transport mechanisms involve transmembrane pores that regulate the transport of the substrate (e.g., the gating of ion channels. STRA6 represents a new type of membrane receptor. How this receptor interacts with its transport substrate vitamin A and the functions of its nine transmembrane domains are still completely unknown. These questions are critical to understanding the molecular basis of STRA6's activities and its regulation. We employ acute chemical modification to introduce chemical side chains to STRA6 in a site-specific manner. We found that modifications with specific chemicals at specific positions in or near the transmembrane domains of this receptor can almost completely suppress its vitamin A transport activity. These experiments provide the first evidence for the existence of a transmembrane pore, analogous to the pore of ion channels, for this new type of cell-surface receptor.

  8. ACT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content View Sources Ask Us Also Known As ACT Activated Coagulation Time Formal Name Activated Clotting Time ... What is being tested? The activated clotting time (ACT) is a test that is used primarily to ...

  9. Effects of exogenous retinol and retinoic acid on the biosynthesis of 14C-mannose labelled glycolipids and glycoproteins in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Mayumi; DeLuca, L.M.; Muto, Yasutoshi

    1978-01-01

    The in vivo and in vitro effects of retinol and retionic acid was investigated on the synthesis of mannolipids and mannopeptides in rat liver. Weanling male, Wister-strain rats (Japan Clea Inc., Tokyo), weighing 35 to 40g are housed in hanging wire bottom cages and maintained on a vitamin A-deficient diet. The incorporation of 14 C-mannose into glycolipids and glycoproteins showed a decrease in vitamin A-depleted rats as compared with vitamin A-fed rats. The mannose-containing lipids were separated into retinyl phosphate (MRP, R sub(f) 0.2) and dolichyl mannosyl phosphate (DMP, R sub(f) 0.4), respectively, by DEAE-cellulose, silicic acid and thin-layer chromatography. A rapid increase in the synthesis of labelled MPR was observed, exhibiting a peak between 25 and 60 minutes after intraperitoneal administration of retinol to vitamin A-depleted rats. Similarly, administration of retionic acid brought about elevation of 14 C-mannolipid (R sub(f) 0.2) synthesis with a peak at 60 minutes after injection. On the other hand, the incorporation of 14 C-mannose into DMP (R sub(f) 0.4) remained unchanged by such treatment. These results suggest that not only retinol but also retionic acid plays an important biological role in manosyl transfer reaction in rat liver. However, the molecular participation of a metabolite of retionic acid in the formation of manolipid and the structure of such a metabolite remain to be established. (Iwakiri, K.)

  10. 75 FR 40719 - Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and Analogous Products and Patent Term Restoration; Nonsubstantive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 102, 103, 104, 108, 112, 113, 114, 116, and 124 Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and...-20773.) The direct final rule notified the public of our intention to amend the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act...

  11. Efficacy and safety of retinol palmitate ophthalmic solution in the treatment of dry eye: a Japanese Phase II clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshida H

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hiroshi Toshida,1 Toshinari Funaki,2 Koichi Ono,3 Nobuhito Tabuchi,4 Sota Watanabe,4 Tamotsu Seki,5 Hiroshi Otake,6 Takuji Kato,7 Nobuyuki Ebihara,8 Akira Murakami2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Shizuoka, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo Tokyo Koto Geriatric Medical Center, Tokyo, 4Pharmaceutical Research Laboratories, Lion Corporation, Kanagawa, 5Tamagawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 6Otake Eye Clinic, Kanagawa, 7Kato Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 8Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba, Japan Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the administration of retinol palmitate (VApal ophthalmic solution (500 IU/mL for the treatment of patients with dry eye. Patients and methods: This study included 66 patients with dry eye. After a 2-week washout period, patients were randomized (1:1 into either a VApal ophthalmic solution or a placebo group, and a single drop of either solution was administered six times daily for 4 weeks. Efficacy measures were 12 subjective symptoms, rose bengal (RB and fluorescein staining scores, tear film breakup time, and tear secretion. Safety measures included clinical blood and urine analyses and adverse event recordings. Results: In comparisons of the two groups, the mean change in RB staining score from baseline was significantly lower in the VApal group at 2 and 4 weeks (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively. Furthermore, the fluorescein clearance rate (fluorescein staining score was significantly higher in the VApal group at 4 weeks (P<0.05. The VApal group showed a significant improvement in blurred vision at 1 and 2 weeks (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively, and the mean change in the total score for subjective symptoms from baseline was significantly lower in the VApal group at 1 week (P<0.05. In before- and after-intervention comparisons, the

  12. Increase in serum beta-carotene following dark green leafy vegetable supplementation in Mebendazole-treated school children in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, V; Ahmed, F; Gebre-Medhin, M; Greiner, T

    2001-01-01

    To study the effect of consumption of dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) and sweet pumpkin on serum beta-carotene and retinol concentrations in children treated for Ascaris lumbricoides. Experimental study with a randomised design. A total of 110 primary school children aged 8-12 y in northwestern Bangladesh. All children were de-wormed and 2 weeks later randomly assigned to one of three groups to receive for 6 days per week, for 6 weeks, one complete meal containing either: (1) 4.4 mg beta-carotene from DGLV (n=37, after 18 dropouts); (2) 1.5 mg beta-carotene from sweet pumpkin (n=36, 18 dropouts); or (3) vegetables containing virtually no beta-carotene (control) (n = 37, 18 dropouts). Significant increases (P < 0.001) in mean serum beta-carotene concentrations were seen in all three study groups, with a statistically higher increase (micromol/l) in the DGLV group (0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32, 0.55) compared to the control group (0.20; 95% CI 0.14, 0.26; P = 0.002). The increase in serum retinol (micromol/l) was statistically significant (P=0.04) only in the DGLV group (mean 0.066; 95% CI 0.002, 0.13), but this increase was not different from the increase in the control group. In children successfully treated for Ascaris lumbricoides, a substantial increase in serum beta-carotene was seen after feeding with a moderately high cumulative dose of DGLV for 6 weeks.

  13. Serum globulin electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003544.htm Serum globulin electrophoresis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The serum globulin electrophoresis test measures the levels of proteins called globulins ...

  14. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003540.htm Protein electrophoresis - serum To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood ...

  15. Expression and characterization of recombinant human serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C-peptide (CP), connecting the A and B chains in proinsulin, has been considered to possess physiological effects in diabetes. In order to prolong the half-life of CP in vivo, a long acting CP analog [human serum albumin (HSA-CP)] was obtained by direct gene fusion of a single-chain CP to HSA and expressed in host ...

  16. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  17. Curatorial Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a self-critical inquiry into my own recent work of co-curating and the experience of seeing my video work being curated by others, this article examines acts of framing as performative acts that seek to transform visitors' preconceptions. This affective effect is pursued by means of immersion,

  18. Serum proteomic analysis focused on fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattu Mahanandeeshwar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its widespread use to assess fibrosis, liver biopsy has several important drawbacks, including that is it semi-quantitative, invasive, and limited by sampling and observer variability. Non-invasive serum biomarkers may more accurately reflect the fibrogenetic process. To identify potential biomarkers of fibrosis, we compared serum protein expression profiles in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC virus infection and fibrosis. Methods Twenty-one patients with no or mild fibrosis (METAVIR stage F0, F1 and 23 with advanced fibrosis (F3, F4 were retrospectively identified from a pedigreed database of 1600 CHC patients. All samples were carefully phenotyped and matched for age, gender, race, body mass index, genotype, duration of infection, alcohol use, and viral load. Expression profiling was performed in a blinded fashion using a 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/LC-MS/MS platform. Partial least squares discriminant analysis and likelihood ratio statistics were used to rank individual differences in protein expression between the 2 groups. Results Seven individual protein spots were identified as either significantly increased (α2-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, albumin or decreased (complement C-4, serum retinol binding protein, apolipoprotein A-1, and two isoforms of apolipoprotein A-IV with advanced fibrosis. Three individual proteins, haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A-1, and α2-macroglobulin, are included in existing non-invasive serum marker panels. Conclusion Biomarkers identified through expression profiling may facilitate the development of more accurate marker algorithms to better quantitate hepatic fibrosis and monitor disease progression.

  19. Serum nutritional biomarkers and their associations with sleep among US adults in recent national surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May A Beydoun

    Full Text Available The associations between nutritional biomarkers and measures of sleep quantity and quality remain unclear.Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2005-2006 were used. We selected 2,459 adults aged 20-85, with complete data on key variables. Five sleep measures were constructed as primary outcomes: (A Sleep duration; (B Sleep disorder; (C Three factors obtained from factor analysis of 15 items and labeled as "Poor sleep-related daytime dysfunction" (Factor 1, "Sleepiness" (Factor 2 and "Sleep disturbance" (Factor 3. Main exposures were serum concentrations of key nutrients, namely retinol, retinyl esters, carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, lycopene, folate, vitamin B-12, total homocysteine (tHcy, vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and vitamin E. Main analyses consisted of multiple linear, logistic and multinomial logit models.Among key findings, independent inverse associations were found between serum vitamin B-12 and sleep duration, 25(OHD and sleepiness (as well as insomnia, and between folate and sleep disturbance. Serum total carotenoids concentration was linked to higher odds of short sleep duration (i.e. 5-6 h per night compared to normal sleep duration (7-8 h per night.A few of the selected serum nutritional biomarkers were associated with sleep quantity and quality. Longitudinal studies are needed to ascertain temporality and assess putative causal relationships.

  20. Utilidad de un método que determina simultáneamente retinol y α-tocoferol en leche materna por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Martínez-Rojano

    2016-10-01

    Conclusión: El método fue selectivo, lineal, preciso, sensible y exacto, características que junto con su sencillez hacen de él un método conveniente para la determinación de retinol y α-tocoferol simultáneamente en leche materna.

  1. Effect of retinol and cigarette-smoke and condensate on dye-coupled intercellular communication between hamster tracheal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.; Jongen, W.M.F.; Haan, L.H.J.de; Hendriksen, E.G.J.; Koeman, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The dye-coupled intercellular communication across gap junctions in primary hamster tracheal epithelial cells has been studied in serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium. In the absence of vitamin A, non-cytotoxic concentrations of cigarette-smoke condensate (CSC) inhibited intercellular

  2. Interaction between estrogen receptor and retinol-binding protein-4 polymorphisms as a tool for the selection of prolific pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Denise Vasconcellos Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of the estrogen receptor (ER-PvuII and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4-MspI gene polymorphisms and their interactions with prolificacy in a commercial synthetic pig line reared in Brazil. A total of 10,374 piglet records from 218 sows and 817 litters were used for litter size analysis. Only females with three or four farrowings were included in the analysis. The mean litter size ranged from 5.0 to 19.5 piglets. DNA was extracted from leukocytes by a standard method, and ER-PvuII and RBP4-MspI polymorphisms were characterized by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technique. The association between alleles or genotypes and reproductive performance was analyzed using a general linear model including the interaction between the ER-PvuII and RBP4-MspI genotypes. For the ER-PvuII gene, the allele frequencies of allele A and allele B were 0.56 and 0.44, respectively. For the RBP4-MspI gene, the frequencies of alleles A1 and A2 were 0.29 and 0.71, respectively. The total number of piglets born (TNB, born alive (NBA, or number of mummies and stillborn piglets (NMUM and NSB per litter did not differ between the various ER-PvuII and RBP4-MspI genotypes. However, when the ER-PvuII and RBP4-MspI genotypes were considered together in each sow, TNB and NBA were 1.4 (p = 0.0026 and 0.9 (p = 0.019 higher in AA/A1 and AB/A1 animals, respectively, than in AA/A2 and BB/A1 animals. Likewise, TNB and NBA were 0.9 (p = 0.0258 and 0.8 (p = 0.0168 higher in BB/A2 and AB/A2 sows, respectively, than in AA/A2 and BB/A1 animals, but no difference was observed compared to AA/A1 and AB/A1 animals. The results showed larger litter sizes (TNB and NBA for sows carrying the ER-PvuII allele A and the RBP4-MspI genotype A1, and for animals carrying the ER-PvuII allele B and the RBP4-MspI genotype A2. In conclusion, the interaction between genotypes ER-PvuII and RBP4-MspI is

  3. A Simple Plasma Retinol Isotope Ratio Method for Estimating β-Carotene Relative Bioefficacy in Humans: Validation with the Use of Model-Based Compartmental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jennifer Lynn; Green, Joanne Balmer; Lietz, Georg; Oxley, Anthony; Green, Michael H

    2017-09-01

    Background: Provitamin A carotenoids are an important source of dietary vitamin A for many populations. Thus, accurate and simple methods for estimating carotenoid bioefficacy are needed to evaluate the vitamin A value of test solutions and plant sources. β-Carotene bioefficacy is often estimated from the ratio of the areas under plasma isotope response curves after subjects ingest labeled β-carotene and a labeled retinyl acetate reference dose [isotope reference method (IRM)], but to our knowledge, the method has not yet been evaluated for accuracy. Objectives: Our objectives were to develop and test a physiologically based compartmental model that includes both absorptive and postabsorptive β-carotene bioconversion and to use the model to evaluate the accuracy of the IRM and a simple plasma retinol isotope ratio [(RIR), labeled β-carotene-derived retinol/labeled reference-dose-derived retinol in one plasma sample] for estimating relative bioefficacy. Methods: We used model-based compartmental analysis (Simulation, Analysis and Modeling software) to develop and apply a model that provided known values for β-carotene bioefficacy. Theoretical data for 10 subjects were generated by the model and used to determine bioefficacy by RIR and IRM; predictions were compared with known values. We also applied RIR and IRM to previously published data. Results: Plasma RIR accurately predicted β-carotene relative bioefficacy at 14 d or later. IRM also accurately predicted bioefficacy by 14 d, except that, when there was substantial postabsorptive bioconversion, IRM underestimated bioefficacy. Based on our model, 1-d predictions of relative bioefficacy include absorptive plus a portion of early postabsorptive conversion. Conclusion: The plasma RIR is a simple tracer method that accurately predicts β-carotene relative bioefficacy based on analysis of one blood sample obtained at ≥14 d after co-ingestion of labeled β-carotene and retinyl acetate. The method also provides

  4. Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, tocopherols, and retinol and the risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Marije F; Peeters, Petra Hm; Klaasen, Veronique M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Jansen, Eugene Hjm; Ros, Martine M; Travier, Noémie; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Brennan, Paul; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Perquier, Florence; Cadeau, Claire; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Ardanaz, Eva; Navarro, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Sánchez, María-José; Buckland, Genevieve; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Matthias; Sund, Malin; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio; van Gils, Carla H

    2016-02-01

    Carotenoids and vitamin C are thought to be associated with reduced cancer risk because of their antioxidative capacity. This study evaluated the associations of plasma carotenoid, retinol, tocopherol, and vitamin C concentrations and risk of breast cancer. In a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 1502 female incident breast cancer cases were included, with an oversampling of premenopausal (n = 582) and estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) cases (n = 462). Controls (n = 1502) were individually matched to cases by using incidence density sampling. Prediagnostic samples were analyzed for α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, retinol, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and vitamin C. Breast cancer risk was computed according to hormone receptor status and age at diagnosis (proxy for menopausal status) by using conditional logistic regression and was further stratified by smoking status, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI). All statistical tests were 2-sided. In quintile 5 compared with quintile 1, α-carotene (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.98) and β-carotene (OR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.65) were inversely associated with risk of ER- breast tumors. The other analytes were not statistically associated with ER- breast cancer. For estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors, no statistically significant associations were found. The test for heterogeneity between ER- and ER+ tumors was statistically significant only for β-carotene (P-heterogeneity = 0.03). A higher risk of breast cancer was found for retinol in relation to ER-/progesterone receptor-negative tumors (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.20, 4.67; P-heterogeneity with ER+/progesterone receptor positive = 0.06). We observed no statistically significant interaction between smoking, alcohol, or BMI and all investigated plasma analytes (based on tertile distribution). Our results indicate that higher concentrations of plasma

  5. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... scientific research on hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language—common elements in how we perceive ...

  6. Teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol em leites bovinos comercializados na cidade de São Paulo Amounts of retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in cow milk comercialized in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute BIANCHINI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Os teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em leites em pó, pasteurizados e esterilizados, comercializados na Cidade de São Paulo. Após a saponificação e extração, os compostos foram determinados simultaneamente utilizando-se coluna de sílica, fase móvel constituída por hexano:isopropanol (99:1 e fluxo de 2,0mL/min. O retinol e o beta-caroteno foram determinados no detector UV/visível e o alfa-tocoferol no detector de fluorescência, ligado em série com o anterior. Os valores de vitamina A dos leites foram calculados com e sem a consideração do beta-caroteno. A maior contribuição deste nutriente no valor de vitamina A esteve entre os leites em pó, cerca de 17% em uma das marcas. Os altos teores das vitamina A e E encontrados em alguns leites, indicam que os mesmos provavelmente receberam adição destas vitaminas, não trazendo, entretanto, tal informação no rótulo. A análise de vitaminas nestes produtos indica a necessidade de maior controle de qualidade dos mesmos.The amount of retinol, beta-carotene, alpha -tocopherol in powder, pasteurized and sterilized milk, comercialized in the city of São Paulo, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. After saponification and extraction, compounds were determined simultaneously through a normal-phase column, mobile phase composed by hexan:2-propanol (99:1 and 2 mL/min flow. The retinol and beta-carotene were analysed by a UV/visible detector and the alpha-tocopherol by a fluorescence detector, both linked in series. The milk vitamin A values were calculated with and without beta-carotene. The major contribution of beta-carotene in the vitamin A value was in powder milks, around 17% in one of the brands. The high amounts of vitamin A and E found in some milks indicate that they probably were enriched with these vitamins but nothing is mentioned about this in their labels. The analysis of

  7. Combined effects of retinol, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol on diurnal variations in rectal temperature of Black Harco pullets subjected to heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkalu, Victor Olusegun; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun

    2018-01-01

    The experiment was performed with the aim of determining the effect of co-administration of antioxidant vitamins, retinol, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol on rectal temperature (RT) fluctuations in pullets during the hot-dry season in Nigeria. Forty-eight Black Harco pullets, aged 16 weeks and weighing 1.5 ± 0.03 kg were divided by simple random sampling into two groups, consisting of 28 treated and 20 control Black Harco pullets. The RTs of 28 treated and 20 control Black Harco pullets were measured hourly for 3 days, 3 days apart, from 06:00 to 19:00 h (GMT + 1) with a standard clinical thermometer. The treated pullets were administered individually with the vitamins orally in water, while the control pullets were given only water. The lowest hourly RT of 40.9 ± 0.04 °C was obtained in treated pullets at 06:00 h, while the highest value of 41.1 ± 0.01 °C was recorded from 17:00 to 19:00 h ( P control pullets, the RT rose significantly from 41.0 ± 0.03 °C at 06:00 h to the maximum value of 41.6 ± 0.04 °C at 15:00 h ( P control pullets, especially during the hot hours of the day, from 13:00 to 17:00 h. It is concluded that co-administration of retinol, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol, by preventing a rise in body temperature, ameliorated heat stress, and may enhance productivity of pullets reared under unfavourable, thermal environment conditions.

  8. Accounting for the influence of inflammation on retinol-binding protein in a population survey of Liberian preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Leila Margaret; Addo, O Yaw; Sandalinas, Fanny; Faigao, Katherine; Kupka, Roland; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is an important contributor to child morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of VAD, measured by retinol-binding protein (RBP) or retinol, is overestimated in populations with a high prevalence of inflammation. We aimed to quantify and adjust for the effect of inflammation on VAD prevalence in a nationally representative survey of Liberian children 6 to 35 months of age. We compared five approaches to adjust RBP for inflammation and estimate VAD prevalence (defined as RBP 5 mg/L or alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) >1 g/)L; (3) multiplying each individual's RBP by an internal correction factor; (4) by an external correction factor; and (5) using regression (corrected RBP = exp(InRBP - β 1 (lnCRP obs -lnCRP ref ) - β 2 (lnAGP obs -lnAGP ref )). Corrected RBP was based on a regression model where reference lnCRP and lnAGP were set to the maximum of the lowest decile. The unadjusted prevalence of VAD was 24.7%. Children with elevated CRP and/or AGP had significantly lower RBP concentrations than their apparently healthy peers (geometric mean RBP 0.79 µmol/L (95% CI: 0.76, 0.82) vs. 0.95 µmol/L (95% CI: 0.92, 0.97), P account. Further quantification of the influence of inflammation on biomarkers of vitamin A status from other national surveys is needed to compare and recommend the preferred adjustment approach across populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Bacteriostatic enterochelin-specific immunoglobulin from normal human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.G.; Yancey, R.J.; Lankford, C.E.; Earhart, C.F.

    1980-02-01

    Heat-inactivated normal human serum produces iron-reversible bacteriostasis of a number of microorganisms. This inhibitory effect was abolished by adsorption of serum with ultraviolet-killed cells of species that produce the siderophore enterochelin. Bacteriostasis also was alleviated by asorption of serum with 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine, a degradation product of enterochelin, bound to the insoluble matrix AH-Sepharose 4B. Our results indicate that enterochelin-specific immunoglobulins exist in normal human serum. These immunoglobulins may act synergistically with transferrin to effect bacteriostasis of enterochelin-producing pathogens.

  10. 77 FR 58323 - Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and Analogous Products; Exemptions From Preparation Pursuant to an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 107 RIN 0579-AD66 Viruses... our interpretation of the veterinary practitioner exemption provided by the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act..., fax (301) 734-4314. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Virus-Serum-Toxin Act, as amended (21 U.S.C. 151...

  11. 77 FR 42195 - Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and Analogous Products; Exemptions From Preparation Pursuant to an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 107 RIN 0579-AD66 Viruses...: We are proposing to amend the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act regulations to require that veterinary biologics... not prepared in unlicensed establishments in violation of the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act. The effect of the...

  12. Fundic atrophic gastritis in an elderly population. Effect on hemoglobin and several serum nutritional indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasinski, S D; Russell, R M; Samloff, I M; Jacob, R A; Dallal, G E; McGandy, R B; Hartz, S C

    1986-11-01

    The ratio of pepsinogen I to pepsinogen II in the circulation decreases progressively with increasing severity of atrophic gastritis of the fundic gland mucosa. Fasting blood was obtained from 359 free-living and institutionalized elderly people (age range, 60 to 99 years). A pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio less than 2.9, indicating atrophic gastritis, was found in 113 (31.5%) subjects. The prevalence of atrophic gastritis increased significantly with advancing age (P less than .05). Within the atrophic gastritis group, 84 had a pepsinogen I level greater than or equal to 20 micrograms/L, indicating mild to moderate atrophic gastritis, and 29 had a pepsinogen I level less than 20 micrograms/L, indicating severe atrophic gastritis or gastric atrophy. A significant increase in the prevalences of elevated serum gastrin levels (P less than .005), low serum vitamin B12 levels (P less than .005), circulating intrinsic factor antibody (P less than .005), and anemia (P less than .025) was observed with stepwise increases in severity of atrophic gastritis. Subjects with atrophic gastritis exhibited a lower mean serum vitamin B12 level (P less than .05) and a higher mean folate level (P less than .05), but no difference was detected in mean hemoglobin levels or serum levels of iron, ferritin, retinol or alpha-tocopherol. It is concluded that serum pepsinogen I and pepsinogen II levels can be used to determine the prevalence and severity of atrophic gastritis, that atrophic gastritis is common in an elderly population, and that atrophic gastritis is associated with vitamin B12 deficiency and anemia. Further, higher folate levels in atrophic gastritis may be related to an accumulation of 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate in serum due to vitamin B12 deficiency and/or greater folate synthesis by the intestinal flora resulting from bacterial overgrowth secondary to hypo- or achlorhydria.

  13. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  14. Serum vitamin E, C and A status of the drug addicts undergoing detoxification: influence of drug habit, sexual practice and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazrul Islam, S K; Jahangir Hossain, K; Ahsan, M

    2001-11-01

    The study was carried out on the hypothesis that drug addicts would have reduced vitamin E, C and A status which could be influenced by drug habit, sexual practice and lifestyle factors. Serum concentrations of Vitamin E, C and A of male drug addicts and cohort controls were analysed, and influence of drug habit, sexual practice and lifestyle factors of the addicts on the vitamin status was assessed. The study was conducted among 253 drug addicts who sought detoxification voluntarily during the period of June 1997 to July 1998 at the Central Drug Addiction Treatment Hospital, Dhaka, and 100 cohort control men. Research instruments were questionnaire and blood specimens. HPLC and spectrophotometric methods were used to determine the vitamin levels in sera of drug addicts. alpha-Tocopherol (12.60+/-3.73 compared with 16.3+/-3.37 micromol/l; t=8.6, P=0.05), ascorbic acid (21.59+/-10.5 compared with 38.3+/-13.62 micromol/l; t=10.93, P=0.003) and retinol (1.15+/-0.39 compared with 1.33+/-0.30 micromol/l; t=5.28, P=0.048) in the drug addicts were significantly low as compared to those in the cohort controls. Use of multiple illicit drugs for a longer period of time did result in reduced levels of these vitamins. A significant reduction in retinol concentration was noted among the multiple drug users (F(2,250)=3.23, P=0.041). Duration of addiction had a significant linear correlation with the level of reduction in retinol (F(2,250)=3.23, P=0.041) and alpha-tocopherol (F(2,250)=3.06, P=0.049). Apart from having a significant negative correlation between number of sexual partners and retinol level (F(3,247)=2.65, P=0.049), sexual practice did not have any influence on the vitamin status of the addicts. Occupation did have a significant effect on the ascorbic acid level (F(4,248)=2.46, P=0.046), but other socioeconomic factors like income, age etc did not influence the vitamin E, C and A levels. Body mass index had a positive linear correlation with the vitamins, but it was

  15. Deletion of the Androgen Receptor in Adipose Tissue in Male Mice Elevates Retinol Binding Protein 4 and Reveals Independent Effects on Visceral Fat Mass and on Glucose Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Kerry J.; Smith, Lee B.; Hunger, Nicole I.; Saunders, Philippa T.K.; Andrew, Ruth; Walker, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency is epidemic in obese ageing males with type 2 diabetes, but the direction of causality remains unclear. Testosterone-deficient males and global androgen receptor (AR) knockout mice are insulin resistant with increased fat, but it is unclear whether AR signaling in adipose tissue mediates body fat redistribution and alters glucose homoeostasis. To investigate this, mice with selective knockdown of AR in adipocytes (fARKO) were generated. Male fARKO mice on normal diet had reduced perigonadal fat but were hyperinsulinemic and by age 12 months, were insulin deficient in the absence of obesity. On high-fat diet, fARKO mice had impaired compensatory insulin secretion and hyperglycemia, with increased susceptibility to visceral obesity. Adipokine screening in fARKO mice revealed a selective increase in plasma and intra-adipose retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) that preceded obesity. AR activation in murine 3T3 adipocytes downregulated RBP4 mRNA. We conclude that AR signaling in adipocytes not only protects against high-fat diet–induced visceral obesity but also regulates insulin action and glucose homeostasis, independently of adiposity. Androgen deficiency in adipocytes in mice resembles human type 2 diabetes, with early insulin resistance and evolving insulin deficiency. PMID:22415878

  16. Topical stabilized retinol treatment induces the expression of HAS genes and HA production in human skin in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Hwa; Wong, Heng-Kuan; Serrano, José; Randhawa, Manpreet; Kaur, Simarna; Southall, Michael D; Parsa, Ramine

    2017-05-01

    Skin Aging manifests primarily with wrinkles, dyspigmentations, texture changes, and loss of elasticity. During the skin aging process, there is a loss of moisture and elasticity in skin resulting in loss of firmness finally leading to skin sagging. The key molecule involved in skin moisture is hyaluronic acid (HA), which has a significant water-binding capacity. HA levels in skin decline with age resulting in decrease in skin moisture, which may contribute to loss of firmness. Clinical trials have shown that topically applied ROL effectively reduces wrinkles and helps retain youthful appearance. In the current study, ROL was shown to induce HA production and stimulates the gene expression of all three forms of hyaluronic acid synthases (HAS) in normal human epidermal keratinocytes monolayer cultures. Moreover, in human skin equivalent tissues and in human skin explants, topical treatment of tissues with a stabilized-ROL formulation significantly induced the gene expression of HAS mRNA concomitant with an increased HA production. Finally, in a vehicle-controlled human clinical study, histochemical analysis confirmed increased HA accumulation in the epidermis in ROL-treated human skin as compared to vehicle. These results show that ROL increases skin expression of HA, a significant contributing factor responsible for wrinkle formation and skin moisture, which decrease during aging. Taken together with the activity to increase collagen, elastin, and cell proliferation, these studies establish that retinol provides multi-functional activity for photodamaged skin.

  17. Meloidogyne incognita Fatty Acid- and Retinol- Binding Protein (Mi-FAR-1 Affects Nematode Infection of Plant Roots and the Attachment of Pasteuria penetrans Endospores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Phani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne incognita is an economically important pest of crops. Pasteuria penetrans, is a nematode hyperparasitic bacterium capable of suppressing the reproduction of RKN and thereby useful for its management. Secreted fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins are unique in nematodes and are engaged in nutrient acquisition, development and reproduction; they are also a component of the nematode cuticle and thought to be involved in the interface between hosts and parasites. Attachment of endospores to the cuticle of second stage juveniles of RKN is the primary step of infection and several factors have been identified to facilitate attachment. In this study, the full length of Mi-far-1 (573 bp was cloned from M. incognita and characterized. Analysis revealed that the Mi-far-1 was rich in α-helix structure, contained a predicted consensus casein kinase II phosphorylation site and a glycosylation site. Quantitative PCR showed the highest expression in the fourth stage juveniles and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Mi-far-1 mRNA in the hypodermis below the cuticle. Single copy insertion pattern of Mi-far-1 in M. incognita genome was detected by Southern blotting. Knockdown of Mi-far-1 showed significantly increased attachment of P. penetrans’ endospores on juvenile cuticle surface and also affected host finding, root infection and nematode fecundity.

  18. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on clinical evolution in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, according to serum levels of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, A C; Souza, G G; Moreira, V; Ramalho, A

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A and zinc are powerful antioxidants with synergy between them, thus protecting the organism against oxidative stress during the pre and postoperative periods. Our aim was to investigate the evolution clinical in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting while receiving vitamin A supplements according to their zinc nutritional status. They were randomly divided into two groups (2:1): Control group (G1 = 60); and Supplemented group (G2 = 30) and subdivided according to the nutritional status of zinc. Serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, zinc and levels of malondialdehyde were measured prior to (T0) and on the 21st day (T1) following surgery. After surgery, was found a significant difference between G1 and G2 when comparing retinol (G1 = 38.7 ± 17.1 μg/dL and G2 = 62.1 ± 20.3 μg/dL; p vitamin A supplementation may have a positive impact in combating the oxidative stress to which these patients are exposed above all in patients with adequate levels of zinc.

  19. Regulation of serum phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of serum phosphate, an acknowledged risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular mortality, is poorly understood. The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) as a key regulator of renal phosphate handling and activation of vitamin D has revolutionized our comprehension of phosphate homeostasis. Through as yet undetermined mechanisms, circulating and dietary phosphate appear to have a direct effect on FGF23 release by bone cells that, in turn, causes renal phosphate excretion and decreases intestinal phosphate absorption through a decrease in vitamin D production. Thus, the two major phosphaturic hormones, PTH and FGF23, have opposing effects on vitamin D production, placing vitamin D at the nexus of phosphate homeostasis. While our understanding of phosphate homeostasis has advanced, the factors determining regulation of serum phosphate level remain enigmatic. Diet, time of day, season, gender, age and genetics have all been identified as significant contributors to serum phosphate level. The effects of these factors on serum phosphate have major implications for what is understood as ‘normal’ and for studies of phosphate homeostasis and metabolism. Moreover, other hormonal mediators such as dopamine, insulin-like growth factor, and angiotensin II also affect renal handling of phosphate. How the major hormone effects on phosphate handling are regulated and how the effect of these other factors are integrated to yield the measurable serum phosphate are only now beginning to be studied. PMID:24973411

  20. Concentração sérica de progesterona em bezerras da raça nelore e mestiças tratadas com progesterona em veículo de liberação lenta Serum progesterone concentration in Nelore and crossbreed heifers treated with long-acting progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P.C. Lima

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a eliminação da progesterona em veículo de liberação lenta (P4LA em animais zebus e mestiços e sua potencial aplicabilidade em programas de sincronização de estro, utilizando-se 60 bezerras, 30 da raça Nelore e 30 mestiças (Gir x Holandês, entre 120 e 150 dias de idade e peso médio de 150kg. Em cada grupo experimental as bezerras foram divididas em três subgrupos (G de 10 animais, sendo GI = controle (tratado com 5ml de solução fisiológica por via intramuscular; GII = tratado com 450mg P4LA (3ml IM; e GIII = tratado com 750mg P4LA (5ml IM. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas no dia zero, 7 e 13 (D0, D7 e D13 e procedeu-se à análise hormonal por radioimunoensaio de fase sólida. A progesterona de ação prolongada (P4LA, administrada por via intramuscular, manteve-se por 13 dias na corrente sangüínea em concentrações superiores a 1ng/ml. As doses de 450mg e 750mg de P4LA não ocasionaram efeitos adversos sistêmicos clinicamente perceptíveis, e o metabolismo da P4LA foi mais lento nas bezerras Nelore, cuja concentração de progesterona foi maior na corrente sangüínea do que nas bezerras mestiças.The clearance of long-acting progesterone in microspheres (P4LA in zebu animals and its potential for use in estrus synchronization were evaluated using 30 Nelore and 30 crossbreed (Holstein x zebu heifers, with aging between 120 to 150-day-old and weighting 150kg in average. For each breed the animals were divided into three groups of ten animals each, GI= control group treated with saline; GII= treated with 450mg of P4LA; and GIII= treated with 750mg of long-acting progesterone (P4LA. Blood samples were colleted on days 0, 7 and 13 and analysed for progesterone using radioimmunoassay in solid phase. The serum concentration of progesterone was different on days 0, 7 and 13 in relation to the dose of P4LA given. All treated animals presented basal values for progesterone on day 0, increased on day 7 and decreased on

  1. In vitro maintenance of spermatogenesis in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risley, M.S.; Miller, A.; Bumcrot, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Spermatogenesis has been maintained for extended periods in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media supplemented with bovine serum albumin, insulin, transferrin, follicle-stimulating hormone, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, retinol, ascorbate, and tocopherol. The organization of the testis fragments was maintained for 28 days, and all stages of development were present throughout the culture period. 3 H-Thymidine-labeled secondary (Type B) spermatogonia developed in 28 days into spermatids at the acrosomal vesicle stage whereas labeled zygotene spermatocytes became mature spermatids in 28 days. Spermatogonial proliferation also continued in vitro for 28 days. Germ cell differentiation was not dependent upon exogenous testosterone, ascorbate, or tocopherol since 3 H-labeled spermatogonia became mature spermatids in testes cultured 35 days in media lacking these supplements. Autoradiography demonstrated that 55% of the luminal sperm present in explants cultured 10 days had differentiated in vitro. Sperm from testes cultured 10-35 days were similar to sperm from freshly dissected testes with regard to motility and fecundity, and eggs fertilized with sperm from explant cultures developed normally into swimming tadpoles. The results demonstrate the feasibility of maintaining vertebrate spermatogenesis in culture and suggest that in vitro analysis of Xenopus spermatogenesis using defined media may provide important insights into the evolution of regulatory mechanisms in spermatogenesis

  2. [The National Serum Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magos-López, C; Sánchez-Villarreal, F; Gutiérrez, G; Tapia-Conyer, R

    1992-01-01

    A National Serum Bank was established to store sera obtained during the National Seroepidemiological Survey performed in Mexico in 1987. More than 70,000 serum samples were obtained from subjects of either sex 1-99 years of age in each of the 32 states of the country. The current collection of sera includes 28,704 male samples and 40,629 female samples. This paper describes the procedures for handling serum samples, including reception registry, storage and distribution to several laboratories for detection of measles, rubella, poliomyelitis, AIDS, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, brucella, salmonella, amoeba, toxoplasma, American trypanosomiasis and cysticercus. Determinations of total cholesterol were also made in order to describe its distribution and to identify the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia.

  3. Radioimmunoassay of haloperidol in human serum: correlation of serum haloperidol with serum prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poland, R.E.; Rubin, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of serum haloperidol is described. Compared to gaschromatography (GC), RIA vaues average 40% higher. However, a simple organic extraction of serum yields statistically equivalent RIA and GC haloperidol determinations. For both men and women combined, there was a positive correlation between dose (mg/kg/day) and steady-state serum haloperidol level (r = +0.86) and between steady-state serum haloperidol and serum prolactin (PRL) concentration

  4. The association between serum vitamin D levels and renal tubular dysfunction in a general population exposed to cadmium in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Dai, Yan; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhu, Guoying; Ding, Xiaoqiang; Jin, Taiyi

    2018-01-01

    Cadmium exposure can cause renal tubular dysfunction. Recent studies show that vitamin D can play multiple roles in the body. However, the association between serum vitamin D levels and renal tubular dysfunction in a general population exposed to cadmium has not been clarified. We performed study to assess the effects of cadmium on serum 25(OH) D levels and the association between serum 25(OH) D levels and renal tubular dysfunction in a population environmentally exposed to cadmium. A total of 133 subjects living in control area and two cadmium polluted areas were included in the present study. Cadmium in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd), urinary β2Microglobulin (UBMG), urinary retinol binding protein (URBP) and serum 25 (OH) D were determined. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between 25 (OH) D and prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction. No significant differences were observed in serum 25(OH) D levels among the four quartile of UCd and BCd after adjusting with cofounders. After adjusted with the confounders, the odds ratio (OR) of subjects with 25(OH) D ≥ 40 ng/ml were 0.20 (95%CI: 0.1-0.8) if UBMG was chosen as indicators of renal dysfunction and 0.28 (95%CI: 0.1-1.1) if URBP was chosen as indicators of renal dysfunction, compared with those with 25(OH) D < 30 ng/ml, respectively. Similar results were observed in those subjects living in cadmium polluted areas or with high level of UCd or BCd. Our data indicated that cadmium exposure did not affect serum 25(OH) D level and high 25 (OH) D levels were associated with a decreased risk of renal tubular dysfunction induced by cadmium.

  5. Biodegradable nanoporous nanoparticles for human serum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujia, A.; De Angelis, F.; Scumaci, D.; Gaspari, M.; Liberale, C.; Candeloro, P.; Cuda, G.; Di Fabrizio, E.

    2010-01-01

    Modern medicine and biology search for new powerful tool for biomarkers discovery, appears one of the most promising approaches for early cancer diagnosis. Nowadays, the low molecular weight fraction of human serum is the most informative source of biomarkers, but their study and identification are very difficult due to the incredible complexity of the raw human serum. In this work we describe a novel tool for the filtration of crude human serum or other bio-fluid based on water soluble nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with a pore size of about 2-3 nm, and diameters of 200 nm were obtained by ultrasonication of nanoporous silicon. The porous nanoparticles act as a nanosieve able to exclusively harvest the low molecular weight fraction of the fluid thanks to a controllable pore size. After a short incubation, the infiltrated nanosieves can be extracted from the starting fluid by means of centrifugation, and dissolved in water in a few minutes to give the captured molecules back in their native state, without degradation and contamination. The raw fluid is so split in two components of high and low molecular weight, that are both available for further analyses with any other investigation technique. Here, fluorescence spectroscopy, 2D-gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry are exploited to show the split of different bio-fluids under physiological condition. A cut-off (or split level) of 13 kDa is demonstrated also for human serum.

  6. 79 - 81_Wali - Serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... SERUM ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE. CELL ANAEMIA IN SOKOTO, ... Sickle cell anaemia is associated with elevated oxidative stress via increase generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and .... acid and alpha tocopherol in Sickle cell anaemia. Cent Af J. Med., 41: ...

  7. Alterations of retinol-binding protein 4 species in patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease and their relation to lipid parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Andrea; Frey, Simone K; Raila, Jens

    2010-01-01

    ) was assessed in serum of 45 healthy controls and 52 patients with stage 2-5 of CKD using ELISA and RBP4 immunoprecipitation with subsequent MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. A reduction of glomerular filtration rate was accompanied by a gradual elevation of RBP4 serum levels and relative amounts of RBP4-LL. Correlation...

  8. Inverse association between intelligence quotient and urinary retinol binding protein in Chinese school-age children with low blood lead levels: results from a cross-sectional investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Chen, Wen; Wang, Dongyue; Jin, Yinlong; Chen, Xiaodong; Xu, Yan; Huang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Examine the relationship between blood lead concentration and children's intelligence quotient (IQ) in Chinese children 8-12 years old. This is a cross-sectional study, and participants included 446 children from three primary schools in Jiangsu, China. We collected environmental and genetic information from questionnaires. Blood lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd) and selenium (Se) concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). IQ was assessed using the Combined Raven's Test and then converted to a standard IQ score according to Chinese children's norm. Morning urine samples were collected to measure retinol binding protein (RBP). The average blood lead concentration was 33.13 μg L(-1) (geometric mean), and the blood lead concentration (BoxCox transform) was inversely and significantly associated with IQ (r=-0.11, p=0.02). The geometric mean of blood Mn, Cd and Se was 7.02 μg L(-1), 0.18 μg L(-1) and 94.77 μg L(-1), respectively. Blood Mn, Cd and Se showed no association with IQ, but all of them associated with urinary RBP. Urinary RBP was identified as a new factor associated with IQ (β=-6.49, p=0.011). Urinary RBP was recognized as a new indicated factor associated with children's IQ. Mn, Cd and Se exposure might affect urinary RBP concentration and further IQ. Findings also support that blood lead concentrations in 8-12 years old children, even IQ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Seasonal Variation in Serum Ascorbic Acid and Serum Lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine the serum ascorbic acid and serum lipid composition of the baboons under natural environmental conditions. We consider these data important as they .... way analysis of covariance" was computed on serum cholesterol, using cubic regression on body mass. Since 5 variables were under consideration, IO signi-.

  10. Radioimmunoassay for serum paraquat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatori, D.; Hunter, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Two variants of a radioimmunoassay for the bipyridylium herbicide Paraquat are described. Both employ antiserum raised to Paraquat-BSA which has been covalently linked to particulate solid-phase support media. The rapid assay for clinical use employs a [ 3 H] Paraquat tracer, requires no agitation and yields results in the range 10-2500 ng/ml serum in 20 min from receipt of sample. The more sensitive assay, designed for research purposes, employs a 125 iodinated tracer, requires 2 h continuous agitation but can detect Paraquat at 0.1 ng/ml in simple aqueous solution or 0.25 ng/ml serum. Results from rapid clinical assay agree well with the existing colorimetric method. (Auth.)

  11. Serum Creatinine: Not So Simple!

    OpenAIRE

    DELANAYE, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Pottel, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Measuring serum creatinine is cheap and commonly done in daily practice. However, interpretation of serum creatinine results is not always easy. In this review, we will briefly remind the physiological limitations of serum creatinine due notably to its tubular secretion and the influence of muscular mass or protein intake on its concentration. We mainly focus on the analytical limitations of serum creatinine, insisting on important concept such as reference intervals, standardization (and IDM...

  12. Serum Interleukin-6 in Patients with Burning Mouth Syndrome and Relationship with Depression and Perceived Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianming Chen

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions. Serum interleukin-6 in patients with burning mouth syndrome is decreased and negatively correlated to chronic pain. Both psychological and neuropathic disorders might act as precipitating factors in BMS etiopathogenesis.

  13. Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000 (Act 588)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Act 588 of the Republic of Ghana entitled, Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000, amends and consolidates the Atomic Energy Commission Act, 204 of 1963 relating to the establishment of the Atomic Energy Commission. Act 588 makes provision for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission to establish more institutes for the purpose of research in furtherance of its functions and also promote the commercialization of its research and development results. (E.A.A.)

  14. Free serum thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrossi, O.J.; Altschuler, Noe; Cabrejas, M.L. de; Pinkas, Mirta; Garcia del Rio, Hernan

    1982-01-01

    The use of radiommunoassay (RIA) tehcniques has increased the diagnosis of thyroid functional alterations. A solid phase RIA method for free thyroxine (FT4) measurement was tested. Serum FT4, Total T4, T3 and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay in 179 subjects. One hundred twenty two patients were normal (8 to 75 years old); FT4 was 1.42 +- 0.03 ng/100 ml (avg. value and std. error). In 27 cases of thyrotoxicosis the values were 4.66 +- 0.48 ng/100 ml and in 15 cases of hypothyroidism 0.50 +- 0.06 ng/100 ml (statistics probability [es

  15. Isolation of human anti-serum albumin Fab antibodies with an extended serum-half life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cha, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The serum albumin (SA) has been exploited to generate long-acting biotherapeutics by taking advantage of the FcRn-mediated recycling mechanism in a direct or an indirect way. Since Fab fragments have been proven to be clinically safe for human usage, we assumed that human anti-SA Fab antibodies could have a great potential as a carrier molecule to extend the serum half-life of therapeutic proteins. We, herein, had attempted to isolate anti-SA Fab antibodies from HuDVFab-8L antibody library via a phage display technology, and identified eight discrete human Fab antibodies. One of the Fab antibodies, SL335, showed the strongest binding reactivity to human SA with nM range of affinity at both pH 6 and pH 7.4, and cross-reacted to SAs from various species including rat, mouse, canine and monkey. The in vivo pharmacokinetic assay using a rat model indicated that SL335 has approximately 10 fold longer serum half-life and 26 to 44-fold increase in AUC0 → ∞ compared to the negative control Fab molecule in both intravenous and subcutaneous administrations. Knowing that Fabs have proven to be safe in clinics for a long time, SL335 seems to have a great potential in generating long-acting protein drugs by tagging effector molecules with either chemical conjugation or genetic fusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear Regulatory Authority Act, 2015 (Act 895)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    An Act to establish a Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Ghana. This Act provides for the regulation and management of activities and practices for the peaceful use of nuclear material or energy, and to provide for the protection of persons and the environment against the harmful effects of radiation; and to ensure the effective implementation of the country’s international obligations and for related matters. This Act replaced the Radiation Protection Instrument, of 1993 (LI 1559).

  17. Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium in emergency surgical patients in a tertiary hospital in Ghana. Robert Djagbletey, Brenda Phillips, Frank Boni, Christian Owoo, Ebenezer Owusu-Darkwa, Papa Kobina Gyakye deGraft-Johnson, Alfred E. Yawson ...

  18. Serum acute phase reactants hallmark healthy individuals at risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlak, Jürgen; Chatterji, Bijon; Londhe, Kishor B; Watkins, Paul B

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic. However, its use is associated with drug-induced liver injury (DILI). It is a prominent cause of acute liver failure, with APAP hepatotoxicity far exceeding other causes of acute liver failure in the United States. In order to improve its safe use this study aimed to identify individuals at risk for DILI prior to drug treatment by searching for non-genetic serum markers in healthy subjects susceptible to APAP-induced liver injury (AILI). Healthy volunteers (n = 36) received either placebo or acetaminophen at the maximum daily dose of 4 g for 7 days. Blood samples were taken prior to and after APAP treatment. Serum proteomic profiling was done by 2D SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry. Additionally, the proteins C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and hemopexin were studied by quantitative immunoassays. One-third of study subjects presented more than four-fold increased alanine transaminase activity to evidence liver injury, while serum proteomics informed on 20 proteins as significantly regulated. These function primarily in acute phase and immune response. Pre-treatment associations included C-reactive protein, haptoglobin isoforms and retinol binding protein being up to six-fold higher in AILI susceptible individuals, whereas alpha1-antitrypsin, serum amyloid A, kininogen and transtyretin were regulated by nearly five-fold in AILI responders. When compared with published findings for steatohepatitis and cases of hepatocellular, cholestatic and mixed DILI, 10 proteins were identified as uniquely associated with risk for AILI, including plasminogen. Notably, this zymogen facilitates macrophage chemotactic migration and inflammatory response as reported for plasminogen-deficient mice shown to be resistant to APAP hepatotoxicity. Finally, analysis of a publicly available database of gene expression profiles of cultures of human hepatocytes treated with drugs

  19. Microheterogeneity of transthyretin in serum and ascitic fluid of ovarian cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gericke, Beate; Raila, Jens; Sehouli, Jalid; Haebel, Sophie; Könsgen, Dominique; Mustea, Alexander; Schweigert, Florian J

    2005-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR), a traditional biomarker for nutritional and inflammatory status exists in different molecular variants of yet unknown importance. A truncated form of TTR has recently been described to be part of a set of biomarkers for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. The main aim of the study was therefore to characterize differences in microheterogeneity between ascitic fluid and plasma of women affected with ovarian cancer and to evaluate the tumor site as the possible source of TTR. Subjects were 48 women with primary invasive epithelial ovarian cancer or recurrent ovarian carcinoma. The control group consisted of 20 postmenopausal women. TTR and retinol-binding protein (RBP) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels by a high-sensitivity latex particle turbidimetric assay. The molecular heterogeneity of TTR was analysed using immunoprecipitation and matrix-associated laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Presence of TTR in tumor tissue was determined with indirect peroxidase immunostaining. TTR and RBP (μg/ml) levels in serum were 148.5 ± 96.7 and 22.5 ± 14.8 in affected women compared to 363.3 ± 105.5 and 55.8 ± 9.3 in healthy postmenopausal women (p < 0.01). In ascitic fluid, levels were 1.02 ± 0.24 and 4.63 ± 1.57 μg/ml, respectively. The mean levels of TTR and RBP in serum showed a tendency to decrease with the severity of the disease and were lower in affected women whose CRP levels were > 40 mg/ml (p = 0.08 for TTR; p < 0.05 for RBP). No differences in TTR microheterogeneity were observed between TTR isolated from serum of affected and healthy women or from ascitic fluid. TTR occurred rather consistently in four variants. Mass signals were at 13758 ± 7, 13876 ± 13 (greatest intensity), 13924 ± 21 and 14062 ± 24 Da, representing native, S-cysteinylated, S-cysteinglycinylated and glutathionylated TTR, respectively. Serum of healthy and affected women

  20. Vitamin A intake, serum vitamin D and bone mineral density: analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Yang, Sung-Won; Song, Byeng Chun; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2015-03-10

    The association of high vitamin A intake and low bone mineral density (BMD) is still controversial. To determine the association of dietary vitamin A intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration with BMD, a total of 6481 subjects (2907 men and 3574 women) aged ≥50 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011) were divided into groups according to dietary vitamin A intake (tertiles) and serum 25(OH)D (75 nmol/L), and evaluated for BMD after adjusting for relevant variables. Mean dietary vitamin A intakes were 737 and 600 μg RE (Retinol Equivalents) in men and women, respectively. Total hip and femoral neck BMD in men and lumbar spine BMD in women were both positively correlated with dietary vitamin A intake in subjects with serum 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L. Among men with serum 25(OH)D bottom (mean 218 μg RE) tertiles of dietary vitamin A intake had lower BMD than the middle group (mean 577 μg RE). In this population, BMD was the highest among men and women with serum 25(OH)D = 50-75 nmol/L and that there were no differences in BMD by vitamin A intake in these vitamin D adequate groups. This cross-sectional study indicates that vitamin A intake does not affect bone mineral density as long as the serum 25(OH)D concentration is maintained in the moderate level of 50-75 nmol/L.

  1. Vitamin A Intake, Serum Vitamin D and Bone Mineral Density: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Seok Joo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The association of high vitamin A intake and low bone mineral density (BMD is still controversial. To determine the association of dietary vitamin A intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentration with BMD, a total of 6481 subjects (2907 men and 3574 women aged ≥50 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011 were divided into groups according to dietary vitamin A intake (tertiles and serum 25(OHD (<50, 50–75, >75 nmol/L, and evaluated for BMD after adjusting for relevant variables. Mean dietary vitamin A intakes were 737 and 600 μg RE (Retinol Equivalents in men and women, respectively. Total hip and femoral neck BMD in men and lumbar spine BMD in women were both positively correlated with dietary vitamin A intake in subjects with serum 25(OHD >75 nmol/L. Among men with serum 25(OHD <50 nmol/L, both the top (mean 1353 μg RE and bottom (mean 218 μg RE tertiles of dietary vitamin A intake had lower BMD than the middle group (mean 577 μg RE. In this population, BMD was the highest among men and women with serum 25(OHD = 50–75 nmol/L and that there were no differences in BMD by vitamin A intake in these vitamin D adequate groups. This cross-sectional study indicates that vitamin A intake does not affect bone mineral density as long as the serum 25(OHD concentration is maintained in the moderate level of 50–75 nmol/L.

  2. DETERMINATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reaction of tribromoarsenazo(TB-ASA) with serum albumin in the presence of emulgent OP was studied by spectrophotometry. In a Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 2.9, tribromoarsenazo and bovine serum albumin can immediately form a red compound in the presence of emulgent OP with a maximum absorption ...

  3. Atomic Act amended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper by the chairwoman of the Czech nuclear regulatory authority, the history of Czech nuclear legislation is outlined, the reasons for the amendment of the Atomic Act (Act No. 18/1997) are explained, and the amendments themselves are highlighted. The Act No. 13/2002 of 18 December 2001 is reproduced from the official Collection of Acts of the Czech Republic in the facsimile form. The following acts were thereby amended: Atomic Act No. 18/1997, Metrology Act No. 505/1990, Public Health Protection Act No. 258/2000, and Act No. 2/1969 on the Establishment of Ministries and Other Governmental Agencies of the Czech Republic. (P.A.)

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. ... or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can do on their own. Share ...

  5. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Open Enrollment Periods Claims and Appeals Glossary of Common Health Insurance Terms Understanding Travel Insurance Research X ... with CF and her father: Demonstrate and discuss common ACT therapies Offer their tips for fitting ACTs ...

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ... for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast To learn more about how you can ...

  7. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Therapeutics Lab Developing New Treatments The CF Foundation offers a number of resources for learning about clinical ... her father: Demonstrate and discuss common ACT therapies Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life ...

  8. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the smaller airways to attack bacteria. Choose What's Best for You Your respiratory therapist or another member ... specific ACTs for you to try. However, the best ACT is the one that you are most ...

  9. Nuclear Installations Act 1965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This Act governs all activities related to nuclear installations in the United Kingdom. It provides for the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the duties of licensees, the competent authorities and carriers of nuclear material in respect of nuclear occurrences, as well as for the system of third party liability and compensation for nuclear damage. The Act repeals the Nuclear Installations (Licensing and Insurance) Act 1959 and the Nuclear Installations (Amendment Act) 1965 except for its Section 17(2). (NEA) [fr

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vitamin A (serum retinol level< 20 11g/ dl), making VAD a ... High-dose vitamin. A supplementation in postpartum women and preschool children is a quick-acting solution that can prove effective in the short term while planning and implementing more ... populations whose needs are not adequately addressed when a.

  11. Study of Serum Amylase and Serum Cholinesterase in Organophosphorus Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Badiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds is most commonly seen. Earlier plasma cholinesterase level was used to assess the severity of poisoning. Presently serum amylase is being recommended as a better indicator of severity. Aims and Objectives: To study plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase levels in acute organophosphorus and to correlate serum amylase levels with clinical severity and outcome. Material and Methods: A total of 80 patients in the study admitted to a tertiary care centre within 24 hours with a history of organophosphorus poisoning were included in study. Estimation of plasma cholinesterase and serum rd amylase was done at the time of admission, and on 3 th day and on 5 day. Results: Occurrence of organophosphorus poisoning was more common among age group 21-30 years and among males (57.5%. They were 25 (31.2% farmers, 23 (28.8% st u d e n ts, a n d 2 2 ( 2 7 . 5% h o u s ewi v e s. Monocrotophos (45.0% was commonly used compound. Mean value of plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase at admission are 3693 U/L, and 185.4 U/L. There was significant inhibition of plasma cholinesterase and elevation of serum amylase at th admission with return to normal values on 5 day. Conclusion: Plasma cholinesterase inhibition 200 U/L has been associated with poor prognosis and proneness to respiratory failure.

  12. Retinol as a micronutrients related to cervical local immunity: The expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha specifically stimulated with E6 epitope of human papillomavirus type-16 and ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cell in natural history of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, T. W.; Aziz, M. F.; Ibrahim, F.; Andrijono

    2017-08-01

    Retinol is one of the antioxidant micronutrients that plays essential roles in the immune system, by preventing the persistence of modulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and cytokines production. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α) is an acute pro-inflammatory cytokine which has many crucial roles in controlling HPV. In contrast, when persistent infection occurs, TNF-α induces carcinogenesis. The ratio of CD4+ cells to CD8+ T cells and adequate TNF-α production in acute HPV infection are key points for clearance. The aim of this research is to analyze the sufficiency level of retinol deposit, the expression of TNF-α, and the ratio of CD4+: CD8+ T cells in a normal cervix, clearance and persistent HPV subclinical infection, and cervical cancer group. The sufficiency level of retinol deposit was analyzed from peripheral blood using the ELISA method. The cervico-vaginal secretions, which were incubated for 24 hours, were stimulated specifically by E6 epitope HPV type-16, measuring TNF-α expression semi-quantitatively by the ELISpot method and CD4+/CD8+ T cells quantitatively by flowcytometry method. The sufficient level of retinol deposit in a normal cervix, clearance HPV subclinical infection, persistent, and cervical cancer group was 85%, 75% (OR 1.89), 33.3% (OR 11.33), and 75% (OR 1.89), respectively. The expression of TNF-α in normal cervix group was 10%, while for cervical cancer it was 75% (OR 27.00; p < 0.001). There was no expression in clearance and persistent HPV subclinical infection groups. A high ratio of CD4+: CD8+ T cells in the normal cervix and cervical cancer group was 10% and 25% (OR 0.33). There was no high ratio of CD4+: CD8+ T cells in clearance (OR 1.22) and persistent (OR 0.95) HPV subclinical infection groups. This study was able to prove that the normal cervix group has the highest retinol deposit sufficiency level and the cervical cancer group has the highest TNF-α expression (OR 27; p < 0.001). The lowest of retinol deposit sufficiency

  13. Radioactive Substances Act 1960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    This Act regulates the keeping and use of radioactive material and makes provision for the disposal and storage of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. It provides for a licensing system for such activities and for exemptions therefrom, in particular as concerns the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. The Act repeals Section 4(5) of the Atomic Energy Authority Act, 1954 which made temporary provision for discharge of waste on or from premises occupied by the Authority. (NEA) [fr

  14. Learning dialog act processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wermter, Stefan; Löchel, Matthias

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach for learning dialog act processing. In this approach we integrate a symbolic semantic segmentation parser with a learning dialog act network. In order to support the unforeseeable errors and variations of spoken language we have concentrated on robust data-driven learning. This approach already compares favorably with the statistical average plausibility method, produces a segmentation and dialog act assignment for all utterances in a robust manner,...

  15. Radiological Protection Act 1970

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Act provides for the establishment of a Radiological Protection Board to undertake research and advise on protection from radiation hazards. Its functions include provision of advice to Government departments with responsibilities in relation to protection of sectors of the community or the community as a whole against the hazards of ionizing radiation. The Act, which lays down that the Board shall replace certain departments concerned with radiation protection, repeals several Sections of the Radioactive Substances Act 1948 and the Science and Technology Act 1965. (NEA) [fr

  16. Changes in the serum protein profile during radiotherapy to the upper respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, M.; Lobera, A.; Legrand, E.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with a cancer of the upper airways of upper gastro-intestinal tract present a state of malnutrition as a result of the disease itself and, more importantly, as a result of its localisation. Loco-regional radiotherapy often leads to an aggravation, of this state. The protein profile, consisting of nine serum proteins, was determined each week in 54 patients with cancer of the upper respirato-gastro-intestinal tract receiving radiotherapy. During the course of radiotherapy, the already altered nutritional state of these patients deteriorated further, as shown by a regular and significant downturn in the weight curve. The weekly monitoring of the protein profile showed a gradual and significant decrease in the levels of nutritional proteins (prealbumin, retinol binding protein, transferrin) and immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA) and a small variation in the levels of inflammatory proteins (haptoglobin, orosomucoid, C3 complement fraction, alpha 1 -antitrypsin). The protein profile, established on the basis of carefully selected proteins, can provide useful information in the monitoring of a patient's nutritional state [fr

  17. Retinol Binding Protein-4 Is Associated with TNF-α and Not Insulin Resistance in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M. Al-Daghri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the association between RBP4 and various markers related to insulin resistance and diabetic complications as well as inflammatory markers in Saudi population suffering from type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. Patients with type 2 diabetes were divided into 3 groups according to the type of treatment and involvement of coronary artery disease. Serum RBP4, TNF-α, insulin, CRP, resistin, leptin and adiponectin were analysed in all samples. RBP4 levels increased significantly in the group of diabetic subjects treated with oral hypoglycemic agents and diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (30.2 ± 11.8; 33.4 ± 13.6 respectively, while there was no significant change in the other group for diabetic subjects on low-carbohydrate diet (25.1 ± 10.9 compared to control group (22.6 ± 9.5. RPB4 levels were positively correlated with TNF-α in the group of diabetic subjects on oral hypoglycemic agents and diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (r = 0.52, P < 0.05; r = 0.58, P < 0.05 respectively. No correlations were found between RBP4 levels and insulin resistance in all studied groups. Our findings suggest that serum RBP4 levels is associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and is not associated with insulin resistance among patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease.

  18. Act II of the Sunshine Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Kanter, Genevieve

    2014-11-01

    To coincide with the introduction in the United States of the Sunshine Act, Genevieve Pham-Kanter discusses what we need to look for to fight hidden bias and deliberate or unconscious corruption. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  19. Act II of the Sunshine Act.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Pham-Kanter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To coincide with the introduction in the United States of the Sunshine Act, Genevieve Pham-Kanter discusses what we need to look for to fight hidden bias and deliberate or unconscious corruption. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  20. 25 CFR 700.33 - Act (The Act).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Act (The Act). 700.33 Section 700.33 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.33 Act (The Act). (a) The Act. The Act is Pub. L. 93-531, (88 Stat...

  1. Using serum urate as a validated surrogate end point for flares in patients with gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birger Morillon, Melanie; Stamp, L.; Taylor, E W

    2016-01-01

    , effectively acting as a surrogate for patient-centred outcomes such as frequency of gout attacks or pain. Yet it is not clearly demonstrated that the strength of the relationship between serum urate and clinically relevant outcomes is sufficiently strong for serum urate to be considered an adequate surrogate....... Our objective is to investigate the strength of the relationship between changes in serum urate in randomised controlled trials and changes in clinically relevant outcomes according to the 'Biomarker-Surrogacy Evaluation Schema version 3' (BSES3), documenting the validity of selected instruments...

  2. Nuclear Installations Act 1969

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this Act is to amend the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 to bring it into full compliance with the international conventions on nuclear third party liability to which the United Kingdom is a Signatory, namely, the Paris Convention, the Brussels Supplementary Convention and the Vienna Convention. (NEA) [fr

  3. Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaesberg, Mary Ann; Murray, Kenneth T.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a 35-item checklist of practical activities for school district compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The checklist is based on ADA statutes, other civil rights legislation and litigation, as well as pertinent regulations and the legislative history of the act contained in the Congressional Record. (MLF)

  4. Access to Information Act

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    PC Forms Inc. 834-4048

    To apply for information under the Access to. Information Act, complete this form or a written request mentioning the Act. Describe the information being sought and provide any relevant details necessary to help the International. Development Research Centre (IDRC) find it. If you require assistance, refer to Info Source.

  5. Radiation emitting devices act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Act, entitled the Radiation Emitting Devices Act, is concerned with the sale and importation of radiation emitting devices. Laws relating to the sale, lease or import, labelling, advertising, packaging, safety standards and inspection of these devices are listed as well as penalties for any person who is convicted of breaking these laws

  6. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  7. Clean Air Act Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act is the law that defines EPA's responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer. The last major change in the law, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, enacted in 1990 by Congress.

  8. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be taken through a nebulizer during ACTs. Inhaled antibiotics should be taken after ACTs are finished and the lungs are as clear of mucus as possible. This will allow the medication to reach deeply into the smaller airways to attack bacteria. Choose What's Best for You Your respiratory therapist ...

  9. Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... Aim: To determine the relationship between serum total magnesium and potassium levels in adult patients requiring an emergency ..... and in-hospital mortality in critically ill patients and a before-after analysis on the impact of computer- assisted potassium control. Crit Care [Internet]. 2015;19(1):1–11.

  10. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  11. Serum biochemical changes accompanying prolonged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-18

    Oct 18, 2010 ... Toxicological evaluation of the whole fruit of Lagenaria breviflora was carried out using the serum biochemical changes accompanying prolonged administration of the ethanolic extract of the fruit in ... glucose in rats administered with the extract of 8000 mg/kg body weight increased two and half-fold.

  12. Lecithin intake and serum cholesterol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, J.T.; Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    To find out whether the consumption of lecithin has a more beneficial effect on serum cholesterol than does the consumption of equivalent amounts of polyunsaturated oils, we scrutinized 24 studies on the effect of supplementary lecithin intakes ranging from 1 to 54 mg/d. Most of the studies lacked

  13. Serum zinc level in thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keikhaei, B.; Badavi, M.; Pedram, M.; Zandian, K.

    2010-01-01

    To compare serum zinc level between Thalassemia Major (TM) patients and normal population at Shafa Hospital in South West of Iran. A total of 25 male and 36 female of TM patients were enrolled in this study. Out of 61 patients thirty were treated by deferroxamine (DFO) and 31 were on the combination of DFO and deferiprone (DEF) protocol therapy. Sixty normal subjects of the matching age and gender were recruited as controls. From each patient and control group 2 ml of blood was taken in fasting condition. Cell blood count and serum zinc were carried out for both thalassemia patients and normal subjects. The mean age of patients and control group was 15+- 5 years. Mean serum zinc level was 68.97+- 21.12 mu g/dl, 78.10-28.50 mu g/dl, and 80.16+- 26.54 mu g/dl in the TM with DFO, TM with DFO + DEF combination protocol and control group respectively. There was no significant correlation between patients and control group. However 50 percent of TM with DFO, 38.7 percent of TM with DFO + DEF and 32.8 percent of control group had hypozincemia. Nearly 40 to 50 percent of TM patients and one third of normal subjects are suffering from hypozincemia. This study shows that low level of serum zinc is a health problem in both thalassemia patients and normal population in South West of Iran. (author)

  14. Sarbanes Oxley Act

    OpenAIRE

    Těšínský, Josef

    2011-01-01

    The diploma thesis is focused on corporate fraud problematic, on The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and on problematics of internal control systems and corporate governance, which relate closely with the Sarbanes-Oxley act. The goal of my diploma thesis is to highlight the significance of corporate fraud problematic and create an integrated summary of requirements placed on companies, which either have to or want to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley act. The opening part of the diploma thesis is foc...

  15. The Experiment as Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    to identify and locate the experiments of POEX65 as acts; and to ask the questions: what constitutes those acts as experiments? and how do we possibly archive them? My purpose, then, is to define the methodologies to obtain the contours of a post-phenomenology of experimental artistic production in order...... to be able to analyse the phenomena found at POEX65. Here I will use the notion of the ‘ontological theatre’ (Pickering), which, according to Pickering, is acted out in experimental art productions. The experiment could thus be seen as an ‘agency-realism’ – as an ‘act’ of relations across the aesthetics...

  16. The Energy Act 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Part II of This Act came into force on 1 September 1983 and is concerned with nuclear installations. Its main purpose is to amend the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 to give effect to the provisions of two Protocols amending the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention respectively. The principal effect of these modifications is to increase the sums available to meet claims for nuclear damage. The United Kingdom is a Party to both Conventions and the provisions of the 1983 Act will enable it to ratify the Protocols. (NEA) [fr

  17. 75 FR 63703 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 261a [Docket No. R-1313] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... implementing the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act). The primary changes concern the waiver of copying fees... records under the Privacy Act; the amendment of special procedures for the release of medical records to...

  18. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What to Consider Regarding a Lung Transplant Medications Antibiotics Bronchodilators CFTR Modulator Therapies Mucus Thinners Nebulizer Care ... that help thin and move the mucus, and antibiotics. Bronchodilators should be inhaled before you start ACTs. ...

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy to ...

  20. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  1. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  2. Affordable Care Act (ACA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is a federal statute enacted with a goal of increasing the quality and affordability of health insurance. Through a web service, CMS...

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Care Guidelines Nutrition and GI Care Guidelines Antioxidants Clinical Care Guidelines Colorectal Cancer Screening Clinical Care ... All ACTs involve coughing or huffing . Many of them use percussion (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus ...

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... another member of your CF care team can show you how to perform many different ACTs and ... of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway ...

  5. ACTS – SUCCESS STORY

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. ACTS – SUCCESS STORY. Totally 103 experiments were conducted and the programme succeeded in the areas. Medicine; Education; Defence; Emergency Response; Maritime and Aeronautical Mobile Communications; Science and Astronomy.

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy to do. Infants and toddlers will ... best ACT is the one that you are most likely to perform as part of your daily ...

  7. Abandoned Shipwreck Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents the extent of the Abandoned Shipwreck Act (ASA). The ASA allows states to manage a broad range of resources within submerged lands, including...

  8. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent geographic terms used within the Clean Water Act (CWA). The CWA establishes the basic structure for regulating the addition of pollutants...

  9. Preventive Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewer, H.

    1988-01-01

    The commentary is intended to contribute to protection of the population by a practice-oriented discussion and explanation of questions arising in connection with the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Leaving aside discussions about abandonment of nuclear power, or criticism from any legal point of view, the commentary adopts the practical approach that accepts, and tries to help implementing, the act as it is. It is a guide for readers who are not experts in the law and gives a line of orientation by means of explanations and sometimes by citations from other acts (in footnotes). The commentary also presents the EURATOM Directive No. 3954/87 dated 22 December 1987, the EC Directive No. 3955/87 dated 22 December 1987, and the EC Directive No. 1983/88 dated 5 July 1988. A tabular survey shows the system of duties and competences defined by the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. (RST) [de

  10. Energy Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Energy Policy Act (EPA) addresses energy production in the United States, including: (1) energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and gas; (4) coal; (5)...

  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy ... to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear ...

  12. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... resources you need to continuously build upon this work. Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards ... The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory ...

  14. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Consortia CF Biomarker Consortium CFTR 3-D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS ... The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory ...

  15. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pipeline 101 About the Drug Development Pipeline How Drugs Get on the ... All ACTs involve coughing or huffing . Many of them use percussion (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from ...

  16. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  17. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory ...

  18. The Corporations Act 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bostock, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The author outlines reforms made in Australia in the area of company law with an analysis of the Corporations Act 2001, which along with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 comprises Corporations legislation in Australia. Article by Tom Bostock (a partner in the law firm Mallesons Stephen Jaques, Melbourne, Australia). Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and its Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by...

  19. Growth performance, haematological characteristic and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, haematological characteristic and serum biochemistry of Japanese quails fed with diets containing African pear seed meal. ... haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) serum total protein (PRO), Albumin (ALB), glucose (GLU), creatinine (CREAT), cholesterol (CHOL) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP).

  20. The CEO's second act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, David A

    2007-01-01

    When a CEO leaves because of performance problems, the company typically recruits someone thought to be better equipped to fix what the departing executive couldn't--or wouldn't. The board places its confidence in the new person because of the present dilemma's similarity to some previous challenge that he or she dealt with successfully. But familiar problems are inevitably succeeded by less familiar ones, for which the specially selected CEO is not quite so qualified. More often than not, the experiences, skills, and temperament that yielded triumph in Act I turn out to be unequal to Act II's difficulties. In fact, the approaches that worked so brilliantly in Act I may be the very opposite of what is needed in Act II. The CEO has four choices: refuse to change, in which case he or she will be replaced; realize that the next act requires new skills and learn them; downsize or circumscribe his or her role to compensate for deficiencies; or line up a successor who is qualified to fill a role to which the incumbent's skills and interests are no longer suited. Hewlett-Packard's Carly Fiorina exemplifies the first alternative; Merrill Lynch's Stanley O'Neal the second; Google's Sergey Brin and Larry Page the third; and Quest Diagnostics' Ken Freeman the fourth. All but the first option are reasonable responses to the challenges presented in the second acts of most CEOs' tenures. And all but the first require a power of observation, a propensity for introspection, and a strain of humility that are rare in the ranks of the very people who need those qualities most. There are four essential steps executives can take to discern that they have entered new territory and to respond accordingly: recognition that their leadership style and approach are no longer working; acceptance of others' advice on why performance is faltering; analysis and understanding of the nature of the Act II shift; and, finally, decision and action.

  1. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  2. Association of serum fetuin-A and fetuin-A gene polymorphism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dalia A. Maharem

    2013-09-12

    Sep 12, 2013 ... colloidal particles thereby preventing the precipitation of basic calcium phosphate (BCP) and acting as a .... Quantitative analysis of fetuin-A: Serum fetuin-A level was measured using the ELISA technique ( ... the analysis of plain radiographic films of the pelvis and hand. Pelvis films were divided into four ...

  3. Serum Antibody Biomarkers for ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    45-56. Singh VK. (2009) Phenotypic expression of autoimmune autistic disorder (AAD): A major subset of autism. Ann Clin Psychiat. 21:148-160. 5...spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in communication (verbal and nonverbal), social interactions, and... autoimmunity ; in particular, the generation of antibodies reactive against brain and CNS proteins. The goal of this grant is to identify serum

  4. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA or Act). The Act defines the United States outer continental shelf...

  5. SERUM PARAOXONASE ACTIVITY IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Saritha Gadicherla; Suma M. N; Parveen Doddamani

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Serum paraoxonase is an enzyme synthesised in the liver. It is known to prevent atherosclerosis by inhibiting oxidation of lowdensity lipoprotein. Renal transplant recipients have increased tendency for developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Reduced activity of serum paraoxonase contributes to accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular complications in these patients. The aim of this study was to estimate serum paraoxonase activity in re...

  6. Serum levels of antimüllerian hormone in early maturing girls before, during, and after suppression with GnRH agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper P; Sørensen, Kaspar; Anderson, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels are affected in early maturing girls, and whether pituitary suppression by long-acting GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) affects AMH.......To evaluate whether serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels are affected in early maturing girls, and whether pituitary suppression by long-acting GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) affects AMH....

  7. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coburn, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  8. The Act of Walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Maria Quvang Harck; Olesen, Mette; Helmer, Pernille Falborg

    2014-01-01

    perception of ‘walkability’ is based upon a subjective judgement of different physical factors, such as sidewalk width, traffic volumes and building height (Ewing and Handy 2009:67). And iIn order to understand the act of walking it is therefore necessary to create a vocabulary to understand how and why...... the individuals evaluate, interpret and act (Bourdieu 1984), and how this affects their choice to walk. Therefore it could be questioned if whether an assessment of the physical environment is sufficient to identify all the factors that influence the individual perception of ‘walkability’, or if other influencing...... factors like lifestyle and life situation should be addressed in order to understand ‘walkability’ fully. The challenge is to approach issues linked to the ‘more-than representational’ (Thrift 2007; Vannini 2012) act of walking and thereby understand pedestrian behaviour in general, but also...

  9. Atomic Energy Act 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    This Act, which entered into force on 1 september 1989, contains a series of provisions dealing with different subjects: increase of public financing for British Nuclear Fuels plc, amendment of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 regarding the powers of the Health and Safety Executive to recover expenses directly from nuclear operators and obligation of the UKAEA to take out insurance or other financial security to cover its liability and finally, measures to enable the UK to ratify the IAEA Convention on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency [fr

  10. HETEROGENIC SERUM, AGE, AND MULTIPLICATION OF FIBROBLASTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, A; Ebeling, A H

    1922-01-01

    The presence in a culture medium of heterogenic serum of various concentrations exerts a definite influence on the rate of multiplication of fibroblasts. Dog serum does not inhibit the growth of See PDF for Structure chicken fibroblasts markedly until its concentration reaches 15 per cent. Beyond this figure, each increase of the concentration brings about a rapid decrease in the rate of cell multiplication. When the concentration reaches from 30 to 45 per cent, no growth takes place. The inhibiting action of cat serum begins to manifest itself at a concentration of 25 per cent and prevents cell proliferation completely at a concentration of 55 and 60 per cent. The ratio, See PDF for Equation can be taken as expressing the action of the serum on fibroblast multiplication; that is, as the growth index of the serum. See PDF for Structure The inhibiting influence of heterogenic serum was found to vary in direct ratio to the age of the animal from which it was obtained. The rate of proliferation of chicken fibroblasts was studied comparatively in media containing varied concentrations of serum from young and old animals. For each concentration of serum, the rate of growth in the serum of the old animal was expressed in relation to the rate of growth in the serum of the young animal. When cat serum was used, the curve obtained in plotting this ratio in ordinates and the serum concentration in abscissae showed a rapid increase in the inhibiting action of the old serum as soon as the concentration reached 30 per cent. The same tests were repeated with the serum from young and old dogs. The general results were identical, although See PDF for Structure the quantitative inhibiting action of both sera was greater than that of cat serum. It may be concluded that under the conditions of the experiments: 1. Heterogenicsera inhibit and prevent the growth of chicken fibroblasts when their concentration is made to vary within certain limits. 2. A relation exists between the rate

  11. Ocean Dumping Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Act provides for the control of dumping of wastes and other substances in the ocean in accordance with the London Convention of 1972 on Prevention of Marine Pollution by the Dumping of Wastes and other Matter to which Canada is a Party. Radioactive wastes are included in the prohibited and restricted substances. (NEA)

  12. Radioactive Substances Act 1948

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1948-01-01

    This Act regulates the use of radioactive substances and radiation producing devices in the United Kingdom. It provides for the control of import, export, sale, supply etc. of such substances and devices and lays down the safety regulations to be complied with when dealing with them. (NEA) [fr

  13. Special Appropriation Act Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is sometimes directed to provide funding to a specific entity for study, purpose, or activity.This information will be of interest to a community or other entity that has been identified in one of EPA's appropriations acts to receive such funding.

  14. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Practical Advice Family Planning and Parenting With CF Making Your Family Planning Decisions Pregnancy and CF Alternative Ways to Build a ... with cystic fibrosis so that they make smart decisions about CF-related research, treatment, and access to care. ... Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements ...

  15. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leaders About Us News Blog Chapters ... different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy to do. Infants and toddlers will need help from a parent or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can ...

  16. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Their Families When There's More Than One Person With CF in the Same School Daily Life ... Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards Training Awards CF ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ...

  17. ST–ACTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2006-01-01

    hot issue in the area of spatio–temporal databases [7]. While existing Moving Object Simulators (MOSs) address different physical aspects of mobility, they neglect the important social and geo–demographical aspects of it. This paper presents ST–ACTS, a Spatio–Temporal ACTivity Simulator that, using...

  18. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Team Your cystic fibrosis care team includes a group of CF health care professionals who partner with ... Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards Training Awards CF ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ...

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to try. However, the best ACT is the one that you are most likely to perform as part of your daily treatment plan. Watch the webcast below to hear a respiratory ... Policy Our History Board of Trustees Our Leadership Careers ...

  20. Atomic Energy Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This act provides for the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The board is responsible for the control and supervision of the development, application and use of atomic energy. The board is also considered necessary to enable Canada to participate effectively in measures of international control of atomic energy

  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements ... AWARENESS Tomorrow’s Leaders About Us News Blog Chapters Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home ...

  2. 78 FR 73466 - Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION 22 CFR Part 707 [No. PA-2013] Privacy Act AGENCY: Overseas... revisions to the Overseas Private Investment Corporation's (``OPIC'') Privacy Act (``PA'') regulations by... Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) Pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act, 5 U.S.C. 601 et seq., the...

  3. Serum Iron Levels Decreased in Patients with HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma, as a Risk Factor for the Prognosis of HBV-Related HCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanyan; Ye, Wei; Zhao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is common and the second leading causes of cancer-related deaths. HCC usually occurs on the basis of chronic liver diseases. At present, the study of iron metabolism in chronic liver diseases was limited to chronic HCV infection, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and alcoholic liver disease. This study aimed to investigate the effect of serum iron levels on the progression of chronic HBV infection and the relationship with the prognosis of HBV-related HCC. Methods: A respective study involving 277 healthy individuals as controls (HC), 295 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 224 patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis (HBV-related LC), and 586 patients with HBV- related HCC were enrolled in this study. Hematological parameters, HBVDNA and liver biochemistry were analyzed. Child-Pugh grade and BCLC stage of the HBV-related HCC patients were calculated. Results: The serum iron levels were lowest in the HBV- related HCC group as compared with HC, CHB, and HBV-related LC groups (35.07 ± 6.97, 27.37 ± 10.26, 24.53 ± 10.36 vs. 17.90 ± 0.14, P HCC patients with tumor size more than 10 cm as compared with HBV- related HCC patients with tumor size smaller than 3, 3-5, and 5-10 cm by subgroup analysis (22.12 ± 0.94, 21.44 ± 1.41, 15.65 ± 0.98 vs. 13.36 ± 1.15, P HCC group. In addition, serum iron levels was positively correlated with Retinol-Binding Protein, total bile acid, hemoglobin, and lymphocyte and negatively correlated with white blood cell (WBC) and platelet in HBV- related HCC group. ROC curve analysis showed serum iron levels at 15.1 μmol/L as the optimal cut-off point for determining the survival of HBV-related HCC. By the Cox regression model analysis, serum iron levels HCC patients (hazard ratio = 2.280, 95% confidence interval, 1.815-2.865; P HCC patients with serum iron levels <15.1 μmol/l together with higher AFP levels, worse BCLC stages, and larger tumor lesion were poor.

  4. A New Serum Biomarker for Lung Cancer - Transthyretin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun LIU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and very few specific biomarkers could be used in clinical diagnosis at present. The aim of this study is to find novel potential serum biomarkers for lung cancer using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI technique. Methods Serumsample of 227 cases including 146 lung cancer, 13 pneumonia, 28 tuberculous pleurisy and 40 normal individuals were analyzed by CM10 chips. The candidate biomarkers were identified by ESI/MS-MS and database searching, and further confirmed by immunoprecipitation. The same sets of serum sample from all groups were re-measured by ELISA assay. Results Three protein peaks with the molecular weight 13.78 kDa, 13.90 kDa and 14.07 kDa were found significantlydecreased in lung cancer serum compared to the other groups and were all automatically selected as specific biomarkers by Biomarker Wizard software. The candidate biomarkers obtained from 1-D SDS gel bands by matching the molecular weight with peaks on CM10 chips were identified by Mass spectrometry as the native transthyretin (nativeTTR, cysTTR and glutTTR, and the identity was further validated by immunoprecipitation using commercial TTR antibodies. Downregulated of TTR was found in both ELISA and SELDI analysis. Conclusion TTRs acted as the potentially useful biomarkers for lung cancer by SELDI technique.

  5. ¹H, ¹³C and ¹⁵N chemical shift assignments of Na-FAR-1, a helix-rich fatty acid and retinol binding protein of the parasitic nematode Necator americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Burusco, M Florencia; Ibañez-Shimabukuro, Marina; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W; Córsico, Betina; Smith, Brian O

    2014-04-01

    The fatty acid and retinol-binding (FAR) proteins are a family of unusual helix-rich lipid binding proteins found exclusively in nematodes, and are secreted by a range of parasites of humans, animals and plants. Na-FAR-1 is from the parasitic nematode Necator americanus, an intestinal blood-feeding parasite of humans. Sequence-specific (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments have been obtained for the recombinant 170 amino acid protein, using three-dimensional triple-resonance heteronuclear magnetic resonance experiments. Backbone assignments have been obtained for 99.3% of the non-proline HN/N pairs (146 out of 147). The amide resonance of T45 was not observed, probably due to rapid exchange with solvent water. A total of 96.9% of backbone resonances were identified, while 97.7% assignment of amino acid sidechain protons is complete. All Hα(166), Hβ(250) and Hγ(160) and 98.4% of the Hδ (126 out of 128) atoms were assigned. In addition, 99.4% Cα (154 out of 155) and 99.3% Cβ (143 out of 144) resonances have been assigned. No resonances were observed for the NH(n) groups of R93 NεHε, arginine, N(η1)H2, N(η2)H2, histidine N(δ1)H(δ1), N(ε1)H(ε1) and lysine N(ζ3)H3. Na-FAR-1 has a similar overall arrangement of α-helices to Ce-FAR-7 of the free-living Caeorhabditis elegans, but with an extra C-terminal helix.

  6. Effects of Aroclor 1242 and different fish-based diets on vitamins A(retinol) and A2 (3,4-didehydroretinol), and their fatty acyl esters in mink plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaekelae, Anne; Kaekelae, Reijo; Hyvaerinen Heikki; Nieminen, Petteri

    2003-01-01

    The effects of a 21-week exposure to Aroclor 1242 (1 mg per day in feed on plasma concentrations of vitamins A 1 (retinol) and A(3,4-didehydroretinol) and their principal fatty acyl esters (A 1 -16:0 A 2 -16:0 (palmitates), A 1 -18:1n-9; A 2 -18:1n-9 (oleates), and A 1 -18:0 A 2 -18:0 (stearates)) were studied in young female mink (Mustela vison) fed a diet based on freshwater smelt. These vitamin levels were also examined in mink fed diets containing Baltic herring or fatty marine fish. In the Aroclor-exposed smelt-fed mink, the plasma concentrations of A 1 and Aesters were significantly lower than the levels in controls fed the uncontaminated smelt diet. In addition, the A 2 esters reacted mor sensitively to the polychlorinated biphenyls than did A 1 esters. I contrast, in the plasma of the exposed mink the level of alcoholic A 1 was normal, and transport of thyroxine (T 4 ) and nonspecific lipoprotei transport of major lipids were not impaired. Despite the large dietary supply of vitamin A 2 and high levels of plasma A 2 esters, the mink fed freshwate smelt had only trace amounts of alcoholic vitamin A 2 in their plasma. The concentrations of A 1 and A 2 esters in the plasma of all the mink studied correlated with the hepatic total concentrations of the vitamins. Thus, in carnivores that have nonspecific lipoprotein transport of vitamin A esters determination of plasma levels of the esterified vitamins may be a useful nondestructive way to estimate stores of the vitamin A analogs in the body and to assess the organochlorine-induced decrease in the vitamin stores

  7. Urinary {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, and retinol-binding protein levels in general populations in Japan with references to cadmium in urine, blood, and 24-hour food duplicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Moon, Chan-Seok; Zhang, Zuo-Wen [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Possible cadmium (Cd) exposure-associated changes in urinary levels of low-molecular-weight proteins were studied in nonsmoking and nondrinking female members of the general Japanese population (378 subjects with no known occupational heavy metal exposure) who lived at 19 study sites (all without any known environmental heavy metal pollution) in 13 prefectures throughout Japan. The external Cd dose was evaluated in terms of daily Cd intake via food (Cd-F), whereas Cd levels in blood (Cd-B) and urine (Cd-U) were taken as internal dose indicators. When the subjects were classified according to Cd-F into three groups with {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} (20.4 {mu}g/day as a geometric mean of 97 women), {open_quotes}middle{close_quotes} (35.0 {mu}g/day, 120 women) and {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} (67.0 {mu}g/day, 66 women) exposure, both Cd-B and Cd-U increased in parallel with the changes in Cd-F. However, there were no dose-dependent changes in {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin or retinol-binding protein levels in urine. {alpha}{sub 1}-Microglobulin levels appeared to increase, but the distribution of the cases above the two cutoff levels of 9.6 and 15.8 {mu}g/mg creatinine among the three Cd-F groups did not show any bias. Overall, it was concluded that there was no apparent Cd exposure-associated elevation in urinary low-molecular-weight protein levels in the study population. 41 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Serum biochemical parameters of cows during pregnancy and early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    increased production diseases and fertility problems. (Hewett, 1974). This fertility problem has been found to be significantly inversely related to serum electrolytes such as serum inorganic phosphorus, serum potassium, serum total protein and serum urea - nitrogen (Hewett, 1974). Measuring serum electrolyte levels of ...

  9. Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Lower Extremity Arterial Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients and the Analysis of the Intervention of Vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations and lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients and to investigate the intervention effect of vitamin D. 145 subjects were assigned to a control group (Group NC, T2DM group (Group DM1, and T2DM complicated with LEAD group (Group DM2; then Group DM2 were randomly divided into Group DM3 who received oral hypoglycemic agents and Group DM4 who received oral hypoglycemic drugs and vitamin D3 therapy. Compared to Group NC, 25(OHD was significantly lower in Group DM2 and marginally lower in Group DM1. In contrast to baseline and Group DM3, 25(OHD rose while low density lipoprotein (LDL, retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4, and HbA1c significantly lowered in Group DM4. Statistical analysis revealed that 25(OHD had a negative correlation with RBP4, duration, HbA1c, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG. LDL, systolic blood pressure (SBP, FPG, and smoking were risk factors of LEAD while high density lipoprotein (HDL and 25(OHD were protective ones. Therefore, we deduced that low level of 25(OHD is significantly associated with the occurrence of T2DM complicated with LEAD.

  10. RECOGNISING SPEECH ACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Kaburise

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Speech Act Theory (SAT, a theory in pragmatics, is an attempt to describe what happens during linguistic interactions. Inherent within SAT is the idea that language forms and intentions are relatively formulaic and that there is a direct correspondence between sentence forms (for example, in terms of structure and lexicon and the function or meaning of an utterance. The contention offered in this paper is that when such a correspondence does not exist, as in indirect speech utterances, this creates challenges for English second language speakers and may result in miscommunication. This arises because indirect speech acts allow speakers to employ various pragmatic devices such as inference, implicature, presuppositions and context clues to transmit their messages. Such devices, operating within the non-literal level of language competence, may pose challenges for ESL learners.

  11. Acts of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelund, Sidsel

    The term ‘knowledge society’ is used to refer to the increasing relevance of nonmanual knowledge-producing labour in current post-industrial economies. Contemporary art, especially since 1989, has not been left out of this trend, to the extent that today it is not rare to see artists and curators...... described as knowledge producers and exhibitions and art works as instances of knowledge production. Acts of Research: Knowledge Production in Contemporary Arts between Knowledge Economy and Critical Practices analyses this development. The academic discussion of knowledge production in the arts has taken...... place mostly in seminars and articles, in which knowledge is often discussed as an intrinsic quality of the artwork. Acts of Research, however, is devoted to studying the rise of knowledge production in contemporary art from the perspective of artistic, curatorial and educational research...

  12. Dreams and acting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, L

    1987-01-01

    Dreams can be used as containers that free patients from increased tension. This may be the principal function of certain types of dreams, called "evacuative dreams." They are dreams used for getting rid of unbearable affects and unconscious fantasies, or as a safety valve for partial discharge of instinctual drives. These dreams are observed primarily in borderline and psychotic patients, but can also be seen in the regressive states of neurotic patients during weekends and other periods of separation. Such dreams have to be differentiated from "elaborative dreams," which have a working-through function and stand in an inverse relationship to acting out: the greater the production of elaborative dreams, the less the tendency to act out, and vice versa.

  13. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  14. A Vanishing Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Anders; Hecht, Janus; Stilling, Maria Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) has played an important role in the reforms that have taken place in Western welfare societies over the past two decades. ICT is regarded as a way to provide transparency and information exchange among providers, users and politicians. Thi...... internal contradictions in the organization of elderly home care services so that key processes have become outright invisible. This trick, the paper argues, is essentially an act of what Bourdieu calls social magic....

  15. Atomic Energy Act 1946

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1946-01-01

    This Act provides for the development of atomic energy in the United Kingdom and for its control. It details the duties and powers of the competent Minister, in particular his powers to obtain information on and to inspect materials, plant and processes, to control production and use of atomic energy and publication of information thereon. Also specified is the power to search for and work minerals and to acquire property. (NEA) [fr

  16. Radiological protection act, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Act provides for the establishment of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland and dissolves An Bord Fuinnimh Nuicleigh (the Board), transferring its assets and liabilities to the Institute. It sets out a range of radiation protection measures to be taken by various Ministers in the event of a radiological emergency and gives effect at national level to the Assistance Convention, the Early Notification Convention and the Physical Protection Convention. The Institute is the competent Irish authority for the three Conventions. (NEA) [fr

  17. Role of Serum Adiponectin and Vitamin D in Prediabetes and Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anindita; Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Roy, Debashree; Poddar, Jit; Roy, Tapan Kumar Sinha; Karnam, Srikanth Arliganur

    2017-06-01

    The roles of deficient or deranged insulin, adiponectin and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels regulating food intake, energy metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism and body weight have been reported in the pathogenesis of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, their congruity in the etiology of diabetes mellitus is unknown. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the roles of these parameters together and to establish their interrelationship in patients with prediabetes and diabetes. The preliminary cross-sectional study included 77 persons with type 2 diabetes who were matched for age, sex and body mass index (BMI); 73 persons with prediabetes; and 52 healthy control subjects. Fasting serum levels of adiponectin, insulin and 25(OH)D were measured by commercially available immune assay kits, and routine biochemical parameters were analyzed in all study groups. The results show statistically significant lower levels of serum adiponectin and serum 25(OH)D and higher serum insulin levels in persons with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes with respect to controls. The changes in the serum adiponectin or serum 25(OH)D in persons with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes were found to be inversely correlated with the serum levels of insulin. Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis, with 25(OH)D, insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as the variables, revealed that serum adiponectin levels might be an independent risk factor for the progression of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in subjects. The association of these hormones might act as a significant predictor of progression of prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. Decreased serum adiponectin levels might be an independent risk factor for progression to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, which may help in developing experimental models of the disease or in identifying biomarkers or disease-modifying drugs. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  18. Why the act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumta, N B

    1995-07-01

    All of the 4000 infants who die daily in India have been bottle fed. Most of these infants die from infections which are typically caused by bottle feeding. Considerable research has shown that human breast milk ideally suits babies' needs. Human breast milk protects infants from several infections and allergies, such that the breastfed infant is 25 times less likely than the bottle fed infant to die due to diarrhea and pneumonia. Comparative studies have even found breastfed babies to have higher IQs than bottle fed ones. Detrimental maternity home practices, adverse social factors, and the unethical and aggressive marketing strategy adopted by the manufacturers of infant milk substitutes and feeding bottles are the major factors responsible for the erosion of the practice of breastfeeding. These factors are discussed. The Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles, and Infant Foods Act prohibits the advertisement and promotion of feeding bottles and infant milk substitutes by unethical marketing strategies. Violations of the act are punishable by imprisonment and a heavy fine. The act and the need for its passage are discussed.

  19. Serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarla, Sara; Struglia, Manuela; Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Necozione, Stefano; Properzi, Giuliana; Ferri, Claudio

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the relationship among serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome. Anthropometric parameters, serum uric acid and metabolic parameters were evaluated in 139 subjects. Serum uric acid levels were significantly higher in subjects with than without metabolic syndrome (p metabolic syndrome components (p for trend uric acid significantly correlated with various anthropometric and serum metabolic parameters. Serum uric acid levels were higher in individuals with rather than without metabolic syndrome and raised gradually as the number of metabolic syndrome components increased. The relationship between serum uric acid levels and various metabolic parameters suggests that uric acid might be considered as a component of metabolic syndrome. Hyperuricemia is a common finding in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies indicated that hyperuricemia may be also a predictor of metabolic syndrome development.

  20. [Human serum alcaline phosphatase and ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrão, M R; Martins, M J; Ramos, E; Barros, H; Hipólito-Reis, C; Azevedo, I

    2003-01-01

    In experimental ageing models an inverse relationship between age and alkaline phosphatase activity has been observed. To characterize serum levels of alkaline phosphatase activity in humans according to age and gender. Serum alkaline phosphatase was determined in a random sample of 203 community dwellers aged 40 or more years. In men (n=87) total serum alkaline phosphatase markedly increased from the 5th to the 6th decade and then stabilized. For women (n=116) there was a slight increase in total serum alkaline phosphatase from the 5th to the 6th decade, followed by a bend upward after 69 years of age. There was a significant positive correlation between total serum alkaline phosphatase and age for the whole population. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity appears as a biomarker of age in humans, similarly to what has been described for experimental animal models.

  1. Variations of serum copper values in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukelić Jelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Copper is essential micronutrient and has an important role in the human body. The serum copper increases during pregnancy and is doubled at full term. Lower levels of serum copper in pregnancy are connected with some pathological conditions. Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of serum copper in normal and pathological pregnancies, comparing them with values of serum copper in non-pregnant women, to determine if serum copper is lower in some pathological pregnancies and if this is of some importance. Methods. A total of 2170 plasma samples for copper analyses were made in the following groups: healthy non-pregnant women; healthy pregnant women from the 5th-40th gestational week, during the first delivery stage and during the first three postpartum weeks, in pregnant women with habitual abortion, imminent abortion, abortion in progress, missed abortion (9th-24th weeks, missed labour and premature rupture of membranes (29th-40th weeks. Levels of serum copper were determined by colorimetric technique of bathocuproin with disulphate as a chromogen. Results. Serum copper values in non-pregnant women range from 11.6-25.8 μmol/L. In healthy pregnant women, there is a constant trend of the increase of serum copper. The mean serum copper values revealed three significant peaks at the 22nd, 27th and 35th gestational week. Serum copper values in the patients with some pathological pregnancies in relation to the serum copper values of the healthy pregnant women were significantly lower. Conclusion. Serum copper values can be used as an indicator of some pathological pregnancies.

  2. Radioimmunoassay of thyrotropin concentrated from serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisula, B.C.; Louvet, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method for concentrating human TSH (hTSH) from serum for use in RIAs is described. The method takes advantage of the affinity of the plant lectin, concanavalin A, for the carbohydrate portion of the hTSH molecule. The hTSH from 2.5 ml serum was adsorbed to concanavalin A covalently linked to sepharose and then radioimmunoassayed using the hTSH antiserum and hTSH for iodination distributed by the National Pituitary Agency. For the RIA standard curve, the hTSH reference preparation was concentrated from a serum wwith undetectable hTSH in order to correct for recovery and to control for nonspecific effects. The percentage of serum hTSH extracted from 2.5 ml serum with the concentration procedure was 76.6 +- 3.4% (mean +- SD). The coefficient of correlation between serum hTSH, determined with the concentration procedure, and serum hTSH determined without was 0.979 (P < 0.001). Over 95% of normal adult men and women had detectable levels of serum hTSH, ranging from < 0.56 to 4.0 μU/ml. The mean of detectable serum hTSH levels in normal adult women (n = 11) was 1.54 +- 1.03 μU/ml (mean +- SD) and in normal men (n = 9) was 2.02 +- 1.15 μU/ml (mean +- SD). Clinically hyperthyroid patients with diffuse and nodular toxic goiters (n = 8) and patients with hypothyroidism secondary to pituitary disease (n = 6), four of whom were taking replacement doses of thyroid hormone, had undetectable serum hTSH levels. Serum hTSH in patients with primary hypothyroidism uniformly exceeded the normal range. This hTSH concentrating procedure enhances the effective sensitivity and, therefore, the clinical utility of the RIA for hTSH in serum

  3. Desenvolvimento e caracterização físico-química de sistemas líquido cristalinos contendo palmitato de retinol: quantificação química, avaliação da atividade antioxidante, estudos de liberação e bioadesão in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Paula Lacerda [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    As hipóteses mais modernas baseiam o processo de envelhecimento cutâneo em duas teorias: o intrínseco (ou cronológico) e o extrínseco (ou fotoenvelhecimento). Tanto no envelhecimento intrínseco como no extrínseco, as principais alterações da pele são caracterizadas por formação de rugas, flacidez e perda da elasticidade. O palmitato de retinol (PR) é um análogo sintético da vitamina A indicado topicamente para prevenir ou retardar algumas mudanças estruturais e funcionais da pele associadas a...

  4. Serum ferritin. Its clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochna Viola, E.M. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro de Medicina Nuclear); Diaz de Domingo, N.B.; Lazarowski, A. (Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica)

    1981-08-01

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis.

  5. Williamson Act - The California Land Conservation Act of 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The California Land Conservation Act of 1965 - commonly referred to as the Williamson Act - is the State's primary program for the conservation of private land in...

  6. Williamson Act - The California Land Conservation Act of 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The California Land Conservation Act of 1965 - commonly referred to as the Williamson Act - is the State's primary program for the conservation of private land in...

  7. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of fatty liver and relations with body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Young Deog; Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kwon, K. H.; Kim, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hepatic fatty infiltration appears as an area of increased echogenicity. And many factors concerned to fatty infiltration. With 65 cases of fatty liver and 42 cases of normal group, we analyzed fatty liver with grading and attempt to find relations between grade of fatty liver and levels of body index, serum triglyceride, and serum lipid. And compared fatty liver with normal control group. Patients with fatty liver are higher percentage of supra-normal value in body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride than normal control group. As fatty infiltration progressed, serum lipid, serum trig-lyceride and body index are also increased. Conclusively ultrasonographic examination of liver with serum triglyceride, serum lipid, and body index are simple method, useful follow-up examination of fatty liver, and preventive routine check-up of chronic liver disease

  8. Is serum lactate necessary in patients with normal anion gap and serum bicarbonate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronovich, Daniel; Trotter, Maykel; Rivera, Cynthia; Dalley, Michael; Farcy, David; Betancourt, Michel; Howard, Lydia; Licciardi, Sharon; Cubeddu, Luigi; Goldszer, Robert

    2015-05-01

    There has been an increase in patients having serum lactate drawn in emergency situations. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not it was necessary to obtain a lactate level in patients with a normal serum bicarbonate level and anion gap. This is a retrospective chart review evaluation of 304 patients who had serum lactate and electrolytes measured in an emergency setting in one academic medical center. In 66 patients who had elevated serum lactate (>2.2mmol/L), 45 (68%) patients had normal serum bicarbonate (SB) (greater than 21 mmol/L). Normal anion gap (AG) (normal range anion gap and 68% had normal serum bicarbonate. We conclude serum lactate should be drawn based on clinical suspicion of anaerobic tissue metabolism independent of serum bicarbonate or anion gap values.

  9. Act to amend cost regulations of the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Article 21 is replaced by articles 21 to 21b. According to this, fees or reimbursements for expenses for official acts (e.g. decisions, supervisory acts, safeguarding of nuclear fuels) as well as for the use of facilities according to article 9a, section 3, of the Atomic Energy Act (e.g. Laender facilities to collect nuclear waste). (HP) [de

  10. Peranan Kadar Feritin Serum terhadap Kejadian Preeklampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mega Ulfah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Preeklampsia merupakan penyebab utama kematian maternal dan perinatal diseluruh dunia. Peningkatan kadar serum besi dan feritin memiliki potensi untuk digunakan secara diagnostik untuk memperingatkan preeklampsia tahap awal. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan peranan kadar serum feritin terhadap kejadianpreeklampsia. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian analitik observasional dengan desain case-control. Penelitian dilakukan dari Agustus 2013 hingga Juli 2014, bertempat di RS dr. M. Djamil, RS dr. Reksodiwiryo dan Laboratorium Biomedik UNAND Padang.  Jumlah sampel yang diteliti adalah 40 responden dimana sampel terdiri dari 2 kelompok,masing-masing terdiri dari 20 sampel. Pemeriksaan serum feritin dilakukan dengan metode ELISA. Perbedaan rerata kadar feritin serum antara kelompok preeklampsia dan kehamilan normal dianalisa dengan mengunakan independen ttest. Hasil penelitian diperoleh rerata kadar serum feritin pada kelompok preeklampsia dan kehamilan normal adalah50,46+4,37 ng/ml dan 17,64+1,6 ng/ml, dengan nilai p=0,004. Kadar feritin pada kedua kelompok masih dalam batas normal dan tidak ditemukan indikasi adanya kelebihan besi sebagai faktor resiko preeklampsia. Kesimpulan penelitian ini yaitu kadar serum feritin tidak memiliki peranan terhadap kejadian preeklampsia. Kata kunci: preeklampsia, hipertensi dalam kehamilan, serum feritin Abstract Preeclampsia is a major cause of worldwide maternal and prenatal mortality. The increase in iron serum and ferritin can be used as a diagnosis to warn of the early stage of preeclampsia. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of ferritin serum levels on preeclampsia. This study was an observational analytic study withcase-control design. It has been done from August 2013 to Juli 2014, in RS dr. M. Djamil, RS dr. Reksodiwiryo and Biomedical Laboratory of Andalas University Padang. Total sample evaluated was 40 samples. The sample consist of two groups, each group

  11. Rotavirus-specific antibodies in fetal bovine serum and commercial preparations of serum albumin.

    OpenAIRE

    Offit, P A; Clark, H F; Taylor, A H; Hess, R G; Bachmann, P A; Plotkin, S A

    1984-01-01

    Rotavirus-specific antibodies were detected in fetal bovine serum, bovine serum albumin, and human serum albumin by radioimmunoprecipitation with the NCDV strain of bovine rotavirus as the detecting antigen. Fetal bovine sera neutralized bovine rotavirus in a plaque reduction neutralization test to titers of 1:20 or greater. Immunoglobulins purified from fetal bovine serum by protein A-agarose affinity chromatography precipitated rotavirus antigens but did not neutralize bovine rotavirus. Rot...

  12. Characterization of feline serum-cobalt binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnelle, Amy N; Barger, Anne M; MacNeill, Amy L; Mitchell, Mark M; Solter, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress inhibits albumin's ability to complex with cobalt. Feline serum-cobalt binding has not been described. The objective was to develop a cobalt binding test for use with feline serum, and correlate the results with other biochemical and cellular constituents in blood, and with clinical diseases of cats. A colorimetric test of cobalt binding, based on the oxidation-reduction reaction of Co(+2) and dithiothreitol, was developed using feline serum. The test was used to measure cobalt binding in stored serum from 176 cats presented to the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a variety of disease conditions. Time-matched hematology and biochemical data, and clinical information, were obtained from the medical record of each cat and correlated with the serum-cobalt binding results. Serial dilution of feline serum with phosphate-buffered saline resulted in a highly linear decrease in serum-cobalt binding (r(2)  = .9984). Serum-cobalt binding of the clinical samples also correlated with albumin concentrations in a stepwise linear regression model (r(2)  = .425), and both cobalt binding and albumin were significantly decreased in cases of inflammation. Albumin and cobalt binding also shared significant correlations with several erythron variables, and serum concentration of total calcium and bilirubin. The correlation of cobalt binding measured by a colorimetric test with albumin concentration in the clinical samples and with serum dilution is consistent with feline albumin-cobalt complex formation. Hypoalbuminemia is the likely cause of reduced serum-cobalt binding in inflammation and the correlations observed between cobalt binding and other variables. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. Teaching Speech Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teaching Speech Acts

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue that pragmatic ability must become part of what we teach in the classroom if we are to realize the goals of communicative competence for our students. I review the research on pragmatics, especially those articles that point to the effectiveness of teaching pragmatics in an explicit manner, and those that posit methods for teaching. I also note two areas of scholarship that address classroom needs—the use of authentic data and appropriate assessment tools. The essay concludes with a summary of my own experience teaching speech acts in an advanced-level Portuguese class.

  14. Vaccination: An Act of Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dreams. Remember too: Vaccination is an Act of Love. Dr. Mirta Roses Periago Director, Pan American Health ... MICROSCOPE ? KNOW WHY VACCINATION IS AN ACT OF LOVE? IT PROTECTS AGAINST MANY TYPES OF DISEASE! AND ...

  15. Unexpected effects of absorbed normal rabbit serum and bovine serum albumin on survival of Haemophilus influenzae type b in the infant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, M R

    1988-01-01

    In the course of using the infant rat model to determine the ability of various rabbit antisera to protect against challenge by Haemophilus influenzae type b we made two unexpected observations. In these experiments 4-day-old rats were inoculated s.c. on the dorsum with either rabbit serum or physiological buffers (sham serum) and then were challenged the next day with H. influenzae type b injected i.p. Bacteremia, as a marker for disease, was measured 24 h later on day 6. We observed the following. (i) Pre-immune, i.e., normal rabbit serum, containing minimal levels of antibodies to outer membrane proteins and depleted of antibodies to capsule and lipopolysaccharide, nevertheless significantly (P less than 0.01) protected the rats from challenge with H. influenzae type b when compared to a sham inoculation of buffer; (ii) In the absence of a serum inoculation on day 4 (a buffer was used as a sham serum inoculation), the levels of bacteremia obtained after inoculation with bacteria on day 5 depended upon the composition of the buffer in which the H. influenzae inoculum was suspended. Use of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) resulted in higher levels of bacteremia than PBS containing 0.5% bovine serum albumin (PBS-BSA) (P less than 0.001), i.e. the BSA apparently acted to protect the rats from H. influenzae infection. In fact the use of PBS-BSA as an inoculum buffer masked the protective effect noted above of the absorbed normal rabbit serum.

  16. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone ... chloroquine are probably mediated via the generation of free radicals. ... Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Groups.

  17. Inhibition of serum naphthylamidases by atopic allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrens, L.

    1968-01-01

    Human serum hydrolyses the 2-naphthylamides of -lysine and -arginine. The enzymatic activity of the serum naphthylamidases is inhibited by atopic allergens and by protein-sugar conjugates carrying 1-deoxy-2-ketose residues attached to the -amino groups of lysine residues in their peptide moieties.

  18. Serological Investigation And Interpreting Serum Chemistry Profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological Investigation And Interpreting Serum Chemistry Profile Of Natural Infected Cattle By Foot And Mouth Disease. ... albumin, total cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus in the infected group than control group, on the other hand there was a highly significant increase in serum glucose concentration of infected group.

  19. Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan

  20. Correlation between serum esterase polymorphism and production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The polymorphism of serum esterase (Es) of Henan Yuxi fat-tailed sheep was detected through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and the correlation between serum esterase and productivity was analyzed. The research result indicated that there are two alleles on the Es loci of Henan Yuxi fat-tailed sheep: Es+ ...

  1. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Gabriele; Giordano, Alessia; Pezzia, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs.......Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs....

  2. Determination of serum IgD radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayol, V.; Hartmann, D.J.; Sabbagh, I.; Ville, G.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a sensitive liquid phase radioimmunoassay for serum IgD. Extreme values obtained from 85 control patients sera are 0.2 and 121 mg/l with an arithmetic mean of 25 mg/l. In atopic patients (with high serum IgE levels), arithmetic mean is 47 mg/l [fr

  3. Determination of serum IgD radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayol, V.; Hartmann, D.J.; Sabbagh, I.; Ville, G.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a sensitive liquid phase radioimmunoassay for serum IgD. Extreme values obtained from 85 control patients sera are 0.2 and 121 mg/l with an arithmetic mean of 25 mg/l. In atopic patients (with high serum IgE levels), arithmetic mean is 47 mg/l.

  4. Serum selenium level in acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah I Ali Kelani

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion This study supports a significant association between deficient serum Se concentration with cut-off value of up to 84 ng/ml and MI. Strikingly, the most predictor of MI is serum Se, followed by total cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, low-density lipoprotein, and hypertension.

  5. 76 FR 59073 - Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 32 CFR Part 1901 Privacy Act AGENCY: Central Intelligence Agency. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Consistent with the Privacy Act (PA), the Central Intelligence Agency...-1379. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Consistent with the Privacy Act (PA), the CIA has undertaken and...

  6. Atomic Energy Authority Act 1954

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1954-01-01

    This Act provides for the setting up of an Atomic Energy Authority for the United Kingdom. It also makes provision for the Authority's composition, powers, duties, rights and liabilities, and may amend, as a consequence of the establishment of the Authority and in connection therewith, the Atomic Energy Act, 1946, the Radioactive Substances Act 1948 and other relevant enactments. (NEA) [fr

  7. Online Serum PFOA Calculator for Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartell, Scott M

    2017-10-24

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a persistent environmental contaminant that has been detected in >100 public water systems in the United States alone. A variety of epidemiological investigations of PFOA have been published, mostly using measured or modeled serum PFOA concentrations as the exposure metric. Comparison of drinking water PFOA concentrations to those study findings or to typical serum concentrations requires pharmacokinetic modeling. This brief communication describes an online Javascript calculator that easily plots the expected serum PFOA concentration over time and at steady state for adults after starting or stopping consumption of PFOA-contaminated water. Two examples of usage are provided, including increasing serum PFOA after ongoing consumption of contaminated water at the federal limit, and decreasing serum PFOA after carbon filtration began in a contaminated water system. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2820.

  8. Formulation of antiacne serum based on lime peel essential oil and in vitro antibacterial activity test against Propionibacterium acnes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Noor; Fatimah, Ifat; Chabib, Lutfi; Fajarwati, Febi Indah

    2017-03-01

    Propionibacterium acnes are a normal bacterium in human skin but it can become primary pathogens that can cause inflammation on the skin. Research about new antibacterial compounds is important because resistance of bacteria acne to antibiotics. Some of Essential oils have antibacterial properties. Lime peel essential oil and patchouli essential oil have some terpenoids that act as antibacterial compounds such as Linalool and Seychellene. The purpose of this research was to formulate anti acne serum based on lime peel essential oil and patchouli oil and to determine the zone of inhibition against of Propionibacterium acnes. This study made 21 variations of formulation of anti acne serum, consisted of lime peel essential oil, patchouli oil and olive oil. Anti acne serum was evaluated i.e. in vitro antibacterial activity test against Propionibacterium acnes for 5 days, organoleptic, stability test, pH test, viscosity test and GC-MS analysis. Nine serum formulations had been selected, which based on their most favorite order. Those favorite serums had antibacterial inhibitory against Propionibacterium acnes between 20.80 - 26.12 mm, whereas control positive only 12.47 mm and control negative 5.78 mm. The most favorite serum with the best antibacterial activity was serum formula A. The composition of serum A consist of lime peel essential oil: patchouli oil: olive oil (11:1:18).

  9. Vibrio cholerae interactions with Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes mediated by serum components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Laura; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Stauder, Monica; Grande, Chiara; Bavestrello, Margherita; Papetti, Adele; Vezzulli, Luigi; Pruzzo, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Edible bivalves (e.g., mussels, oysters) can accumulate large amount of bacteria in their tissues and act as passive carriers of pathogens to humans. Bacterial persistence inside bivalves depends, at least in part, on hemolymph anti-bacterial activity that is exerted by both serum soluble factors and phagocytic cells (i.e., the hemocytes). It was previously shown that Mytilus galloprovincialis hemolymph serum contains opsonins that mediate D-mannose-sensitive interactions between hemocytes and Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor bacteria that carry the mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA). These opsonins enhance phagocytosis and killing of vibrios by facilitating their binding to hemocytes. Since V. cholerae strains not carrying the MSHA ligand (O1 classical, non-O1/O139) are present in coastal water and can be entrapped by mussels, we studied whether in mussel serum, in addition to opsonins directed toward MSHA, other components can mediate opsonization of these bacteria. By comparing interactions of O1 classical and non-O1/O139 strains with hemocytes in artificial sea water and serum, it was found that M. galloprovincialis serum contains components that increase by at approximately twofold their adhesion to, association with, and killing by hemocytes. Experiments conducted with high and low molecular mass fractions obtained by serum ultrafiltration indicated that these compounds have molecular mass higher than 5000 Da. Serum exposure to high temperature (80°C) abolished its opsonizing capability suggesting that the involved serum active components are of protein nature. Further studies are needed to define the chemical properties and specificity of both the involved bacterial ligands and hemolymph opsonins. This information will be central not only to better understand V. cholerae ecology, but also to improve current bivalve depuration practices and properly protect human health.

  10. Vibrio cholerae interactions with Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes mediated by serum components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eCanesi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible bivalves (e.g., mussels, oysters can accumulate large amount of bacteria in their tissues and act as passive carriers of pathogens to humans. Bacterial persistence inside bivalves depends, at least in part, on hemolymph anti-bacterial activity that is exerted by both serum soluble factors and phagocytic cells (i.e., the hemocytes. It was previously shown that Mytilus galloprovincialis hemolymph serum contains opsonins that mediate D-mannose-sensitive interactions between hemocytes and V. cholerae O1 El Tor bacteria that carry the Mannose–Sensitive Hemagglutinin (MSHA. These opsonins enhance phagocytosis and killing of vibrios by facilitating their binding to hemocytes. Since V. cholerae strains not carrying the MSHA ligand (O1 classical, non O1/O139 are present in coastal water and can be entrapped by mussels, we studied whether in mussel serum, in addition to opsonins directed towards MSHA, other components can mediate opsonization of these bacteria. By comparing interactions of O1 classical and non O1/O139 strains with hemocytes in ASW and serum, it was found that M. galloprovincialis serum contains components that increase by at approximately two fold their adhesion to, association with and killing by hemocytes. Experiments conducted with high and low molecular mass fractions obtained by serum ultrafiltration indicated that these compounds have molecular mass higher than 5000 Da. Serum exposure to high temperature (80°C abolished its opsonizing capability suggesting that the involved serum active components are of protein nature. Further studies are needed to define the chemical properties and specificity of both the involved bacterial ligands and hemolymph opsonins. This information will be central not only to better understand V. cholerae ecology, but also to improve current bivalve depuration practices and properly protect human health.

  11. Serum zinc response in thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosalis, M G; Solem, L D; McCall, J T; Ahrenholz, D H; McClain, C J

    1988-02-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element required for RNA and DNA synthesis and the function of over 200 zinc metalloenzymes. After surgery or trauma, the serum zinc concentration usually decreases. The magnitude and duration of this hypozincemia after thermal injury are unclear, as are mechanisms for this hypozincemia. In this study we evaluated, over the duration of their hospital course, serum zinc concentrations in 23 thermal injury patients. The initial mean serum zinc concentration was significantly depressed (42 +/- micrograms/dl; normal 66-110 micrograms/dl). By the second week of hospitalization, serum zinc concentrations gradually increased into the normal range in the majority of patients. Mechanisms for this hypozincemia were evaluated. Decreases in the serum zinc concentration did not correlate with increased urinary zinc excretion; thus increased urinary zinc excretion was an unlikely mechanism for the observed hypozincemia. Values for albumin, the major zinc binding protein in serum, generally were inversely correlated with the serum zinc concentration. Thus, hypoalbuminemia could not explain the decreased serum zinc concentration. Certain cytokines such as interleukin-1 are known to cause a decrease in the serum zinc concentration as part of the acute phase response. Therefore, we measured serum C reactive protein concentrations as an indicator of the acute phase response. Thermally injured patients initially had markedly elevated C-reactive protein levels which gradually decreased during hospitalization. We suggest that the initial hypozincemia observed in thermally injured patients may be a reflection of interleukin-1 mediated acute phase response. Whether one should vigorously attempt to correct this initial marked hypozincemia requires further investigation.

  12. Correlation of Serum Magnesium with Serum Parathormone Levels in Patients on Regular Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradaran Azar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT is a common, important, and treatable complication of end-stage renal disease. This study was conducted to investigate the role of serum magnesium (Mg in regulating the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH by the parathyroid gland in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD. Pre-dialysis serum levels of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, Mg, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, intact serum PTH (iPTH, serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25-OH Vit D and plasma bicarbonate (HCO3 were measured. The Urea Reduction Rate as well as duration and dosage of HD treatment were noted. Our study did not show any significant correlation between serum Mg levels and duration of HD treatment, levels of serum ALP, and plasma HCO3, Ca and P. An inverse correlation, albeit insignificant, was found between the serum Mg levels and iPTH (r=-0.30 p=0.079; also, a significant positive correlation was found between serum Mg levels and serum 25-OH Vit D levels (r= 0.40 p= 0.009. Our findings are in agreement with previous data, which suggest that factors other than serum Mg are more important in the regulation of PTH secretion in HD patients. A positive and strong association between serum Mg with 25-OH Vit D needs to be studied in greater detail.

  13. Conversation, speech acts, and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Speakers frequently have specific intentions that they want others to recognize (Grice, 1957). These specific intentions can be viewed as speech acts (Searle, 1969), and I argue that they play a role in long-term memory for conversation utterances. Five experiments were conducted to examine this idea. Participants in all experiments read scenarios ending with either a target utterance that performed a specific speech act (brag, beg, etc.) or a carefully matched control. Participants were more likely to falsely recall and recognize speech act verbs after having read the speech act version than after having read the control version, and the speech act verbs served as better recall cues for the speech act utterances than for the controls. Experiment 5 documented individual differences in the encoding of speech act verbs. The results suggest that people recognize and retain the actions that people perform with their utterances and that this is one of the organizing principles of conversation memory.

  14. Is Eotaxin-1 a serum and urinary biomarker for prostate cancer detection and recurrence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Isabel; Höfer, Julia; Luger, Markus; Pichler, Renate; Klocker, Helmut; Horninger, Wolfgang; Steiner, Eberhard; Jochberger, Stefan; Culig, Zoran

    2015-12-01

    Eotaxin-1 (CCL11) is a protein expressed in various tissues influencing immunoregulatory processes by acting as selective eosinophil chemo-attractant. In prostate cancer (PCa), the expression and functional role of CCL11 have not been intensively investigated so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic or prognostic potential of Eotaxin-1 in PCa patients. We analyzed serum from 140 patients who have undergone prostate biopsy due to elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels as well as serum of 20 individuals with PSA levels  112.2 pg/ml) Eotaxin-1 serum levels. Although this study has not established a prognostic role of Eotaxin-1 in PCa patients, this chemokine may serve as a diagnostic marker to distinguish between disease-free prostate and cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Serum and Urinary NGAL in Septic Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Smertka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL is postulated to be a potentially new and highly specific/sensitive marker of acute kidney injury (AKI. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of inflammation on serum and urine NGAL in newborns that were treated due to infection. We determined serum and urine NGAL concentrations in 73 infants (51 with sepsis; 22 with severe sepsis admitted to the Intensive Care Unit in the first month of life, for three consecutive days during the course of treatment for infection. 29 neonates without infection served as the control group. Septic patients, in particular, severe sepsis patients, had increased serum and urinary NGAL levels in the three subsequent days of observation. Five septic patients who developed AKI had elevated serum and urinary NGAL values to a similar extent as septic neonates without AKI. A strong correlation was found between the concentration of serum and urinary NGAL and inflammatory markers, such as CRP and procalcitonin. Serum and urinary NGAL levels were also significantly associated with NTISS (neonatal therapeutic intervention scoring system values. We conclude that increased serum and urinary NGAL values are not solely a marker of AKI, and more accurately reflect the severity of inflammatory status.

  16. SERUM PARAOXONASE ACTIVITY IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saritha Gadicherla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Serum paraoxonase is an enzyme synthesised in the liver. It is known to prevent atherosclerosis by inhibiting oxidation of lowdensity lipoprotein. Renal transplant recipients have increased tendency for developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Reduced activity of serum paraoxonase contributes to accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular complications in these patients. The aim of this study was to estimate serum paraoxonase activity in renal transplant recipients and compare it with healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 renal transplant recipients and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls were taken for the study. Serum paraoxonase activity, blood urea, serum creatinine and uric acid were estimated in these groups. The serum paraoxonase activity was correlated with urea, creatinine and uric acid levels. RESULTS Serum paraoxonase activity was reduced in renal transplant recipients compared to healthy controls. There was a negative correlation between paraoxonase activity and the levels of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels. CONCLUSION In this study, the paraoxonase activity was reduced in renal transplant recipients compared to controls. The increased cardiovascular disease in these patients could be due to reduced paraoxonase activity.

  17. Serum homocystein level in patients with scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarinia, Mohammadali; Shams, Mesbah; Kamali Sarvestani, Eskandar; Shenavande, Saeede; Khademalhosseini, Maryam; Khademalhosseini, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic connective tissue disease. In this study, we compared the serum Homocystein (Hcy) level between patients with SSc and normal control group. The current study was conducted to determine whether serum Hcy levels are elevated in SSc patients and whether there is any correlation between Hcy levels and RP, Gastro intestinal and lung involvement. Forty one patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for SSc (39 females and 5 males) and Forty four community-based healthy individuals (sex and age matched) were enrolled in to the study. Serum Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate levels were determined. Thirty three patients (70.45%) had GI involvement, twenty two patients (50%) had lung involvement and twenty seven patients (61.36%) had Raynaud's phenomena. Mean serum Hcy level in control group was 22.78 ± 6.018 μmol/L and in case group was 19.43 ± 7.205 μmol/L, shows that the serum Hcy level in control group was significantly higher than patients (P = 0.020). Serum Hcy level is significantly lower in SSc patients than in control group. There is no statistically significant correlation between serum Hcy level and organ involvements.

  18. A phase I/IIa study with succinylated human serum albumin (Suc-HSA), a candidate HIV-1 fusion inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Joost N.; Meijer, Dirk K. F.; Over, Jan; Lange, Joep M. A.; Proost, Johannes H.; Bakker, Hester I.; Beljaars, Leonie; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Prins, Jan M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Succinylated human serum albumin (Suc-HAS) is a negatively charged neo-glycoprotein that binds to the positively charged V3-loop of HIV-1 gp120, acting as HIV-1-fusion inhibitor in vitro (IC50: 0.5-5.0 microg/ml). Suc-HSA was safe in rats and monkeys, and showed antiretroviral effect in

  19. A Phase I/IIa study with succinylated human serum albumin (Suc-HSA), a candidate HIV-1 fusion inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Joost N.; Meijer, Dirk K. F.; Over, Jan; Lange, Joep M. A.; Proost, Johannes H.; Bakker, Hester I.; Beljaars, Leonie; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Prins, Jan M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Succinylated human serum albumin (Sue-HAS) is a negatively charged neo-glycoprotein that binds to the positively charged V3-loop of HIV-1 gp120, acting as HIV-1-fusion inhibitor in vitro (IC50: 0.5-5.0 mu g/ml). Sue-HSA was safe in rats and monkeys, and showed antiretroviral effect in a

  20. Mechanism of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense resistance to human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uzureau, Pierrick; Uzureau, Sophie; Lecordier, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    The African parasite Trypanosoma brucei gambiense accounts for 97% of human sleeping sickness cases. T. b. gambiense resists the specific human innate immunity acting against several other tsetse-fly-transmitted trypanosome species such as T. b. brucei, the causative agent of nagana disease...... in cattle. Human immunity to some African trypanosomes is due to two serum complexes designated trypanolytic factors (TLF-1 and -2), which both contain haptoglobin-related protein (HPR) and apolipoprotein LI (APOL1). Whereas HPR association with haemoglobin (Hb) allows TLF-1 binding and uptake via......GP), which prevents APOL1 toxicity and induces stiffening of membranes upon interaction with lipids. Two additional features contribute to resistance to TLFs: reduction of sensitivity to APOL1 requiring cysteine protease activity, and TbHpHbR inactivation due to a L210S substitution. According...

  1. Clinical Usefulness of the Serum Anion Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sik; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Kang, Sung Kyew

    2006-01-01

    The anion gap in the serum is useful in the interpretation of acid-base disorders and in the diagnosis of other conditions. In the early 1980s, ion-selective electrodes for specific ionic species were introduced for the measurement of serum electrolytes. This new method has caused a shift of the anion gap from 12±4 mEq/L down 6±3 mEq/L. It is worthy for clinicians to understand the range of normal anion gap and the measuring methods for serum sodium and chloride in the laboratories that suppo...

  2. Modeling Serum Creatinine in Septic ICU Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Cortese, Giuliana; Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2004-01-01

    Serum creatinine is a metabolite assumed to be constantly produced by the normally functioning muscle mass and is a good measure for monitoring daily renal function in the intensive care unit (ICU). High serum creatinine levels or an abnormal departure from normal pre-disease basal levels....... The present work details the structure of a model describing observed creatinine serum concentration (CSC) variations, depending on the time-varying septic insult to renal function in ICU patients, as well as the estimation of its parameters. CSC determinations were routinely obtained from 12 patients...

  3. Transport of retinol in the duck plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    in goat (Sreekrishna and Cama, 1979) and canine (Muto et al., 1973) sources and agree well with the values reported in chicken (Heller, 1976). An important observation in this study was that duck prealbumin did not exhibit microheterogeneity while that from other sources like chicken (Bhat et al., 1977) exhibited multiple ...

  4. Serum uric acid and target organ damage in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, Sandra N; Odia, Osaretin J

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality, as it acts through its effects on target organs, such as the heart and kidneys. Hyperuricemia increases cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension. To assess the relationship between serum uric acid and target organ damage (left ventricular hypertrophy and microalbuminuria) in untreated patients with essential hypertension. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 130 (85 females, 45 males) newly diagnosed, untreated patients with essential hypertension. Sixty-five healthy age- and sex-matched non-hypertensive individuals served as controls for comparison. Left ventricular hypertrophy was evaluated by cardiac ultrasound scan, and microalbuminuria was assessed in an early morning midstream urine sample by immunoturbidimetry. Blood samples were collected for assessing uric acid levels. Mean serum uric acid was significantly higher among the patients with hypertension (379.7±109.2 μmol/L) than in the controls (296.9±89.8 μmol/L; P<0.001), and the prevalence of hyperuricemia was 46.9% among the hypertensive patients and 16.9% among the controls (P<0.001). Among the hypertensive patients, microalbuminuria was present in 54.1% of those with hyperuricemia and in 24.6% of those with normal uric acid levels (P=0.001). Similarly, left ventricular hypertrophy was more common in the hypertensive patients with hyperuricemia (70.5% versus 42.0%, respectively; P=0.001). There was a significant linear relationship between mean uric acid levels and the number of target organ damage (none versus one versus two: P=0.012). These results indicate that serum uric acid is associated with target organ damage in patients with hypertension, even at the time of diagnosis; thus, it is a reliable marker of cardiovascular damage in our patient population.

  5. Serum levels of osteopontin are increased in SIRS and sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaschetto, Rosanna; Nicola, Stefania; Olivieri, Carlo; Boggio, Elena; Piccolella, Fabio; Mesturini, Riccardo; Damnotti, Federica; Colombo, Davide; Navalesi, Paolo; Della Corte, Francesco; Dianzani, Umberto; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

    2008-12-01

    In sepsis, dysregulation of the immune response leads to rapid multiorgan failure and death. Accurate and timely diagnosis is lifesaving and should discriminate sepsis from the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) caused by non-infectious agents. Osteopontin acts as an extracellular matrix component or a soluble cytokine in inflamed tissues. Its exact role in immune response and sepsis remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the role of osteopontin in SIRS and sepsis. Prospective, observational study. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Fifty-six patients with SIRS or sepsis and 56 healthy subjects were enrolled. We analyzed the serum levels of osteopontin and TH1-TH2 cytokines and investigated the role of osteopontin on interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes. Serum osteopontin levels were strikingly higher in patients than in controls and in sepsis than in SIRS, and decreased during the resolution of both the disorders. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that osteopontin levels have discriminative power between SIRS and sepsis with an area under the curve of 0.796. Osteopontin levels directly correlated with those of interleukin 6 and in vitro, recombinant osteopontin increased interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes in both the absence and presence of high doses of lipopolysaccharide. These data suggest that osteopontin might be a mediator involved in the pathogenesis of SIRS and sepsis, possibly by supporting interleukin 6 secretion. 45. SIRS/Sepsis: clinical studies.

  6. Membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium decrease in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnkennedy Nnodim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Women who have had pre-eclampsia have a greater risk of developing hypertension, stroke and ischemic heart disease in later life. The etiology of pre-eclampsia remains unclear. Placental insufficiency plays a key role in the progression of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri.   Methods A case control study involving 200 primigravida (100 preeclamptic and 100 apparently healthy between the ages of 20 and 32 years attending General Hospital Owerri. Fasting venous blood was collected for the determination of serum selenium and serum calcium while membrane potential was calculated using the Nernst equation. The serum calcium was estimated using Randox Kit and serum selenium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Independent Student t test was used for statistical analysis.   Results The results revealed that membrane potential and serum selenium as well as serum calcium were significantly decreased in preeclampsia when compared with the controls, at p<0.05.   Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the decrease in membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. There may be a need for increasing the dietary intake of these essential trace metals during pregnancy to prevent pre-eclampsia in Owerri.

  7. Evaluation of serum markers of blood redox homeostasis and inflammation in PCB naturally contaminated heifers undergoing decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigliano, Luisa; Nebbia, Carlo; Rychen, Guido; Feidt, Cyril; Girolami, Flavia; Rossetti, Cristina; Spagnuolo, Maria Stefania

    2016-01-15

    Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely spread and long persistent contaminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate physiological changes associated with the decontamination of animals previously exposed to environmental pollutants. Eight Limousine heifers were removed from a polluted area and fed a standard ration for six months. The extent of contamination was defined by measuring total toxic equivalents (TEQ) values of dioxin like-PCBs (DL-PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and NDL-PCBs amount in pericaudal fat two weeks after the removal from the contaminated area (day 0) and then bimonthly for six months during the decontamination (days 59, 125, and 188). The concentrations of both DL-PCBs + PCDD/Fs and NDL-PCBs at the start of decontamination (day 0) were higher than those legally admitted, and they were strongly decreased at the end of the experimental period. Specific indices of blood redox homeostasis and inflammation were also measured at each time. Serum concentrations of Retinol, Tocopherol and Ascorbate, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were lower at day 0 than after 59, 125 or 188 days of decontamination. Protein-bound carbonyls (PC), nitro-tyrosine (N-Tyr), and lipid hydroperoxides concentrations were higher at day 0 than during decontamination. In addition, TAC, PC and N-Tyr levels correlated with both DL-PCB and NDL-PCB concentrations only at day 0. Serum concentrations of TNF-alpha and Haptoglobin were higher in samples collected at day 0 than in those obtained during decontamination. As Haptoglobin and TNF-alpha levels correlated with both DL-PCB and NDL-PCB concentrations at day 0 and at day 59 (when these concentrations are still over legal limit), they might represent easily measurable parameters for assessing acute exposure to pollutants. Further both N-Tyr and TNF-alpha concentrations could be

  8. The Price-Anderson Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Price-Anderson Act establishes nuclear liability law in the United States. First passed in 1957, it has influenced other nuclear liability legislation around the world. The insurer response the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 demonstrates the application of the Act in a real life situation. The Price-Anderson Act is scheduled to be renewed in 2002, and the future use of commercial nuclear power in tge United States will be influenced by this renewal. (author)

  9. The new Swiss Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tami, R.

    1999-01-01

    The new Swiss Energy Act and the accompanying regulation enable the instructions given in the poll by the electorate in 1990 -- the Energy Article in the Swiss Constitution -- to be implemented. The Energy Act creates the necessary basis for an advanced and sustainable energy policy. It should contribute to a sufficient, broadly based, dependable, economical and environment-friendly energy supply. The Energy Act and the Energy Regulation entered into force on January 1, 1999. (author)

  10. Alteration of serum adropin level in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihua; Gao, Bo; Wu, Zaigui; Wang, Hanzhi; Dong, Minyue

    2017-04-01

    To clarify the alterations in serum adropin and preptin concentrations in preeclampsia, we determined serum adropin and preptin levels in 29 women with normal pregnancy and 32 women with preeclampsia. We found that maternal age, body mass index and fetal gender were not significantly different between two groups; however, blood pressure, gestational age and neonatal birth weight were significantly different. Serum adropin levels were significantly increased in women with preeclampsia compared with those with normal pregnancy but there were no significant differences in preptin levels. An increase in maternal serum adropin level was found in preeclampsia, and this may be a compensation for pregnancy complicated with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute phase serum proteins in diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The serum concentration of various acute phase reactants were studied in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with and without retinopathy and in control subjects. The serum levels of haptoglobin was elevated in diabetics with retinopathy and the levels were highest in those with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The levels of serum albumin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, alpha-1 antitrypsin and caeruloplasmin were not significantly different between the patients with retinopathy and controls. Haptoglobin increases serum viscosity and this could be the mechanism by which it plays a role in pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. These preliminary observations need to be confirmed by studies based on larger number of patients. Longitudinal studies on acute phase reactants in various stages of development of diabetic retinopathy would also provide valuable information.

  12. Serum Prolactin in Diagnosis of Epileptic Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies in databases and references concerning serum prolactin levels (PRL in patients with suspected seizures were rated for quality and analyzed by members of the Therapeutics Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

  13. IMPORTANCE AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SERUM SIALIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. IMPORTANCE AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SERUM SIALIC ACID AND LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE DETERMINATION IN CERVICAL CANCER PATIENTS. Farouk H. Saber, Essam F. Hammouda, Mohamed Khaled M, Essam A. Afifi. Abstract.

  14. Atomic Energy Authority Act 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    This Act provides for the transfer of property, rights, liabilities and obligations of parts of the undertaking of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Autority, to two new Compagnies set up for this purpose: the Bristish Nuclear Fuels Limited, and the Radiochemical Centre Limited. Patents licences and registered designs owned by the Autority at the time of the transfer are not included therein. The Act also includes amendments to the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, notably as regards permits to operate granted to a body corporate. Finally, the Schedule to this Act lays down a certain number of provisions relating to security and the preservation of secrets. (NEA) [fr

  15. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Dean A.; Schertler, Ronald J.

    The benefits that will be offered by the NASA-sponsored communication spacecraft ACTS which is scheduled for launch in 1992 are described together with examples of demonstrations on proposed data, video, and voice applications supported by the advanced ACTS technologies. Compared to existing satellite service, the ACTS will provide lower cost, better service, greater convenience, and improved service reliability of telecommunications to customers around the world. In addition, the pioneering ACTS technology will provide many capabilities qualitatively different from those of current satellite systems, such as on-demand assignment, frequency reuse, and the flexible targeting of spot beams directly to the very-small-aperture terminals at customer premises.

  16. The human serum paraoxonase/arylesterase polymorphism.

    OpenAIRE

    Eckerson, H W; Wyte, C M; La Du, B N

    1983-01-01

    The heterozygous human serum paraoxonase phenotype can be clearly distinguished from both homozygous phenotypes on the basis of its distinctive ratio of paraoxonase to arylesterase activities. A trimodal distribution of the ratio values was found with 348 individual serum samples, measuring the ratio of paraoxonase activity (with 1 M NaCl in the assay) to arylesterase activity, using phenylacetate. The three modes corresponded to the three paraoxonase phenotypes, A, AB, and B (individual geno...

  17. Online Serum PFOA Calculator for Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bartell, SM

    2017-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a persistent environmental contaminant that has been detected in >100 public water systems in the United States alone. A variety of epidemiological investigations of PFOA have been published, mostly using measured or modeled serum PFOA concentrations as the exposure metric. Comparison of drinking water PFOA concentrations to those study findings or to typical serum concentrations requires pharmacokinetic modeling. This brief communication describes an online J...

  18. Prevalence of elevated serum creatinine among treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cut off mark of 1.5mg/dl was used to evaluate elevated serum creatinine levels. Results: There were 826patients with a male/female ratio of 1:1.32. Males were 356 (43.1%) and females 470 (56.9%). Among these patients, 118 (14.3%) had a serum creatinine value of over 1.5mg/dl, signifying renal disease. Conclusion: A ...

  19. Tubule urate and PAH transport: sensitivity and specificity of serum protein inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, J.J.; Kennedy, J.; Cowley, B.

    1987-01-01

    Macromolecules in rabbit serum inhibit the cellular uptake and transepithelial secretion of [ 14 C]urate and p-[ 3 H]aminohippurate ([ 3 H]PAH) in rabbit S 2 proximal tubule segments. To understand better the potential role these inhibitors may have in the regulation of renal organic anion excretion, the authors examined the specificity and relative inhibitory effects on tubule urate and PAH transport of albumin and γ-globulin, the major inhibitory proteins in rabbit serum. Native rabbit serum markedly inhibited the cellular accumulation or urate and PAH by isolated nonperfused segments. Urate and PAH transport was also inhibited by bovine serum, human serum, Cohn-fractionated rabbit albumin, and rabbit γ-globulin, but not by Cohn-fractionated bovine serum albumin. α-Lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, derived from milk, also inhibited urate and PAH transport, but to a lesser extent than albumin and γ-globulin. The transport inhibitory effects of proteins were independent of their binding to urate and PAH. Unidirectional influx and the steady-state intracellular accumulation of urate and PAH in suspensions of proximal tubules were decreased by rabbit serum proteins, suggesting that these inhibitors act on the external face of the cells to diminish the uptake of the organic anions. These studies indicate that the principal plasma proteins (albumin and γ-globulin) significantly inhibit urate and PAH transporters in the basolateral membranes of S 2 proximal tubules. They suggest that circulating plasma proteins that can penetrate the basement membrane of proximal tubules may directly modulate the renal excretion of urate and PAH

  20. Predictive role of serum and urinary cytokines in invasion and recurrence of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Nitu; Agrawal, Usha; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Kumar, Anup; Vasudeva, Pawan; Mohanty, Nayan Kumar; Saxena, Sunita

    2017-04-01

    Urothelial cancer patients are prone to recurrence, and there is no marker to predict which cases become refractory to the immunotherapy given to these patients. Tumour behaviour is decided by the dynamics between the pro- and anti-tumorigenic cytokines. In this study, 27 cytokines were estimated in serum and urine of 72 urothelial cancer patients and 42 healthy volunteer controls. Serum cytokines IL-1RA, IL-4 and RANTES were in significantly higher concentration in serum of patients compared to controls, while IL-2 was significantly less in concentration. Patients were found to have significantly high concentrations of 12 urinary cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IP-10, MIP-1a, PDGF, MIP-1b, RANTES and VEGF) in comparison to healthy controls. Serum VEGF and urinary IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-10, GM-CSF, IP-10, MIP-1a and MIP-1b concentrations were found significantly higher in concentration in high-grade tumours compared to low-grade tumours. There was no difference in either the serum or urinary cytokines between non-invasive and muscle-invasive cases. Serum IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and VEGF and urinary IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, GM-CSF, IP-10, MIP-1a, PDGF, MIP-1b and VEGF were found to be significantly higher in recurrent patients compared to non-recurrent patients. Of these, high concentrations of urinary IL-1RA, IL-4, IL-10, IP-10, PDGF and VEGF and serum IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-10, VEGF and TNF-α were associated with poor recurrence-free survival. Poor recurrence-free survival was also seen with increasing number of cytokines showing high concentrations. The study shows that the estimation of a combination of these cytokines in minimally or non-invasive samples may act as a prognostic indicator.

  1. Serum angiotensin converting enzyme in pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza M Robati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune blistering skin disease with unknown etiology. Drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors may contribute in the pathogenesis of pemphigus. Objective: We plan this essay to evaluate the serum ACE level in pemphigus vulgaris patients in comparison with healthy controls to recognize its possible role in disease pathogenesis or activity. Methods: This study was planned and performed in the dermatology clinics of Shahid Beheshti University of MedicalSciences′ Hospitals between July 2010 and June 2011. Patients with new onset of pemphigus vulgaris were enrolled in our study. Control subjects were frequency-matched to cases by sex and age. Serum ACE was determined by the spectrophotometric method. Results: Thirty-four patients with pemphigus vulgaris and 35 healthy individuals were recruited in the study. No statistical significant difference was detected in the mean level of serum ACE of the two groups (t-test, P = 0.11. The mean ACE level was significantly lower in male patients compared with male controls (P = 0.04. Moreover, a significant higher serum ACE level of patients with cutaneous involvement was observed compared to patients with mucosal involvement (P = 0.02. Conclusions: Despite lack of any significant difference of serum ACE level between pemphigus and control group, the serum ACE level was considerably lower in male pemphigus vulgaris patients compared with male controls. Therefore, ACE might have some association with pemphigus vulgaris especially in male patients; however, further studies are required to confirm this association.

  2. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual′s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, padults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust

  3. Serum Soluble Corin is Decreased in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Fangfang; Shi, Jijun; Han, Xiujie; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Yan; Zhi, Zhongwen; Zhang, Fuding; Shen, Yun; Ma, Juanjuan; Song, Yulin; Hu, Weidong

    2015-07-01

    Soluble corin was decreased in coronary heart disease. Given the connections between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, circulating corin might be a candidate marker of stroke risk. However, the association between circulating corin and stroke has not yet been studied in humans. Here, we aimed to examine the association in patients wtith stroke and community-based healthy controls. Four hundred eighty-one patients with ischemic stroke, 116 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, and 2498 healthy controls were studied. Serum soluble corin and some conventional risk factors of stroke were examined. Because circulating corin was reported to be varied between men and women, the association between serum soluble corin and stroke was evaluated in men and women, respectively. Patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke had a significantly lower level of serum soluble corin than healthy controls in men and women (all P values, stroke than men in the highest quartile. Women in the lowest quartile of serum soluble corin were also more likely to have ischemic (OR, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-5.44) and hemorrhagic (OR, 8.54; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-31.02) stroke than women in the highest quartile. ORs of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were significantly increased with the decreasing levels of serum soluble corin in men and women (all P values for trend, stroke compared with healthy controls. Our findings raise the possibility that serum soluble corin may have a pathogenic role in stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Chang

    Full Text Available The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species.

  5. Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation by Serum Creatinine or Serum Cystatin C in Preterm (<31 Weeks) Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Parvesh; Hidalgo, Guillermo

    2017-06-15

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by serum creatinine (Schwartz's equation) and serum cystatin C (Filler's equation) in preterm neonates (24-31 weeks of gestation) in a prospective cohort study. Serum creatinine and cystatin C was obtained at birth and then every two weeks during the first month. We found a poor fit between two methods, and a steadier GFR assessment by cystatin C.

  6. Serum alkaline phosphatase levels associate with elevated serum C-reactive protein in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Damera, Sriharsha; Raphael, Kalani L.; Baird, Bradley C.; Cheung, Alfred K.; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2010-01-01

    High serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations are associated with elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the general population. To examine whether this association is independent of serum vitamin D levels or modified in chronic kidney disease (CKD), we determined if such associations exist using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III of 14,420 adult participants in which 5.7% had CKD (defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min per 1.73...

  7. [Euthanasia and medical act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Right to life -as the prohibition of intentionally and arbitrarily taking life, even with authorization of the concerned one- is an internationally recognized right. In many countries, debate regarding euthanasia is more centered in its convenience, social acceptability and how it is regulated, than in its substantial legitimacy. Some argue that euthanasia should be included as part of clinical practice of health professionals, grounded on individual's autonomy claims-everyone having the liberty to choose how to live and how to die. Against this, others sustain that life has a higher value than autonomy, exercising autonomy without respecting the right to life would become a serious moral and social problem. Likewise, euthanasia supporters some-times claim a 'right to live with dignity', which must be understood as a personal obligation, referred more to the ethical than to the strictly legal sphere. In countries where it is already legalized, euthanasia practice has extended to cases where it is not the patient who requests this but the family or some healthcare professional, or even the legal system-when they think that the patient is living in a condition which is not worthy to live. Generalization of euthanasia possibly will end in affecting those who need more care, such as elder, chronically ill or dying people, damaging severely personal basic rights. Nature, purpose and tradition of medicine rule out the practice of euthanasia, which ought not be considered a medical act or legitimately compulsory for physicians. Today's medicine counts with effective treatments for pain and suffering, such as palliative care, including sedative therapy, which best preserves persons dignity and keeps safe the ethos of the medical profession.

  8. Is Serum Lactate Necessary in Patients with Normal Anion Gap and Serum Bicarbonate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aronovich, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There has been an increase in patients having serum lactate drawn in emergency situations. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not it was necessary to obtain a lactate level in patients with a normal serum bicarbonate level and anion gap. Methods: This is a retrospective chart review evaluation of 304 patients who had serum lactate and electrolytes measured in an emergency setting in one academic medical center. Results: In 66 patients who had elevated serum lactate (>2.2mmol/L, 45 (68% patients had normal serum bicarbonate (SB (greater than 21 mmol/L. Normal anion gap (AG (normal range <16 mEq/l was found in 51 of the 66 patients (77%. Conclusion: We found that among patients with elevated serum lactate, 77% had a normal anion gap and 68% had normal serum bicarbonate. We conclude serum lactate should be drawn based on clinical suspicion of anaerobic tissue metabolism independent of serum bicarbonate or anion gap values. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:364–366.

  9. Pengaruh Timbal (Pb Terhadap Kadar MDA Serum Tikus Putih Jantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endrinaldi .

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTimbal (Pb merupakan logam berat bersifat toksik yang konsentrasinya di lingkungan saat ini dipandang sebagai zat berbahaya. Pb dalam bentuk senyawa berasal dari pembakaran bahan bakar kendaraan bermotor, emisi industry dan dari penggunaan cat bangunan yang mengandung Pb. Toksisitas Pb menghambat enzim yang berperan sebagai antioksidan dan merusak sel hati.Tujuan studi ini adalah untuk melihat pengaruh timbal (Pb terhadap kadar malondialdehid (MDA tikus putih jantan. Desain penelitian ini adalah eksperimental menggunakan 25 ekor tikus putih jantan yang dibagi menjadi lima kelompok, yaitu kelompok kontrol, dan kelompok perlakuan dengan pemberian Pb asetat dengan dosis konsentrasi 5, 10, 20 dan 40 mg/kg BB selama 26 hari.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terjadinya peningkatan rerata kadar MDA serum secara bermakna (p < 0,05, setelah pemberian Pb asetat selama 26 hari. Peningkatan kadar MDA secara bermakna terjadi antara kelompok kontrol dibandingkan dengan kelompok tikus yang diberi dosis 5, 10, 20 dan 40 mg/kg BB.Kesimpulan yang dapat diambil dari studi ini adalah bahwa pemberian Pb asetat meningkatkan kadar MDA serum tikus.Kata kunci: Pb asetat, MDAAbstractLead (Pb is atoxi cheavy metal concentrationsin the environment are now seenas a dangerous substance. Pb in the form of compounds derived from burningmotor vehicle fuel. Pb toxicityinhibitsan enzyme that acts as an antioxidant and liver cell damage.The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of lead (Pb on levels of malondialdehyde (MDA male whiterats. Experimental research design was used 25 white male rats were divided into five groups, namely the control group and the group treated with the administration of Pb acetate at a dose concentration of 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg / kg body weight for 26 days.The results showed an average increase in level of MDA, after administration of Pb acetate for 26 days were significantly (p <0.05. Increase in level of MDA of serum were significantly (p

  10. Serum uric acid and target organ damage in essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofori SN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sandra N Ofori, Osaretin J OdiaDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, NigeriaBackground: Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality, as it acts through its effects on target organs, such as the heart and kidneys. Hyperuricemia increases cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension.Objective: To assess the relationship between serum uric acid and target organ damage (left ventricular hypertrophy and microalbuminuria in untreated patients with essential hypertension.Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 130 (85 females, 45 males newly diagnosed, untreated patients with essential hypertension. Sixty-five healthy age- and sex-matched non-hypertensive individuals served as controls for comparison. Left ventricular hypertrophy was evaluated by cardiac ultrasound scan, and microalbuminuria was assessed in an early morning midstream urine sample by immunoturbidimetry. Blood samples were collected for assessing uric acid levels.Results: Mean serum uric acid was significantly higher among the patients with hypertension (379.7±109.2 µmol/L than in the controls (296.9±89.8 µmol/L; P<0.001, and the prevalence of hyperuricemia was 46.9% among the hypertensive patients and 16.9% among the controls (P<0.001. Among the hypertensive patients, microalbuminuria was present in 54.1% of those with hyperuricemia and in 24.6% of those with normal uric acid levels (P=0.001. Similarly, left ventricular hypertrophy was more common in the hypertensive patients with hyperuricemia (70.5% versus 42.0%, respectively; P=0.001. There was a significant linear relationship between mean uric acid levels and the number of target organ damage (none versus one versus two: P=0.012.Conclusion: These results indicate that serum uric acid is associated with target organ damage in patients with hypertension, even at the time of diagnosis; thus, it is a reliable

  11. 7 CFR 65.100 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 65.100 Section 65.100 Agriculture Regulations of... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.100 Act. Act means the Agricultural Marketing Act of...

  12. Atomic Energy Commission Act, 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    Promulgated in 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission Act (204) established and vested in the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission the sole responsibility for all matters relating to the peaceful uses of atomic energy in the country. Embodied in the Act are provisions relating to the powers, duties, rights and liabilities of the Commission. (EAA)

  13. Nuclear Material (Offences) Act 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The main purpose of this Act is to enable the United Kingdom to ratify the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material which opened for signature at Vienne and New York on 3 March 1980. The Act extends throughout the United Kingdom. (NEA) [fr

  14. 78 FR 46256 - Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 1 Privacy Act CFR Correction In Title 11 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of January 1, 2012, on page 5, in Sec. 1.2, the words ``95 and 96 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.'' are added at the end of the definition of Act. [FR Doc. 2013-18535 Filed 7...

  15. Nuclear industry (Finance) Act 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Act is to enable British Nuclear Fuels Limited to make borrowings backed by Government guarantees in order to finance its ten year investment programme. More specifically, the Act raises the financial limit applicable to British Nuclear Fuels Limited from pound 500 million to pound 1,000 million. (NEA) [fr

  16. Serum biomarkers in periprosthetic joint infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, A; George, J; Faour, M; Klika, A K; Higuera, C A

    2018-01-01

    The diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is difficult and requires a battery of tests and clinical findings. The purpose of this review is to summarize all current evidence for common and new serum biomarkers utilized in the diagnosis of PJI. We searched two literature databases, using terms that encompass all hip and knee arthroplasty procedures, as well as PJI and statistical terms reflecting diagnostic parameters. The findings are summarized as a narrative review. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were the two most commonly published serum biomarkers. Most evidence did not identify other serum biomarkers that are clearly superior to ESR and CRP. Other serum biomarkers have not demonstrated superior sensitivity and have failed to replace CRP and ESR as first-line screening tests. D-dimer appears to be a promising biomarker, but more research is necessary. Factors that influence serum biomarkers include temporal trends, stage of revision, and implant-related factors (metallosis). Our review helped to identify factors that can influence serum biomarkers' level changes; the recognition of such factors can help improve their diagnostic utility. As such, we cannot rely on ESR and CRP alone for the diagnosis of PJI prior to second-stage reimplantation, or in metal-on-metal or corrosion cases. The future of serum biomarkers will likely shift towards using genomics and proteomics to identify proteins transcribed via messenger RNA in response to infection and sepsis. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2018;7:85-93. © 2018 Saleh et al.

  17. Fluorimetric determination of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiufeng; Liu, Jiangang; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xiaosen; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2005-01-01

    With the increase of people"s living standard and the changes of living form, the number of people who suffer from hypercholesterolemia is increasing. It is not only harmful to heart and blood vessel, but also leading to obstruction of cognition. The conventional blood detection technology has weakness such as complex operation, long detecting period, and bad visibility. In order to develop a new detection method that can checkout hypercholesterolemia conveniently, spectroscopy of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum is obtained by the multifunctional grating spectrograph. The experiment results indicate that, under the excitation of light-emitting diode (LED) with the wavelength at 407 nm, the serum from normal human and the hypercholesterolemia serum emit different fluorescence spectra. The former can emit one fluorescence region with the peak locating at 516 nm while the latter can emit two more regions with peaks locating at 560 nm and 588 nm. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of serum is non-linear increasing with the concentration of cholesterol increases when the concentration of cholesterol is lower than 13.8 mmol/L, and then, with the concentration of cholesterol increase, the fluorescence intensity decreases. However, the fluorescence intensity is still much higher than that of serum from normal human. Conclusions can be educed from the experiments: the intensity and the shape of fluorescence spectra of hypercholesterolemia serum are different of those of normal serum, from which the cholesterol abnormal in blood can be judged. The consequences in this paper may offer an experimental reference for the diagnosis of the hypercholesterolemia.

  18. Serum prolactin level in patients taking olanzapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diganta Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olanzapine is a commonly used antipsychotic. Prolactin elevation is a common adverse effect of anstipsychotics, and serum prolactin elevation is seen in about 30% patients treated with olanzapine. There are confounding results about dose dependency of olanzapine and prolactin elevation, and also the duration of treatment. Method: Fifty six patients, 36 male and 20 female, who were taking olanzapine for any condition for more than a month at a constant dose were enrolled in the study. Patients’ age, weight, body mass index (BMI, serum prolactin levels, and some biochemical values were recorded. Patients were taken from the review outpatient department (OPD after due consent. Results: Five each in male and female groups showed elevation of serum prolactin (estimated to be high if >20 ng/dl for males, and >25 ng/dl for females. In females, the elevation was found at lesser dose of olanzapine (13 mg/day, in males 18 mg/day and early in the treatment (2.4 months vs. 9.7 months in males. Males tended to show raised prolactin with higher doses of olanzapine (mean 18 mg/day. Females (26.31% also showed higher prevalence of prolactin elevation compared to males (13.51%. No other parameter was found to modify the prolactin levels. Conclusion: Olanzapine causes elevation of serum prolactin, though lesser degree than some other antipsychotics. Females are more prone to have raised serum prolactin with olanzapine compared to males. However, the elevation seems to be transient. Higher doses of olanzapine tend to cause elevation of serum prolactin. Serum prolactin estimation in patients taking olanzapine may be undertaken to maintain quality life, particularly in females.

  19. Act local, think global

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Chris; McRoberts, Doug

    2002-01-01

    Tip O'Neill, one of the grand old men of modem US politics, once famously remarked that all politics is local. Like most politicians who succeed on the national stage - and not just in the US - it was a truth he never lost sight of. What is true for politicians is equally true in the communications business. We may increasingly live in a global village, but successful companies - even multi-nationals - forget the importance of local and regional public relations at their peril. Think of Douglas Ivester, the CEO of Coca-Cola at the time of the 1999 Belgian contamination scandal, who allegedly reacted to first reports of the crisis by asking: 'Where the hell is Belgium?' A more appropriate question today - several years after Coke's share price toppled and the CEO was unceremoniously sacked - might be: 'Who the hell is Douglas Nester?' But - to adapt another famous phrase - the fact that communications (and marketing) professionals still need to 'act local' as much as ever before should not blind us to the growing need to 'think global'. In the nuclear industry, as in the world economy generally, increasing global integration is a reality, as are the international nature of the news media and the increasingly global nature of the anti-nuclear pressure groups. Indeed, it was the growing need for a truly global information network to counter these trends, by increasing the overall speed and accuracy of the worldwide nuclear information flow, that led the nuclear community to establish NucNet in 1991. So where exactly is the line between local and regional nuclear communications on the one hand, and global communications on the other? Is there one spin for a regional audience, and another for a global audience? This presentation proposes some guiding principles, by examining the response of nuclear communicators world-wide to the new communications agenda imposed in the wake of the September 11th suicide attacks in the US. NucNet President Doug McRoberts and Executive

  20. Serum zinc level in children with malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.M.; Mahmood, M.T.; Baluch, G.R.; Bhatti, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Serum zinc level amongst children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) was evaluated in a control study conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Allama Iqbal Medical College and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. Twenty-five children with PEM and 25 healthy children as control from the community were screened. Mean serum zinc level was found to be 54.48 -+ 18.91 mg/dl in children with PEM while it was 72.72 -+ 8.21 mg/dl in control group (P < 0.001). No significant difference in zinc level was noted between both sexes in each group. Marasmic 16 children revealed mean serum zinc level of 57.55 -+ 18.16 mg/dl while in Kwashiorkor it was 44.57 -+ 13.66 mg/dl. Serum zinc was significantly low in Kwashiorkor than in marasmus (P < 0.001). It was also significantly low in children with acute or chronic diarrhea associated with malnutrition (44.66 -+ 16.0 mg/dl). Acute respiratory infections in these children were not associated with low serum zinc level (71.66 -+ 16.51 mg/dl). (author)

  1. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugard, J.; Kew, M.C.; Da Fonseca, M.; Levin, J.

    1982-01-01

    Having found raised serum calcitonin concentrations is 94% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma when using a dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay, we have now repeated the study, using a double-antibody radio-immunoassay, in 102 further patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 35 matched controls. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentrations (iCT) in the controls ranged from 10 to 310 pg/ml (mean 154,6 pg/ml). Values in the tumour patients ranged from 10 to 1 650 pg/ml (mean 302,6 pg/ml). The mean figures were significantly higher in the tumour patients (P smaller than 0,001), 35,5% of them having values above 310 pg/ml. In 65 of the patients serum iCT concentrations were also determined by dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay. Values ranged from 10 to 10780 pg/ml (mean 2 179 pg/ml). If 1 000 pg/ml is taken as the upper limit of normal, 69% of the patients had raised iCT concentrations. There was a good correlation (r=0,67; P smaller than 0,001) between serum iCT values measured with both methods in 50 patients. If measured by the double-antibody radio-immunoassay method, the serum calcitonin value is not useful as a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma

  2. Association of serum uric acid with blood urea and serum creatinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.U.; Ahmad, Z.; Rehman, J.U.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hyperuricemia can cause serious health problems including renal insufficiency. Hyperuricemia is associated with many diseases including Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertriglyceridemia and Obesity. Objective of the present study was to study the Association of Serum Uric Acid with Blood Urea and Serum Creatinine. Methods: Eighty subjects, aged above 40, having blood urea more than 40 mg/dl and serum Creatinine more than 1.3 mg/dl were selected. 52.5 % subjects were male. Eighty subjects were selected as control group matching the age and sex with study group with normal blood urea and serum Creatinine. Results: Serum Uric Acid was found to be raised in 33 patients. Mean Serum Uric Acid value was 6.98+-2.021 in males (p<0.05) and 5.054+-2.324 in females (p<0.05). Conclusion: Serum Uric Acid is raised in patients with impaired renal function (p<0.05). Levels of increased Serum Uric Acid were not significantly associated with the cause of renal disease. (author)

  3. Elemental analysis of human serum and serum protein fractions by thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woittiez, J.R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Some applications of thermal neutron activation for the determination of elemental contents in human serum and human serum protein fractions are presented. Firstly total serum is dealt with, secondly serum protein fractions obtained by gel filtration are described. A brief review on the role of (trace) elements in human health and disease and a compilation of literature data for elemental contents in human serum, as obtained by neutron activation techniques, are given. The most important sources of statistical and systematic errors are evaluated. Results for the contents of sodium, potassium, magnesium, bromine, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, rubidium, cesium and antimony in serum are given, with emphasis on control of accuracy and precision. The possible relation between selenium in blood and cancer occurrence in humans is discussed. The results of elemental analyses from cancer patients and from a patient receiving a cytostatic treatment are presented. A survey of literature results for the determination of protein-bound elemental contents in serum is presented. Subsequently, results from a study on the behaviour of elements during gel filtration are discussed. Gel-element and protein-element interactions are studied. Finally the protein-bound occurrence of trace elements in human serum is determined by gel filtration and neutron activation analysis. Results for both desalting and fractionation are given, for the elements bromine, copper, manganese, vanadium, selenium, zinc, rubidium, iron and iodine. (Auth.)

  4. Association between serum interleukin-6 and serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in nonthyroidal illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, A.; Platvoet-ter Schiphorst, M. C.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    Increased serum concentrations of FFA, bilirubin, and carboxyl-methyl-propyl-furanpropionic acid, accumulating in chronic renal failure in direct relationship with serum creatinine, have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of the low T3 syndrome during illness. Cytokines may also be involved in

  5. HIV and other predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Gomo, E; Kæstel, Pernille

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Folate and iron status and hemoglobin concentrations are important to maternal and infant health. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to identify predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 1669 pregnant women (22-35 wk of gestation) in ...

  6. Serum proteinase inhibitors and other serum proteins in protein-energy malnutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelp, F.P.; Migasena, P.; Pongpaew, P.; SCHREURS W.H.P

    1977-01-01

    1. The concentrations of serum protein albumin, prealbumin and transferrin were determined in twenty-eight cases of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) with infection, together with the levels of serum proteinase inhibitors (PI), alpha1-antitrypsin (AT), alpha1-antichymotrypsin (Ach),

  7. Serum cardiac troponin I in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol and TNF-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Krarup; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth; Christensen, Anders Fogh

    2004-01-01

    Serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a specific marker of myocardial injury related to in-patient fatality and cardiac injury in acute stroke. We investigated whether cTnI in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol, acute inflammatory response, and insular damage. We also investigated whether c...

  8. Association of serum leptin with serum C-reactive protein in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastegari Ebrahim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent investigations have shown that leptin is cleared principally by the kidney. Objectives: To examine whether and how in patients on hemodialysis the level of C-reactive protein level correlate with serum leptin. Patients and Methods: The total patients were 36. The mean patients’ age were 46 (16 years. The median length of the time patients were on hemodialysis were 19 months. Results: The mean serum C-reactive protein was 8.7 (6.6 mg/l (median: 8 mg/l. The mean serum leptin was 9.4 (14 ng/ml (median: 5.75 ng/ml. In this study we found a significant inverse correlation of serum leptin with serum C-reactive protein (r= -0.57, p= 0.041 was seen. Conclusion: Our data supports, the positive effect of leptin on nutrition and support the theory of protective effects (reverse epidemiology of leptin in hemodialysis patients.

  9. Radioimmunological determination of digoxin in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, G.; Sorger, D.

    1979-01-01

    The tested quality signs of the digoxin-RIA (Medica) correspond to other RIA-test methods. The digoxin-RIA (Medica) is, therefore, well suited for clinical examinations. In the dilanacin-(digoxin-) long-term therapy with the maintenance dose of 0.5 mg digoxin a day 75.4% of the patients examined (n = 65) were within the therapeutic field. In each case 12.3% were underdigitalised or overdigitalised, respectively. In the 8 patients in the toxic region only the half showed signs of digoxin intoxication. It is referred to the importance of creatinine and potassium in the serum, to the digoxin creatinene and potassium in the serum, to the digoxin clearance depending on age, to the body weight and the body surface, respectively, in very obese patients for the height of the serum digoxin level and for the compatibility of this heart glycoside. (author)

  10. Radioimmunoassay of parathormone in human blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leicht, E.

    1982-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for immune reactive PTH in human blood serum has been developed and optimized. The method described is capable of largely safely discriminating increased PTH concentrations from normal values. For the group of patients suffering from hypoparathyroidism, the PTH values in the blood serum have been found to be generally lower, but quite an overlapping of lower values and values at the lower normal limit has been stated at the same time. Subsequent to an oral administration of phosphate in an acute experiment, so following a calcium-deficient diet taken over 24 hours, an increase in immune reactive PTH in the serum could be detected. The part of this thesis dealing with the method of treatment thoroughly discussed the various steps of optimization of the assay on the basis of extensive experimental data collected by the author. It presents a detailed assessment of current knowledge on, efficiency of and problems involved in PTH determination by radioimmunoassay. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Clinical usefulness of the serum anion gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sik; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Kang, Sung Kyew

    2006-03-01

    The anion gap in the serum is useful in the interpretation of acid-base disorders and in the diagnosis of other conditions. In the early 1980s, ion-selective electrodes for specific ionic species were introduced for the measurement of serum electrolytes. This new method has caused a shift of the anion gap from 12±4 mEq/L down 6±3 mEq/L. It is worthy for clinicians to understand the range of normal anion gap and the measuring methods for serum sodium and chloride in the laboratories that support their practice. While an increase in the anion gap is almost always caused by retained unmeasured anions, a decrease in the anion gap can be generated by multiple mechanisms.

  12. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kandasamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP and hemoglobin (Hb levels. Materials and Methods: The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Results: Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Also serum and salivary IgG and IgA levels showed significantly increased (P < 0.01 in all the three staging of OSMF when compared to control group. Hb levels and TSP levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. One-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and unpaired t -test were used for statistical analysis. Conclusion: The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  13. 36 CFR 51.101 - Did the 1998 Act repeal the 1965 Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions are inconsistent with terms and conditions of a 1965 Act concession contract. ... OF THE INTERIOR CONCESSION CONTRACTS The Effect of the 1998 Act's Repeal of the 1965 Act § 51.101 Did the 1998 Act repeal the 1965 Act? Section 415 of the 1998 Act repealed the 1965 Act and related laws...

  14. Serum YKL-40 and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cintin, C; Johansen, J S; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    1999-01-01

    related to short survival. In the present study we analysed YKL-40 in preoperative sera from patients with colorectal cancer and evaluated its relation to survival. Serum YKL-40 was determined by RIA in 603 patients. Survival after operation was registered, and median follow-up time was 61 months. Three......YKL-40 is a mammalian member of the chitinase protein family. Although the function of YKL-40 is unknown, the pattern of its expression suggests a function in remodelling or degradation of extracellular matrix. High serum YKL-40 has been found in patients with recurrent breast cancer and has been...

  15. HYPOLIPEMIC THERAPY AND LOW SERUM CHOLESTEROL CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladmila Bojanic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Low concentration of plasma lipoproteins (hypolipoproteinemia presents decreasing concentrations of all or particular lipids components. Classification of hypolipoproteinemia (hypoLP divides them into: primary (hereditary and secondary. Primary hipoLP are rare diseases and their main characteristic is disorder of apolipoproteins synthesis, which leads to low serum cholesterol concentration. Secondary hipoLP are presented in many diseases. They have diagnostic, prognostic significance and present good therapeutic marker. However, modern therapeutic approaches for aggressive lipid lowering pointed out many questions about physiological limits for cholesterol lowering. These approaches, also, open many questions about consequences of low serum concentration of total cholesterol and triglicerides.

  16. Competitive radioimmunoassay of digoxin in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oslapas, Raymond; Herrin, T.R.

    1975-01-01

    The process described is for determining the digoxin level of a serum. To do so a mixture is made by adding to the serum sample an antidigoxin antibody and a suitable labelling quantity of O 3 -(hydroxy-4 phenethylcarbamoyl)digoxigenin for radioactive labelling. The mixture is allowed to incubate so that the digoxin of the sample and the radioactive labelling reagent joint to the antidigoxin antibody. A precipitating agent is added to the mixture to help the formation of a precipitate and thus separate the labelled digoxin taken up from the precipitate free digoxin. The liquid is separated from the precipitate formed and the residual radioactivity of the precipitate is measured [fr

  17. VT Act 174 Wind Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The statewide wind potential layer used in the Act 174 effort represents three combined wind resource layers: Potential Residential and Small and...

  18. Act of 28 June 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Among other things, this Japanese Act amends the law on choice of law in international family law matters to make it sex neutral. Previously, choice of law was determined by the citizenship of the husband or father.

  19. Endangered Species Act Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Critical habitat (CH) is designated for the survival and recovery of species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Critical...

  20. Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA) is a mechanism with which EPA can patent its inventions and license them to companies, through which innovative technologies can enter the marketplace to improve the environment and human health.

  1. Zoledronic acid acutely increases sclerostin serum levels in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Antonino; Morabito, Nancy; Basile, Giorgio; Brancatelli, Santa; Cucinotta, Domenico; Lasco, Antonino

    2013-05-01

    Sclerostin is a circulating inhibitor of the Wnt-signaling pathway produced by osteocytes, which acts as a negative regulator of bone formation. Effects of zoledronic acid on sclerostin serum levels in postmenopausal osteoporosis are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sclerostin serum levels after zoledronic acid administration and correlate variations with bone turnover markers. We conducted a prospective intervention study in an ambulatory care setting. Forty women (mean age 62.6 ± 4.9 years) with postmenopausal osteoporosis were enrolled in this study and randomized into 2 groups to receive zoledronic acid (5 mg) or placebo. At baseline and then at 2, 7, 30, and 360 days after zoledronic acid or placebo administration, serum levels of sclerostin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), as a bone formation marker, and serum C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX), as a bone resorption marker, were measured. Sclerostin serum levels increased by day 2, reached a peak at day 7 (3-fold baseline, P < .001), and then decreased at day 30 and returned near to baseline after 360 days in the zoledronic acid group. Both CTX and BSAP were reduced, and a significant negative correlation was observed between the percentage changes of sclerostin and the variation in BSAP and CTX at all time points in the zoledronic acid group (P < .05). No changes were observed in the placebo group. Our data demonstrate that zoledronic acid increases sclerostin serum levels and that sclerostin could play a role in coupling bone resorption to bone formation.

  2. Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act is concerned with regulating the registration, installation, operation, inspection and safety of X-ray machines. The Act provides for the establishment of the Healing Arts Radiation Protection Commission which is responsible for reporting on all the above matters to the Ontario Minister of Health. In addition the board is responsible for the continuing development of an X-ray safety code and for the submission of an annual report of their activities to the minister

  3. Atomic Energy Authority Act 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Under this Act the UKAEA is given power to borrow so that it can finance its capital expenditure programme, and will undertake a debt to the Secretary of State for Energy representing its assets. Power is given for the Government to guarantee such borrowing. The UKAEA has been organised financially on the basis of a trading fund. The Act came into force on 1 April 1986. (NEA) [fr

  4. 7 CFR 956.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 956.2 Section 956.2 Agriculture Regulations of... OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10... Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (Sec. 1-19, 48 Stat. 31, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.). ...

  5. 7 CFR 983.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 983.2 Section 983.2 Agriculture Regulations of... NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73rd Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as re-enacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Order Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat...

  6. 7 CFR 930.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 930.1 Section 930.1 Agriculture Regulations of... Definitions § 930.1 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended, and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as...

  7. 7 CFR 984.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 984.2 Section 984.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 984.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.). ...

  8. 7 CFR 925.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 925.2 Section 925.2 Agriculture Regulations of... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48...

  9. 7 CFR 917.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 917.2 Section 917.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended, and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as...

  10. 7 CFR 915.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 915.2 Section 915.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48...

  11. 7 CFR 959.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 959.2 Section 959.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 959.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (sections 1-19, 48 Stat...

  12. 7 CFR 1260.128 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1260.128 Section 1260.128 Agriculture... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.128 Act. Act means the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985, Title XVI, Subtitle A of the Food Security Act of 1985, Pub. L. 99-198 and any amendments thereto. ...

  13. 7 CFR 982.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 982.2 Section 982.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C...

  14. 7 CFR 932.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 932.2 Section 932.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 932.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933) as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31...

  15. 7 CFR 981.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 981.2 Section 981.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 981.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as amended...

  16. 7 CFR 906.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 906.2 Section 906.2 Agriculture Regulations of... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as re-enacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of...

  17. 7 CFR 966.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 966.2 Section 966.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 966.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as amended...

  18. 7 CFR 916.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 916.2 Section 916.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48...

  19. 7 CFR 993.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 993.2 Section 993.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.). ...

  20. 7 CFR 35.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 35.1 Section 35.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices... Definitions § 35.1 Act. Act or Export Grape and Plum Act means “An Act to promote the foreign trade of the...

  1. 7 CFR 923.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 923.2 Section 923.2 Agriculture Regulations of... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d... Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.; 68 Stat. 906, 1047). ...

  2. 7 CFR 927.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 927.2 Section 927.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48...

  3. 7 CFR 946.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 946.2 Section 946.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as...

  4. 7 CFR 989.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 989.2 Section 989.2 Agriculture Regulations of... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended, and as re-enacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended...

  5. 7 CFR 1170.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Act. 1170.2 Section 1170.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING § 1170.2 Act. Act means the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, 7 U.S.C. 1621 et seq., as amended by the Dairy Market Enhancement Act of...

  6. 7 CFR 987.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 987.2 Section 987.2 Agriculture Regulations of... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of...

  7. 7 CFR 948.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 948.2 Section 948.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (sections 1-19, 48...

  8. 7 CFR 922.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 922.2 Section 922.2 Agriculture Regulations of... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of...

  9. Effect of Non Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Serum Visfatin Concentration in Periodontal Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Raghavendra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visfatin is a pleiotropic mediator which acts as growth factor, cytokine, enzyme involved in energy including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism and has been recently demonstrated to exert several pro-inflammatory functions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Visfatin concentration in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF and serum in patients with chronic periodontitis, and to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the GCF and serum visfatin concentration. 30 subjects (age range: 25 to 52 years were selected and divided into two groups based on the gingival index, probing depth, periodontal attachment level, and radiologic parameters (bone loss: group 1 (15 subjects with healthy periodontium, group 2 (15 subjects with chronic periodontitis, while, Group 2 patients after 8 weeks of the treatment (scaling and root planning, SRP constituted group 3. GCF samples (by microcapillary pipettes and serum samples (by venipuncture were collected to estimate the levels of Visfatin using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit. The mean Visfatin concentration in GCF and serum was observed to be the highest in group 2 and lowest in group 1. While concentration in group 3 was similar to group 1. The concentration of Visfatin in GCF and serum decreased after SRP. The Visfatin concentration in GCF and serum found to be highest in chronic periodontitis group and decreases after treatment. Hence Visfatin values can be considered as an “inflammatory marker” can be explored in future as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of periodontal disease.

  10. Electrochemical immunosensor detection of antigliadin antibodies from real human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Rivera, L C; Acero-Sánchez, J L; Lozano-Sánchez, P; Katakis, I; O'Sullivan, C K

    2011-07-15

    The determination of antigliadin antibodies from human serum samples is of vital importance for the diagnosis of an autoimmune disease such as celiac disease. An electrochemical immunosensor that mimics traditional ELISA type architecture has been constructed for the detection of antigliadin antibodies with control over the orientation and packing of gliadin antigen molecules on the surface of gold electrodes. The orientation of the antigen on the surface has been achieved using a carboxylic-ended bipodal alkanethiol that is covalently linked with amino groups of the antigen protein. The bipodal thiol presents a long poly(ethyleneglycol)-modified chain that acts as an excellent non-specific adsorption barrier. The bipodal nature of the thiol ensured a good spacing and hence good diffusion properties of electroactive species through the self-assembled monolayer, which is vital for the efficiency of the constructed electrochemical immunosensor. The electrochemical immunosensor was characterized using surface plasmon resonance as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Amperometric evaluation of the sensor with polyclonal antigliadin antibodies showed stable and reproducible low limits of detection (46 ng/mL; % RSD = 8.2, n = 5). The behaviour and performance of the electrochemical immunosensor with more complex matrixes such as reference serum solutions and real patient samples was evaluated and compared with commercial ELISA kits demonstrating an excellent degree of correlation in thirty minutes total assay time; the electrochemical immunosensor not only delivers a positive or negative result, it allows the estimation of semi-quantitative antibody contents based on the comparison against clinical reference solutions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum Uric Acid Level as a Prognostic Marker in Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Woo; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Yim, Jae-Joon; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Lee, Sang-Min

    2017-01-01

    Uric acid acts as both a pathogenic inflammatory mediator and an antioxidative agent. Several studies have shown that uric acid level correlates with the incidence, severity, and prognosis of pulmonary diseases. However, the association between uric acid level and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has not been studied. This study was conducted to elucidate how serum uric acid level is related with clinical prognosis of ARDS. A retrospective cohort study with propensity score matching was conducted at a medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The medical records of patients diagnosed with ARDS admitted from 2005 through 2011 were reviewed. Two hundred thirty-seven patients with ARDS met the inclusion criteria. Patients with a serum uric acid level uric acid group, and those with a level ≥3 mg/dL were classified into the normal to high uric acid group. We selected 40 patients in each group using propensity score matching. A higher percentage of patients in the low uric acid group experienced clinical improvement in ARDS. More patients died from sepsis in the normal to high uric acid group. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that a low serum uric acid level was significantly associated with better survival rate. In patients with ARDS, a low serum uric acid level may be a prognostic marker of a low risk of in-hospital mortality.

  12. Determination of Serum Trace Elements (Zn, Cu, and Fe) in Pakistani Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Zia; Ullah, Muhammad Ikram; Hussain, Shabbir; Kaul, Haiba; Lone, Khalid P

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease, which mainly involves the joints. RA is prevalent worldwide with increasing prevalence in elderly people. The mechanism of RA pathogenesis is still undefined, and it is interplaying between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Although risk factors for RA are not fully established, various studies have focused on the role of trace elements in association with RA. Trace elements act as co-factors for most of the enzymes, and their deficiency is associated with many untoward effects on human health. The homeostatic alterations in the metabolism of trace elements may partly be due to inflammatory response in RA. The objective of the present study was to determine the serum concentrations and correlation of zinc, copper, and iron in RA patients and healthy controls. The study comprised of 61 RA patients and 61 age- and sex-related healthy individuals of Pakistani population. Serum levels of Zn, Cu, and Fe were measured in all the participants by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum Zn and Fe were significantly reduced in the RA patients than those in the healthy controls. Serum Cu concentrations were found elevated in the RA patients. Correlation studies of trace elements determine that there was negative correlation between Zn and Cu in the RA patients and no correlation in the control group. It is very important to explore the deficiency of essential trace metals in biological samples of the RA patients in different populations which may be helpful for diagnosis and supplementary management of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  13. Aggravation of serum Hepatocyte Growth Factor levels during hepato carcinogenesis in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgawad, M.R.; Ghareeb, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has an essential role during liver development and it plays an important role in the regeneration and repair of injured tissues and acting as a mitogen, motogen and morphogens for a variety of epithelial cells. The role of HGF in carcinogenesis is in straggle and so, the present study aimed to through light through the level of HGF during different steps of carcinogenesis. Forty male rats were given diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in drinking water (100 mg/l) for up to 16 weeks. Eight rats were sacrificed at 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Besides, 8 hepatoma bearing rats were exposed to a single dose gamma irradiation (3 Gy) were sacrificed after 2 weeks from exposure (2 rats died, 36 hrs post irradiation) and 8 hepatoma bearing rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks from receiving a combined antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine and Lmethionine). Serum HGF was assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum HGF level in DEN treated rats and in exposed hepatoma bearing rats was significantly higher than in control rats whereas, serum HGF level after treatment with N acetylcysteine and L-methionine for 4 weeks was significantly decreased than DEN treated rats and concluded that serum HGF may play a role during promotion and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and during treatment

  14. Kidney function predictors and associated serum electrolytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Kidney disease has been recognised as one of the health challenges complicating HIV infection, prognosis and management. Early recognition, diagnosis and treatment are therefore key to ameliorating the deleterious impacts of kidney disease in HIV infected patients. Objectives: To assess serum kidney ...

  15. Relationships between blood lead, blood pressure, serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study examined the associations between blood – Pb, serum cholesterol, diastolic and, systolic blood pressures, hematocrit, body weight, age and body mass index in 528 study subjects comprising 50% cigarette smoking and 50% non-smoking male residents of Abeokuta, Nigeria, aged from 15 to 80 years. Blood Pb was ...

  16. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  17. Performance, immunity, serum biochemical and hematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... results suggest that supplementing broilers' diet with 5 g/kg thyme can indicate favorable influences of antibiotic growth promoter on performance without any detrimental impacts on immune responses and blood parameters. Key words: Broiler, thyme, growth performance, immunity, serum biochemistry, hematology.

  18. Relationship between some serum electrolytes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Trypanosoma brucei infection on changes in concentration of some serum electrolytes and the consequence of these changes on electrocardiographic (ECG) indices were investigated in dogs. The nature of association between each of the electrolytes and the various ECG indices were studied at different days ...

  19. Serum Iron Protects from Renal Postischemic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaugier, Céline; Amano, Mariane T; Chemouny, Jonathan M; Dussiot, Michael; Berrou, Claire; Matignon, Marie; Ben Mkaddem, Sanae; Wang, Pamella H M; Fricot, Aurélie; Maciel, Thiago T; Grapton, Damien; Mathieu, Jacques R R; Beaumont, Carole; Peraldi, Marie-Noëlle; Peyssonnaux, Carole; Mesnard, Laurent; Daugas, Eric; Vrtovsnik, François; Monteiro, Renato C; Hermine, Olivier; Ginzburg, Yelena Z; Benhamou, Marc; Camara, Niels O S; Flamant, Martin; Moura, Ivan C

    2017-12-01

    Renal transplants remain a medical challenge, because the parameters governing allograft outcome are incompletely identified. Here, we investigated the role of serum iron in the sterile inflammation that follows kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury. In a retrospective cohort study of renal allograft recipients ( n =169), increased baseline levels of serum ferritin reliably predicted a positive outcome for allografts, particularly in elderly patients. In mice, systemic iron overload protected against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury-associated sterile inflammation. Furthermore, chronic iron injection in mice prevented macrophage recruitment after inflammatory stimuli. Macrophages cultured in high-iron conditions had reduced responses to Toll-like receptor-2, -3, and -4 agonists, which associated with decreased reactive oxygen species production, increased nuclear localization of the NRF2 transcription factor, increased expression of the NRF2-related antioxidant response genes, and limited NF- κ B and proinflammatory signaling. In macrophage-depleted animals, the infusion of macrophages cultured in high-iron conditions did not reconstitute AKI after ischemia-reperfusion, whereas macrophages cultured in physiologic iron conditions did. These findings identify serum iron as a critical protective factor in renal allograft outcome. Increasing serum iron levels in patients may thus improve prognosis of renal transplants. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  20. Comparison of Serum Calcium and Magnesium Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Evidence suggests the involvement of calcium and magnesium metabolism in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. However, findings from studies are heterogenous and inconsistent. Aim: The study aimed to compare the total serum calcium and magnesium levels in preeclamptic women with that of ...

  1. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquinetreated rats: effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Thirty five (35) adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g were divided into seven groups of five (5) rats each. Group I rats served as the control and received 2 ml/kg of normal ...

  2. Serum and urine trace metals in ketosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, R.E.; Hiner, C.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1974-01-01

    Three groups of male rats were housed in metabolic cages. The control group was fed ad libitum, a second group was fasted and diabetes was induced in the third group by the subcutaneous injection of alloxan. After 48 hours all animals were bled and livers, which were quick-frozen in situ, were obtained. Fasted and diabetic animals were ketotic as manifested by lowering urinary pH and elevated urinary and blood acetoacetate and ..beta..-hydroxybutyrate. Blood and hepatic content of acetate was elevated in diabetic versus control rats. Blood and hepatic content of acetate was not increased in fasted animals. In fasted rats total urinary Zn and Cu were decreased and Mg and Ca did not differ significantly from control values. In diabetic rats total urinary excretion of Mg was increased whereas urinary Zn, Cu and Ca levels did not differ significantly from control values. In fasted animals only serum Zn was diminished. In diabetic rats serum Cu and Ca were decreased and serum Mg was increased while serum Zn was unchanged. Thus, the ketosis of fasting differs from the ketosis of diabetes in several of its metabolic manifestations. 11 references, 9 figures.

  3. SERUM BETA HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN IN HUMAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives To determine whether raised levels of serum Beta -HCG) are associated with higher grade and Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin ( -HCG in higher category tumors and whether in patients with raised levels of -HCG their sera the rise (above normal range) and the fall (to normal) in levels would correspond with ...

  4. Serum Calcium, Inorganic Phosphates and some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum calcium level was determined by EDTA titration, inorganic phosphate by spectrophotometric method of Goldberg and the Haematological parameters by Bain method. Results: The age range of both test subjects and controls was 3 to 26 years. There were no significant differences in calcium and inorganic phosphate ...

  5. Growth performance, serum thiocyanate and haematological indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, serum thiocyanate and haematological indices of pigs fed Whole Cassava Chips (WCC) supplemented with brewer's yeast as substitute to maize in a twelve weeks feeding trial. Forty-eight crossbred growing pigs of Landrace and Hampshire breeds ...

  6. Dietary phosphorus, serum phosphorus, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Madhav C; Ix, Joachim H

    2013-10-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have linked higher serum phosphorus concentrations to cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. This association has been identified in the general population and in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The risk of adverse outcomes appears to begin with phosphorus concentrations within the upper limit of the normal reference range. Multiple experimental studies have suggested pathogenetic mechanisms that involve direct and indirect effects of high phosphorus concentrations to explain these associations. Drawing from these observations, guideline-forming agencies have recommended that serum phosphorus concentrations be maintained within the normal reference range in patients with CKD and that dietary phosphorus restriction or use of intestinal phosphate binders should be considered to achieve this goal. However, outside the dialysis population, the links between dietary phosphorus intake and serum phosphorus concentrations, and dietary phosphorus intake and CVD events, are uncertain. With specific reference to the nondialysis populations, this review discusses the available data linking dietary phosphorus intake with serum phosphorus concentrations and CVD events. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Anaerobic exercise - Induced changes in serum mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic exercise, a non 02 – dependent energy metabolism leads to transient metabolic changes, which are corrected gradually by homestatic mechanism. We investigated in eight male subjects, the effects of anaerobic exercise after a day sedentary activity on serum mineral concentration. There was significant ...

  8. Serum Calcium, Inorganic Phosphates and some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Sickle cell disease has long been associated with bone deformities and pain. Mineral salts such as calcium and inorganic phosphate are critical in bone formation and metabolism. This investigation was designed to study the serum concentration of these minerals as well as some haematological parameters in ...

  9. Expression and characterization of recombinant human serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... Key words: C-peptide, human serum albumin, recombinant fusion protein, Pichia pastoris, bioactivity, biological half-time. ... lines were purchased from Cell bank of Chinese academy of sciences (Shanghai, China). .... agarose electrophoresis and DNA sequencing (data was not shown). Expression and ...

  10. Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Weanling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the dose-dependent effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on hematology and serum biochemistry in weanling dogs. Nine healthy local dogs between 12 to 14 weeks of age were randomly assigned to three treatments: control, 150mg/kg and 300mg/kg of medroxyprogesterone ...

  11. EFFECT OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON SERUM TRANSAMINASES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFECT OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON SERUM TRANSAMINASES. ... Global Journal of Medical Sciences ... Alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activity were assessed in 20 mild to moderate smokers, 20 heavy smokers and 20 non smokers, all males, aged between 17 and 35 years in Calabar Cross River ...

  12. Preliminary Studies on Some Haematological and Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean serum values of sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate, as well as urea, creatinine and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) enzyme did not differ from the normal values, while the mean aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme value appeared to be lower than the normal range.In conclusion, the RBC, PCV ...

  13. ADSORPTION OF BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN ONTO ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. In this study, the adsorption of bovine serum albumin was studied using the activated carbon prepared from Elaeagnus stone with chemical activation. Elaeagnus stone activated carbon was characterized using the point of zero charge, Fourier transform infrared spectra, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller method, ...

  14. Serum proteomic profiling of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, M; Chan, M K; Jansen, R; Lamers, F; Vogelzangs, N; Steiner, J; Leweke, F M; Rothermundt, M; Cooper, J; Bahn, S; Penninx, B W J H

    2015-07-14

    Much has still to be learned about the molecular mechanisms of depression. This study aims to gain insight into contributing mechanisms by identifying serum proteins related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large psychiatric cohort study. Our sample consisted of 1589 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, comprising 687 individuals with current MDD (cMDD), 482 individuals with remitted MDD (rMDD) and 420 controls. We studied the relationship between MDD status and the levels of 171 serum proteins detected on a multi-analyte profiling platform using adjusted linear regression models. Pooled analyses of two independent validation cohorts (totaling 78 MDD cases and 156 controls) was carried out to validate our top markers. Twenty-eight analytes differed significantly between cMDD cases and controls (P depression. Changes were more prominent in cMDD, suggesting that molecular alterations in serum are associated with acute depression symptomatology. These findings may help to establish serum-based biomarkers of depression and could improve our understanding of its pathophysiology.

  15. Comparative serum biochemistry of captive mugger crocodiles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard serum biochemical parameters were determined for 28 mugger crocodiles (Crocodylus palustris) using Supra-occipital plexus technique and/or Cardiocentesis technique at the Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur, Chennai, Guindy Snake Park Trust and Amaravathy Crocodile farm, Tamilnadu, India (13° 0´ N; ...

  16. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  17. Serum irisin levels in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Anna; Myśliwiec, Hanna; Kiluk, Paulina; Świderska, Magdalena; Flisiak, Iwona

    2017-06-01

    Irisin has been proposed to regulate metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes or metabolic syndrome which are common comorbidities in psoriasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum irisin level in psoriasis and elucidate possible associations with disease activity, inflammatory or metabolic parameters and topical treatment. Thirty-seven individuals with active plaque-type psoriasis and 15 healthy controls were enrolled. Blood samples were collected before and after two weeks of therapy. Serum irisin concentrations were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results were correlated with psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), body mass index (BMI), inflammatory and biochemical markers, lipid profile and effectiveness of topical treatment. Irisin serum levels were insignificantly increased in psoriatic patients in comparison to the controls (p = 0.38). No significant correlations between investigated adipokine and several indicators of metabolic disorders, nor BMI (p = 0.37) or PASI (p = 0.5) were found. Significant positive correlations with C-reactive protein (CRP) (0.009), lipocalin-2 (p = 0.02), age (p = 0.02) and disease duration (p = 0.008) were noted. After topical treatment, serum irisin level did not significantly change (p = 0.31), despite clinical improvement. Irisin might be a marker of inflammation in psoriatic patients, but may not be a reliable indicator of metabolic conditions, severity of psoriasis nor efficacy of antipsoriatic treatment.

  18. METABOLITE CHARACTERIZATION IN SERUM SAMPLES FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    fasting 10 mL of blood sample from each individual was taken and was allowed to clot in plastic tube for 2 h at room temperature. The serum was collected by centrifugation. The samples were stored under liquid nitrogen for NMR analysis. Before NMR analysis, 600 µL of the samples were taken in a 5 mm high quality NMR ...

  19. Growth performance, hematological and serum biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A twelve (12) weeks feeding trial was carried out to determine the effect of varying dietary inclusions of Microdesmis puberula leaf meal (MPLM) on the growth performance, hematological indices and serum biochemical constituents of growing rabbits. Four grower rabbit diets were formulated to contain the leaf meal at ...

  20. Maternal serum fructosamine values after delivery ofmacrosomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    expl.anation for this discrepancy is that the half-lives of these. 1. Brudenell M, Wilds PLo Medical and Surgical Problems in Obstetrics. Bristol: John Wright, 1984: 120-124. 2. Baker JR, O'Connor JP, Metcalf P, Lawson MR, Johnson RN. Oinical usefulness of estimation of serum frucrosamine concentration as a screening.