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Sample records for serum retinol acts

  1. Characteristics of retinol accumulation from serum retinol-binding protein by cultured sertoli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingleton, J.L.; Skinner, M.K.; Ong, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The uptake of retinol was examined in cultured Sertoli cells when retinol was provided as a complex with the transport protein retinol-binding protein (RBP). Sertoil cells accumulated [ 3 H]retinol in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. The change in rate of retinol accumulation occurred when the cells had accumulated approximately 0.53 pmol of retinol/μg of cellular DNA. Extraction and HPLC analysis of the cell-associated radioactivity yielded retinol and retinyl esters, indicating that a significant proportion of the accumulated retinol was esterified. Excess unlabeled retinol-RBP competed with [ 3 H]retinol-RBP for [ 3 H]retinol delivery to the cells, indicating that RBP delivery of retinol was a saturable and competable process. However, free [ 3 H]retinol associated with Sertoli cells in a noncompetable manner. The transport constant for specific retinol accumulation from RBP was 3.0 μM. Neither iodinated nor reductively methylated RBP was accumulated by or tightly bound to Sertoli cells. Competition studies indicated, however, that protein recognition is important in the retinol uptake process. RBP, CRBP, and CRBP(II) competed with [ 3 H]retinol-RBP for [ 3 H]retinol accumulation, but free retinol, retinol-bovine serum albumin, and retinol-β-lactoglobulin did not. These studies indicated that Sertoli cell uptake of retinol involved recognition of the retinol-RBP complex at the cell surface with subsequent internalization of retinol, but not RBP

  2. Serum carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol concentrations and risk of cervical cancer among Chinese women.

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    Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Lu, Ling; Abliz, Guzalnur; Mijit, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Despite many epidemiological studies on the effects of dietary antioxidant micronutrients on risk of cervical cancer, the findings remain uncertain and little evidence is available for serum nutrient markers. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between serum carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol concentrations and risk of cervical cancer among Chinese women. We conducted a hospital-based case- control study in which 358 adults (158 incident cases and 200 controls) were recruited from Xinjiang, China. Serum levels of carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin), retinol, and tocopherols (α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol) were assessed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. We found inverse associations between serum carotenoid (α-carotene, β-carotene, and lutein/zeaxanthin) and tocopherol (α-tocopherol) concentrations and the risk of cervical cancer after adjusting for potential confounders, but a null association for retinol. The ORs for 1-SD increase were 0.71 (95% CI: 0.56- 0.92; p=0.003) for total carotenoids and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.60-0.94; p=0.008) for total tocopherols. These results show that higher serum concentrations of some carotenoids and tocopherols are associated with a lower risk of cervical cancer among Chinese women.

  3. Maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations and neonatal bone mineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Händel, Mina N; Moon, Rebecca J.; Titcombe, Philip

    2016-01-01

    were assessed prepregnancy and at 11 and 34 wk of gestation. In late pregnancy, maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations were measured. Offspring total body bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) were measured within 2 wk after birth. RESULTS: In total......BACKGROUND: Studies in older adults and animals have suggested contrasting relations between bone health and different vitamin A compounds. To our knowledge, the associations between maternal vitamin A status and offspring bone development have not previously been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We examined...... the associations between maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations during late pregnancy and offspring bone mineralization assessed at birth with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DESIGN: In the Southampton Women's Survey mother-offspring birth cohort, maternal health, lifestyle, and diet...

  4. Improved simultaneous determination method of beta-carotene and retinol with saponification in human serum and rat liver.

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    Hosotani, Keisuke; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2003-07-05

    Among the many simultaneous determination methods for carotenoid and retinoid, there are only a few reports including the saponification process. However, the yields of beta-carotene and retinol were higher when using this process. In this study, the analytical conditions, including saponification, were investigated. The extraction solvent was n-hexane and the sample solvent was HPLC mobile phase in the beta-carotene and retinol analysis. BHT as an antioxidant was added at concentrations of 0.125 and 0.025%, respectively, to ethanol and n-hexane phase in the extraction process for serum. The recovery rates were 99.7, 93.7 and 98.3% for beta-carotene, retinol and retinyl palmitate in serum, respectively, and 107.1, 92.8 and 98.8% for beta-carotene, retinol and retinyl palmitate in liver, respectively. The within-day coefficients of variation (C.V.) were 6.0% for serum and 4.7% for liver in the case of beta-carotene, 7.1% for serum, and 5.1% for liver in the case of retinol. The between-day coefficients of variation were 2.7% for serum and 2.7% for liver in the case of beta-carotene, and for retinol, 6.4% for serum and 2.7% for liver.

  5. Serum Retinol Levels in Pregnant Adolescents and Their Relationship with Habitual Food Intake, Infection and Obstetric, Nutritional and Socioeconomic Variables.

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    Spíndola Garcêz, Laís; de Sousa Paz Lima, Geania; de Azevedo Paiva, Adriana; Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz, Suzana; Lázaro Gomes, Erica Ivana; Nunes, Valéria Sutti; Cotta de Faria, Eliana; de Barros-Mazon, Sílvia

    2016-10-25

    Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation ( p = 0.008) and pre-gestational nutritional status ( p = 0.002), and negatively with the trimester ( p = 0.001). The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence.

  6. Effect of beta-Carotene from Yellow Ambon Banana Peel on Rat Serum Retinol Level

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    Suparmi Suparmi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from common childhood infections and is the world’s leading preventable cause of childhood blindness. Studies showed that carotenoid is one of the promissed vitamin A source. However the studies  on  carotenoid from yellow  banana peel and its potential as a natural source of vitamin A has not been widely reported. This study was conducted to measure the blood serum retinol levels of rats after administration of β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel. This was an experimental study with post test only control group design, with sample size of 18 rats with age 1 month, devided into 3 groups. β-carotene dose administered based on the dose of red capsules vitamin A are (200,000 doses SI for toddlers aged 12-59 months. Serum retinol levels were measured using a spectrophotometer according metide. This present study showed that the blood serum  level in group treated with  of β - carotene from yellow ambon banana peel (28.35 ± 1.61 mg/ dL , was significantly different (p < 0.05 from that of   control group ( 22.08 ± 1.35 mg /dL . β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel are potential as provitamin A.

  7. Influência da resposta inflamatória de fase aguda nos níveis séricos de retinol e da proteína de ligação do retinol em pacientes com AIDS Influence of acute-phase inflammatory response on serum levels of retinol and retinol binding protein in HIV/AIDS patients

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    Fábio Fernandes Neves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a hiporretinolemia constitui fator prognóstico independente em pacientes com AIDS, e a atividade inflamatória causa redução dos níveis séricos deste nutriente na população em geral. Entretanto, faltam estudos que avaliem o impacto da atividade inflamatória sobre o nível sérico do retinol em pacientes com AIDS. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados transversalmente 41 pacientes internados por complicações da AIDS, que tiveram quantificados alguns marcadores de inflamação (proteína C reativa e fator de necrose tumoral alfa e concentrações séricas de retinol e da proteína de ligação do retinol. RESULTADOS: apesar da baixa (14,6% prevalência de hiporretinolemia evidenciou-se correlação negativa dos marcadores de inflamação com os níveis séricos de retinol e de sua proteína de ligação nos pacientes com AIDS. CONCLUSÕES: a atividade inflamatória de fase aguda está associada a baixos níveis séricos de retinol em indivíduos com AIDS.INTRODUCTION: Hyporetinolemia is an independent prognostic factor in AIDS patients. Inflammatory activity causes a reduction in the serum levels of this nutrient in the general population. However, there are no studies assessing the impact of inflammatory activity on the serum retinol level in AIDS patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional assessment was conducted on 41 patients hospitalized due to AIDS complications. Inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and serum retinol and retinol binding protein concentrations were quantified. RESULTS: Despite the low (14.6% prevalence of hyporetinolemia, a significant negative correlation was observed between the inflammatory markers and the serum retinol and retinol binding protein levels in AIDS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Acute-phase inflammatory activity is associated with low serum retinol levels in individuals with AIDS.

  8. Serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin concentrations in infants receiving intravenous zinc and copper supplementation.

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    Lockitch, G; Godolphin, W; Pendray, M R; Riddell, D; Quigley, G

    1983-02-01

    One hundred twenty-seven newborn infants requiring parenteral nutrition were randomly assigned to receive differing amounts of zinc (40 to 400 micrograms/kg/day) and copper (20 or 40 micrograms/kg/day) supplementation within five birth weight groups (600 to 2,500 gm). The serum zinc concentration remained relatively constant in the group receiving the most zinc supplementation after two weeks of therapy, but declined sharply in the groups receiving less supplementation. No effect of increased copper intake was noted on ceruloplasmin values, but a difference in serum copper concentrations was noted at two weeks. No correlation was noted between serum zinc and copper values or among those for serum zinc, retinol-binding protein, and prealbumin. Reference ranges were defined for serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin in the preterm infant.

  9. Evidence that kidney function but not type 2 diabetes determines retinol-binding protein 4 serum levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Andrea; Frey, Simone K; Raila, Jens

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) links adiposity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, circulating RBP4 levels are also affected by kidney function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test whether RBP4 serum levels are primarily associated with kidney...... function or type 2 diabetes....

  10. Retinol sérico en mujeres mexicanas urbanas durante el periodo perinatal Serum retinol in urban Mexican women during the perinatal period

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    Esther Casanueva

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Establecer la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina A durante el embarazo y la lactancia en un grupo de mujeres mexicanas urbanas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se invitó a participar a un grupo de gestantes que acudían a control prenatal, que carecían de patología agregada y contaban con menos de 20 semanas de embarazo. Fueron evaluadas tres veces durante el embarazo y hasta la semana 24 del posparto. La determinación de vitamina A en suero se realizó por cromatografía de líquidos de alta presión. Se consideró como punto de corte para riesgo de deficiencia una concentración de retinol OBJECTIVE. To establish the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy and lactation in a group of urban Mexican women. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A group of pregnant women who attended a prenatal care program were invited to participate. Subjects had no added pathologies and were less than 20 weeks pregnant. Evaluations were performed 3 times during pregnancy until 24 weeks post-partum. Vitamin A levels were determined in serum by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The cut-off point to consider retinol deficiency was < 1.05 µmol/L. RESULTS. During the 3 gestational evaluations, vitamin A levels were 2.34±0.70, 2.41±1.03 and 1.86±0.66 µmol/L, respectively, which shows a significant decrease. However, only 1/30 was situated below the accepted cut-off point to consider risk of deficiency, and none for deficiency. During post-partum , concentrations remained relatively constant, approximately 2.10 µmol/L. Lactation had no impact on serum retinol levels, while weight loss did. CONCLUSIONS. No cases of vitamin A deficiency were found in the studied population during the perinatal period. Maternal weight loss affects post-partum retinol levels.

  11. Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

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    Corrine Hanson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170 from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02, and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002. Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004. Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States.

  12. Provitamin A-biofortified maize consumption increases serum xanthophylls and 13C-natural abundance of retinol in Zambian children.

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    Sheftel, Jesse; Gannon, Bryan M; Davis, Christopher R; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2017-09-01

    Plants that undergo C 4 photosynthesis, such as maize, are enriched in the stable isotope of carbon ( 13 C) compared with other dietary plants and foods. Consumption of maize that has been biofortified to contain elevated levels of provitamin A carotenoids (orange maize) increased the abundance of 13 C in serum retinol of Mongolian gerbils. We evaluated this method in humans to determine if it has potential for further use in intervention effectiveness studies. A random subset of samples from a two-month randomized controlled feeding trial of rural three- to five-year old Zambian children were used to determine the impact of orange maize intake on serum carotenoid concentrations ( n = 88) and 13 C-natural abundance in serum retinol ( n = 77). Concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin (a xanthophyll provitamin A carotenoid) and the dihydroxy xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin, which do not have vitamin A activity, were elevated in children consuming orange maize compared with those consuming a white maize control ( P  0.3). Furthermore, 13 C natural abundance was higher after two months' intervention in the orange maize group compared with the white maize group ( P = 0.049). Predictions made from equations developed in the aforementioned gerbil study estimated that maize provided 11% (2-21%, 95% confidence interval) of the recent dietary vitamin A to these children. These results demonstrate that orange maize is efficacious at providing retinol to the vitamin A pool in children through provitamin A carotenoids, as monitored by the change in 13 C enrichment, which was not reflected in serum β-carotene concentrations. Further effectiveness studies in countries who have adopted orange maize should consider determining differences in retinol 13 C-enrichment among target groups in addition to profiling serum xanthophyll carotenoids with specific emphasis on zeaxanthin. Impact statement Maize biofortified with provitamin A carotenoids (orange) has been released

  13. [Serum retinol and carotenoid of rural infants and young children in Linyi of Shangdong Province and analysis on their related influencing dietary factors].

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    Fan, Ping; Shen, Yao; Li, Yonghua; Ma, Aiqin; Sun, Zhongqing; Wang, Zhixu

    2012-05-01

    The study was carried out to determine serum retinol and carotenoid of infants and young children in rural areas, and to explore their related dietary factors. A total of 254 rural healthy infants and young children aged 6-24 month-old were recruited from a program for health examination and feeding survey conducted in villages in Meibu of Linyi of Shandong Province by cluster sampling method. Serum retinol, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein + zeaxanthin were detected with HPLC. The frequency of food intake of babies during the past month was inquired from their mothers or baby-sitters. The relationship between serum retinol and carotenoid level with some factors related to feeding pattern was analyzed. The average serum retinol was (0.96 +/- 0.55) micromol/L with little variation by age (P > 0.05). The prevalence of serum vitamin A deficiency and marginal deficiency were 40.6% and 32.6%. The average serum beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein + zeaxanthin were (0.056 +/- 0.088) micromol/L, (3.3 +/- 12.1) nmol/L, (27.0 +/- 45.2) nmol/L and (0.22 +/- 0.22) micromol/L, respectively, and no significant difference between age groups on serum beta-carotene, alpha-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin (all were P > 0.05) except lutein + zeaxanthin (P milk, formula, or fruits and vegetables.

  14. Serum retinol binding protein 4 in patients with familial partial lipodystrophy.

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    Godoy-Matos, Amélio F; Moreira, Rodrigo O; MacDowell, Renata; Bendet, Izidro; Mory, Patrícia B; Moises, Regina S

    2009-07-01

    To determine Retinol Binding Protein 4 (RBP4) levels in patients with Familial Partial Lipodystrophy (FPLD). Ten patients with FPLD and a control group (9 patients) were selected to participate in the study. RBP4-log levels were lower in patients with FPLD in comparison to control group (1.52 +/- 0.32 vs 1.84+/-0.25, p=0.029). A statistical trend was observed between Waist-to-Hip Ratio and RBP4-log (r=-0.44, p=0.054). RBP4 levels are decreased in FPLD.

  15. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol and their correlation with sperm DNA damage in normospermic and infertile men

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    Taiebeh Ghyasvand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress in reproductive system leads to sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane lipid peroxidation and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of male infertility, especially in idiopathic cases. Antioxidants such as carotenoids function against free radical damages. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol in serum and their relationship with sperm DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in infertile and normospermic males. Materials and Methods: Sixty two infertile men and 71 normospermic men participated in this study. Blood and semen samples were collected from all subjects. Sperm DNA damage was measured using TUNEL method. Carotenoids, retinol, and malonedildehyde in serum were also determined. Results: DNA fragmentation was higher in infertile group comparing to control group. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and, vitamin A in infertile men were significantly lower than normospermic men (p< 0.001, =0.005, and =0.003 respectively. While serum MDA was not significantly different between two groups, MDA in seminal plasma of infertile men was significantly higher than control group (p< 0.001. Conclusion: We concluded that lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol can reduce sperm DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation through their antioxidant effect. Therefore the DNA fragmentation assay and determination of antioxidants factors such as lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol, along with sperm analysis can be useful in diagnosis and treatment of men with idiopathic infertility.

  16. [Iron status and serum retinol levels among children and adolescents attended by a Family Health Strategy team in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State].

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    Mariath, Aline Brandão; Giachini, Rubia Mara; Lauda, Laíz Guedes; Grillo, Luciane Peter

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this article is to determine prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiencies among children and adolescents attended by a Family Health Strategy team in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State, and to assess relations between iron status and serum retinol. A nutritional census of the families was carried out. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected. Hemoglobin concentration, hematocrite, serum iron and retinal were determined. Thirty-one out of the 156 enrolled families participated in the study. Only 39.1% of the children and 62.0% of the adolescents had their blood samples collected. Mean per capita income was 1.68+/-1.00 minimum wages. None of the parents was illiterate and most families (80.6%) owned their homes. All homes had public sewage and water supply, and 87.1% were made of brickwork. Iron deficiency was diagnosed in 16.7% of the children and 19.3% of the adolescents. Only one child had vitamin A deficiency. Significant correlations were found between serum iron and retinol among children, and among adolescents between serum retinol and hemoglobin concentration and hematocrite. We found mild prevalences of iron and vitamin A deficiencies, possibly due to the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.

  17. A food-based approach introducing orange-fleshed sweet potatoes increased vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children in rural Mozambique.

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    Low, Jan W; Arimond, Mary; Osman, Nadia; Cunguara, Benedito; Zano, Filipe; Tschirley, David

    2007-05-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is widespread and has severe consequences for young children in the developing world. Food-based approaches may be an appropriate and sustainable complement to supplementation programs. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is rich in beta-carotene and is well accepted by young children. In an extremely resource poor area in Mozambique, the effectiveness of introduction of OFSP was assessed in an integrated agriculture and nutrition intervention, which aimed to increase vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children. The 2-y quasi-experimental intervention study followed households and children (n = 741; mean age 13 mo at baseline) through 2 agricultural cycles. In y 2, 90% of intervention households produced OFSP, and mean OFSP plot size in intervention areas increased from 33 to 359 m(2). Intervention children (n = 498) were more likely than control children (n = 243) to eat OFSP 3 or more d in the last wk (55% vs. 8%, P children (median 426 vs. 56 microg retinol activity equivalent, P children and did not increase significantly in control subjects. Integrated promotion of OFSP can complement other approaches and contribute to increases in vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children in rural Mozambique and similar areas in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Sun-dried cowpeas and amaranth leaves recipe improves β-carotene and retinol levels in serum and hemoglobin concentration among preschool children.

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    Nawiri, Mildred P; Nyambaka, Hudson; Murungi, Jane I

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and anemia are major challenges among children and expecting and lactating mothers in developing countries. Intervention with locally available dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) is more sustainable to eradicate VAD, being cost-effective and readily adaptable to local communities. DGLV contain high levels of iron and β-carotene (BC) and therefore useful in fighting VAD and anemia. Since DGLVs are season-dependent sun-drying enables their availability during low seasons. However, their contribution to the bioavailability of BC and the improvement of hemoglobin are not well understood. The study therefore investigated the effect of consuming cooked recipe consisting of sun-dried amaranth and cowpea leaves on the levels of BC, retinol, and hemoglobin in preschool children from Machakos District, a semiarid region in Kenya. Vegetables were purchased from local vegetable market, with some sun-dried in an open shade. Levels of BC and retinol in serum and BC in fresh and processed vegetables were determined by a HPLC method and hemoglobin using a portable Hemocue Analyzer. All-trans-BC levels in uncooked fresh cowpea and amaranth leaves were 806.0 μg/g and 599.0 μg/g dry matter, respectively, while the dehydration and cooking processes retained the β-carotene levels at over 60 %. Consumption of the dehydrated vegetables significantly improved both serum BC and retinol levels (p < 0.05), while the baseline hemoglobin levels improved by 4.6 %. The study has shown that intervention with locally available sun-dried vegetables improves the bioavailability of BC, retinol, and hemoglobin levels among preschool children.

  19. SERUM RETINOL DAN STATUS GIZI IBU MENYUSUI MENENTUKAN KADAR VITAMIN A DALAM ASI

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    Sandjaja Sandjaja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: Status vitamin A ibu menyusui dan bayinya telah dibuktikan mempunyai hubungan yang erat. Bayi dari ibu yang menderita kurang vitamin A mempunyai risiko yang tinggi menderita KVA. Asumsinya hubungan tersebut dimediasi oleh kadar vitamin A dalam ASI sebagai sumber vitamin A utama. Tujuan: Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara status vitamin A ibu menyusui dan kadar vitamin A dalam ASI. Metode: Studi dilakukan pada 440 ibu menyusui yang bayinya umur 6-12 bulan di Kabupaten Tasikmalaya dan Ciamis. Serum vitamin A dalam darah dan kadar vitamin A dalam ASI dikumpulkan dan dianalisis dengan metode HPLC. Kovariat antropometri, morbiditas, karakteristik ibu dan bayi yang berperan dalam serum vitamin A dan vitamin A ASI dikumpulkan. Analisis uji-t, ANOVA dan ANCOVA dilakukan untuk menguji peran status vitamin A ibu terhadap vitamin A ASI. Hasil: Hasil studi menunjukkan KVA ibu menyusui berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap rendahnya kadar vitamin A dalam ASI setelah dikontrol oleh kovariat status gizi ibu menyusui. Rerata vitamin A dalam ASI pada ibu yang KVA dan non KVA 47,0 μg/dL dan 88,2 μg/dL. Kesimpulan: Setelah dikontrol oleh kovariat status gizi ibu menyusui, kurang vitamin A pada ibu menyusui berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap rendahnya kadar vitamin A dalam ASI.

  20. Newborn serum retinoic acid level is associated with variants of genes in the retinol metabolism pathway.

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    Manolescu, Daniel C; El-Kares, Reyhan; Lakhal-Chaieb, Lajmi; Montpetit, Alexandre; Bhat, Pangala V; Goodyer, Paul

    2010-06-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a critical regulator of gene expression during embryonic development. In rodents, moderate maternal vitamin A deficiency leads to subtle morphogenetic defects and inactivation of RA pathway genes causes major disturbances of embryogenesis. In this study, we quantified RA in umbilical cord blood of 145 healthy full-term Caucasian infants from Montreal. Sixty seven percent of values were ROL). However, we found that the (A) allele of the rs12591551 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the ALDH1A2 gene (ALDH1A2rs12591551(A)), occurring in 19% of newborns, was associated with 2.5-fold higher serum RA levels. ALDH1A2 encodes retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) 2, which synthesizes RA in fetal tissues. We also found that homozygosity for the (A) allele of the rs12724719 SNP in the CRABP2 gene (CRABP2rs12724719(A/A)) was associated with 4.4-fold increase in umbilical cord serum RA. CRABP2 facilitates RA binding to its cognate receptor complex and transfer to the nucleus. We hypothesize that individual variation in RA pathway genes may account for subtle variations in RA-dependent human embryogenesis.

  1. Comparison of the rate of uptake and biologic effects of retinol added to human keratinocytes either directly to the culture medium or bound to serum retinol-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodam, J.R.; St Hilaire, P.; Creek, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    Retinol circulates in the plasma bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP), but the mechanism by which retinol is transferred from RBP to target cells is not known. To study retinol delivery, human keratinocytes (HKc) were incubated with [3H]retinol added directly to the culture medium or bound to RBP and the uptake of [3H]retinol was determined at various times. During the first hour of incubation, the rate of [3H]retinol accumulation by HKc was about 40 times greater when the vitamin was added directly to the media rather than bound to RBP. Although maximal uptake of [3H]retinol added directly to the culture medium occurred at 3 h, the uptake of [3H]retinol from RBP was linear with time for at least 72 h. By 57 h, cell-associated [3H]retinol was the same whether it was added directly to the culture medium or bound to RBP. Excess unlabeled retinol or pretreatment of HKc with retinol had no effect on the uptake of [3H]retinol added directly to the culture medium or bound to RBP. Apo- but not holo-RBP was capable of competing with HKc for the uptake of [3H]retinol from RBP. No specific or saturable binding of 125I-labeled RBP to HKc cultured in the absence or the presence of retinol was found. The dose response of retinol inhibition of cholesterol sulfate synthesis and phorbol ester-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity or retinol modulation of keratin expression was the same whether the retinol was delivered to HKc bound to RBP or added directly to the medium. Our data support a mechanism for retinol delivery from RBP to HKc that does not involve cell-surface RBP receptors but instead suggest that the vitamin is first slowly released from RBP and then becomes cell-associated from the aqueous phase. This mechanism is consistent with the finding that HKc respond identically to retinol whether or not it is delivered to them bound to RBP

  2. Níveis séricos de retinol em escolares de 7 a 17 anos no município do Rio de Janeiro Serum retinol levels in school children, 7 to 17 years old in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Rejane Andréa Ramalho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional quanto à vitamina A em escolares de 7 a 17 anos. Foram analisados 574 escolares, com idade entre 7 e 17 anos, regularmente matriculados na rede municipal de ensino no Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS: Os níveis séricos de retinol foram determinados pelo método Bessey-Lowry modificado e o ponto de corte utilizado para caracterizar inadequação sérica de retinol foi OBJECTIVE: The vitamin A nutritional status assesment in scholars whose age is from 7 to 17 years old is the aim of this study. Data from 574 scholars have been analyzed, they were from 7 to 17 years old, and matriculated in the public educational system of Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: The serum retinol levels were assessed by the modified Bessey-Lowry method and the reference point to qualify the inadequate serum retinol level was <1,05µmol/L. RESULTS: The current study has identified that 10.30% of the scholars have presented low serum retinol levels. Considering the age group, the study shows that the younger scholars can present highier percentages of inadequate serul retinol levels (11.98% for those who is 7 to 10 years old, and 7.92% for those who is from 10 to 17 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Although the serum retinol levels tends to raise according to the age, they are still low and its frequency is relevant to focus the atention to the youngest scholars, including them in micronutrients deficiency combat programs.

  3. Serum concentrations of lipids, vitamin d metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissey, Susan D; Ange, Kimberly D; Jacobsen, Krista L; Slifka, Kerri A; Bowen, Phyllis E; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, Maria; Langman, Craig B; Sadler, William; Kahn, Stephen; Ward, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Serum concentrations of several nutrients were measured in 12 captive wild felid species including caracal (Felis caracal), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), cougar (Felis concolor), fishing cat (Felis viverrinus), leopard (Panthera pardus), lion (Panthera leo), ocelot (Felis pardalis), pallas cat (Felis manul), sand cat (Felis margarita), serval (Felis serval), snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and tiger (Panthera tigris). Diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (Brookfield Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens and North Carolina Zoological Park). The nutritional composition of the diets at each institution met the probable dietary requirements for each species except for the pallas cat. Blood samples were collected from each animal (n = 69) and analyzed for lipids (total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol), vitamin D metabolites [25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)(2)D)], vitamin A (retinol, retinyl stearate and retinyl palmitate), vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) and selected carotenoids. Species differences were found for all except triacylglycerides and 1,25(OH)(2)D. Genus differences were found for retinol, retinyl palmitate, retinyl stearate, gamma-tocopherol and beta-carotene. Circulating nutrient concentrations for many of the species in this study have not been reported previously and most have not been compared with the animals' dietary intakes. The large number of animals analyzed provides a substantial base for comparing the serum nutrient concentrations of healthy animals, for both wild and captive exotic species.

  4. Relationship between Serum and Brain Carotenoids, α-Tocopherol, and Retinol Concentrations and Cognitive Performance in the Oldest Old from the Georgia Centenarian Study

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    Elizabeth J. Johnson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in age-related cognitive decline. The dietary antioxidants, carotenoids, tocopherols, and vitamin A may play a role in the prevention or delay in cognitive decline. In this study, sera were obtained from 78 octogenarians and 220 centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Brain tissues were obtained from 47 centenarian decedents. Samples were analyzed for carotenoids, α-tocopherol, and retinol using HPLC. Analyte concentrations were compared with cognitive tests designed to evaluate global cognition, dementia, depression and cognitive domains (memory, processing speed, attention, and executive functioning. Serum lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene concentrations were most consistently related to better cognition (P<0.05 in the whole population and in the centenarians. Only serum lutein was significantly related to better cognition in the octogenarians. In brain, lutein and β-carotene were related to cognition with lutein being consistently associated with a range of measures. There were fewer significant relationships for α-tocopherol and a negative relationship between brain retinol concentrations and delayed recognition. These findings suggest that the status of certain carotenoids in the old may reflect their cognitive function. The protective effect may not be related to an antioxidant effect given that α-tocopherol was less related to cognition than these carotenoids.

  5. Relationships of body mass index with serum carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol at steady-state and in response to a carotenoid-rich vegetable diet intervention in Filipino schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Maramag, Cherry C; Tengco, Lorena W; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Solon, Florentino S

    2008-04-01

    In marginally nourished children, information is scarce regarding the circulating concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols, and physiological factors influencing their circulating levels. We determined the serum concentrations of carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol at steady state and in response to a 9-week vegetable diet intervention in 9-12-year-old girls (n=54) and boys (n=65) in rural Philippines. We determined cross-sectional relationships of BMI (body mass index) with serum micronutrient levels, and whether BMI is a determinant of serum carotenoid responses to the ingestion of carotenoid-rich vegetables. We measured dietary nutrient intakes and assessed inflammation by measurement of serum C-reactive protein levels. The children had low serum concentrations of carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol as compared with published values for similar-aged children in the U.S.A. The low serum retinol levels can be ascribed to inadequate diets and were not the result of confounding due to inflammation. Significant inverse correlations of BMI and serum all-trans-beta-carotene, 13-cis-beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin and alpha-tocopherol (but not beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and retinol) were observed among girls at baseline. The dietary intervention markedly enhanced the serum concentrations of all carotenoids. Changes in serum all-trans-beta-carotene and alpha-carotene (but not changes in lutein, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin) in response to the dietary intervention were inversely associated with BMI in girls and boys. Thus, in Filipino school-aged children, BMI is inversely related to the steady-state serum concentrations of certain carotenoids and vitamin E, but not vitamin A, and is a determinant of serum beta- and alpha-carotene responses, but not xanthophyll responses, to the ingestion of carotenoid-rich vegetable meals.

  6. Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with low retinol levels in children aged 1 to 5 years

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    Bárbara C.A. Saraiva

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Anemia and iron deficiency were associated with low levels of serum retinol in children aged 1 to 5 years, and a positive correlation was verified between serum retinol and serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. These results indicate the importance of initiatives encouraging the development of new treatments and further research regarding retinol deficiency.

  7. Perfil de retinol no soro e colostro de puérperas atendidas em maternidade pública Brasileira e sua associação com características maternas e obstétricas Perfil de retinol en el suero y calostro de puérperas atendidas en maternidad pública brasileña y su asociación con características maternas y obstétricas Serum and colostrum retinol profile in postpartum women in a Brazilian public maternity and its association with maternal and obstetric characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Queiroz de Lira

    2011-12-01

    corte transversal 97 puérperas sanas que fueron clasificadas respecto a la edad, estado nutricional, paridad, vía de parto, peso al nacimiento y edad gestacional del recién nacido. Tres muestras de calostro y una de suero fueron recogidas en ayuno en el postparto inmediato. El retinol fue analizado por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia. Para caracterizar el estado nutricional en vitamina A se adoptó punto de corte para retinol en el suero (30µg/dL y en el calostro (60µg/dL. RESULTADOS: En el grupo total de puérperas, la concentración mediana de 60µg/dL de retinol en el calostro y 43µg/dL en el suero indicó estado bioquímico adecuado. Sin embargo, al evaluar el individuo, se constató alta prevalencia de DVA subclínica en el suero (15% y calostro (50%. No se verificó influencia de las características maternas, obstétricas y del neonato sobre los niveles de retinol en el suero y en el calostro de las mujeres (p>0,05. CONCLUSIONES: El riesgo de DVA puede ocurrir en gestantes/puérperas independientemente de las características maternas y obstétricas consideradas. Este hecho refuerza la necesidad de la atención especial al seguimiento prenatal de todas las mujeres a fin de prevenir la instalación de la DVA y garantizar la reducción de los índices de morbimortalidad infantil y materna.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between serum and colostrum retinol levels and maternal and obstetric characteristics of women attending a Brazilian public maternity hospital, and to establish the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD in this population. METHODS: This cross sectional study included 97 healthy postpartum women classified according to age, nutritional status, parity, mode of delivery, newborn's weight and gestational age. Three samples of colostrum pool and a single serum sample were collected after overnight fasting in the immediate postpartum period. Retinol was analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. To characterize the

  8. Localization of cellular retinol-binding protein and retinol-binding protein in cells comprising the blood-brain barrier of rat and human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, P.N.; Ong, D.E.; Bok, D.

    1990-01-01

    Brain is not generally recognized as an organ that requires vitamin A, perhaps because no obvious histologic lesions have been observed in severely vitamin A-deficient animals. However, brain tissue does contain cellular vitamin A-binding proteins and a nuclear receptor protein for retinoic acid. In the present study, immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine the cell-specific location of cellular retinol-binding protein in human and rat brain tissue. Cellular retinol-binding protein was localized specifically within the cuboidal epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, two primary sites of the mammalian blood-brain barrier. In addition, autoradiographic procedures demonstrated binding sites for serum retinol-binding protein in the choroidal epithelium. These observations suggest that a significant movement of retinol across the blood-brain barrier may occur

  9. Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with low retinol levels in children aged 1 to 5 years

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    Bárbara C.A. Saraiva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the occurrence of anemia and iron deficiency in children aged 1 to 5 years and the association of these events and retinol deficiency. METHODS: This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study conducted in Vitoria, ES, Brazil, between April and August of 2008, with healthy children aged 1 to 5 years (n = 692 that lived in areas covered by primary healthcare services. Sociodemographic and economic conditions, dietary intake (energy, protein, iron, and vitamin A ingestion, anthropometric data (body mass index-for-age and height-for-age, and biochemical parameters (ferritin, hemoglobin, and retinol serum were collected. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and retinol deficiency was 15.7%, 28.1%, and 24.7%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a higher prevalence of anemia (PR: 4.62, 95% CI: 3.36, 6.34, p < 0.001 and iron deficiency (PR: 4.51, 95% CI: 3.30, 6.17, p < 0.001 among children with retinol deficiency. The same results were obtained after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic conditions, dietary intake, and anthropometric variables. There was a positive association between ferritin vs. retinol serum (r = 0.597; p < 0.001 and hemoglobin vs. retinol serum (r = 0.770; p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia and iron deficiency were associated with low levels of serum retinol in children aged 1 to 5 years, and a positive correlation was verified between serum retinol and serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. These results indicate the importance of initiatives encouraging the development of new treatments and further research regarding retinol deficiency.

  10. Retinol uptake and esterification in the rate sertoli cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingleton, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism by which Sertoli cells accumulate retinol from retinol-binding protein (RBP) and the cellular metabolism of the accumulated retinol were investigated here using primary cultures of Sertoli cells isolated from 20 day-old rats. Cells incubated with [ 3 H]retinol-RBP accumulated [ 3 H]retinol in a time- and temperature dependent manner. The rate of [ 3 H] retinol accumulation declined when cellular [ 3 H] retinol concentrations reached approximately 0.53 pmol of retinol per μg of cellular DNA, equivalent to the cellular content of cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP). Excess unlabeled retinol-RBP competed with [ 3 H] retinol-RBP for [ 3 H] retinol delivery to the cells but free retinol did not. Furthermore, free [ 3 H] retinol associated with Sertoli cells in a non-saturable manner. The transport constant for specific retinol accumulation from RBP was 1.9 μM, suggesting that any change in the normal circulating retinol-RBP level would directly affect the rate of retinol accumulation. Competition studies and studies using labeled RBP, cellular energy inhibitors, and lysosomal poisons indicated that the specific retinol accumulation by Sertoli cells occurs by interaction with a cell-surface receptor that internalizes retinol without concomitant internalization of RBP. Extraction and HPLC analysis of the radioactivity associated with Sertoli cells after incubation with [ 3 H] retinol-RBP yielded retinol and retinyl esters

  11. Effect of renal replacement therapy on retinol-binding protein 4 isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Simone K; Henze, Andrea; Nagl, Britta

    2009-01-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels are elevated in the serum of patients with kidney dysfunction. We recently showed that RBP4 isoforms including apo-RBP4 (RBP4 not bound to retinol) and RBP4 truncated at the C-terminus (RBP4-L, RBP4-LL) are increased in the serum of patients with kidney dis...... diseases but not in serum of patients with various liver diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of renal replacement therapy on RBP4 isoforms....

  12. Vitamin A, Cancer Treatment and Prevention: The New Role of Cellular Retinol Binding Proteins

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    Elena Doldo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinol and vitamin A derivatives influence cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis and play an important physiologic role in a wide range of biological processes. Retinol is obtained from foods of animal origin. Retinol derivatives are fundamental for vision, while retinoic acid is essential for skin and bone growth. Intracellular retinoid bioavailability is regulated by the presence of specific cytoplasmic retinol and retinoic acid binding proteins (CRBPs and CRABPs. CRBP-1, the most diffuse CRBP isoform, is a small 15 KDa cytosolic protein widely expressed and evolutionarily conserved in many tissues. CRBP-1 acts as chaperone and regulates the uptake, subsequent esterification, and bioavailability of retinol. CRBP-1 plays a major role in wound healing and arterial tissue remodelling processes. In the last years, the role of CRBP-1-related retinoid signalling during cancer progression became object of several studies. CRBP-1 downregulation associates with a more malignant phenotype in breast, ovarian, and nasopharyngeal cancers. Reexpression of CRBP-1 increased retinol sensitivity and reduced viability of ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Further studies are needed to explore new therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring CRBP-1-mediated intracellular retinol trafficking and the meaning of CRBP-1 expression in cancer patients’ screening for a more personalized and efficacy retinoid therapy.

  13. Impacto da suplementação com retinil palmitato no pós-parto imediato sobre os níveis de retinol do colostro Impact on colostrum retinol levels of immediate postpartum supplementation with retinyl palmitate

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    Roberto Dimenstein

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da suplementação com retinil palmitato sobre os níveis de retinol no colostro, investigando a influência de variáveis maternas (idade, tipo de parto e estado nutricional bioquímico sobre esses níveis. MÉTODO:Participaram do estudo 33 nutrizes atendidas na Maternidade Escola Januário Cicco, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Foram coletadas, nas primeiras horas após o parto, uma amostra de sangue e uma de colostro. Uma nova amostra de colostro foi coletada 6 horas após suplementação materna com 200 000 UI de retinil palmitato. O retinol no sangue e colostro foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. RESULTADOS: Os níveis médios de retinol no colostro antes da suplementação foram de 110,8 ± 82,3 µg/dL, tendo atingido 164,4 ± 106,5 µg/dL após a suplementação (P OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of retinyl palmitate supplementation on colostrum retinol levels, investigating the influence of maternal variables (age, type of delivery, and biochemical nutritional status on these levels. METHOD: The study included 33 mothers receiving care at the Januário Cicco Maternity School, in the city of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. In the first hours after delivery, blood and colostrum samples were collected. Another colostrum sample was collected six hours after maternal supplementation with 200 000 IU of retinyl palmitate. Serum and colostrum retinol levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The mean retinol level in colostrum before the supplementation was 110.8 ± 82.3 µg/dL, and after supplementation it was 164.4 ± 106.5 µg/dL (P < 0.025. Of the 33 mothers, 12 of them either did not respond to supplementation or had an increase of less than 10% in colostrum retinol levels; serum retinol in these women was significantly lower as compared to the responders (P = 0.024. In comparison to women with a normal delivery, the mothers who underwent

  14. Effects of all-trans retinol and cigarette smoke condensate on hamster tracheal epithelium in organ culture. I. A cell proliferation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.; Wilmer, J.W.G.M.; Beems, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and all-trans retinol on the cell proliferative activity of vitamin A-deprived hamster tracheal epithelium have been studied in vitamin A-deficient, serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium in organ culture. In the absence of retinol, CSC induced a

  15. Increased retinol-free RBP4 contributes to insulin resistance in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanmin; Lv, Ping; Du, Mengkai; Liang, Zhaoxia; Zhou, Menglin; Chen, Danqing

    2017-07-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a circulating retinol transporter that is strongly associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the RBP4 and retinol level in rat model of gestational diabetes mellitus and the relationship between retinol-free RBP4 (apo-RBP4), retinol-bound RBP4 (holo-RBP4) and insulin resistance. Pregnant rats were administered streptozotocin to induce diabetes. The RBP4 and retinol levels were evaluated in GDM and normal pregnant rats. After then, normal pregnant rats were divided into two groups to receive either apo-RBP4 or vehicle injection. The metabolic parameters and insulin signaling in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver were determined in apo-RBP4 and control groups. Primary human adipocytes were cultured in vitro with different proportions of apo-RBP4 and holo-RBP4 for 24 h. The interaction between RBP4 and STRA6 was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation, and the expression of JAK-STAT pathway and insulin signaling were detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. We found increases in serum RBP4 levels and the RBP4:retinol ratio but not in the retinol levels in GDM rats. Exogenous apo-RBP4 injection attenuated insulin sensitivity in pregnant rats. In vitro, a prolonged interaction between RBP4 and STRA6 was observed when apo-RBP4 was present. In response to increased apo-RBP4 levels, cells showed elevated activation of the JAK2/STAT5 cascade and SOCS3 expression, decreased phosphorylation of IR and IRS1, and attenuated GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake upon insulin stimulation. Apo-RBP4 is a ligand that activates the STRA6 signaling cascade, inducing insulin resistance in GDM.

  16. Ghrelin- and GH-induced insulin resistance: no association with retinol-binding protein-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Krag, Morten B; Poulsen, Morten M

    2013-01-01

    Supraphysiological levels of ghrelin and GH induce insulin resistance. Serum levels of retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) correlate inversely with insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether ghrelin and GH affect RBP4 levels in human subjects....

  17. Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with low retinol levels in children aged 1 to 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Bárbara C A; Soares, Michele C C; Santos, Luana C dos; Pereira, Simone C L; Horta, Paula M

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the occurrence of anemia and iron deficiency in children aged 1 to 5 years and the association of these events and retinol deficiency. This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study conducted in Vitoria, ES, Brazil, between April and August of 2008, with healthy children aged 1 to 5 years (n=692) that lived in areas covered by primary healthcare services. Sociodemographic and economic conditions, dietary intake (energy, protein, iron, and vitamin A ingestion), anthropometric data (body mass index-for-age and height-for-age), and biochemical parameters (ferritin, hemoglobin, and retinol serum) were collected. The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and retinol deficiency was 15.7%, 28.1%, and 24.7%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a higher prevalence of anemia (PR: 4.62, 95% CI: 3.36, 6.34, piron deficiency (PR: 4.51, 95% CI: 3.30, 6.17, pdeficiency. The same results were obtained after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic conditions, dietary intake, and anthropometric variables. There was a positive association between ferritin vs. retinol serum (r=0.597; pAnemia and iron deficiency were associated with low levels of serum retinol in children aged 1 to 5 years, and a positive correlation was verified between serum retinol and serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. These results indicate the importance of initiatives encouraging the development of new treatments and further research regarding retinol deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of biomarkers of sub-clinical infection, nutrition and neonatal maturity to interpret plasma retinol in Nigerian neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelekan, Delana A; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A; Owa, Joshua A; Oyedeji, Adesola O; Owoeye, Adedayo A; Thurnham, David I

    2003-08-01

    Using the World Health Organization criterion, the prevalence of sub-clinical vitamin A deficiency can be assessed using plasma retinol concentrations lutein (0.080) were low. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was 72 %, indicating a severe public health problem. Babies who were of low birth weight (Pmilk and a coincidental increasing capacity to synthesise APP. Subsequently, negative correlations between retinol and ACT (r -0.28, P=0.02) and AGP (r -0.29, P=0.018) from day 6 onwards reflected the continuing increase in plasma retinol, but no further increase in the APP. Overall, weight, ACT, lutein and age explained 30 % of the variance in retinol, but lutein was the most significant (r(2) 0.18, Plutein) than infection.

  19. Retinol, β-carotene and oxidative stress in systemic inflammatory response syndrome

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    Carla Nogueira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: patients suffering systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS constitute a group susceptible to elevated levels of oxidative stress. This study’s aim is to evaluate the state of oxidative stress and levels of serum retinol and β-carotene in these patients. Methods: forty-six patients were divided into 2 groups: those those without diet (G1; n=18 and those with enteral nutritional support (G2; n=28. Serum levels of retinol and total carotenoids were measured. C-reactive protein (CRP levels and Apache scores were also calculated. Oxidative stress was estimated by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels. Results: the patients’ median age was 66.9 (SD=19.3 years. Lower concentrations of retinol and carotenoids were found in 68.6 and 66.7% of G1, respectively. In G2, despite average vitamin A levels being 8078 + 4035, retinol and β-carotene were considered insufficient (31.2 and 33.4%, respectively. No difference was noted between the 2 groups, according to the variables studied, with the exception being PCR and β-carotene (p=0.002; p=0.01. Conclusion: the data presented in this study supports the need to establish/revise clinical practices in treating SIRS patients, in light of this micronutrient’s role in the immune system and antioxidant defense without it interfering with its toxicity.

  20. Effect of maternal vitamin A supplementation on retinol concentration in colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Evellyn C; Lima, Mayara S R; Cunha, Lahyana R F; Gurgel, Cristiane S S; Clemente, Heleni A; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting and postprandial conditions. This was a quasi-experimental study, with before and after assessments, conducted with 33 patients treated at a public maternity hospital. Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. A second colostrum collection occurred two hours after the first meal of the day, at which time a mega dose of 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate was administered. On the following day, the colostrum was collected again under fasting and postprandial conditions. Serum and colostrum retinol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The serum retinol concentration was 37.3 (16.8-62.2) μg/dL, indicating adequate nutritional status. The colostrum retinol concentration before supplementation was 46.8 (29.7-158.9) μg/dL in fasting and 67.3 (31.1-148.7) μg/dL in postprandial condition (p < 0.05), showing an increase of 43.8%. After supplementation, the values were 89.5 (32.9-264.2) μg/dL and 102.7 (37.3-378.3) μg/dL in fasting and postprandial conditions, respectively (p < 0.05), representing an increase of 14.7%. This study demonstrated that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A in postpartum resulted in a significant increase of the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting conditions, with an even greater increase after a meal. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of maternal vitamin A supplementation on retinol concentration in colostrum

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    Evellyn C. Grilo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting and postprandial conditions. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study, with before and after assessments, conducted with 33 patients treated at a public maternity hospital. Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. A second colostrum collection occurred two hours after the first meal of the day, at which time a mega dose of 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate was administered. On the following day, the colostrum was collected again under fasting and postprandial conditions. Serum and colostrum retinol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The serum retinol concentration was 37.3 (16.8-62.2 µg/dL, indicating adequate nutritional status. The colostrum retinol concentration before supplementation was 46.8 (29.7-158.9 µg/dL in fasting and 67.3 (31.1-148.7 µg/dL in postprandial condition (p < 0.05, showing an increase of 43.8%. After supplementation, the values were 89.5 (32.9-264.2 µg/dL and 102.7 (37.3-378.3 µg/dL in fasting and postprandial conditions, respectively (p < 0.05, representing an increase of 14.7%. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A in postpartum resulted in a significant increase of the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting conditions, with an even greater increase after a meal.

  2. Retinol improves bovine embryonic development in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards J Lannett

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retinoids are recognized as important regulators of vertebrate development, cell differentiation, and tissue function. Previous studies, performed both in vivo and in vitro, indicate that retinoids influence several reproductive events, including follicular development, oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. The present study evaluated in vitro effects of retinol addition to media containing maturing bovine oocytes and developing embryos in both a low oxygen atmosphere (7% and under atmospheric oxygen conditions (20%. In the first experiment, abbatoir collected bovine oocytes were matured in the presence or absence of varying concentrations of retinol. After a 22–24 hour maturation period the oocytes were fertilized, denuded 18 hours later and cultured in a modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF in a humidified atmosphere at 38.5 degrees C, 5% CO2, 7% O2 and 88% N2. Cleavage rates did not differ among control and retinol-treated oocytes in all three experiments. Addition of 5 micromolar retinol to the maturation medium (IVM tended (p

  3. Retinol and mineral status in grazing foals during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lindomárcia Leonardo da Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to examine serum retinol and some mineral (zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and copper levels in seven Mangalarga Marchador colts aged 329.48 days, reared on pasture in the city of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil, during the dry season. Equines were evaluated for four periods of 45 days during the total study period of five months. The foals had access to Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania pasture, while water and mineral salt lick were provided ad libitum. Blood samples were taken to determine serum retinol and levels of minerals, along with pasture samples to quantify beta-carotene in the grass. The results indicated that retinol levels varied (2.87 to 1.97 µg/dL and remained below the standard levels. The levels of zinc, iron, calcium, and phosphorus did not vary significantly with average values of 36.79 µg/dL, 77.32 µg/dL, 10.33 mg/dL, and 9.99 mg/dL, respectively. However, zinc and calcium remained below standard concentrations of 60-120 µg/dL and 10.8-13.5 mg/dL, respectively, since the beginning of the study. On the other hand, copper and magnesium levels decreased over time (97.76 to 77.56 mg/dL and 2.86 to 2.21 µg/dL, respectively, but showed normal levels for horses during the research. Beta-carotene in grass showed a downward trend over time from 38.53 to 0.09 mg/kg of dry matter. The results also indicated a significant relationship between serum retinol and serum copper levels. Vitamin A supplementation is necessary whenever foals are fed pastures during the dry season.

  4. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 and Insulin Resistance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchison, Samantha K.; Harrison, Cheryce; Stepto, Nigel; Meyer, Caroline; Teede, Helena J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE?Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an insulin-resistant state with insulin resistance being an established therapeutic target; however, measurement of insulin resistance remains challenging. We aimed to 1) determine serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels (purported to reflect insulin resistance) in women with PCOS and control subjects, 2) examine the relationship of RBP4 to conventional markers of insulin resistance, and 3) examine RBP4 changes with interventions modulating ...

  5. Retinol analysis in dried blood spots by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, N E; Haitema, T; Brindle, L K; Yamini, S; Humphrey, J H; West, K P

    2000-04-01

    There are many advantages to measuring vitamin A in dried blood spots (DBS) from a finger prick as compared to plasma collected by venipuncture. The advantages include easier collection, transport and storage; accessibility to younger and more remote populations; and decreased risk of disease transmission. We describe a method for the extraction of retinol from DBS for analysis by HPLC and initial comparison to plasma retinol. The effects of various buffers, detergents, antioxidants and chelators were evaluated to establish the most effective approach to elute the retinol: retinol binding protein (holo-RBP) complex from the blood collection cards. The process involves ultrasonic agitation to elute holo-RBP into a phosphate buffer containing an antioxidant and metal chelator. The holo-RBP complex was denatured by the addition of ethanol containing additional antioxidants permitting the extraction of free retinol into hexane. Following solvent evaporation, the extract was dissolved in methanol for HPLC analysis. The initial measured retinol levels in freshly collected DBS declined for 6-10 d whether stored at 25, 4 or -20 degrees C, but remained consistent thereafter (homeostatic). By incorporating a "recovery/volume adjustment" factor, measured retinol values in homeostatic DBS were adjusted to the equivalent of plasma retinol. For 17 normal adults, the correlation coefficient was 0.90 between plasma retinol and adjusted DBS retinol in samples that had been stored at -70 degrees C for < 9 mo. The use of this new sample matrix for vitamin A assessment will allow access to previously unavailable populations.

  6. Gonadal cell surface receptor for plasma retinol-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Bhat, M.; Cama, H.R.

    1979-01-01

    A specific membrane receptor for plasma retinol-binding protein has been demonstrated in testicular cells. Prealbumin-2 did not show any specific binding to the membrane. The affinity of retinol-binding protein for receptor drastically decreases upon delivery of retinol and the retinol-binding protein does not enter the cell. The mechanism of delivery of retinol to the target cell by plasma retinol-binding protein has been investigated. The process involves two steps; direct binding of retinol-binding protein to the receptor and uptake of retinol by the target cell with a concomitant drastic reduction in the affinity of the retinol-binding protein to the receptor. Probably the second step of the process needs a cytosolic factor, possibly the cellular retinol-binding protein or an enzyme. The binding of retinol-binding protein to the receptor is saturable and reversible. The interaction shows a Ksub(d) value of 2.1x10 -10 . The specific binding of a retinol-binding protein with great affinity has been employed in the development of a method for radioassay of the receptor. The receptor level of the gonadal cell has been found to vary with the stage of differentiation. The receptor concentrations in 11-week-old birds and adult birds are comparable. Testosterone treatment of 11-week-old birds produced a substantial increase in the receptor concentration over control, while the protein content increased marginally, indicating that, probably, synthesis of the receptor is specifcally induced by testosterone during spermatogenesis, and the concentration of receptor is relatively higher before the formation of the acrosome. (Auth.)

  7. High-fat diet enhanced retinal dehydrogenase activity, but suppressed retinol dehydrogenase activity in liver of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has shown that hyperlipidemia is associated with retinoid dyshomeostasis. In liver, retinol is mainly oxidized to retinal by retinol dehydrogenases (RDHs and alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs, further converted to retinoic acid by retinal dehydrogenases (RALDHs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high-fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia affected activity and expression of hepatic ADHs/RDHs and RALDHs in rats. Results showed that retinol levels in liver, kidney and adipose tissue of HFD rats were significantly increased, while plasma retinol and hepatic retinal levels were markedly decreased. HFD rats exhibited significantly downregulated hepatic ADHs/RDHs activity and Adh1, Rdh10 and Dhrs9 expression. Oppositely, hepatic RALDHs activity and Raldh1 expression were upregulated in HFD rats. In HepG2 cells, treatment of HFD rat serum inhibited ADHs/RDHs activity and induced RALDHs activity. Among the tested abnormally altered components in HFD rat serum, cholesterol reduced ADHs/RDHs activity and RDH10 expression, while induced RALDHs activity and RALDH1 expression in HepG2 cells. Contrary to the effect of cholesterol, cholesterol-lowering agent pravastatin upregulated ADHs/RDHs activity and RDH10 expression, while suppressed RALDHs activity and RALDH1 expression. In conclusion, hyperlipidemia oppositely altered activity and expression of hepatic ADHs/RDHs and RALDHs, which is partially due to the elevated cholesterol levels.

  8. Retinol metabolism in hepatic stellate cells : a new vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin Md Ajat, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin A (all-trans-retinol) or its derivatives are involved in many physiological processes ranging from vision to cells differentiation. In mammals retinol is stored as retinyl ester (RE) and the liver is the major site for RE storage in the body. The liver is made of various cell types and REs

  9. Secretion of hepatic triglycerides into plasma of rats fed retinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, H.C.; Misra, U.K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of feeding 33 mg of retinol daily for two days on liver and plasma lipids of rats has been studied. The secretion of liver TG into plasma of retinol fed rats has been measured by the use of palmitic acid-1- 14 C and of Triton WR 1339. Liver and plasma lipids, TG, phospholipids and PC were significantly higher in retinol fed rats as compared to control rats. The incorporation of palmitic acid-1- 14 C into liver TG, PC and PE was significantly higher in retinol fed rats. The labelling pattern with time of liver and plasma TG and PC shows that the secretion of liver TG and PC into plasma was impaired in retinol fed rats. (auth.)

  10. Retinol binding protein 4, obesity, and insulin resistance in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldi Noor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity is a global problem. Even in poor and developing countries, obesity has reached alarming levels. In childhood, obesity may lead to insulin resistance. Retinol binding protein (RBP4, secreted primarily by liver and adipose tissues, was recently proposed as a link between obesity and insulin resistance. The role of RBP4 in pediatric obesity and its relationship with insulin resistance have not been well elucidated. Objective To compare RBP4 levels in obese and lean adolescents and to assess for a relationship between RBP4 levels and insulin resistance. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted in three senior high schools in Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia. Subjects were adolescents aged 14-18 years, who were obese or normal weight (n=56. We measured subjects’ body mass index (BMI and serum RBP4 concentrations. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index. Results Similar RBP4 levels were found in the obese and normoweight groups (P>0.05. Higher RBP4 levels were found in the insulin resistant compared to the non-insulin resistant group, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion There is no significant difference in mean RBP4 levels in obese adolescents compared to normoweight adolescents. Nor are mean RBP4 levels significantly different between obese adolescents with and without insulin resistance.

  11. Buriti oil (Mauritia flexuosa L.) negatively impacts somatic growth and reflex maturation and increases retinol deposition in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Maria C; Aquino, Jailane S; Soares, Juliana; Figueiroa, Edigleide B; Mesquita, Hanni M; Pessoa, Debora C; Stamford, Tania M

    2015-11-01

    Buriti oil contains nutrients such as essential fatty acids and vitamins, which are directly involved with neonates' development. However, the refining process of this oil can change its nutrient profile. This study investigated the effects of maternal consumption of Buriti oil (crude or refined), on reflex and somatic development and retinol levels in neonatal rats. Thirty-six Wistar male neonate rats born from mothers who consumed diet with 7% lipids during gestation and lactation were used. Rats were randomized into three groups: rats receiving diet added of soybean oil (control-CG), crude Buriti oil (CB) and refined Buriti oil (RB). Offspring weight, tail length, reflex ontogeny and somatic maturation were assessed during lactation. At the end of the experiment, serum and liver retinol concentrations were measured. Animals from CB and RB groups showed delayed onset of palm grasp, righting reflex and cliff avoidance reflexes compared to the control group (CG). However, animals from RB group showed anticipation of auditory startle compared to those from BC group. Regarding somatic maturation indicators, animals from RB group showed delayed eye opening and eruption of superior and inferior incisors in relation to control and anticipation in the auditory conduit opening in relation to CB group. Rats from CB and RB groups showed higher serum and liver vitamin A contents. Buriti oil delays physical parameters and reflex maturation and increases serum and liver retinol deposition among neonatal rats. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Systemic treatment of seborrheic dermatitis with retinol palmitate

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Kalinina; V. I. Albanova; T. A. Belousova; V. I. Nozdrin

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study. Evaluating of the effectiveness of treatment of men with a diagnosis «Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp» by the system using of retinol palmitate. Material and methods. 36 patients every day for 2 months received overnight per os 200000 ME of retinol palmitate, and in the comparison group (39 people) antiseborrheic shampoos have been used. The dynamics of severity of skin oiliness, pruritis, erythema, peeling, infiltration, excoriations has been evaluated in points. Be...

  13. High dietary fat-induced obesity in Wistar rats and type 2 diabetes in nonobese Goto-Kakizaki rats differentially affect retinol binding protein 4 expression and vitamin A metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Tomomi; Shichi, Yuta; Sato, Miyuki; Tanioka, Yuri; Furusho, Tadasu; Ota, Toru; Tadokoro, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichi; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, which is caused mainly by insulin resistance. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is the only specific transport protein for retinol in the serum. RBP4 level is increased in the diabetic state and high-fat condition, indicating that retinol metabolism may be affected under these conditions. However, the precise effect of diabetes and high fat-induced obesity on retinol metabolism is unknown. In this study, we examined differences in retinol metabolite levels in rat models of diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes (Goto-Kakizaki [GK] rat). Four-week-old male Wistar and GK rats were given either a control diet (AIN-93G) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 40% fat kJ). After 15 weeks of feeding, the RBP4 levels increased by 2-fold in the serum of GK rats but not HFD-fed rats. The hepatic retinol concentration of HFD-fed rats was approximately 50% that of the controls (P type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of nonretinoid retinol binding protein 4 antagonists for the potential treatment of atrophic age-related macular degeneration and Stargardt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Christopher L; Dobri, Nicoleta; Freeman, Emily E; Conlon, Michael P; Chen, Ping; Stafford, Douglas G; Schwarz, Daniel M C; Golden, Kathy C; Zhu, Lei; Kitchen, Douglas B; Barnes, Keith D; Racz, Boglarka; Qin, Qiong; Michelotti, Enrique; Cywin, Charles L; Martin, William H; Pearson, Paul G; Johnson, Graham; Petrukhin, Konstantin

    2014-09-25

    Accumulation of lipofuscin in the retina is associated with pathogenesis of atrophic age-related macular degeneration and Stargardt disease. Lipofuscin bisretinoids (exemplified by N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine) seem to mediate lipofuscin toxicity. Synthesis of lipofuscin bisretinoids depends on the influx of retinol from serum to the retina. Compounds antagonizing the retinol-dependent interaction of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) with transthyretin in the serum would reduce serum RBP4 and retinol and inhibit bisretinoid formation. We recently showed that A1120 (3), a potent carboxylic acid based RBP4 antagonist, can significantly reduce lipofuscin bisretinoid formation in the retinas of Abca4(-/-) mice. As part of the NIH Blueprint Neurotherapeutics Network project we undertook the in vitro exploration to identify novel conformationally flexible and constrained RBP4 antagonists with improved potency and metabolic stability. We also demonstrate that upon acute and chronic dosing in rats, 43, a potent cyclopentyl fused pyrrolidine antagonist, reduced circulating plasma RBP4 protein levels by approximately 60%.

  15. No detectable carotenoid concentrations in serum of llamas and alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raila, J; Schweigert, F J; Stanitznig, A; Lambacher, B; Franz, S; Baldermann, S; Wittek, T

    2017-08-01

    Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments and important for a variety of physiological functions. They are major dietary vitamin A precursors and act as lipophilic antioxidants in a variety of tissues and are associated with important health benefits in humans and animals. All animals must acquire carotenoids from their diet, but to our knowledge, there are no studies investigating the intestinal carotenoid absorption and their blood concentrations in New World camelids. The present study aimed to assess the serum concentrations of selected carotenoids in llamas (n = 13) and alpacas (n = 27). Serum carotenoids as well as retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and these were unable to detect any carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, α- and β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene) in the samples. The concentrations of retinol in alpacas (2.89 ± 1.13 μmol/l; mean ± SD) were higher (p = 0.024) than those found in llamas (2.05 ± 0.87 μmol/l); however, the concentrations of α-tocopherol were not significantly (p = 0.166) different (llamas: 3.98 ± 1.83 μmol/l; alpacas: 4.95 ± 2.14 μmol/l). The results show that both llamas and alpacas are not able to absorb intact carotenoids, but efficiently convert provitamin A carotenoids to retinol. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. The Relationship Between Retinol/Retinol Binding Protein 4 ratio, resistin and inflammation in non diabetic obese Indonesian men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To verify the correlation between Retinol/RBP4 Ratio, and resistin with inflammation (represented by hsCRP in non-diabetic obese Indonesian menMethods This was a cross sectional study using 125 subjects. Measured parameters were retinol, RBP4, resistin, and hsCRP. Correlation between retinol, RBP4, resistin, hsCRP and Retinol/RBP4 Ratio was calculated. Cut off point of hsCRP were classiied as follows: <1 mg/l for low risk of inflammation, 1-3 mg/l for moderate risk, and 3-10 mg/l for high risk (according to CVD risk. The Retinol/RBP4 ratio was dichotomized into high (>0.9 and low ratio (≤0.9. The cross tabulation test was performed to predict the inflammation trends described by Retinol/RBP4 Ratio and resistin.Results Retinol was found strongly correlated with RBP4 and resistin (r=0.53; p<0.01. A positive but not significant correlation was found between resistin and Retinol/RBP4 Ratio with hsCRP. In high ratio group, 17.6% subjects were found with low risk inflammation, 26.4% with moderate risk, and 20.8% with high risk, in low ratio group, 8% subjects were low risk inflammation, 20% moderate risk, and 7.2% high risk. Combination between ratio and resistin showed that in “high ratio and low resistin” group, 12% subjects have low risk of inflammation and 8% have high risk. Meanwhile in “low ratio and high resistin” group, 3.2% subjects were found having low risk and 13.6% high risk of inflammation.Conclusions Combination between Retinol/RBP4 Ratio and resistin showed better description about the inflammation risk in non-diabetic obese subjects compare to the ratio itself. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:57-63Keywords: Retinol, RBP4, resistin, hsCRP, obesity, inflammation

  17. Contribution of cellular retinol-binding protein type 1 to retinol metabolism during mouse development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Nicolas; Schmidt, Carsten K; Dupé, Valérie; Dennefeld, Christine; Nau, Heinz; Chambon, Pierre; Mark, Manuel; Ghyselinck, Norbert B

    2005-05-01

    Within cells, retinol (ROL) is bound to cytoplasmic proteins (cellular retinol-binding proteins [CRBPs]), whose proposed function is to protect it from unspecific enzymes through channeling to retinoid-metabolizing pathways. We show that, during development, ROL and retinyl ester levels are decreased in CRBP type 1 (CRBP1) -deficient embryos and fetuses by 50% and 80%, respectively. The steady state level of retinoic acid (RA) is also decreased but to a lesser extent. However, CRBP1-null fetuses do not exhibit the abnormalities characteristic of a vitamin A-deficiency syndrome. Neither CRBP1 deficiency alters the expression patterns of RA-responding genes during development, nor does CRBP1 availability modify the expression of an RA-dependent gene in primary embryonic fibroblasts treated with ROL. Therefore, CRBP1 is required in prenatal life to maintain normal amounts of ROL and to ensure its efficient storage but seems of secondary importance for RA synthesis, at least under conditions of maternal vitamin A sufficiency. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Prognostic Importance of Vitamins A, E and Retinol-binding Protein 4 in Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Roman; Čapoun, Otakar; Kalousová, Marta; Hanuš, Tomáš; Zima, Tomáš; Koštířová, Milada; Soukup, Viktor

    2017-07-01

    To assess the prognostic importance of serum levels of retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and vitamin E at the time of diagnosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this prospective study, in a cohort of 102 renal cell carcinoma patients, relationships between serum levels of the aforementioned markers and recurrence-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), as well as cancer-specific survival (CSS), were evaluated. The vitamin A and vitamin E levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while the RBP4 level by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The median follow-up period was 39 months. Renal cell carcinoma recurred in 9 patients; 23 patients died with 12 of them from RCC. The preoperative vitamin E level was associated to RFS (p=0.02). We found a significant relationship between OS and the level of RBP4 (p=0.002), retinol (p=0.037) and vitamin E (p=0.007). The CSS period was significantly associated with the level of RBP4 (p=0.0001) and retinol (p=0.0003). Patients with an RBP4 level less than 21.0 mg/l at the time of diagnosis had a 13.5-times higher risk of death due to RCC progression; this risk was up to 7.7-times higher with vitamin A levels under 0.52 mg/l. Low levels of vitamin A, E and RBP4 at the time of RCC diagnosis are associated with a poorer prognosis after surgery. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Systemic treatment of seborrheic dermatitis with retinol palmitate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kalinina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study. Evaluating of the effectiveness of treatment of men with a diagnosis «Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp» by the system using of retinol palmitate. Material and methods. 36 patients every day for 2 months received overnight per os 200000 ME of retinol palmitate, and in the comparison group (39 people antiseborrheic shampoos have been used. The dynamics of severity of skin oiliness, pruritis, erythema, peeling, infiltration, excoriations has been evaluated in points. Before and after the treatment a histological and morphometric study of biopsy material from the affected areas has been carried.The terms of relapses have been set. Results. Retinol palmitate treatment efficiency - 91.7%, antiseborrheic shampoos - 84.6%. Along with the regression of symptoms of the disease in both groups after retinol palmitate treatment significantly declined oiliness of skin; the sizes of sebaceous glands acini and the presence of differentiated sebocytes, the squares of lymphocytic-macrophage clusters in the dermis, the number of keratinocytes with vacuolated cytoplasm have been reduced. Relapses of the disease during a year occured more rare - in 21 patients out of 32 (in the comparison group- in 25 out of 31 and at a later date (in the first 3 months in 2 patients out of 32, in comparison group in 10 out of 31. Identified effects were due to the action of retinol palmitate on the morphogenesis of the sebaceous glands.

  20. Quantitative analysis of retinol and retinol palmitate in vitamin tablets using {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Hae; Kim, Hye Kyong; Wilson, Erica G.; Erkelens, Cornelis; Trijzelaar, Ben; Verpoorte, Robert

    2004-06-04

    {sup 1}H-NMR spectrometry was applied to the quantitative analysis of Vitamin A in four different types of vitamin tablets without any chromatographic purification or saponification. The experiment was performed analysing the H-15 resonance, which appears at {delta} 4.32 for retinol and {delta} 4.69 for retinol palmitate, well separated from other resonances in the {sup 1}H-NMR spectrum. Compounds were quantified using the relative ratio of the integral of the H-15 signal to that of a known amount of internal standard (200 {mu}g/ml), anthracene. In order to evaluate the feasibility of avoiding the saponification of retinol palmitate in the preparation of samples, several solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide, n-hexane, methanol, water, and 0.1 M of HCl were tested as possible extraction solvents. Among these, dimethylsulfoxide showed the best yield of retinol palmitate. This method, using dimethylsulfoxide extraction and {sup 1}H-NMR, allows rapid and simple quantitation of retinol palmitate in tablets avoiding tedious saponification.

  1. Quantitative analysis of retinol and retinol palmitate in vitamin tablets using 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Hae; Kim, Hye Kyong; Wilson, Erica G.; Erkelens, Cornelis; Trijzelaar, Ben; Verpoorte, Robert

    2004-01-01

    1 H-NMR spectrometry was applied to the quantitative analysis of Vitamin A in four different types of vitamin tablets without any chromatographic purification or saponification. The experiment was performed analysing the H-15 resonance, which appears at δ 4.32 for retinol and δ 4.69 for retinol palmitate, well separated from other resonances in the 1 H-NMR spectrum. Compounds were quantified using the relative ratio of the integral of the H-15 signal to that of a known amount of internal standard (200 μg/ml), anthracene. In order to evaluate the feasibility of avoiding the saponification of retinol palmitate in the preparation of samples, several solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide, n-hexane, methanol, water, and 0.1 M of HCl were tested as possible extraction solvents. Among these, dimethylsulfoxide showed the best yield of retinol palmitate. This method, using dimethylsulfoxide extraction and 1 H-NMR, allows rapid and simple quantitation of retinol palmitate in tablets avoiding tedious saponification

  2. Correlation of secretion of retinol and protein by the lacrimal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubels, J.L.; Rismondo, V.

    1986-01-01

    Retinol, which is present in tears, is secreted by the lacrimal gland. Retinol secretion is stimulated by cholinergic drugs and vasoactive intestinal peptide with characteristics very similar to the exocytotic secretion of protein by the lacrimal gland, suggesting that retinol and protein are secreted by similar mechanisms. The authors investigated this by cannulating the lacrimal gland ducts of rabbits and collecting lacrimal gland fluid (LGF) under conditions of maximal flow stimulated by IV injection of pilocarpine (400 μg/kg) every 20 min for 4.5 hr. Over this period LGF protein concentration decreased 36.4% from 22.8 +/- 1.94 mg/ml to 8.29 1.86 mg/ml while retinol decreased 37% from 55.1 +/- 16.2 ng/ml to 20.4 +/- 6.5 ng/ml. The retinol/protein ratio remained constant at 2.88 ng/mg. This demonstrates a strong correlation between retinol and protein secretion, suggesting that retinol may be protein bound. To investigate binding of retinol to LGF protein, LGF was incubated with 3 H-retinol. The bound and unbound retinol were separated on a Lipidex 1000 column. Retinol binding was linear over a range of 1.25-200 nM 3 H-retinol. Binding was not inhibited by PCMBS or addition of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled retinol and was not increased by prior extraction of endogenous retinol from the LGF. This indicates that the binding of retinol to LGF protein is non-specific. Retinol therefore appears to be secreted by the lacrimal gland cells in non-specific association with protein

  3. Retinol Dehydrogenases Regulate Vitamin A Metabolism for Visual Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhubanananda Sahu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The visual system produces visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal from dietary vitamin A, all-trans-retinol making this vitamin essential for retinal health and function. These metabolic events are mediated by a sequential biochemical process called the visual cycle. Retinol dehydrogenases (RDHs are responsible for two reactions in the visual cycle performed in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE cells, photoreceptor cells and Müller cells in the retina. RDHs in the RPE function as 11-cis-RDHs, which oxidize 11-cis-retinol to 11-cis-retinal in vivo. RDHs in rod photoreceptor cells in the retina work as all-trans-RDHs, which reduce all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol. Dysfunction of RDHs can cause inherited retinal diseases in humans. To facilitate further understanding of human diseases, mouse models of RDHs-related diseases have been carefully examined and have revealed the physiological contribution of specific RDHs to visual cycle function and overall retinal health. Herein we describe the function of RDHs in the RPE and the retina, particularly in rod photoreceptor cells, their regulatory properties for retinoid homeostasis and future therapeutic strategy for treatment of retinal diseases.

  4. Structures of holo wild-type human cellular retinol-binding protein II (hCRBPII) bound to retinol and retinal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossoni, Zahra; Assar, Zahra; Yapici, Ipek; Nosrati, Meisam; Wang, Wenjing; Berbasova, Tetyana; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Borhan, Babak; Geiger, James

    2014-12-01

    Cellular retinol-binding proteins (CRBPs) I and II, which are members of the intracellular lipid-binding protein (iLBP) family, are retinoid chaperones that are responsible for the intracellular transport and delivery of both retinol and retinal. Although structures of retinol-bound CRBPI and CRBPII are known, no structure of a retinal-bound CRBP has been reported. In addition, the retinol-bound human CRBPII (hCRBPII) structure shows partial occupancy of a noncanonical conformation of retinol in the binding pocket. Here, the structure of retinal-bound hCRBPII and the structure of retinol-bound hCRBPII with retinol fully occupying the binding pocket are reported. It is further shown that the retinoid derivative seen in both the zebrafish CRBP and the hCRBPII structures is likely to be the product of flux-dependent and wavelength-dependent X-ray damage during data collection. The structures of retinoid-bound CRBPs are compared and contrasted, and rationales for the differences in binding affinities for retinal and retinol are provided.

  5. Aptamer-Conjugated Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles for Reducing Diabetes Risk via Retinol Binding Protein 4 Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Raheleh; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Amanlou, Massoud; Pasalar, Parvin

    2017-06-01

    Inhibition of the binding of retinol to its carrier, retinol binding protein 4, is a new strategy for treating type 2 diabetes; for this purpose, we have provided an aptamer-functionalized multishell calcium phosphate nanoparticle. First, calcium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized and conjugated to the aptamer. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles releases the process of aptamer from nanoparticles and their inhibition function of binding retinol to retinol binding protein 4. After synthesizing and characterizing the multishell calcium phosphate nanoparticles and observing the noncytotoxicity of conjugate, the optimum time (48 hours) and the pH (7.4) for releasing the aptamer from the nanoparticles was determined. The half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) value for inhibition of retinol binding to retinol binding protein 4 was 210 femtomolar (fmol). The results revealed that the aptamer could prevent connection between retinol and retinol binding protein 4 at a very low IC 50 value (210 fmol) compared to other reported inhibitors. It seems that this aptamer could be used as an efficient candidate not only for decreasing the insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes, but also for inhibiting the other retinol binding protein 4-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Retinol metabolism in rats with low vitamin A status: A compartmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, K.C.; Green, M.H.; Green, J.B.; Zech, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    A compartmental model was developed to describe the metabolism of vitamin A in rats with low vitamin A status maintained by a low dietary intake of vitamin A (approximately 2 micrograms retinol equivalents/day). After the IV bolus injection of [3H]retinol in its physiological transport complex, tracer and trace data were obtained from plasma, organs (liver, kidneys, small intestine, eyes, adrenals, testes, lungs, carcass), and tracer data were obtained from urine and feces. The dietary protocol developed for this study resulted in animals having plasma vitamin A levels less than 10 micrograms retinol/dl and total liver vitamin A levels of approximately 1 microgram retinol equivalent. Four compartments were used to model the plasma: one to describe retinol, one to describe the nonphysiological portion of the dose, and two to simulate polar metabolites derived from retinol. The liver required two compartments and a delay, the carcass (small intestine, eyes, adrenals, testes, and lungs, plus remaining carcass) required three compartments, and the kidneys required two. The model predicted a vitamin A utilization rate of 1.65 micrograms retinol equivalents/day with the urine and feces accounting for most of the output. The plasma retinol turnover rate was approximately 20 micrograms retinol equivalents/day; this was 12 times greater than the utilization rate. This indicated that, of the large amount of retinol moving through the plasma each day, less than 10% of this was actually being irreversibly utilized. Similarly, as compared to the whole-body utilization rate, there was a relatively high turnover rate of retinol in the kidneys, carcass, and liver, coupled with a high degree of recycling of vitamin A through these tissues. Of the total vitamin A that entered the liver from all sources including the diet, approximately 86% was mobilized into the plasma

  7. Relationship between Carotenoids, Retinol, and Estradiol Levels in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maggio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2 in a cohort of late post-menopausal women. Methods. We examined 512 women ≥ 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, α-caroten, β-caroten, β-criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998–2000 by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2, as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1 and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2 were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3. Results. After adjustment for age, α-carotene (β ± SE = −0.01 ± 0.004, p = 0.02 and β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.0007 were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. α-Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio (β ± SE = 0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.01. After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2, the inverse relationship between α-carotene (β ± SE = −1.59 ± 0.61, p = 0.01, β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.29

  8. Relationship between Carotenoids, Retinol, and Estradiol Levels in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Marcello; de Vita, Francesca; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Semba, Richard D; Bartali, Benedetta; Cherubini, Antonio; Cappola, Anne R; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-08-05

    In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2) in a cohort of late post-menopausal women. We examined 512 women ≥ 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, α-caroten, β-caroten, β-criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998-2000) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T) levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA) and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2), as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1) and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2) were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3. After adjustment for age, α-carotene (β ± SE = -0.01 ± 0.004, p = 0.02) and β-carotene (β ± SE = -0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.0007) were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. α-Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio (β ± SE = 0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.01). After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2), the inverse relationship between α-carotene (β ± SE = -1.59 ± 0.61, p = 0.01), β-carotene (β ± SE = -0.29 ± 0.08, p = 0.0009), and E2 persisted whereas the

  9. Ultra-performance liquid chromatographic determination of tocopherols and retinol in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward C; John, Mathew; Hughes, Rodney J; Pham, Thu

    2014-10-01

    A rapid, selective and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the detection and quantification of tocopherols and retinol in human plasma. Alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol and retinol are assayed using fluorescence detection. Excitation/emission wavelengths are 295/330 nm and 325/470 nm for the analysis of both tocopherols and retinol, respectively. Retinol acetate is employed as the internal standard. The reversed-phase method incorporates gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and acetonitrile. Separation of vitamin compounds is achieved using a bridged ethyl hybrid C18 column. The retention times for retinol, retinol acetate, gamma-tocopherol and alpha-tocopherol are 1.6, 1.8, 3.9 and 4.3 min, respectively. The limits of quantification for retinol, gamma-tocopherol and alpha-tocopherol were 0.02, 0.02 and 0.1 µg/mL, respectively. The assay method is suitable for the analysis of tocopherols and retinol in human plasma. The method may be applied following the ingestion of foods fortified with these fat-soluble vitamins. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Effect of thermal processing on retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Héryka M M; Santos, Videanny V A; Medeiros, Vanessa P Q; Silva, Keith H D; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Eggs are a food item of high nutritional value, a source of vitamin A and readily accessible to the general population. Methods This paper analysed the effect of cooking on the retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The retinol levels of hen and quail eggs were also compared. Results The raw egg yolk retinol concentrations of free-range and caged hen eggs were 476.53+/-39.44 and 474.93+/-41.10 microg/100 g and cooked egg yolk concentrations were 393.53+/-24.74 and 379.01+/-30.78 microg/100 g, respectively; quail egg concentration was 636.56+/-32.71 microg retinol/100 g. No significant difference was found between the retinol of free-range and caged hen egg yolks; however, cooking diminished retinol levels, causing a loss of 17 and 20% in the free-range and caged hen egg yolks, respectively. Quail egg retinol concentration was significantly higher than that of the hens. Conclusion The retinol found in 100 g of hen and quail egg yolks could supply around 42 and 70.7% of the vitamin A requirements of an adult man, and is accordingly considered an excellent source of this vitamin.

  11. Purification and characterization of a novel cytosolic NADP(H)-dependent retinol oxidoreductase from rabbit liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D Y; Ichikawa, Y

    1997-03-07

    Rabbit liver cytosol exhibits very high retinol dehydrogenase activity. At least two retinol dehydrogenases were demonstrated to exist in rabbit liver cytosol, and the major one, a cytosolic NADP(H)-dependent retinol dehydrogenase (systematic name: retinol oxidoreductase) was purified about 1795-fold to electrophoretic and column chromatographic homogeneity by a procedure involving column chromatography on AF-Red Toyopearl twice and then hydroxyapatite. Its molecular mass was estimated to be 34 kDa by SDS-PAGE, and 144 kDa by HPLC gel filtration, suggesting that it is a homo-tetramer. The enzyme uses free retinol and retinal, and their complexes with CRBP as substrates in vitro. The optimum pH values for retinol oxidation of free retinol and CRBP-retinol were 8.8-9.2 and 8.0-9.0, respectively, and those for retinal reduction of free retinal and retinal-CRBP were the same, 7.0-7.6. Km for free retinol and Vmax for retinal formation were 2.8 microM and 2893 nmol/min per mg protein at 37 degrees C (pH 9.0) and the corresponding values with retinol-CRBP as a substrate were 2.5 microM and 2428 nmol/min per mg protein at 37 degrees C (pH 8.6); Km for free retinal and Vmax for retinol formation were 6.5 microM and 4108 nmol/min per mg protein, and the corresponding values with retinal-CRBP as a substrate were 5.1 microM and 3067 nmol/min per mg protein at 37 degrees C, pH 7.4. NAD(H) was not effective as a cofactor. 4-Methylpyrazole was a weak inhibitor (IC50 = 28 mM) of the enzyme, and ethanol was neither a substrate nor an inhibitor of the enzyme. This enzyme exhibits relatively broad aldehyde reductase activity and some ketone reductase activity, the activity for aromatic substitutive aldehydes being especially high and effective. Whereas, except in the case of retinol, oxidative activity toward the corresponding alcohols was not detected. This novel cytosolic enzyme may play an important role in vivo in maintaining the homeostasis of retinal, the substrate of retinoic

  12. Existing and emerging technologies for measuring stable isotope labelled retinol in biological samples: isotope dilution analysis of body retinol stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the recent improvements in instrumentation used for stable isotope tracer measurements in the context of measuring retinol stores, in vivo. Tracer costs, together with concerns that larger tracer doses may perturb the parameter under study, demand that ever more sensitive mass spectrometric techniques are developed. GCMS is the most widely used technique. It has high sensitivity in terms of sample amount and uses high resolution GC, yet its ability to detect low isotope ratios is limited by background noise. LCMSMS may become more accessible for tracer studies. Its ability to measure low level stable isotope tracers may prove superior to GCMS, but it is isotope ratio MS (IRMS) that has been designed specifically for low level stable isotope analysis through accurate analysis of tracer:tracee ratios (the tracee being the unlabelled species). Compound-specific isotope analysis, where GC is interfaced to IRMS, is gaining popularity. Here, individual 13C-labelled compounds are separated by GC, combusted to CO2 and transferred on-line for ratiometric analysis by IRMS at the ppm level. However, commercially-available 13C-labelled retinol tracers are 2 - 4 times more expensive than deuterated tracers. For 2H-labelled compounds, GC-pyrolysis-IRMS has now become more generally available as an operating mode on the same IRMS instrument. Here, individual compounds are separated by GC and pyrolysed to H2 at high temperature for analysis by IRMS. It is predicted that GC-pyrolysis-IRMS will facilitate low level tracer procedures to measure body retinol stores, as has been accomplished in the case of fatty acids and amino acids. Sample size requirements for GC-P-IRMS may exceed those of GCMS, but this paper discusses sample preparation procedures and predicts improvements, particularly in the efficiency of sample introduction.

  13. Dietary vitamin A intakes of Filipino elders with adequate or low liver vitamin A concentrations as assessed by the deuterated-retinol-dilution method: implications for dietary requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Solon, Florentino S; Fermin, Liza S; Perfecto, Christine S; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M

    2004-04-01

    The vitamin A requirements of elderly humans have not been studied. In a cross-sectional study of 60-88-y-old men (n = 31) and women (n = 31) in rural Philippines, we assessed the dietary intakes of elders with adequate (> or = 0.07 micromol/g) or low (value for elders. The mean (+/- SD) vitamin A intakes of the men and women with adequate vitamin A in liver were 135 +/- 86 and 134 +/- 104 microg retinol activity equivalents (RAE)/d, respectively; intakes of the men and women with low vitamin A in liver were 75 +/- 53 and 60 +/- 27 microg RAE/d, respectively. Total-body vitamin A or liver vitamin A but not serum retinol correlated with dietary RAE, preformed vitamin A, beta-carotene, fat, and protein. An estimated acceptable or sufficient dietary vitamin A intake associated with adequate liver vitamin A concentrations in elders is 6.45 microg RAE/kg body wt; for a reference 76-kg man and a 61-kg woman, these values are approximately 500 and 400 microg RAE/d, respectively. The dietary vitamin A intakes of elders with adequate or low liver vitamin A concentrations as estimated by use of the deuterated-retinol-dilution technique are useful for assessing vitamin A requirements.

  14. Saturation of retinol-binding protein correlates closely to the severity of alcohol-induced liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagnerberger, S.; Schäfer, C.; Bode, C.

    2006-01-01

    Impaired metabolism of retinol has been shown to occur in alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the saturation of retinol-binding protein (RBP) in 6 patients with different stages of ALD. Hospitalized alcohol consumers (n=118) with different stages......: 43.5+/-6.2%; ALD3: 29.0+/-5.1%). The present study indicates that plasma concentrations of retinol and RBP per se do not correlate to severity of ALD, but rather that the retinol/RBP ratio links to the severity of alcohol-induced liver damage. From these results, a reduced availability of retinol...

  15. Vitamin A/Retinol and Maintenance of Pluripotency of Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspal S. Khillan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Retinol, the alcohol form of vitamin A is a key dietary component that plays a critical role in vertebrate development, cell differentiation, reproduction, vision and immune system. Natural and synthetic analogs of retinol, called retinoids, have generally been associated with the cell differentiation via retinoic acid which is the most potent metabolite of retinol. However, a direct function of retinol has not been fully investigated. New evidence has now emerged that retinol supports the self-renewal of stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs, germ line stem cells (GSCs and cancer stem cells (CSCs by activating the endogenous machinery for self-renewal by a retinoic acid independent mechanism. The studies have also revealed that stem cells do not contain enzymes that are responsible for metabolizing retinol into retinoic acid. This new function of retinol may have important implications for stem cell biology which can be exploited for quantitative production of pure population of pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine as well as clinical applications for cancer therapeutics.

  16. Esterification of all-trans-retinol in normal human epithelial cell strains and carcinoma lines from oral cavity, skin and breast: reduced expression of lecithin:retinol acyltransferase in carcinoma lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Ruiz, A; Rando, R R; Bok, D; Gudas, L J

    2000-11-01

    When exogenous [(3)H]retinol (vitamin A) was added to culture medium, normal human epithelial cells from the oral cavity, skin, lung and breast took up and esterified essentially all of the [(3)H]retinol within a few hours. As shown by [(3)H]retinol pulse-chase experiments, normal epithelial cells then slowly hydrolyzed the [(3)H]retinyl esters to [(3)H]retinol, some of which was then oxidized to [(3)H]retinoic acid (RA) over a period of several days. In contrast, cultured normal human fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) did not esterify significant amounts of [(3)H]retinol; this lack of [(3)H]retinol esterification was correlated with a lack of expression of lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) transcripts in normal fibroblast and HUVEC strains. These results indicate that normal, differentiated cell types differ in their ability to esterify retinol. Human carcinoma cells (neoplastically transformed epithelial cells) of the oral cavity, skin and breast did not esterify much [(3)H]retinol and showed greatly reduced LRAT expression. Transcripts of the neutral, bile salt-independent retinyl ester hydrolase and the bile salt-dependent retinyl ester hydrolase were undetectable in all of the normal cell types, including the epithelial cells. These experiments suggest that retinoid-deficiency in the tumor cells could develop because of the lack of retinyl esters, a storage form of retinol.

  17. Lecithin:Retinol Acyltransferase: A Key Enzyme Involved in the Retinoid (visual) Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Avery E.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) catalyzes the acyl transfer from the sn-1 position of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to all-trans-retinol, creating fatty acid retinyl esters (palmitoyl, stearoyl, and some unsaturated derivatives). In the eye, these retinyl esters are substrates for the 65 kDa retinoid isomerase (RPE65). LRAT is well characterized biochemically, and recent structural data from closely related family members of the NlpC/P60 superfamily and a chimeric protein have established ...

  18. Electrospun bioactive mats enriched with Ca-polyphosphate/retinol nanospheres as potential wound dressing

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Werner E.G.; Tolba, Emad; Dorweiler, Bernhard; Schröder, Heinz C.; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Background While electrospun materials have been frequently used in tissue engineering no wound dressings exist that significantly improved wound healing effectively. Methods We succeeded to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) electrospun poly(D,l-lactide) (PLA) fiber mats into which nanospheres, formed from amorphous calcium polyphosphate (polyP) nanoparticles (NP) and encapsulated retinol (“retinol/aCa-polyP-NS” nanospheres [NS]), had been incorporated. Results Experiments with MC3T3-E1 cells ...

  19. Plasma concentrations of retinol in obese children and adolescents: relationship to metabolic syndrome components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Teske

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate obese children and adolescents' retinol plasma levels and to correlate them with metabolic syndrome components. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 61 obese children and adolescents (body mass index Z score - ZBMI>+2. Pubertal development, arterial blood pressure, body weight and height for nutritional classification and waist circumference were obtained. A 15mL blood sample was collected (after a 12-hour fasting in a low luminosity room for retinol determination (cut-off inadequate if <30µg/dL, lipid profile (HDL-c, LDL-c, and triglycerides, oral glucose tolerance test (fasting and 120 minutes and for high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results: Mean age was 10.7±2.7 years. There was a predominance of male gender 38/61 (62% and pre-pubertal 35/61 (57% subjects. The average plasmatic retinol was 48.5±18.6ug/dL. Retinol deficiency and severe obesity were observed in 6/61 (10% and 36/61 (59%, respectively. Glucose level at 120 minutes was the independent and predictive variable of plasma retinol levels [β=-0.286 (95%CI -0.013 - -0.001]. Conclusions: An independent and inverse association between plasma retinol levels and glucose tolerance was observed, suggesting an important contribution of this vitamin in the morbidities associated to obesity in children and adolescents.

  20. beta-Carotene in breast milk and serum is increased after a single beta-carotene dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, L M; Giuliano, A R; Neilson, E M; Yap, H H; Graver, E J; Cui, H A; Blashill, B M

    1997-07-01

    Normal lactating mothers were administered a single dose of 60 or 210 mg beta-carotene and changes in serum and milk retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and carotenoids were monitored for 8 d. Average serum beta-carotene concentrations increased 4.1- and 4.0-fold after the 60- and 210-mg doses, respectively. Milk beta-carotene concentrations increased 4.1- and 3.0-fold after the 60- and 210-mg doses, respectively. Maximum serum concentrations were reached 24 h after both supplements, although concentrations of milk beta-carotene continued to rise for 2-3 d. After 8 d, both serum and milk beta-carotene continued to rise for 2-3 d. After 8 d, both serum and milk beta-carotene concentrations remained about twofold higher than baseline concentrations. Increases in serum or milk beta-carotene concentrations were not dose-dependent. Initial serum and milk concentrations of beta-carotene predicted increases after supplementation, and increases in serum beta-carotene concentrations predicted those in milk. Concentrations of milk carotenoids were less than one-tenth their respective concentrations in serum. Lutein, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol concentrations in serum or milk did not change significantly after beta-carotene supplementation. Retinol esters account for most of the retinol equivalents in the milk of well-nourished mothers. Initial and maximum concentrations of beta-carotene in serum and milk were strongly correlated for individual mothers. Collectively, the data showed that a single 60-mg supplement of beta-carotene sustained elevated beta-carotene concentrations in serum and milk for > 1 wk in normal mothers but did not affect concentrations of other major carotenoids, retinol, or alpha-tocopherol.

  1. Interspecies and seasonal differences of retinol in dairy ruminant´s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Hodulová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk is an essential source of macronutrients and among lipophilic vitamins is significant source of retinol. The contribution of milk to the reference daily intake for retinol varies from 11% to 16%, worldwide. The most consumed dairy products are fresh, dehydrated and condensed milk in which the amonuts of retinol are not modified to those of in whole milk. Retinol is essential to ensure a good functionality of the immune system and plays a critical role in vision, reproduction, cell differentiation as well as growth and development and is found only in animal tissues. The aim of our study was to evaluate the interspecies differences in the retinol concentration of whole raw bovine, caprine and ovine milk and to observe seasonal variation of retinol in bulk tank milk samples. Samples of raw milk were colleceted on different farms in the Czech Republic between 2013 and 2014. Retinol was measured by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (325 nm in isocratic mode after alkaline saponification with methanolic potassium hydroxide solution and liquid-liquid extraction into non polar organic solvent of whole raw milk. To avoid vitamin losses or degradation during the procedure, antioxidants were added to the sample extraction media. Our results indicate significant interspecies differences between bovine and ovine milk and caprine and ovine milk. Concentration of retinol is very similar in bovine and caprine milk 0.96 ±0.11 mg/L, 0.94 ±0.25 mg/L, respectively. The mean concentration in sheep´s milk is 1.75 ±0.24 mg/L. The seasonal variation of retinol in raw bovine milk was detected as high significant, with the highest concentration during winter. These results contribute to the nutrition evaluation of milk in the Czech Republic and indicate, that the sheep´s milk is the best source of retinol among the milks of ruminants kept in the Czech Republic, however it is not used in its fluid form for human consumption.

  2. Radioimmunoassay for 6-D-tryptophan analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: measurement of serum levels after administration of long-acting microcapsule formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason-Garcia, M.; Vigh, S.; Comaru-Schally, A.M.; Redding, T.W.; Somogyvari-Vigh, A.; Horvath, J.; Schally, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for [6-D-tryptophan]luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ([D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH) was developed and used for following the rate of liberation of [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH from a long-acting delivery systems based on a microcapsule formulation. Rabbit antibodies were generated against [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH conjugated to bovine serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. Crossreactivity with LH-RH was less than 1%; there was no significant cross-reactivity with other peptides. The minimal detectable dose of [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH was 2 pg per tube. In tra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 8% and 10%, respectively. The radioimmunoassay was suitable for direct determination of [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH in serum, permitting the study of blood levels of the analog after single injections into normal men and after one-a-month administration of microcapsules to rats. In men, 90 min after subcutaneous injection of 250 μg of the peptide, serum [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH rose to 6-12 ng/ml. Luteinizing hormone was increased 90 min and 24 hr after the administration of the analog. Several batches of microcapsules were tested in rats and the rate of release of [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH was followed. The improved batch of microcapsules of [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH increased serum concentrations of the analog for 30 days or longer after intramuscular injection

  3. Application of the deuterated retinol dilution technique to detect changes in hepatic retinol reserves in infants who receive high dose vitamin A supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penny, M.; Lanata, C.; Butron, B.; Haskell, M.; Brown, K.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to determine whether the deuterated retinol dilution technique can detect changes in hepatic vitamin A reserves in Peruvian infants in response to supplementation with vitamin A palmitate. Approximately 40 infants, 9 months of age, will be recruited for the study and randomly assigned to four treatment groups. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be estimated using the deuterated retinol dilution technique before and after administration of a single supplement containing either 0, 7.5, 15, or 30 mg RE as retinyl palmitate in corn oil. Mean hepatic vitamin A reserves will be calculated based on the plasma isotopic ratio of d4-retinol:retinol as per Furr, et. al. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be compared within groups before and after supplementation, and among the four groups. The mean change in hepatic vitamin A reserves across the four treatment groups will be examined in relation to the amount of vitamin A supplement administered, using regression analysis. The results of the pilot study will provide information on the size and variation of hepatic vitamin A reserves in 9-month old Peruvian infants. This information will be useful for calculating samples sizes to evaluate vitamin A intervention strategies by estimating changes in hepatic vitamin A stores in this age group, using the DRD technique. (author)

  4. Application of the deuterated retinol dilution technique to detect changes in hepatic retinol reserves in infants who receive high dose vitamin A supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penny, M; Lanata, C; Butron, B [Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, Lima (Peru); Haskell, M; Brown, K [Programme in International Nutrition, Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of this pilot study is to determine whether the deuterated retinol dilution technique can detect changes in hepatic vitamin A reserves in Peruvian infants in response to supplementation with vitamin A palmitate. Approximately 40 infants, 9 months of age, will be recruited for the study and randomly assigned to four treatment groups. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be estimated using the deuterated retinol dilution technique before and after administration of a single supplement containing either 0, 7.5, 15, or 30 mg RE as retinyl palmitate in corn oil. Mean hepatic vitamin A reserves will be calculated based on the plasma isotopic ratio of d4-retinol:retinol as per Furr, et. al. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be compared within groups before and after supplementation, and among the four groups. The mean change in hepatic vitamin A reserves across the four treatment groups will be examined in relation to the amount of vitamin A supplement administered, using regression analysis. The results of the pilot study will provide information on the size and variation of hepatic vitamin A reserves in 9-month old Peruvian infants. This information will be useful for calculating samples sizes to evaluate vitamin A intervention strategies by estimating changes in hepatic vitamin A stores in this age group, using the DRD technique. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs.

  5. Comparative studies of human and chicken retinol-binding proteins and prealbumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, M; Mokady, S; Cogan, U

    1976-08-09

    Microheterogeneity of retinol-binding proteins of human plasma and urine, and of chicken plasma was studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All three protein systems were found microheterogenous. Incorporation of retinol into the protein preparations on the one hand, and depletion of these proteins from retinol on the other hand, enabled us to clarify the extent to which the presence or absence of the ligand affects the apparent heterogeneity. Upon electrophoresis, each of the native proteins displayed two pairs of protein zones. It appeared that within each pair the fast moving band corresponded to aporetinol-binding protein which upon binding of retinol was converted to a holoprotein with a slightly lower mobility. However, it did not seem that proteins of one pair were converted to proteins of the second pair upon binding of retinol, substantiating ghe microheterogenous character of this protein system. A rapid, two step procedure for isolation of prealbumins from plasma is described. The method which consists of DEAE-cellulose chromatography follwed by preparative electrophoresis was utilized to separate human and chicken prealbumins. Routine dodecyl sulphate electrophoresis resulted in partial dissociation of human prealbumin but in no dissociation of the chicken protein. More drastic treatments prior to electrophoresis were needed to effect complete disruption of both proteins into subunits.

  6. Vitamin A intake and serum retinol levels in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenenk, JW; Broos, Nancy; Stellato, Rebecca K; Arets, Hubertus G M; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Houwen, RHJ

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic insufficient cystic fibrosis (CF) patients receive vitamin A supplementation according to CF-specific recommendations to prevent deficiencies. Whether current recommendations are optimal for preventing both deficiency and toxicity is a subject of debate. We assessed the

  7. Cambios en las concentraciones de retinol, hemoglobina y ferritina en niños palúdicos colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Magdalena Uscátegui

    2009-06-01

    Conclusión. El día 30, la hemoglobina y el retinol aumentaron, y la proteína C reactiva y la ferritina disminuyeron. El suplemento de retinol y antiparasitarios simultáneos previno la reducción de hemoglobina al día 8, sin afectar los cambios en otras variables.

  8. RBP-to-retinol ratio, but not total RBP, is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, C; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Nielsen, A R

    2009-01-01

    : We studied the ratio between RBP and retinol in 233 humans divided into groups depending on normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and presence or absence of obesity. RESULTS: Plasma RBP and retinol levels were lower in patients with T2DM than...

  9. Retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the milk of lactating adolescents and relationships with plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azeredo, Vilma B; Trugo, Nadia M F

    2008-02-01

    We determined the concentrations of retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherols in breast milk of adolescents and evaluated their associations with plasma levels and with maternal characteristics (period of lactation, body mass index, age of menarche, and years postmenarche). This was a single cross-sectional survey of retinol, carotenoid, and tocopherol composition of milk and plasma of lactating adolescent mothers (n = 72; 30-120 d postpartum) attending public daycare clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Milk and plasma components were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Nutrient concentrations (micromoles per liter, mean +/- SE) in plasma and milk were, respectively, retinol 2.1 +/- 0.5 and 0.62 +/- 0.44, beta-carotene 0.18 +/- 0.19 and 0.016 +/- 0.017, alpha-carotene 0.05 +/- 0.04 and 0.0035 +/- 0.002, lutein plus zeaxanthin 0.15 +/- 0.11 and 0.025 +/- 0.024, lycopene 0.1 +/- 0.11 and 0.016 +/- 0.025, alpha-tocopherol 10.8 +/- 5.3 and 2.7 +/- 1.8, gamma-tocopherol 2.6 +/- 2.3 and 0.37 +/- 0.15. The milk/plasma molar ratios of retinol and tocopherols were two times higher than those of carotenoids. Significant correlations (P milk and plasma nutrient levels were observed for beta-carotene (r = 0.41), alpha-carotene (r = 0.60), and lutein plus zeaxanthin (r = 0.57), but not for lycopene, retinol, and tocopherols. Nutrient concentrations in plasma and in milk were not associated with the maternal characteristics investigated. Concentrations of the nutrients studied, especially retinol and alpha-tocopherol, in mature milk of lactating adolescents were, in general, lower than in milk of adult lactating women. Milk concentrations were associated with plasma concentrations only for beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin.

  10. Red palm oil bean-stew improved serum vitamin A and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), anaemia, and parasitic infections are among the major nutritional and health problems confronting Ghanaian school children. This study assessed the impact of red palm oil bean-stew consumption on serum retinol and haemoglobin concentrations of Ghanaian school children in a ...

  11. Human Serum Vitamin A and β-Carotene Contents in Relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of the levels of vitamin A (as retinol) and β-carotene in locally consumed foods in relationship to their occurrence in the serum of individuals grouped according to different social groups and sexes was carried out in Kano metropolis. Both raw and prepared foods (meals/snacks) investigated showed the ...

  12. Serum levels of antioxidant vitamins in foetal haemoglobin (HbF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is one of the commonest health problems of Nigerian children. Method: The serum levels of antioxidant vitamins A (retinol), C (ascorbic acid) and E (alpha-tocopherol) were determined in foetal haemogbobin persistent sickle cell anaemic (Hb SS + F), sickle cell anaemic (Hb SS) and ...

  13. Variation in retinol and carotenoid content of milk and milk products in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, P.J.M.; Roekel-Jansen, van G.C.; Bovenkamp, van de P.; West, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    Retinol and carotenoids were measured in Dutch milk and dairy products using a validated approach based on complete extraction of fat, followed by mild saponification and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Raw milk, full fat milk, semi-skimmed milk and butter contain about 10 ¿g

  14. Application of hight performance liquid chromatography with spectrofluorimetric detection for determination of human milk retinol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falahat Pisheh HR

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available World health organization has introduced concentration of vitamin A in breast milk as a proper indicator for characterization of vitamin A deficiency in lactating mothers and their infants (<6 mo. A normal phase high performance liquid chromatography with spectrofluorometric detection as a specific and sensitive detector was used for characterization of all-trans retional from 13-Cis retinal. The method was sensitive (0.009 ppm and accurate (1±0.054 µ mol/l and had a good recovery percentage (99.36%. This method was more better than before methods and was compatible with the other useful methods. Effect of freezing and defreezing on all-trans retinol content of milk sample was investigated. The result was interesting, whatever all-trans retinol content was bigger, it’s destroying was bigger too. Because of that reseon, day today reproducibility wasn’t good. Standard of retinol was 95% all-trans and pure so we should use this method because two retinol isomers wasn’t separated from each other by reversed phase chromatography and UV detection.

  15. Effect of retinol on the hyperthermal response of normal tissue in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.A.; Marigold, J.C.L.; Hume, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of prior administration of retinol, a membrane labilizer, on the in vivo hyperthermal response of lysosomes was investigated in the mouse spleen using a quantitative histochemical assay for the lysosomal enzyme acid phosphatase. A dose of retinol which had no effect when given alone enhanced the thermal response of the lysosome, causing an increase in lysosomal membrane permeability. In contrast, the same dose of retinol had no effect on the gross hyperthermal response of mouse intestine; a tissue which is relatively susceptible to hyperthermia. Thermal damage to intestine was assayed directly by crypt loss 1 day after treatment or assessed as thermal enhancement of x-ray damage by counting crypt microcolonies 4 days after a combined heat and x-ray treatment. Thus, although the hyperthermal response of the lysosome could be enhanced by the administration of retinol, thermal damage at a gross tissue level appeared to be unaffected, suggesting that lysosomal membrane injury is unlikely to be a primary event in hyperthermal cell killing

  16. Saturation of retinol-binding protein correlates closely to the severity of alcohol-induced liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagnerberger, S.; Schäfer, C.; Bode, C.

    2006-01-01

    Impaired metabolism of retinol has been shown to occur in alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the saturation of retinol-binding protein (RBP) in 6 patients with different stages of ALD. Hospitalized alcohol consumers (n=118) with different stages...... chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods, respectively. No differences were noted in daily retinol intake, but subjects with ALD had significantly lower concentrations of retinol in plasma (ALD1: 1.81+/-0.17 micromol/l [mean+/-S.E.M.]; ALD2: 1.95+/-0.24 micromol/l; ALD3: 0.67+/-0.13 micromol......: 43.5+/-6.2%; ALD3: 29.0+/-5.1%). The present study indicates that plasma concentrations of retinol and RBP per se do not correlate to severity of ALD, but rather that the retinol/RBP ratio links to the severity of alcohol-induced liver damage. From these results, a reduced availability of retinol...

  17. Molecular characterization of an aldo-keto reductase from Marivirga tractuosa that converts retinal to retinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung-Hye; Nam, Hyun-Koo; Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Kim, Seon-Won; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant aldo-keto reductase (AKR) from Marivirga tractuosa was purified with a specific activity of 0.32unitml(-1) for all-trans-retinal with a 72kDa dimer. The enzyme had substrate specificity for aldehydes but not for alcohols, carbonyls, or monosaccharides. The enzyme turnover was the highest for benzaldehyde (kcat=446min(-1)), whereas the affinity and catalytic efficiency were the highest for all-trans-retinal (Km=48μM, kcat/Km=427mM(-1)min(-1)) among the tested substrates. The optimal reaction conditions for the production of all-trans-retinol from all-trans-retinal by M. tractuosa AKR were pH 7.5, 30°C, 5% (v/v) methanol, 1% (w/v) hydroquinone, 10mM NADPH, 1710mgl(-1) all-trans-retinal, and 3unitml(-1) enzyme. Under these optimized conditions, the enzyme produced 1090mgml(-1) all-trans-retinol, with a conversion yield of 64% (w/w) and a volumetric productivity of 818mgl(-1)h(-1). AKR from M. tractuosa showed no activity for all-trans-retinol using NADP(+) as a cofactor, whereas human AKR exhibited activity. When the cofactor-binding residues (Ala158, Lys212, and Gln270) of M. tractuosa AKR were changed to the corresponding residues of human AKR (Ser160, Pro212, and Glu272), the A158S and Q270E variants exhibited activity for all-trans-retinol. Thus, amino acids at positions 158 and 270 of M. tractuosa AKR are determinant residues of the activity for all-trans-retinol. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sitagliptin down-regulates retinol-binding protein 4 and reduces insulin resistance in gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomized and double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xia; Zhang, Zhendong; Ning, Hui; Sun, Hong; Ji, Xianghong

    2017-06-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition that affects increasing number of pregnant women worldwide. Sitagliptin was reported to alleviate symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus by reducing serum levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4). We investigated the effectiveness of sitagliptin on insulin sensitivity parameters in GDM patients. Pregnant GDM women in the 2nd trimester were recruited for this study. Participants were then assigned randomly to sitagliptin treatment group or placebo treatment group, and administered sitagliptin or placebo daily for 16 weeks. Glucose and insulin profiles, as well as serum RBP-4 level, were measured at both baseline and end of the study. After 16 weeks of treatment, participants in the STL group exhibited significantly improved levels of fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin, homeostasis model of assessment of β cell function (HOMA-β) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), compared with those in the placebo group. Serum levels of RBP-4 were also markedly decreased in the sitagliptin treatment group, and more importantly it was positively correlated with improved insulin resistance parameters. Our study supports a potentially promising role of sitagliptin in improving insulin resistance by decreasing RBP-4 in GDM-affected women.

  19. Distribution of vitamins A (retinol) and E (alpha-tocopherol) in polar bear kidney: Implications for biomarker studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, T.Ø.; Jakobsen, Jette; Sonne, C.

    2011-01-01

    of the organ to sample in order to get a representative value for this important biomarker. The aim here was to assess the distribution of vitamins A (retinol) and E (α-tocopherol) within the polar bear multireniculate kidney (i.e. polar vs. medial position) and also within the cortex vs. medulla of each...... separate renculi. The results showed no significant difference between the medial and polar renculi with regards to either retinol (p=0.44) or α-tocopherol (p=0.75). There were, however, significant differences between cortex and medulla for both vitamins (retinol, p=0.0003; α-tocopherol, p...

  20. Retinoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in breast adipose tissue and serum of benign breast disease and breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various retinoic acid (RA) isomers (all-trans, 13-cis, 11-cis, and 9-cis) as well as retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherol concentrations were determined in both serum and breast adipose tissue of 22 benign breast disease patients and 52 breast cancer patients categorized into 4 stages by malignancy....

  1. Effects of retinol on the in vitro development of Bos indicus embryos to blastocysts in two different culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, P F; Oliveira, M A L; Gonçalves, P B D; Montagner, M M; Reichenbach, H-D; Weppert, M; Neto, C C C; Pina, V M R; Santos, M H B

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of retinol on the in vitro development of early embryos of cultured Bos indicus (Expt 1) to the blastocyst stage in medium simplex of optimization (KSOM) or sintetic fluid of oviduct (SOF) or co-cultured (Expt 2) with an oviduct cell monolayer (OCM) in KSOM or SOF. A total of 3149 cumulus-oocyte complexes obtained by aspirating follicles (2-5 mm diameter) from ovaries of slaughtered animals were selected for IVM and incubated in TCM 199 supplemented with 25 mM HEPES at 39 degrees C in air with 5% CO(2) and maximum humidity for 24 h. In vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed in modified defined medium (mDM) medium. Eighteen hours after IVF, cumulus cells were removed and presumptive zygotes were randomly allocated to the experimental groups. Zygotes cultured (Expt 1) in KSOM + retinol, KSOM, SOF + retinol and SOF were incubated in maximum humidity at 39 degrees C, 5% CO(2), 5% O(2) and 90% N(2). Zygotes co-cultured (Expt 2) in KSOM + retinol + OCM, KSOM + OCM, SOF + retinol + OCM and SOF + OCM were incubated at 39 degrees C, 5% CO(2). In both experiments media were partially changed 48 h after IVF and unfertilized ova were removed. Afterwards embryos were kept in culture or co-culture for further 9 days. In Expt 1, blastocyst rates (day 7) were 14.6% (KSOM + retinol), 15.8% (KSOM), 16.4% (SOF + retinol) and 15.9% (SOF). In Expt 2, the blastocyst rates (day 7) were 25.4% (KSOM + retinol + OCM) 14.2% (KSOM + OCM), 24.3% (SOF + retinol + OCM) and 15.9% (SOF + OCM). The same influence profile of retinol was observed in the formation of the expanded (day 9) and hatched (day 11) blastocysts. The results obtained in Expt 2 demonstrated that the addition of 0.28 microg/ml retinol to the embryo culture media used in this study had a significant (p < 0.05) positive effect on bovine early embryonic development, under the conditions tested, and can be used to enhance in vitro embryo production.

  2. Acute but not chronic ethanol exposure impairs retinol oxidation in the small and large intestine of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Ellendt, K.; Lindros, K.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ethanol has been shown to inhibit retinol oxidation at the level of alcohol dehydrogenase in liver and colon but not previously in the small intestine. In the present study we investigated how chronic alcohol feeding and acute ethanol exposure affects retinol dehydrogenase...... higher, respectively). While chronic alcohol feeding did not affect these parameters, acute ethanol exposure reduced V(max) and V(max)/K(m) dose-dependently (p

  3. Disposable cartridge extraction of retinol and alpha-tocopherol from fatty samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, C F; Ciba, N

    1988-01-01

    A new approach is proposed for liquid/solid extraction of retinol and alpha-tocopherol from samples, using a disposable kieselguhr cartridge. The substitution of the mixture methanol-ethanol-n-butanol (4 + 3 + 1) for methanol in the alkaline hydrolysis solution makes it now possible to process fatty samples. Methanol is necessary to solubilize the antioxidant ascorbic acid, and a linear chain alcohol such as n-butanol is necessary to reduce the size of soap micelles so that they can penetrate into the kieselguhr pores. In comparisons of the proposed method with conventional methods on mineral premixes and fatty feedstuffs, recovery and accuracy are at least as good by the proposed method. Advantages are increased rate of determinations and the ability to hydrolyze and extract retinol and alpha-tocopherol together from the same sample.

  4. Concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, D K; Most, E; Schlegel, G; Kupczyk, K; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) changes the concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows. To investigate this hypothesis, Holstein cows received daily from 3 weeks ante-partum to 14 weeks post-partum either 172 g of a CLA-free rumen-protected control fat (control group, n = 20) or the same amount of a rumen-protected CLA fat, supplying 4.3 g of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and 3.8 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA per d (CLA group, n = 20). Milk samples (collected at weeks 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 of lactation) were analysed for retinol, α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Milk of cows supplemented with CLA had higher concentrations of retinol (+34%), α-tocopherol (+44%) and γ-tocopherol (+21%) than milk of control cows (p tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, respectively, p tocopherols, concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, determined in milk of week 5, were lower in cows of the CLA group than in control cows, indicative of a lower susceptibility of milk lipids to peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of retinol and α-tocopherol, determined at 1 and 5 weeks post-partum, were not different between the two groups of cows. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementing dairy cows with a moderate amount of CLA causes an increase of the concentrations of vitamins A and E in the milk and results in an increased output of those vitamins via milk. These effects might be beneficial with respect to the nutritional value of dairy products and the susceptibility of milk fat to oxidative deterioration. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Glycosylation is essential for translocation of carp retinol-binding protein across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devirgiliis, Chiara; Gaetani, Sancia; Apreda, Marianna; Bellovino, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Retinoid transport is well characterized in many vertebrates, while it is still largely unexplored in fish. To study the transport and utilization of vitamin A in these organisms, we have isolated from a carp liver cDNA library retinol-binding protein, its plasma carrier. The primary structure of carp retinol-binding protein is very conserved, but presents unique features compared to those of the correspondent proteins isolated and characterized so far in other species: it has an uncleavable signal peptide and two N-glycosylation sites in the NH 2 -terminal region of the protein that are glycosylated in vivo. In this paper, we have investigated the function of the carbohydrate chains, by constructing three mutants deprived of the first, the second or both carbohydrates. The results of transient transfection of wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein in Cos cells followed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis have shown that the absence of both carbohydrate moieties blocks secretion, while the presence of one carbohydrate group leads to an inefficient secretion. Experiments of carp RBP mRNA in vitro translation in a reticulocyte cell-free system in the presence of microsomes have demonstrated that N-glycosylation is necessary for efficient translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Moreover, when Cos cells were transiently transfected with wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein (aa 1-67)-green fluorescent protein fusion constructs and semi-permeabilized with streptolysin O, immunofluorescence analysis with anti-green fluorescent protein antibody revealed that the double mutant is exposed to the cytosol, thus confirming the importance of glycan moieties in the translocation process

  6. Disruption of Retinol (Vitamin A Signaling by Phthalate Esters: SAR and Mechanism Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Chen

    Full Text Available A spectrum of reproductive system anomalies (cryptorchidism, hypospadias, dysgenesis of Wolffian duct-derived tissues and prostate, and reduced sperm production in male rats exposed in utero to phthalate esters (PEs are thought to be caused by PE inhibition of fetal testosterone production. Recently, dibutyl and dipentyl phthalate (DBuP, DPnP were shown to disrupt the retinol signaling pathway (RSP in mouse pluripotent P19 embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro. The RSP regulates the synthesis and cellular levels of retinoic acid (RA, the active metabolite of retinol (vitamin A. In this new study, a total of 26 di- and mono-esters were screened to identify additional phthalate structures that disrupt the RSP and explore their mechanisms of action. The most potent PEs, those causing > 50% inhibition, contained aryl and cycloalkane groups or C4-C6 alkyl ester chains and were the same PEs reported to cause malformations in utero. They shared similar lipid solubility; logP values were between 4 and 6 and, except for PEs with butyl and phenyl groups, were stable for prolonged periods in culture. Mono- and cognate di-esters varied in ability to disrupt the RSP; e.g., DEHP was inactive but its monoester was active while DBuP was active yet its monoester was inactive. DBuP and dibenzyl phthalate both disrupted the synthesis of RA from retinol but not the ability of RA to activate gene transcription. Both PEs also disrupted the RSP in C3H10T1/2 multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Based on this in vitro study showing that some PEs disrupt retinol signaling and previous in vivo studies that vitamin A/RA deficiency and PEs both cause strikingly similar anomalies in the male rat reproductive system, we propose that PE-mediated inhibition of testosterone and RA synthesis in utero are both causes of malformations in male rat offspring.

  7. Inhibition of retinol oxidation by ethanol in the rat liver and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Menzl, Ina; Feuchter, Anette

    2000-01-01

    the efficiency in the small intestine was negligible (0.20). In the presence of increasing ethanol concentrations (9, 17, and 34 mM), V(max)/K(m) for retinol oxidation decreased in a dose dependent manner to 7.8% of the initial value in the large intestine and to 12% in the liver. The V(max)/K(m) of retinoic...

  8. Thermodynamic stability and retinol binding property of {beta}-lactoglobulin in the presence of cationic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahihi, M. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bordbar, A.K., E-mail: bordbar@chem.ui.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghayeb, Y. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > The stability parameters of {beta}-lactoglobulin, BLG, in the presence of C{sub n}TAB have been evaluated. > Rising in hydrocarbon chain length increases the denaturating power of surfactants. > C{sub n}TAB enhances the retinol binding affinity of BLG in all of its concentration range. - Abstract: In this work the stability parameters of bovine {beta}-lactoglobulin, variant A (BLG-A), with regard to their transition curves induced by dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C{sub 12}TAB), tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C{sub 14}TAB) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C{sub 16}TAB) as cationic surfactants, were determined at 298 K. For each transition curve, the conventional method of analysis which assumes a linear concentration dependence of the pre- and post-transition base lines, gave the most realistic values for {Delta}G{sub D}(H{sub 2}O). The results represent the increase in the denaturating power of surfactants with an increase in hydrocarbon chain length. The value of about 22.27 kJ . mol{sup -1} was obtained for {Delta}G{sub D}(H{sub 2}O) from transition curves. Subsequently, the retinol binding property of BLG as its functional indicator was investigated in the presence of these surfactants using the spectrofluorimeter titration method. The results represent the substantial enhancement of retinol binding affinity of BLG in the presence of these surfactants.

  9. The Role of Lecithin: Retinol Acyltransferase (LRAT)-Mediated Esterification of Vitamin A in Regulating Human Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    involved in thetranscriptional regulation of the human LRAT gene. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast cancer, lecithin : Retinol Acyltransferase (LRAT...R.R., Nanus, D.M., Scherr, D.S., and Gudas, L.J. 2004. Reduced lecithin : retinol acyltransferase expression correlates with increased pathologic...Solubilization and partial characterization of lecithin -retinol acyltransferase from rat liver. J Nutr Biochem 2: 503-511. Isogai, M., Chiantore, M.V., Haque

  10. Relation of Absolute or Relative Adiposity to Insulin Resistance, Retinol Binding Protein-4, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Lim Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCentral fat mass (CFM correlates with insulin resistance and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications; however, peripheral fat mass (PFM is associated with insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of absolute and relative regional adiposity to insulin resistance index and adipokines in type 2 diabetes.MethodsTotal of 83 overweighted-Korean women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled, and rate constants for plasma glucose disappearance (KITT and serum adipokines, such as retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4, leptin, and adiponectin, were measured. Using dual X-ray absorptiometry, trunk fat mass (in kilograms was defined as CFM, sum of fat mass on the lower extremities (in kilograms as PFM, and sum of CFM and PFM as total fat mass (TFM. PFM/TFM ratio, CFM/TFM ratio, and PFM/CFM ratio were defined as relative adiposity.ResultsMedian age was 55.9 years, mean body mass index 27.2 kg/m2, and mean HbA1c level 7.12±0.84%. KITT was positively associated with PMF/TFM ratio, PMF/CFM ratio, and negatively with CFM/TFM ratio, but was not associated with TFM, PFM, or CFM. RBP4 levels also had a significant relationship with PMF/TFM ratio and PMF/CFM ratio. Adiponectin, leptin, and apolipoprotein A levels were related to absolute adiposity, while only adiponectin to relative adiposity. In correlation analysis, KITT in type 2 diabetes was positively related with HbA1c, fasting glucose, RBP4, and free fatty acid.ConclusionThese results suggest that increased relative amount of peripheral fat mass may aggravate insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

  11. The possible significance of parallel changes in plasma lutein and retinol in Pakistani infants during the summer season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurnham, D I; Northrop-Clewes, C A; Paracha, P I; McLoone, U J

    1997-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that plasma lutein is better correlated than either beta-carotene or lycopene with its respective carotenoid intake and therefore may be a better marker of vegetable intake than either beta-carotene or lycopene. In the study reported in this paper, measurements of plasma carotenes and retinol were made in infants from two villages near Peshawar in the North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, in July and November 1993. The approximate age at the start was 14 months, and 101 boys and ninety girls completed the study. Of the usual plasma carotenes, only lutein was measurable in all samples and was correlated with retinol in both boys (r 0.38, P lutein was even more strongly correlated with the change in retinol in both boys (r 0.453, P lutein and retinol suggests that the increase in retinol over the summer season may be attributable to an increased availability of green vegetables to the families. The source of lutein to the infants is most likely to be the breast milk since such vegetables are unlikely to be given to infants except to suck as a weaning food. The results may indicate the potential usefulness of plasma lutein as a marker of changes in vegetable intake and changes in vitamin A status in Third World infants and children.

  12. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus, Round Goby (Neogobius rattan, Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus and Shad (Alosa pontica. Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously using an HPLC system. The highest content of retinol was established in the Sprat (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g and the highest content of alphatocopherol was found in the Black Sea Horse Mackerel (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. The fatty acid (FA composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The content of omega 3 (n3 FAs was significantly higher (p , 0.001 than the content of omega 6 (n6 FAs in each of the analyzed fish samples. The n6/n3 FA ratio was within the recommended range (0.20–1.50 for Sprat, Round Goby and Shad. Relatively high levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol, FA composition, n3/n6 FA and PUFA/SFA ratios indicate that these fish species have good nutritional quality.

    El objeto de la investigación presentada es definir y comparar los lípidos totales, el perfil de ácidos grasos y el contenido de retinol y alfa-tocoferol en el tejido comestible de cuatro especies de peces con importancia comercial del Mar Negro búlgaro —espadín (Sprattus Sprattus, gobio de boca negra (Neogobius Melanostomus, chicharro (Trachurus Trachurus y sábalo del Mar Negro (Caspialosa Pontica. Dos vitaminas liposolubles son analizadas simultáneamente mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. El contenido mayor de retinol se encuentra en el espadín (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g, y de alfa-tocoferol en el chicharro (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. El contenido de ácidos grasos ha sido analizado mediante cromatografía gaseosa/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. El contenido de ácidos grasos (AG

  13. Retinol sérico en mujeres mexicanas urbanas durante el periodo perinatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanueva Esther

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Establecer la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina A durante el embarazo y la lactancia en un grupo de mujeres mexicanas urbanas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se invitó a participar a un grupo de gestantes que acudían a control prenatal, que carecían de patología agregada y contaban con menos de 20 semanas de embarazo. Fueron evaluadas tres veces durante el embarazo y hasta la semana 24 del posparto. La determinación de vitamina A en suero se realizó por cromatografía de líquidos de alta presión. Se consideró como punto de corte para riesgo de deficiencia una concentración de retinol < 1.05 µmol/L. RESULTADOS. En las tres evaluaciones durante la gestación las concentraciones de vitamina A fueron de 2.34±0.70, 2.41±1.03 y 1.86±0.66 µmol/L, respectivamente, lo cual muestra una disminución significativa. Sin embargo, sólo 1/30 se ubicó por debajo del punto de corte aceptado para considerar riesgo de deficiencia y ninguno para deficiencia. Durante el posparto las concentraciones se conservaron relativamente constantes, alrededor de 2.10 µmol/L. La práctica de la lactancia no tuvo impacto sobre las concentraciones séricas de retinol, no así la pérdida de peso. CONCLUSIONES. En la población estudiada no se documentaron casos de deficiencia de vitamina A durante el periodo perinatal. La pérdida de peso materna tiene influencia sobre las concentraciones de retinol en el posparto.

  14. Monitoring Maternal Beta Carotene and Retinol Consumption May Decrease the Incidence of Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel S. Goldberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acids (13-cis and 13-trans are known teratogens, and their precursor is retinol, a form of vitamin A. In 1995, Rothman et al demonstrated an association between excessive vitamin A, > 10,000 IU/day, during the first trimester of pregnancy and teratogenic effects, particularly in the central nervous system. However, vitamin A deficiency has long been known to be deleterious to the mother and fetus. Therefore, there may be a narrow therapeutic ratio for vitamin A during pregnancy that has not previously been fully appreciated. Neurodevelopmental disorders may not be apparent by macroscopic brain examination or imaging, and proving the existence of a behavioral teratogen is not straightforward. However, an excess of retinoic acid and some neurodevelopmental disorders are both associated with abnormalities in cerebellar morphology. Physical and chemical evidence strongly supports the notion that beta carotene crosses the placenta and is metabolized to retinol. Only very limited amounts of beta carotene are stored in fetal fat cells as evidenced by the fact that maternal fat is yellow from beta carotene, whereas non-brown neonatal fat is white. Furthermore, newborns of carotenemic mothers do not share the yellow complexion of their mothers. The excess 13-trans retinoic acid derived from metabolized beta carotene in the fetus increases the concentration of the more teratogenic 13-cis retinoic acid since the isomerization equilibrium is shifted to the left. Therefore, this paper proposes that consideration be given to monitoring all potential sources of fetal 13-cis and 13-trans retinoic acid, including nutritional supplements, dietary retinol, and beta carotene, particularly in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  15. Comparison of adsorptive with extractive stripping voltammetry in electrochemical determination of retinol

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    Milan Sýs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV of retinol at solid glassy carbon electrode (GCE, carbon paste electrode (CPE covered by thin layer of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CPE/MWCNTs and carbon paste electrode covered by thin layer of single layer graphene (CPE/Graphene was compared with an extractive stripping voltammetry (ExSV into silicone oil (SO as lipophilic binder of glassy carbon paste electrode (GCPE. All types of selected working electrodes were characterized by a scanning electron microscopy to determine overall morphology of electrode surfaces together with spatial arrangement of used carbon particles. The retinol, also known as vitamin A1, was chosen as a model analyte because it is the most biologically active representative of retinoids which are classified as a significant group of lipophilic vitamins. Based on this comparison, it was observed that electrochemical method with high sensitivity (ExSV at GPCE is generally characterized by shorter linear range of the calibration curve than in case of AdSV at CPE/MWCNTs or CPE/Graphene. Unlike AdSV at solid GCE, all other tested electrochemical methods could represent suitable analytical tools for monitoring of retinoids in different types of foodstuffs. Especially, content of retinol up to tenths milligrams can be easily determined using ExSV. Additionally, negative interference of chemical species present in real samples is minimal in comparison with direct voltammetric methods performed in supporting electrolytes based on organic solvents due to application of accumulation step in "ex-situ" mode.

  16. Retinyl β-glucoronide: its occurrence in human serum, chemical synthesis and biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barua, A.B.; Batres, R.O.; Olson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    When retinol is administered to rats, retinyl and retinoyl β-glucuronides appear in the bile. Retinyl or retinoyl β-glucuronide is also synthesized in vitro when rat liver microsomes are incubated with uridinediphosphoglucuronic acid and either retinol or retinoic acid. Retinoyl β-glucuronide, a major metabolite of retinoic acid in a number of tissues, is highly active biologically, has been chemically synthesized, and is found in human blood. The physiological significance of the glucuronides of vitamin A are not known yet. To investigate further its metabolism and possible physiological role, retinyl β-glucuronide was chemically synthesized from retinol and characterized by study of its ultra-violet spectrum (γ/sub max/ 325 nm in methanol, 329 nm in water), 1 H-NMR and mass spectra. Retinyl β-glucuronide was extensively hydrolyzed by bacterial β-glucuronidase to retinol. Retinyl β-glucuronide is soluble in water and was detected in significant amounts in the serum of healthy human adults. The biological activity of synthetic retinyl β-glucuronide was determined in rats by the rat growth bioassay method

  17. Characterization of human short chain dehydrogenase/reductase SDR16C family members related to retinol dehydrogenase 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark K; Lee, Seung-Ah; Belyaeva, Olga V; Wu, Lizhi; Kedishvili, Natalia Y

    2017-10-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) is a bioactive derivative of vitamin A that serves as an activating ligand for nuclear transcription factors, retinoic acid receptors. RA biosynthesis is initiated by the enzymes that oxidize retinol to retinaldehyde. It is well established that retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10, SDR16C4), which belongs to the 16C family of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily of proteins, is the major enzyme responsible for the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde for RA biosynthesis during embryogenesis. However, several lines of evidence point towards the existence of additional retinol dehydrogenases that contribute to RA biosynthesis in vivo. In close proximity to RDH10 gene on human chromosome 8 are located two genes that are phylogenetically related to RDH10. The predicted protein products of these genes, retinol dehydrogenase epidermal 2 (RDHE2, SDR16C5) and retinol dehydrogenase epidermal 2-similar (RDHE2S, SDR16C6), share 59% and 56% sequence similarity with RDH10, respectively. Previously, we showed that the single ortholog of the human RDHE2 and RDHE2S in frogs, Xenopus laevis rdhe2, oxidizes retinol to retinaldehyde and is essential for frog embryonic development. In this study, we explored the potential of each of the two human proteins to contribute to RA biosynthesis. The results of this study demonstrate that human RDHE2 exhibits a relatively low but reproducible activity when expressed in either HepG2 or HEK293 cells. Expression of the native RDHE2 is downregulated in the presence of elevated levels of RA. On the other hand, the protein encoded by the human RDHE2S gene is unstable when expressed in HEK293 cells. RDHE2S protein produced in Sf9 cells is stable but has no detectable catalytic activity towards retinol. We conclude that the human RDHE2S does not contribute to RA biosynthesis, whereas the low-activity RA-sensitive human RDHE2 may have a role in adjusting the cellular levels of RA in accord with

  18. Expression Profiles of Cellular Retinol-binding Protein, Type II (CRBP II in Erlang Mountainous Chickens

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    H. D. Yin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellular retinol-binding protein II (CRBP II belongs to the family of cellular retinol-binding proteins and plays a major role in absorption, transport, and metabolism of vitamin A. In addition, because vitamin A is correlated with reproductive performance, we measured CRBP II mRNA abundance in erlang mountainous chickens by real-time PCR using the relative quantification method. The expression of CRBP II showed a tissue-specific pattern and egg production rate-dependent changes. The expression was very high (p<0.05 in jejunum and liver, intermediate in kidney, ovary, and oviduct, and lowest (p<0.05 in heart, hypothalamus, and pituitary. In the hypothalamus, oviduct, ovary, and pituitary, CRBP II mRNA abundance were correlated to egg production rate, which increased from 12 wk to 32 wk, peaked at 32 wk relative to the other time points, and then decreased from 32 wk to 45 wk. In contrast, the expression of CRBP II mRNA in heart, jejunum, kidney, and liver was not different at any of the ages evaluated in this study. These data may help to understand the genetic basis of vitamin A metabolism, and suggest that CRBP II may be a candidate gene to affect egg production traits in chickens.

  19. A prospective cohort study on intake of retinol, vitamins C and E and carotenoids and prostate cancer risk (Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brants, H.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The roles of retinol, vitamins C and E, and carotenoids as risk factors for prostate carcinoma are still questionable. We evaluated these in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Methods: The cohort study consisted of 58,279 men ages 55-69 years at baseline in 1986. After 6.3 years of follow-up,

  20. Comparison of the ligand binding properties of two homologous rat apocellular retinol-binding proteins expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M S; Locke, B; Yang, N C; Li, E; Gordon, J I

    1988-11-25

    Cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) and cellular retinol-binding protein II (CRBP II) are 132-residue cytosolic proteins which have 56% amino acid sequence identity and bind all-trans-retinol as their endogenous ligand. They belong to a family of cytoplasmic proteins which have evolved to bind distinct hydrophobic ligands. Their patterns of tissue-specific and developmental regulation are distinct. We have compared the ligand binding properties of rat apo-CRBP and apo-CRBP II that have been expressed in Escherichia coli. Several observations indicate that the E. coli-derived apoproteins are structurally similar to the native rat proteins: they co-migrate on isoelectric focusing gels; and when complexed with all-trans-retinol, their absorption and excitation/emission spectra are nearly identical to those of the authentic rat holoproteins. Comparative lifetime and acrylamide quenching studies suggest that there are differences in the conformations of apo-CRBP and apo-CRBP II. The interaction of E. coli-derived apo-CRBP and apo-CRBP II with a variety of retinoids was analyzed using spectroscopic techniques. Both apoproteins formed high affinity complexes with all-trans-retinol (K'd approximately 10 nM). In direct binding assays, all-trans-retinal bound to both apoproteins (K'd approximately 50 nM for CRBP; K'd approximately 90 nM for CRBP II). However, all-trans-retinal could displace all-trans-retinol bound to CRBP II but not to CRBP. These observations suggests that there is a specific yet distinct interaction between these two proteins and all-trans-retinal. Apo-CRBP and apo-CRBP II did not demonstrate significant binding to either retinoic acid or methyl retinoate, an uncharged derivative of all-trans-retinoic acid. This indicates that the carboxymethyl group of methyl retinoate cannot be sterically accommodated in their binding pockets and that failure to bind retinoic acid probably is not simply due to the negative charge of its C-15 carboxylate group

  1. Amplification of tumor inducing putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) by vitamin A/retinol from mammary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rohit B. [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Wang, Qingde [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Khillan, Jaspal S., E-mail: khillan@pitt.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Vitamin A supports self renewal of putative CSCs from mammary tumors. •These cells exhibit impaired retinol metabolism into retinoic acid. •CSCs from mammary tumors differentiate into mammary specific cell lineages. •The cells express mammary stem cell specific CD29 and CD49f markers. •Putative CSCs form highly metastatic tumors in NOD SCID mouse. -- Abstract: Solid tumors contain a rare population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are responsible for relapse and metastasis. The existence of CSC however, remains highly controversial issue. Here we present the evidence for putative CSCs from mammary tumors amplified by vitamin A/retinol signaling. The cells exhibit mammary stem cell specific CD29{sup hi}/CD49f{sup hi}/CD24{sup hi} markers, resistance to radiation and chemo therapeutic agents and form highly metastatic tumors in NOD/SCID mice. The cells exhibit indefinite self renewal as cell lines. Furthermore, the cells exhibit impaired retinol metabolism and do not express enzymes that metabolize retinol into retinoic acid. Vitamin A/retinol also amplified putative CSCs from breast cancer cell lines that form highly aggressive tumors in NOD SCID mice. The studies suggest that high purity putative CSCs can be isolated from solid tumors to establish patient specific cell lines for personalized therapeutics for pre-clinical translational applications. Characterization of CSCs will allow understanding of basic cellular and molecular pathways that are deregulated, mechanisms of tumor metastasis and evasion of therapies that has direct clinical relevance.

  2. Fatty acid profile and cholesterol and retinol contents in different locations of Celta pig breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez, R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profile (total, neutral and polar lipids and cholesterol and retinol contents of the intramuscular -Longissimus dorsi (LD and Psoas major (PM-, adipose -rump, covering Biceps femoris muscle, ventral and dorsal-, perirenal and hepatic fat of the Celta pig breed (Galicia, northwest Spain were evaluated. Oleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, except in the polar lipids of the intramuscular fat, where the most abundant fatty acid was linoleic acid. The fatty acid composition of total and neutral lipids was influenced more by the location than the fatty acids of polar lipids. There were some differences only in minor fatty acids of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat between castrated females and castrated males. The fatty acids of neutral lipids were also more influenced by sex than the fatty acids of polar lipids. The cholesterol and retinol contents showed no significant differences by sex. The LD muscle showed a higher content of intramuscular fat than the PM muscle. The greatest cholesterol values were described in the liver. Subcutaneous locations showed higher cholesterol levels than muscles.Se estudió el perfil de los ácidos grasos y los contenidos en colesterol y retinol en la grasa intramuscular - Longissimus dorsi (LD y Psoas mayor (PM -, subcutánea -grupa, ventral, dorsal y la grasa que rodea al músculo Bíceps femoris -, perirrenal y hepática de cerdos de raza Celta (Galicia, noroeste de España. El ácido oleico fue el ácido graso más importante, excepto en los lípidos polares de la grasa intramuscular, donde el ácido graso más abundante fue el ácido linoleico. La composición de ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales y neutros estuvo más influenciada por la localización grasa que los ácidos grasos de los lípidos polares. Se encontraron ligeras diferencias entre hembras y machos castrados en algunos ácidos grasos minoritarios en la grasa intramuscular y subcutánea. Los ácidos grasos de los l

  3. Urinary beta 2-microglobulin and retinol binding protein: individual fluctuations in cadmium-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormos, G.; Cseh, J.; Groszmann, M.; Timar, M.

    1985-09-01

    Urinary retinol binding protein (RBP) and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) were compared in apparently healthy population groups with and without occupational exposure to cadmium (Cd). The relationship observed in neutral urine was: RBP (micrograms/mmol creatinine) = 0.786 + 0.814 beta 2-m (micrograms/mmol creatinine). This relationship was similar to that reported for patients with various renal diseases. Analysis of urine samples collected weekly from workers exposed occupationally to Cd revealed marked fluctuations, not only in the concentration of the acid-labile beta 2-m but also in the level of the pre-analytically more stable RBP. Therefore, repeated sampling and urine analyses are suggested as means to obtain more reliable data when monitoring Cd-exposed personnel.

  4. Retinol dehydrogenase-10 regulates pancreas organogenesis and endocrine cell differentiation via paracrine retinoic acid signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arregi, Igor; Climent, Maria; Iliev, Dobromir

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A-derived retinoic acid (RA) signals are critical for the development of several organs, including the pancreas. However, the tissue-specific control of RA synthesis in organ and cell lineage development has only poorly been addressed in vivo. Here we show that Retinol dehydrogenase-10 (Rdh......10), a key enzyme in embryonic RA production, has important functions in pancreas organogenesis and endocrine cell differentiation. Rdh10 was expressed in the developing pancreas epithelium and surrounding mesenchyme. Rdh10 null mutant mouse embryos exhibited dorsal pancreas agenesis...... and a hypoplastic ventral pancreas with retarded tubulogenesis and branching. Conditional disruption of Rdh10 from the endoderm caused increased mortality, reduced body weight and lowered blood glucose levels after birth. Endodermal Rdh10 deficiency led to a smaller dorsal pancreas with a reduced density of early...

  5. Recombinant fusion protein of albumin-retinol binding protein inactivates stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soyoung; Park, Sangeun; Kim, Suhyun; Lim, Chaeseung; Kim, Jungho; Cha, Dae Ryong; Oh, Junseo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We designed novel recombinant albumin-RBP fusion proteins. ► Expression of fusion proteins inactivates pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). ► Fusion proteins are successfully internalized into and inactivate PSCs. ► RBP moiety mediates cell specific uptake of fusion protein. -- Abstract: Quiescent pancreatic- (PSCs) and hepatic- (HSCs) stellate cells store vitamin A (retinol) in lipid droplets via retinol binding protein (RBP) receptor and, when activated by profibrogenic stimuli, they transform into myofibroblast-like cells which play a key role in the fibrogenesis. Despite extensive investigations, there is, however, currently no appropriate therapy available for tissue fibrosis. We previously showed that the expression of albumin, composed of three homologous domains (I–III), inhibits stellate cell activation, which requires its high-affinity fatty acid-binding sites asymmetrically distributed in domain I and III. To attain stellate cell-specific uptake, albumin (domain I/III) was coupled to RBP; RBP-albumin domain III (R-III) and albumin domain I -RBP-albumin III (I-R-III). To assess the biological activity of fusion proteins, cultured PSCs were used. Like wild type albumin, expression of R-III or I-R-III in PSCs after passage 2 (activated PSCs) induced phenotypic reversal from activated to fat-storing cells. On the other hand, R-III and I-R-III, but not albumin, secreted from transfected 293 cells were successfully internalized into and inactivated PSCs. FPLC-purified R-III was found to be internalized into PSCs via caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and its efficient cellular uptake was also observed in HSCs and podocytes among several cell lines tested. Moreover, tissue distribution of intravenously injected R-III was closely similar to that of RBP. Therefore, our data suggest that albumin-RBP fusion protein comprises of stellate cell inactivation-inducing moiety and targeting moiety, which may lead to the development of effective anti

  6. Retinol sérico de adolescentes de uma escola da cidade de São Paulo Retinol blood levels in high school students of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Vítolo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os níveis séricos de retinol de 218 adolescentes de ambos os sexos com idade entre 10 e 19 anos, matriculados em colégio da rede privada de ensino da cidade de São Paulo, foi o objetivo deste trabalho. MÉTODOS: Para a avaliação da condição nutricional dos adolescentes, utilizaram-se as medidas antropométricas de peso e altura e também a história dietética. A dosagem de retinol foi realizada pela técnica de espectrofotometria, considerando como níveis séricos inadequados valores OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to examine plasma retinol levels in 218 adolescents of both sexes, ages 10 to 19 years old. All the subjects attended a private high school in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: In order to evaluate the students' nutritional condition, the researchers performed anthropometrical measurements - weight and height - in addition to investigating the subjects' diet history. The retinol level was measured through the spectrophotometer technique, considering as inadequate values of concentration under <1.05µmol/L (30µg/dL. RESULTS: The results indicate that the average intake, according to the age range, was higher than recommended, even though presenting high deviation patterns for both genders. The percentage of teenagers with plasma concentrations of vitamin A under the adequate level was 30% for both genders, and neither the analysis of the correlation between Body Mass Index and plasma concentrations of retinol, nor the analysis of the correlation between the density of vitamin A intake and plasma concentration of retinol, were significant. CONCLUSION: The research findings point out to the need for further investigation of vitamin A concentrations during adolescence, in order to check more accurately whether the low plasma concentration of this nutrient should be considered a risk factor, or the result of the accelerated absorption which takes place in adolescence to fulfill the metabolic

  7. Serial changes in selected serum constituents in low birth weight infants on peripheral parenteral nutrition with different zinc and copper supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockitch, G; Pendray, M R; Godolphin, W J; Quigley, G

    1985-07-01

    One hundred and five infants of birth weight 2000 g or less who received peripherally administered parenteral nutrition for periods of three or more weeks, were randomly assigned to groups receiving different amounts of zinc and copper supplement. The blood concentrations of zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase were followed weekly. Mean serum zinc, retinol-binding protein and prealbumin declined significantly over time while alkaline phosphatase rose. Only the group receiving the highest zinc supplement maintained a mean serum zinc concentration within the normal range at seven weeks. No difference in the protein or enzyme concentrations was found between the different zinc supplement groups. No difference was seen in serum copper or ceruloplasmin between copper dose groups although one intravenous supplement was double that of the other.

  8. [Correlation of retinol binding protein 4 with 
metabolic indexes of glucose and 
lipid, bile cholesterol saturation index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Li, Nianfeng

    2015-06-01

    To measure retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels in serum and bile and to analyze their relationship with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia or cholesterol saturation index (CSI).
 A total of 60 patients with gallstone were divided into a diabetes group (n=30) and a control group (n=30). The concentrations of RBP4 in serum and bile were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Enzyme colorimetric method was used to measure the concentration of biliary cholesterol, bile acid and phospholipid. Biliary CSI was calculated by Carey table. Partial correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used to evaluate the correlation between the RBP4 levels in serum or bile and the above indexes.
 The RBP4 concentrations in serum and bile in the diabetes group were significantly elevated compared with those in the control group (both Ptriglyceride (TG), serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL), bile TBA, bile total cholesterol (TC) , bile phospholipids and bile CSI between the 2 groups (all P>0.05); but the serum TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the diabetes group were significantly increased compared to those in the control group (all Pindex (BMI), waist circumference (WC), FINS, FBG, TC, LDL and HOMA-IR (r=0.283, 0.405, 0.685, 0.667, 0.553, 0.424 and 0.735, respectively), and the serum RBP4 was also positively correlated with the WC, FINS, FBG, TC, LDL and HOMA-IR (r=0.317, 0.734, 0.609, 0.528, 0.386 and 0.751, respectively). Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis suggested that the HOMA-IR, BMI and WC were independently correlated with the level of bile RBP4 (multiple regression equation: Ybile RBP4=2.372XHOMA-IR+0.420XBMI+0.178XWC-26.813), and the serum RBP4 level was correlated with the HOMA-IR and WC independently (multiple regression equation: Yserum RBP4=2.832XHOMA-IR +0.235XWC-20.128). Multiple regression equations

  9. Development of a neuromedin U-human serum albumin conjugate as a long-acting candidate for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Comparison with the PEGylated peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Philippe; Peier, Andrea M; Talamo, Fabio; Ingallinella, Paolo; Lahm, Armin; Barbato, Gaetano; Di Marco, Annalise; Desai, Kunal; Zytko, Karolina; Qian, Ying; Du, Xiaobing; Ricci, Davide; Monteagudo, Edith; Laufer, Ralph; Pocai, Alessandro; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Marsh, Donald J; Pessi, Antonello

    2014-01-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is an endogenous peptide implicated in the regulation of feeding, energy homeostasis, and glycemic control, which is being considered for the therapy of obesity and diabetes. A key liability of NMU as a therapeutic is its very short half-life in vivo. We show here that conjugation of NMU to human serum albumin (HSA) yields a compound with long circulatory half-life, which maintains full potency at both the peripheral and central NMU receptors. Initial attempts to conjugate NMU via the prevalent strategy of reacting a maleimide derivative of the peptide with the free thiol of Cys34 of HSA met with limited success, because the resulting conjugate was unstable in vivo. Use of a haloacetyl derivative of the peptide led instead to the formation of a metabolically stable conjugate. HSA-NMU displayed long-lasting, potent anorectic, and glucose-normalizing activity. When compared side by side with a previously described PEG conjugate, HSA-NMU proved superior on a molar basis. Collectively, our results reinforce the notion that NMU-based therapeutics are promising candidates for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Copyright © 2013 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Retinol and α-Tocopherol in the Breast Milk of Women after a High-Risk Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Sámano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is scant information about whether, after a high-risk pregnancy, breast milk provides enough vitamins for assuring satisfactory bodily reserves in newborns. Objective: To comparatively evaluate, in women with high-risk and normal pregnancy, the concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in breast milk. Methods: This cross-sectional, analytical study was evaluated with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Informed consent was signed by 95 mothers with a high-risk pregnancy and 32 mothers with a normal pregnancy. From the mothers with a high-risk pregnancy were obtained: 23 samples of colostrum, 24 of transitional milk, and 48 of mature milk. From the normal pregnancy group, 32 mature milk samples were collected. Pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI and the gestational weight gain were noted. Models of logistic regression were constructed to identify the variables related to a low concentration of either retinol or α-tocopherol in breast milk. Results: The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in mature milk was 60 (interquartile range (IQR, 41–90 and 276 (103–450 μg/dL, respectively, for the high-risk pregnancy group, and 76 (65–91 and 673 (454–866 µg/dL, respectively, for the normal pregnancy group (p = 0.001. The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol was similar in the subgroups of mothers with different disorders during gestation. A clear correlation was found between a greater pregestational weight and a lower concentration of retinol (Rho = –0.280, p = 0.006, and between α-tocopherol and retinol in all cases (Rho = 0.463, p = 0.001. Among women having a high-risk pregnancy, those delivering prematurely rather than carrying their pregnancy to term had a reduced concentration of retinol (54 (37–78 vs. 70 (49–106 µg/dL; p = 0.002 and a tendency to a lower concentration of α-tocopherol in breast milk (185 (75–410 vs. 339 (160–500 µg/dL; p = 0.053. Compared to mothers with

  11. Quantitative secretion and maximal secretion capacity of retinol, b-carotene and a-tocopherol into cows' milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Kjær, Anna Kirstin Bjørnbak; Hermansen, John Erik

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the contents of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene in plasma, milk and milk fat from 38 Holstein-Friesian cows were followed during their ®rst lactation, and the quantitative and kinetic relationships for secretion of a-tocopherol and b-carotene from blood into milk were determined....... The cows were assigned to three groups such that all cows in the same group had the same sire. Milk yield and milk fat content differed with stage of lactation, but not according to sire. The plasma concentrations of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene differed with stage of lactation; in addition...... on increasing milk and milk fat yield will result in a steady dilution in the milk fat of these vitamins and antioxidants important for the immune defence of the cows and oxidative stability of milk products. The genetic variation found offers the possibility of utilizing these variations in breeding systems....

  12. Retinol and α-Tocopherol in the Breast Milk of Women after a High-Risk Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sámano, Reyna; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Hernández, Rosa M; Ramírez, Cristina; Flores Quijano, María E; Espíndola-Polis, José M; Veruete, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    There is scant information about whether, after a high-risk pregnancy, breast milk provides enough vitamins for assuring satisfactory bodily reserves in newborns. To comparatively evaluate, in women with high-risk and normal pregnancy, the concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in breast milk. This cross-sectional, analytical study was evaluated with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Informed consent was signed by 95 mothers with a high-risk pregnancy and 32 mothers with a normal pregnancy. From the mothers with a high-risk pregnancy were obtained: 23 samples of colostrum, 24 of transitional milk, and 48 of mature milk. From the normal pregnancy group, 32 mature milk samples were collected. Pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) and the gestational weight gain were noted. Models of logistic regression were constructed to identify the variables related to a low concentration of either retinol or α-tocopherol in breast milk. The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in mature milk was 60 (interquartile range (IQR), 41-90) and 276 (103-450) μg/dL, respectively, for the high-risk pregnancy group, and 76 (65-91) and 673 (454-866) µg/dL, respectively, for the normal pregnancy group ( p = 0.001). The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol was similar in the subgroups of mothers with different disorders during gestation. A clear correlation was found between a greater pregestational weight and a lower concentration of retinol ( Rho = -0.280, p = 0.006), and between α-tocopherol and retinol in all cases ( Rho = 0.463, p = 0.001). Among women having a high-risk pregnancy, those delivering prematurely rather than carrying their pregnancy to term had a reduced concentration of retinol (54 (37-78) vs. 70 (49-106) µg/dL; p = 0.002) and a tendency to a lower concentration of α-tocopherol in breast milk (185 (75-410) vs. 339 (160-500) µg/dL; p = 0.053). Compared to mothers with a normal pregnancy, those with a high-risk pregnancy

  13. Recombinant fusion protein of albumin-retinol binding protein inactivates stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soyoung; Park, Sangeun; Kim, Suhyun [Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, Korea University Graduate School of Medicine, Ansan, Gyeonggi do 425-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chaeseung [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungho [Department of Life Science, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Dae Ryong [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan, Gyeonggi do 425-020 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Junseo, E-mail: ohjs@korea.ac.kr [Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, Korea University Graduate School of Medicine, Ansan, Gyeonggi do 425-707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We designed novel recombinant albumin-RBP fusion proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of fusion proteins inactivates pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fusion proteins are successfully internalized into and inactivate PSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBP moiety mediates cell specific uptake of fusion protein. -- Abstract: Quiescent pancreatic- (PSCs) and hepatic- (HSCs) stellate cells store vitamin A (retinol) in lipid droplets via retinol binding protein (RBP) receptor and, when activated by profibrogenic stimuli, they transform into myofibroblast-like cells which play a key role in the fibrogenesis. Despite extensive investigations, there is, however, currently no appropriate therapy available for tissue fibrosis. We previously showed that the expression of albumin, composed of three homologous domains (I-III), inhibits stellate cell activation, which requires its high-affinity fatty acid-binding sites asymmetrically distributed in domain I and III. To attain stellate cell-specific uptake, albumin (domain I/III) was coupled to RBP; RBP-albumin{sup domain} {sup III} (R-III) and albumin{sup domain} {sup I}-RBP-albumin{sup III} (I-R-III). To assess the biological activity of fusion proteins, cultured PSCs were used. Like wild type albumin, expression of R-III or I-R-III in PSCs after passage 2 (activated PSCs) induced phenotypic reversal from activated to fat-storing cells. On the other hand, R-III and I-R-III, but not albumin, secreted from transfected 293 cells were successfully internalized into and inactivated PSCs. FPLC-purified R-III was found to be internalized into PSCs via caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and its efficient cellular uptake was also observed in HSCs and podocytes among several cell lines tested. Moreover, tissue distribution of intravenously injected R-III was closely similar to that of RBP. Therefore, our data suggest that albumin-RBP fusion protein comprises

  14. Distribution of vitamins A (retinol) and E (α-tocopherol) in polar bear kidney: Implications for biomarker studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Jakobsen, J; Sonne, C; Dietz, R

    2011-08-15

    Vitamins A and E content of inner organs, among these the kidneys, are increasingly being used as an indicator of adverse effects caused to the organism by e.g. environmental contaminants. In general, only a renal sub sample is used for analyses, and it is thus essential to know which part of the organ to sample in order to get a representative value for this important biomarker. The aim here was to assess the distribution of vitamins A (retinol) and E (α-tocopherol) within the polar bear multireniculate kidney (i.e. polar vs. medial position) and also within the cortex vs. medulla of each separate renculi. The results showed no significant difference between the medial and polar renculi with regards to either retinol (p=0.44) or α-tocopherol (p=0.75). There were, however, significant differences between cortex and medulla for both vitamins (retinol, p=0.0003; α-tocopherol, ppolar bear kidneys. Prior to analysis, the renculi should be separated into medulla and cortex. The results indicated no significant differences between renculi from different parts of the kidney. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Retinol-induced changes in the phosphorylation levels of histones and high mobility group proteins from Sertoli cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira J.C.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin proteins play a role in the organization and functions of DNA. Covalent modifications of nuclear proteins modulate their interactions with DNA sequences and are probably one of the multiple factors involved in the process of switch on/off transcriptionally active regions of DNA. Histones and high mobility group proteins (HMG are subject to many covalent modifications that may modulate their capacity to bind to DNA. We investigated the changes induced in the phosphorylation pattern of cultured Wistar rat Sertoli cell histones and high mobility group protein subfamilies exposed to 7 µM retinol for up to 48 h. In each experiment, 6 h before the end of the retinol treatment each culture flask received 370 KBq/ml [32P]-phosphate. The histone and HMGs were isolated as previously described [Moreira et al. Medical Science Research (1994 22: 783-784]. The total protein obtained by either method was quantified and electrophoresed as described by Spiker [Analytical Biochemistry (1980 108: 263-265]. The gels were stained with Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 and the stained bands were cut and dissolved in 0.5 ml 30% H2O2 at 60oC for 12 h. The vials were chilled and 5.0 ml scintillation liquid was added. The radioactivity in each vial was determined with a liquid scintillation counter. Retinol treatment significantly changed the pattern of each subfamily of histone and high mobility group proteins.

  16. Retinol and retinyl esters in parenchymal and nonparenchymal rat liver cell fractions after long-term administration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, M.; Blomhoff, R.; Helgerud, P.; Solberg, L.A.; Berg, T.; Norum, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption reduces the liver retinoid store in man and rat. We have studied the effect of ethanol on some aspects of retinoid metabolism in parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cells. Rats fed 36% of total energy intake as ethanol for 5-6 weeks had the liver retinoid concentration reduced to about one-third, as compared to pair-fed controls. The reduction in liver retinoid affected both the parenchymal and the nonparenchymal cell fractions. Plasma retinol level was normal. Liver uptake of injected chylomicron [3H]retinyl ester was similar in the experimental and control group. The transport of retinoid from the parenchymal to the nonparenchymal cells was not found to be significantly retarded in the ethanol-fed rats. Despite the reduction in total retinoid level in liver, the concentrations of unesterified retinol and retinyl oleate were increased in the ethanol fed rats. Hepatic retinol esterification was not significantly affected in the ethanol-fed rats. Since our study has demonstrated that liver uptake of chylomicron retinyl ester is not impaired in the ethanol-fed rat, we suggest that liver retinoid metabolism may be increased

  17. Cell nanomechanics and focal adhesions are regulated by retinol and conjugated linoleic acid in a dose-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberberg, Yaron R; Horton, Michael A; Pelling, Andrew E; Yakubov, Gleb E

    2009-01-01

    Retinol and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) have previously been shown to have an important role in gene expression and various cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation and cell death. In this study we have investigated the effect of retinol and CLA, both individually and in combination, on the intracellular cytoskeleton, focal adhesions (FAs) and the nanomechanical properties of 3T3 fibroblasts. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in the formation of FAs following treatment with either compound, which was directly correlated to an increase in cell height (>30%) and a decrease in the measured Young's modulus (∼28%). Furthermore, treatments with both compounds demonstrated an increased effect and led to a reduction of>70% in the average number of FAs per cell and a decrease of >50% in average cell stiffness. These data reveal that retinol and CLA disrupt FA formation, leading to an increase in cell height and a significant decrease in stiffness. These results may broaden our understanding of the interplay between cell nanomechanics and cellular contact with the external microenvironment, and help to shed light on the important role of retinoids and CLA in health and disease.

  18. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of retinol from cosmetic formulations: Significance of the skin reservoir and prediction of systemic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yourick, Jeffrey J.; Jung, Connie T.; Bronaugh, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The percutaneous absorption of retinol (Vitamin A) from cosmetic formulations was studied to predict systemic absorption and to understand the significance of the skin reservoir in in vitro absorption studies. Viable skin from fuzzy rat or human subjects was assembled in flow-through diffusion cells for in vitro absorption studies. In vivo absorption studies using fuzzy rats were performed in glass metabolism cages for collection of urine, feces, and body content. Retinol (0.3%) formulations (hydroalcoholic gel and oil-in-water emulsion) containing 3 H-retinol were applied and absorption was measured at 24 or 72 h. All percentages reported are % of applied dose. In vitro studies using human skin and the gel and emulsion vehicles found 0.3 and 1.3% retinol, respectively, in receptor fluid at 24 h. Levels of absorption in the receptor fluid increased over 72 h with the gel and emulsion vehicles. Using the gel vehicle, in vitro rat skin studies found 23% in skin and 6% in receptor fluid at 24 h, while 72-h studies found 18% in skin and 13% in receptor fluid. Thus, significant amounts of retinol remained in rat skin at 24 h and decreased over 72 h, with proportional increases in receptor fluid. In vivo rat studies with the gel found 4% systemic absorption of retinol after 24 h and systemic absorption did not increase at 72 h. Retinol remaining in rat skin after in vivo application was 18% and 13% of the applied dermal dose after 24 and 72 h, respectively. Similar observations were made with the oil-in water emulsion vehicle in the rat. Retinol formed a reservoir in rat skin both in vivo and in vitro. Little additional retinol was bioavailable after 24 h. Comparison of these in vitro and in vivo results for absorption through rat skin indicates that the 24-h in vitro receptor fluid value accurately estimated 24-h in vivo systemic absorption. Therefore, the best single estimate of retinol systemic absorption from in vitro human skin studies is the 24-h receptor fluid

  19. Visfatin and retinol-binding protein 4 concentrations in lean, glucose-tolerant women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Bulent O; Bozdag, Gurkan; Otegen, Umit; Harmanci, Ayla; Boynukalin, Kubra; Vural, Zehra; Kirazli, Serafettin; Yarali, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Since insulin resistance is accepted to be a common feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the exact molecular mechanism(s) involved in glucose and lipid metabolism have been under investigation in the syndrome. Recently, two novel adipokines, namely visfatin and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), have been suggested to play a role in insulin resistance and diabetes. This study sought to determine whether plasma concentrations of visfatin and RBP4 are altered in PCOS by comparing a total of 27 lean, normal glucose-tolerant PCOS patients with 19 age- and body mass index-matched healthy controls. The mean plasma visfatin concentrations were higher in PCOS patients than those in healthy subjects (37.9+/-18.2 versus 19.8+/-17.5, PPCOS (r=0.52, Plean, glucose-tolerant women with PCOS have increased circulating visfatin and unaltered RBP4 concentrations compared with healthy lean women. In order to clarify overlapping effects and their potential contribution to the pathophysiology of PCOS, further studies are needed. Copyright (c) 2009 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of low energy diet for eight weeks to adults with overweight or obesity on folate, retinol, vitamin B12, D and e status and the degree of inflammation: a post hoc analysis of a randomized intervention trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Veller, Mette; Kjoelbaek, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with vitamin insufficiency and low grade inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss on folate, retinol, vitamin B12, D and E status and the degree of inflammation. Methods: Out of 110, 85 individuals (75% women) aged 39...... in folate, 13% in vitamin B12, 2% in retinol, 28% in vitamin D (72% were insufficient in vitamin D), and none were deficient in vitamin E. At baseline, BMI was inversely associated with retinol (P ... were positively associated with CRP (P associated with all vitamins but retinol (P

  1. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 and Lipids Prospectively Measured During Early to Mid-Pregnancy in Relation to Preeclampsia and Preterm Birth Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendola, Pauline; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Mills, James L; Zhang, Cuilin; Tsai, Michael Y; Liu, Aiyi; Yeung, Edwina H

    2017-06-01

    Maternal retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and lipids may relate to preeclampsia and preterm birth risk but longitudinal data are lacking. This study examines these biomarkers longitudinally during pregnancy in relation to preeclampsia and preterm birth risk. Maternal serum samples from the Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention (CPEP) trial were analyzed at baseline: average 15 gestational weeks; mid-pregnancy: average 27 weeks; and at >34 weeks. We measured RBP4, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)). Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for preterm preeclampsia (n = 63), term preeclampsia (n = 104), and preterm delivery (n = 160) associated with RBP4 and lipids at baseline and mid-pregnancy compared with controls (n = 136). Longitudinal trajectories across pregnancy were assessed using mixed linear models with fixed effects. Adjusted models included clinical and demographic factors. RBP4 concentrations at baseline and mid-pregnancy were associated with a 4- to 8-fold increase in preterm preeclampsia risk but were not associated with term preeclampsia. RBP4 measured mid-pregnancy was also associated with preterm birth (OR = 6.67, 95% CI: 1.65, 26.84). Higher triglyceride concentrations in mid-pregnancy were associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk for both preeclampsia and preterm birth. Longitudinal models demonstrate that both preterm preeclampsia and preterm birth cases had elevated RBP4 throughout gestation. Elevated RBP4 is detectable early in pregnancy and its strong relation with preterm preeclampsia merits further investigation and confirmation to evaluate its potential use as a predictor, particularly among high-risk women. © Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of American Journal of Hypertension Ltd 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employees(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  3. Effects of Red Palm Oil on Serum Lipids and Plasma Carotenoids Level in Chinese Male Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN ZHANG; CHUN-RONG WANG; AN-NA XUE; KE-YOU GE

    2003-01-01

    Objective Effects of red palm oil on major plasma carotenoids, tocopherol, retinol and serumlipids were evaluated when used in Chinese diet. Methods Red palm oil group (RPO) composed of 20 male subjects(aged 18-32) and soybean oil group (SBO) composed of 22 male subjects (aged18-32). Dietary fat provided about 28% of total calories, and the test oil accounted for about 60% of total dietary fat. In the 3 weeks of pretest period, diets were prepared with soybean oil, and then in the next 6 weeks subjects in each group consumed the diet prepared by test oil. Results Plasmaα-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene concentration of RPO group significantly increased at the time of interim (21 days) and of the end (42 days) (P<0.05), and α-tocopherol concentration significantly increased at the time of the end (42 days) in this study. Though Chinese plasma retinol level was relatively low when compared with that of Westerners, red palm oil diet showed no significant effect on adult Chinese plasma retinol level. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein B of all subjects showed no significant changes in RPO group during the study. Conclusions The data in our study suggest that red palm oil is a good source of carotenoids and vitamin E when used in Chinese diet preparation, and it can significantly increase plasma concentration of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene andα-tocopherol.

  4. Genetic variants of retinol-binding protein 4 in adolescents are ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-03

    Sep 3, 2015 ... associated with T2D and serum triglyceride levels in another study of a Chinese ... Japan). Serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol .... a positive correlation between RBP genetic variants and obe- sity, IR or MetS ...

  5. An immunohistochemical study of retinol-binding protein (RBP) in livers of free-living polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from east Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heier, Annabelle; Sonne, Christian; Gröne, Andrea; Leifsson, Pall S; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W; Bacciarini, Luca N

    2005-09-01

    From 1999 to 2002 samples from 114 free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were collected in the municipality of Scoresby Sound, East Greenland, to detect levels of organochlorines and potential histopathologic changes. Livers of 16 female polar bears from this group were evaluated histologically and analyzed for hepatic retinol-binding protein by immunohistochemistry. Retinol-binding protein is the main transport protein for retinol, an important vitamin A metabolite in the polar bear. Only mild pathologic changes were noted on histologic evaluation of the livers. Small lymphocytic or lymphohistiocytic infiltrates were present in all the livers. Small lipid granulomas, mild periportal fibrosis, and bile duct proliferation were found in several cases. Immunohistochemistry for retinol-binding protein of hepatic tissue from free-ranging polar bears showed no distinct difference in staining intensity by a number of criteria: age, season (fasting and nonfasting), or lactation status. The staining was diffuse to finely stippled in the cytoplasm and showed very little variation among the animals. Because of the lack of macroscopic changes and the absence of severe histologic liver lesions, these polar bears were assumed to be healthy. The diffuse cytoplasmic retinol-binding protein staining in hepatocytes of free-ranging polar bears varies markedly from the prominent granular, less intense staining of captive polar bears investigated previously.

  6. Plasma retinol, carotene and vitamin E concentrations and lung function in a crocidolite-exposed cohort from Wittenoom, Western Australia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosini Gina

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased rates of death from asbestos related diseases have been reported for people previously employed in the mining and milling operations at Wittenoom (Western Australia, and people who lived in the nearby town, where they were environmentally exposed to crocidolite. Methods Annual measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC and plasma concentrations of retinol, carotene and vitamin E have been made since 1992. Mixed effects models were used to examine the associations between lung function and the plasma vitamin levels of retinol, carotene and vitamin E. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, higher plasma retinol and carotene concentrations were significantly associated with higher levels of lung function at entry into the study, while vitamin E concentrations were associated with lower entry lung function. Retinol was associated with a less steep decline of lung function over time, while carotene concentrations were associated with an increased decline of lung function over time and vitamin E levels were not associated with changes of lung function over time. Conclusion These results support a beneficial relationship between plasma concentrations of retinol on the levels and rates of change of lung function, while showing no such consistent beneficial effect for plasma levels of beta-carotene or vitamin E.

  7. Topical Retinol Restores Type I Collagen Production in Photoaged Forearm Skin within Four Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Production of type I collagen (COL1, the major structural protein of the skin, declines during aging, leading to skin thinning and becoming fragile, which increases the risk of bruising and wound healing disorders in the elderly. Topical treatments that can restore COL1 synthesis and ultimately COL1 content in aged skin hold promise to improve skin health. Much effort has been spent on developing agents that can safely and effectively enhance COL1 synthesis in aged skin. However, how fast and to what extent COL1 production in aged skin can be enhanced by a topical treatment remains unclear. Herein, we investigated a four-week topical retinol (ROL treatment. A one-day occlusion of ROL (0.4% or vehicle was applied on photoaged forearms of elderly (>65 years old subjects once a week for four weeks. Vehicle was also applied on forearms of young (23–33 years subjects in the same manner. Skin samples were obtained one week after the last treatment and analyzed for COL1 synthesis. We found that the ROL treatment increased the level of COL1 mRNA (2.3-fold and proCOL1 protein (1.8-fold in photoaged forearms to levels similar to that of young forearms within four weeks. Our study proves the concept that reduced COL1 production in aged skin can be readily restored. In addition, our study provides an evidence-based foundation for developing COL1-enhancing topical agents, and establishes a reliable and practical efficacy test for evaluating such agents.

  8. Organohalogens in A Whale-Blubber-Supplemented Diet Affects Hepatic Retinol and Renal Tocopherol Concentrations in Greenland Sled Dogs (Canis familiaris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, M.; Sonne, C.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the plasma, liver, and kidney status of vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (-tocopherol) in two groups of Greenland sled dogs (Canis familiaris), with a total number of 16 bitches and 8 pups. The dogs were fed either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata...... polychlorinated biphenyls [PCB]). Retinol was approximately 18% and -tocopherol 22% higher in the diet of the exposed dogs compared to controls. In adipose tissue, mean of sigma OHC was 92 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and 5005 ng/g lw for all control (n = 12) and exposed dogs (n = 10), respectively. Hepatic retinol...... correlated negatively with sigma-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (sigma DDT) and and sigma-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (sigma PBDE) for all exposed animals. A negative correlation between kidney -tocopherol and sigma PCB concentrations was observed, whereas two positive significant correlations were...

  9. Characterization of a dehydrogenase activity responsible for oxidation of 11-cis-retinol in the retinal pigment epithelium of mice with a disrupted RDH5 gene. A model for the human hereditary disease fundus albipunctatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jang, G.F.; Hooser, J.P. van; Kuksa, V.; McBee, J.K.; He, Y.G.; Janssen, J.J.M.; Driessen, C.A.G.G.; Palczewski, K.

    2001-01-01

    In the vertebrate retina, the final step of visual chromophore production is the oxidation of 11-cis-retinol to 11-cis-retinal. This reaction is catalyzed by 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenases (11-cis-RDHs), prior to the chromophore rejoining with the visual pigment apo-proteins. The RDH5 gene encodes a

  10. Influência de variáveis socioeconômicas e de saúde materno-infantil sobre os níveis de retinol no colostro humano Retinol levels in human colostrum: influence of child, maternal and socioeconomic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dimenstein

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar os níveis de retinol no colostro de lactantes moradoras da cidade de Natal (RN e sua relação com as variáveis socioeconômicas e de saúde materno-infantil. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 42 nutrizes saudáveis, entre 18 e 39 anos, até 48 horas pós-parto. Foram aplicados questionários para a coleta de dados socioeconômicos, antropométricos e dietéticos. O estado nutricional antropométrico foi determinado pelo índice de massa corpórea e os dados de consumo alimentar em vitamina A foram obtidos pelo inquérito dietético de história alimentar, sendo a análise realizada pelo programa Virtual Nutri. Foram coletados 2 ml de colostro, e a determinação do retinol foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. RESULTADOS: A maioria das nutrizes apresentou baixa condição socioeconômica e baixo grau de escolaridade. Entre as nutrizes, 55% apresentavam um consumo de vitamina A adequado, com uma média de ingestão de 1.398,8 µgRE/dia. O valor médio de retinol no colostro foi 93,1+51,1 µgRE/100 ml. Quando relacionado aos níveis de retinol no leite, as variáveis renda (p = 0,503, escolaridade (p = 0,708 e peso ao nascer do bebê (p = 0,499 não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Entretanto, houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o nível de retinol no leite e o estado nutricional na gestação (p = 0,016. CONCLUSÃO: A não-influência de variações socioeconômicas nos níveis de retinol do colostro sugere a existência de um mecanismo de adaptação da glândula mamária na manutenção dos níveis adequados de retinol para atender às necessidades diárias do lactente.OBJECTIVES: To determine colostrum retinol levels in breastfeeding women from the city of Natal, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, and to investigate the relationship between retinol levels in colostrum and child, maternal and socioeconomic variables. METHODS: Forty-two healthy women aged 18 to 39 years were

  11. Molecular basis of retinol anti-ageing properties in naturally aged human skin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Y; He, T; Fisher, G J; Voorhees, J J; Quan, T

    2017-02-01

    Retinoic acid has been shown to improve the aged-appearing skin. However, less is known about the anti-ageing effects of retinol (ROL, vitamin A), a precursor of retinoic acid, in aged human skin in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the molecular basis of ROL anti-ageing properties in naturally aged human skin in vivo. Sun-protected buttock skin (76 ± 6 years old, n = 12) was topically treated with 0.4% ROL and its vehicle for 7 days. The effects of topical ROL on skin epidermis and dermis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, Northern analysis, real-time RT-PCR and Western analysis. Collagen fibrils nanoscale structure and surface topology were analysed by atomic force microscopy. Topical ROL shows remarkable anti-ageing effects through three major types of skin cells: epidermal keratinocytes, dermal endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Topical ROL significantly increased epidermal thickness by stimulating keratinocytes proliferation and upregulation of c-Jun transcription factor. In addition to epidermal changes, topical ROL significantly improved dermal extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment; increasing dermal vascularity by stimulating endothelial cells proliferation and ECM production (type I collagen, fibronectin and elastin) by activating dermal fibroblasts. Topical ROL also stimulates TGF-β/CTGF pathway, the major regulator of ECM homeostasis, and thus enriched the deposition of ECM in aged human skin in vivo. 0.4% topical ROL achieved similar results as seen with topical retinoic acid, the biologically active form of ROL, without causing noticeable signs of retinoid side effects. 0.4% topical ROL shows remarkable anti-ageing effects through improvement of the homeostasis of epidermis and dermis by stimulating the proliferation of keratinocytes and endothelial cells, and activating dermal fibroblasts. These data provide evidence that 0.4% topical ROL is a promising and safe treatment to improve the naturally aged human skin

  12. Thermometric sensing of peroxide in organic media. Application to monitor the stability of RBP-retinol-HRP complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, K; Jönsson, B R; Danielsson, B

    2000-08-01

    The stability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in aqueous and organic solvents is applied to develop a simple thermometric procedure to detect the binding of retinoic acid-HRP conjugate to retinol binding protein (RBP). Butanone peroxide (BP) in organic phase and hydrogen peroxide in aqueous phase is detected thermometrically on a HRP column, immobilized by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde on controlled pore glass (CPG). Acetone, acetonitrile, methanol, and 2-butanol are used for detection of BP, in the flow injection analysis (FIA) mode. A linear range between 1 and 50 mM BP is obtained in all the organic solvents with a precision of 5-7% (CV%). The magnitude and nature of the thermometric response is significantly different in each organic solvent. The stability of HRP in the organic phase is used to study the stability of a retinoic acid-HRP conjugate bound to immobilized RBP. The response of HRP (to 20 mM BP) in the retinoic acid-HRP conjugate is used as an indicator of the stability of the RBP-retinoic acid-HRP complex, after challenges with various organic/aqueous solvents. Both immobilized HRP and RBP are stable at least for 6 months. The effect of o-phenylene diamine on the thermometric response of HRP is also investigated. A scheme for the design of a thermometric retinol (vitamin A) biosensor is proposed.

  13. Antioxidant Vitamin Status in the Serum and Amniotic Fluid of Women with Premature Rupture of the Fetal Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bridget M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the status of antioxidant vitamins in women with premature rupture of the fetal membranes. Specimens of blood and amniotic fluid were obtained from 80 pregnant subjects included both smokers and non-smokers during the third trimester. The concentrations of ascorbic acid (ASA), beta -carotene, retinol and alpha -tocopherol in serum and amniotic fluid were determined. The experimental group consisted of those subjects with PROM while the control subjects were those with normal pregnancy. No statistical differences were found between the PROM and control groups in retinol and vitamin E concentrations in amniotic fluid and serum. Serum ASA concentrations of PROM subjects were not different from controls, but the PROM subjects had significantly lower amniotic fluid ASA concentrations. However, in a study with fewer subjects a lower serum ASA concentration in the PROM subjects was observed. The ratio of amniotic fluid ASA concentration to ASA serum concentration was significantly lower in PROM patients than in controls in both studies. This suggests that low levels of ASA in the amniotic fluid, but not in serum is better associated with PROM. A low amniotic fluid concentration of ASA may reflect an inefficient transfer and/or increased fetal utilization. Alterations in ASA concentration in the amniotic fluid may affect the integrity of the chorioamnion leading to PROM. beta -Carotene was not found in the amniotic fluid. Serum beta-carotene levels were significantly lower in the PROM group compared to the control group. Low concentrations of beta-carotene in maternal serum in smokers not only associated with poor maternal outcome (PROM) but also compromised the fetal outcome (decreased birth weight). Maintenance of adequate serum beta-carotene concentration and amniotic fluid ASA in smokers may result in better maternal and fetal outcome. This study demonstrated that nutrition is an important factor in the prevention of PROM.

  14. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantification of bioavailability and bioconversion of beta-carotene to retinol in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan Wang,; Xiaoying Xu,; Lieshout, van M.; West, C.E.; Lugtenburg, J.; Verhoeven, M.A.; Creemers, A.F.L.

    2000-01-01

    A method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI LC-MS) was developed for the quantification of the bioavailability of retinyl palmitate and -carotene and the bioconversion of -carotene to retinol in humans. Following oral

  15. Bioavailability and bioefficacy of [beta]-carotene measured using 13C-labeled [beta]-carotene and retinol: studies in Indonesian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.

    2001-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem in many developing countries. Improved vitamin A status can reduce morbidity and mortality by one-third in developing countries. Vitamin A occurs in food as preformed vitamin A (retinol), present in animal foods and breastmilk, and as

  16. Serum proteomic analysis reveals potential serum biomarkers for occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis caused by trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peiwu; Ren, Xiaohu; Huang, Zhijun; Yang, Xifei; Hong, Wenxu; Zhang, Yanfang; Zhang, Hang; Liu, Wei; Huang, Haiyan; Huang, Xinfeng; Wu, Desheng; Yang, Linqing; Tang, Haiyan; Zhou, Li; Li, Xuan; Liu, Jianjun

    2014-08-17

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent with widespread occupational exposure and also a major environmental contaminant. Occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene (OMLDT) is an autoimmune disease and it has become one major hazard in China. In this study, sera from 3 healthy controls and 3 OMLDT patients at different disease stages were used for a screening study by 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Eight proteins including transthyretin (TTR), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), haptoglobin, clusterin, serum amyloid A protein (SAA), apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein C-III and apolipoprotein C-II were found to be significantly altered among the healthy, acute-stage, healing-stage and healed-stage groups. Specifically, the altered expression of TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin were further validated by Western blot analysis and ELISA. Our data not only suggested that TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin could serve as potential serum biomarkers of OMLDT, but also indicated that measurement of TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin or their combination could help aid in the diagnosis, monitoring the progression and therapy of the disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Blood concentrations of carotenoids and retinol and lung cancer risk: an update of the WCRF-AICR systematic review of published prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Leila; Vieira, Ana Rita; Aune, Dagfinn; Stevens, Christophe; Vingeliene, Snieguole; Navarro Rosenblatt, Deborah A; Chan, Doris; Greenwood, Darren C; Norat, Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Carotenoids and retinol are considered biomarkers of fruits and vegetables intake, and are of much interest because of their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties; however, there is inconsistent evidence regarding their protective effects against lung cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies of blood concentrations of carotenoids and retinol, and lung cancer risk. We identified relevant prospective studies published up to December 2014 by searching the PubMed and several other databases. We calculated summary estimates of lung cancer risk for the highest compared with lowest carotenoid and retinol concentrations and dose-response meta-analyses using random effects models. We used fractional polynomial models to assess potential nonlinear relationships. Seventeen prospective studies (18 publications) including 3603 cases and 458,434 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Blood concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, total carotenoids, and retinol were significantly inversely associated with lung cancer risk or mortality. The summary relative risk were 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.80) per 5 μg/100 mL of α-carotene (studies [n] = 5), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76-0.94) per 20 μg/100 mL of β-carotene (n = 9), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.54-0.81) per 100 μg/100 mL of total carotenoids (n = 4), and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.73-0.90) per 70 μg/100 mL of retinol (n = 8). In stratified analysis by sex, the significant inverse associations for β-carotene and retinol were observed only in men and not in women. Nonlinear associations were observed for β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene, with stronger associations observed at lower concentrations. There were not enough data to conduct stratified analyses by smoking. In conclusion, higher blood concentrations of several carotenoids and retinol are associated with reduced lung cancer risk. Further studies in never and former smokers are needed to rule out confounding by smoking

  18. Associations between retinol-binding protein 4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in recently postmenopausal women: cross-sectional analyses from the KEEPS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Gary

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The published literature regarding the relationships between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis is conflicting, likely due, in part, to limitations of frequently used RBP4 assays. Prior large studies have not utilized the gold-standard western blot analysis of RBP4 levels. Methods Full-length serum RBP4 levels were measured by western blot in 709 postmenopausal women screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Cross-sectional analyses related RBP4 levels to cardiometabolic risk factors, carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT, and coronary artery calcification (CAC. Results The mean age of women was 52.9 (± 2.6 years, and the median RBP4 level was 49.0 (interquartile range 36.9-61.5 μg/mL. Higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with higher triglycerides (age, race, and smoking-adjusted partial Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.10; P = 0.01, but were unrelated to blood pressure, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, and CIMT levels (all partial Spearman correlation coefficients ≤0.06, P > 0.05. Results suggested a curvilinear association between RBP4 levels and CAC, with women in the bottom and upper quartiles of RBP4 having higher odds of CAC (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 2.10 [1.07-4.09], 2.00 [1.02-3.92], 1.64 [0.82-3.27] for the 1st, 3rd, and 4th RBP4 quartiles vs. the 2nd quartile. However, a squared RBP4 term in regression modeling was non-significant (P = 0.10. Conclusions In these healthy, recently postmenopausal women, higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with elevations in triglycerides and with CAC, but not with other risk factors or CIMT. These data using the gold standard of RBP4 methodology only weakly support the possibility that perturbations in RBP4 homeostasis may be an additional risk factor for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT

  19. A simple and robust quantitative analysis of retinol and retinyl palmitate using a liquid chromatographic isocratic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yokota

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is a vital nutritional substances that regulates biological activities including development, but is also associated with disease onset. The extent of vitamin A intake influences the retinoid content in the liver, the most important organ for the storage of vitamin A. Measurement of endogenous retinoid in biological samples is important to understand retinoid homeostasis. Here we present a reliable, highly sensitive, and robust method for the quantification of retinol and retinyl palmitate using a reverse-phase HPLC/UV isocratic method. We determined the impact of chronic dietary vitamin A on retinoid levels in livers of mice fed an AIN-93G semi-purified diet (4 IU/g compared with an excess vitamin A diet (1000 IU/g over a period from birth to 10 weeks of age. Coefficients of variation for intra-assays for both retinoids were less than 5%, suggesting a higher reproducibility than any other HPLC/UV gradient method. Limits of detection and quantification for retinol were 0.08 pmol, and 0.27 pmol, respectively, which are remarkably higher than previous results. Supplementation with higher doses of vitamin A over the study period significantly increased liver retinol and retinyl palmitate concentrations in adult mice. The assays described here provide a sensitive and rigorous quantification of endogenous retinol and retinyl palmitate, which can be used to help determine retinoid homeostasis in disease states, such as toxic hepatitis and liver cancer. Keywords: Vitamin A excess, Retinol, Retinyl palmitate, Liver

  20. Efficacy and safety of retinol palmitate ophthalmic solution in the treatment of dry eye: a Japanese Phase II clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshida, Hiroshi; Funaki, Toshinari; Ono, Koichi; Tabuchi, Nobuhito; Watanabe, Sota; Seki, Tamotsu; Otake, Hiroshi; Kato, Takuji; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the administration of retinol palmitate (VApal) ophthalmic solution (500 IU/mL) for the treatment of patients with dry eye. This study included 66 patients with dry eye. After a 2-week washout period, patients were randomized (1:1) into either a VApal ophthalmic solution or a placebo group, and a single drop of either solution was administered six times daily for 4 weeks. Efficacy measures were 12 subjective symptoms, rose bengal (RB) and fluorescein staining scores, tear film breakup time, and tear secretion. Safety measures included clinical blood and urine analyses and adverse event recordings. In comparisons of the two groups, the mean change in RB staining score from baseline was significantly lower in the VApal group at 2 and 4 weeks ( P ophthalmic solution (500 IU/mL) is safe and effective for the treatment of patients with dry eye.

  1. Serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochna Viola, E.M.; Diaz de Domingo, N.B.; Lazarowski, A.

    1981-01-01

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis. (author) [es

  2. Serum carotenoid concentrations in postmenopausal women from the United States with and without osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhifang; Zhang, Zhumin; Penniston, Kristina L; Binkley, Neil; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2008-05-01

    Antioxidant defenses may be compromised in osteoporotic women. Little is known about fruit and vegetable or carotenoid consumption among postmenopausal women. The primary carotenoids in human serum are alpha- and beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. This study investigated the interrelationships among serum carotenoid concentrations, fruit and vegetable intake, and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women (n = 59, 62.7 +/- 8.8 y). Bone density was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and osteoporosis diagnosis was based upon T-scores. Serum samples (n = 53) and three-day diet records (n = 49) were analyzed. Logistic regression analyzed differences between carotenoids after adjusting for serum retinol; supplement usage; milk, yogurt, fruit, and vegetable intake; and body mass index (BMI). Pearson statistics correlated carotenoids with specific fruit or vegetable intake. Serum lycopene concentrations were lower in the osteoporosis group than controls (p = 0.03). Beta-cryptoxanthin intake was higher in the osteoporosis group (p = 0.0046). Total fruit and vegetable intakes were correlated with serum lycopene and beta-cryptoxanthin (p = 0.03, 0.006, respectively). Serum alpha-carotene concentration was associated with carrot intake, and zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin with lettuce intake. Carotenoids that may have beneficial skeletal effects are lower in women with osteoporosis. Research is needed to identify potential protective mechanisms or utilization of carotenoids during osteoporosis.

  3. Proteomics Analysis for Finding Serum Markers of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushan Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of peptide ligand library beads (PLLB and 1D gel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (1DGel-LC-MS/MS was employed to analyze serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer and from healthy controls. Proteomic analysis identified 1200 serum proteins, among which 57 proteins were upregulated and 10 were downregulated in the sera from cancer patients. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 is highly upregulated in the ovarian cancer serum samples. ELISA was employed to measure plasma concentrations of RBP4 in 80 samples from ovarian cancer patients, healthy individuals, myoma patients, and patients with benign ovarian tumor, respectively. The plasma concentrations of RBP4 ranging from 76.91 to 120.08 ng/mL with the mean value 89.13±1.67 ng/mL in ovarian cancer patients are significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (10.85±2.38 ng/mL. Results were further confirmed with immunohistochemistry, demonstrating that RBP4 expression levels in normal ovarian tissue were lower than those in ovarian cancer tissues. Our results suggested that RBP4 is a potential biomarker for diagnostic of screening ovarian cancer.

  4. Degradação de α-Tocoferol, retinol e ácido ascórbico durante processamento e armazenamento de rações para camarão α-Tocopherol, retinol and ascorbic acid degradation during the processing and storage of shrimp food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilmara Vieira Pedrosa

    2011-04-01

    development. Retinol, -tocopherol, and ascorbic acid are vitamins that act in several metabolic processes, therefore they are indispensable in animal food due to their antioxidant effects that protect these animals against oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vitamin losses during the diet processing and in the storage period. Eight isoproteic diets were formulated with different levels of vitamin A, E and C that were processed with temperatures up to 70º C. After the production and 60 days of storage, the vitamins were analyzed and quantified in order to discover the losses during the processing and post-storage. It was observed that the vitamin A suffered loss of up to 99.56%, vitamin E had its maximum loss value of 93.5% and vitamin C with 70% of loss, during the processing. During the storage period the losses were lower. It can be concluded that the vitamins are extremely sensitive to the factors that occur during the production and food storage, causing considerable vitamin losses.

  5. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  6. Red palm oil in the maternal diet increases provitamin A carotenoids in breastmilk and serum of the mother-infant dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, L M; Kaminsky, R G; Taren, D L; Shaw, E; Sander, J K

    2001-02-01

    Despite vitamin A supplementation programs, vitamin A deficiency in children remains a public health concern in Honduras. We investigated the effectiveness of short-term dietary supplementation of mothers with red palm oil as a strategy for improving the vitamin A status of the mother-infant dyad. Lactating mothers in Colonia Los Pinos, a barrio of Tegucigalpa, Honduras, consumed a total of 90-mg beta-carotene as red palm oil (n = 32) supplements (n = 36) or placebo (n = 18) in six equal doses over 10 days. Carotenoids and retinol in maternal and infant serum, and breastmilk carotenoids and retinol were measured before and after supplementation. Maternal diet was evaluated by 24-hour recall. Maternal serum alpha-carotene and beta-carotene concentrations were increased 2 fold by palm oil compared with 1.2 fold by beta-carotene supplements. Changes were significantly different in infant serum alpha-carotene but not beta-carotene among the three experimental groups. Increases in breastmilk beta-carotene were greater for the palm oil group (2.5 fold) than for the beta-carotene supplement group (1.6 fold) and increases in milk alpha-carotene concentrations (3.2 fold) were slightly greater than those of beta-carotene. There were also small but significant changes among groups in breastmilk lutein and lycopene. Breastmilk retinol was not significantly different among the groups over the treatment period. Red palm oil in the maternal diet increases provitamin A carotenoids in breastmilk and serum of the mother-infant dyad. The use of dietary red palm oil to improve the vitamin A status of this population should be further investigated.

  7. Nutritional status of iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and anemia in children 1 to 11 years old. Results of the Ensanut 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Villalpando

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the frequency of anemia, iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and predictors of anemia among Mexican children from Ensanut 2012. Materials and methods. Hemoglobin, ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, retinol and folate concentrations were measured in 2 678 children aged 1-4 y and 4 275 children aged 5-11 y. Adjusted logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. Results. In preschoolers and scholars, the overall prevalence of anemia was 20.4 and 9.7%, iron deficiency 14 and 9.3%, low vitamin B12 (LB12S 1.9 and 2.6%; Folate 0.30 and 0%, and retinol depletion (VADp 15.7 and 2.3%, respectively. ID and VADp were negatively associated with Hb (coefficient: -0.38 and -0.45, p<0.05; a higher log-CRP was associated with higher risk for anemia and VADp (OR=1.13 and OR=2.1, p<0.05, respectively. Conclusions. Iron deficiency, anemia and VADp are some of the main nutritional problems among Mexican infants

  8. Nutritional status of iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and anemia in children 1 to 11 years old: Results of the Ensanut 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Salvador; Cruz, Vanessa de la; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rebollar, Rosario; Contreras-Manzano, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    To describe the frequency of anemia, iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and predictors of anemia among Mexican children from Ensanut 2012. Hemoglobin, ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, retinol and folate concentrations were measured in 2 678 children aged 1-4 y and 4 275 children aged 5-11 y. Adjusted logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. In preschoolers and scholars, the overall prevalence of anemia was 20.4 and 9.7%, iron deficiency 14 and 9.3%, low vitamin B12 (LB12S) 1.9 and 2.6%; Folate 0.30 and 0%, and retinol depletion (VADp) 15.7 and 2.3%, respectively. ID and VADp were negatively associated with Hb (coefficient: -0.38 and -0.45, p<0.05); a higher log-CRP was associated with higher risk for anemia and VADp (OR=1.13 and OR=2.1, p<0.05, respectively). Iron deficiency, anemia and VADp are some of the main nutritional problems among Mexican infants.

  9. Effect of Retinol Palmitate on Corneal and Conjunctival Mucin Gene Expression in a Rat Dry Eye Model After Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Nobuhito; Toshida, Hiroshi; Koike, Daisuke; Odaka, Akito; Suto, Chikako; Ohta, Toshihiko; Murakami, Akira

    We examined the wound-healing effect of retinol palmitate (VApal) on mucin gene and protein expressions in a rat dry eye model based on lacrimal gland (LG) resection after injury. The rat dry eye model was prepared by surgical resection of the main LG in male Long-Evans rats. After alkaline injury of the central part of the lower palpebral conjunctiva bilaterally, VApal eye drops at 1,500 IU/mL in one eye and a vehicle in the fellow eye were both administered 6 times a day for 7 days. The expression of mucin gene and protein was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the cornea and conjunctiva of MUC1, MUC4, MUC16, and MUC5AC after 1, 3, (5), and 7 days of treatment with VApal. Significant decreases in fluorescein-stained areas and rose bengal scores were observed in VApal-treated dry eyes compared with vehicle-treated dry eyes at both 3 (P dry eye model after injury. VApal also promoted conjunctival MUC16 expression. These results indicate that VApal has efficacy in improving keratoconjunctival epithelial damage associated with decreased tear production.

  10. Association among retinol-binding protein 4, small dense LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL levels in dyslipidemia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia; Shi, Yong-hui; Niu, Dong-mei; Li, Han-qing; Zhang, Chun-ni; Wang, Jun-jun

    2012-06-01

    To investigate retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels and their associations in dyslipidemia subjects. We determined RBP4, sdLDL-C, ox-LDL levels in 150 various dyslipidemia subjects and 50 controls. The correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were performed. The RBP4, sdLDL-C and ox-LDL levels were found increased in various dyslipidemia subjects. The sdLDL-C levels were positively correlated with RBP4 (r=0.273, P=0.001) and ox-LDL (r=0.273, P=0.001). RBP4 levels were also correlated with ox-LDL (r=0.167, P=0.043). The multiple regression analysis showed that only sdLDL-C was a significant independent predictor for RBP4 (β coefficient=0.219, P=0.009; adjusted R(2)=0.041) and ox-LDL (β coefficient=0.253, P=0.003; adjusted R(2)=0.057) levels, respectively. The independent associations of sdLDL-C with RBP4 and ox-LDL were observed in dyslipidemia subjects. RBP4 may play an important role in lipid metabolism of atherosclerosis, particularly in formation of sdLDL. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between serum and brain carotenoids, a-tocopherol and retinol concentrations and cognitive performance in the oldest old from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress is involved in age-related cognitive decline. The dietary antioxidants, carotenoids, tocopherols and vitamin A may play a role in the prevention or delay in cognitive decline. In this study sera were obtained from 78 octogenarians and 220 centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian St...

  12. Função renal de pacientes de unidade de terapia intensiva: creatinina plasmática e proteína carreadora do retinol urinário Renal function of intensive care unit patients: plasma creatinine and urinary retinol-binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Satoko Mizoi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A avaliação precoce da disfunção renal usando marcadores usuais não supre uma indicação quer da sensitividade e da especificidade da disfunção renal de pacientes críticos. Seriam desejáveis marcadores mais específicos e sensíveis para a detecção precoce de um processo fisiopatológico renal em fase inicial. A proteína carreadora do retinol urinário poderia ser um método alternativo para avaliação precoce da função renal destes pacientes. MÉTODOS: O estudo acompanhou 100 pacientes em terapia intensiva e avaliou suas variáveis clinicas e laboratoriais, incluindo a dosagem de creatinina plasmática e proteina carreadora do retinol urinário e as variáveis demográficas. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi caracterizada por pacientes geriátricos (63,4±15,6 anos, homens (68%, sendo 53% cirúrgicos. Análise estatística mostrou associação entre creatinina plasmática e as seguintes variáveis: gênero (p=0,026, idade (p=0,038, uso de medicação vasoativa (p=0,003, proteinúria (p=0,025, escore Acute Physiological Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II (p=0,000, uréia (p=0,000, potássio (p=0,003 clearance de creatinina estimado (p=0,000. A proteína carreadora do retinol urinário correlacionava-se com outras variáveis: peso usa de ventilação invasiva (p=0,000, uso de medicamentos antinfamatórios não-esteróides (p=0,018, uso de medicação vasoativa (p=0,021, temperatura alta (>37,5ºC (p=0,005, proteinúria (p=0,000, bilirubinúria (p=0,004, fluxo urinário (p=0,019, pressão diastólica mínima (p=0,032, pressão sistólica mínima (p=0,029, APACHE II (p=0.000, creatinina (p=0,001, uréia (p=0,001 e clearance de creatinina estimado (p=0,000. A proteína carreadora do retinol urinário também tende a ser associada com doença renal anterior, vasculopatias e neoplasias. Na análise univariada, a fração de excreção de sódio se correlacionou com creatinina plasmática e proteina carreadora do retinol urin

  13. Estudo das variações dos níveis de retinol no colostro humano de parturientes a termo e pré-termo Study of retinol level variations of human colostrum among parturient women with term and pre-term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illana Louise Pereira de Melo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar as variações dos níveis de retinol no colostro de parturientes a termo e pré-termo. MÉTODOS: foram analisadas amostras de leite de 78 lactantes, sendo metade delas mães de recém-nascidos prematuros. As amostras de colostro foram obtidas por expressão manual de uma mama, até 72 horas após o parto, no turno vespertino e no início da mamada, até atingir um volume de 2,0 ml. A determinação do retinol foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência e os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística através do teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: o valor médio do retinol no colostro de mães a termo (n = 39 e pré-termo (n = 39 foram, respectivamente, 89,4 ± 46,1 mig/dL e 55,6 ± 27,7 mig/dL. A diferença entre as médias foi estatisticamente significante (p OBJECTIVES: to analyze retinol levels variations in the colostrum of term and pre-term parturient women. METHODS: colostrum samples of 78 lactating women, half of which were mothers of premature newborns, were analyzed. The samples were manually extracted from one breast until 2.0 ml were obtained. They were collected up to 72 hours after birth, during the morning hours and right before nursing. Retinol levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed by the T-test for means comparison. RESULTS: the mean retinol values in the colostrums of women with term (n = 39 and pre-term newborns (n = 39 were 89,4 ± 46,1 mug/dL and 55,6 ± 27,7 mug/dL, respectively. The difference of means was considered statistically significant at (p < 0,001. Human milk meets the need for Vitamin A in the term newborn. However, for the premature newborn, it only supplied 66% of the needs. CONCLUSIONS: results suggest that exclusive use of human milk does not meet the needs of pre-term newborn completely and that a Vitamin A supplement for the mother is necessary in order to reduce Vitamin A risk deficiency.

  14. ACTS 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art....... For the 2014 festival, the museum has entered into a collaboration with the Department for Performance Design at Roskilde University – with continued focus on sound and performance art, and social art in public spaces. With ACTS, art moves out of its usual exhibition space and instead utilizes the city, its...... various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes downtown....

  15. Vitamin A transport and the transmembrane pore in the cell-surface receptor for plasma retinol binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhong

    Full Text Available Vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids play diverse and crucial functions from embryogenesis to adulthood and are used as therapeutic agents in human medicine for eye and skin diseases, infections and cancer. Plasma retinol binding protein (RBP is the principal and specific vitamin A carrier in the blood and binds vitamin A at 1:1 ratio. STRA6 is the high-affinity membrane receptor for RBP and mediates cellular vitamin A uptake. STRA6 null mice have severely depleted vitamin A reserves for vision and consequently have vision loss, even under vitamin A sufficient conditions. STRA6 null humans have a wide range of severe pathological phenotypes in many organs including the eye, brain, heart and lung. Known membrane transport mechanisms involve transmembrane pores that regulate the transport of the substrate (e.g., the gating of ion channels. STRA6 represents a new type of membrane receptor. How this receptor interacts with its transport substrate vitamin A and the functions of its nine transmembrane domains are still completely unknown. These questions are critical to understanding the molecular basis of STRA6's activities and its regulation. We employ acute chemical modification to introduce chemical side chains to STRA6 in a site-specific manner. We found that modifications with specific chemicals at specific positions in or near the transmembrane domains of this receptor can almost completely suppress its vitamin A transport activity. These experiments provide the first evidence for the existence of a transmembrane pore, analogous to the pore of ion channels, for this new type of cell-surface receptor.

  16. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003540.htm Protein electrophoresis - serum To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood ...

  17. Lower fetuin-A, retinol binding protein 4 and several metabolites after gastric bypass compared to sleeve gastrectomy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Jüllig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bypass of foregut secreted factors promoting insulin resistance is hypothesized to be one of the mechanisms by which resolution of type 2 diabetes (T2D follows roux-en-y gastric bypass (GBP surgery. AIM: To identify insulin resistance-associated proteins and metabolites which decrease more after GBP than after sleeve gastrectomy (SG prior to diabetes remission. METHODS: Fasting plasma from 15 subjects with T2D undergoing GBP or SG was analyzed by proteomic and metabolomic methods 3 days before and 3 days after surgery. Subjects were matched for age, BMI, metformin therapy and glycemic control. Insulin resistance was calculated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR. For proteomics, samples were depleted of abundant plasma proteins, digested with trypsin and labeled with iTRAQ isobaric tags prior to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Metabolomic analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effect of the respective bariatric surgery on identified proteins and metabolites was evaluated using two-way analysis of variance and appropriate post-hoc tests. RESULTS: HOMA-IR improved, albeit not significantly, in both groups after surgery. Proteomic analysis yielded seven proteins which decreased significantly after GBP only, including Fetuin-A and Retinol binding protein 4, both previously linked to insulin resistance. Significant decrease in Fetuin-A and Retinol binding protein 4 after GBP was confirmed using ELISA and immunoassay. Metabolomic analysis identified significant decrease of citrate, proline, histidine and decanoic acid specifically after GBP. CONCLUSION: Greater early decrease was seen for Fetuin-A, Retinol binding protein 4, and several metabolites after GBP compared to SG, preceding significant weight loss. This may contribute to enhanced T2D remission observed following foregut bypass procedures.

  18. Effects of exogenous retinol and retinoic acid on the biosynthesis of 14C-mannose labelled glycolipids and glycoproteins in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Mayumi; DeLuca, L.M.; Muto, Yasutoshi

    1978-01-01

    The in vivo and in vitro effects of retinol and retionic acid was investigated on the synthesis of mannolipids and mannopeptides in rat liver. Weanling male, Wister-strain rats (Japan Clea Inc., Tokyo), weighing 35 to 40g are housed in hanging wire bottom cages and maintained on a vitamin A-deficient diet. The incorporation of 14 C-mannose into glycolipids and glycoproteins showed a decrease in vitamin A-depleted rats as compared with vitamin A-fed rats. The mannose-containing lipids were separated into retinyl phosphate (MRP, R sub(f) 0.2) and dolichyl mannosyl phosphate (DMP, R sub(f) 0.4), respectively, by DEAE-cellulose, silicic acid and thin-layer chromatography. A rapid increase in the synthesis of labelled MPR was observed, exhibiting a peak between 25 and 60 minutes after intraperitoneal administration of retinol to vitamin A-depleted rats. Similarly, administration of retionic acid brought about elevation of 14 C-mannolipid (R sub(f) 0.2) synthesis with a peak at 60 minutes after injection. On the other hand, the incorporation of 14 C-mannose into DMP (R sub(f) 0.4) remained unchanged by such treatment. These results suggest that not only retinol but also retionic acid plays an important biological role in manosyl transfer reaction in rat liver. However, the molecular participation of a metabolite of retionic acid in the formation of manolipid and the structure of such a metabolite remain to be established. (Iwakiri, K.)

  19. Ligand Binding Induces Conformational Changes in Human Cellular Retinol-binding Protein 1 (CRBP1) Revealed by Atomic Resolution Crystal Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvaroli, Josie A; Arne, Jason M; Chelstowska, Sylwia; Kiser, Philip D; Banerjee, Surajit; Golczak, Marcin

    2016-04-15

    Important in regulating the uptake, storage, and metabolism of retinoids, cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (CRBP1) is essential for trafficking vitamin A through the cytoplasm. However, the molecular details of ligand uptake and targeted release by CRBP1 remain unclear. Here we report the first structure of CRBP1 in a ligand-free form as well as ultra-high resolution structures of this protein bound to either all-trans-retinol or retinylamine, the latter a therapeutic retinoid that prevents light-induced retinal degeneration. Superpositioning of human apo- and holo-CRBP1 revealed major differences within segments surrounding the entrance to the retinoid-binding site. These included α-helix II and hairpin turns between β-strands βC-βD and βE-βF as well as several side chains, such as Phe-57, Tyr-60, and Ile-77, that change their orientations to accommodate the ligand. Additionally, we mapped hydrogen bond networks inside the retinoid-binding cavity and demonstrated their significance for the ligand affinity. Analyses of the crystallographic B-factors indicated several regions with higher backbone mobility in the apoprotein that became more rigid upon retinoid binding. This conformational flexibility of human apo-CRBP1 facilitates interaction with the ligands, whereas the more rigid holoprotein structure protects the labile retinoid moiety during vitamin A transport. These findings suggest a mechanism of induced fit upon ligand binding by mammalian cellular retinol-binding proteins. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Randomized structured triglycerides increase lymphatic absorption of tocopherol and retinol compared with the equivalent physical mixture in a rat model of fat malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, P; Lee, T; DeMichele, S J

    2001-08-01

    Previously we demonstrated that the digestion, absorption and lymphatic transport of lipid and key essential fatty acids (EFA) from randomly interesterified fish oil/medium-chain structured triglycerides (STG) were significantly higher than an equivalent physical mixture (PM) in a normal lymph fistula rat model and in a rat model of lipid malabsorption caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The goals of this study were to further explore the potential absorptive benefits of STG by comparing the intestinal absorption and lymphatic transport of tocopherol and retinol when delivered gastrically with either STG or PM under normal conditions and after I/R injury to the small bowel. Food-deprived male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two treatments (sham controls or I/R). Under halothane anesthesia, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was occluded for 20 min and then reperfused in I/R rats. The SMA was isolated but not occluded in control rats. In both groups, the mesenteric lymph duct was cannulated and a gastric tube was inserted. Each treatment group received 1 mL of the fish oil/MCT STG or PM (7 rats/group) along with (14)C-alpha-tocopherol and (3)H-retinol through the gastric tube followed by an infusion of PBS at 3 mL/h for 8 h. Lymph was collected hourly for 8 h. Under steady-state conditions, the amount of (14)C-alpha-tocopherol and (3)H-retinol transported into lymph was significantly higher in the STG-fed rats compared with those fed PM in both control and I/R groups. In addition, control and I/R rats given STG had earlier steady-state outputs of (14)C-alpha-tocopherol and (3)H-retinol and maintained approximately 30% higher outputs in lymph throughout the 8-h lymph collection period compared with rats given the PM. We conclude that STG provides the opportunity to potentiate improved absorption of fat-soluble vitamins under normal and malabsorptive states.

  1. Retinol-binding protein 4 in twins: regulatory mechanisms and impact of circulating and tissue expression levels on insulin secretion and action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Friedrichsen, Martin; Vaag, Allan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Retinol-binding protein (RBP) 4 is an adipokine of which plasma levels are elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aims of the study were to identify determinants of plasma RBP4 and RBP4 mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and skeletal muscle and to investigate...... expression was not associated with circulatory RBP4. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our data indicate that RBP4 levels in plasma, skeletal muscle, and fat may be linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in a secondary and noncausal manner....

  2. Expression and characterization of recombinant human serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C-peptide (CP), connecting the A and B chains in proinsulin, has been considered to possess physiological effects in diabetes. In order to prolong the half-life of CP in vivo, a long acting CP analog [human serum albumin (HSA-CP)] was obtained by direct gene fusion of a single-chain CP to HSA and expressed in host ...

  3. Expression and characterization of recombinant human serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... C-peptide (CP), connecting the A and B chains in proinsulin, has been considered to possess physiological effects in diabetes. In order to prolong the half-life of CP in vivo, a long acting CP analog. [human serum albumin (HSA-CP)] was obtained by direct gene fusion of a single-chain CP to HSA and.

  4. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  5. Association of serum retinoic acid with hepatic steatosis and liver injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Hongen; Wang, Jingjing; Zhou, Wenjing; Sun, Ruifang; Xia, Min

    2015-07-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), an active metabolite of vitamin A (retinol), has been implicated in the regulation of lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis in animal models. However, the relation between RA and liver histology in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unknown. This study aimed at examining the association of RA with NAFLD and NASH in Chinese subjects. Serum RA concentration was determined by ELISA in 41 control subjects, 45 patients with NAFLD, and 38 patients with NASH. The associations of RA with adiposity, serum glucose, lipid profiles, and markers of liver damage were studied. Moreover, both mRNA and protein levels of retinoic X receptor α (RXRα) in the liver were analyzed in subjects with different degrees of hepatic steatosis. Serum RA concentrations in patients with NAFLD (1.42 ± 0.47 ng/mL) and NASH (1.14 ± 0.26 ng/mL) were significantly lower than those in control subjects (2.70 ± 0.52 ng/mL) (P hepatic steatosis. Both serum RA concentrations and RXRα mRNA levels were inversely correlated with intrahepatic triglyceride content (r = -0.700, P hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01940263. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Serum nutritional biomarkers and their associations with sleep among US adults in recent national surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May A Beydoun

    Full Text Available The associations between nutritional biomarkers and measures of sleep quantity and quality remain unclear.Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2005-2006 were used. We selected 2,459 adults aged 20-85, with complete data on key variables. Five sleep measures were constructed as primary outcomes: (A Sleep duration; (B Sleep disorder; (C Three factors obtained from factor analysis of 15 items and labeled as "Poor sleep-related daytime dysfunction" (Factor 1, "Sleepiness" (Factor 2 and "Sleep disturbance" (Factor 3. Main exposures were serum concentrations of key nutrients, namely retinol, retinyl esters, carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, lycopene, folate, vitamin B-12, total homocysteine (tHcy, vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and vitamin E. Main analyses consisted of multiple linear, logistic and multinomial logit models.Among key findings, independent inverse associations were found between serum vitamin B-12 and sleep duration, 25(OHD and sleepiness (as well as insomnia, and between folate and sleep disturbance. Serum total carotenoids concentration was linked to higher odds of short sleep duration (i.e. 5-6 h per night compared to normal sleep duration (7-8 h per night.A few of the selected serum nutritional biomarkers were associated with sleep quantity and quality. Longitudinal studies are needed to ascertain temporality and assess putative causal relationships.

  7. Curatorial Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a self-critical inquiry into my own recent work of co-curating and the experience of seeing my video work being curated by others, this article examines acts of framing as performative acts that seek to transform visitors' preconceptions. This affective effect is pursued by means of immersion,

  8. Valores séricos de vitamina A e teste terapêutico em pré-escolares atendidos em uma Unidade de Saúde do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Serum vitamin A levels and therapeutic test in preschool children attended in a Health Unit of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Andréa RAMALHO

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o impacto da suplementação com doses maciças de vitamina A (200.000 UI em pré-escolares atendidos em unidade de saúde do Rio de Janeiro. Inicialmente avaliou-se o nível de retinol sérico e as medidas antropométricas em 175 pré-escolares atendidos pelo Serviço Materno-infantil da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Forneceu-se, então, uma dose maciça de 200.000 UI de vitamina A solicitando o retorno após 30 dias. Nas crianças que retornaram após este período (n=99, refez-se a avaliação de retinol sérico. A prevalência de hipovitaminose A (The impact of a massive dose of vitamin A on preschool children attended in a health unit from Rio de Janeiro was evaluated. Initially, serum retinol levels and anthropometric measurements were determined in 175 preschool children attended in the Children's Service of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, after which a massive (200.000 IU dose of vitamin A was provided. The children were requested to return to the unit after 30 days. Serum retinol levels were measured in the children who returned (n=99. The prevalence of low (below 1.05 µmol/L levels of circulating retinol was of 34.3% in all children evaluated in the first attendance. After 30 days the prevalence was reduced from 42.4 to 3.0%. The lower the initial retinol levels the better the benefit from the massive dose. The proportion of children with protein-energy malnutrition was of 4.6%, but no clear association was found between vitamin A deficiency and protein-energy malnutrition. Vitamin A deficiency was independent of the household income and educational level of the parents. The response of children with vitamin A deficiency to the massive dose indicates that a low vitamin A intake may play an important role in the etiology of the problem. The prevalence figures also demonstrate that this problem is not exclusive of the traditionally poor areas of the country.

  9. Efficacy and safety of retinol palmitate ophthalmic solution in the treatment of dry eye: a Japanese Phase II clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshida H

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hiroshi Toshida,1 Toshinari Funaki,2 Koichi Ono,3 Nobuhito Tabuchi,4 Sota Watanabe,4 Tamotsu Seki,5 Hiroshi Otake,6 Takuji Kato,7 Nobuyuki Ebihara,8 Akira Murakami2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Shizuoka, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo Tokyo Koto Geriatric Medical Center, Tokyo, 4Pharmaceutical Research Laboratories, Lion Corporation, Kanagawa, 5Tamagawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 6Otake Eye Clinic, Kanagawa, 7Kato Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 8Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba, Japan Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the administration of retinol palmitate (VApal ophthalmic solution (500 IU/mL for the treatment of patients with dry eye. Patients and methods: This study included 66 patients with dry eye. After a 2-week washout period, patients were randomized (1:1 into either a VApal ophthalmic solution or a placebo group, and a single drop of either solution was administered six times daily for 4 weeks. Efficacy measures were 12 subjective symptoms, rose bengal (RB and fluorescein staining scores, tear film breakup time, and tear secretion. Safety measures included clinical blood and urine analyses and adverse event recordings. Results: In comparisons of the two groups, the mean change in RB staining score from baseline was significantly lower in the VApal group at 2 and 4 weeks (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively. Furthermore, the fluorescein clearance rate (fluorescein staining score was significantly higher in the VApal group at 4 weeks (P<0.05. The VApal group showed a significant improvement in blurred vision at 1 and 2 weeks (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively, and the mean change in the total score for subjective symptoms from baseline was significantly lower in the VApal group at 1 week (P<0.05. In before- and after-intervention comparisons, the

  10. Plasma Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Retinol in the Age-Stratified (35-74 Years) General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Weber, Daniela; Dollé, Martijn E T; Jansen, Eugène; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Fiegl, Simone; Toussaint, Olivier; Bernhardt, Juergen; Gonos, Efstathios S; Franceschi, Claudio; Sikora, Ewa; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Breusing, Nicolle; Grune, Tilman; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-09-30

    Blood micronutrient status may change with age. We analyzed plasma carotenoids, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol and their associations with age, demographic characteristics, and dietary habits (assessed by a short food frequency questionnaire) in a cross-sectional study of 2118 women and men (age-stratified from 35 to 74 years) of the general population from six European countries. Higher age was associated with lower lycopene and α-/β-carotene and higher β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol levels. Significant correlations with age were observed for lycopene ( r = -0.248), α-tocopherol ( r = 0.208), α-carotene ( r = -0.112), and β-cryptoxanthin ( r = 0.125; all p tocopherol with age remained when all covariates including cholesterol and use of vitamin supplements were included (1.7% vs. 2.4% per five-year age increase). The association of higher β-cryptoxanthin with higher age was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for fruit consumption, whereas the inverse association of α-carotene with age remained in the fully adjusted multivariable model (-4.8% vs. -3.8% per five-year age increase). We conclude from our study that age is an independent predictor of plasma lycopene, α-tocopherol, and α-carotene.

  11. RNA-sequencing and pathway analysis reveal alteration of hepatic steroid biosynthesis and retinol metabolism by tributyltin exposure in male rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiliang; Zhang, Chunnuan; Sun, Ping; Huang, Maoxian; Fan, Mingzhen; Liu, Min

    2017-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is widely spread in aquatic ecosystems. Although adverse effects of TBT on reproduction and lipogenesis are observed in fishes, the underlying mechanisms, especially in livers, are still scarce and inconclusive. Thus, RNA-sequencing runs were performed on the hepatic libraries of adult male rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) after TBT exposure for 60d. After differentially expressed genes were identified, enrichment analysis and validation by quantitative real-time PCR were conducted. The results showed that TBT up-regulated the profile of hepatic genes in the steroid biosynthesis pathway and down-regulated the profile of hepatic genes in the retinol metabolism pathway. In the hepatic steroid biosynthesis pathway, TBT might induce biosynthesis of cholesterol, which could affect the bioavailability of steroid hormones. More important, 3beta-hydroxysteroid 3-dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of all active steroid hormones, was up-regulated by TBT exposure. In the hepatic retinol metabolism pathway, TBT impaired retinoic acid homeostasis which plays essential roles in both reproduction and lipogenesis. The results of two pathways offered new mechanisms underlying the toxicology of TBT and represented a starting point from which detailed mechanistic links should be explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Two crystal forms of a helix-rich fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein, Na-FAR-1, from the parasitic nematode Necator americanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielsen, Mads; Rey-Burusco, M. Florencia; Griffiths, Kate; Roe, Andrew J.; Cooper, Alan; Smith, Brian O.; Kennedy, Malcolm W.; Corsico, Betina

    2012-01-01

    Na-FAR-1, a fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein, was expressed in bacteria, purified and crystallized. Crystals grew in two different morphologies under the same conditions. Na-FAR-1 is an unusual α-helix-rich fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein from Necator americanus, a blood-feeding intestinal parasitic nematode of humans. It belongs to the FAR protein family, which is unique to nematodes; no structural information is available to date for FAR proteins from parasites. Crystals were obtained with two different morphologies that corresponded to different space groups. Crystal form 1 exhibited space group P432 (unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 120.80 Å, α = β = γ = 90°) and diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution, whereas crystal form 2 exhibited space group F23 (unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 240.38 Å, α = β = γ = 90°) and diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution. Crystal form 2 showed signs of significant twinning

  13. Evaluation of anti-wrinkle effects of a novel cosmetic containing retinol using the guideline of the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Akira; Konishi, Natsuko; Momma, Tomoyuki; Oiso, Naoki; Kawara, Shigeru

    2009-11-01

    Retinol is known to be effective in the treatment of sallowness, wrinkling, red blotchiness and hyperpigmented spots in aging skin. In this study, we have evaluated the anti-wrinkle effects of a new cosmetic containing retinol. An open study was performed in 30 healthy Japanese women who had wrinkles at the corners of the eyes. The tested lotion, Retin-OX+ (RoC SA, Colombes, France), was applied on wrinkles of one side of the face for 8 weeks, and not on the other site as a control. Anti-wrinkle effects were evaluated by two methods: (i) doctors' observation and photos based on the guideline of the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association; and (ii) the Robo Skin Analyzer. This lotion showed marked and moderate improvement in 34% of the subjects with a significant difference as compared with the control sites (P < 0.05). Moreover, the length and area decreased in the applied site more than the control site with a significant difference (P < 0.01). All the patients completed the study without significant adverse reactions. The tested lotion was well tolerated and may be an optional preparation for the treatment of wrinkles at the corner of the eyes.

  14. ACT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to clot, the higher the degree of clotting inhibition. During surgery, the ACT is kept above a ... What is ECLS? An Introduction to Extracorporeal Life Support. University of Michigan Health System [On-line information]. ...

  15. Bacteriostatic enterochelin-specific immunoglobulin from normal human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.G.; Yancey, R.J.; Lankford, C.E.; Earhart, C.F.

    1980-02-01

    Heat-inactivated normal human serum produces iron-reversible bacteriostasis of a number of microorganisms. This inhibitory effect was abolished by adsorption of serum with ultraviolet-killed cells of species that produce the siderophore enterochelin. Bacteriostasis also was alleviated by asorption of serum with 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine, a degradation product of enterochelin, bound to the insoluble matrix AH-Sepharose 4B. Our results indicate that enterochelin-specific immunoglobulins exist in normal human serum. These immunoglobulins may act synergistically with transferrin to effect bacteriostasis of enterochelin-producing pathogens.

  16. Utilidad de un método que determina simultáneamente retinol y α-tocoferol en leche materna por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Martínez-Rojano

    2016-10-01

    Conclusión: El método fue selectivo, lineal, preciso, sensible y exacto, características que junto con su sencillez hacen de él un método conveniente para la determinación de retinol y α-tocoferol simultáneamente en leche materna.

  17. Effect of low energy diet for eight weeks to adults with overweight or obesity on folate, retinol, vitamin B12, D and e status and the degree of inflammation: a post hoc analysis of a randomized intervention trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Veller, Mette; Kjoelbaek, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with vitamin insufficiency and low grade inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss on folate, retinol, vitamin B12, D and E status and the degree of inflammation. Methods: Out of 110, 85 individuals (75% women) aged 39...

  18. Association of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass with serum concentrations of adipokines in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Tomoyuki; Murata, Miho; Otani, Taeko; Tamemoto, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Masanobu; Ishikawa, San-e

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the association of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass with serum concentrations of adipokines in 130 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The levels of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, interleukin-18, and retinol-binding protein 4 were measured. Percentage body fat was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and subcutaneous and visceral fat areas were measured by abdominal CT. HS-CRP had significant positive correlations with percentage body fat and subcutaneous fat area, and a particularly significant positive correlation with visceral fat area. Serum adiponectin had a negative correlation with the subcutaneous and visceral fat areas, with the strongest correlation with the visceral fat area. Similar results were obtained for HMW adiponectin. Serum adiponectin had a negative correlation with visceral fat area in subjects with a visceral fat area 2 , but not in those with a visceral fat area ≥100 cm 2 . In contrast, serum HS-CRP showed a positive correlation with visceral fat area in subjects with visceral fat area ≥100 cm 2 , but not in those with a visceral fat area 2 . These findings indicate that an increased visceral fat area is associated with inflammatory changes, and that inflammatory reactions may alter the functional properties of visceral fat in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (author)

  19. Effect of retinol and cigarette-smoke and condensate on dye-coupled intercellular communication between hamster tracheal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.; Jongen, W.M.F.; Haan, L.H.J.de; Hendriksen, E.G.J.; Koeman, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The dye-coupled intercellular communication across gap junctions in primary hamster tracheal epithelial cells has been studied in serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium. In the absence of vitamin A, non-cytotoxic concentrations of cigarette-smoke condensate (CSC) inhibited intercellular

  20. A Simple Plasma Retinol Isotope Ratio Method for Estimating β-Carotene Relative Bioefficacy in Humans: Validation with the Use of Model-Based Compartmental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jennifer Lynn; Green, Joanne Balmer; Lietz, Georg; Oxley, Anthony; Green, Michael H

    2017-09-01

    Background: Provitamin A carotenoids are an important source of dietary vitamin A for many populations. Thus, accurate and simple methods for estimating carotenoid bioefficacy are needed to evaluate the vitamin A value of test solutions and plant sources. β-Carotene bioefficacy is often estimated from the ratio of the areas under plasma isotope response curves after subjects ingest labeled β-carotene and a labeled retinyl acetate reference dose [isotope reference method (IRM)], but to our knowledge, the method has not yet been evaluated for accuracy. Objectives: Our objectives were to develop and test a physiologically based compartmental model that includes both absorptive and postabsorptive β-carotene bioconversion and to use the model to evaluate the accuracy of the IRM and a simple plasma retinol isotope ratio [(RIR), labeled β-carotene-derived retinol/labeled reference-dose-derived retinol in one plasma sample] for estimating relative bioefficacy. Methods: We used model-based compartmental analysis (Simulation, Analysis and Modeling software) to develop and apply a model that provided known values for β-carotene bioefficacy. Theoretical data for 10 subjects were generated by the model and used to determine bioefficacy by RIR and IRM; predictions were compared with known values. We also applied RIR and IRM to previously published data. Results: Plasma RIR accurately predicted β-carotene relative bioefficacy at 14 d or later. IRM also accurately predicted bioefficacy by 14 d, except that, when there was substantial postabsorptive bioconversion, IRM underestimated bioefficacy. Based on our model, 1-d predictions of relative bioefficacy include absorptive plus a portion of early postabsorptive conversion. Conclusion: The plasma RIR is a simple tracer method that accurately predicts β-carotene relative bioefficacy based on analysis of one blood sample obtained at ≥14 d after co-ingestion of labeled β-carotene and retinyl acetate. The method also provides

  1. Interaction between estrogen receptor and retinol-binding protein-4 polymorphisms as a tool for the selection of prolific pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Denise Vasconcellos Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of the estrogen receptor (ER-PvuII and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4-MspI gene polymorphisms and their interactions with prolificacy in a commercial synthetic pig line reared in Brazil. A total of 10,374 piglet records from 218 sows and 817 litters were used for litter size analysis. Only females with three or four farrowings were included in the analysis. The mean litter size ranged from 5.0 to 19.5 piglets. DNA was extracted from leukocytes by a standard method, and ER-PvuII and RBP4-MspI polymorphisms were characterized by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technique. The association between alleles or genotypes and reproductive performance was analyzed using a general linear model including the interaction between the ER-PvuII and RBP4-MspI genotypes. For the ER-PvuII gene, the allele frequencies of allele A and allele B were 0.56 and 0.44, respectively. For the RBP4-MspI gene, the frequencies of alleles A1 and A2 were 0.29 and 0.71, respectively. The total number of piglets born (TNB, born alive (NBA, or number of mummies and stillborn piglets (NMUM and NSB per litter did not differ between the various ER-PvuII and RBP4-MspI genotypes. However, when the ER-PvuII and RBP4-MspI genotypes were considered together in each sow, TNB and NBA were 1.4 (p = 0.0026 and 0.9 (p = 0.019 higher in AA/A1 and AB/A1 animals, respectively, than in AA/A2 and BB/A1 animals. Likewise, TNB and NBA were 0.9 (p = 0.0258 and 0.8 (p = 0.0168 higher in BB/A2 and AB/A2 sows, respectively, than in AA/A2 and BB/A1 animals, but no difference was observed compared to AA/A1 and AB/A1 animals. The results showed larger litter sizes (TNB and NBA for sows carrying the ER-PvuII allele A and the RBP4-MspI genotype A1, and for animals carrying the ER-PvuII allele B and the RBP4-MspI genotype A2. In conclusion, the interaction between genotypes ER-PvuII and RBP4-MspI is

  2. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  3. An Open Label Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerance of a Retinol and Vitamin C Facial Regimen in Women With Mild-to-Moderate Hyperpigmentation and Photodamaged Facial Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, James H; Jiang, Lily I; Kononov, Tatiana; Fox, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    A 12-week open-label, single-center clinical usage trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a dual product regimen consisting of a 0.5% retinol treatment and an anti-aging moisturizer with 30% vitamin C in women with mild to moderate hyperpigmented and photodamaged facial skin. Clinical grading of several efficacy parameters, tolerability evaluations, subject self-assessment questionnaires, and digital photography were completed at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. A total of 44 women completed the study. Effective ingredients incorporated into the 0.5% retinol treatment included encapsulated retinol for a retinol concentration of 0.5%, bakuchiol, and Ophiopogon japonicus root extract. The anti-aging moisturizer with 30% vitamin C contained 30% vitamin C in the form of tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate (THD ascorbate), alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E) and ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10). The facial regimen produced a statistically significant decrease (improvement) in clinical grading scores for all parameters assessed at weeks 8 and 12 when compared with baseline scores. In addition, the majority of these parameters were improved at week 4. The test regimen was well-perceived by the subjects for various inquiries regarding facial skin condition, product efficacy, and product attributes. Several tolerability parameters were assessed with no statistically significant increase except for dryness. A statistically significant increase in clinical grading scores for dryness on the face occurred at weeks 4 and 8 when compared to baseline scores. The increase in dryness is expected when introducing a retinol product to a facial regimen and the dryness did not persist to the week 12 time point.

  4. Teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol em leites bovinos comercializados na cidade de São Paulo Amounts of retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in cow milk comercialized in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute BIANCHINI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Os teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em leites em pó, pasteurizados e esterilizados, comercializados na Cidade de São Paulo. Após a saponificação e extração, os compostos foram determinados simultaneamente utilizando-se coluna de sílica, fase móvel constituída por hexano:isopropanol (99:1 e fluxo de 2,0mL/min. O retinol e o beta-caroteno foram determinados no detector UV/visível e o alfa-tocoferol no detector de fluorescência, ligado em série com o anterior. Os valores de vitamina A dos leites foram calculados com e sem a consideração do beta-caroteno. A maior contribuição deste nutriente no valor de vitamina A esteve entre os leites em pó, cerca de 17% em uma das marcas. Os altos teores das vitamina A e E encontrados em alguns leites, indicam que os mesmos provavelmente receberam adição destas vitaminas, não trazendo, entretanto, tal informação no rótulo. A análise de vitaminas nestes produtos indica a necessidade de maior controle de qualidade dos mesmos.The amount of retinol, beta-carotene, alpha -tocopherol in powder, pasteurized and sterilized milk, comercialized in the city of São Paulo, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. After saponification and extraction, compounds were determined simultaneously through a normal-phase column, mobile phase composed by hexan:2-propanol (99:1 and 2 mL/min flow. The retinol and beta-carotene were analysed by a UV/visible detector and the alpha-tocopherol by a fluorescence detector, both linked in series. The milk vitamin A values were calculated with and without beta-carotene. The major contribution of beta-carotene in the vitamin A value was in powder milks, around 17% in one of the brands. The high amounts of vitamin A and E found in some milks indicate that they probably were enriched with these vitamins but nothing is mentioned about this in their labels. The analysis of

  5. [The National Serum Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magos-López, C; Sánchez-Villarreal, F; Gutiérrez, G; Tapia-Conyer, R

    1992-01-01

    A National Serum Bank was established to store sera obtained during the National Seroepidemiological Survey performed in Mexico in 1987. More than 70,000 serum samples were obtained from subjects of either sex 1-99 years of age in each of the 32 states of the country. The current collection of sera includes 28,704 male samples and 40,629 female samples. This paper describes the procedures for handling serum samples, including reception registry, storage and distribution to several laboratories for detection of measles, rubella, poliomyelitis, AIDS, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, brucella, salmonella, amoeba, toxoplasma, American trypanosomiasis and cysticercus. Determinations of total cholesterol were also made in order to describe its distribution and to identify the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia.

  6. Concentração sérica de progesterona em bezerras da raça nelore e mestiças tratadas com progesterona em veículo de liberação lenta Serum progesterone concentration in Nelore and crossbreed heifers treated with long-acting progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P.C. Lima

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a eliminação da progesterona em veículo de liberação lenta (P4LA em animais zebus e mestiços e sua potencial aplicabilidade em programas de sincronização de estro, utilizando-se 60 bezerras, 30 da raça Nelore e 30 mestiças (Gir x Holandês, entre 120 e 150 dias de idade e peso médio de 150kg. Em cada grupo experimental as bezerras foram divididas em três subgrupos (G de 10 animais, sendo GI = controle (tratado com 5ml de solução fisiológica por via intramuscular; GII = tratado com 450mg P4LA (3ml IM; e GIII = tratado com 750mg P4LA (5ml IM. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas no dia zero, 7 e 13 (D0, D7 e D13 e procedeu-se à análise hormonal por radioimunoensaio de fase sólida. A progesterona de ação prolongada (P4LA, administrada por via intramuscular, manteve-se por 13 dias na corrente sangüínea em concentrações superiores a 1ng/ml. As doses de 450mg e 750mg de P4LA não ocasionaram efeitos adversos sistêmicos clinicamente perceptíveis, e o metabolismo da P4LA foi mais lento nas bezerras Nelore, cuja concentração de progesterona foi maior na corrente sangüínea do que nas bezerras mestiças.The clearance of long-acting progesterone in microspheres (P4LA in zebu animals and its potential for use in estrus synchronization were evaluated using 30 Nelore and 30 crossbreed (Holstein x zebu heifers, with aging between 120 to 150-day-old and weighting 150kg in average. For each breed the animals were divided into three groups of ten animals each, GI= control group treated with saline; GII= treated with 450mg of P4LA; and GIII= treated with 750mg of long-acting progesterone (P4LA. Blood samples were colleted on days 0, 7 and 13 and analysed for progesterone using radioimmunoassay in solid phase. The serum concentration of progesterone was different on days 0, 7 and 13 in relation to the dose of P4LA given. All treated animals presented basal values for progesterone on day 0, increased on day 7 and decreased on

  7. In vitro maintenance of spermatogenesis in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risley, M.S.; Miller, A.; Bumcrot, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Spermatogenesis has been maintained for extended periods in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media supplemented with bovine serum albumin, insulin, transferrin, follicle-stimulating hormone, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, retinol, ascorbate, and tocopherol. The organization of the testis fragments was maintained for 28 days, and all stages of development were present throughout the culture period. 3 H-Thymidine-labeled secondary (Type B) spermatogonia developed in 28 days into spermatids at the acrosomal vesicle stage whereas labeled zygotene spermatocytes became mature spermatids in 28 days. Spermatogonial proliferation also continued in vitro for 28 days. Germ cell differentiation was not dependent upon exogenous testosterone, ascorbate, or tocopherol since 3 H-labeled spermatogonia became mature spermatids in testes cultured 35 days in media lacking these supplements. Autoradiography demonstrated that 55% of the luminal sperm present in explants cultured 10 days had differentiated in vitro. Sperm from testes cultured 10-35 days were similar to sperm from freshly dissected testes with regard to motility and fecundity, and eggs fertilized with sperm from explant cultures developed normally into swimming tadpoles. The results demonstrate the feasibility of maintaining vertebrate spermatogenesis in culture and suggest that in vitro analysis of Xenopus spermatogenesis using defined media may provide important insights into the evolution of regulatory mechanisms in spermatogenesis

  8. Identification of candidate diagnostic serum biomarkers for Kawasaki disease using proteomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yayoi; Yanagimachi, Masakatsu; Ino, Yoko; Aketagawa, Mao; Matsuo, Michie; Okayama, Akiko; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Oba, Kunihiro; Morioka, Ichiro; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Kaneko, Tetsuji; Yokota, Shumpei; Hirano, Hisashi; Mori, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis and childhood febrile disease that can lead to cardiovascular complications. The diagnosis of KD depends on its clinical features, and thus it is sometimes difficult to make a definitive diagnosis. In order to identify diagnostic serum biomarkers for KD, we explored serum KD-related proteins, which differentially expressed during the acute and recovery phases of two patients by mass spectrometry (MS). We identified a total of 1,879 proteins by MS-based proteomic analysis. The levels of three of these proteins, namely lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG1), and angiotensinogen (AGT), were higher in acute phase patients. In contrast, the level of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) was decreased. To confirm the usefulness of these proteins as biomarkers, we analyzed a total of 270 samples, including those collected from 55 patients with acute phase KD, by using western blot analysis and microarray enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Over the course of this experiment, we determined that the expression level of these proteins changes specifically in the acute phase of KD, rather than the recovery phase of KD or other febrile illness. Thus, LRG1 could be used as biomarkers to facilitate KD diagnosis based on clinical features. PMID:28262744

  9. Radioimmunoassay of haloperidol in human serum: correlation of serum haloperidol with serum prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poland, R.E.; Rubin, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of serum haloperidol is described. Compared to gaschromatography (GC), RIA vaues average 40% higher. However, a simple organic extraction of serum yields statistically equivalent RIA and GC haloperidol determinations. For both men and women combined, there was a positive correlation between dose (mg/kg/day) and steady-state serum haloperidol level (r = +0.86) and between steady-state serum haloperidol and serum prolactin (PRL) concentration

  10. Serum YKL-40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylin, Anne K; Abildgaard, Niels; Johansen, Julia S

    2015-01-01

    to clinical progression, i.e. skeletal-related events (SREs), in 230 newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma receiving intravenous bisphosphonates. Serum concentrations of YKL-40 and biochemical bone markers (CTX-MMP, CTX-I, PINP) were measured at diagnosis. Patients were evaluated every third month...

  11. 79 - 81_Wali - Serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... SERUM ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE. CELL ANAEMIA IN ... play a role in the development of sickle cell anaemic complications. In the current study, ... vaso-occlusive episodes, acute chest syndrome and impaired ... frequency of sickling crises accompanied by tissue or.

  12. Biodegradable nanoporous nanoparticles for human serum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujia, A.; De Angelis, F.; Scumaci, D.; Gaspari, M.; Liberale, C.; Candeloro, P.; Cuda, G.; Di Fabrizio, E.

    2010-01-01

    Modern medicine and biology search for new powerful tool for biomarkers discovery, appears one of the most promising approaches for early cancer diagnosis. Nowadays, the low molecular weight fraction of human serum is the most informative source of biomarkers, but their study and identification are very difficult due to the incredible complexity of the raw human serum. In this work we describe a novel tool for the filtration of crude human serum or other bio-fluid based on water soluble nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with a pore size of about 2-3 nm, and diameters of 200 nm were obtained by ultrasonication of nanoporous silicon. The porous nanoparticles act as a nanosieve able to exclusively harvest the low molecular weight fraction of the fluid thanks to a controllable pore size. After a short incubation, the infiltrated nanosieves can be extracted from the starting fluid by means of centrifugation, and dissolved in water in a few minutes to give the captured molecules back in their native state, without degradation and contamination. The raw fluid is so split in two components of high and low molecular weight, that are both available for further analyses with any other investigation technique. Here, fluorescence spectroscopy, 2D-gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry are exploited to show the split of different bio-fluids under physiological condition. A cut-off (or split level) of 13 kDa is demonstrated also for human serum.

  13. The association between serum vitamin D levels and renal tubular dysfunction in a general population exposed to cadmium in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Dai, Yan; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhu, Guoying; Ding, Xiaoqiang; Jin, Taiyi

    2018-01-01

    Cadmium exposure can cause renal tubular dysfunction. Recent studies show that vitamin D can play multiple roles in the body. However, the association between serum vitamin D levels and renal tubular dysfunction in a general population exposed to cadmium has not been clarified. We performed study to assess the effects of cadmium on serum 25(OH) D levels and the association between serum 25(OH) D levels and renal tubular dysfunction in a population environmentally exposed to cadmium. A total of 133 subjects living in control area and two cadmium polluted areas were included in the present study. Cadmium in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd), urinary β2Microglobulin (UBMG), urinary retinol binding protein (URBP) and serum 25 (OH) D were determined. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between 25 (OH) D and prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction. No significant differences were observed in serum 25(OH) D levels among the four quartile of UCd and BCd after adjusting with cofounders. After adjusted with the confounders, the odds ratio (OR) of subjects with 25(OH) D ≥ 40 ng/ml were 0.20 (95%CI: 0.1-0.8) if UBMG was chosen as indicators of renal dysfunction and 0.28 (95%CI: 0.1-1.1) if URBP was chosen as indicators of renal dysfunction, compared with those with 25(OH) D < 30 ng/ml, respectively. Similar results were observed in those subjects living in cadmium polluted areas or with high level of UCd or BCd. Our data indicated that cadmium exposure did not affect serum 25(OH) D level and high 25 (OH) D levels were associated with a decreased risk of renal tubular dysfunction induced by cadmium.

  14. Meloidogyne incognita Fatty Acid- and Retinol- Binding Protein (Mi-FAR-1) Affects Nematode Infection of Plant Roots and the Attachment of Pasteuria penetrans Endospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phani, Victor; Shivakumara, Tagginahalli N; Davies, Keith G; Rao, Uma

    2017-01-01

    Root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is an economically important pest of crops. Pasteuria penetrans , is a nematode hyperparasitic bacterium capable of suppressing the reproduction of RKN and thereby useful for its management. Secreted fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins are unique in nematodes and are engaged in nutrient acquisition, development and reproduction; they are also a component of the nematode cuticle and thought to be involved in the interface between hosts and parasites. Attachment of endospores to the cuticle of second stage juveniles of RKN is the primary step of infection and several factors have been identified to facilitate attachment. In this study, the full length of Mi-far-1 (573 bp) was cloned from M. incognita and characterized. Analysis revealed that the Mi-far-1 was rich in α-helix structure, contained a predicted consensus casein kinase II phosphorylation site and a glycosylation site. Quantitative PCR showed the highest expression in the fourth stage juveniles and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Mi-far-1 mRNA in the hypodermis below the cuticle. Single copy insertion pattern of Mi-far-1 in M. incognita genome was detected by Southern blotting. Knockdown of Mi-far-1 showed significantly increased attachment of P. penetrans' endospores on juvenile cuticle surface and also affected host finding, root infection and nematode fecundity.

  15. Combined effects of retinol, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol on diurnal variations in rectal temperature of Black Harco pullets subjected to heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkalu, Victor Olusegun; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun

    2018-01-01

    The experiment was performed with the aim of determining the effect of co-administration of antioxidant vitamins, retinol, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol on rectal temperature (RT) fluctuations in pullets during the hot-dry season in Nigeria. Forty-eight Black Harco pullets, aged 16 weeks and weighing 1.5 ± 0.03 kg were divided by simple random sampling into two groups, consisting of 28 treated and 20 control Black Harco pullets. The RTs of 28 treated and 20 control Black Harco pullets were measured hourly for 3 days, 3 days apart, from 06:00 to 19:00 h (GMT + 1) with a standard clinical thermometer. The treated pullets were administered individually with the vitamins orally in water, while the control pullets were given only water. The lowest hourly RT of 40.9 ± 0.04 °C was obtained in treated pullets at 06:00 h, while the highest value of 41.1 ± 0.01 °C was recorded from 17:00 to 19:00 h ( P stress, and may enhance productivity of pullets reared under unfavourable, thermal environment conditions.

  16. Meloidogyne incognita Fatty Acid- and Retinol- Binding Protein (Mi-FAR-1 Affects Nematode Infection of Plant Roots and the Attachment of Pasteuria penetrans Endospores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Phani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne incognita is an economically important pest of crops. Pasteuria penetrans, is a nematode hyperparasitic bacterium capable of suppressing the reproduction of RKN and thereby useful for its management. Secreted fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins are unique in nematodes and are engaged in nutrient acquisition, development and reproduction; they are also a component of the nematode cuticle and thought to be involved in the interface between hosts and parasites. Attachment of endospores to the cuticle of second stage juveniles of RKN is the primary step of infection and several factors have been identified to facilitate attachment. In this study, the full length of Mi-far-1 (573 bp was cloned from M. incognita and characterized. Analysis revealed that the Mi-far-1 was rich in α-helix structure, contained a predicted consensus casein kinase II phosphorylation site and a glycosylation site. Quantitative PCR showed the highest expression in the fourth stage juveniles and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Mi-far-1 mRNA in the hypodermis below the cuticle. Single copy insertion pattern of Mi-far-1 in M. incognita genome was detected by Southern blotting. Knockdown of Mi-far-1 showed significantly increased attachment of P. penetrans’ endospores on juvenile cuticle surface and also affected host finding, root infection and nematode fecundity.

  17. Deletion of the Androgen Receptor in Adipose Tissue in Male Mice Elevates Retinol Binding Protein 4 and Reveals Independent Effects on Visceral Fat Mass and on Glucose Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Kerry J.; Smith, Lee B.; Hunger, Nicole I.; Saunders, Philippa T.K.; Andrew, Ruth; Walker, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency is epidemic in obese ageing males with type 2 diabetes, but the direction of causality remains unclear. Testosterone-deficient males and global androgen receptor (AR) knockout mice are insulin resistant with increased fat, but it is unclear whether AR signaling in adipose tissue mediates body fat redistribution and alters glucose homoeostasis. To investigate this, mice with selective knockdown of AR in adipocytes (fARKO) were generated. Male fARKO mice on normal diet had reduced perigonadal fat but were hyperinsulinemic and by age 12 months, were insulin deficient in the absence of obesity. On high-fat diet, fARKO mice had impaired compensatory insulin secretion and hyperglycemia, with increased susceptibility to visceral obesity. Adipokine screening in fARKO mice revealed a selective increase in plasma and intra-adipose retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) that preceded obesity. AR activation in murine 3T3 adipocytes downregulated RBP4 mRNA. We conclude that AR signaling in adipocytes not only protects against high-fat diet–induced visceral obesity but also regulates insulin action and glucose homeostasis, independently of adiposity. Androgen deficiency in adipocytes in mice resembles human type 2 diabetes, with early insulin resistance and evolving insulin deficiency. PMID:22415878

  18. Topical stabilized retinol treatment induces the expression of HAS genes and HA production in human skin in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Hwa; Wong, Heng-Kuan; Serrano, José; Randhawa, Manpreet; Kaur, Simarna; Southall, Michael D; Parsa, Ramine

    2017-05-01

    Skin Aging manifests primarily with wrinkles, dyspigmentations, texture changes, and loss of elasticity. During the skin aging process, there is a loss of moisture and elasticity in skin resulting in loss of firmness finally leading to skin sagging. The key molecule involved in skin moisture is hyaluronic acid (HA), which has a significant water-binding capacity. HA levels in skin decline with age resulting in decrease in skin moisture, which may contribute to loss of firmness. Clinical trials have shown that topically applied ROL effectively reduces wrinkles and helps retain youthful appearance. In the current study, ROL was shown to induce HA production and stimulates the gene expression of all three forms of hyaluronic acid synthases (HAS) in normal human epidermal keratinocytes monolayer cultures. Moreover, in human skin equivalent tissues and in human skin explants, topical treatment of tissues with a stabilized-ROL formulation significantly induced the gene expression of HAS mRNA concomitant with an increased HA production. Finally, in a vehicle-controlled human clinical study, histochemical analysis confirmed increased HA accumulation in the epidermis in ROL-treated human skin as compared to vehicle. These results show that ROL increases skin expression of HA, a significant contributing factor responsible for wrinkle formation and skin moisture, which decrease during aging. Taken together with the activity to increase collagen, elastin, and cell proliferation, these studies establish that retinol provides multi-functional activity for photodamaged skin.

  19. A Comparison of the Effects of Aerobic and Intense Exercise on the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Marker Adipokines, Adiponectin and Retinol Binding Protein-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With a more sedentary population comes growing rates of obesity and increased type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM risk. Exercise generally induces positive changes in traditional T2DM risk markers such as lipids, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity; however alterations in concentrations of many circulating cytokines and their respective receptors are also becoming apparent. These cytokines may be early-response health risk factors otherwise overlooked in traditional T2DM risk marker analysis. Plasma levels of two adipocyte-originating cytokines, adiponectin and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4, alter following exercise. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-insulin resistance roles and its secretion increases with physical activity, whilst elevated RBP-4 leads to increased insulin resistance, and secretion decreases with increasing physical activity; thus these plasma adipokine levels alter favourably following exercise. Although current data are limited, they do suggest that the more intense the exercise, the greater the positive effect on plasma RBP-4 levels, whilst lower intensity aerobic exercise may positively improve adiponectin concentrations. Therefore short-duration, high intensity training may provide a time-efficient alternative to the recommended 150 min moderate aerobic exercise per week in providing positive changes in RBP-4 and other traditional T2DM risk markers and due to increased compliance give greater health benefits over the longer term.

  20. Serum Creatinine: Not So Simple!

    OpenAIRE

    DELANAYE, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Pottel, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Measuring serum creatinine is cheap and commonly done in daily practice. However, interpretation of serum creatinine results is not always easy. In this review, we will briefly remind the physiological limitations of serum creatinine due notably to its tubular secretion and the influence of muscular mass or protein intake on its concentration. We mainly focus on the analytical limitations of serum creatinine, insisting on important concept such as reference intervals, standardization (and IDM...

  1. The Human Serum Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychogios, Nikolaos; Hau, David D.; Peng, Jun; Guo, An Chi; Mandal, Rupasri; Bouatra, Souhaila; Sinelnikov, Igor; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Eisner, Roman; Gautam, Bijaya; Young, Nelson; Xia, Jianguo; Knox, Craig; Dong, Edison; Huang, Paul; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Smith, Steven R.; Bamforth, Fiona; Greiner, Russ; McManus, Bruce; Newman, John W.; Goodfriend, Theodore; Wishart, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology) in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca. PMID:21359215

  2. Serum Interleukin-6 in Patients with Burning Mouth Syndrome and Relationship with Depression and Perceived Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianming Chen

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions. Serum interleukin-6 in patients with burning mouth syndrome is decreased and negatively correlated to chronic pain. Both psychological and neuropathic disorders might act as precipitating factors in BMS etiopathogenesis.

  3. 75 FR 40719 - Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and Analogous Products and Patent Term Restoration; Nonsubstantive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... final rule notified the public of our intention to amend the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act regulations...

  4. Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000 (Act 588)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Act 588 of the Republic of Ghana entitled, Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000, amends and consolidates the Atomic Energy Commission Act, 204 of 1963 relating to the establishment of the Atomic Energy Commission. Act 588 makes provision for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission to establish more institutes for the purpose of research in furtherance of its functions and also promote the commercialization of its research and development results. (E.A.A.)

  5. Free serum thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrossi, O.J.; Altschuler, Noe; Cabrejas, M.L. de; Pinkas, Mirta; Garcia del Rio, Hernan

    1982-01-01

    The use of radiommunoassay (RIA) tehcniques has increased the diagnosis of thyroid functional alterations. A solid phase RIA method for free thyroxine (FT4) measurement was tested. Serum FT4, Total T4, T3 and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay in 179 subjects. One hundred twenty two patients were normal (8 to 75 years old); FT4 was 1.42 +- 0.03 ng/100 ml (avg. value and std. error). In 27 cases of thyrotoxicosis the values were 4.66 +- 0.48 ng/100 ml and in 15 cases of hypothyroidism 0.50 +- 0.06 ng/100 ml (statistics probability [es

  6. Isolation of human anti-serum albumin Fab antibodies with an extended serum-half life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cha, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The serum albumin (SA) has been exploited to generate long-acting biotherapeutics by taking advantage of the FcRn-mediated recycling mechanism in a direct or an indirect way. Since Fab fragments have been proven to be clinically safe for human usage, we assumed that human anti-SA Fab antibodies could have a great potential as a carrier molecule to extend the serum half-life of therapeutic proteins. We, herein, had attempted to isolate anti-SA Fab antibodies from HuDVFab-8L antibody library via a phage display technology, and identified eight discrete human Fab antibodies. One of the Fab antibodies, SL335, showed the strongest binding reactivity to human SA with nM range of affinity at both pH 6 and pH 7.4, and cross-reacted to SAs from various species including rat, mouse, canine and monkey. The in vivo pharmacokinetic assay using a rat model indicated that SL335 has approximately 10 fold longer serum half-life and 26 to 44-fold increase in AUC0 → ∞ compared to the negative control Fab molecule in both intravenous and subcutaneous administrations. Knowing that Fabs have proven to be safe in clinics for a long time, SL335 seems to have a great potential in generating long-acting protein drugs by tagging effector molecules with either chemical conjugation or genetic fusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Alterations of retinol-binding protein 4 species in patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease and their relation to lipid parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Andrea; Frey, Simone K; Raila, Jens

    2010-01-01

    ) was assessed in serum of 45 healthy controls and 52 patients with stage 2-5 of CKD using ELISA and RBP4 immunoprecipitation with subsequent MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. A reduction of glomerular filtration rate was accompanied by a gradual elevation of RBP4 serum levels and relative amounts of RBP4-LL. Correlation...... analysis revealed a strong association of the RBP4-TTR ratio with parameters of lipid metabolism and with diabetes-related factors. In conclusion, RBP4 serum concentration and the appearance of RBP4-LL seem to be influenced by kidney function. Furthermore, the RBP4-TTR ratio may provide diagnostic...

  8. Acute radiation effects on saliva composition in rats with different vitamin a levels in serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funegard, U; Johansson, I; Franzen, L; Ericson, T [Dept. of Cardiology, Univ. Umeaa (Sweden) Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Umeaa (Sweden)

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation of the head and neck often causes loss of salivary gland function which may lead to severe oral discomfort. The effects of a single dose of 25 Gy given to rats with different serum levels of vitamin A were studied. The salivary secretion rate as well as concentrations of protein, hexosamine, amylase and electrolytes, and the activities of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequates of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequate level of vitamin A in the diet, irradiation significantly reduced whole saliva secretion rate, and decreased the concentration of salivary sodium, calcium and hexosamine as well as the activity of a glycoprotein agglutinating a serotype c strain of S. mutans. Peroxidase, amylase and potassium were not significantly affected. The reductions seen at an adequate level of vitamin A were not reduced by supplementation of excess dietary retinol. The damage caused by irradiation was enhanced by vitamin A deficiency as seen in the reduced protein and hexosamine concentrations. (orig.).

  9. Acute radiation effects on saliva composition in rats with different vitamin a levels in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funegard, U.; Johansson, I.; Franzen, L.; Ericson, T.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation of the head and neck often causes loss of salivary gland function which may lead to severe oral discomfort. The effects of a single dose of 25 Gy given to rats with different serum levels of vitamin A were studied. The salivary secretion rate as well as concentrations of protein, hexosamine, amylase and electrolytes, and the activities of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequates of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequate level of vitamin A in the diet, irradiation significantly reduced whole saliva secretion rate, and decreased the concentration of salivary sodium, calcium and hexosamine as well as the activity of a glycoprotein agglutinating a serotype c strain of S. mutans. Peroxidase, amylase and potassium were not significantly affected. The reductions seen at an adequate level of vitamin A were not reduced by supplementation of excess dietary retinol. The damage caused by irradiation was enhanced by vitamin A deficiency as seen in the reduced protein and hexosamine concentrations. (orig.)

  10. Serum Creatinine: Not So Simple!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaye, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Pottel, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Measuring serum creatinine is cheap and commonly done in daily practice. However, interpretation of serum creatinine results is not always easy. In this review, we will briefly remind the physiological limitations of serum creatinine due notably to its tubular secretion and the influence of muscular mass or protein intake on its concentration. We mainly focus on the analytical limitations of serum creatinine, insisting on important concept such as reference intervals, standardization (and IDMS traceability), analytical interferences, analytical coefficient of variation (CV), biological CV and critical difference. Because the relationship between serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate is hyperbolic, all these CVs will impact not only the precision of serum creatinine but still more the precision of different creatinine-based equations, especially in low or normal-low creatinine levels (or high or normal-high glomerular filtration rate range). © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Radioimmunoassay of cholylglycine in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakushima, Tadashi; Yamanishi, Yasuhito; Hirayama, Chisato

    1979-01-01

    Serum levels of cholylglycines (CG) were determined by radioimmunoassay and that of total bile acids (TBA) by enzymatic method. In normal subjects, serum levels of CG, TBA and CG/TBA ratio were 0.6 +- 0.4 μM, 7 +- 2 μM, and 0.08 +- 0.06, respectively. They were increased markedly in acute hepatitis and moderately in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Thus, measurement of serum CG as compared with serum TBA appears to be a sensitive liver test. (author)

  12. Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium in emergency surgical patients in a tertiary hospital in Ghana. Robert Djagbletey, Brenda Phillips, Frank Boni, Christian Owoo, Ebenezer Owusu-Darkwa, Papa Kobina Gyakye deGraft-Johnson, Alfred E. Yawson ...

  13. Nuclear Regulatory Authority Act, 2015 (Act 895)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    An Act to establish a Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Ghana. This Act provides for the regulation and management of activities and practices for the peaceful use of nuclear material or energy, and to provide for the protection of persons and the environment against the harmful effects of radiation; and to ensure the effective implementation of the country’s international obligations and for related matters. This Act replaced the Radiation Protection Instrument, of 1993 (LI 1559).

  14. Sobrevida e processos infecciosos em pacientes com AIDS: análise de acordo com os níveis séricos iniciais de vitamina A Survival and infectious processes in pacients with AIDS: analysis according to inicial serum vitamin A levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando de Castro Figueiredo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes com Aids (n=39 foram acompanhados por um período máximo de 36 meses, após os quais se analisou os tipos e topografias das complicações infecciosas apresentadas e a sobrevida dos mesmos, correlacionado-se esses parâmetros com os níveis de vitamina A que apresentavam no início do seguimento clínico. Vinte e um (53,8%pacientes tinham níveis de retinol no soro abaixo de 1,6mimol/L, dos quais 12 (57% abaixo de 1,05mimol/L. Não houve associação de carência de vitamina A com os tipos ou topografias das complicações infecciosas que ocorreram durante o período de seguimento. Muito embora a sobrevida média no final dos 36 meses tenha sido semelhante nos dois grupos, os pacientes com carência de retinol apresentaram menor probabilidade de sobrevida nos primeiros 24 meses de acompanhamento (8,44 meses x 16,42 meses; p= 0,003.Patients with Aids (n = 39 were followed up for a maximum period of 36 weeks, after which the types and topographies of infectious complications presented and patient survival were analyzed and correlated with the vitamin A levels presented by the patients at the beginning of clinical follow-up. Twenty-one (53,8% patients presented serum retinol levels below 1.6mumol/L, 12 (57% of whom had values lower than 1.05mumol/L. There was no correlation between low serum vitamin A levels and the types or topographies of the infectious complications that occurred during the follow-up period. Although mean survival at the end of the 36 months follow-up period was similar for the two groups, patients with retinol deficiency presented a lower probability of survival during the first 24 months of follow-up compared to patients without hypovitaminosis A (8.44 x 1.42 months; p = 0.003.

  15. Microheterogeneity of transthyretin in serum and ascitic fluid of ovarian cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gericke, Beate; Raila, Jens; Sehouli, Jalid; Haebel, Sophie; Könsgen, Dominique; Mustea, Alexander; Schweigert, Florian J

    2005-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR), a traditional biomarker for nutritional and inflammatory status exists in different molecular variants of yet unknown importance. A truncated form of TTR has recently been described to be part of a set of biomarkers for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. The main aim of the study was therefore to characterize differences in microheterogeneity between ascitic fluid and plasma of women affected with ovarian cancer and to evaluate the tumor site as the possible source of TTR. Subjects were 48 women with primary invasive epithelial ovarian cancer or recurrent ovarian carcinoma. The control group consisted of 20 postmenopausal women. TTR and retinol-binding protein (RBP) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels by a high-sensitivity latex particle turbidimetric assay. The molecular heterogeneity of TTR was analysed using immunoprecipitation and matrix-associated laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Presence of TTR in tumor tissue was determined with indirect peroxidase immunostaining. TTR and RBP (μg/ml) levels in serum were 148.5 ± 96.7 and 22.5 ± 14.8 in affected women compared to 363.3 ± 105.5 and 55.8 ± 9.3 in healthy postmenopausal women (p < 0.01). In ascitic fluid, levels were 1.02 ± 0.24 and 4.63 ± 1.57 μg/ml, respectively. The mean levels of TTR and RBP in serum showed a tendency to decrease with the severity of the disease and were lower in affected women whose CRP levels were > 40 mg/ml (p = 0.08 for TTR; p < 0.05 for RBP). No differences in TTR microheterogeneity were observed between TTR isolated from serum of affected and healthy women or from ascitic fluid. TTR occurred rather consistently in four variants. Mass signals were at 13758 ± 7, 13876 ± 13 (greatest intensity), 13924 ± 21 and 14062 ± 24 Da, representing native, S-cysteinylated, S-cysteinglycinylated and glutathionylated TTR, respectively. Serum of healthy and affected women

  16. Vitamin A Intake, Serum Vitamin D and Bone Mineral Density: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Seok Joo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The association of high vitamin A intake and low bone mineral density (BMD is still controversial. To determine the association of dietary vitamin A intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentration with BMD, a total of 6481 subjects (2907 men and 3574 women aged ≥50 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011 were divided into groups according to dietary vitamin A intake (tertiles and serum 25(OHD (<50, 50–75, >75 nmol/L, and evaluated for BMD after adjusting for relevant variables. Mean dietary vitamin A intakes were 737 and 600 μg RE (Retinol Equivalents in men and women, respectively. Total hip and femoral neck BMD in men and lumbar spine BMD in women were both positively correlated with dietary vitamin A intake in subjects with serum 25(OHD >75 nmol/L. Among men with serum 25(OHD <50 nmol/L, both the top (mean 1353 μg RE and bottom (mean 218 μg RE tertiles of dietary vitamin A intake had lower BMD than the middle group (mean 577 μg RE. In this population, BMD was the highest among men and women with serum 25(OHD = 50–75 nmol/L and that there were no differences in BMD by vitamin A intake in these vitamin D adequate groups. This cross-sectional study indicates that vitamin A intake does not affect bone mineral density as long as the serum 25(OHD concentration is maintained in the moderate level of 50–75 nmol/L.

  17. Vitamin A intake, serum vitamin D and bone mineral density: analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Yang, Sung-Won; Song, Byeng Chun; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2015-03-10

    The association of high vitamin A intake and low bone mineral density (BMD) is still controversial. To determine the association of dietary vitamin A intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration with BMD, a total of 6481 subjects (2907 men and 3574 women) aged ≥50 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011) were divided into groups according to dietary vitamin A intake (tertiles) and serum 25(OH)D (75 nmol/L), and evaluated for BMD after adjusting for relevant variables. Mean dietary vitamin A intakes were 737 and 600 μg RE (Retinol Equivalents) in men and women, respectively. Total hip and femoral neck BMD in men and lumbar spine BMD in women were both positively correlated with dietary vitamin A intake in subjects with serum 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L. Among men with serum 25(OH)D L, both the top (mean 1353 μg RE) and bottom (mean 218 μg RE) tertiles of dietary vitamin A intake had lower BMD than the middle group (mean 577 μg RE). In this population, BMD was the highest among men and women with serum 25(OH)D = 50-75 nmol/L and that there were no differences in BMD by vitamin A intake in these vitamin D adequate groups. This cross-sectional study indicates that vitamin A intake does not affect bone mineral density as long as the serum 25(OH)D concentration is maintained in the moderate level of 50-75 nmol/L.

  18. DETERMINATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reaction of tribromoarsenazo(TB-ASA) with serum albumin in the presence of emulgent OP was studied by spectrophotometry. In a Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 2.9, tribromoarsenazo and bovine serum albumin can immediately form a red compound in the presence of emulgent OP with a maximum absorption ...

  19. Chromatographic analysis of endogenous retinoids in tissues and serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, C.K.; Brouwer, A.; Nau, H.

    2003-01-01

    We present a reliable, highly sensitive, and versatile method for the simultaneous determination of endogenous polar (acidic) and apolar (retinol, retinal, and retinyl esters) retinoids in various biological matrices. Following a single liquid extraction of retinoids from tissues or plasma with

  20. Determination of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in tears and blood serum of infants and parents by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksari, Maryam; Mazzoleni, Lynn R; Ruan, Chunhai; Kennedy, Robert T; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2017-02-01

    Tears serve as a viable diagnostic fluid with advantages including less invasive sample to collect and less complex to prepare for analysis. Several water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins were detected and quantified in human tears and compared with blood serum levels. Samples from 15 family pairs, each pair consisting of a four-month-old infant and one parent were analyzed; vitamin concentrations were compared between tears and blood serum for individual subjects, between infants and parents, and against self-reported dietary intakes. Water-soluble vitamins B 1 , B 2 , B 3 (nicotinamide), B 5 , B 9 and fat-soluble vitamin E (α-tocopherol) were routinely detected in tears and blood serum while fat-soluble vitamin A (retinol) was detected only in blood serum. Water-soluble vitamin concentrations measured in tears and blood serum of single subjects were comparable, while higher concentrations were measured in infants compared to their parents. Fat-soluble vitamin E concentrations were lower in tears than blood serum with no significant difference between infants and parents. Serum vitamin A concentrations were higher in parents than infants. Population trends were compiled and quantified using a cross correlation factor. Strong positive correlations were found between tear and blood serum concentrations of vitamin E from infants and parents and vitamin B 3 concentrations from parents, while slight positive correlations were detected for infants B 3 and parents B 1 and B 2 concentrations. Correlations between infants and parents were found for the concentrations of B 1 , B 2 , B 3 , and E in tears, and the concentrations of B 2, A, and E in blood serum. Stronger vitamin concentration correlations were found between infants and parents for the breast-fed infants, while no significant difference was observed between breast-fed and bottle-fed infants. This work is the first to demonstrate simultaneous vitamin A, B, and E detection and to quantify correlations between

  1. Atomic Act amended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper by the chairwoman of the Czech nuclear regulatory authority, the history of Czech nuclear legislation is outlined, the reasons for the amendment of the Atomic Act (Act No. 18/1997) are explained, and the amendments themselves are highlighted. The Act No. 13/2002 of 18 December 2001 is reproduced from the official Collection of Acts of the Czech Republic in the facsimile form. The following acts were thereby amended: Atomic Act No. 18/1997, Metrology Act No. 505/1990, Public Health Protection Act No. 258/2000, and Act No. 2/1969 on the Establishment of Ministries and Other Governmental Agencies of the Czech Republic. (P.A.)

  2. Study of Serum Amylase and Serum Cholinesterase in Organophosphorus Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Badiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds is most commonly seen. Earlier plasma cholinesterase level was used to assess the severity of poisoning. Presently serum amylase is being recommended as a better indicator of severity. Aims and Objectives: To study plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase levels in acute organophosphorus and to correlate serum amylase levels with clinical severity and outcome. Material and Methods: A total of 80 patients in the study admitted to a tertiary care centre within 24 hours with a history of organophosphorus poisoning were included in study. Estimation of plasma cholinesterase and serum rd amylase was done at the time of admission, and on 3 th day and on 5 day. Results: Occurrence of organophosphorus poisoning was more common among age group 21-30 years and among males (57.5%. They were 25 (31.2% farmers, 23 (28.8% st u d e n ts, a n d 2 2 ( 2 7 . 5% h o u s ewi v e s. Monocrotophos (45.0% was commonly used compound. Mean value of plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase at admission are 3693 U/L, and 185.4 U/L. There was significant inhibition of plasma cholinesterase and elevation of serum amylase at th admission with return to normal values on 5 day. Conclusion: Plasma cholinesterase inhibition 200 U/L has been associated with poor prognosis and proneness to respiratory failure.

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Therapeutics Lab Developing New Treatments The CF Foundation offers a number of resources for learning about clinical ... her father: Demonstrate and discuss common ACT therapies Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life ...

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. ... or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can do on their own. Share ...

  5. Nuclear Installations Act 1965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This Act governs all activities related to nuclear installations in the United Kingdom. It provides for the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the duties of licensees, the competent authorities and carriers of nuclear material in respect of nuclear occurrences, as well as for the system of third party liability and compensation for nuclear damage. The Act repeals the Nuclear Installations (Licensing and Insurance) Act 1959 and the Nuclear Installations (Amendment Act) 1965 except for its Section 17(2). (NEA) [fr

  6. Oxygen status of cervical cancers prior and during definitive radiotherapy: possible impact of pretreatment with INF-α-2a/retinol acid on oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensgen, Gabriele; Haensgen, Klaus; Dunst, Juergen

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Modern techniques have raised the possibility to measure intratumoral pO 2 with needle electrodes. We have investigated the oxygenation status of cervical cancers in patients undergoing definitive radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: From July 1995 through February 1996, 28 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix uteri FIGO II/III underwent polarographic measurement of tumor oxygenation prior to and during definitive radiotherapy. All received combined external irradiation and HDR-brachytherapy. 14 patients were enrolled in a phase II-protocol and received additional treatment with interferon-alpha-2a (INF-α-2a, daily dose 6x10 6 IU s.c. over 12 days) and cis-retinol acid (cRA, daily dose 1 mg/kg orally) starting 12 days before radiotherapy. During radiotherapy, INF-α-2a was given three times weekly in a dosage of 3x10 6 IU s.c. and cRA in daily doses of 0.5 mg/kg. Tumor oxygenation was measured with an Eppendorf-pO 2 -histograph prior to radiotherapy, after 20Gy and after completion of radiotherapy. Results: We found a broad range of pO 2 -values in the 28 patients. Significant hypoxic areas were detectable in about one third of the patients. The mean and median pO 2 -values did not correlate with tumor stage or tumor volume. At the beginning of radiotherapy, the patients with INF-α-2a/cRA-pretreatment had significant higher mean pO 2 -values as compared to patients without INF-α-2a/cRA-pretreatment: mean pO 2 34.7 ± 25.9 mmHg versus 18.0 ± 9.9 mmHg, p=0.03, median pO 2 28.6 versus 17.3 mmHg). Only two patients had pO 2 -measurements before and after INF-α-2a/cRA-pretreatment; in both the mean pO 2 increased threefold during INF-α-2a/cRA. During radiotherapy, the median pO 2 -value increased in both groups of patients. In patients with primary hypoxia, different patterns of oxygenation were detectable after 20Gy showing persistent hypoxia or an increase in the mean pO 2 . Persistent hypoxia without 'reoxygenation' was associated with

  7. Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols levels and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: a nested case-control study: plasma micronutrients and pancreatic cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Ros, Martine M; Leenders, Max; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Siersema, Peter D; Jansen, Eugene H J M; van Gils, Carla H; Bakker, Marije F; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Cadeau, Claire; Grote, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Valanou, Elisavet; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Castaño, José María Huerta; Duell, Eric J; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Argüelles, Marcial; Dorronsoro, Mire; Johansen, Dorthe; Lindkvist, Björn; Sund, Malin; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B

    2015-03-15

    Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). 446 incident exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were matched to 446 controls by age at blood collection, study center, sex, date and time of blood collection, fasting status and hormone use. Plasma carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein), α- and γ-tocopherol and retinol were measured by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and plasma vitamin C by a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for pancreatic cancer risk were estimated using a conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, waist circumference, cotinine levels and diabetes status. Inverse associations with pancreatic cancer risk were found for plasma β-carotene (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.52, 95%CI 0.31-0.88, p for trend = 0.02), zeaxanthin (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.53, 95%CI 0.30-0.94, p for trend = 0.06) and α-tocopherol (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.62, 95%CI 0.39-0.99, p for trend = 0.08. For α- and β-carotene, lutein, sum of carotenoids and γ-tocopherol, heterogeneity between geographical regions was observed. In conclusion, our results show that higher plasma concentrations of β-carotene, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol may be inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, but further studies are warranted. © 2014 UICC.

  8. Changes in the serum protein profile during radiotherapy to the upper respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, M.; Lobera, A.; Legrand, E.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with a cancer of the upper airways of upper gastro-intestinal tract present a state of malnutrition as a result of the disease itself and, more importantly, as a result of its localisation. Loco-regional radiotherapy often leads to an aggravation, of this state. The protein profile, consisting of nine serum proteins, was determined each week in 54 patients with cancer of the upper respirato-gastro-intestinal tract receiving radiotherapy. During the course of radiotherapy, the already altered nutritional state of these patients deteriorated further, as shown by a regular and significant downturn in the weight curve. The weekly monitoring of the protein profile showed a gradual and significant decrease in the levels of nutritional proteins (prealbumin, retinol binding protein, transferrin) and immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA) and a small variation in the levels of inflammatory proteins (haptoglobin, orosomucoid, C3 complement fraction, alpha 1 -antitrypsin). The protein profile, established on the basis of carefully selected proteins, can provide useful information in the monitoring of a patient's nutritional state [fr

  9. Changes in the serum protein profile during radiotherapy to the upper respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M; Lobera, A; Legrand, E [Fondation Bergorie, Bordeaux (France)

    1984-01-01

    Patients with a cancer of the upper airways on upper gastro-intestinal tract present a state of malnutrition as a result of the disease itself and, more importantly, as a result of its localisation. Loco-regional radiotherapy often leads to an aggravation, of this state. The protein profile, consisting of nine serum proteins, was determined each week in 54 patients with cancer of the upper respirato-gastro-intestinal tract receiving radiotherapy. During the course of radiotherapy, the already altered nutritional state of these patients deteriorated further, as shown by a regular and significant downturn in the weight curve. The weekly monitoring of the protein profile showed a gradual and significant decrease in the levels of nutritional proteins (prealbumin, retinol binding protein, transferrin) and immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA) and a small variation in the levels of inflammatory proteins (haptoglobin, orosomucoid, C3 complement fraction, alpha/sub 1/-antitrypsin). The protein profile, established on the basis of carefully selected proteins, can provide useful information in the monitoring of a patient's nutritional state.

  10. Radioactive Substances Act 1960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    This Act regulates the keeping and use of radioactive material and makes provision for the disposal and storage of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. It provides for a licensing system for such activities and for exemptions therefrom, in particular as concerns the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. The Act repeals Section 4(5) of the Atomic Energy Authority Act, 1954 which made temporary provision for discharge of waste on or from premises occupied by the Authority. (NEA) [fr

  11. Learning dialog act processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wermter, Stefan; Löchel, Matthias

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach for learning dialog act processing. In this approach we integrate a symbolic semantic segmentation parser with a learning dialog act network. In order to support the unforeseeable errors and variations of spoken language we have concentrated on robust data-driven learning. This approach already compares favorably with the statistical average plausibility method, produces a segmentation and dialog act assignment for all utterances in a robust manner,...

  12. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory ...

  13. Radiological Protection Act 1970

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Act provides for the establishment of a Radiological Protection Board to undertake research and advise on protection from radiation hazards. Its functions include provision of advice to Government departments with responsibilities in relation to protection of sectors of the community or the community as a whole against the hazards of ionizing radiation. The Act, which lays down that the Board shall replace certain departments concerned with radiation protection, repeals several Sections of the Radioactive Substances Act 1948 and the Science and Technology Act 1965. (NEA) [fr

  14. 25 CFR 700.33 - Act (The Act).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Act (The Act). 700.33 Section 700.33 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.33 Act (The Act). (a) The Act. The Act is Pub. L. 93-531, (88 Stat...

  15. Retinol as a micronutrients related to cervical local immunity: The expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha specifically stimulated with E6 epitope of human papillomavirus type-16 and ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cell in natural history of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, T. W.; Aziz, M. F.; Ibrahim, F.; Andrijono

    2017-08-01

    Retinol is one of the antioxidant micronutrients that plays essential roles in the immune system, by preventing the persistence of modulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and cytokines production. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α) is an acute pro-inflammatory cytokine which has many crucial roles in controlling HPV. In contrast, when persistent infection occurs, TNF-α induces carcinogenesis. The ratio of CD4+ cells to CD8+ T cells and adequate TNF-α production in acute HPV infection are key points for clearance. The aim of this research is to analyze the sufficiency level of retinol deposit, the expression of TNF-α, and the ratio of CD4+: CD8+ T cells in a normal cervix, clearance and persistent HPV subclinical infection, and cervical cancer group. The sufficiency level of retinol deposit was analyzed from peripheral blood using the ELISA method. The cervico-vaginal secretions, which were incubated for 24 hours, were stimulated specifically by E6 epitope HPV type-16, measuring TNF-α expression semi-quantitatively by the ELISpot method and CD4+/CD8+ T cells quantitatively by flowcytometry method. The sufficient level of retinol deposit in a normal cervix, clearance HPV subclinical infection, persistent, and cervical cancer group was 85%, 75% (OR 1.89), 33.3% (OR 11.33), and 75% (OR 1.89), respectively. The expression of TNF-α in normal cervix group was 10%, while for cervical cancer it was 75% (OR 27.00; p CD4+: CD8+ T cells in the normal cervix and cervical cancer group was 10% and 25% (OR 0.33). There was no high ratio of CD4+: CD8+ T cells in clearance (OR 1.22) and persistent (OR 0.95) HPV subclinical infection groups. This study was able to prove that the normal cervix group has the highest retinol deposit sufficiency level and the cervical cancer group has the highest TNF-α expression (OR 27; p < 0.001). The lowest of retinol deposit sufficiency level was not in cervical cancer, but in the persistent HPV subclinical infection group (OR 11.33). There was

  16. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  17. Collective speech acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, A.W.M.; Tsohatzidis, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    From its early development in the 1960s, speech act theory always had an individualistic orientation. It focused exclusively on speech acts performed by individual agents. Paradigmatic examples are ‘I promise that p’, ‘I order that p’, and ‘I declare that p’. There is a single speaker and a single

  18. Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaesberg, Mary Ann; Murray, Kenneth T.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a 35-item checklist of practical activities for school district compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The checklist is based on ADA statutes, other civil rights legislation and litigation, as well as pertinent regulations and the legislative history of the act contained in the Congressional Record. (MLF)

  19. Radiation emitting devices act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Act, entitled the Radiation Emitting Devices Act, is concerned with the sale and importation of radiation emitting devices. Laws relating to the sale, lease or import, labelling, advertising, packaging, safety standards and inspection of these devices are listed as well as penalties for any person who is convicted of breaking these laws

  20. Nuclear Installations Act 1969

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this Act is to amend the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 to bring it into full compliance with the international conventions on nuclear third party liability to which the United Kingdom is a Signatory, namely, the Paris Convention, the Brussels Supplementary Convention and the Vienna Convention. (NEA) [fr

  1. Lecithin intake and serum cholesterol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, J.T.; Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    To find out whether the consumption of lecithin has a more beneficial effect on serum cholesterol than does the consumption of equivalent amounts of polyunsaturated oils, we scrutinized 24 studies on the effect of supplementary lecithin intakes ranging from 1 to 54 mg/d. Most of the studies lacked

  2. Serum transferrin receptor in polycythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteiga, R; Remacha, A F; Sardà, M P; Ubeda, J

    1998-10-01

    We measured serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels in 22 patients with polycythemia vera and in 26 cases of secondary polycythemia. In our study, raised sTfR levels in both polycythemia groups were related to iron deficiency.

  3. Serum zinc level in thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keikhaei, B.; Badavi, M.; Pedram, M.; Zandian, K.

    2010-01-01

    To compare serum zinc level between Thalassemia Major (TM) patients and normal population at Shafa Hospital in South West of Iran. A total of 25 male and 36 female of TM patients were enrolled in this study. Out of 61 patients thirty were treated by deferroxamine (DFO) and 31 were on the combination of DFO and deferiprone (DEF) protocol therapy. Sixty normal subjects of the matching age and gender were recruited as controls. From each patient and control group 2 ml of blood was taken in fasting condition. Cell blood count and serum zinc were carried out for both thalassemia patients and normal subjects. The mean age of patients and control group was 15+- 5 years. Mean serum zinc level was 68.97+- 21.12 mu g/dl, 78.10-28.50 mu g/dl, and 80.16+- 26.54 mu g/dl in the TM with DFO, TM with DFO + DEF combination protocol and control group respectively. There was no significant correlation between patients and control group. However 50 percent of TM with DFO, 38.7 percent of TM with DFO + DEF and 32.8 percent of control group had hypozincemia. Nearly 40 to 50 percent of TM patients and one third of normal subjects are suffering from hypozincemia. This study shows that low level of serum zinc is a health problem in both thalassemia patients and normal population in South West of Iran. (author)

  4. Retinol Binding Protein-4 Is Associated with TNF-α and Not Insulin Resistance in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M. Al-Daghri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the association between RBP4 and various markers related to insulin resistance and diabetic complications as well as inflammatory markers in Saudi population suffering from type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. Patients with type 2 diabetes were divided into 3 groups according to the type of treatment and involvement of coronary artery disease. Serum RBP4, TNF-α, insulin, CRP, resistin, leptin and adiponectin were analysed in all samples. RBP4 levels increased significantly in the group of diabetic subjects treated with oral hypoglycemic agents and diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (30.2 ± 11.8; 33.4 ± 13.6 respectively, while there was no significant change in the other group for diabetic subjects on low-carbohydrate diet (25.1 ± 10.9 compared to control group (22.6 ± 9.5. RPB4 levels were positively correlated with TNF-α in the group of diabetic subjects on oral hypoglycemic agents and diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (r = 0.52, P < 0.05; r = 0.58, P < 0.05 respectively. No correlations were found between RBP4 levels and insulin resistance in all studied groups. Our findings suggest that serum RBP4 levels is associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and is not associated with insulin resistance among patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease.

  5. Delayed Dosing of Oral Rotavirus Vaccine Demonstrates Decreased Risk of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Associated With Serum Zinc: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgate, E Ross; Haque, Rashidul; Dickson, Dorothy M; Carmolli, Marya P; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Nayak, Uma; Qadri, Firdausi; Alam, Masud; Walsh, Mary Claire; Diehl, Sean A; Zaman, K; Petri, William A; Kirkpatrick, Beth D

    2016-09-01

    Rotavirus is the world's leading cause of childhood diarrheal death. Despite successes, oral rotavirus vaccines are less effective in developing countries. In an urban slum of Dhaka, we performed active diarrhea surveillance to evaluate monovalent G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (RV1) efficacy and understand variables contributing to risk of rotavirus diarrhea (RVD). We performed a randomized controlled trial of monovalent oral rotavirus vaccine (RV1). Seven hundred healthy infants received RV1 or no RV1 (1:1) using delayed dosing (10 and 17 weeks) and were followed for 1 year. Intensive diarrhea surveillance was performed. The primary outcome was ≥1 episode of RVD. Nutritional, socioeconomic, and immunologic factors were assessed by logistic regression best-subsets analysis for association with risk of RVD and interactions with vaccine arm. Incidence of all RVD was 38.3 cases per 100 person-years. Per-protocol RV1 efficacy was 73.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45.8%-87.0%) against severe RVD and 51% (95% CI, 33.8%-63.7%) against all RVD. Serum zinc level (odds ratio [OR], 0.77; P = .002) and lack of rotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA) seroconversion (OR, 1.95; P = .018) were associated with risk of RVD, independent of vaccination status. Water treatment and exclusive breastfeeding were of borderline significance. Factors not associated with RVD included height for age at 10 weeks, vitamin D, retinol binding protein, maternal education, household income, and sex. In an urban slum with high incidence of RVD, the efficacy of RV1 against severe RVD was higher than anticipated in the setting of delayed dosing. Lower serum zinc level and lack of IgA seroconversion were associated with increased risk of RVD independent of vaccination. NCT01375647. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1989-01-01

    The new Radiation Protection Act (1988:220) entered into force in Sweden on July 1st, 1988. This book presents the Act as well as certain regulations connected to it. As previously, the main responsibility for public radiation protection will rest with one central radiation protection authority. According to the 1988 Act, the general obligations with regard to radiation protection will place a greater responsibility than in the past on persons carrying out activities involving radiation. Under the act, it is possible to adjust the licensing and supervisory procedures to the level of danger of the radiation source and the need for adequate competence, etc. The Act recognises standardised approval procedures combined with technical regulations for areas where the risks are well known. The Act contains several rules providing for more effective supervision. The supervising authority may in particular decide on the necessary regulations and prohibitions for each individual case. The possibilities of using penal provisions have been extended and a rule on the mandatory execution of orders has been introduced. The Ordinance on Radiation Protection (1988:293) designates the National Institute of Radiation Protection (SSI) as the central authority referred to in the Radiation Protection Act. The book also gives a historic review of radiation protection laws in Sweden, lists regulations issued by SSI and presents explanations of radiation effects and international norms in the area. (author)

  7. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  8. The Energy Act 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Part II of This Act came into force on 1 September 1983 and is concerned with nuclear installations. Its main purpose is to amend the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 to give effect to the provisions of two Protocols amending the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention respectively. The principal effect of these modifications is to increase the sums available to meet claims for nuclear damage. The United Kingdom is a Party to both Conventions and the provisions of the 1983 Act will enable it to ratify the Protocols. (NEA) [fr

  9. 75 FR 63703 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 261a [Docket No. R-1313] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... implementing the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act). The primary changes concern the waiver of copying fees... records under the Privacy Act; the amendment of special procedures for the release of medical records to...

  10. Abandoned Shipwreck Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents the extent of the Abandoned Shipwreck Act (ASA). The ASA allows states to manage a broad range of resources within submerged lands, including...

  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy ... the value of tapping into the expertise that only people with CF and their families have. We invite you to share insights to ...

  12. Energy Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Energy Policy Act (EPA) addresses energy production in the United States, including: (1) energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and gas; (4) coal; (5)...

  13. ACTS – SUCCESS STORY

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. ACTS – SUCCESS STORY. Totally 103 experiments were conducted and the programme succeeded in the areas. Medicine; Education; Defence; Emergency Response; Maritime and Aeronautical Mobile Communications; Science and Astronomy.

  14. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy to do. Infants and toddlers will ... best ACT is the one that you are most likely to perform as part of your daily ...

  15. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ... Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast ... Facebook Twitter ...

  16. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CF Community in Health Care Reform Milestones in Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements ...

  17. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent geographic terms used within the Clean Water Act (CWA). The CWA establishes the basic structure for regulating the addition of pollutants...

  18. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... toddlers will need help from a parent or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that ... into the smaller airways to attack bacteria. Choose What's Best for You Your respiratory therapist or another ...

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that help thin and move the mucus, and antibiotics. Bronchodilators should be inhaled before you start ACTs. This medication helps to widen your airways (bronchi) by relaxing the ...

  20. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements ... on their own. Share Facebook Twitter Email More options Print Share Facebook Twitter Email Print Permalink All ...

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3-D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Epithelial Stem Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH ... ACTs involve coughing or huffing . Many of them use percussion (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from ...

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... today. ANNUAL FUND Become a Corporate Supporter Cause Marketing Make a Charitable Gift Our Corporate Supporters Workplace ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy to ...

  4. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  5. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CF Community in Health Care Reform Milestones in Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory ...

  6. Preventive Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewer, H.

    1988-01-01

    The commentary is intended to contribute to protection of the population by a practice-oriented discussion and explanation of questions arising in connection with the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Leaving aside discussions about abandonment of nuclear power, or criticism from any legal point of view, the commentary adopts the practical approach that accepts, and tries to help implementing, the act as it is. It is a guide for readers who are not experts in the law and gives a line of orientation by means of explanations and sometimes by citations from other acts (in footnotes). The commentary also presents the EURATOM Directive No. 3954/87 dated 22 December 1987, the EC Directive No. 3955/87 dated 22 December 1987, and the EC Directive No. 1983/88 dated 5 July 1988. A tabular survey shows the system of duties and competences defined by the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. (RST) [de

  7. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contraception and Protection How Does CF Affect the Female Reproductive System? How Does CF Affect the Male ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements ...

  8. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  9. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACTs involve coughing or huffing . Many of them use percussion (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ...

  10. Acts of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelund, Sidsel

    place mostly in seminars and articles, in which knowledge is often discussed as an intrinsic quality of the artwork. Acts of Research, however, is devoted to studying the rise of knowledge production in contemporary art from the perspective of artistic, curatorial and educational research...... described as knowledge producers and exhibitions and art works as instances of knowledge production. Acts of Research: Knowledge Production in Contemporary Arts between Knowledge Economy and Critical Practices analyses this development. The academic discussion of knowledge production in the arts has taken...... with an awareness of larger political, economic, geographical and art-related aspects. The concept of ‘acts of research’ is suggested as a way to understand knowledge production as a creative act in which research carried out in relation to a specific material challenges and resists the protocols of conventional...

  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Congressional Cystic Fibrosis Caucus Our Policy Agenda Policy Principles SIGN UP FOR ADVOCACY ACTION ALERTS Community We ... options Print Share Facebook Twitter Email Print Permalink All ACTs involve coughing or huffing . Many of them ...

  12. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Does CF Affect the Male Reproductive System? Sex and CF: Some Practical Advice Family Planning and ... need help from a parent or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can ...

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FOR ADVOCACY ACTION ALERTS Community We recognize the value of tapping into the expertise that only people ... ACTs involve coughing or huffing . Many of them use percussion (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from ...

  14. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  15. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements ... Board of Trustees Our Leadership Careers Reports and Financials Contact Us Governance and Policies What is CF? ...

  16. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... own. Share Facebook Twitter Email More options Print Share Facebook Twitter Email Print Permalink All ACTs involve ... CF Care Team Research About Our Research Developing New Treatments Researcher Resources Assistance Services Find Resources: CF ...

  17. Affordable Care Act (ACA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is a federal statute enacted with a goal of increasing the quality and affordability of health insurance. Through a web service, CMS...

  18. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory Comments Congressional Cystic Fibrosis Caucus Our Policy Agenda Policy Principles SIGN UP FOR ADVOCACY ACTION ...

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... people with cystic fibrosis so that they make smart decisions about CF-related research, treatment, and access ... The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory ...

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What to Consider Regarding a Lung Transplant Medications Antibiotics Bronchodilators CFTR Modulator Therapies Mucus Thinners Nebulizer Care ... that help thin and move the mucus, and antibiotics. Bronchodilators should be inhaled before you start ACTs. ...

  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... resources you need to continuously build upon this work. Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards ... The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory ...

  2. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  3. The Corporations Act 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bostock, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The author outlines reforms made in Australia in the area of company law with an analysis of the Corporations Act 2001, which along with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 comprises Corporations legislation in Australia. Article by Tom Bostock (a partner in the law firm Mallesons Stephen Jaques, Melbourne, Australia). Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and its Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by...

  4. Serum Interleukin-6 in Patients with Burning Mouth Syndrome and Relationship with Depression and Perceived Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qianming; Xia, Juan; Lin, Mei; Zhou, Hongmei; Li, Bingqi

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To examine alteration of serum interleukin-6 and its clinical significance in burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients. Methods. 48 BMS patients and 31 healthy controls participated in the study. Serum interleukin-6 was measured by means of ELISA. Hamilton rating scale of depression (HRSD) and visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to quantitiate depressive status and pain levels of subjects, respectively. Results. 15 (31%) patients displayed substantial depressive symptoms (HRSD ≧ 16). HRSD scores of patients were significantly higher than controls and positively correlated to their VAS values (P = .002). Serum interleukin-6 in patients was much lower than controls and negatively correlated to their VAS values (P = .011). However, no significant relations were found between interleukin-6 and HRSD scores (P = .317). Conclusions. Serum interleukin-6 in patients with burning mouth syndrome is decreased and negatively correlated to chronic pain. Both psychological and neuropathic disorders might act as precipitating factors in BMS etiopathogenesis. PMID:17641729

  5. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA or Act). The Act defines the United States outer continental shelf...

  6. No 592 - Radiation Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Act will enter into force on 1 January 1992. The scope of the Act is extensive as, in addition to ionizing radiation, it will also apply to activities involving exposure to natural radiation and non-ionizing radiation. Its purpose is to prevent and restrict harmful effects to health resulting from radiation. The basic principles of the Act are that the practice involving radiation should be justified; radiation protection should be optimized; and radiation doses should be as low as reasonably achievable. Licensed organisations using radiation will be responsible for the safety of the activity involving exposure to radiation and for having available the appropriate expertise to this effect. The required so-called safety licence provides the regulatory control to ensure that radiation is used sensibly, that the equipment and shields are technically acceptable and the operating personnel is competent, and that the radioactive waste is dealt with appropriately. The Radiation Act will also apply to nuclear activities within the scope of the 1987 Nuclear Energy Act [fr

  7. Comparison of plasma pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4), chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for the identification of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloza, F J K; Pérez-Matos, M C; Ricardo-Silgado, M L; Morales-Álvarez, M C; Mantilla-Rivas, J O; Pinzón-Cortés, J A; Pérez-Mayorga, M; Arévalo-García, M L; Tolosa-González, G; Mendivil, C O

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the association of four potential insulin resistance (IR) biomarkers (pigment-epithelium-derived factor [PEDF], retinol-binding-protein-4 [RBP-4], chitinase-3-like protein 1 [YKL-40] and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF]) with objective measures of IR. We studied 81 subjects with different metabolic profiles. All participants underwent a 5-point OGTT with calculation of multiple IR indexes. A subgroup of 21 participants additionally underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. IR was defined as belonging to the highest quartile of incremental area under the insulin curve (iAUCins), or to the lowest quartile of the insulin sensitivity index (ISI). PEDF was associated with adiposity variables. PEDF and RBP4 increased linearly across quartiles of iAUCins (for PEDF p-trend=0.029; for RBP-4 p-trend=0.053). YKL-40 and BDNF were not associated with any adiposity or IR variable. PEDF and RBP-4 levels identified individuals with IR by the iAUCins definition: A PEDF cutoff of 11.9ng/mL had 60% sensitivity and 68% specificity, while a RBP-4 cutoff of 71.6ng/mL had 70% sensitivity and 57% specificity. In multiple regression analyses simultaneously including clinical variables and the studied biomarkers, only BMI, PEDF and RBP-4 remained significant predictors of IR. Plasma PEDF and RBP4 identified IR in subjects with no prior diagnosis of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coburn, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  9. Serum Antibody Biomarkers for ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    typically developing control. US, unaffected sibling control. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...typically developing (TD) children (e.g., Warren et al., 1990; Singh, 2009). The goal of this study is to identify a serum antibody biomarker for ASD using...50% less IgG1 antibody in ASD boys vs . TD boys (p=0.0096). The level of ASD1 binding to the AM group was the same as to the ASD boys. These data

  10. ST–ACTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2006-01-01

    hot issue in the area of spatio–temporal databases [7]. While existing Moving Object Simulators (MOSs) address different physical aspects of mobility, they neglect the important social and geo–demographical aspects of it. This paper presents ST–ACTS, a Spatio–Temporal ACTivity Simulator that, using...... various geo–statistical data sources and intuitive principles, models the so far neglected aspects. ST–ACTS considers that (1) objects (representing mobile users) move from one spatio–temporal location to another with the objective of performing a certain activity at the latter location; (2) not all users...

  11. Atomic Energy Act 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    This Act, which entered into force on 1 september 1989, contains a series of provisions dealing with different subjects: increase of public financing for British Nuclear Fuels plc, amendment of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 regarding the powers of the Health and Safety Executive to recover expenses directly from nuclear operators and obligation of the UKAEA to take out insurance or other financial security to cover its liability and finally, measures to enable the UK to ratify the IAEA Convention on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency [fr

  12. A New Serum Biomarker for Lung Cancer - Transthyretin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun LIU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and very few specific biomarkers could be used in clinical diagnosis at present. The aim of this study is to find novel potential serum biomarkers for lung cancer using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI technique. Methods Serumsample of 227 cases including 146 lung cancer, 13 pneumonia, 28 tuberculous pleurisy and 40 normal individuals were analyzed by CM10 chips. The candidate biomarkers were identified by ESI/MS-MS and database searching, and further confirmed by immunoprecipitation. The same sets of serum sample from all groups were re-measured by ELISA assay. Results Three protein peaks with the molecular weight 13.78 kDa, 13.90 kDa and 14.07 kDa were found significantlydecreased in lung cancer serum compared to the other groups and were all automatically selected as specific biomarkers by Biomarker Wizard software. The candidate biomarkers obtained from 1-D SDS gel bands by matching the molecular weight with peaks on CM10 chips were identified by Mass spectrometry as the native transthyretin (nativeTTR, cysTTR and glutTTR, and the identity was further validated by immunoprecipitation using commercial TTR antibodies. Downregulated of TTR was found in both ELISA and SELDI analysis. Conclusion TTRs acted as the potentially useful biomarkers for lung cancer by SELDI technique.

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NACFC Carolyn and C Richard Mattingly Leadership in Mental Health Care Award Mary M. Kontos Award NACFC Reflections ... CF Community in Health Care Reform Milestones in Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could ... Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements ...

  14. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Team Your cystic fibrosis care team includes a group of CF health care professionals who partner with ... Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards Training Awards CF ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ...

  15. "Act in Good Faith."

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Robert B.

    1979-01-01

    It is argued that the Supreme Court's Bakke decision overturning the University of California's minority admissions program is good for those who favor affirmative action programs in higher education. The Supreme Court gives wide latitude for devising programs that take race and ethnic background into account if colleges are acting in good faith.…

  16. Atomic Energy Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This act provides for the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The board is responsible for the control and supervision of the development, application and use of atomic energy. The board is also considered necessary to enable Canada to participate effectively in measures of international control of atomic energy

  17. Special Appropriation Act Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is sometimes directed to provide funding to a specific entity for study, purpose, or activity.This information will be of interest to a community or other entity that has been identified in one of EPA's appropriations acts to receive such funding.

  18. Radioactive Substances Act 1948

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1948-01-01

    This Act regulates the use of radioactive substances and radiation producing devices in the United Kingdom. It provides for the control of import, export, sale, supply etc. of such substances and devices and lays down the safety regulations to be complied with when dealing with them. (NEA) [fr

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements ... AWARENESS Tomorrow’s Leaders About Us News Blog Chapters Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home ...

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Practical Advice Family Planning and Parenting With CF Making Your Family Planning Decisions Pregnancy and CF Alternative Ways to Build a ... with cystic fibrosis so that they make smart decisions about CF-related research, treatment, and access to care. ... Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements ...

  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs and policies to improve the lives of people with CF. Help us by raising awareness of CF, participating in a fundraising event, or volunteering ... clear your airways. Most are easy to do. Infants and toddlers will need help from a parent or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they ...

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Their Families When There's More Than One Person With CF in the Same School Daily Life ... Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards Training Awards CF ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ...

  3. Ocean Dumping Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Act provides for the control of dumping of wastes and other substances in the ocean in accordance with the London Convention of 1972 on Prevention of Marine Pollution by the Dumping of Wastes and other Matter to which Canada is a Party. Radioactive wastes are included in the prohibited and restricted substances. (NEA)

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to try. However, the best ACT is the one that you are most likely to perform as part of your daily treatment plan. Watch the webcast below to hear a respiratory therapist, a child with CF and her father: Demonstrate and discuss ...

  5. The Child Justice Act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stephan

    1995-06-16

    Jun 16, 1995 ... Gallinetti "Child Justice" 648; Le Roux-Kemp 2008 Annual Survey of South African Law 298 (the. Act contains a "separate, but parallel, ... The various aspects of section 68 are then evaluated. The greatest challenges lie in the ... See also, eg, Picardi Hotels v Thekwini. Properties 2009 1 SA 493 (SCA) para ...

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Data Requests Get Involved X close Advocate Our goal is to educate policy makers about the needs ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy ... Assistance Services Find Resources: CF Foundation Compass Insurance Get ...

  7. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast To learn more about how you can help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist ...

  8. Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Lower Extremity Arterial Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients and the Analysis of the Intervention of Vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations and lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients and to investigate the intervention effect of vitamin D. 145 subjects were assigned to a control group (Group NC, T2DM group (Group DM1, and T2DM complicated with LEAD group (Group DM2; then Group DM2 were randomly divided into Group DM3 who received oral hypoglycemic agents and Group DM4 who received oral hypoglycemic drugs and vitamin D3 therapy. Compared to Group NC, 25(OHD was significantly lower in Group DM2 and marginally lower in Group DM1. In contrast to baseline and Group DM3, 25(OHD rose while low density lipoprotein (LDL, retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4, and HbA1c significantly lowered in Group DM4. Statistical analysis revealed that 25(OHD had a negative correlation with RBP4, duration, HbA1c, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG. LDL, systolic blood pressure (SBP, FPG, and smoking were risk factors of LEAD while high density lipoprotein (HDL and 25(OHD were protective ones. Therefore, we deduced that low level of 25(OHD is significantly associated with the occurrence of T2DM complicated with LEAD.

  9. Serum lysozyme determinations, April-June 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S C; Lamphere, J P; Jablon, S

    1963-04-18

    Serum lysozyme levels were determined on 670 consecutive subjects seen for regularly scheduled clinic examinations of the Adult Health Study in Hiroshima. Serum lysozyme levels were found to vary significantly with the absolute peripheral granulocyte count, age, sex, and month of study. A high level of correlation also was noted between serum lysozyme and diabetes mellitus. This was at least in part attributable to greater average age in patients with diabetes. Suggestive relationship was established between serum lysozyme levels, respiratory diseases, and tuberculosis. These changes are believed to reflect active inflammation with excessive destruction of granulocytes and parenchymal tissues in those patients with the more acute processes. No relationship was found between serum lysozyme and previous exposure to ionizing radiation. These studies indicate that the serum lysozyme level may be useful in the study of the kinetics of leukopoiesis, the aging process, and in the detection of subtle inflammatory processes. 21 references, 5 tables.

  10. 125I Radioimmunoassay of serum ursodeoxycholyl conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, A.; Ross, P.E.; Bouchier, I.A.D.

    1983-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for serum ursodeoxycholic conjugates using an iodine-125 ligand has been developed. The bile acid was present in normal fasting serum (0.19 +- SD 0.19 μmol/l, n=24) and 2-hour post-prandial serum (0.8 +- SD 0.8 μmol/l, n=16). Gallstone patients undergoing oral ursodeoxycholic acid therapy had significantly higher post-prandial serum levels (21.5 +- SD 14.0 μmol/l, n=15) by radioimmunoassay. Gas liquid chromatography analysis indicated that in normal serum ursodeoxycholic acid was totally conjugated, whereas sera from gallstone patients contained a proportion as the free bile acid (10.2 +- SD 8.1 μmol/l, n=15). Following an oral dose of ursodeoxycholic acid, both unconjugated and conjugated forms of the bile acid appeared in the serum of healthy individuals. (Auth.)

  11. Role of Serum Adiponectin and Vitamin D in Prediabetes and Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anindita; Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Roy, Debashree; Poddar, Jit; Roy, Tapan Kumar Sinha; Karnam, Srikanth Arliganur

    2017-06-01

    The roles of deficient or deranged insulin, adiponectin and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels regulating food intake, energy metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism and body weight have been reported in the pathogenesis of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, their congruity in the etiology of diabetes mellitus is unknown. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the roles of these parameters together and to establish their interrelationship in patients with prediabetes and diabetes. The preliminary cross-sectional study included 77 persons with type 2 diabetes who were matched for age, sex and body mass index (BMI); 73 persons with prediabetes; and 52 healthy control subjects. Fasting serum levels of adiponectin, insulin and 25(OH)D were measured by commercially available immune assay kits, and routine biochemical parameters were analyzed in all study groups. The results show statistically significant lower levels of serum adiponectin and serum 25(OH)D and higher serum insulin levels in persons with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes with respect to controls. The changes in the serum adiponectin or serum 25(OH)D in persons with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes were found to be inversely correlated with the serum levels of insulin. Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis, with 25(OH)D, insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as the variables, revealed that serum adiponectin levels might be an independent risk factor for the progression of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in subjects. The association of these hormones might act as a significant predictor of progression of prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. Decreased serum adiponectin levels might be an independent risk factor for progression to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, which may help in developing experimental models of the disease or in identifying biomarkers or disease-modifying drugs. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  12. Radioimmunoassay of thyrotropin concentrated from serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisula, B.C.; Louvet, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method for concentrating human TSH (hTSH) from serum for use in RIAs is described. The method takes advantage of the affinity of the plant lectin, concanavalin A, for the carbohydrate portion of the hTSH molecule. The hTSH from 2.5 ml serum was adsorbed to concanavalin A covalently linked to sepharose and then radioimmunoassayed using the hTSH antiserum and hTSH for iodination distributed by the National Pituitary Agency. For the RIA standard curve, the hTSH reference preparation was concentrated from a serum wwith undetectable hTSH in order to correct for recovery and to control for nonspecific effects. The percentage of serum hTSH extracted from 2.5 ml serum with the concentration procedure was 76.6 +- 3.4% (mean +- SD). The coefficient of correlation between serum hTSH, determined with the concentration procedure, and serum hTSH determined without was 0.979 (P < 0.001). Over 95% of normal adult men and women had detectable levels of serum hTSH, ranging from < 0.56 to 4.0 μU/ml. The mean of detectable serum hTSH levels in normal adult women (n = 11) was 1.54 +- 1.03 μU/ml (mean +- SD) and in normal men (n = 9) was 2.02 +- 1.15 μU/ml (mean +- SD). Clinically hyperthyroid patients with diffuse and nodular toxic goiters (n = 8) and patients with hypothyroidism secondary to pituitary disease (n = 6), four of whom were taking replacement doses of thyroid hormone, had undetectable serum hTSH levels. Serum hTSH in patients with primary hypothyroidism uniformly exceeded the normal range. This hTSH concentrating procedure enhances the effective sensitivity and, therefore, the clinical utility of the RIA for hTSH in serum

  13. Serum lipids in hypothyroidism: Our experience

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, Archana; Lal, Ashok Kumar

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine whether the screening of lipid profile is justified in patients with hypothyroidism we estimated serum lipids in cases having different levels of serum TSH. 60 patients of hypothyroidism in the age group of 20 to 60 yrs were studied for thyroid profile over a period of one year. On the basis of serum TSH level the cases were divided into three groups: In the first group TSH concentration was 8.8±2.99 μlU/ml, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 8.8±1.07, whereas serum total chol...

  14. Dreams and acting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, L

    1987-01-01

    Dreams can be used as containers that free patients from increased tension. This may be the principal function of certain types of dreams, called "evacuative dreams." They are dreams used for getting rid of unbearable affects and unconscious fantasies, or as a safety valve for partial discharge of instinctual drives. These dreams are observed primarily in borderline and psychotic patients, but can also be seen in the regressive states of neurotic patients during weekends and other periods of separation. Such dreams have to be differentiated from "elaborative dreams," which have a working-through function and stand in an inverse relationship to acting out: the greater the production of elaborative dreams, the less the tendency to act out, and vice versa.

  15. Atomic Energy Act 1946

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1946-01-01

    This Act provides for the development of atomic energy in the United Kingdom and for its control. It details the duties and powers of the competent Minister, in particular his powers to obtain information on and to inspect materials, plant and processes, to control production and use of atomic energy and publication of information thereon. Also specified is the power to search for and work minerals and to acquire property. (NEA) [fr

  16. Radiological protection act, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Act provides for the establishment of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland and dissolves An Bord Fuinnimh Nuicleigh (the Board), transferring its assets and liabilities to the Institute. It sets out a range of radiation protection measures to be taken by various Ministers in the event of a radiological emergency and gives effect at national level to the Assistance Convention, the Early Notification Convention and the Physical Protection Convention. The Institute is the competent Irish authority for the three Conventions. (NEA) [fr

  17. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  18. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of fatty liver and relations with body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Young Deog; Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kwon, K. H.; Kim, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hepatic fatty infiltration appears as an area of increased echogenicity. And many factors concerned to fatty infiltration. With 65 cases of fatty liver and 42 cases of normal group, we analyzed fatty liver with grading and attempt to find relations between grade of fatty liver and levels of body index, serum triglyceride, and serum lipid. And compared fatty liver with normal control group. Patients with fatty liver are higher percentage of supra-normal value in body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride than normal control group. As fatty infiltration progressed, serum lipid, serum trig-lyceride and body index are also increased. Conclusively ultrasonographic examination of liver with serum triglyceride, serum lipid, and body index are simple method, useful follow-up examination of fatty liver, and preventive routine check-up of chronic liver disease

  19. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, Birgit; Petersen, S

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between bone mineral content...... content was measured at term (mean gestational age 41 weeks) by dual energy x ray absorptiometry and corrected for body size. RESULTS: Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly negatively associated with serum phosphate (p mineral content was not associated with mean serum alkaline...... and serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate. METHODS: Serum alkaline phosphatase and phosphate were measured at weekly intervals during admission in 108 premature infants of gestational age below 32 weeks (mean (SD) gestational age 29 (2) weeks; mean (SD) birth weight 1129 (279) g). Bone mineral...

  20. Association between serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and fatty liver disease: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Xu, Cheng-Fu; Wan, Xing-Yong; Yu, Chao-Hui; Shen, Chao; Chen, Peng; Xu, Gen-Yun; Li, You-Ming

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and fatty liver disease (FLD) in a Chinese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among subjects who presented for a health examination at the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University in 2013. FLD was diagnosed based on an ultrasonography examination. Serum AFP levels were measured with a chemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: Of the 9800 subjects enrolled, 2601 were diagnosed with FLD. Subjects with FLD had higher serum AFP levels than those without the disease. Subjects with high serum AFP levels had a higher prevalence of FLD, metabolic syndrome, and its components. Univariate logistic analysis showed that elevated serum AFP levels were associated with an increased risk of FLD (OR = 1.057, 95%CI: 1.031-1.084). However, after adjusting for covariates, AFP no longer remained significantly associated with the risk factors for FLD. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that serum AFP levels are significantly associated with FLD and that AFP acts as a cofactor, but not as an independent factor, for FLD. PMID:25206293

  1. Increased serum concentrations of soluble ST2 predict mortality after burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Stefan; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Werba, Gregor; Nickl, Stefanie; Roth, Georg A; Krenn, Claus G; Mueller, Thomas; Ankersmit, Hendrik J; Haider, Thomas

    2018-06-27

    Large burn injuries induce a systemic response in affected patients. Soluble ST2 (sST2) acts as a decoy receptor for interleukin-33 (IL-33) and has immunosuppressive effects. sST2 has been described previously as a prognostic serum marker. Our aim was to evaluate serum concentrations of sST2 and IL-33 after thermal injury and elucidate whether sST2 is associated with mortality in these patients. We included 32 burn patients (total body surface area [TBSA] >10%) admitted to our burn intensive care unit and compared them to eight healthy probands. Serum concentrations of sST2 and IL-33 were measured serially using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The mean TBSA was 32.5%±19.6%. Six patients (18.8%) died during the hospital stay. Serum analyses showed significantly increased concentrations of sST2 and reduced concentrations of IL-33 in burn patients compared to healthy controls. In our study cohort, higher serum concentrations of sST2 were a strong independent predictor of mortality. Burn injuries cause an increment of sST2 serum concentrations with a concomitant reduction of IL-33. Higher concentrations of sST2 are associated with increased in-hospital mortality in burn patients.

  2. Effects of Aroclor 1242 and different fish-based diets on vitamins A(retinol) and A2 (3,4-didehydroretinol), and their fatty acyl esters in mink plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaekelae, Anne; Kaekelae, Reijo; Hyvaerinen Heikki; Nieminen, Petteri

    2003-01-01

    The effects of a 21-week exposure to Aroclor 1242 (1 mg per day in feed on plasma concentrations of vitamins A 1 (retinol) and A(3,4-didehydroretinol) and their principal fatty acyl esters (A 1 -16:0 A 2 -16:0 (palmitates), A 1 -18:1n-9; A 2 -18:1n-9 (oleates), and A 1 -18:0 A 2 -18:0 (stearates)) were studied in young female mink (Mustela vison) fed a diet based on freshwater smelt. These vitamin levels were also examined in mink fed diets containing Baltic herring or fatty marine fish. In the Aroclor-exposed smelt-fed mink, the plasma concentrations of A 1 and Aesters were significantly lower than the levels in controls fed the uncontaminated smelt diet. In addition, the A 2 esters reacted mor sensitively to the polychlorinated biphenyls than did A 1 esters. I contrast, in the plasma of the exposed mink the level of alcoholic A 1 was normal, and transport of thyroxine (T 4 ) and nonspecific lipoprotei transport of major lipids were not impaired. Despite the large dietary supply of vitamin A 2 and high levels of plasma A 2 esters, the mink fed freshwate smelt had only trace amounts of alcoholic vitamin A 2 in their plasma. The concentrations of A 1 and A 2 esters in the plasma of all the mink studied correlated with the hepatic total concentrations of the vitamins. Thus, in carnivores that have nonspecific lipoprotein transport of vitamin A esters determination of plasma levels of the esterified vitamins may be a useful nondestructive way to estimate stores of the vitamin A analogs in the body and to assess the organochlorine-induced decrease in the vitamin stores

  3. Williamson Act - The California Land Conservation Act of 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The California Land Conservation Act of 1965 - commonly referred to as the Williamson Act - is the State's primary program for the conservation of private land in...

  4. Unexpected effects of absorbed normal rabbit serum and bovine serum albumin on survival of Haemophilus influenzae type b in the infant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, M R

    1988-01-01

    In the course of using the infant rat model to determine the ability of various rabbit antisera to protect against challenge by Haemophilus influenzae type b we made two unexpected observations. In these experiments 4-day-old rats were inoculated s.c. on the dorsum with either rabbit serum or physiological buffers (sham serum) and then were challenged the next day with H. influenzae type b injected i.p. Bacteremia, as a marker for disease, was measured 24 h later on day 6. We observed the following. (i) Pre-immune, i.e., normal rabbit serum, containing minimal levels of antibodies to outer membrane proteins and depleted of antibodies to capsule and lipopolysaccharide, nevertheless significantly (P less than 0.01) protected the rats from challenge with H. influenzae type b when compared to a sham inoculation of buffer; (ii) In the absence of a serum inoculation on day 4 (a buffer was used as a sham serum inoculation), the levels of bacteremia obtained after inoculation with bacteria on day 5 depended upon the composition of the buffer in which the H. influenzae inoculum was suspended. Use of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) resulted in higher levels of bacteremia than PBS containing 0.5% bovine serum albumin (PBS-BSA) (P less than 0.001), i.e. the BSA apparently acted to protect the rats from H. influenzae infection. In fact the use of PBS-BSA as an inoculum buffer masked the protective effect noted above of the absorbed normal rabbit serum.

  5. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Gabriele; Giordano, Alessia; Pezzia, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs.......Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs....

  6. Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan

  7. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone ... chloroquine are probably mediated via the generation of free radicals. ... Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Groups.

  8. Serum bicarbonate and dehydration severity in gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Narchi, H.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration of bicarbonate was measured in serum samples from 106 children with gastroenteritis and dehydration. A concentration less than 22 mmol/l was more common in children with severe dehydration, but the magnitude of bicarbonate reduction was not significantly different with increasing degrees of dehydration. Doctors should not rely on the serum bicarbonate concentration when assessing fluid deficit.



  9. Determination of serum IgD radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayol, V.; Hartmann, D.J.; Sabbagh, I.; Ville, G.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a sensitive liquid phase radioimmunoassay for serum IgD. Extreme values obtained from 85 control patients sera are 0.2 and 121 mg/l with an arithmetic mean of 25 mg/l. In atopic patients (with high serum IgE levels), arithmetic mean is 47 mg/l [fr

  10. Determination of serum IgD radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayol, V.; Hartmann, D.J.; Sabbagh, I.; Ville, G.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a sensitive liquid phase radioimmunoassay for serum IgD. Extreme values obtained from 85 control patients sera are 0.2 and 121 mg/l with an arithmetic mean of 25 mg/l. In atopic patients (with high serum IgE levels), arithmetic mean is 47 mg/l.

  11. Act to amend cost regulations of the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Article 21 is replaced by articles 21 to 21b. According to this, fees or reimbursements for expenses for official acts (e.g. decisions, supervisory acts, safeguarding of nuclear fuels) as well as for the use of facilities according to article 9a, section 3, of the Atomic Energy Act (e.g. Laender facilities to collect nuclear waste). (HP) [de

  12. Serum lipids in hypothyroidism: Our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Archana; Lal, Ashok Kumar

    2006-09-01

    In order to determine whether the screening of lipid profile is justified in patients with hypothyroidism we estimated serum lipids in cases having different levels of serum TSH. 60 patients of hypothyroidism in the age group of 20 to 60 yrs were studied for thyroid profile over a period of one year. On the basis of serum TSH level the cases were divided into three groups: In the first group TSH concentration was 8.8±2.99 μlU/ml, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 8.8±1.07, whereas serum total cholesterol and LDL-chol levels were 196±37.22 and 126±29.17 mg/dl respectively. The statistical analysis of these two groups showed a significant correlation between raised TSH levels and serum total cholesterol and LDL-chol (Phypothyrodism is associated with changes in lipid profile.

  13. Teaching Speech Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teaching Speech Acts

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue that pragmatic ability must become part of what we teach in the classroom if we are to realize the goals of communicative competence for our students. I review the research on pragmatics, especially those articles that point to the effectiveness of teaching pragmatics in an explicit manner, and those that posit methods for teaching. I also note two areas of scholarship that address classroom needs—the use of authentic data and appropriate assessment tools. The essay concludes with a summary of my own experience teaching speech acts in an advanced-level Portuguese class.

  14. The Experiment as Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    In December 1965, an experiment took place at The Independent Art Space in Copenhagen (Den Frie Kunstbygning). Short named POEX65, it was looking to create and activate POetry EXperiments across artistic genres and formats (thus, in essence, making a POetry EXposition). The POEX65 event framed many...... to be able to analyse the phenomena found at POEX65. Here I will use the notion of the ‘ontological theatre’ (Pickering), which, according to Pickering, is acted out in experimental art productions. The experiment could thus be seen as an ‘agency-realism’ – as an ‘act’ of relations across the aesthetics...

  15. Vibrio cholerae interactions with Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes mediated by serum components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eCanesi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible bivalves (e.g., mussels, oysters can accumulate large amount of bacteria in their tissues and act as passive carriers of pathogens to humans. Bacterial persistence inside bivalves depends, at least in part, on hemolymph anti-bacterial activity that is exerted by both serum soluble factors and phagocytic cells (i.e., the hemocytes. It was previously shown that Mytilus galloprovincialis hemolymph serum contains opsonins that mediate D-mannose-sensitive interactions between hemocytes and V. cholerae O1 El Tor bacteria that carry the Mannose–Sensitive Hemagglutinin (MSHA. These opsonins enhance phagocytosis and killing of vibrios by facilitating their binding to hemocytes. Since V. cholerae strains not carrying the MSHA ligand (O1 classical, non O1/O139 are present in coastal water and can be entrapped by mussels, we studied whether in mussel serum, in addition to opsonins directed towards MSHA, other components can mediate opsonization of these bacteria. By comparing interactions of O1 classical and non O1/O139 strains with hemocytes in ASW and serum, it was found that M. galloprovincialis serum contains components that increase by at approximately two fold their adhesion to, association with and killing by hemocytes. Experiments conducted with high and low molecular mass fractions obtained by serum ultrafiltration indicated that these compounds have molecular mass higher than 5000 Da. Serum exposure to high temperature (80°C abolished its opsonizing capability suggesting that the involved serum active components are of protein nature. Further studies are needed to define the chemical properties and specificity of both the involved bacterial ligands and hemolymph opsonins. This information will be central not only to better understand V. cholerae ecology, but also to improve current bivalve depuration practices and properly protect human health.

  16. CORRELATION BETWEEN SERUM HER-2 ONCOPROTEIN AND PATIENTS WITH BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Yuan; Bing-he Xu; Da-tong Chu

    2004-01-01

    Objective To detect serum HER-2 oncoprotein levels in patients with operable and metastatic breast cancers, and to study the correlations between serum HER-2 level and lymph node status as well as other clinical parameters.Methods A total of 120 women were studied consisting of 10 healthy volunteers, 31 benign breast disease, 53 operable breast cancer, and 26 metastatic breast cancer patients. The levels of serum HER-2 were measured using an enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results The mean serum HER-2 levels were 9.6 + 1.5 ng/mL in healthy volunteers, 11.9 + 1.6 ng/mL in benign breast disease, 13.2 + 4.2 ng/mL in operable breast cancer, and 30.5 + 30.8 ng/mL in metastatic breast cancer patients. The former is much lower than the latter three (P=0.02, 0.001, 0.03, respectively). If using 15 ng/mL as a normal baseline, elevated serum HER-2 levels were observed in none of the healthy volunteers as well as patients with benign disease, but in 18.9% (10/53)operable breast cancer patients and 61.5% (16/26) metastatic patients. In patients with operable breast cancer, there was a positive correlation between serum concentrations of HER-2 and the size of primary rumor (P < 0.05), whereas there was no correlation between serum concentration and axillary lymph node or estrogen receptor status. In patients with metastatic disease, there was no correlation with site of metastases (P > 0.05).Conclusion Serum HER-2 level was strongly correlated with rumor loads and clinical stages, thus acting as a promising predictor of cancer recurrence in breast cancer patients.

  17. Serum gonadotropins levels in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertogh, R. De; Vankrieken, L.; Wolter, R.; Vliet, G. Van

    1989-01-01

    The complex changes in serum LH and FSH levels from infancy to adulthood are diversely evaluated by radioimmunoassays or bioassays. The relative lack of sensitivity and specificity of radioimmunoassay, using polyclonal antibodies, could possibly be overcome by new immunoradiometric assays, using specific antibodies to LH and FSH. Significant differences were indeed observed between radioimmunoassays and immunoradiometric assays. During the prepubertal period, LH levels, measured by the immunoradiometric assays, were below the sensitivity of the method in the majority of the samples. LH levels were, however, well detectable when measured with radioimmunoassay, showing the heterogeneity of circulating LH structures. At the onset of puberty, LH levels increased at least 3 to 4 times in both sexes, when measured with immunoradiometric assays, whereas their increase was only 20 to 60% with the radioimmunoassays. FSH levels remained well detectable in the prepubertal period whether measured by immunoradiometric or radioimmunoassays. At pubertal onset, FSH increase in both sexes was more important in the immunoradiometric assays. The results obtained with immunoradiometric assays give a better insight into the quantitative and qualitative function of the gonadotropes during childhood. The almost complete absence of LH during the prepubertal period and the steep increase at the onset of puberty better reflects the reported data obtained with bioassays. The persistance of significant levels of FSH in the prepubertal ages, and the lesser increase at the onset of puberty, when compared with LH, illustrates that the individual regulation of LH and FSH secretion vary over time and is influenced by developmental factors. (author)

  18. Correlation of Serum Magnesium with Serum Parathormone Levels in Patients on Regular Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradaran Azar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT is a common, important, and treatable complication of end-stage renal disease. This study was conducted to investigate the role of serum magnesium (Mg in regulating the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH by the parathyroid gland in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD. Pre-dialysis serum levels of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, Mg, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, intact serum PTH (iPTH, serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25-OH Vit D and plasma bicarbonate (HCO3 were measured. The Urea Reduction Rate as well as duration and dosage of HD treatment were noted. Our study did not show any significant correlation between serum Mg levels and duration of HD treatment, levels of serum ALP, and plasma HCO3, Ca and P. An inverse correlation, albeit insignificant, was found between the serum Mg levels and iPTH (r=-0.30 p=0.079; also, a significant positive correlation was found between serum Mg levels and serum 25-OH Vit D levels (r= 0.40 p= 0.009. Our findings are in agreement with previous data, which suggest that factors other than serum Mg are more important in the regulation of PTH secretion in HD patients. A positive and strong association between serum Mg with 25-OH Vit D needs to be studied in greater detail.

  19. Atomic Energy Authority Act 1954

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1954-01-01

    This Act provides for the setting up of an Atomic Energy Authority for the United Kingdom. It also makes provision for the Authority's composition, powers, duties, rights and liabilities, and may amend, as a consequence of the establishment of the Authority and in connection therewith, the Atomic Energy Act, 1946, the Radioactive Substances Act 1948 and other relevant enactments. (NEA) [fr

  20. 76 FR 59073 - Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 32 CFR Part 1901 Privacy Act AGENCY: Central Intelligence Agency. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Consistent with the Privacy Act (PA), the Central Intelligence Agency...-1379. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Consistent with the Privacy Act (PA), the CIA has undertaken and...

  1. SERUM PARAOXONASE ACTIVITY IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saritha Gadicherla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Serum paraoxonase is an enzyme synthesised in the liver. It is known to prevent atherosclerosis by inhibiting oxidation of lowdensity lipoprotein. Renal transplant recipients have increased tendency for developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Reduced activity of serum paraoxonase contributes to accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular complications in these patients. The aim of this study was to estimate serum paraoxonase activity in renal transplant recipients and compare it with healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 renal transplant recipients and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls were taken for the study. Serum paraoxonase activity, blood urea, serum creatinine and uric acid were estimated in these groups. The serum paraoxonase activity was correlated with urea, creatinine and uric acid levels. RESULTS Serum paraoxonase activity was reduced in renal transplant recipients compared to healthy controls. There was a negative correlation between paraoxonase activity and the levels of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels. CONCLUSION In this study, the paraoxonase activity was reduced in renal transplant recipients compared to controls. The increased cardiovascular disease in these patients could be due to reduced paraoxonase activity.

  2. Serum homocystein level in patients with scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarinia, Mohammadali; Shams, Mesbah; Kamali Sarvestani, Eskandar; Shenavande, Saeede; Khademalhosseini, Maryam; Khademalhosseini, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic connective tissue disease. In this study, we compared the serum Homocystein (Hcy) level between patients with SSc and normal control group. The current study was conducted to determine whether serum Hcy levels are elevated in SSc patients and whether there is any correlation between Hcy levels and RP, Gastro intestinal and lung involvement. Forty one patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for SSc (39 females and 5 males) and Forty four community-based healthy individuals (sex and age matched) were enrolled in to the study. Serum Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate levels were determined. Thirty three patients (70.45%) had GI involvement, twenty two patients (50%) had lung involvement and twenty seven patients (61.36%) had Raynaud's phenomena. Mean serum Hcy level in control group was 22.78 ± 6.018 μmol/L and in case group was 19.43 ± 7.205 μmol/L, shows that the serum Hcy level in control group was significantly higher than patients (P = 0.020). Serum Hcy level is significantly lower in SSc patients than in control group. There is no statistically significant correlation between serum Hcy level and organ involvements.

  3. [Serum glycosaminoglycans in Graves' disease patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsz-Szczotka, Katarzyna B; Olczyk, Krystyna Z; Koźma, Ewa M; Komosińska-Vassev, Katarzyna B; Wisowski, Grzegorz R; Marcisz, Czesław

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the blood serum sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and hyaluronic acid (HA) concentration of Graves' disease patients before treatment and after attainment of the euthyroid state. The study was carried out on the blood serum obtained from 17 patients with newly recognised Graves' disease and from the same patients after attainment of the euthyroid state. Graves' patients had not any clinical symptoms neither of ophthalmopathy nor pretibial myxedema. GAGs were isolated from the blood serum by the multistage extraction and purification using papaine hydrolysis, alkali elimination, as well as cetylpyridium chloride binding. Total amount of GAGs was quantified by the hexuronic acids assay. HA content in obtained GAGs sample was evaluated by the ELISA method. Increased serum concentration of sulfated GAGs in non-treated Graves' disease patients was found. Similarly, serum HA level in untreated patients was significantly elevated. The attainment of euthyroid state was accompanied by the decreased serum sulfated GAGs level and by normalization of serum HA concentration. In conclusion, the results obtained demonstrate that the alterations of GAGs metabolism connected with Graves' disease can lead to systemic changes of the extracellular matrix properties.

  4. Soluble serum Klotho levels in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise Mariager; Pedersen, Susanne Møller; Brasen, Claus Lohman

    2013-01-01

    Klotho concentrations were determined in 120 healthy adults aged 19-66years. Blood samples were collected, and stored sera were assayed for Klotho according to age and gender. In addition several other clinical and laboratory characteristics were determined in the cohort and compared to the levels...... genders. Concentrations of serum Klotho were independently associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and body weight using TRF whereas serum Klotho concentrations were associated with age using the ELISA. CONCLUSION: Comparison of two different immunoassays for serum Klotho indicate...

  5. Modeling Serum Creatinine in Septic ICU Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Cortese, Giuliana; Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2004-01-01

    Serum creatinine is a metabolite assumed to be constantly produced by the normally functioning muscle mass and is a good measure for monitoring daily renal function in the intensive care unit (ICU). High serum creatinine levels or an abnormal departure from normal pre-disease basal levels....... The present work details the structure of a model describing observed creatinine serum concentration (CSC) variations, depending on the time-varying septic insult to renal function in ICU patients, as well as the estimation of its parameters. CSC determinations were routinely obtained from 12 patients...

  6. Leptin in first trimester pregnancy serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedley, Paula; Pihl, Kasper; Krebs, Lone

    2009-01-01

    and its relation to fetal growth disturbances were examined in this study. The study is a case-control study with 36 small-for-gestational-age (SGA) (pregnancies and 108 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) (> or =5th percentile) pregnancies. The groups were matched by maternal age...... maternal BMI. There was no significant difference in maternal serum leptin concentrations between SGA and AGA pregnancies. In conclusion, SGA pregnancies are not associated with a lower maternal serum leptin concentration in first trimester. The maternal serum leptin concentration is largely determined...

  7. Inositol polyphosphate multikinase is a coactivator for serum response factor-dependent induction of immediate early genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunha; Tyagi, Richa; Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Jina; Kim, Young-ran; Beon, Jiyoon; Chen, Po Yu; Cha, Jiyoung Y.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Kim, Seyun

    2013-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) is a notably pleiotropic protein. It displays both inositol phosphate kinase and phosphatidylinositol kinase catalytic activities. Noncatalytically, IPMK stabilizes the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and acts as a transcriptional coactivator for CREB-binding protein/E1A binding protein p300 and tumor suppressor protein p53. Serum response factor (SRF) is a major transcription factor for a wide range of immediate early genes. We report that IPMK, in a noncatalytic role, is a transcriptional coactivator for SRF mediating the transcription of immediate early genes. Stimulation by serum of many immediate early genes is greatly reduced by IPMK deletion. IPMK stimulates expression of these genes, an influence also displayed by catalytically inactive IPMK. IPMK acts by binding directly to SRF and thereby enhancing interactions of SRF with the serum response element of diverse genes. PMID:24248338

  8. [Changes in serum lipids in rats treated with oral cooper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Corredor, O M; Carnevalí de Tatá, E; Reinosa-Füller, J; Contreras, Y; Ramírez de Fernández, M; Yánez-Domínguez, C

    2000-09-01

    Disturbances in lipid metabolism during copper deficiency in rats are well recognized. Copper deficiency is associated with the spontaneous retention of hepatic iron. Previous studies have reported that hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia are associated with elevated hepatic iron concentrations in copper deficient rats. There was a direct relationship between the magnitude of blood lipids and the concentration of hepatic iron. Based on these data, it has been hypothesized that iron was responsible for the development of lipemia of copper deficiency. In this study was determined the effect of increasing doses of Cu(10, 20 and 50 ppm) in the diet, on the serum total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides (triacylglicerols), phospholipids, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and liver iron and zinc concentrations in normal rats. The results were compared with normal rats that received a balanced diet containing 0.6 and 6 ppm of Cu, respectively. The results show that Cu-supplement diminished the cholesterol and triglyceride serum levels, increased the level of phospholipids, NEFA and concomitantly decreased the hepatic concentrations of Fe and Zn. There was a statistically significant (p Cu (r = -0.612), liver Fe and liver Zn (r = 0.837), liver Cu and liver Zn (r = -0.612), and serum triglycerides and liver Zn (r = 0.967). The mechanism(s) by which Fe and Zn determine these changes is not known; none of the enzymes that act in cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism and biosynthesis require Fe and/or Zn. The increase of NEFA is due to changes in the process of lipolysis and re-esterification of the fatty acids in blood. However, additional studies are needed for the precise mechanisms of this interrelationships to be clarified.

  9. Membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium decrease in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnkennedy Nnodim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Women who have had pre-eclampsia have a greater risk of developing hypertension, stroke and ischemic heart disease in later life. The etiology of pre-eclampsia remains unclear. Placental insufficiency plays a key role in the progression of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri.   Methods A case control study involving 200 primigravida (100 preeclamptic and 100 apparently healthy between the ages of 20 and 32 years attending General Hospital Owerri. Fasting venous blood was collected for the determination of serum selenium and serum calcium while membrane potential was calculated using the Nernst equation. The serum calcium was estimated using Randox Kit and serum selenium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Independent Student t test was used for statistical analysis.   Results The results revealed that membrane potential and serum selenium as well as serum calcium were significantly decreased in preeclampsia when compared with the controls, at p<0.05.   Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the decrease in membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. There may be a need for increasing the dietary intake of these essential trace metals during pregnancy to prevent pre-eclampsia in Owerri.

  10. Maternal serum leptin concentration in gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Soheilykhah

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: Our data showed that serum leptin level was higher in GDM and had a positive correlation with insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that high leptin levels might be a risk factor for GDM and IGT in pregnant women.

  11. Autologous serum therapy in chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous serum therapy is a promising therapy for treatment resistant urticaria. This is useful in developing countries as this is economical option. Minimum instruments like centrifuge, syringe and needles are required for the procedure.

  12. METABOLITE CHARACTERIZATION IN SERUM SAMPLES FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Metabonomics offers a distinct advantage over other tests as it can be ... Metabolic profiling in heart disease has also been successfully ... resonances of the small metabolites showing fingerprints of serum metabolomic profile (Figure. 3).

  13. Relationship between some serum electrolytes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-02-03

    Feb 3, 2014 ... The effect of Trypanosoma brucei infection on changes in concentration of some serum electrolytes and the ... the modulatory responses of the autonomic nervous system ..... Concurrent hyponatremia and hypocalcemia have.

  14. Serum Prolactin in Diagnosis of Epileptic Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies in databases and references concerning serum prolactin levels (PRL in patients with suspected seizures were rated for quality and analyzed by members of the Therapeutics Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Alteration of serum adropin level in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihua; Gao, Bo; Wu, Zaigui; Wang, Hanzhi; Dong, Minyue

    2017-04-01

    To clarify the alterations in serum adropin and preptin concentrations in preeclampsia, we determined serum adropin and preptin levels in 29 women with normal pregnancy and 32 women with preeclampsia. We found that maternal age, body mass index and fetal gender were not significantly different between two groups; however, blood pressure, gestational age and neonatal birth weight were significantly different. Serum adropin levels were significantly increased in women with preeclampsia compared with those with normal pregnancy but there were no significant differences in preptin levels. An increase in maternal serum adropin level was found in preeclampsia, and this may be a compensation for pregnancy complicated with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Relationship of Fetuin-A, Adiponectin, Retinol Binding Protein-4 (RBP-4 and High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP with Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR in Obese Non Diabetic Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Novianti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Central obesity is the accumulation of visceral (intra-abdominal fat and is strongly known to be associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Obesity can cause adipocyte hypertrophy that results in dysregulation of adipokine expression. The abnormal function of adipocytes may play an important role in the development of a chronic low-grade proinflammatory state associated with obesity. Adiponectin, retinol binding protein (RBP-4 and fetuin-A play a role in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance. Expression of fetuin-A is increased due to fat accumulation in the liver. Elevated concentration of fetuin-A in the circulation can impair insulin signaling in muscle and liver as well as suppress adiponectin secretion, although its molecular mechanism is still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship of fetuin-A, adiponectin, RBP-4 and hsCRP with insulin resistance in obese non diabetic men. METHODS: This was an observational study with a cross-sectional design. The study subjects were 64 men with non diabetic abdominal obesity, characterized by waist circumference of 98.47±5.88 cm and fasting blood glucose of 85.75±8.36 mg/dL. RESULTS: This study showed that fetuin-A was positively correlated with HOMA-IR in obese non diabetic men with insulin resistance (r=0.128; p=0.570, although not significant. Fetuin-A was found to be correlated with adiponectin, RBP-4 and hsCRP (r=0.150; p=0.233; r=0.050; p=0.711; r=-0.04; p=0.445, although not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration of fetuin-A showed a tendency to be positively correlated with HOMA-IR and with RBP-4 in obese non diabetic men, although statistically not significant. The concentration of fetuin-A showed a tendency to be negatively correlated with adiponectin and hsCRP although statistically not significant. There was no interrelationship between fetuin-A, adiponectin, RBP-4, hsCRP and HOMA-IR. Elevated concentrations of fetuin

  17. Serum homocysteine levels in cerebrovascular accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Zongte, Zolianthanga; Shaini, L.; Debbarma, Asis; Singh, Th Bhimo; Devi, S. Bilasini; Singh, W. Gyaneshwar

    2008-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia has been considered an independent risk factor in the development of stroke. The present study was undertaken to evaluate serum homocysteine levels in patients with cerebrovascular accidents among the Manipuri population and to compare with the normal cases. Ninety-three cerebrovascular accident cases admitted in the hospital were enrolled for the study and twenty-seven age and sex matched individuals free from cerebrovascular diseases were taken as control group. Serum h...

  18. Serum Soluble Corin is Decreased in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Fangfang; Shi, Jijun; Han, Xiujie; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Yan; Zhi, Zhongwen; Zhang, Fuding; Shen, Yun; Ma, Juanjuan; Song, Yulin; Hu, Weidong

    2015-07-01

    Soluble corin was decreased in coronary heart disease. Given the connections between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, circulating corin might be a candidate marker of stroke risk. However, the association between circulating corin and stroke has not yet been studied in humans. Here, we aimed to examine the association in patients wtith stroke and community-based healthy controls. Four hundred eighty-one patients with ischemic stroke, 116 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, and 2498 healthy controls were studied. Serum soluble corin and some conventional risk factors of stroke were examined. Because circulating corin was reported to be varied between men and women, the association between serum soluble corin and stroke was evaluated in men and women, respectively. Patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke had a significantly lower level of serum soluble corin than healthy controls in men and women (all P values, stroke than men in the highest quartile. Women in the lowest quartile of serum soluble corin were also more likely to have ischemic (OR, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-5.44) and hemorrhagic (OR, 8.54; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-31.02) stroke than women in the highest quartile. ORs of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were significantly increased with the decreasing levels of serum soluble corin in men and women (all P values for trend, stroke compared with healthy controls. Our findings raise the possibility that serum soluble corin may have a pathogenic role in stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, A; Aitkenhead, M; Caldwell, C; McCracken, G; Wilson, D; McClure, N

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of these studies was first to determine if vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a vascular permeability agent, is increased in the serum of women with preclinical and clinical preclampsia (PE), and second to determine how these levels change after delivery. Twenty preeclamptic and 25 normotensive women at term consented to have blood taken pre- and post-delivery. Ten preeclamptic, 10 gestational hypertensive, and 28 normotensive women had blood collected respectively at 12, 20, and 30 weeks gestation and predelivery. Serum was extracted from all samples, and VEGF concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Predelivery, the median serum VEGF concentration in the preeclamptic group was 51.7 ng/mL, and in the control group the concentration was 13.9 ng/mL (P<0.0001). Serum VEGF concentrations fell within 24 hours of delivery in both groups, which resulted in median values of 3.8 ng/mL and 3.2 ng/mL respectively (P<0.3). At 12 and 20 weeks, there was no significant difference between the serum VEGF concentrations in the 3 groups (P<0.3, 0.052 respectively). At 30 weeks, prior to the onset of clinical PE, the serum VEGF levels in the eventual preeclamptic group were elevated significantly compared with the gestational hypertensive and normotensive groups (P<0.001). Predelivery serum VEGF concentrations were significantly elevated in the preeclamptic group and were similar to those in the first study (P<0.0001). These findings suggest that VEGF may be important in the pathophysiology of PE and has the potential to act as a preclinical marker for the condition.

  20. Tubule urate and PAH transport: sensitivity and specificity of serum protein inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, J.J.; Kennedy, J.; Cowley, B.

    1987-01-01

    Macromolecules in rabbit serum inhibit the cellular uptake and transepithelial secretion of [ 14 C]urate and p-[ 3 H]aminohippurate ([ 3 H]PAH) in rabbit S 2 proximal tubule segments. To understand better the potential role these inhibitors may have in the regulation of renal organic anion excretion, the authors examined the specificity and relative inhibitory effects on tubule urate and PAH transport of albumin and γ-globulin, the major inhibitory proteins in rabbit serum. Native rabbit serum markedly inhibited the cellular accumulation or urate and PAH by isolated nonperfused segments. Urate and PAH transport was also inhibited by bovine serum, human serum, Cohn-fractionated rabbit albumin, and rabbit γ-globulin, but not by Cohn-fractionated bovine serum albumin. α-Lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, derived from milk, also inhibited urate and PAH transport, but to a lesser extent than albumin and γ-globulin. The transport inhibitory effects of proteins were independent of their binding to urate and PAH. Unidirectional influx and the steady-state intracellular accumulation of urate and PAH in suspensions of proximal tubules were decreased by rabbit serum proteins, suggesting that these inhibitors act on the external face of the cells to diminish the uptake of the organic anions. These studies indicate that the principal plasma proteins (albumin and γ-globulin) significantly inhibit urate and PAH transporters in the basolateral membranes of S 2 proximal tubules. They suggest that circulating plasma proteins that can penetrate the basement membrane of proximal tubules may directly modulate the renal excretion of urate and PAH

  1. Technetium-99m-Labeled Autologous Serum Albumin: A Personal-Exclusive Source of Serum Component

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuh-Feng; Chen, Yi-Chun; Li, Dian-Kun; Chuang, Mei-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Technetium-99m human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) is an important radiopharmaceutical required in nuclear medicine studies. However, the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection remains a major safety concern. Autopreparation of serum component acquired from patient provides a “personal-exclusive” source for radiolabeling. This paper is to evaluate the practicality of on-site elusion and subsequent radiolabeling efficacy for serum albumin. Results showed that the autologous elute contained more...

  2. Acting to gain information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

  3. Serum concentrations of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with abomasal ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Tajik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the serum concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp and serum amyloid A (SAA in water buffaloes with abomasal ulcers, the abomasums of 100 randomly selected water buffaloes were examined after slaughter. Type I abomasal ulcers were found in 56 out of 100 buffaloes. Serum concentrations of Hp and SAA were measured. There was no significant difference between affected and non-affected buffaloes in the serum concentrations of Hp and SAA. The serum concentrations of Hp and SAA had no significant correlation with age and the serum SAA revealed no significant correlation with the number of abomasal ulcers. A significant correlation was found between the serum Hp and the number of abomasal ulcers (r =0.29, p = 0.04. There was no significant difference in the serum concentrations of Hp and SAA between buffaloes with different ulcer locations in the abomasums. Although more work on a larger number of animals is required in this area, it seems that the measurement of the serum Hp can be used to predict the abundance of type I abomasal ulcers.

  4. The Price-Anderson Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Price-Anderson Act establishes nuclear liability law in the United States. First passed in 1957, it has influenced other nuclear liability legislation around the world. The insurer response the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 demonstrates the application of the Act in a real life situation. The Price-Anderson Act is scheduled to be renewed in 2002, and the future use of commercial nuclear power in tge United States will be influenced by this renewal. (author)

  5. The new Swiss Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tami, R.

    1999-01-01

    The new Swiss Energy Act and the accompanying regulation enable the instructions given in the poll by the electorate in 1990 -- the Energy Article in the Swiss Constitution -- to be implemented. The Energy Act creates the necessary basis for an advanced and sustainable energy policy. It should contribute to a sufficient, broadly based, dependable, economical and environment-friendly energy supply. The Energy Act and the Energy Regulation entered into force on January 1, 1999. (author)

  6. Atomic Energy Authority Act 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    This Act provides for the transfer of property, rights, liabilities and obligations of parts of the undertaking of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Autority, to two new Compagnies set up for this purpose: the Bristish Nuclear Fuels Limited, and the Radiochemical Centre Limited. Patents licences and registered designs owned by the Autority at the time of the transfer are not included therein. The Act also includes amendments to the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, notably as regards permits to operate granted to a body corporate. Finally, the Schedule to this Act lays down a certain number of provisions relating to security and the preservation of secrets. (NEA) [fr

  7. Pengaruh Timbal (Pb Terhadap Kadar MDA Serum Tikus Putih Jantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endrinaldi .

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTimbal (Pb merupakan logam berat bersifat toksik yang konsentrasinya di lingkungan saat ini dipandang sebagai zat berbahaya. Pb dalam bentuk senyawa berasal dari pembakaran bahan bakar kendaraan bermotor, emisi industry dan dari penggunaan cat bangunan yang mengandung Pb. Toksisitas Pb menghambat enzim yang berperan sebagai antioksidan dan merusak sel hati.Tujuan studi ini adalah untuk melihat pengaruh timbal (Pb terhadap kadar malondialdehid (MDA tikus putih jantan. Desain penelitian ini adalah eksperimental menggunakan 25 ekor tikus putih jantan yang dibagi menjadi lima kelompok, yaitu kelompok kontrol, dan kelompok perlakuan dengan pemberian Pb asetat dengan dosis konsentrasi 5, 10, 20 dan 40 mg/kg BB selama 26 hari.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terjadinya peningkatan rerata kadar MDA serum secara bermakna (p < 0,05, setelah pemberian Pb asetat selama 26 hari. Peningkatan kadar MDA secara bermakna terjadi antara kelompok kontrol dibandingkan dengan kelompok tikus yang diberi dosis 5, 10, 20 dan 40 mg/kg BB.Kesimpulan yang dapat diambil dari studi ini adalah bahwa pemberian Pb asetat meningkatkan kadar MDA serum tikus.Kata kunci: Pb asetat, MDAAbstractLead (Pb is atoxi cheavy metal concentrationsin the environment are now seenas a dangerous substance. Pb in the form of compounds derived from burningmotor vehicle fuel. Pb toxicityinhibitsan enzyme that acts as an antioxidant and liver cell damage.The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of lead (Pb on levels of malondialdehyde (MDA male whiterats. Experimental research design was used 25 white male rats were divided into five groups, namely the control group and the group treated with the administration of Pb acetate at a dose concentration of 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg / kg body weight for 26 days.The results showed an average increase in level of MDA, after administration of Pb acetate for 26 days were significantly (p <0.05. Increase in level of MDA of serum were significantly (p

  8. Fluorimetric determination of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiufeng; Liu, Jiangang; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xiaosen; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2005-01-01

    With the increase of people"s living standard and the changes of living form, the number of people who suffer from hypercholesterolemia is increasing. It is not only harmful to heart and blood vessel, but also leading to obstruction of cognition. The conventional blood detection technology has weakness such as complex operation, long detecting period, and bad visibility. In order to develop a new detection method that can checkout hypercholesterolemia conveniently, spectroscopy of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum is obtained by the multifunctional grating spectrograph. The experiment results indicate that, under the excitation of light-emitting diode (LED) with the wavelength at 407 nm, the serum from normal human and the hypercholesterolemia serum emit different fluorescence spectra. The former can emit one fluorescence region with the peak locating at 516 nm while the latter can emit two more regions with peaks locating at 560 nm and 588 nm. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of serum is non-linear increasing with the concentration of cholesterol increases when the concentration of cholesterol is lower than 13.8 mmol/L, and then, with the concentration of cholesterol increase, the fluorescence intensity decreases. However, the fluorescence intensity is still much higher than that of serum from normal human. Conclusions can be educed from the experiments: the intensity and the shape of fluorescence spectra of hypercholesterolemia serum are different of those of normal serum, from which the cholesterol abnormal in blood can be judged. The consequences in this paper may offer an experimental reference for the diagnosis of the hypercholesterolemia.

  9. Serum prolactin level in patients taking olanzapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diganta Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olanzapine is a commonly used antipsychotic. Prolactin elevation is a common adverse effect of anstipsychotics, and serum prolactin elevation is seen in about 30% patients treated with olanzapine. There are confounding results about dose dependency of olanzapine and prolactin elevation, and also the duration of treatment. Method: Fifty six patients, 36 male and 20 female, who were taking olanzapine for any condition for more than a month at a constant dose were enrolled in the study. Patients’ age, weight, body mass index (BMI, serum prolactin levels, and some biochemical values were recorded. Patients were taken from the review outpatient department (OPD after due consent. Results: Five each in male and female groups showed elevation of serum prolactin (estimated to be high if >20 ng/dl for males, and >25 ng/dl for females. In females, the elevation was found at lesser dose of olanzapine (13 mg/day, in males 18 mg/day and early in the treatment (2.4 months vs. 9.7 months in males. Males tended to show raised prolactin with higher doses of olanzapine (mean 18 mg/day. Females (26.31% also showed higher prevalence of prolactin elevation compared to males (13.51%. No other parameter was found to modify the prolactin levels. Conclusion: Olanzapine causes elevation of serum prolactin, though lesser degree than some other antipsychotics. Females are more prone to have raised serum prolactin with olanzapine compared to males. However, the elevation seems to be transient. Higher doses of olanzapine tend to cause elevation of serum prolactin. Serum prolactin estimation in patients taking olanzapine may be undertaken to maintain quality life, particularly in females.

  10. [Euthanasia and medical act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Right to life -as the prohibition of intentionally and arbitrarily taking life, even with authorization of the concerned one- is an internationally recognized right. In many countries, debate regarding euthanasia is more centered in its convenience, social acceptability and how it is regulated, than in its substantial legitimacy. Some argue that euthanasia should be included as part of clinical practice of health professionals, grounded on individual's autonomy claims-everyone having the liberty to choose how to live and how to die. Against this, others sustain that life has a higher value than autonomy, exercising autonomy without respecting the right to life would become a serious moral and social problem. Likewise, euthanasia supporters some-times claim a 'right to live with dignity', which must be understood as a personal obligation, referred more to the ethical than to the strictly legal sphere. In countries where it is already legalized, euthanasia practice has extended to cases where it is not the patient who requests this but the family or some healthcare professional, or even the legal system-when they think that the patient is living in a condition which is not worthy to live. Generalization of euthanasia possibly will end in affecting those who need more care, such as elder, chronically ill or dying people, damaging severely personal basic rights. Nature, purpose and tradition of medicine rule out the practice of euthanasia, which ought not be considered a medical act or legitimately compulsory for physicians. Today's medicine counts with effective treatments for pain and suffering, such as palliative care, including sedative therapy, which best preserves persons dignity and keeps safe the ethos of the medical profession.

  11. 7 CFR 65.100 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 65.100 Section 65.100 Agriculture Regulations of... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.100 Act. Act means the Agricultural Marketing Act of...

  12. Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase in ARPE-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-05

    analyses. (A) Microarray analysis was performed on RNA extracted from ARPE 19. Both LRAT (white), and housekeeping gene G3PDH (shaded) were detected...about one third of the house keeping gene glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( G3PDH ) 663G66. Western analyses with tLRAT antibody showed that LRAT

  13. Nuclear Material (Offences) Act 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The main purpose of this Act is to enable the United Kingdom to ratify the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material which opened for signature at Vienne and New York on 3 March 1980. The Act extends throughout the United Kingdom. (NEA) [fr

  14. Nurse Reinvestment Act. Public Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This document contains the text of the Nurse Reinvestment Act, which amends the Public Health Service Act to address the increasing shortage of registered nurses by instituting a series of policies to improve nurse recruitment and nurse retention. Title I details two initiatives to boost recruitment of nurses. The first initiative includes the…

  15. Online Challenge versus Offline ACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Irvin

    2010-01-01

    This article compares essays written in response to the ACT Essay prompt and a locally developed prompt used for placement. The two writing situations differ by time and genre: the ACT Essay is timed and argumentative; the locally developed is untimed and explanatory. The article analyzes the differences in student performance and predictive…

  16. Nuclear industry (Finance) Act 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Act is to enable British Nuclear Fuels Limited to make borrowings backed by Government guarantees in order to finance its ten year investment programme. More specifically, the Act raises the financial limit applicable to British Nuclear Fuels Limited from pound 500 million to pound 1,000 million. (NEA) [fr

  17. 78 FR 46256 - Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 1 Privacy Act CFR Correction In Title 11 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of January 1, 2012, on page 5, in Sec. 1.2, the words ``95 and 96 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.'' are added at the end of the definition of Act. [FR Doc. 2013-18535 Filed 7...

  18. Atomic Energy Commission Act, 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    Promulgated in 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission Act (204) established and vested in the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission the sole responsibility for all matters relating to the peaceful uses of atomic energy in the country. Embodied in the Act are provisions relating to the powers, duties, rights and liabilities of the Commission. (EAA)

  19. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugard, J; Kew, M C; Da Fonseca, M; Levin, J [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1982-08-21

    Having found raised serum calcitonin concentrations in 94% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma when using a dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay, we have now repeated the study, using a double-antibody radio-immunoassay, in 102 further patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 35 matched controls. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentrations (iCT) in the controls ranged from 10 to 310 pg/ml (mean 154,6 pg/ml). Values in the tumour patients ranged from 10 to 1,650 pg/ml (mean 302,6 pg/ml). The mean figures were significantly higher in the tumour patients (P smaller than 0,001), 35.5% of them having values above 310 pg/ml. In 65 of the patients serum iCT concentrations were also determined by dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay. Values ranged from 10 to 10780 pg/ml (mean 2,179 pg/ml). If 1,000 pg/ml is taken as the upper limit of normal, 69% of the patients had raised iCT concentrations. There was a good correlation (r=0,67; P smaller than 0,001) between serum iCT values measured with both methods in 50 patients. If measured by the double-antibody radio-immunoassay method, the serum calcitonin value is not useful as a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  20. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugard, J.; Kew, M.C.; Da Fonseca, M.; Levin, J.

    1982-01-01

    Having found raised serum calcitonin concentrations is 94% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma when using a dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay, we have now repeated the study, using a double-antibody radio-immunoassay, in 102 further patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 35 matched controls. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentrations (iCT) in the controls ranged from 10 to 310 pg/ml (mean 154,6 pg/ml). Values in the tumour patients ranged from 10 to 1 650 pg/ml (mean 302,6 pg/ml). The mean figures were significantly higher in the tumour patients (P smaller than 0,001), 35,5% of them having values above 310 pg/ml. In 65 of the patients serum iCT concentrations were also determined by dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay. Values ranged from 10 to 10780 pg/ml (mean 2 179 pg/ml). If 1 000 pg/ml is taken as the upper limit of normal, 69% of the patients had raised iCT concentrations. There was a good correlation (r=0,67; P smaller than 0,001) between serum iCT values measured with both methods in 50 patients. If measured by the double-antibody radio-immunoassay method, the serum calcitonin value is not useful as a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma

  1. Maternal serum levels of adiponectin in preeclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosrowbeygi, A.; Ahmadvand, H.

    2009-01-01

    The results of the serum levels of adiponectin in pre eclamptic patients are conflicting. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess serum levels of adiponectin in women with pre eclampsia compared with healthy pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed. The case group consisted of women with pre eclampsia (n=30). The control group consisted of 30 matched normal pregnant women. Serum levels of adiponectin were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Results: Serum levels of adiponectin were significantly higher in the pre eclamptic group than those in the normal control group. In the pre eclamptic patients serum levels of adiponectin showed a significant negative correlation with body mass index while no correlation was found in the normal pregnant women. In women with pre eclampsia, levels of adiponectin were decreased significantly in the overweight women compared with normal weight women, while in the control group no significant difference was observed. Conclusion: In conclusion, elevation of adiponectin levels might be a physiological feedback response to minimize endothelial dysfunction in pre eclamptic patients. (author)

  2. Radioimmunoassay for erytropoetin serum level in polycythemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, K.; Vassileva, D.

    2003-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is the first well studied hemopoietic growth factor. The pathological levels of its serum concentration show deviations in the specific mechanisms for some diseases such as polycythemia. Objective of this work is the assessment of the diagnostic value of the Epo in the serum for the differentiation of the main form of polycythemia - true and symptomatic. Material and methods: 47 patients are studied (21 women and 26 men), 23 of them are with polycythemia vera and 24 with polycythemia symptomatica. The following has been determined: the serum level of Erythropoietin, hemoglobin, the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes, myelogram. The serum level of Epo is quantitatively determined b using of radioimmunological method, through Epo-Trac kit. Results: The diagnosis is also confirmed in all patients by other laboratory tests. The normal values of Epo in healthy persons are 17.0±7.0 mU/ml. The average Epo level in patients with polycythemia vera is 20.4±3.0 mU/ml. In one patient the Epo level is supposedly connected with an accompanying kidney disease. Conclusions: The obtained data show that the Epo serum level is an accurate criterion in the diagnosing of true and symptomatic polycythemia. The true polycythemia is connected with an independent erythrocyte production. In the symptomatic polycythemia the tissue hypoxia stimulated the Epo production

  3. Immunoradiometric assay for ferritin in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyland, M.J.; Ganguli, P.C.; Blower, D.; Delamore, I.W.

    1975-01-01

    A sensitiv specific and precise immunoradiometric assay for ferritin has been developed. Ferritin was measured in the serum of 160 hospital controls, 101 females (118 plus/minus 9 μg/l) and 59 males (189 plus/minus 16 μg/l). This difference was statistically significant. In 28 patients with untreated iron deficiency anemia, serum ferritin concentration (6.1plus/minus 0.7 μg/l) was significantly lower than in the controls, but it was within the normal range in 14 cases of polycythaemia vera treated by repeated phlebotomy. In 4 patients with primary haemachromatosis (2884 plus/minus 56 μg/l), 25 with secondary iron overload states (5702 plus/minus 1235 μg/l) and 8 with haemolytic anaemia (1612 plus/minus 605 μg/l), serum ferritin levels were markedly elevated. In 14 cases of transfusional siderosis there was a highly significant correlation between serum ferritin concentration and units of blood transfused. A circadian rhythmin serum ferritin concentration was observed in 7 healthy subjects. (author)

  4. Serum zinc level in children with malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.M.; Mahmood, M.T.; Baluch, G.R.; Bhatti, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Serum zinc level amongst children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) was evaluated in a control study conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Allama Iqbal Medical College and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. Twenty-five children with PEM and 25 healthy children as control from the community were screened. Mean serum zinc level was found to be 54.48 -+ 18.91 mg/dl in children with PEM while it was 72.72 -+ 8.21 mg/dl in control group (P < 0.001). No significant difference in zinc level was noted between both sexes in each group. Marasmic 16 children revealed mean serum zinc level of 57.55 -+ 18.16 mg/dl while in Kwashiorkor it was 44.57 -+ 13.66 mg/dl. Serum zinc was significantly low in Kwashiorkor than in marasmus (P < 0.001). It was also significantly low in children with acute or chronic diarrhea associated with malnutrition (44.66 -+ 16.0 mg/dl). Acute respiratory infections in these children were not associated with low serum zinc level (71.66 -+ 16.51 mg/dl). (author)

  5. Serum iron parameters in liver cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, G. A.; Maail, W.

    2018-03-01

    The liver plays a fundamental role in iron homeostasis. Iron parameters change, especially ferritin, need to be evaluated in patients with liver cirrhosis. Serum ferritin could predict the prognosis of patients with decompensated cirrhosis since it reflects immunemediated and infectious stimuli. Ferritin could express the severity of liver disease and possible subsequent complications. Finally, it might reflect an iron overload condition resulting in significant morbidity and early mortality. 70 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis divided into three Child-Pugh subgroups. Serum iron parameters include serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and ferritin was measured in these groups. From these 70 patients, 30 (42.9%) with HbsAg positive, 26 (37.1%) with anti-HCV positive and 14 (20%) with both HbsAg and anti-HCV positive. Of the 70 patients, 14 (20%) had CTP Class A cirrhosis, 17 (24.3%) had CTP Class B cirrhosis, and 39 (55.7%) had CTP C cirrhosis. The median (range) value of serum iron was 36 (10-345) μg/dl, TIBC was 160 (59-520) μg/dl, Ferritin was 253.5 (8-6078) ng/ml and the transferrin saturation was 22.9 (3.65-216.98) %.We found a significant difference in serum ferritin level with CTP score. Ferritin levels increased as Child-Pugh class progressed (p<0.001).

  6. Elemental analysis of human serum and serum protein fractions by thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woittiez, J.R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Some applications of thermal neutron activation for the determination of elemental contents in human serum and human serum protein fractions are presented. Firstly total serum is dealt with, secondly serum protein fractions obtained by gel filtration are described. A brief review on the role of (trace) elements in human health and disease and a compilation of literature data for elemental contents in human serum, as obtained by neutron activation techniques, are given. The most important sources of statistical and systematic errors are evaluated. Results for the contents of sodium, potassium, magnesium, bromine, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, rubidium, cesium and antimony in serum are given, with emphasis on control of accuracy and precision. The possible relation between selenium in blood and cancer occurrence in humans is discussed. The results of elemental analyses from cancer patients and from a patient receiving a cytostatic treatment are presented. A survey of literature results for the determination of protein-bound elemental contents in serum is presented. Subsequently, results from a study on the behaviour of elements during gel filtration are discussed. Gel-element and protein-element interactions are studied. Finally the protein-bound occurrence of trace elements in human serum is determined by gel filtration and neutron activation analysis. Results for both desalting and fractionation are given, for the elements bromine, copper, manganese, vanadium, selenium, zinc, rubidium, iron and iodine. (Auth.)

  7. ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN FETAL SERUM, AMNIOTIC-FLUID, AND MATERNAL SERUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; VANLOON, AJ; MANTINGH, A; DEWOLF, BTHM; BREED, ASPM

    In order to gain more insight into the association between alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and fetal chromosomal disorders, especially Down's syndrome, we measured AFP in fetal serum, amniotic fluid, and maternal serum at cordocentesis. We compared the concentration and gradient of AFP in these three

  8. Serum proteinase inhibitors and other serum proteins in protein-energy malnutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelp, F.P.; Migasena, P.; Pongpaew, P.; SCHREURS W.H.P

    1977-01-01

    1. The concentrations of serum protein albumin, prealbumin and transferrin were determined in twenty-eight cases of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) with infection, together with the levels of serum proteinase inhibitors (PI), alpha1-antitrypsin (AT), alpha1-antichymotrypsin (Ach),

  9. Association between serum interleukin-6 and serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in nonthyroidal illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, A.; Platvoet-ter Schiphorst, M. C.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    Increased serum concentrations of FFA, bilirubin, and carboxyl-methyl-propyl-furanpropionic acid, accumulating in chronic renal failure in direct relationship with serum creatinine, have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of the low T3 syndrome during illness. Cytokines may also be involved in

  10. Association of serum uric acid with blood urea and serum creatinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.U.; Ahmad, Z.; Rehman, J.U.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hyperuricemia can cause serious health problems including renal insufficiency. Hyperuricemia is associated with many diseases including Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertriglyceridemia and Obesity. Objective of the present study was to study the Association of Serum Uric Acid with Blood Urea and Serum Creatinine. Methods: Eighty subjects, aged above 40, having blood urea more than 40 mg/dl and serum Creatinine more than 1.3 mg/dl were selected. 52.5 % subjects were male. Eighty subjects were selected as control group matching the age and sex with study group with normal blood urea and serum Creatinine. Results: Serum Uric Acid was found to be raised in 33 patients. Mean Serum Uric Acid value was 6.98+-2.021 in males (p<0.05) and 5.054+-2.324 in females (p<0.05). Conclusion: Serum Uric Acid is raised in patients with impaired renal function (p<0.05). Levels of increased Serum Uric Acid were not significantly associated with the cause of renal disease. (author)

  11. Zinc in human serum. Biochemical and clinical aspects. Zink i humant serum. Biokemiske og kliniske aspekter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiilerich, S

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 percent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of protein binding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a ..cap alpha../sup 2/-macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 percent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 percent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 percent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 percent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin.

  12. HIV and other predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Gomo, E; Kæstel, Pernille

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Folate and iron status and hemoglobin concentrations are important to maternal and infant health. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to identify predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 1669 pregnant women (22-35 wk of gestation) in ...

  13. Serum cardiac troponin I in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol and TNF-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Krarup; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth; Christensen, Anders Fogh

    2004-01-01

    Serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a specific marker of myocardial injury related to in-patient fatality and cardiac injury in acute stroke. We investigated whether cTnI in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol, acute inflammatory response, and insular damage. We also investigated whether c...

  14. Radioimmunological determination of digoxin in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, G.; Sorger, D.

    1979-01-01

    The tested quality signs of the digoxin-RIA (Medica) correspond to other RIA-test methods. The digoxin-RIA (Medica) is, therefore, well suited for clinical examinations. In the dilanacin-(digoxin-) long-term therapy with the maintenance dose of 0.5 mg digoxin a day 75.4% of the patients examined (n = 65) were within the therapeutic field. In each case 12.3% were underdigitalised or overdigitalised, respectively. In the 8 patients in the toxic region only the half showed signs of digoxin intoxication. It is referred to the importance of creatinine and potassium in the serum, to the digoxin creatinene and potassium in the serum, to the digoxin clearance depending on age, to the body weight and the body surface, respectively, in very obese patients for the height of the serum digoxin level and for the compatibility of this heart glycoside. (author)

  15. Radioimmunoassay of progesterone in unextracted serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, S.P.; Corcoran, J.M.; Eastman, C.J.; Doy, F.A.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid, precise radioimmunoassay for progesterone in 25 μL of unextracted serum is described. Progesterone is released from its binding protein by adding an optimal amount of cortisol, which binds to the same protein (cortisol binding globulin) as progesterone. The amount of cortisol required does not cross react with the specific progesterone antibody used. This approach considerably shortens assay time and removes a tedious and imprecise stage in the conventional assay of serum progesterone. Results correlated well (r = 0.97) with a method involving organic solvent extraction of progesterone from serum. During the two years we have used this mehod in a busy diagnostic endocrine laboratory, the between-assay precision (CV) for low-, medium-, and high-concentration quality control sera was 12, 7, and 9%, respectively. Data from participation in an independent external quality-control program verified the adequacies of the method

  16. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kandasamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP and hemoglobin (Hb levels. Materials and Methods: The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Results: Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Also serum and salivary IgG and IgA levels showed significantly increased (P < 0.01 in all the three staging of OSMF when compared to control group. Hb levels and TSP levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. One-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and unpaired t -test were used for statistical analysis. Conclusion: The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  17. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, M; Jaisanghar, N; Austin, Ravi David; Srivastava, Kumar Chandan; Anusuya, G Sai; Anisa, N

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA) levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased ( P < 0.001) in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Also serum and salivary IgG and IgA levels showed significantly increased ( P < 0.01) in all the three staging of OSMF when compared to control group. Hb levels and TSP levels were significantly decreased ( P < 0.001) in OSMF patients when compared to controls. One-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and unpaired t -test were used for statistical analysis. The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  18. Serum ferritin in recurrent oral ulceration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challacombe, S.J.; Scully, C.; Keevil, B.; Lehner, T.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive radio-assay for ferritin was developed and used to examine serum ferritin levels in 105 patients with recurrent oral ulceration (ROU), 41 patients with Behcet's syndrome (BS), 42 with other ulcerative oral lesions, 35 patients with non-ulcerative oral lesions and in 78 controls. Ferritin levels increased with age and were significantly higher in males than females. The mean ferritin concentrations in male patients with ROU, BS or with other oral ulcers were significantly reduced in comparison with controls, and in female patients were significantly reduced in those with major aphthous ulcers. The prevalence of low serum ferritin levels was about 8% in patients with ROU, 15% in BS and 9.5% in patients with other ulcerative oral lesions, compared with less than 3% in patients with non-ulcerative oral disorders and in controls. Most of the iron-deficient patients were female. Serum ferritin levels did not directly correlate with serum iron levels and may be a more accurate indicator of iron deficiency. Furthermore, serum ferritin can distinguish between patients with true iron deficiency and those with secondary sideropenia. It is suggested that in a small number of patients, oral ulceration may be a presenting sign of iron deficiency, and that in a further small proportion of patients, ROU already present will be exacerbated by concurrent iron deficiency. Both groups will show a therapeutic response to correction of the iron deficiency. The results suggest that serum ferritin levels are a useful part of the haematological investigatons in patients with ROU. (author)

  19. Act local, think global

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Chris; McRoberts, Doug

    2002-01-01

    Tip O'Neill, one of the grand old men of modem US politics, once famously remarked that all politics is local. Like most politicians who succeed on the national stage - and not just in the US - it was a truth he never lost sight of. What is true for politicians is equally true in the communications business. We may increasingly live in a global village, but successful companies - even multi-nationals - forget the importance of local and regional public relations at their peril. Think of Douglas Ivester, the CEO of Coca-Cola at the time of the 1999 Belgian contamination scandal, who allegedly reacted to first reports of the crisis by asking: 'Where the hell is Belgium?' A more appropriate question today - several years after Coke's share price toppled and the CEO was unceremoniously sacked - might be: 'Who the hell is Douglas Nester?' But - to adapt another famous phrase - the fact that communications (and marketing) professionals still need to 'act local' as much as ever before should not blind us to the growing need to 'think global'. In the nuclear industry, as in the world economy generally, increasing global integration is a reality, as are the international nature of the news media and the increasingly global nature of the anti-nuclear pressure groups. Indeed, it was the growing need for a truly global information network to counter these trends, by increasing the overall speed and accuracy of the worldwide nuclear information flow, that led the nuclear community to establish NucNet in 1991. So where exactly is the line between local and regional nuclear communications on the one hand, and global communications on the other? Is there one spin for a regional audience, and another for a global audience? This presentation proposes some guiding principles, by examining the response of nuclear communicators world-wide to the new communications agenda imposed in the wake of the September 11th suicide attacks in the US. NucNet President Doug McRoberts and Executive

  20. Embryogenesis-promoting factors in rat serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, M; Kimura, R; Shoji, R

    1998-06-15

    Regarding whole rat embryo cultures in vitro, rat serum as a culture medium is known to support the normal growth of rat embryos in the organogenesis phase. The purpose of the present study was to isolate the embryogenesis-promoting factors from rat serum as a first step in the development of a defined serum-free medium for a whole embryo culture system. Pooled rat serum after heat inactivation was fractionated into three major peaks (frA, containing a region of void volume, frB, and frC) by gel filtration. The 9.5-day rat embryos that were cultivated for 48 hr in essential salt medium containing frB (with a molecular size range of 100-500 kDa) revealed normal growth. Three proteins (27 kDa, 76 kDa, and 190 kDa) that had the embryogenesis-promoting effects were isolated from 3-hr delayed centrifuged rat serum by the ion exchange chromatography. The 76-kDa protein was found to be rat transferrin by immunoblotting. The 27-kDa protein was identified as apo-AI (the major apoprotein of high-density lipoprotein) by immunoblotting. High-density lipoprotein obtained from pooled rat serum by a NaBr density gradient ultracentrifugation was found to have a positive effect on embryogenesis. The 10-kDa protein was also identified as alpha 1-inhibitor 3 by immunoblotting. In addition, the embryogenesis-promoting effect of the fraction containing 27-kDa and 190-kDa proteins declined within a short period of storage at -20 degrees C. This decrease was countered by supplementing its fraction (D-2) with albumin isolated from rat serum. These results in the present study suggest that transferrin, high-density lipoprotein, and alpha 1-inhibitor 3 in rat serum may be embryogenesis-promoting factors, and that albumin appeared to play a role in the embryogenesis of rat embryos in whole embryo cultures.

  1. Study of Serum Magnesium in Surgical Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip D. Lambe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A deficiency of magnesium is of clinical importance in hospitalized patients. The prevalence of hypomagnesaemia is high in critically ill patients. Knowing the important role of magnesium in surgical cases, it is necessary to anticipate and diagnose magnesium deficiency prior to surgery and in the immediate postoperative period to correct it. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyse serum magnesium levels in patients undergoing emergency surgical procedures, planned surgical procedures and normal healthy matched controls and to compare the serum magnesium levels in all the three groups. Materials and Methods: The study participants were divided into three groups: i Group I: patients undergoing emergency major surgery ii Group II: patients undergoing planned major surgery iii Group III: normal healthy controls. Serum Magnesium investigation was done by Xylidyl Blue Method using UV-1800/Shimadzu UV-Spectrophotometer. Results: The mean serum Magnesium in control group was found to be 2.16 ± 0.30 mg/dl. In patients undergoing planned surgery, pre-operative serum magnesium was normal (2.16 ± 0.22 mg/dl but decreased significantly on postoperative day 3 (1.63 ± 0.27 mg/dl and day 6 (1.97 ± 0.12 mg/dl and returned to normal level by post-operative day 9 (2.14 ± 0.14 mg/dl compared to controls. In patients undergoing emergency surgery, serum magnesium was decreased pre-operatively (1.90 ± 0.48 mg/dl.Further significant reduction was found at post-operative day 3 (1.38 ± 0.28 mg/dl, day 6 (1.59 ± 0.30 mg/dl and day 9 (1.88 ± 0.46 mg/dl compared to controls. Mean serum Magnesium overall in emergency surgery patients was reduced significantly compared to planned surgery patients. Conclusion: A transient fall in the serum Magnesium as compared to its pre-operative level was seen in every patient undergoing surgical procedure due to surgical stress. In patients undergoing emergency surgical procedure, the decrease was

  2. Serum YKL-40 and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cintin, C; Johansen, J S; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    1999-01-01

    related to short survival. In the present study we analysed YKL-40 in preoperative sera from patients with colorectal cancer and evaluated its relation to survival. Serum YKL-40 was determined by RIA in 603 patients. Survival after operation was registered, and median follow-up time was 61 months. Three......YKL-40 is a mammalian member of the chitinase protein family. Although the function of YKL-40 is unknown, the pattern of its expression suggests a function in remodelling or degradation of extracellular matrix. High serum YKL-40 has been found in patients with recurrent breast cancer and has been...

  3. Competitive radioimmunoassay of digoxin in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oslapas, Raymond; Herrin, T.R.

    1975-01-01

    The process described is for determining the digoxin level of a serum. To do so a mixture is made by adding to the serum sample an antidigoxin antibody and a suitable labelling quantity of O 3 -(hydroxy-4 phenethylcarbamoyl)digoxigenin for radioactive labelling. The mixture is allowed to incubate so that the digoxin of the sample and the radioactive labelling reagent joint to the antidigoxin antibody. A precipitating agent is added to the mixture to help the formation of a precipitate and thus separate the labelled digoxin taken up from the precipitate free digoxin. The liquid is separated from the precipitate formed and the residual radioactivity of the precipitate is measured [fr

  4. Radioimmunoassay of serum myoglobin in neuromuscular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askmark, H; Osterman, P O; Roxin, L E; Venge, P [University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of serum myoglobin was performed in 85 patients with muscular symptoms. Elevated levels were found in 93% of patients with myogenic myopathy, in 54% with myasthenia gravis and in 50% with neurogenic myopathy. All 11 patients with polymyositis had elevated myoglobin concentrations. In six of seven patients with polymyositis, who were followed up with repeated determinations, a clear relationship between myoglobin levels and clinical course was found. In general serum myoglobin seemed to be a more sensitive indicator of muscle disease than creatine kinase.

  5. Radioimmunoassay of serum myoglobin in neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askmark, H.; Osterman, P.O.; Roxin, L.-E.; Venge, P.

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of serum myoglobin was performed in 85 patients with muscular symptoms. Elevated levels were found in 93% of patients with myogenic myopathy, in 54% with myasthenia gravis and in 50% with neurogenic myopathy. All 11 patients with polymyositis had elevated myoglobin concentrations. In six of seven patients with polymyositis, who were followed up with repeated determinations, a clear relationship between myoglobin levels and clinical course was found. In general serum myoglobin seemed to be a more sensitive indicator of muscle disease than creatine kinase. (author)

  6. HYPOLIPEMIC THERAPY AND LOW SERUM CHOLESTEROL CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladmila Bojanic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Low concentration of plasma lipoproteins (hypolipoproteinemia presents decreasing concentrations of all or particular lipids components. Classification of hypolipoproteinemia (hypoLP divides them into: primary (hereditary and secondary. Primary hipoLP are rare diseases and their main characteristic is disorder of apolipoproteins synthesis, which leads to low serum cholesterol concentration. Secondary hipoLP are presented in many diseases. They have diagnostic, prognostic significance and present good therapeutic marker. However, modern therapeutic approaches for aggressive lipid lowering pointed out many questions about physiological limits for cholesterol lowering. These approaches, also, open many questions about consequences of low serum concentration of total cholesterol and triglicerides.

  7. Analysis of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, B R

    2002-09-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) levels are influenced by genetic polymorphism. Interpretation of serum levels with the appropriate genotypic reference range improves the diagnostic sensitivity of the assay for sarcoidosis. SACE assays are performed by a large number of routine clinical laboratories. However, there is no external quality assessment (EQA) for SACE other than an informal regional scheme. This showed analytical performance of SACE assays to be poor, with a diversity of reference ranges, leading to widely disparate clinical classification of EQA samples. Genetic polymorphism combined with poor analytical performance suggest that perhaps SACE assays should revert to being the province of specialized laboratories.

  8. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) enhances the serum levels of luteinising hormone in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Fumiaki; Jikyo, Tamaki; Takeda, Ryosuke; Ogata, Misato

    2014-02-03

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed fertility benefits. This study investigated the effect of Maca on the serum pituitary hormone levels during the pro-oestrus phase. Maca powder was made from the tubers of Lepidium meyenii Walp collected, dried, and reduced to powder at the plantation in Junín Plateau and was purchased from Yamano del Perú SAC. The Maca powder was identified by chemical profiling and taxonomic methods. Two groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were provided feed with normal feed containing 5%, 25%, or 50% Maca powder ad libitum for 7 weeks. At 1800h of the proestrus stage, the rats were euthanised, and blood samples were collected for serum isolation. The serum pituitary hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). No significant differences in feed intake or growth rate were observed among the rats. During the pro-oestrus stage, a 4.5-fold increase (PMaca powder compared with the control rats. No significant differences were observed in the levels of the other pituitary hormones, including growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A dose-dependent increase of LH serum levels was observed within the range of 3-30g Maca/kg. Furthermore, the enhancement of the LH serum levels was specific to the pro-oestrus LH surge. The present study demonstrates that Maca uniquely enhances the LH serum levels of pituitary hormones in female rats during the pro-oestrus LH surge and acts in a pharmacological, dose-dependent manner. These findings support the traditional use of Maca to enhance fertility and suggest a potential molecular mechanism responsible for its effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for corticosterone and deoxycortisol in human serum: Sex differences in the mean serum concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeneshoefer, M.; Harendt, H.; Vecsei, P.

    1977-01-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay is described which allows the simultaneous determination of serum corticosterone and deoxycortisol. The normal serum concentration of both steroids were found to be dependent on sex and menstrual cycle. Mean concentrations (+-S.D.) in males, females (follicular phase) and females (luteal phase) were 4210 +- 2170 ng/l, 2410 +- 1480 ng/l and 4390 +- 2320 ng/l for corticosterone and 499 +- 273 ng/l, 207 +- 152 ng/l and 335 +- 182 ng/l for deoxycortisol. After adrenal stimulation by corticotropin itself or by insulin induced hypoglycemia, the serum concentrations of corticosterone became significantly higher than those of deoxycortisol. After oral administration of dexamethasone serum concentrations of both steroids were suppressed to levels below the limit of the normal range. One hour after oral metyrapone administration at midnight, serum corticosterone decreased, while serum deoxycortisol increased by a factor of about five. After eight hours serum concentrations of both steroids were increased considerably. Corticosterone attained levels slightly higher than the normal range and deoxycortisol rose to levels which were higher than the normal mean concentrations by a factor of about 500. (orig./AS) [de

  10. The effect of supplementation with vitamin A on serum and liver concentrations in Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur) and its lack of impact on brown skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Christopher; Lentini, Andrew; Berkvens, Charlene; Crawshaw, Graham

    2014-01-01

    "Brown skin disease" (BSD) is a clinical syndrome of dysecdysis, chronic weight loss and death, previously reported in Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur). Although vitamin A deficiency has been suggested, its cause remains unknown and multiple treatments have failed to prevent or reverse the condition. This study compared the efficacy of vitamin A supplementation, administered in different forms and by different routes, in 48 captive born Puerto Rican crested toads fed from metamorphosis on gut-loaded, dusted, commercially raised crickets. Forty-five toads started to show clinical signs of BSD at 9 months of age; all toads were treated orally with an oil-based vitamin A formulation twice weekly for 2 months but continued to deteriorate. Two treatment groups were then compared: Animals in one group (n=19) received 2 IU injectable vitamin A (Aquasol-A) per gram bodyweight subcutaneously twice weekly for 3 months with no change in diet. Toads in the other group (n=22) received a single oral dose of vitamins A, D3 , and E, and were fed on earthworms and crickets gut-loaded with produce and a finely-ground alfalfa-based pellet, dusted with the same vitamin/mineral supplement. All affected animals developed severe BSD equally and died during, or were euthanized at the end of, the treatment regimen, with no clinical improvement. Animals supplemented with Aquasol-A had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations compared with the other treatment group, whereas serum retinol concentrations showed no significant difference. Vitamin A supplementation does not appear a successful treatment once BSD symptoms have developed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effect of Non Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Serum Visfatin Concentration in Periodontal Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Raghavendra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visfatin is a pleiotropic mediator which acts as growth factor, cytokine, enzyme involved in energy including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism and has been recently demonstrated to exert several pro-inflammatory functions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Visfatin concentration in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF and serum in patients with chronic periodontitis, and to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the GCF and serum visfatin concentration. 30 subjects (age range: 25 to 52 years were selected and divided into two groups based on the gingival index, probing depth, periodontal attachment level, and radiologic parameters (bone loss: group 1 (15 subjects with healthy periodontium, group 2 (15 subjects with chronic periodontitis, while, Group 2 patients after 8 weeks of the treatment (scaling and root planning, SRP constituted group 3. GCF samples (by microcapillary pipettes and serum samples (by venipuncture were collected to estimate the levels of Visfatin using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit. The mean Visfatin concentration in GCF and serum was observed to be the highest in group 2 and lowest in group 1. While concentration in group 3 was similar to group 1. The concentration of Visfatin in GCF and serum decreased after SRP. The Visfatin concentration in GCF and serum found to be highest in chronic periodontitis group and decreases after treatment. Hence Visfatin values can be considered as an “inflammatory marker” can be explored in future as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of periodontal disease.

  12. MicroRNAs and Metabolites in Serum Change after Chemotherapy: Impact on Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Walenda

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic regeneration after high dose chemotherapy necessitates activation of the stem cell pool. There is evidence that serum taken after chemotherapy comprises factors stimulating proliferation and self-renewal of CD34(+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs--however, the nature of these feedback signals is yet unclear. Here, we addressed the question if specific microRNAs (miRNAs or metabolites are affected after high dose chemotherapy. Serum taken from the same patients before and after chemotherapy was supplemented for in vitro cultivation of HSPCs. Serum taken after chemotherapy significantly enhanced HSPC proliferation, better maintained a CD34(+ immunophenotype, and stimulated colony forming units. Microarray analysis revealed that 23 miRNAs changed in serum after chemotherapy--particularly, miRNA-320c and miRNA-1275 were down-regulated whereas miRNA-3663-3p was up-regulated. miRNA-320c was exemplarily inhibited by an antagomiR, which seemed to increase proliferation. Metabolomic profiling demonstrated that 44 metabolites were less abundant, whereas three (including 2-hydroxybutyrate and taurocholenate sulphate increased in serum upon chemotherapy. Nine of these metabolites were subsequently tested for effects on HSPCs in vitro, but none of them exerted a clear concentration dependent effect on proliferation, immunophenotype and colony forming unit formation. Taken together, serum profiles of miRNAs and metabolites changed after chemotherapy. Rather than individually, these factors may act in concert to recruit HSPCs into action for hematopoietic regeneration.

  13. Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Weanling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the dose-dependent effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on hematology and serum biochemistry in weanling dogs. Nine healthy local dogs between 12 to 14 weeks of age were randomly assigned to three treatments: control, 150mg/kg and 300mg/kg of medroxyprogesterone ...

  14. Serum and urine trace metals in ketosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, R.E.; Hiner, C.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1974-01-01

    Three groups of male rats were housed in metabolic cages. The control group was fed ad libitum, a second group was fasted and diabetes was induced in the third group by the subcutaneous injection of alloxan. After 48 hours all animals were bled and livers, which were quick-frozen in situ, were obtained. Fasted and diabetic animals were ketotic as manifested by lowering urinary pH and elevated urinary and blood acetoacetate and ..beta..-hydroxybutyrate. Blood and hepatic content of acetate was elevated in diabetic versus control rats. Blood and hepatic content of acetate was not increased in fasted animals. In fasted rats total urinary Zn and Cu were decreased and Mg and Ca did not differ significantly from control values. In diabetic rats total urinary excretion of Mg was increased whereas urinary Zn, Cu and Ca levels did not differ significantly from control values. In fasted animals only serum Zn was diminished. In diabetic rats serum Cu and Ca were decreased and serum Mg was increased while serum Zn was unchanged. Thus, the ketosis of fasting differs from the ketosis of diabetes in several of its metabolic manifestations. 11 references, 9 figures.

  15. PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS (PFCs) IN SERUM OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PFCs have been used in a wide range of consumer, including residential, products (e.g., stain-resistant coatings for carpets and upholstery). Carbon-fluoride bonds are highly stable, mak-ing PFCs extremely resistant to biodegradation. Thus, PFCs have become globally distributed and are ubiquitously present in serum of wildlife and people. Despite this, comparatively little is known as to how people are primarily exposed, and what (if any) health risk is associated with chronic, low-level exposure. It is hypothesized that house dust may represent a significant exposure route because PFCs can slough or volatilize from products used indoors, subsequently adsorbing to and accumulating within house dust. The purpose of this study was to determine if PFC serum levels in domestic cats tended to increase in proportion to time spent indoors and whether analyte patterns reflected that of food sources [e.g., fish products with high perfluoro-octane sulfonate (PFOS) but low perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS)] or with house dust (PFOS + PFHxS + perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) ─ with high PFHxS levels in the most contaminated dust). In 2008, serum was obtained from feral and pet cats presenting to shelters and clinics in the Raleigh, NC area, including the NCSU VTH. PFC serum levels were measured using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. Data on housing status was available for 50 cats. From least to greatest indoor residential exposure, cats were grouped as

  16. Serum chromium levels in gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P G Sundararaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure serum chromium level in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM from Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: Thirty women with gestational diabetes, 60 age matched controls. Inclusion criteria: Gestational age 22-28 weeks, age group 20-35 years. Exclusion Criteria: Gestational age beyond 28 weeks, malnutrition or presence of infection. Serum chromium was measured using inductive couple plasma emission spectrometer. Results: Serum chromium levels of women with GDM, 1.59+/-0.02 ng/ml (range: 0.16-4.0 ng/ml were lower than in controls (4.58+/-0.62 ng/ml; range 0.82-5.33 ng/ml (P < 0.001. However, there were no significant differences among cases and controls when subdivided by parity. Conclusions: Women with GDM from a South Indian city had lower levels of serum chromium compared to pregnant women without GDM. Studies may be done whether chromium supplementation is useful in this group of women.

  17. Serum YKL-40 and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cintin, C; Johansen, J S; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    1999-01-01

    related to short survival. In the present study we analysed YKL-40 in preoperative sera from patients with colorectal cancer and evaluated its relation to survival. Serum YKL-40 was determined by RIA in 603 patients. Survival after operation was registered, and median follow-up time was 61 months. Three...

  18. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  19. Comparison of Serum Calcium and Magnesium Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Evidence suggests the involvement of calcium and magnesium metabolism in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. However, findings from studies are heterogenous and inconsistent. Aim: The study aimed to compare the total serum calcium and magnesium levels in preeclamptic women with that of ...

  20. Serum Metabonomics of Mild Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongmin; Zhang, Lei; Kang, Huan; Zhang, Jiandong; Liu, Jie; Liu, Shuye

    2016-11-01

    Mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) is a common acute abdominal disease, and exhibits rising incidence in recent decades. As an important component of systemic biology, metabonomics is a new discipline developed following genomics and proteomics. In this study, the objective was to analyze the serum metabonomics of patients with MAP, aiming to screen metabolic markers with potential diagnostic values. An analysis platform with ultra performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to screen the difference metabolites related to MAP diagnosis and disease course monitoring. A total of 432 endogenous metabolites were screened out from 122 serum samples, and 49 difference metabolites were verified, among which 12 difference metabolites were identified by nonparametric test. After material identification, eight metabolites exhibited reliable results, and their levels in MAP serum were higher than those in healthy serum. Four metabolites exhibited gradual downward trend with treatment process going on, and the differences were statistically significant (P Metabonomic analysis has revealed eight metabolites with potential diagnostic values toward MAP, among which four metabolites can be used to monitor the disease course. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Preliminary Studies on Some Haematological and Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean serum values of sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate, as well as urea, creatinine and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) enzyme did not differ from the normal values, while the mean aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme value appeared to be lower than the normal range.In conclusion, the RBC, PCV ...

  2. gene polymorphism and its serum lev

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    polymorphisms and its serum level with the risk of MetS as well as their ... population for quantifying insulin resistance and β-cell function (Matthews et al. 1985). .... of IL-10 -819 C >T gene polymorphism (Co-dominant model) was significantly.

  3. Haematology, serum biochemistry and growth performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High performing does have the tendency of producing healthy kids with reasonable weight at birth compared to least performing does. A study was conducted to investigate the haematology, serum biochemistry and growth performance of grazing pregnant Kalahari Red does fed concentrate diets at three protein levels.

  4. Serum Iron Protects from Renal Postischemic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaugier, Céline; Amano, Mariane T; Chemouny, Jonathan M; Dussiot, Michael; Berrou, Claire; Matignon, Marie; Ben Mkaddem, Sanae; Wang, Pamella H M; Fricot, Aurélie; Maciel, Thiago T; Grapton, Damien; Mathieu, Jacques R R; Beaumont, Carole; Peraldi, Marie-Noëlle; Peyssonnaux, Carole; Mesnard, Laurent; Daugas, Eric; Vrtovsnik, François; Monteiro, Renato C; Hermine, Olivier; Ginzburg, Yelena Z; Benhamou, Marc; Camara, Niels O S; Flamant, Martin; Moura, Ivan C

    2017-12-01

    Renal transplants remain a medical challenge, because the parameters governing allograft outcome are incompletely identified. Here, we investigated the role of serum iron in the sterile inflammation that follows kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury. In a retrospective cohort study of renal allograft recipients ( n =169), increased baseline levels of serum ferritin reliably predicted a positive outcome for allografts, particularly in elderly patients. In mice, systemic iron overload protected against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury-associated sterile inflammation. Furthermore, chronic iron injection in mice prevented macrophage recruitment after inflammatory stimuli. Macrophages cultured in high-iron conditions had reduced responses to Toll-like receptor-2, -3, and -4 agonists, which associated with decreased reactive oxygen species production, increased nuclear localization of the NRF2 transcription factor, increased expression of the NRF2-related antioxidant response genes, and limited NF- κ B and proinflammatory signaling. In macrophage-depleted animals, the infusion of macrophages cultured in high-iron conditions did not reconstitute AKI after ischemia-reperfusion, whereas macrophages cultured in physiologic iron conditions did. These findings identify serum iron as a critical protective factor in renal allograft outcome. Increasing serum iron levels in patients may thus improve prognosis of renal transplants. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Performance, immunity, serum biochemical and hematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... results suggest that supplementing broilers' diet with 5 g/kg thyme can indicate favorable influences of antibiotic growth promoter on performance without any detrimental impacts on immune responses and blood parameters. Key words: Broiler, thyme, growth performance, immunity, serum biochemistry, hematology.

  6. Hypoxemia increases serum interleukin-6 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, T; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Poulsen, T D

    1997-01-01

    Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL) 1 beta, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined in ten healthy men at sea level and during four days of altitude hypoxia (4350m above sea level). The mean (SD) arterial blood...

  7. METABOLITE CHARACTERIZATION IN SERUM SAMPLES FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    fasting 10 mL of blood sample from each individual was taken and was allowed to clot in plastic tube for 2 h at room temperature. The serum was collected by centrifugation. The samples were stored under liquid nitrogen for NMR analysis. Before NMR analysis, 600 µL of the samples were taken in a 5 mm high quality NMR ...

  8. Serum irisin levels in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Anna; Myśliwiec, Hanna; Kiluk, Paulina; Świderska, Magdalena; Flisiak, Iwona

    2017-06-01

    Irisin has been proposed to regulate metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes or metabolic syndrome which are common comorbidities in psoriasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum irisin level in psoriasis and elucidate possible associations with disease activity, inflammatory or metabolic parameters and topical treatment. Thirty-seven individuals with active plaque-type psoriasis and 15 healthy controls were enrolled. Blood samples were collected before and after two weeks of therapy. Serum irisin concentrations were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results were correlated with psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), body mass index (BMI), inflammatory and biochemical markers, lipid profile and effectiveness of topical treatment. Irisin serum levels were insignificantly increased in psoriatic patients in comparison to the controls (p = 0.38). No significant correlations between investigated adipokine and several indicators of metabolic disorders, nor BMI (p = 0.37) or PASI (p = 0.5) were found. Significant positive correlations with C-reactive protein (CRP) (0.009), lipocalin-2 (p = 0.02), age (p = 0.02) and disease duration (p = 0.008) were noted. After topical treatment, serum irisin level did not significantly change (p = 0.31), despite clinical improvement. Irisin might be a marker of inflammation in psoriatic patients, but may not be a reliable indicator of metabolic conditions, severity of psoriasis nor efficacy of antipsoriatic treatment.

  9. Serum Calcium, Inorganic Phosphates and some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Sickle cell disease has long been associated with bone deformities and pain. Mineral salts such as calcium and inorganic phosphate are critical in bone formation and metabolism. This investigation was designed to study the serum concentration of these minerals as well as some haematological parameters in ...

  10. Anaerobic exercise - Induced changes in serum mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic exercise, a non 02 – dependent energy metabolism leads to transient metabolic changes, which are corrected gradually by homestatic mechanism. We investigated in eight male subjects, the effects of anaerobic exercise after a day sedentary activity on serum mineral concentration. There was significant ...

  11. Serum erythropoietin levels by radioimmunoassay in polycythaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgegaard, G.; Miller, O.; Caro, J.; Erslev, A. (Cardeza Foundation for Hematological Research, Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pa.)

    1982-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for erythropoietin (Epo) was developed and validated against the polycythaemic mouse assay. The correlation was good, with a r=0.94. Several other criteria of specificity were also filled by the RIA, which had a lower detection limit of 5 mU/ml. The mean serum-Epo level in 6 patients with secondary polycythaemia, 50.2 +- 26.2 mU/ml, was significantly higher than in a group of 11 normal subjects, 28.7 +- 7.2 mU/ml (P<0.0002). However, the Epo level in 31 polycythaemia vera (PV) patients, M = 21.9 +- 6.6 mU/ml, was not significantly different from normal (P = 0.006). Since previous studies with bioassay of heat-treated and concentrated plasma samples have shown a decreased serum-Epo level in PV, Epo levels were measured before and after heat treatment and concentration of samples from normals and polycythaemics. It was found that the levels of immunoreactive material increased after heat treatment and 40 times concentration in samples from normals and patients with secondary polycythaemias, but decreased in PV. We conclude that the Epo levels in serum in the low range measured by our and previous RIA:s probably are not true Epo levels but are partly due to an unspecific serum effect, that was removed by heat treatment.

  12. Immunoreactive somatomedin A in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, K.; Brandt, J.; Enberg, G.; Fryklund, L.

    1979-01-01

    A RIA has been developed for somatomedin A (SM-A) utilizing Sepharose-bound antibodies. This assay, measuring SM-A, the insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2, and somatomedin C, allows determination in serum samples. In comparison with a serum standard, the mean serum levels in patients with acromegaly or GH deficiency and healthy subjects were 8.7 +- 0.7 (n=25), 0.24 +- 0.02 (n=25), and 1.15 +- 0.11 U/ml, respectively. The correlation coefficient between immunoreactive SM-A and SM-A by radioreceptor assay was highly significant (r=0.93), although the potency ratio of SM-A between the two groups of patients was higher in the RIA than in the radioreceptor assay. Gel chromatography revealed that SM-A in acromegalic serum is bound to a carrier protein which is absent in patients with GH deficiency. After gel chromatography at low pH, 90% of applied immunoreactive SM-A was recovered in the low molecular weight fraction and consisted mainly of neutral polypeptides

  13. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  14. Comparative serum biochemistry of captive mugger crocodiles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard serum biochemical parameters were determined for 28 mugger crocodiles (Crocodylus palustris) using Supra-occipital plexus technique and/or Cardiocentesis technique at the Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur, Chennai, Guindy Snake Park Trust and Amaravathy Crocodile farm, Tamilnadu, India (13° 0´ N; ...

  15. Maternal serum fructosamine values after delivery ofmacrosomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    expl.anation for this discrepancy is that the half-lives of these. 1. Brudenell M, Wilds PLo Medical and Surgical Problems in Obstetrics. Bristol: John Wright, 1984: 120-124. 2. Baker JR, O'Connor JP, Metcalf P, Lawson MR, Johnson RN. Oinical usefulness of estimation of serum frucrosamine concentration as a screening.

  16. Radioassay for serum and red cell folate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, D.L.; Herbert, V.

    1976-01-01

    A simple, reliable assay for serum and red cell folate is described. It uses plain untreated liquid or powdered milk, requiring no special handling or purification, as binder. Such milk makes it possible to ignore endogenous serum folate binder, since crude (but not purified) milk contains a factor which releases folate from serum binder. It simplifies counting radioactivity by employing a gamma emitting isotope of pteroylglutamic acid (PGA), namely the 125 I-tyramide of PGA. Like the 3 H-PGA assay of Givas and Gutcho, it permits the use of stable PGA rather than unstable methyltetrahydrofolic acid (MeTHFA) standards, because it is carried out at pH 9.3, a pH at which milk folate binder is unable to distinguish PGA from MeTHFA, which is the predominant folate in human tissues. The equipment required to do the radioassay is present in most diagnostic chemistry laboratories. Results are essentially identical to the generally accepted Lactobacillus casei microbiologic method of folate assay, except that false low results are not produced in the radioassay by antibiotics, tranquilizers, and chemotherapeutic agents. Three caveats in its use are the relative instability of 125 I-PGA as compared to 3 H-PGA, the fact that various powdered milks differ widely in folate-binding capacity, and that only about 60 percent of commercially obtained skim or powdered milk preparations appear to contain the substance which splits folate from serum binder

  17. Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA) is a mechanism with which EPA can patent its inventions and license them to companies, through which innovative technologies can enter the marketplace to improve the environment and human health.

  18. Endangered Species Act Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Critical habitat (CH) is designated for the survival and recovery of species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Critical...

  19. Serum Uric Acid Level as a Prognostic Marker in Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Woo; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Yim, Jae-Joon; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Lee, Sang-Min

    2017-01-01

    Uric acid acts as both a pathogenic inflammatory mediator and an antioxidative agent. Several studies have shown that uric acid level correlates with the incidence, severity, and prognosis of pulmonary diseases. However, the association between uric acid level and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has not been studied. This study was conducted to elucidate how serum uric acid level is related with clinical prognosis of ARDS. A retrospective cohort study with propensity score matching was conducted at a medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The medical records of patients diagnosed with ARDS admitted from 2005 through 2011 were reviewed. Two hundred thirty-seven patients with ARDS met the inclusion criteria. Patients with a serum uric acid level uric acid group, and those with a level ≥3 mg/dL were classified into the normal to high uric acid group. We selected 40 patients in each group using propensity score matching. A higher percentage of patients in the low uric acid group experienced clinical improvement in ARDS. More patients died from sepsis in the normal to high uric acid group. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that a low serum uric acid level was significantly associated with better survival rate. In patients with ARDS, a low serum uric acid level may be a prognostic marker of a low risk of in-hospital mortality.

  20. Aggravation of serum Hepatocyte Growth Factor levels during hepato carcinogenesis in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgawad, M.R.; Ghareeb, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has an essential role during liver development and it plays an important role in the regeneration and repair of injured tissues and acting as a mitogen, motogen and morphogens for a variety of epithelial cells. The role of HGF in carcinogenesis is in straggle and so, the present study aimed to through light through the level of HGF during different steps of carcinogenesis. Forty male rats were given diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in drinking water (100 mg/l) for up to 16 weeks. Eight rats were sacrificed at 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Besides, 8 hepatoma bearing rats were exposed to a single dose gamma irradiation (3 Gy) were sacrificed after 2 weeks from exposure (2 rats died, 36 hrs post irradiation) and 8 hepatoma bearing rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks from receiving a combined antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine and Lmethionine). Serum HGF was assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum HGF level in DEN treated rats and in exposed hepatoma bearing rats was significantly higher than in control rats whereas, serum HGF level after treatment with N acetylcysteine and L-methionine for 4 weeks was significantly decreased than DEN treated rats and concluded that serum HGF may play a role during promotion and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and during treatment

  1. Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act is concerned with regulating the registration, installation, operation, inspection and safety of X-ray machines. The Act provides for the establishment of the Healing Arts Radiation Protection Commission which is responsible for reporting on all the above matters to the Ontario Minister of Health. In addition the board is responsible for the continuing development of an X-ray safety code and for the submission of an annual report of their activities to the minister

  2. Atomic Energy Authority Act 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Under this Act the UKAEA is given power to borrow so that it can finance its capital expenditure programme, and will undertake a debt to the Secretary of State for Energy representing its assets. Power is given for the Government to guarantee such borrowing. The UKAEA has been organised financially on the basis of a trading fund. The Act came into force on 1 April 1986. (NEA) [fr

  3. Prognostic significance of serum bilirubin in stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, A.; Ismail, M.; Khan, F.; Khan, A.; Khattak, M.B.; Anwar, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oxidative injury is an important cause of the neurologic lesion in stroke. Serum bilirubin is considered a natural antioxidant that may affect the prognosis of stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of bilirubin in stroke patients. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Medical Units of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. Inpatients admitted with acute attack of stroke were included in this study. Data regarding serum bilirubin and concurrent cerebrovascular risk factors were collected. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were used to analyse stroke's severity and functional outcomes, respectively. Results: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and heart diseases were the most common risk factors. Patients were divided into 3 groups on the basis of serum bilirubin, i.e., =0.6 mg/dl (Group-1), 0.7-0.9 mg/dl (Group-2), and =1.0 mg/dl (Group-3). The mean pre-hospitalisation NIHSS score for Groups 1, 2 and 3 was 5.62, 11.66 and 25.33, respectively; and post-hospitalisation score was 0.875, 3.76 and 16.26, respectively. The pre-hospitalisation mRS score was 4 for Group-1, 4.52 for Group-2 and 4.93 for Group-3; while post-hospitalisation Mrs Score was 1.50, 2.38 and 4.26, respectively. Average serum bilirubin level was significantly higher in patients with poor outcomes as compared with good outcomes (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study suggests that higher serum bilirubin levels were associated with increased stroke severity, longer hospitalisation and poor prognosis. (author)

  4. False positive acetaminophen concentrations in icteric serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de Jong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Serum concentrations of acetaminophen are measured to predict the risk of hepatotoxicity in cases of acetaminophen overdose and to identify acetaminophen use in patients with acute liver injury without a known cause. The acetaminophen concentration determines if treatment with N-acetyl cysteine, the antidote for acetaminophen poisoning, is warranted. Description: A 49-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a hepatic encephalopathy and a total serum bilirubin concentration of 442 µmol/l. The acetaminophen concentration of 11.5 mg/l was measured with an enzymatic-colorimetric assay, thus treatment with N-acetyl cysteine was started. Interestingly, the acetaminophen concentration remained unchanged (11.5–12.3 mg/l during a period of 4 consecutive days. In contrast, the acetaminophen concentration measured by HPLC, a chromatographic technique, remained undetectable Discussion: In the presented case, elevated bilirubin was the most likely candidate to interfere with acetaminophen assay causing false positive results. Bilirubin has intense absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and for that reason it causes interference in an enzymatic-colorimetric assay. Conclusion: False positive acetaminophen laboratory test results may be found in icteric serum, when enzymatic-colorimetric assays are used for determination of an acetaminophen concentration. Questionable acetaminophen results in icteric serum should be confirmed by a non-enzymatic method, by means of ultrafiltration of the serum, or by dilution studies. Keywords: Acetaminophen, Enzymatic-colorimetric assays, HPLC, Bilirubin, Interference, Paracetamol, Liver failure, Jaundice

  5. 7 CFR 956.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 956.2 Section 956.2 Agriculture Regulations of... OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10... Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (Sec. 1-19, 48 Stat. 31, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.). ...

  6. 7 CFR 983.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 983.2 Section 983.2 Agriculture Regulations of... NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73rd Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as re-enacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Order Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat...

  7. 7 CFR 930.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 930.1 Section 930.1 Agriculture Regulations of... Definitions § 930.1 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended, and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as...

  8. 7 CFR 984.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 984.2 Section 984.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 984.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.). ...

  9. 7 CFR 925.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 925.2 Section 925.2 Agriculture Regulations of... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48...

  10. 7 CFR 917.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 917.2 Section 917.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended, and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as...

  11. 7 CFR 915.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 915.2 Section 915.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48...

  12. 7 CFR 959.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 959.2 Section 959.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 959.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (sections 1-19, 48 Stat...

  13. 7 CFR 1260.128 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1260.128 Section 1260.128 Agriculture... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.128 Act. Act means the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985, Title XVI, Subtitle A of the Food Security Act of 1985, Pub. L. 99-198 and any amendments thereto. ...

  14. 7 CFR 982.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 982.2 Section 982.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C...

  15. 7 CFR 932.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 932.2 Section 932.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 932.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933) as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31...

  16. 7 CFR 981.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 981.2 Section 981.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 981.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as amended...

  17. 7 CFR 906.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 906.2 Section 906.2 Agriculture Regulations of... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as re-enacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of...

  18. 7 CFR 966.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 966.2 Section 966.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Handling Definitions § 966.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as amended...

  19. 7 CFR 916.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 916.2 Section 916.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48...

  20. 7 CFR 993.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 993.2 Section 993.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.). ...

  1. 7 CFR 35.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 35.1 Section 35.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices... Definitions § 35.1 Act. Act or Export Grape and Plum Act means “An Act to promote the foreign trade of the...

  2. 7 CFR 923.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 923.2 Section 923.2 Agriculture Regulations of... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d... Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.; 68 Stat. 906, 1047). ...

  3. 7 CFR 927.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 927.2 Section 927.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48...

  4. 7 CFR 946.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 946.2 Section 946.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as...

  5. 7 CFR 989.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 989.2 Section 989.2 Agriculture Regulations of... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended, and as re-enacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended...

  6. 7 CFR 1170.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Act. 1170.2 Section 1170.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING § 1170.2 Act. Act means the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, 7 U.S.C. 1621 et seq., as amended by the Dairy Market Enhancement Act of...

  7. 7 CFR 987.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 987.2 Section 987.2 Agriculture Regulations of... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of...

  8. 7 CFR 948.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 948.2 Section 948.2 Agriculture Regulations of... Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10 73d Congress, as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (sections 1-19, 48...

  9. 7 CFR 922.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 922.2 Section 922.2 Agriculture Regulations of... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.2 Act. Act means Public Act No. 10, 73d Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as reenacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of...

  10. 7 CFR 33.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices... AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.1 Act. Act and Export Apple Act are synonymous and mean “An act to promote the foreign trade of the United States in apples to protect the reputation of...

  11. Investigation and management of a raised serum ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullis, Jonathan O; Fitzsimons, Edward J; Griffiths, William Jh; Tsochatzis, Emmanouil; Thomas, D Wayne

    2018-05-01

    Serum ferritin level is one of the most commonly requested investigations in both primary and secondary care. Whilst low serum ferritin levels invariably indicate reduced iron stores, raised serum ferritin levels can be due to multiple different aetiologies, including iron overload, inflammation, liver or renal disease, malignancy, and the recently described metabolic syndrome. A key test in the further investigation of an unexpected raised serum ferritin is the serum transferrin saturation. This guideline reviews the investigation and management of a raised serum ferritin level. The investigation and management of genetic haemochromatosis is not dealt with however and is the subject of a separate guideline. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Protective effects of Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang), and its major component mangiferin, on iron-induced oxidative damage to rat serum and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Barrios, Mariela Forrellat; Curti, Carlos; Hernández, Ivones; Merino, Nelson; Lemus, Yeny; Martínez, Ioanna; Riaño, Annia; Delgado, René

    2008-01-01

    In vivo preventive effects of a Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang) or its major component mangiferin on iron overload injury have been studied in rats given respectively, 50, 100, 250 mg kg(-1) body weight of Vimang, or 40 mg kg(-1) body weight of mangiferin, for 7 days prior to, and for 7 days following the administration of toxic amounts of iron-dextran. Both Vimang or mangiferin treatment prevented iron overload in serum as well as liver oxidative stress, decreased serum and liver lipid peroxidation, serum GPx activity, and increased serum and liver GSH, serum SOD and the animals overall antioxidant condition. Serum iron concentration was decreased although at higher doses, Vimang tended to increase it; percent tranferrin saturation, liver weight/body mass ratios, liver iron content was decreased. Treatment increased serum iron-binding capacity and decreased serum levels of aspartate-amine transferase (ASAT) and alanine-amine transferase (ALAT), as well as the number of abnormal Kupffer cells in iron-loaded livers. It is suggested that besides acting as antioxidants, Vimang extract or its mangiferin component decrease liver iron by increasing its excretion. Complementing earlier in vitro results from our group, it appears possible to support the hypothesis that Vimang and mangiferin present therapeutically useful effects in iron overload related diseases.

  13. Combined Measurement of 6 Fat-Soluble Vitamins and 26 Water-Soluble Functional Vitamin Markers and Amino Acids in 50 μL of Serum or Plasma by High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midttun, Øivind; McCann, Adrian; Aarseth, Ove; Krokeide, Marit; Kvalheim, Gry; Meyer, Klaus; Ueland, Per M

    2016-11-01

    Targeted metabolic profiling characterized by complementary platforms, multiplexing and low volume consumption are increasingly used for studies using biobank material. Using liquid-liquid extraction, we developed a sample workup suitable for quantification of 6 fat- and 26 water-soluble biomarkers. 50 μL of serum/plasma was mixed with dithioerythritol, ethanol, and isooctane/chloroform. The organic layer was used for analysis of the fat-soluble vitamins all-trans retinol (A), 25-hydroxyvitamin D2, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, α-tocopherol (E), γ-tocopherol (E), and phylloquinone (K1) by LC-MS/MS. The remaining aqueous fraction was mixed with ethanol, water, pyridine, and methylchloroformate (in toluene) to derivatize the water-soluble biomarkers. The resulting toluene layer was used for GC-MS/MS analysis of alanine, α-ketoglutarate, asparagine, aspartic acid, cystathionine, total cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, total homocysteine, isoleucine, kynurenine, leucine, lysine, methionine, methylmalonic acid, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, sarcosine, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine. Isotope-labeled internal standards were used for all analytes. Chromatographic run times for the LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS were 4.5 and 11 min, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) for the low-concentration analytes (25-hydroxyvitamin D2, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and phylloquinone) were 25, 17, and 0.33 nM, respectively, while all other analytes demonstrated sensitivity significantly lower than endogenous concentrations. Recoveries ranged from 85.5-109.9% and within- and between-day coefficients of variance (CVs) were 0.7-9.4% and 1.1-17.5%, respectively. This low-volume, high-throughput multianalyte assay is currently in use in our laboratory for quantification of 32 serum/plasma biomarkers in epidemiological studies.

  14. [Determination of serum acetaminophen based on the diazo reaction and its application in the evaluation of gastric emptying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai-na; Sun, Su-juan; Shen, Zhu-fang

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to establish a method to determine the serum acetaminophen concentration based on diazo reaction, and apply it in the gastric emptying evaluation. Theoretically, acetaminophen could take hydrolysis reaction in hydrochloric acid solution to produce p-aminophenol, which could then take diazo reaction resulting in a product with special absorption peak at 312 nm. Then the serum acetaminophen concentration and recovery rate were calculated according to the standard curve drawn with absorbance at 312 nm. ICR mice were given a dose of acetaminophen (500 mg x kg(-1)) by gavage and the serum acetaminophen was dynamically measured through the diazo reaction. Besides, ICR mice were subcutaneously injected with the long-acting GLP-1 analog GW002 before the gavage of acetaminophen, and serum acetaminophen concentration was measured as above to study how GW002 could influence the gastric emptying. The data showed acetaminophen ranging from 0 to 160 μg x mL(-1) could take diazo reaction with excellent linear relationship, and the regression equation was y = 0.0181 x +0.0104, R2 = 0.9997. The serum acetaminophen was also measured with good linear relationship (y = 0.0045 x + 0.0462, R = 0.9982) and the recovery rate was 97.4%-116.7%. The serum concentration of acetaminophen reached peak at about 0.5 h after gavage, and then gradually decreased. GW002 could significantly lower the serum acetaminophen concentration and make the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) decrease by 28.4%. In conclusion, a method for the determination of serum acetaminophen based on the diazo reaction was established with good accuracy and could be used in the evaluation of gastric emptying.

  15. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.

  16. Effect of serum cytokines and VEGF levels on diabetic retinopathy and macular thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Banu Turgut; Bozkurt, Banu; Kerimoglu, Hurkan; Okka, Mehmet; Kamis, Umit; Gunduz, Kemal

    2009-09-19

    To investigate the role of serum inflammatory cytokines and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and evaluate their relationship with macular thickness measurements obtained with optical coherence tomography (OCT). The study enrolled 28 healthy subjects (Group 1), 31 patients without DR (Group 2), 49 patients with nonproliferative DR (Group 3), and 46 patients with proliferative DR (Group 4). Macular profile was assessed with Stratus OCT-3 and the serum concentrations of VEGF and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1 alpha), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured using multiplex bead immunoassay. The median value of the visual acuity was 20/20 (Groups 1 and 2), and 20/100 (Group 3), and 20/125 (Group 4). The median value of central subfield macular thickness was estimated as 165.50 microm in Group 1, 202.5 microm in Group 2, 318 microm in Group 3, and 310 microm in Group 4. The median serum VEGF level, which was 98.20 pg/ml in Group 1, demonstrated a progressive rise to 125.37 pg/ml in Group 2, to 153.07 pg/ml in Group 3, and to 149.12 pg/ml in Group 4. Statistical significance was found between all groups (p0.05). The median serum levels of IL-8, IL-10, MIP-1 alpha, and EGF revealed a wide range within each group, however, no statistically significant relationship was found between the groups (p>0.05). The median values of the serum MCP-1 concentrations presented a statistically significant rise with the progression of DR (p=0.02). No correlation was found between macular thickness and serum cytokine and VEGF levels (p>0.05). Increased serum levels of VEGF and MCP-1 may act as a key regulator of DR and provide a potential tool for risk assessment in diabetic patients. Further studies that evaluate both vitreous and serum levels in various stages of DR are needed to provide a

  17. Direct 125I-radioligand assays for serum progesterone compared with assays involving extraction of serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliffe, W.A.; Corrie, J.E.T.; Dalziel, A.H.; Macpherson, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    Two direct radioimmunoassays for progesterone in 50 μL of unextracted serum or plasma with assays involving extraction of serum were compared. The direct assays include the use of either danazol at pH 7.4 or 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid at pH 4.0 to displace progesterone from serum binding-proteins. Progesterone is then assayed by using an antiserum to a progesterone 11α-hemisuccinyl conjugate and the radioligand 125 I-labeled progesterone 11α-glucuronyl tyramine, with separation by double-antibody techniques. Direct assays with either displacing agent gave good analytical recovery of progesterone added to human serum, and progesterone values for patients' specimens correlated well (r > 0.96) with results of assays involving extraction of serum. Precision was similar with each displacing agent over the working range 2.5-100 nmol/L and superior to that of extraction assays. We conclude that these direct assays of progesterone are analytically valid and more robust, precise, and technically convenient than many conventional methods involving extraction of serum

  18. Association between serum soluble CD30 and serum creatinine before and after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hoyos, M; San Segundo, D; Benito, M J; Fernández-Fresnedo, G; Ruiz, J C; Rodrigo, E; Gómez-Alamillo, C; Benito, A; Arias, M

    2008-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that circulating levels of soluble CD30 (sCD30) may represent a biomarker for outcome in kidney transplantation. The aim of this study was to measure the pre- and posttransplantation serum levels of sCD30 in cadaveric kidney transplant recipients and correlate them with serum creatinine. Serum sCD30 was measured by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from prospective samples of 38 kidney allograft recipients serially transplanted at our center. Samples were collected at day 0 pretransplantation and at months 6, 12, 18, and 24 posttransplantation. We also studied sera from 29 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) at different stages of the K/DOQI guidelines, as a control group. Serum levels of sCD30 decreased significantly in samples posttransplantation compared with pretransplantation. The significant decrease after transplantation may be related to the improvement in renal function since we observed a significant correlation between serum levels of sCD30 and creatinine (sCr) at all times of the study. In addition, the patients with chronic renal failure showed a significant association between serum sCD30 and sCr (r = .454; P = .013). Our results did not suggest that the measurement of sCD30 may be used as a valuable biomarker in renal transplantation. Increased levels may be related to a decrease in its renal elimination.

  19. A low percentage of autologous serum can replace bovine serum to engineer human nasal cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Wolf

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available For the generation of cell-based therapeutic products, it would be preferable to avoid the use of animal-derived components. Our study thus aimed at investigating the possibility to replace foetal bovine serum (FBS with autologous serum (AS for the engineering of cartilage grafts using expanded human nasal chondrocytes (HNC. HNC isolated from 7 donors were expanded in medium containing 10% FBS or AS at different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10% and cultured in pellets using serum-free medium or in Hyaff®-11 meshes using medium containing FBS or AS. Tissue forming capacity was assessed histologically (Safranin O, immunohistochemically (type II collagen and biochemically (glycosaminoglycans -GAG- and DNA. Differences among experimental groups were assessed by Mann Whitney tests. HNC expanded under the different serum conditions proliferated at comparable rates and generated cartilaginous pellets with similar histological appearance and amounts of GAG. Tissues generated by HNC from different donors cultured in Hyaff®-11 had variable quality, but the accumulated GAG amounts were comparable among the different serum conditions. Staining intensity for collagen type II was consistent with GAG deposition. Among the different serum conditions tested, the use of 2% AS resulted in the lowest variability in the GAG contents of generated tissues. In conclusion, a low percentage of AS can replace FBS both during the expansion and differentiation of HNC and reduce the variability in the quality of the resulting engineered cartilage tissues.

  20. Tenth act amending the German atomic energy act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2009-01-01

    On January 14, 2009, the German federal government introduced into parliament the 10th Act Amending the Atomic Energy Act. In the first reading in the federal parliament, Federal Minister for the Environment Gabriel emphasized 2 main points: Intensified protection of nuclear facilities and of transports of radioactive substances against unauthorized interventions; transfer by law to the Federal Office for Radiological Protection (BfS) of decommissioning of the Asse mine. Reliability review: The amendment to Sec.12 b of the Atomic Energy Act is to meet the different safety and security conditions after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 in the United States and other terrorist activities afterwards (London, Madrid) also with respect to hazards arising to nuclear facilities and nuclear transports. The bill must be seen in conjunction with the Ordinance on Reliability Reviews under the Atomic Energy Act dated July 1, 1999 which covers reviews of reliability of persons holding special responsibilities. Asse II mine: The competence of the Federal Office for Radiological Protection is achieved by an amendment to Sec.23, Para.1, Number 2, Atomic Energy Act, in which the words ''and for the Asse II mine'' are added after the word ''waste.'' Further proceedings depend on the additional provision in a new Sec.57 b, Atomic Energy Act. Accordingly, the operation and decommissioning of the Asse II mine are subject to the regulations applicable to facilities of the federation pursuant to Sec.9a, Para.3. In this way, Asse II is given the same legal status as the federal waste management facilities. Moreover, it is stipulated that the mine is to be shut down immediately. (orig.)