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Sample records for serum psa level

  1. Serum PSA levels in the Indian population: Is it different?

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    Agrawal, Amit; Karan, Shailesh Chandra

    2017-04-01

    Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an important tumour, marker which is widely used to trigger trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. However, the PSA levels vary with race and ethnicity. Therefore, there is a need to have an Indian reference range. All adult male patients meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. They were subjected to assessment of serum total PSA, digital rectal examination and trans-abdominal ultrasound. If any one or more of these were found abnormal, then a TRUS-guided 12-core prostate biopsy was done. Patients who were detected to have prostatic cancer were excluded from the final analysis. The data so obtained was grouped among the following three age groups: 40-49, 50-59 and 60-70 years, and the age-specific PSA values, prostatic volume and PSA density were found. A total of 1772 patients were analysed. The mean serum total PSA was 1.76 ng/ml with a standard deviation of 2.566 ng/ml. Group-wise age distribution of the mean serum total PSA was 1.22, 1.97 and 2.08 ng/ml in 40-49, 50-59 and 60-70 years age groups. The mean total PSA and the age-specific PSA range tend to be lower in the Indians than the Western population.

  2. Opium consumption is negatively associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA, and percentage of free PSA levels.

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    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Asgari, Seyyed Alaeddin; Farshi, Alireza; Iravani, Shahrokh; Khoshdel, Alireza; Shekarchi, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Addiction to opium continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. The study addressing the association between opium consumption and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is lacking. We determined the effects of opium consumption on serum PSA levels in opium-addict men. Our study subjects comprised 438 opium-addict men with a mean age of 52.2 ± 6.4 years (group 1). We compared these men with 446 men who did not indicate current or past opium use (group 2). Serum total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), % fPSA, and sex hormones were compared between the 2 groups. The mean serum tPSA level was significantly lower in group 1 (1.05 ng/mL) than in controls (1.45 ng/mL) (P = 0.001). Opium consumption was also associated with lower fPSA (P = 0.001) and % fPSA (P = 0.001). Serum free testosterone level in opium-addict patients (132.5 ± 42 pg/mL) was significantly lower than that in controls (156.2 ± 43 pg/mL) (P = 0.03). However, no significant correlation existed between tPSA and free testosterone levels (r = 0.28, 95% CI, -0.036 to 0.51, P = 0.34). Among the patients with cancer in group 1, 35% were found to have high-grade tumor (Gleason score ≥ 7) compared with 26.7% in group 2 (P = 0.02). Total PSA and fPSA were strongly correlated with duration of opium use (r = -0.06, 95% CI, -0.04 to -0.08, P = 0.0001; and r = -0.05, 95% CI, -0.03 to -0.07, P = 0.0001, respectively). Opium consumption is independently and negatively associated with serum tPSA, fPSA, and % fPSA levels.

  3. A population study of fasting time and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level.

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    Lau, Cheryl K; Guo, Maggie; Viczko, Jeannine A; Naugler, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Traditional screening and diagnostic methods include digital rectal examinations (DREs), biopsies and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, with the latter being the more popular. PSA is a biomarker for prostate cancer; however, it is highly sensitive to external factors as well as other prostate diseases. As such, the reliability of of the serum PSA level as a sole screening and diagnostic tool for prostate cancer is controversial. Recently, it has been shown that fasting extremes can affect concentrations of serum chemistry analytes, thus raising the question of whether or not fasting has an effect on the highly sensitive PSA biomarker. Patients testing for serum PSA levels are often concomitantly submitting to other tests that require fasting, subjecting certain patients to a fasting PSA level while others not. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this discrepancy in fasting state translates into an effect on serum PSA levels. Serum PSA levels and fasting time records for 157 276 men who underwent testing at Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS; Calgary, Alberta, Canada) between 01 January 2010 and 31 March 2013 were accessed. Linear regression models of mean PSA levels and fasting times revealed a statistically important relationship at certain fasting times. Applying a dynamic mathematical model to explore the clinical effect of fasting suggests minimal impact on serum PSA result interpretation. Thus, patients can be tested for serum PSA levels regardless of their fasting state.

  4. Is Systemic Inflammation Associated With Elevated PSA Serum Levels In Patients Submitted Chronic Hemodialysis?

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    Gilmar Pereira Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Backgroundː whereas that systemic inflammation (SI affects 40–60% of patients on hemodialysis (HD is characterized by serum C-reactive protein (CRP level elevation or proinflammatory interleukin production or both. We evaluated the association between SI and total (tPSA and free PSA (fPSA in patients on HD with tPSA 6 months. Patients were excluded if they had local infections or SI. Hs-CRP was measured using turbidimetry, and tPSA and fPSA levels using immunochemoluminescence. Overall, 27 patients had inflammation (hs-CRP >5 mg/L and 33 had no inflammation (hs-CRP was ≤5 mg/L. In the control group, hs-CRP was ≤ 1 mg/L. Resultsː there was no significant difference in mean levels among groups 3 and 4 for age (p=0,058, tPSA (p=0,74 and fPSA (p=0,30. The SI did not promote differences between groups 1, 2 and 4 for the levels of tPSA (0,71 ± 0,18  vs   0,67 ± 0,15  vs  0,67 ± 0,11; p=0,69 and fPSA (0,34  ±  0,01  vs  0,34  ±  0,01  vs   0,35  ±  0,01, p= 0,59 . As well as maintained no correlation with tPSA and fPSA (p>0,05. Conclusionː The systemic inflammation in hemodialytic patients without clinically detectable cancer (PSA<4ng/ml is no associated with changes fractions of tPSA and fPSA.

  5. Clinical diagnostic value of combined determination of serum tPSA, cPSA and IGF-I levels in patients with prostatic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bashan; Zhang Zigang; Lai Fudi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of combined determination of serum total prostatic specific antigen (tPSA), complex prostatic specific antigen (cPSA) and IGF-I levels in patients with prostatic disorders. Methods: Serum tPSA, cPSA (with CLIA) and IGF-I (with IRMA) levels were determined in 41 patients with prostatic carcinoma, 60 patients with benign prosta- tic hypertrophy (BPH) and 55 controls. Results: The serum tPSA, cPSA and IGF-I levels in patients with prostatic cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with BPH and controls (P<0.01). Taking the cut-off values of 4ng/ml, 3.6ng/ml and 150 for tPSA, cPSA and IGF-I respectively, the combined determination of these three items would yield a sensitivity of 88.6%, specificity of 84.9%, positive predicative value of 83% and negative predicative value of 90.0% for diagnosis of prostatic cancer. Conclusion: Combined determination of tPSA, cPSA and IGF-I would yield better sensitive and accurate diagnostic rate in patients with prostatic cancer, especially in those with laboratory values within the 'grey zone'. (authors)

  6. Contribution of allelic variability in prostate specific antigen (PSA) & androgen receptor (AR) genes to serum PSA levels in men with prostate cancer.

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    Chavan, Sushant V; Maitra, Anurupa; Roy, Nobhojit; Chavan, Padma R

    2014-03-01

    Wide variability in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels exists in malignant conditions of the prostate. PSA is expressed in normal range in 20 to 25 per cent of prostate cancer cases even in presence of high grade Gleason score. This study was aimed to assess the influence of genetic variants exhibited by PSA and androgen receptor (AR) genes towards the variable expression of PSA in prostate cancer. Pre-treatment serum PSA levels from 101 prostate cancer cases were retrieved from medical record. PSA genotype analysis in promoter region and AR gene microsatellite Cytosine/Adenine/Guanine (CAG) repeat analysis in exon 1 region was performed using DNA sequencing and fragment analysis techniques. A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PSA promoter region were noted. Only two SNPs viz., 158G/A (PPSA levels. The carriers of homozygous GG genotype (PPSA whereas homozygous AA genotype (PPSA levels. The combination effect of PSA genotypes along with stratified AR CAG repeats lengths (long, intermediate and short) was also studied. The homozygous GG genotype along with AR long CAG repeats and homozygous AA genotype along with AR short CAG repeats at position -3845 and -158 showed strong interaction and thus influenced serum PSA levels. The genetic variants exhibited by PSA gene at positions -3845G/A and -158G/A may be accountable towards wide variability of serum PSA levels in prostate cancer. Also the preferential binding of G and A alleles at these polymorphic sites along with AR long and short CAG repeats may contribute towards PSA expression.

  7. Association of PSA, free-PSA and testosteron levels in serum of patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiwin Mailana; Kristina Dwi P; Sri Insani WW; Puji Widayati

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer screening can be done by measuring the concentration levels of PSA, free-PSA and testosterone in serum that examined with radioimmunoassay (RIA). A total of 30 patients of 45-81 years old had enrolled in this study and were taken their venous blood. The aim of research is to know the relationship between PSA and testosterone free-PSA with BPH and prostate cancer. Results showed that there was no correlation between age with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.06), but there is a relationship between PSA with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.002), the relationship between free-PSA with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.001). No correlation was found between PSA ratio with BPH and prostate cancer as well as the absence of a relationship between testosterone with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.924). (author)

  8. Assessment of Atorvastatin Effectiveness on Serum PSA Level in Hypercholesterolemic Males

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    Darya Khosropanah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The previous large retrospective studies demonstrated that treatment with Statins reduces both the incidence of prostate cancer by 50% and serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA level up to 40%. However the main problem in those studies was the absence of control groups of men with hypercholesterolemia without Statin treatment. We performed a small prospective controlled clinical trial to assess the influence of the treatment with Atorvastatin on serum PSA in men with hypercholesterolemia referred to our educational and treatment center from October 2007 to March 2008. In this study, among the newly diagnosed males with hypercholesterolemia (LDL > 130 mg/dl, 40 patients with LDL more than 190 mg/dl were selected as a case group and were treated with Atorvastatin (20 mg/day. Among the same population and in the same period, another 40 patients with LDL between 130 and 190 mg/dl were selected as first control group and were treated only with low fat diet. Another 40 patients with normal serum cholesterol and without any treatment were selected as second control group. The lipid profile and serum PSA level of patients of all groups were tested at the first and third months after the therapy. After completion of data, the mean serum lipids and PSA level were measured in both visits and compared with each other by paired t-test. Also the mean PSA change in two visits between three groups was compared by ANOVA and Tukey HSD test. There was not any significant difference in mean baseline PSA between hypercholesterolemic and normocholesterolemic patients (P=0.547. In case group, mean PSA and LDL was reduced by 14.1% (P=0.0001 and 30% (P=0.0001 respectively by second visit. In first control group, mean PSA was not changed significantly (P=0.337, whereas mean LDL in this group was reduced by 9.6% (P= 0.0001. Similarly in the second control group mean PSA was not changed significantly (P=0.309 by second visit. In addition, mean change of PSA in case group

  9. Elevated Serum PSA is Associated With Human Herpesvirus 8 Infection and Increased Circulating Cytokine Levels in Men From Tobago.

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    Henning, Jill D; Karamchandani, Jaideep M; Bonachea, Luis A; Bunker, Clareann H; Patrick, Alan L; Jenkins, Frank J

    2017-05-01

    Serum-prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels have been used for many years as a biomarker for prostate cancer. This usage is under scrutiny due to the fact that elevated PSA levels can be caused by other conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and infections of or injury to the prostate. As a result, the identification of specific pathogens capable of increasing serum levels of PSA is important. A potential candidate responsible for elevated PSA is human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). We have reported previously that HHV-8 is capable of infecting and establishing a latent infection in the prostate. In this current study we test the hypothesis that HHV-8 infection is associated with elevated PSA levels. Circulating cytokine levels between men with elevated PSA and controls are also compared. HHV-8 serostatus was determined among men with elevated serum PSA (≥4 ng/ml; n = 168, no prostate cancer on biopsy) and age-matched controls (PSA PSA and 85 controls). Men with an elevated serum PSA were significantly more likely to be HHV-8 seropositive (42.9%) than the age-matched cancer-free men (22.2%; OR 2.51; 95%CI 1.48-4.29, P = 00001). Comparison of circulating cytokine levels between men with elevated serum PSA and controls indicated that elevated serum PSA is associated with a pro-inflammatory response with a mixed Th1/Th2 response while HHV-8 infection was associated with significantly higher levels of IL12p70, IL-10, and IL-13 indicating a Th2 immune response. We found a significant association between HHV-8 infection and increased levels of serum PSA. In an age of patient-centered medicine, men with an elevated serum PSA should be considered for HHV-8 serology testing to determine if HHV-8 is responsible for the elevated PSA. Prostate 77: 617-624, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Contribution of genetic variation rs266882 to prostate-specific antigen levels in healthy controls with serum PSA below 2.0 ng/ml.

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    Song, Jaeman; Park, Heeyoon; Lee, Gilho

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the impact of genetic variation in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene (rs266882) on serum PSA levels in healthy men as well as risk factors for benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer. The study population comprised 91 men with PSA levels below 2.0 ng/ml as healthy controls, 78 men with PSA 2-10 ng/ml as a BPH group, and 128 prostate cancer patients, all in Korea. DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the product was sequenced. We found that PSA levels were associated with a G/A polymorphism only in healthy controls. The transition, however, was not associated with PSA levels of BPH and cancer patients, nor was it a risk factor. In conclusion, this genetic factor is important for determining serum PSA levels in the naive group, whereas the disruption of prostatic architecture in BPH or prostate cancer may be a major determining factor for PSA levels.

  11. Clinically insignificant improvement of prostate cancer prediction by addition of sex steroid hormones and SHBG serum levels to serum PSA, fPSA%, and age in a screening setting.

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    Heidegger, Isabel; Popovscaia, Marina; Ramoner, Reinhold; Schäfer, Georg; Stenzel, Birgit; Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang; Klocker, Helmut

    2012-10-01

    Abstract Various findings implicate sex hormones in prostate growth and development and also in prostate carcinogenesis. We investigated if addition of sex steroid hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) serum levels to standard risk assessment parameters [prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA percentage (fPSA%), and age] improves prostate cancer prediction in a PSA screening setting. Steroid hormones testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and estradiol (E2), and binding protein SHBG levels were measured in 762 men undergoing prostate biopsy due to suspect PSA serum levels. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 286 (37.5%) of these men. Our data confirmed that PSA (mean BE=5.09; mean CA=6.05; p=1.24×10-5), fPSA% (mean BE=22.08; mean CA=18.67; p=1.97×10-7), and age (mean BE=60.64; mean CA=64.5; p=7.05×10-10) differentiate men with cancer (CA) and men with benign disease (BE), such as benign prostate hyperplasia. In addition, SHBG (mean BE=50.3; mean CA=54.9; p=0.008) also differed statistically significantly between these two groups. All hormones except E2 and tumor markers correlated significantly with age (T: ρ=-0.09; fT: ρ=-0.27; SHBG: ρ=0.21; PSA: ρ=0.32; and fPSA%: ρ=0.22). Furthermore, we found that PSA correlates with E2 (ρ=0.08), and fPSA% with SHBG (ρ=0.1) and fT (ρ=-0.09). Addition of hormones and SHBG to a baseline marker model including PSA, fPSA%, and age improved cancer prediction in three multivariate classification methods; however, the improvement was minimal. The best improvement by 0.8% was obtained in the logistic regression model with the addition of T and SHBG or of E2 and SHBG, or in the support vector machine model with the addition of SHBG and all steroid hormones to the combination of standard markers PSA, fPSA%, and age; however, this additional gain of accuracy is too small to justify the additional efforts and costs.

  12. Influence of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, prostate volume, and PSA density on prostate cancer detection with contrast-enhanced sonography using contrast-tuned imaging technology.

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    Xie, Shao Wei; Li, Hong Li; Du, Jing; Xia, Jian Guo; Guo, Yi Fen; Xin, Mei; Li, Feng Hua

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, prostate volume, and PSA density on prostate cancer detection with contrast-enhanced sonography using contrast-tuned imaging technology compared with baseline imaging (combination of grayscale and power Doppler imaging). In all, 161 patients were evaluated with grayscale, power Doppler, and contrast-tuned imaging. Biopsy was performed at 10 sites in each patient. When an abnormality was shown on any of these examinations, the biopsy was directed toward the abnormality. Cancer detection between contrast-tuned imaging and baseline imaging was compared for different subgroups according to PSA level (4-10, 10-20, and >20 ng/mL), prostate volume (65 mL), and PSA density (0.50). In total, 413 sites were malignant in 78 patients. By biopsy site, the accuracy was greater for contrast-tuned imaging than for baseline imaging in all PSA level, prostate volume, and PSA density subgroups except 0.30 to 0.50 (all P PSA levels between 4 and 20 ng/mL, prostate volumes between 35 and 65 mL, and PSA densities between 0.15 and 0.50 than baseline imaging (all P PSA level subgroups except 10 to 20 ng/mL, all prostate volume subgroups except 35 to 50 mL, and all PSA density subgroups except 0.30 to 0.50 (all P PSA levels, prostate volumes, and PSA densities.

  13. Guideline level-3 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofsen, P.M.; Van der Steen, J.

    1993-09-01

    For several applications of radioactive materials calculations must be executed to determine the radiation risk for the population. A guideline for the risk calculation method of two main sources: nuclear power plants, and other intended and unintended activities with radioactive materials, is given. The standards, recommendations and regulations in this report concern mainly the analysis of the radiological (external) consequences of nuclear power plant accidents, classified as level-3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Analysis). Level-3 PSA falls within the scales 5-7 of the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The standards, etc., focus on the risks for groups of people and the so-called maximum individual risk. In chapter two the standards and regulations are formulated for each part of level-3 PSA: the source term spectrum, atmospheric distribution and deposition, exposure to radiation doses and calculation of radiation doses, dose-response relationships, measures to reduce the effect of radiation doses, design basis accidents, and finally uncertainty analysis. In chapter four, modelled descriptions are given of the standards and regulations, which could or should be used in a calculation program in case of level-3 PSA. In chapter three the practical execution of a probabilistic consequences analysis, the collection of input data and the presentation of the results are dealt with. 2 figs., 14 tabs., 64 refs

  14. Genome-wide association study identified novel genetic variant on SLC45A3 gene associated with serum levels prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a Chinese population.

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    Sun, Jielin; Tao, Sha; Gao, Yong; Peng, Tao; Tan, Aihua; Zhang, Haiying; Yang, Xiaobo; Qin, Xue; Hu, Yanling; Feng, Junjie; Kim, Seong-Tae; Lin, Xiaoling; Wu, Yongming; Zhang, Ju; Li, Zhixian; Li, Li; Mo, Linjian; Liang, Zhengjia; Shi, Deyi; Huang, Zhang; Huang, Xianghua; Liu, Ming; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Shijun; Lilly Zheng, S; Xu, Jianfeng; Mo, Zengnan

    2013-04-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a commonly used cancer biomarker for prostate cancer, and is often included as part of routine physical examinations in China. Serum levels of PSA may be influenced by genetic factors as well as other factors. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted in a European population successfully identified six genetic loci that were significantly associated with PSA level. In this study, we aimed to identify common genetic variants that are associated with serum level of PSA in a Chinese population. We also evaluated the effects of those variants by creating personalized PSA cutoff values. A two-stage GWAS of PSA level was performed among men age 20-69 years and self-reported cancer-free participants that underwent routine physical examinations at several hospitals in Guangxi Province, China. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with PSA levels in the first stage of sample (N = 1,999) were confirmed in the second stage of sample (N = 1,496). Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the independent contribution of confirmed SNPs and known covariates, such as age, to the level of PSA. SNPs in three regions were significantly associated with levels of PSA in this two-stage GWAS, and had combined P values between 4.62 × 10(-17) and 6.45 × 10(-37). The three regions are located on 1q32.1 at SLC45A3, 10q11.23 at MSMB, and 19q13.33 at KLK3. The region 1q32.1 at SLC45A3 was identified as a novel locus. Genetic variants contributed significantly more to the variance of PSA level than known covariates such as age. Personalized cutoff values of serum PSA, calculated based on the inheritance of these associated SNPs, differ considerably among individuals. Identification of these genetic markers provides new insight into the molecular mechanisms of PSA. Taking individual variation into account, these genetic variants may improve the performance of PSA to predict prostate cancer.

  15. Combination of signal intensity measurements of lesions in the peripheral zone of prostate with MRI and serum PSA level for differentiating benign disease from prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhard, K.; Kreckel, M. [Department of Radiology, Martha-Maria Hospital Nuernberg (Germany); Hollenbach, H.P.; Deimling, M. [Siemens Medical Engineering Group, Erlangen (Germany); Riedl, C. [Dept. of Urology, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the benign or malignant nature of a prostatic lesion by defining a threshold value of signal intensity ratio and a limiting value of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in patients with elevated PSA level. Twenty-six patients with elevated PSA level and no hypoechogenic lesions at endosonography underwent MR imaging using an endorectal body phased-array coil at 1.5 T (Siemens Magnetom Symphony). A T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo (TSE) pulse sequence was applied in a transverse orientation. Two radiologists evaluated the images. In the presence of a pathological finding they defined regions of interest (ROI) in the suspicious pathological area of the peripheral zone and in muscle for reference. The quotient of the two ROIs was calculated and then correlated with the actual PSA level. Diagnosis was confirmed by prostate biopsy. Ten of 12 patients with quotients smaller than 4 showed cancer at histology. Nine of 12 men with cancer proven by biopsy had PSA levels higher than 10 ng/ml. A significant difference (p < 0.001) was found between the quotients of cancer and quotients of chronic prostatitis, fibrosis, or glandular atrophy. The accuracy of tumor differentiation of the method was 77 %. Measurement of signal intensity quotients in the peripheral zone of the prostate in combination with knowledge of defined limits of PSA levels the technique could be helpful in detecting additional cancer areas for prostate biopsy. False-negative tumor results of standard sextant biopsy can be reduced. In men with high PSA values the method has a role in differentiating between patients who require prostate biopsy and those of clinical observation. (orig.)

  16. Relationships between serum PSA levels, Gleason scores and results of 68Ga-PSMAPET/CT in patients with recurrent prostate cancer.

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    Sanli, Yasemin; Kuyumcu, Serkan; Sanli, Oner; Buyukkaya, Fikret; İribaş, Ayça; Alcin, Goksel; Darendeliler, Emin; Ozluk, Yasemin; Yildiz, Sevda Ozel; Turkmen, Cüneyt

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum PSA level, Gleason score of PCa and the outcomes of Ga 68 -PSMA PET/CT in patients with recurrent PCa. A total of 109 consecutive patients (median age 71 years; range 48-89 years) who had PSA recurrence after RP and/or hormonotherapy and/or radiotherapy were included in this study. Local recurrences, lymph node metastasis (pelvic, abdominal and/or supradiaphragmatic), bone metastases (oligometastatic/multimetastatic) and other metastatic sites (lung, liver, brain, etc) were documented. In 91(83.4%) patients at least one lesion characteristic for PCa was detected by 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT. The median serum total PSA (tPSA) was 6.5 (0.2-640) ng/ml.There was a significant difference between 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT positive and negative patients in terms of serum total PSA value. No statistical significance was found between positive and negative 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT findings in terms of Gleason score. Local recurrence was detected in 56 patients. whereas lymph node metastases were demonstrated in 46 patients. Pelvic nodal disease was the most frequent presentation followed by abdominal and supradiaphragmaticnodal involvement. Bone metastases [oligometastasis, (n = 20); multimetastasis, (n = 35)⦌ were also detected in 55 patients. In the ROC analysis for the study cohort, the optimal cut-off value of total serum PSA was determined as 0.67 ng/ml for distinguishing between positive and negative 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT images, with an area under curve of 0.952 (95% CI 0.911-0.993). 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT was found to be an effective tool for the detection of recurrent PCa. Even though no relationship was detected between the GS and 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT findings, serum total PSA values may be used for estimating the likelihood of positive 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT results.

  17. The relationship between serum PSA, six sex hormones and the benign or malignant prostate diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yancun

    2008-01-01

    In order to study clinical significance of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free prostate specific antigen (PSA), f/tPSA and six sex hormones in prostate diseases, the serum levels of PSA, fPSA, f/tPSA, T, P, E 2 , PRL, LH and FSH in 72 cases of hyperplasia of prostate patients and 40 patients with prostate cancer were determined by RIA. The results showed that the serum levels of T, E 2 , PRL, LH, FSH in the BPH Group were significantly lower than those of in Pca group, the serum level of P in Pca group were significantly lower than those in BPH group; the levels of fPSA and f/tPSA ratio in BPH Group were significantly higher than those in Pca group. The results suggest that benign and malignant prostate disease (BPH and Pca) was related with the hormone imbalance. The serum total PSA and fPSA can be regarded as important indicators in the diagnosis of BPH and Pea. The combined determination of PSA, fPSA and f/tPSA may improve the diagnostic accuracy of Pca. (authors)

  18. Age-Specific Cutoff Value for the Application of Percent Free Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) in Chinese Men with Serum PSA Levels of 4.0-10.0 ng/ml.

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    Chen, Rui; Huang, Yiran; Cai, Xiaobing; Xie, Liping; He, Dalin; Zhou, Liqun; Xu, Chuanliang; Gao, Xu; Ren, Shancheng; Wang, Fubo; Ma, Lulin; Wei, Qiang; Yin, Changjun; Tian, Ye; Sun, Zhongquan; Fu, Qiang; Ding, Qiang; Zheng, Junhua; Ye, Zhangqun; Ye, Dingwei; Xu, Danfeng; Hou, Jianquan; Xu, Kexin; Yuan, Jianlin; Gao, Xin; Liu, Chunxiao; Pan, Tiejun; Sun, Yinghao

    2015-01-01

    The influence of age on the performance of percent free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) in diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) in East Asians is controversial. We tested the diagnostic performance of %fPSA in a multi-center biopsy cohort in China and identified the proper age-specific cutoff values to avoid unnecessary biopsies. Consecutive patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 4.0-10.0 ng/ml or 10.1-20.0 ng/ml who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided or transperineal prostate biopsy were enrolled from 22 Chinese medical centers from Jan 1, 2010 to Dec 31, 2013. The diagnostic accuracy of PSA and %fPSA was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Age-specific cutoff values were calculated using ROC curve analysis. The median %fPSA was much lower in younger patients compared with older patients with a PSA level of 4.0-10.0 ng/ml or 10.1-20.0 ng/ml. The AUC of %fPSA was higher than PSA only in older patients. In patients aged 50 to 59 years, %fPSA failed to improve the diagnosis compared with PSA in these two PSA ranges. Age-specific cutoff values were 24%, 27% and 32% for patients aged 60-69, 70-79 and ≥80 years, respectively, to reduce unnecessary biopsies in men with PSA levels of 4.0-10.0 ng/ml to detect 90% of all PCa. The effectiveness of %fPSA is correlated with age in the Chinese population. Age-specific cutoff values would help avoid unnecessary biopsies in the Chinese population.

  19. Age-Specific Cutoff Value for the Application of Percent Free Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) in Chinese Men with Serum PSA Levels of 4.0–10.0 ng/ml

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liping; He, Dalin; Zhou, Liqun; Xu, Chuanliang; Gao, Xu; Ren, Shancheng; Wang, Fubo; Ma, Lulin; Wei, Qiang; Yin, Changjun; Tian, Ye; Sun, Zhongquan; Fu, Qiang; Ding, Qiang; Zheng, Junhua; Ye, Zhangqun; Ye, Dingwei; Xu, Danfeng; Hou, Jianquan; Xu, Kexin; Yuan, Jianlin; Gao, Xin; Liu, Chunxiao; Pan, Tiejun; Sun, Yinghao

    2015-01-01

    Objective The influence of age on the performance of percent free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) in diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) in East Asians is controversial. We tested the diagnostic performance of %fPSA in a multi-center biopsy cohort in China and identified the proper age-specific cutoff values to avoid unnecessary biopsies. Methods Consecutive patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 4.0–10.0 ng/ml or 10.1–20.0 ng/ml who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided or transperineal prostate biopsy were enrolled from 22 Chinese medical centers from Jan 1, 2010 to Dec 31, 2013. The diagnostic accuracy of PSA and %fPSA was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Age-specific cutoff values were calculated using ROC curve analysis. Results The median %fPSA was much lower in younger patients compared with older patients with a PSA level of 4.0–10.0 ng/ml or 10.1–20.0 ng/ml. The AUC of %fPSA was higher than PSA only in older patients. In patients aged 50 to 59 years, %fPSA failed to improve the diagnosis compared with PSA in these two PSA ranges. Age-specific cutoff values were 24%, 27% and 32% for patients aged 60–69, 70–79 and ≥80 years, respectively, to reduce unnecessary biopsies in men with PSA levels of 4.0–10.0 ng/ml to detect 90% of all PCa. Conclusions The effectiveness of %fPSA is correlated with age in the Chinese population. Age-specific cutoff values would help avoid unnecessary biopsies in the Chinese population. PMID:26091007

  20. Use of low free to total PSA ratio in prostate cancer screening: detection rates, clinical and pathological findings in Brazilian men with serum PSA levels <4.0 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Eliney Ferreira; Carvalhal, Gustavo F; dos Reis, Rodolfo Borges; Tobias-Machado, Marcos; Vieira, Renê A C; Reis, Leonardo O; Nogueira, Lucas; Machado, Roberto Dias; Freitas, Celso H; Magnabosco, Wesley J; Mauad, Edmundo C; Carvalho, André Lopes

    2012-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? In spite of its low specificity, PSA is the most widely used screening test for prostate cancer (PCa), and is considered the main cause of the stage migration recently observed. The ratio of free to total PSA (%fPSA) has been shown to increase PSA accuracy in cancer detection; however, few screening studies have systematically evaluated its role in cancer detection rates in men with PSA levels indications in men with low PSA levels. • To evaluate the role of the free to total prostate-specific antigen ratio (%fPSA) in identifying prostate cancer (PCa) in men with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 2.5-3.9 ng/mL and a normal digital rectal examination (DRE). • A prospective PCa screening study was conducted, which included 17571 men aged ≥ 45 years, across six Brazilian states, where men were recalled for further evaluation in the case of either a suspicious DRE and/or PSA ≥ 4.0 ng/mL, or PSA 2.5-3.9 ng/mL and %fPSA ≤ 15. • We evaluated the impact of a %fPSA ≤ 15 on cancer detection rates and the clinical and pathological stage of tumours in men with a normal DRE and PSA 2.5-3.9 ng/mL. • When suspicious DRE and/or PSA ≥ 4.0 ng/mL were considered as criteria to prompt further evaluation, the cancer detection rate was 3.1%. When %fPSA ≤ 15 in men with total PSA levels of 2.5-3.9 ng/mL were considered as criteria, the PCa detection rate increased to 3.7%. Considering %fPSA ≤ 15 in men with PSA 2.5-3.9 ng/mL and normal DRE, the positive predictive value of biopsy was 31.1%. • Clinical stage was more favourable among men with PSA 2.5-3.9 ng/mL, normal DRE, and %fPSA ≤ 15 compared with men with normal DRE and PSA ≥ 4.0 ng/mL (P= 0.02). • Among those who underwent radical prostatectomy, pathological stage and the proportion of insignificant tumours were similar between men with PSA 2.5-3.9 ng/mL, normal DRE findings and %fPSA ≤ 15, and men with PSA ≥ 4.0 ng/mL. • The use

  1. PSA-PSMA profiles and their impact on sera PSA levels and angiogenic activity in hyperplasia and human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jemaa, A; Bouraoui, Y; Sallami, S; Banasr, A; Nouira, Y; Oueslati, R

    2014-06-01

    The relevance of prostate specific antigen (PSA)-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) profiles in pathologic prostate (hyperplasia and cancer) has not been fully understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of PSA-PSMA profiles on sera PSA levels and angiogenic activity in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (PC). The study has been carried out in 6 normal prostate (NP), 29 BPH and 33 PC with dominant Gleason grade>8. Immunohistochemical analysis has been performed. Monoclonal antibodies 3E6 and ER-PR8 have been used to assess PSMA and PSA expression respectively. The evaluation of angiogenesis has been made by CD34 immune marker. Serum levels of PSA have been assayed by Immulite autoanalyser. The study of each protein separately among sera PSA levels showed that PSMA expression and angiogenic activity have the highest intensity in PC patients with serum PSA levels>20 ng/mL. Nevertheless, the lowest tissue PSA expression was found in PC patients with this latter sera PSA group. The most relevant results showed that in PC patients (PSA+, PSMA+) and (PSA-, PSMA+) profile were found to be inversely related to sera PSA levels. In PC patients, a high immunoexpression of (PSA+, PSMA+) profile has detected in the sera PSA group>20 ng/mL; whereas a high immunoexpression of (PSA-, PSMA+) profile was detected in the sera PSA group between 0 and 4 ng/mL. The highest angiogenic activity was found in PC patients with (PSA+, PSMA+) profile. Our findings clearly have supported the feasibility of PSA-PSMA profiles to improve in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in prostate cancer patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  2. The effect of high level natural ionizing radiation on expression of PSA, CA19-9 and CEA tumor markers in blood serum of inhabitants of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidari, Mohammad Hassan; Porghasem, Mohsen; Mirzaei, Nazanin; Mohseni, Jafar Hesam; Heidari, Matine; Azargashb, Eznollah; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Heidari, Reihane; Molouki, Aidin; Larijani, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Since several high level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) exist on our planet, considerable attention has been drawn to health issues that may develop as the result of visiting or living in such places. City of Ramsar in Iran is an HNLRA, and is a tourist attraction mainly due to its hot spas. However, the growing awareness over its natural radiation sources has prompted widespread scientific investigation at national level. In this study, using an ELISA method, the level of expression of three tumor markers known as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and carcino antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in blood serum of 40 local men of Ramsar (subject group) was investigated and compared to 40 men from the city of Noshahr (control group). Noshahr was previously identified as a normal level natural radiation area (NLNRA) that is some 85 km far from Ramsar. According to statistical analysis, there was a significant difference in the levels of PSA and CA19-9 markers between the two groups (p < 0.001) with those of Ramsar being considerably higher. CEA level did not show any difference. Although some of the volunteers tested positive to the markers, they were in good health as confirmed by the physician. Moreover, the high number of positive markers in Noshahr was considerable. Therefore, future study is needed to further validate this result and to determine the level of positivity to tumor markers in both cities. -- Highlights: • Expression of three tumor markers was examined in 80 volunteers from Ramsar. • There was a significant difference in the levels of PSA and CA19-9 markers. • Some of the volunteers from the control city of Noshahr also tested positive. • Radiation might have caused an adaptive response in people of Ramsar. • Further study is necessary to re-confirm the positivity to tumor marker

  3. The effect of high level natural ionizing radiation on expression of PSA, CA19-9 and CEA tumor markers in blood serum of inhabitants of Ramsar, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Mohammad Hassan; Porghasem, Mohsen; Mirzaei, Nazanin; Mohseni, Jafar Hesam; Heidari, Matine; Azargashb, Eznollah; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Heidari, Reihane; Molouki, Aidin; Larijani, Leila

    2014-02-01

    Since several high level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) exist on our planet, considerable attention has been drawn to health issues that may develop as the result of visiting or living in such places. City of Ramsar in Iran is an HNLRA, and is a tourist attraction mainly due to its hot spas. However, the growing awareness over its natural radiation sources has prompted widespread scientific investigation at national level. In this study, using an ELISA method, the level of expression of three tumor markers known as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and carcino antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in blood serum of 40 local men of Ramsar (subject group) was investigated and compared to 40 men from the city of Noshahr (control group). Noshahr was previously identified as a normal level natural radiation area (NLNRA) that is some 85 km far from Ramsar. According to statistical analysis, there was a significant difference in the levels of PSA and CA19-9 markers between the two groups (p CEA level did not show any difference. Although some of the volunteers tested positive to the markers, they were in good health as confirmed by the physician. Moreover, the high number of positive markers in Noshahr was considerable. Therefore, future study is needed to further validate this result and to determine the level of positivity to tumor markers in both cities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum complexed and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for the diagnosis of the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Wheeler, Sarah; Mathew, Anu; Stengelin, Martin; Nikolenko, Galina; Glezer, Eli N; Brown, Marshall D; Zheng, Yingye; Chen, Yen-Hao; Wu, Hsiao-Li; Azziz, Ricardo

    2017-10-26

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of reproductive and metabolic dysfunction. We hypothesized that serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) may constitute a new biomarker for hyperandrogenism in PCOS. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 45 women with PCOS and 40 controls. Serum from these women was analyzed for androgenic steroids and for complexed PSA (cPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) with a novel fifth- generation assay with a sensitivity of ~10 fg/mL for cPSA and 140 fg/mL for fPSA. cPSA and fPSA levels were about three times higher in PCOS compared to controls. However, in PCOS, cPSA and fPSA did not differ according to waist-to-hip ratio, Ferriman-Gallwey score, or degree of hyperandrogenemia or oligo-ovulation. In PCOS and control women, serum cPSA and fPSA levels were highly correlated with each other, and with free and total testosterone levels, but not with other hormones. Adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI) and race, cPSA was significantly associated with PCOS, with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.86, 22.0). The OR of PCOS for fPSA was 7.04 (95% CI: 1.65, 40.4). A multivariate model that included age, BMI, race and cPSA yielded an area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic curve of 0.89. Serum cPSA and fPSA are novel biomarkers for hyperandrogenism in PCOS and may have value for disease diagnosis.

  5. Serum PSA Evaluations during salvage radiotherapy for post-prostatectomy biochemical failures as prognosticators for treatment outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Tri; Dave, Giatri; Parker, Robert; Kagan, A. Robert

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels have proved to be sensitive markers for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. In addition, PSA levels are useful for detecting and monitoring prostate cancer progression after radiotherapy. Serum PSA evaluations during radiotherapy, however, have not been well documented. In this study, we investigate the prognostic value of PSA evaluations during salvage radiotherapy for prostatectomy failures. Methods: Forty-one patients with biochemical failures after prostatectomy treated with salvage radiotherapy consented to have their serum PSA levels evaluated at 30 Gy and 45 Gy of irradiation. All 41 patients had negative metastatic workup and pathologically uninvolved pelvic lymph nodes at the time of referral for salvage radiotherapy. Radiation therapy was delivered with 10-25 MV photons, with doses of 59.4-66.6 Gy. No patients received hormonal ablation therapy before irradiation. Results: The mean follow-up for all patients was 30.9 months. At last follow-up, 28/41 patients (68.3%) were free from biochemical failure, with 20 of 41 patients (48.8%) expressing undetectable PSA levels. Serum PSA evaluations at 30 Gy did not significantly predict for either biochemical (p=0.0917) or clinical (p=0.106) disease-free outcome. However, serum PSA evaluations at 45 Gy significantly predicted for both biochemical (p=0.0043) and clinical (p=0.0244) disease-free outcomes, with PSA elevations at 45 Gy significantly associated with poor outcomes. On univariate analysis of prognosticators for biochemical failures, the following were significant: an elevation in serum PSA levels at 45 Gy, detectable serum PSA immediately after prostatectomy, Gleason score 7-10, and serum PSA level >1 ng/ml before salvage radiotherapy. Conclusion: Evaluation of serum PSA level at 45 Gy of salvage radiotherapy for biochemical relapses after prostatectomy may serve as a significant prognosticator for both biochemical and clinical disease-free outcomes

  6. Incorporating Level-2 PSA Feature of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Lim, Hogon; Ahn, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    CONPAS (CONtainment Performance Analysis System) utilizes a methodology to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. In mid 2000's, KAERI has developed very fast cut set generator FTREX and PC's OS (Operating system) has changed into Windows 95. Thus, KAERI has developed new Level-1 PSA software, called AIMS-PSA (Advanced Information Management System for PSA) to replace KIRAP. Recently, KAERI has been developing an integrated PSA platform, called OCEANS (On-line Consolidator and Evaluator of All mode risk for Nuclear System), for the risk assessment of all power modes and all hazards. CONPAS for Level-2 PSA was developed in 1990's using the Visual Basic 6.0 compiler which is not supported any more. It needs to be updated for the integrated PSA software framework. This paper describes a study to incorporate the features of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA. The basic idea is to follow the approach of CONPAS, but in the integrated way. Various approaches for Level-2 PSA have been used since WASH-1400. APET approach of NUREG-1150 study would be most comprehensive and complex methodology for containment event tree analysis. CONPAS is the Level-2 PSA software to utilize an approach to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. But, new Level-2 PSA software is required to develop more integrated PSA framework. A modified approach of CONPAS is developed and incorporated in AIMS-PSA software that can handle Level-1 and Level-2 PSA in the integrated way (from the viewpoint of event tree and fault tree). AIMS-PSA combines whole Level-2 PSA model to produce a One Top fault tree and to generate cut sets in the same way as Level-1 PSA. Quantification results of Level-2 PSA such as frequency for each STC can be calculated from the minimal cut sets.

  7. Diagnostic value of serum free PSA and the ratio of free to total PSA in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Ningyan; Zhang Jingxin; Wu Jinchang; Gong Yiming; Li Huiping

    2005-01-01

    In order to evaluate the value of free prostate specific antigen (FPSA) and F/T PSA ratio in differential diagnosis of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) from prostate cancer (PC), serum FPSA and TPSA levels were measured in 85 patients with PC, 97 BPH and 89 healthy volunteers by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA), and the ratio of F/T PSA was calculated. The results showed that serum FPSA and TPSA levels were increased in healthy volunteers of 41-88 years old and were significantly higher in healthy volunteers of 61-88 years old than that in 20-40 gear old (P 10.0 μg/L were 65.0%, 30.9% and 4.1%, respectively, while they were 5.9%, 20.0% and 74.1% in PC patients (P<0.01). When the TPSA value was between 4.0-10.0 μg/L and the ratio of F/T PSA was at 0.10 and below, the probability of PC was larger(88.9%). But the ratio of F/T PSA was at 0.25 and above, the probability of PC was smaller(6.20%). Serum FPSA and TPSA both increased with age in healthy volunteers of 41-88 years old and were positively correlated with age. There were about 30.9% of BPH and 20.0% of PC patients with overlapping of TPSA level. Our conclusion is that the F/T PSA ratio can significantly enhance the specificity for PC diagnosis, especially when the TPSA is within the diagnostic gray zone. (authors)

  8. Study of Serum Total PSA and Free PSA as an Oncological Marker in Breast Tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahir, Elteza Tahjiba; Devi, Runi; Borthakur, Bibhuti Bhushan

    2017-03-01

    Breast Cancer (BC) cases are rising alarmingly all over the world and India is not an exception. This rising trend is due to an increased age at first child birth, decreased breast feeding, and the changing lifestyle mostly in urban India. With the advent of more sensitive methodologies and research works in this field, it has been suggested that Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer besides other established tumour markers. To study the molecular forms of PSA-total and free PSA in benign and malignant tumours and to analyse their association with the tumour burden. The present study was conducted in collaboration with Gauhati Medical College and Hospital and Dr B Borooah Cancer Institute, Guwahati, Assam, India. Women in the age group of 18-65 years with recently diagnosed tumour (benign/malignant) in the breast were included in the study. Women taking Oral Contraceptive Pill (OCP), hormone replacement therapy, with past/present history of gynaecological/other malignancy and chronic endocrine disease like diabetes, thyroid disorders were excluded. The case group comprised of 50 female subjects with newly diagnosed Benign Breast Disease (BBD) and 50 subjects with BC, while 50 age matched healthy females without any signs and symptoms of breast discomfort were included in the control group. Laboratory tests done were Serum Total PSA (TPSA), Free PSA (FPSA), Fasting Blood Glucose (FBS), serum urea, serum creatinine and fasting lipid profile. TPSA and FPSA was measured again in both the test groups after 10-14 days of surgery/therapy. A fall in postoperative value of total and free PSA in BC case group was noticed. In Grade I tumours the mean value of total PSA (1.813 ng/ml) and free PSA (1.149 ng/ml) were higher than those with Grade III tumours (TPSA-1.07 ng/ml and FPSA-1.002 ng/ml). Mean value of Fasting Blood Sugar (FBG), total cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) in BC case group was higher than the

  9. Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Concentration, PSA Mass, and Obesity: A Mathematical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Robin T

    2018-02-17

    To provide a mathematical background for understanding the phenomenon of analyte hemodilution using a kinetic analysis. The first assumption for this analysis is that change in concentration of any analyte, such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), is due to the flux of the analyte from an organ into the blood minus its flux from the blood. What results is a relatively simple differential equation that emphasizes the importance of plasma volume, organ mass, and two rate constants. The analyses demonstrate how serum PSA can be affected by plasma volume as well as body mass and how hemodilution due to obesity can be at least partly corrected for by expressing PSA in units of total mass or total mass density. At a time when obesity is prevalent, expressing analytes in units of total mass may make them relate more closely to disease status and prognosis.

  10. Regulatory requirements on PSA level 2: Review, aspects and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husarcek, J.

    2003-01-01

    The general requirements concerning utility obligations, probabilistic safety criteria (CDF should not exceed 1.0E-4/reactor year and LERF should not exceed 1.0E-5/reactor year), documentation and results, living PSA requirements and major steps in level 2 PSA are presented. PSA developments in Slovakia, collection and assembly of information, plant damage states, containment performance and failure modes, severe accident progression analyses, containment failure modes and source terms as a part of performed level 2 PSA are discussed. The PSA applications in design and operation evaluation, support to plant upgrade and modifications are also described. At the end, the following conclusion is made: more extensive PSA application needs to foster the exchange of experience and communication between PSA specialists, non-PSA engineers, designers, and the regulatory body staff responsible for safety assessment, inspection and enforcement

  11. PSA-alpha-2-macroglobulin complex is enzymatically active in the serum of patients with advanced prostate cancer and can degrade circulating peptide hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Maya B; Brennen, William Nathaniel; Lopez, David; Anthony, Lizamma; Wang, Hao; Platz, Elizabeth; Denmeade, Samuel R

    2018-04-16

    Prostate cancer cells produce high levels of the serine protease Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA). PSA is enzymatically active in the tumor microenvironment but is presumed to be enzymatically inactive in the blood due to complex formation with serum protease inhibitors α-1-antichymotrypsin and α-2-macroglobulin (A2M). PSA-A2M complexes cannot be measured by standard ELISA assays and are also rapidly cleared from the circulation. Thus the exact magnitude of PSA production by prostate cancer cells is not easily measured. The PSA complexed to A2M is unable to cleave proteins but maintains the ability to cleave small peptide substrates. Thus, in advanced prostate cancer, sufficient PSA-A2M may be in circulation to effect total A2M levels, levels of cytokines bound to A2M and hydrolyze small circulating peptide hormones. Total A2M levels in men with advanced prostate cancer and PSA levels above 1000 ng/mL were measured by ELISA and compared to controls. Additional ELISA assays were used to measure levels of IL-6 and TGF-beta which can bind to A2M. The ability of PSA-A2M complexes to hydrolyze protein and peptide substrates was analyzed ± PSA inhibitor. Enzymatic activity of PSA-A2M in serum of men with high PSA levels was also assayed. Serum A2M levels are inversely correlated with PSA levels in men with advanced prostate cancer. Il-6 Levels are significantly elevated in men with PSA >1000 ng/mL compared to controls with PSA PSA-A2M complex in serum of men with PSA levels >1000 ng/mL can hydrolyze small fluorescently labeled peptide substrates but not large proteins that are PSA substrates. PSA can hydrolyze small peptide hormones like PTHrP and osteocalcin. PSA complexed to A2M retains the ability to degrade PTHrP. In advanced prostate cancer with PSA levels >1000 ng/mL, sufficient PSA-A2M is present in circulation to produce enzymatic activity against circulating small peptide hormones. Sufficient PSA is produced in advanced prostate cancer to alter

  12. Clinical outcomes and nadir prostate-specific antigen (PSA) according to initial PSA levels in primary androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Ueno, Satoru; Izumi, Kouji; Kadono, Yoshifumi; Mizokami, Atsushi; Hinotsu, Shiro; Akaza, Hideyuki; Namiki, Mikio

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the clinical outcomes of metastatic prostate cancer patients and the relationship between nadir prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and different types of primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT). This study utilized data from the Japan Study Group of Prostate Cancer registry, which is a large, multicenter, population-based database. A total of 2982 patients treated with PADT were enrolled. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients treated using combined androgen blockade (CAB) and non-CAB therapies. The relationships between nadir PSA levels and PADT type according to initial serum PSA levels were also investigated. Among the 2982 enrolled patients, 2101 (70.5 %) were treated with CAB. Although CAB-treated patients had worse clinical characteristics, their probability of PFS and OS was higher compared with those treated with a non-CAB therapy. These results were due to a survival benefit with CAB in patients with an initial PSA level of 500-1000 ng/mL. Nadir PSA levels were significantly lower in CAB patients than in non-CAB patients with comparable initial serum PSA levels. A small survival benefit for CAB in metastatic prostate cancer was demonstrated in a Japanese large-scale prospective cohort study. The clinical significance of nadir PSA levels following PADT was evident, but the predictive impact of PSA nadir on OS was different between CAB and non-CAB therapy.

  13. A Development of Interfacing System between Level 2 and Level 3 PSA for Integrated Analysis of Full Scope PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seok Jung

    2011-01-01

    An integrated assessment of full scope and entire level PSA including level 1, 2 and 3 PSA is an essential issue of the current PSA implementation for operating and developing nuclear power plants. In order to perform an integrated assessment under restricted resources for PSA, integrated and automation assessment tools are essentially required. For this purpose, KAERI is in the development of an integrated PSA assessment software package named by OCEANS. As a part of OCEANS, an interfacing system linked between level 2 and level 3 PSA was developed. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the currently developing interfacing system with a concept of link method. This interfacing system was designed as a subsidiary tool of SARA program which is a supporting utility of level 3 PSA with Microsoft Window based- program

  14. Association between PSA Levels and Biomarkers of Subclinical Systemic Inflammation in Middle-Aged Healthy Men from the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzanaty, Saad; Rezanezhad, Babak; Borgquist, Rasmus

    2016-10-01

    This study was aimed to determine the association between PSA levels and biomarkers of subclinical systemic inflammation based on data from 119 middle-aged healthy men from the general population. Serum levels of PSA and biomarkers of systemic inflammation (CRP and fibrinogen) were measured. Demographic data were also collected. Subjects were divided into two groups according to PSA levels; PSA and fibrinogen levels (r = 0.20, p = 0.04), and between CRP and fibrinogen levels (r = 0.60, p = 0.01). On the other hand, no significant correlation between PSA and CRP levels was found. Men with PSA values ≥ 2 ng/ml had significantly higher levels of fibrinogen as compared to those with PSA PSA as a dependent variable, serum level of fibrinogen predicted higher PSA-values (odds ratio = 3.30, 95% CI = 1.05-10.20, p = 0.042). The present results indicate that serum fibrinogen is a biomarker of subclinical systemic inflammation associated with PSA elevation among middle-aged healthy men from the general population.

  15. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Hossain, Mahmud; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Izmirlian, Grant; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Wei-Jun; Leach, Robin J.; Thompson, Ian M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) has been more frequently applied to measure low abundance biomarker candidates in tissues and biofluids, owing to its high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of assay configuration, and exceptional multiplexing capability. In this study, we report for the first time the development of immunoaffinity depletion-based workflows and SRM-MS assays that enable sensitive and accurate quantification of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum without the requirement for specific PSA antibodies. Low ng/mL level detection of both total and free PSA was consistently achieved in both PSA-spiked female serum samples and actual patient serum samples. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained when SRM PSA assays and conventional immunoassays were applied to the same samples showed good correlation in several independent clinical serum sample sets. These results demonstrate that the workflows and SRM assays developed here provide an attractive alternative for reliably measuring candidate biomarkers in human blood, without the need to develop affinity reagents. Furthermore, the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers, including the free and bound forms of PSA, can be performed in a single multiplexed analysis using high-resolution liquid chromatographic separation coupled with SRM-MS. PMID:22846433

  16. Lessons learned form IRSN review of Flamanville 3 Level PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, G.; Corenwinder, F.

    2012-01-01

    In the frame of the construction and licensing of Flamanville 3 NPP the PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment)plays an important role for the EPR Project assessment. The PSA was used for early design verification of EPR Reactor, several design improvement being defined based on these PSA insights and following the discussions with the French and German safety authorities. IRSN, as the French Safety Authority (ASN) technical support organization, performs the review of the PSA developed by the plant operator (EDF). The paper presents the main issues regarding the using of 'design PSA', identified by IRSN following the review of the internal events Level 1 PSA transmitted by EDF in the frame of the anticipated instruction of the application for operating license of the Flamanville 3 reactor. (authors)

  17. Level 2 PSA methodology and severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the work was to review current Level 2-PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) methodologies and practices and to investigate how Level 2-PSA can support severe accident management programmes, i.e. the development, implementation, training and optimisation of accident management strategies and measures. For the most part, the presented material reflects the state in 1996. Current Level 2 PSA results and methodologies are reviewed and evaluated with respect to plant type specific and generic insights. Approaches and practices for using PSA results in the regulatory context and for supporting severe accident management programmes by input from level 2 PSAs are examined. The work is based on information contained in: PSA procedure guides, PSA review guides and regulatory guides for the use of PSA results in risk informed decision making; plant specific PSAs and PSA related literature exemplifying specific procedures, methods, analytical models, relevant input data and important results, use of computer codes and results of code calculations. The PSAs are evaluated with respect to results and insights. In the conclusion section, the present state of risk informed decision making, in particular in the level 2 domain, is described and substantiated by relevant examples

  18. Biopsy indication--a predictor of pathologic stage among men with preoperative serum PSA levels of 4.0 ng/mL or less and T1c disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedland, Stephen J; Mangold, Leslie A; Epstein, Jonathan I; Partin, Alan W

    2004-05-01

    To determine the indications for biopsy among men with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 4 ng/mL or less and T1c disease and whether the reason for biopsy correlated with the final pathologic stage. It is not uncommon for men to undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 4 ng/mL or less and T1c disease. We examined the percentage of men with T1c disease and PSA level of 4.0 ng/mL or less undergoing RP over time. We identified 874 men with T1c prostate adenocarcinoma and PSA levels of 4 ng/mL or less who were treated with RP between 1994 and 2003. We excluded 72 patients who had received preoperative hormonal therapy and 86 patients for whom the reason for biopsy was unclear. The pathologic outcomes were compared between the various biopsy indication groups using analysis of variance. The percentage of men with T1c disease and a PSA level of 4.0 ng/mL or less has steadily increased from 0% before 1990 to 19% in 2003. Among men treated between 1994 and 2003, the most common indication for biopsy was a spike in the PSA level to greater than their reference level before biopsy (n = 471, 66%), although in all patients, the PSA level returned to 4 ng/mL or less before surgery. In 163 patients (35%), the PSA level remained elevated above the reference range and in the remaining 308 patients (65%), the PSA declined to a value below the reference range before surgery. The second most common indication for biopsy was an abnormal digital rectal examination by the referring/primary physician that, when repeated by the attending surgeon, was believed to be normal (n = 155, 22%). Abnormal PSA velocity accounted for biopsy in 68 patients (10%). Among patients with the three most common indications for biopsy, no statistically significant differences in the pathologic tumor characteristics between the groups were noted on the basis of the biopsy indication. One in five men undergoing RP at our institution today has T1c disease and a

  19. Serum fucosylated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) improves the differentiation of aggressive from non-aggressive prostate cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing Kay; Chen, Li; Ao, Ming-Hui; Chiu, Joyce Hanching; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hui; Chan, Daniel W

    2015-01-01

    Clinically, it is still challenging to differentiate aggressive from non-aggressive prostate cancers (Pca) by non-invasive approaches. Our recent studies showed that overexpression of alpha (1-6) fucosyltransferase played an important role in Pca cells. In this study, we have investigated levels of glycoproteins and their fucosylated glycoforms in sera of Pca patients, as well as the potential utility of fucosylated glycoproteins in the identification of aggressive Pca. Serum samples from histomorphology-proven Pca cases were included. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 1 (TIMP1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and their fucosylated glycoforms were captured by Aleuria Aurantia Lectin (AAL), followed by the multiplex magnetic bead-based immunoassay. The level of fucosylated glycoproteins was correlated with patients' Gleason score of the tumor. Among three fucosylated glycoproteins, the fucosylated PSA was significantly increased and correlated with the tumor Gleason score (pPSA showed a marked increase in aggressive tumors in comparison to non-aggressive tumors. ROC analysis also showed an improved predictive power of fucosylated PSA in the identification of aggressive Pca. Our data demonstrated that fucosylated PSA has a better predictive power to differentiate aggressive tumors from non-aggressive tumors, than that of native PSA and two other glycoproteins. The fucosylated PSA has the potential to be used as a surrogate biomarker.

  20. Regulatory review of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) Level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is increasingly being used as part of the decision making process to assess the level of safety of nuclear power plants. The methodologies in use are maturing and the insights gained from the PSAs are being used along with those from deterministic analysis. Many regulatory authorities consider the current state of the art in PSA to be sufficiently well developed for results to be used centrally in the regulatory decision making process-referred to as risk informed regulation. For these applications to be successful, it will be necessary for the regulatory authority to have a high degree of confidence in the PSA. However, at the 1994 IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Use of PSA in the Regulatory Process and at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) 'Special Issues' meeting in 1997 on Review Procedures and Criteria for Different Regulatory Applications of PSA, it was recognized that formal regulatory review guidance for PSA did not exist. The senior regulators noted that there was a need to produce some international guidance for reviewing PSAs to establish an agreed basis for assessing whether important technological and methodological issues in PSAs are treated adequately and to verify that conclusions reached are appropriate. In 1997, the IAEA and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency agreed to produce, in cooperation, guidance on Regulatory Review of PSA. This led to the publication of IAEA-TECDOC-1135 on the Regulatory Review of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) Level 1, which gives advice for the review of Level 1 PSA for initiating events occurring at power plants. This TECDOC extends the coverage to address the regulatory review of Level 2 PSA.These publications are intended to provide guidance to regulatory authorities on how to review the PSA for a nuclear power plant to gain confidence that it has been carried out to an acceptable level of quality so that it can be used as the

  1. Results of level 1 PSA in Trillo 1 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Lopez, C.

    1998-01-01

    In July 1991, C. N. Trillo I was requested by the Spanish Regulatory Body (CSN) to perform a PSA that should include: - Level 1 PSA at power - Internal flooding analysis - Level 2 PSA including containment capacity analysis. - External event analyses (fires, external flooding, seismic events and other external events) - Risk analysis for off power conditions (shutdown and low power) - Risk analysis due to other sources of radioactivity In 1992 the Project Plan was issued and the PSA team for the performance of Level 1 PSA was established. Before finishing the Project, it was decided to develop a Phase B to take into account some important modifications that had been accomplished in the Plant and that, probably, could affect the results. Level 1 PSA was finished in March 1998. Both the results of the study and the main conclusions derived from the importance, uncertainty and sensibility analysis performed are presented in this paper. These results de not include the internal flooding analysis conclusions and correspond to PSA revision 0 that is currently being evaluated by the Spanish Regulatory Body. (Author)

  2. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tao; Hossain, Mahmud; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Izmirlian, Grant; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Weijun; Leach, Robin; Thompson, Ian M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srinivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2012-08-03

    Sandwich immunoassay is the standard technique used in clinical labs for quantifying protein biomarkers for disease detection, monitoring and therapeutic intervention. Albeit highly sensitive, the development of a specific immunoassay is rather time-consuming and associated with extremely high cost due to the requirement for paired immunoaffinity reagents of high specificity. Recently, mass spectrometry-based methods, specifically selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS), have been increasingly applied to measure low abundance biomarker candidates in tissue and biofluids, owing to high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of assay configuration, and great multiplexing capability. In this study, we report for the first time the development of immunoaffinity depletion-based workflows and SRM-MS assays that enable sensitive and accurate quantification of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum without the requirement for specific PSA antibodies. With stable isotope dilution and external calibration, low ng/mL level detection of both total and free PSA was consistently achieved in both PSA-spiked female serum samples and actual patient serum samples. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained when SRM PSA assays and conventional immunoassays were applied to the same samples showed very good correlation (R2 values ranging from 0.90 to 0.99) in several independent clinical serum sample sets, including a set of 33 samples assayed in a blinded test. These results demonstrate that the workflows and SRM assays developed here provide an attractive alternative for reliably measuring total and free PSA in human blood. Furthermore, simultaneous measurement of free and total PSA and many other biomarkers can be performed in a single analysis using high-resolution liquid chromatographic separation coupled with SRM-MS.

  3. PSA LEVEL 3 DAN IMPLEMENTASINYA PADA KAJIAN KESELAMATAN PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande Made Udiyani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kajian keselamatan PLTN menggunakan metodologi kajian probabilistik sangat penting selain kajian deterministik. Metodologi kajian menggunakan Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA Level 3 diperlukan terutama untuk estimasi kecelakaan parah atau kecelakaan luar dasar desain PLTN. Metode ini banyak dilakukan setelah kejadian kecelakaan Fukushima. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan implementasi PSA Level 3 pada kajian keselamatan PWR, postulasi kecelakan luar dasar desain PWR AP-1000 dan disimulasikan di contoh tapak Bangka Barat. Rangkaian perhitungan yang dilakukan adalah: menghitung suku sumber dari kegagalan teras yang terjadi, pemodelan kondisi meteorologi tapak dan lingkungan, pemodelan jalur paparan, analisis dispersi radionuklida dan transportasi fenomena di lingkungan, analisis deposisi radionuklida, analisis dosis radiasi, analisis perlindungan & mitigasi, dan analisis risiko. Kajian menggunakan rangkaian subsistem pada perangkat lunak PC Cosyma. Hasil penelitian membuktikan bahwa implementasi metode kajian keselamatan PSA Level 3 sangat efektif dan komprehensif terhadap estimasi dampak, konsekuensi, risiko, kesiapsiagaan kedaruratan nuklir (nuclear emergency preparedness, dan manajemen kecelakaan reaktor terutama untuk kecelakaan parah atau kecelakaan luar dasar desain PLTN. Hasil kajian dapat digunakan sebagai umpan balik untuk kajian keselamatan PSA Level 1 dan PSA Level 2. Kata kunci: PSA level 3, kecelakaan, PWR   Reactor safety assessment of nuclear power plants using probabilistic assessment methodology is most important in addition to the deterministic assessment. The methodology of Level 3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA is especially required to estimate severe accident or beyond design basis accidents of nuclear power plants. This method is carried out after the Fukushima accident. In this research, the postulations beyond design basis accidentsof PWR AP - 1000 would be taken, and simulated at West Bangka sample site. The

  4. Estimation of the uncertainties considered in NPP PSA level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalchev, B.; Hristova, R.

    2005-01-01

    The main approaches of the uncertainties analysis are presented. The sources of uncertainties which should be considered in PSA level 2 for WWER reactor such as: uncertainties propagated from level 1 PSA; uncertainties in input parameters; uncertainties related to the modelling of physical phenomena during the accident progression and uncertainties related to the estimation of source terms are defined. The methods for estimation of the uncertainties are also discussed in this paper

  5. Regulatory review of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) level 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is increasingly being used as part of the decision making process to assess the level of safety of nuclear power plants. The methodologies in use are maturing and the insights gained from the PSAs are being used along with those from the deterministic analysis. Many regulatory authorities consider that the current state of the art in PSA (especially Level 1 PSA) is sufficiently well developed that it can be used centrally in the regulatory decision making process - referred to as 'risk informed regulation'. For these applications to be successful, it will be necessary for regulatory authorities to have a high degree of confidence in PSA. However, at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Use of PSA in the Regulatory Process in 1994 and at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) 'Special Issues' Meeting in 1997 on Review Procedures and Criteria for Different Regulatory Applications of PSA, it was recognized that formal regulatory review guidance for PSA did not exist. The senior regulators noted that there was a need to produce some international guidance for reviewing PSAs to establish an agreed basis for assessing whether important technological and methodological issues in PSAs are treated adequately and to verify that conclusions reached are appropriate. In 1997 the IAEA and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency agreed to produce in co-operation a technical document on the regulatory review of PSA. This publication is intended to provide guidance to regulatory authorities on how to review the PSA for a nuclear power plant to gain confidence that it has been carried out to an acceptable standard so that it can be used as the basis for taking risk informed decisions within a regulatory decision making process. The document gives guidance on how to set about reviewing a PSA and on the technical issues that need to be addressed. This publication gives guidance for the review of Level 1 PSA for

  6. Evaluating engrailed-2 and cytokines in urine with serum PSA as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating engrailed-2 and cytokines in urine with serum PSA as potential biomarkers in patients with prostatism at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret, Kenya. B Donald-Buri, K Patel, P Musau, E.N. Fish ...

  7. Review of APR+ Level 2 PSA. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, John R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mubayi, Vinod [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pratt, W. Trevor [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kim, Do Sam [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yong Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Goo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-17

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) assisted the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) in reviewing the Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of the APR+ Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) prepared by the Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP) and KEPCO Engineering & Construction Co., Inc. (KEPCO-E&C). The work described in this report involves a review of the APR+ Level 2 PSA submittal [Ref. 1]. The PSA and, therefore, the review is limited to consideration of accidents initiated by internal events. As part of the review process, the review team also developed three sets of Requests for Additional Information (RAIs). These RAIs were provided to KHNP and KEPCO-E&C for their evaluation and response. This final detailed report documents the review findings for each technical element of the PSA and includes consideration of all of the RAIs made by the reviewers as well as the associated responses. This final report was preceded by an interim report [Ref. 2] that focused on identifying important issues regarding the PSA. In addition, a final meeting on the project was held at BNL on November 21-22, 2011, where BNL and KINS reviewers discussed their preliminary review findings with KHNP and KEPCO-E&C staffs. Additional information obtained during this final meeting was also used to inform the review findings of this final report. The review focused not only on the robustness of the APR+ design to withstand severe accidents, but also on the capability and acceptability of the Level 2 PSA in terms of level of detail and completeness. The Korean nuclear regulatory authorities will decide whether the PSA is acceptable and the BNL review team is providing its comments for KINS consideration. Section 2.0 provides the basis for the BNL review. Section 3.0 presents the review of each technical element of the PSA. Conclusions and a summary are presented in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 contains the references.

  8. Towards a PSA harmonization French-Belgian comparison of the level 1 PSA for two similar PWR types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, P.; Corenwinder, F.; Lanore, J.M.; Gryffroy, D.; Gelder, P. de; Hulsmans, M.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of the cooperation between French and Belgian regulatory authorities, a PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) comparison exercise has been carried out for several years. This comparison deals with two PSA level 1 studies for internal events, performed for both power and shutdown states: the French PSA of the 900 MWe-series PWR, and the Belgian PSA of the Tihange 1 PWR, which both concern PWRs with a similar Framatome design. The purpose of this paper is to describe the PSA comparison methodology and to present, in a qualitative way, an overview of the insights obtained up to now. It also shows that such an 'a posteriori' benchmark exercise turns out to be a step towards PSA harmonization, and gives more confidence in the results of plant specific PSA when used for applications like precursor analysis or evaluations of importance to safety. (authors)

  9. Steroid-responsive IgG4-related disease with isolated prostatic involvement: An unusual presentation with elevated serum PSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune prostatitis is known to occur as a part of multisystem fibro-inflammatory disorder known as IgG4 related disease (IgG4 RD. The usual presentation is with symptoms of gastro-intestinal disease with prostatic involvement presenting as lower urinary tract symptoms. The disease responds to corticosteroids. We report an asymptomatic young man who was diagnosed to have IgG4 related prostatitis on TRUS-guided prostate biopsy done for elevated serum PSA, in the absence of any other systemic involvement. The treatment with steroid resulted in normalization of S PSA levels.

  10. Uncertainty and sensitivity methods in support of PSA level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devictor, N.; Bolado Lavin, R.

    2007-01-01

    Dealing with uncertainties in PSA level 2 requires using a set of statistical techniques to assess input uncertainty, to propagate uncertainties in an efficient way, to characterize appropriately output uncertainty and to get information from computer code runs through an intelligent use of sensitivity analysis techniques. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of statistical and probabilistic methods and tools to answer to these topics, and to provide some guidance about their suitability and limitations to be used in a PSA level 2. Our position about their implementation in L2 PSA software has been written; it could be noticed that a lot of these methods are very time-consuming, and seem more suitable for the analysis of submodels or for focusing on specific questions. (authors)

  11. Kozloduy NPP units 3 and 4 Level 2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaklev, R.; Papazov, V.

    2005-01-01

    The main objectives and scope of the Kozloduy NPP units 3 and 4 Level 2 PSA are listed. The Containment Event Tree Results are given. The full power initiators risk distribution; internal events PDS risk distribution; fire PDS risk distribution and seismic PDS risk distribution are shown. The Thermal Hydraulic Analyses, including model for MELCOR code reactor nodalization; model for MELCOR code single loop with PRZ nodalization; model for MELCOR code common loop nodalization as well as model for MELCOR code JVC nodalization are presented. At the end the authors conclude that: 1) Definitive PSA-2 study results demonstrates, that the newly installed equipment dedicated to mitigation of severe accident consequences play significant role for decrease of the large early release frequency, providing the severe accident management; 2) The actions and measures prescribed by recently prepared SAMGs during Phare Project BG 01.10.0, lead to additional improvement of PSA-2 results, eventually to mitigation of severe accident consequences

  12. ASAMPSA-E guidance for level 2 PSA Volume 2. Implementing external Events modelling in Level 2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazzoli, E.; Vitazkova, J.; Loeffler, H.; Burgazzi, L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present document is to provide guidance on the implementation of external events into an 'extended' L2 PSA. It has to be noted that L2 PSA addresses issues beginning with fuel degradation and ending with the release of radionuclides into the environment. Therefore, the present document may touch upon, but does not evaluate explicitly issues that involve events or phenomena which occur before the fuel begins to degrade. Following the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi, the nuclear safety community has realized that much attention should be given to the areas of operator interventions and accidents that may develop at the same time in more than one unit if they are initiated by one or more common external events. For this reason and to fulfill the PSA end-users' wish list (as reflected by an ASAMPSA-E survey), the attention is mostly focused on interface between L1 and L2 PSA, fragility analysis, human response analysis and some consideration is given to L2 PSA modeling of severe accidents for multiple unit sites, even though it is premature to provide extensive guidance in this area. The following recommendations, mentioned in various sections within this document, are summarized here: 1. Vulnerability/fragility analyses should be performed with respect to all external hazards and all structures, systems and components potentially affected that could be relevant to L2 PSA, 2. Importance should be given to the assessment of human performance following extreme external events; for extreme circumstances with high stress level, low confidence is justified for SAM human interventions and for such conditions, human interventions could be analyzed as sensitivity cases only in L2 PSA, 3. Results presentation should include assessment of total risk measures compared with risk targets able to assess all contributions to the risk and to judge properly the safety, 4. Total risk measures shall be associated to appropriate information on all

  13. The clinical study of serum PSA and fPSA assayed by CLIA in diagnosing prostate disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jiang; Qian Xiaoyu; Ji Hong; Yang Su; Ding Ying; Zhu Ruisen; Chen Zhong

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical value of PSA (prostate specific antigen) and fPSA(free prostate specific antigen) in differentiating prostate disease. CLIA was used to quantitatively assay PSA, fPSA and fPSA/PSA in 30 cases of normal controls, 32 cases of prostate cancer patients and 76 cases of BPH patients. The result showed that if liminal value of PSA was set at 4 ng/mL, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of prostate cancer were 100% and 50.6% respectively. Meanwhile, if liminal value of fPSA/PSA set at 16% was added, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of prostate cancer were 100% and 85.3% respectively. It was concluded that the combining assay of PSA and fPSA could increase the diagnostic specificity of prostate cancer in a certain degree

  14. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration is positively associated with rate of disease reclassification on subsequent active surveillance prostate biopsy in men with low PSA density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbehr, Martin H; Platz, Elizabeth A; Peskoe, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Nrupen A; Epstein, Jonathan I; Landis, Patricia; Partin, Alan W; Carter, H Ballentine

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the association between serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration at active surveillance (AS) entry and disease reclassification on subsequent AS biopsy ('biopsy reclassification') in men with low PSA density (PSAD). To investigate whether a clinically meaningful PSA threshold for AS eligibility/ineligibility for men with low PSAD can be identified based on risk of subsequent biopsy reclassification. We included men enrolled in the Johns Hopkins AS Study (JHAS) who had a PSAD of PSA concentration at the time of entry into AS. We generated predicted IRs using Poisson regression to adjust for age and prostate volume, mean percentage free PSA (ratio of free to total PSA) and maximum percentage biopsy core involvement with cancer. The unadjusted IRs (per 100 person years) of biopsy reclassification across serum PSA concentration at entry into JHAS showed, in general, an increase; however, the pattern was not linear with higher IRs in the group ≥ 4 to PSA concentration in men with low PSAD, whereby no obvious clinically meaningful threshold could be identified. This information could be incorporated into decision-making for AS. However, longer follow-up times are needed to warrant final conclusions. © 2013 BJU International.

  15. Recent Developments in Level 2 PSA and Severe Accident Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, Ming Leang; Shepherd, Charles; Gauntt, Randall; Landgren, Vickie; Van Dorsselaere, Jean Pierre; Chaumont, Bernard; Raimond, Emmanuel; Magallon, Daniel; Prior, Robert; Mlady, Ondrej; Khatib-Rahbar, Mohsen; Lajtha, Gabor; Tinkler, Charles; Siu, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    In 1997, CSNI WGRISK produced a report on the state of the art in Level 2 PSA and severe accident management - NEA/CSNI/R(1997)11. Since then, there have been significant developments in that more Level 2 PSAs have been carried out worldwide for a variety of nuclear power plant designs including some that were not addressed in the original report. In addition, there is now a better understanding of the severe accident phenomena that can occur following core damage and the way that they should be modelled in the PSA. As requested by CSNI in December 2005, the objective of this study was to produce a report that updates the original report and gives an account of the developments that have taken place since 1997. The aim has been to capture the most significant new developments that have occurred rather than to provide a full update of the original report, most of which is still valid. This report is organised using the same structure as the original report as follows: Chapter 2: Summary on state of application, results and insights from recent Level 2 PSAs. Chapter 3: Discussion on key severe accident phenomena and modelling issues, identification of severe accident issues that should be treated in Level 2 PSAs for accident management applications, review of severe accident computer codes and the use of these codes in Level 2 PSAs. Chapter 4: Review of approaches and practices for accident management and SAM, evaluation of actions in Level 2 PSAs. Chapter 5: Review of available Level 2 PSA methodologies, including accident progression event tree / containment event tree development. Chapter 6: Aspects important to quantification, including the use of expert judgement and treatment of uncertainties. Chapter 7: Examples of the use of the results and insights from the Level 2 PSA in the context of an integrated (risk informed) decision making process

  16. Evaluation of prostate cancer prevalence in Iranian male population with increased PSA level, a one center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslemi, Mohammad Kazem; Lotfi, Fariborz; Tahvildar, Seyed Ali

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) in Iranian male patients with increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and normal or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) that underwent prostate biopsy. From March 2006 to April 2009, a total of 346 consecutive males suspected of having PCa due to increased PSA levels underwent transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided sextant biopsy of the prostate. The total PSA (tPSA), demographic data, incidence of PCa, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), and prostatitis were assessed. The patients were divided into two groups according to their PSA values (group A serum tPSA level, 4–10 ng/mL; group B serum tPSA level, 10.1–20.0 ng/mL). Of the 346 biopsied cases, 193 cases (56%) had PCa, 80 cases (23%) had BPH, and 73 cases (21%) had prostatitis. The mean PSA and the age of the carcinoma group were significantly higher than those of the benign group (P < 0.01). The biopsy results were grouped as PCa, BPH, and prostatitis. Incidence of PCa for group A and group B cases were 115 cases (51%), and 78 cases (65%), respectively. In the case of PCa, BPH, and prostatitis, the mean PSAs were 10.02 ng/mL, 8.76 ng/mL, and 8.41 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.40). TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and interpretation by a skilled team is highly recommended for early detection of PCa or its ruling-out. It seems that a PSA cutoff value of 4 ng/mL may be applied to the Iranian population. Although the chance of PCa is high in the PSA levels of 4–10 ng/mL, the combination of some data, like age and prostate volume, can decrease the rate of unnecessary prostate biopsies. We recommend prostate biopsy when PSA and/or DRE is elevated in symptomatic patients with obstructive and/or irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as dysuria, frequency, or nocturia. Due to the very high incidence of PCa in the patients with PSA greater than 10 ng/mL, TRUS-guided biopsy is indicated, whatever the findings on DRE and

  17. Development of the Level 1 PSA Model for PGSFR Regulatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Hyun Ju; Lee, Yong Suk; Shin, Andong; Suh, Nam Duk

    2014-01-01

    SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor) is Gen-IV nuclear energy system, which is designed for stability, sustainability and proliferation resistance. KALIMER-600 and PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV SFR) are under development in Korea with enhanced passive safety concepts, e.g. passive reactor shutdown, passive residual heat removal, and etc. Risk analysis from a regulatory perspective is necessary for regulatory body to support the safety and licensing review of SFR. Safety issues should be identified in the early design phase in order to prevent the unexpected cost increase and the delay of PGSFR licensing schedule. In this respect, the preliminary PSA Model of KALIMER-600 had been developed for regulatory. In this study, the development of PSA Level 1 Model is presented. The important impact factors in the risk analysis for the PGSFR, such as Core Damage Frequency (CDF), have been identified and the related safety insights have been derived. The PSA level 1 model for PGSFR regulatory is developed and the risk analysis is conducted. Regarding CDF, LOISF frequency, uncertainty parameter for passive system CCF, loss of 125V DC control center bus and damper CCF are identified as the important factors. Sensitivity analyses show that the CDF would be differentiated (lowered) according to their values

  18. Serum concentrations of the biomarkers CA125, CA15-3, CA72-4, tPSA and PAPP-A in natural and stimulated ovarian cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Stemp

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Ovarian stimulation reduced serum PAPP‐A levels, CA125 and CA15‐3 levels were generally unaffected by ovarian stimulation but displayed cyclical changes throughout both natural and stimulated cycles, whilst tPSA and CA72-4 were not affected by the stage of the cycle or ovarian stimulation.

  19. Level 2 PSA insights relative to filtered vent system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deremer, R.K.; Fleming, K.N.; Landolt, J.

    1996-01-01

    A full-scope Level 2 probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) of the Goesgen Nuclear Power Plant was completed early in 1994. During the PSA, a containment filtered vent system was installed at the plant to meet requirements of the Swiss safety authorities. The purpose of the vent system is to provide a mechanism to depressurize the containment atmosphere in a controlled manner during the late phase of a severe accident in order to preclude gradual over pressurization of the containment and filter any release of radioactive materials to the environment. To ensure a high degree of reliability, it was required to include a design feature to open the vent passively via the use of a rupture disc whose opening is highly reliable and independent of operator actions. The PSA addressed two issues associated with the vent system: (1) What is the optimum pressure to select for the rupture disc setpoint? and (2) What is the best strategy for the use of the rupture disc isolation valves (i.e., should they be left open normally to ensure the opening of the vent at the rupture disc setpoint or should they be left closed and opened by the operator only during a severe accident)? Based on the results generated by the PSA, which indicated that the downside risk of inadvertent opening in the early phase of an accident was greater than the upside benefit of a passively actuated vent in the late phase of an accident, it was concluded that it is prudent to have the rupture disc normally isolated from the containment

  20. Serum levels of prostate-specific antigen and vitamin D in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passadakis, Ploumis; Ersoy, Fevzi; Tam, Paul; Memmos, Dimitrios; Siamopoulos, Konstantinos; Ozener, Cetin; Akçiçek, Fehmi; Camsari, Taner; Ates, Kenan; Ataman, Rezzan; Vlachojannis, John; Dombros, Nicholas; Utas, Cengiz; Akpolat, Tekin; Bozfakioglu, Semra; Wu, George G; Karayaylali, Ibrahim; Arinsoy, Tekin; Stathakis, Charalampos; Yavuz, Mahmut; Tsakiris, Dimitrios; Dimitriades, Athanasios; Yilmaz, Mehmet E; Gültekin, Meral; Karayalçin, Binnur; Challa, Anna; Polat, Nese; Oreopoulos, Dimitrios G

    2004-01-01

    Measuring the free:total ratio of prostate-specific antigen (f/t-PSA) can improve the specificity of single-serum PSA values, distinguishing between benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic carcinoma (PCa) in men over the age of 50. Additionally, clinical trials have shown that dihydroxyvitamin D3 can slow the rate of PSA rise in PCa patients. However, little is known regarding the applicability of those findings in men undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD). In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of increased serum PSA levels among CPD patients and correlated those values with serum levels of vitamin D [25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3]. We undertook a cross-sectional study of 71 male CPD patients without a known history of prostate cancer from 24 centers in Canada, Greece, and Turkey. All of the patients were more than 50 years of age. In these patients, we measured serum concentrations of PSA, free PSA (f-PSA), total PSA (t-PSA), prostate alkaline phosphatase (PAP), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH). We recorded serum PSA levels 4 ng/mL in 9 patients (12.7%, group B). The f/t-PSA ratio was t-PSA, but iPTH levels were significantly higher in group A (200.5 pg/mL vs. 61.2 pg/mL, p t-PSA in PD patients. However, further studies are needed to better define the uses of these PSA markers in PD patients because, in such patients, other relevant factors might be implicated in their predictive value.

  1. Advanced prostatic carcinomas with low serum levels of prostate-specific antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerović Snežana J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA represent a significant diagnostic and monitoring parameter of prostatic carcinoma (PC. The aim of the study was to establish correlation of serum PSA level in addition to grade, histological type, and clinical stage of PC in patients with normal or intermediary PSA serum level. In 37 untreated PC patients with preoperative serum PSA levels ranging between 0.1 and 9.6 ng/ml, paraffin-embedded tissue and serum samples were immunohistological studied and immunoassay for PSA was done. The most representative was poorly differentiated PC with D stage In serum samples from PC patients 27 (73.7% normal (≤ 4.0 ng/ml, and 10 (27.3% intermediate (4.1-10 ng/ml PSA levels were found Immunohistochemistry, in 36 PC (97.3% had demonstrated the expression of PSA. Our study results had shown low serum PSA levels in some patients with advanced poorly differentiated PC.

  2. The Serum Level of Prostate Specific Antigen in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guohong; Xu Ruiji; Zhang Zhongshu

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level are increased in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), 40 patients with PCOS, and 50 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study.The subjects were compared by means of serum PSA T SHBG DHEA-S levels. The correlations between PSA and T SHBG DHEA-S were evaluated.Serum PSA levels were found to be significantly higher in PCOS (PSA: 15.64±3.36 pg/mL, in PCOS; PSA: 3.56±0.44pg/mL, in control; P<0.01). Positive correlations between PSA and T (r=0.467, P<0.01) and between PSA and DHEA-S (r=, 0.205 P<0.05) were found. A negative correlation between PSA and SHBG was apparent (r=-0.260, P<0.05). Females with PCOS tended to have higher PSA than females without PCOS (P<0.01). PSA appears to be a promising marker of androgen excess in females suffering from PCOS. (authors)

  3. Clinical impact of body mass index on prostate biopsy in patients with intermediate PSA levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekita, Nobuyuki; Chin, Kensei; Fujimura, Masaaki; Mikami, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Kamijima, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    From April 2005 to September 2007, 480 patients underwent transrectal prostate biopsy at our institution. The clinical data including age, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level, prostate volume and body mass index (BMI) were obtained, and the cancer detection rates and pathological findings were evaluated in 305 cases with a PSA concentration of 4.0 to 10.0 ng/ml. Prostate volume was calculated from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. The 305 patients were categorized according to their BMI into three groups (normal, less than 22 kg/m 2 ; overweight, 22-25 kg/m 2 ; and obese, more than 25 kg/m 2 ). Cancer detection rates and histopathologic findings were compared between the groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was also performed. Prostate cancer was detected in 127 patients. No significant differences in BMI were observed between biopsy-positive and biopsy-negative cases (p=0.965), and the detection rates of prostate cancer observed in the three groups were not significantly different. There was a significant association between BMI and the findings of high Gleason score (more than 4+3) (p=0.048). BMI was not a contributory factor of prostate cancer detection for cases with intermediate PSA levels; however, patients with high BMI may have high-grade malignancy features. (author)

  4. The diagnostic value of PSA, cPSA and bone scintigraphy for early skeletal metastasis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Zhongguang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of prostate specific antigen (PSA), complexed prostate specific antigen (cPSA) and bone scintigraphic imaging in diagnosis of early skeletal metastasis of prostate cancer. Methods: 152 patients (74 with prostate cancer, 78 with benign prostate disease) and 90 controls were examined for the serum concentrations of PSA and cPSA. At the same time, the 74 patients with PCa were examined with bone scintigraphy. The cPSA/PSA ratio was calculated. Results: Serum PSA, cPSA levels and cPSA/PSA ratio of patients with prostate cancer were significantly higher than those in benign prostate patients and controls. In addition, the serum PSA, cPSA levels and cPSA/PSA ratio in prostate cancer patients with skeletal metastasis were remarkably higher than those in patients without skeletal metastasis, and the differences were significant (P 20 μg/L, cPSA>10 μg/L, cPSA/PSA>0.80, there is a high probability that skeletal metastasis of prostate cancer would be present and bone scintigraphy should be performed. (authors)

  5. The relationship between solar UV exposure, serum vitamin D levels and serum prostate-specific antigen levels, in men from New South Wales, Australia: the CHAMP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair-Shalliker, Visalini; Smith, David P; Clements, Mark; Naganathan, Vasikaran; Litchfield, Melisa; Waite, Louise; Handelsman, David; Seibel, Markus J; Cumming, Robert; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2014-10-01

    We aim to determine the relationship between season, personal solar UV exposure, serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Questionnaire data and blood samples were collected at baseline from participants of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (n = 1,705), aged 70 and above. They were grouped as men 'free of prostate disease' for those with no record of having prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or prostatitis and with serum PSA levels below 20 ng/mL, and 'with prostate disease' for those with a record of either of these diseases or with serum PSA levels 20 ng/mL or above. Personal solar UV exposure (sUV) was estimated from recalled hours of outdoor exposure and weighted against ambient solar UV radiation. Sera were analysed to determine levels of PSA, 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D, and analysed using multiple regression, adjusting for age, BMI and region of birth. The association between sUV and serum PSA levels was conditional upon season (p interaction = 0.04). There was no direct association between serum PSA and 25(OH)D in both groups of men. There was a positive association between serum PSA and 1,25(OH)2D in men with prostate disease (mean = 110.6 pmol/L; p heterogeneity = 0.03), but there was no such association in men free of prostate disease (mean = 109.3 pmol/L; p heterogeneity = 0.8). The association between PSA and sUV may only be evident at low solar UV irradiance, and this effect may be independent of serum vitamin D levels.

  6. A formal treatment of uncertainty sources in a level 2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kwang Il; Yang, Joon Eon

    2003-01-01

    The methodological framework of the level 2 PSA appears to be currently standardized in a formalized fashion, but there have been different opinions on the way the sources of uncertainty are characterized and treated. This is primarily because the level 2 PSA deals with complex phenomenological processes that are deterministic in nature rather than random processes, and there are no probabilistic models characterizing them clearly. As a result, the probabilistic quantification of the level 2 PSA is often subjected to two sources of uncertainty: (a) incomplete modeling of accident pathways or different predictions for the behavior of phenomenological events and (b) expert-to-expert variation in estimating the occurrence probability of phenomenological events. While a clear definition of the two sources of uncertainty involved in the level 2 PSA makes it possible to treat an uncertainty in a consistent manner, careless application of these different sources of uncertainty may produce different conclusions in the decision-making process. The primary purpose of this paper is to characterize typical sources of uncertainty that would often be addressed in the level 2 PSA and their impacts on the PSA level 2 risk results. An additional purpose of this paper is to give a formal approach on how to combine random uncertainties addressed in the level 1 PSA with subjectivistic uncertainties addressed in the level 2 PSA

  7. Approach to development and use of PSA Level 2 analysis for the Cernavoda nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcu, I.; Deaconu, R.; Radu, G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper first describes the status of PSA activities for the Cernavoda NPP and the extension of the PSA work to include Level 2 PSA. Important characteristics of this reactor type for Level 2 PSA are outlined. Due to the specific layout of the CANDU reactor the evolution of severe accidents is considerably different to vessel type LWRs. Accidents can be roughly categorized into three categories, ''''severe accidents'''' which lead to the loss of core structural integrity, delayed loss of core structural integrity as a consequence of the loss of heat sinks, and fuel channel failures. The current work for modelling accident progression in the core region is described. The elements for the Level 2 PSA including definition of PDSs, probabilistic containment logic and source term calculation are outlined. It is pointed out that uncertainties have to be considered which are contained in the models to bridge knowledge gaps. For this purpose sensitivity studies will be carried out for key modelling assumptions. (author)

  8. Comparative Study on Atmospheric Dispersion Module of Level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Dahye; Jang, Misuk; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seoung Rae [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Some regulation documents such as Regulatory Guides and NUREG publications from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have influences on domestic radiation environmental analyses. As renewal versions of NUREG-0800 and NUREG-1555 have issued lately, the assessment for Severe Accident (SA) with Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) should be added to Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and Radiation Environmental Report (RER). Because these reports are the required documents for obtaining the construction permit and operating license, it is important to understand the PSA methodology and it needs to improve the site-specific input data of L3PSA codes for SA. First, our review focuses on the atmospheric dispersion and deposition related input data of L3PSA code in this paper. Then we will continue to review the improvements of other input data. Two atmospheric dispersion models, which are PAVAN developed for design basis accident and ATMOS of MACCS2 code developed for SA, were reviewed in this paper. L3PSA deals with the effects of severe accidents and basically includes the evaluation of both short- and long-term effects. Therefore, both the deposition effects and nuclide information(type, amount, and chemical characteristics of released radionuclide) would be considered as the input parameters of atmospheric dispersion model for L3PSA. Additionally, the meteorological data would be sampled randomly to meet the purpose of probabilistic method. However, the sampling method would be selected according to analysis purpose. After review, ATMOS module and its input data are suitably developed for the atmospheric dispersion analysis of L3PSA. However, ATMOS module was developed using the site-specific terrain and environment characteristics. For the domestic application, it needs to study the input data reflecting the Korean terrain and environment characteristics. It would be also continuously improved in response to the time- and site-specific changes of weather

  9. Review process of PSA Level 2 of KBR. Concept and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andernacht, Martin; Glaser, Hendrik; Sonnenkalb, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, a periodic safety review (PSR) has to be performed every 10 years by the utility. In the past, a PSR only included a plant-specific probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) Level 1 study. For the NPP Brokdorf (KBR) PSA Level 2 project, an agreement was reached between all parties involved that the study will be performed not as a part of the PSR process, but supplementary to it. Since a revised version of the German PSA guideline has been released in 2005, these plant-specific PSAs have to include a PSA Level 2, too. This paper will focus on conclusions and findings from a ongoing parallel review process of the first full scope PSA Level 2 performed by the utility for KBR, a typical German PWR-1300. The responsible authority 'Ministerium fuer Soziales, Gesundheit, Familie, Jugend und Senioren des Landes Schleswig-Holstein (MSGF)' (Ministry of Social Affairs, Health, Family, Youth and Senior Citizens of Schleswig-Holstein) initiated this parallel review process in agreement with the utility KBR and the E.ON Kernkraft in 2006. The project will be completed soon. Such a review process allows that essential steps of the PSA will be reviewed and commented before the PSA Level 2 will be finished. So the benefit from this parallel review process is a significant enhancement of the quality and completeness of the PSA Level 2 study as the majority of the recommendations given by the review team has been taken over by the utility and the developer of the PSA, the Areva NP company. Further, a common understanding and agreement will be reached at the end between all parties involved on the major topics of the PSA Level 2 study. (orig.)

  10. Review process of PSA level 2 of KBR - Concept and Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andernacht, M.; Glaser, H.; Sonnenkalb, M.

    2013-01-01

    In Germany, a periodic safety review (PSR) has to be performed every ten years by the utility. In the past, a PSR only included a plant-specific probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) Level 1 study. Since a revised version of the German PSA guideline has been released in 2005, these plant-specific PSAs have to include a PSA Level 2, too. For the NPP Brokdorf (KBR) PSA Level 2 project, an agreement was reached between all parties involved that the study will be performed not as a part of the PSR process, but supplementary to it. This paper will focus on conclusions and findings from an ongoing parallel review process of the first full scope PSA Level 2 performed by the utility for KBR, a typical German PWR-1300. The responsible authority 'Ministerium fuer Soziales, Gesundheit, Familie, Jugend und Senioren des Landes Schleswig- Holstein' (MSGF) initiated this parallel review process in agreement with the utility KBR and the E.ON Kernkraft in 2006. The project will be completed soon. Such a review process allows that essential steps of the PSA will be reviewed and commented before the PSA Level 2 will be finished. So the benefit from this parallel review process is a significant enhancement of the quality and completeness of the PSA Level 2 study as the majority of the recommendations given by the review team has been taken over by the utility and the developer of the PSA, the AREVA NP company. Further, a common understanding and agreement will be reached at the end between all parties involved on the major topics of the PSA Level 2 study. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  11. Level 1 PSA study of Mochovce unit 1 NPP (SM AA 10 and 08)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cillik, I.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents genesis of Level 1 PSA project preparation for all operational modes of Mochovce NPP unit 1 including the description of its' main objectives, scope and working method. The PSA study which includes full power (FPSA) as well as shutdown and low power conditions (SPSA) Level 1 PSA has to support the nuclear safety improvements of the unit. They evaluate the basic design and the benefits of all improvements, which were found necessary to be incorporated before the start-up of the unit. The study includes internal events (transients and under-loss of coolant accident, LOCAs), internal hazards as fires and floods and selected external hazards as earthquake, influence of external industry, extreme meteorological conditions and aircraft crash.The PSA (both FPSA and SPSA) models is developed using the RISK SPECTRUM PSA code. (author)

  12. The cutoff level of free/total prostate specific antigen (f/t PSA) ratios in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a validation study on a Turkish patient population in different age categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Bulent; Gulpinar, Murat Tolga; Bozdogan, Gurdal; Ozkanli, Seyma; Onem, Kadir; Mungan, Görkem; Bektas, Sibel; Tokgoz, Husnu; Akduman, Bulent; Mungan, Aydin

    2014-11-01

    We investigated an optimal cutoff level of free/total PSA ratios (f/t PSA) in predicting prostate cancer in different age groups, focusing on the avoidance of unnecessary prostate biopsies. A total of 4955 men were enrolled into the study. Serum tPSA, fPSA, and f/t PSA ratios were determined for the study population. All males who had suspicious digital rectal examination and tPSA > 4 ng/mL underwent transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for each group were generated by plotting the sensitivity versus 1-specificity for the f/t PSA ratio. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were obtained using various f/t PSA ratio cutoffs for different age groups. There were 657 patients with a PSA level of 4-10 ng/mL. According to sensitivity and specificity f/t% PSA cutoff points were determined to be 10%, 15%, 15%, and 10% in 50-59 years, 60-69 years, >70 years, and all ages categories, respectively, in patients with initial PSA level of 4-10 ng/mL. f/t PSA ratio had an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.81 (95% confidence level: 0.80-0.82) for all age groups in detecting prostate cancer. f/t PSA ratio has an AUC value of 0.669 (0.632-0.705) in detecting prostate cancer among patients with a PSA level of 4-10 ng/mL. Ten percent of f/t PSA ratio had the highest specificity with PLR and 30% f/t PSA ratio had the highest sensitivity with lower NLR in the all-age categories. The current study shows that the use of f/t PSA ratio in patients with PSA levels of 4-10 ng/mL should enhance the specificity of PSA screening and decrease the number of unnecessary biopsies. The age-related changes warrant further investigation in a large, multicentric, and multinational population to improve the clinical use of f/t PSA cutoffs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  13. Development of computing code system for level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Yu, Dong Han; Kim, Seung Hwan

    1997-07-01

    Among the various research areas of the level 3 PSA, the effect of terrain on the transport of radioactive material was investigated through wind tunnel experiment. These results will give a physical insight in the development of a new dispersion model. Because there are some discrepancies between the results from Gaussian plume model and those from field test, the effect of terrain on the atmospheric dispersion was investigated by using CTDMPLUS code. Through this study we find that the model which can treat terrain effect is essential in the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials and the CTDMPLUS model can be used as a useful tool. And it is suggested that modification of a model and experimental study should be made through the continuous effort. The health effect assessment near the Yonggwang site by using IPE (Individual plant examination) results and its site data was performed. The health effect assessment is an important part of consequence analysis of a nuclear power plant site. The MACCS was used in the assessment. Based on the calculation of CCDF for each risk measure, it is shown that CCDF has a slow slope and thus wide probability distribution in cases of early fatality, early injury, total early fatality risk, and total weighted early fatality risk. And in cases of cancer fatality and population dose within 48km and 80km, the CCDF curve have a steep slope and thus narrow probability distribution. The establishment of methodologies for necessary models for consequence analysis resulting form a server accident in the nuclear power plant was made and a program for consequence analysis was developed. The models include atmospheric transport and diffusion, calculation of exposure doses for various pathways, and assessment of health effects and associated risks. Finally, the economic impact resulting form an accident in a nuclear power plant was investigated. In this study, estimation models for each cost terms that considered in economic

  14. Serum prostate-specific antigen levels and type of work in tire manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hyeon; Jang, Keun-Ho; Park, Won-Ju; Kwon, Do-Hyeong; Kang, Won-Yang; Lim, Hyeong-Min; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    This study measures serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in tire-manufacturing workers, and attempts to find occupational or non-occupational factors that related to their PSA levels. A total of 1,958 healthy male workers (1,699 were production workers and 259 were office workers) took PSA measurement for analysis. After adjusting for age, body mass index, hypertension, regular exercise, alcohol drinking and smoking, which were significantly related to serum PSA levels or known related factors of serum PSA levels, the geometric mean PSA levels were significantly high in the office workers (p = 0.017), the older age group (p 4.0 (OR 7.73, 95% CI: 2.78-21.46) or 2.5 ng/mL (OR 2.74, 95% CI: 1.49-5.08). After stratifying by age and adjusting aforementioned covariates, office workers 50 years of age and older had the significantly higher geometric mean PSA levels (p = 0.017) and were more likely to have a serum PSA level of ≥4.0 ng/mL (OR 12.90, 95% CI: 3.65-45.64) or 2.5 ng/mL (OR 3.90, 95% CI: 1.64-9.25) than production workers 50 years of age and older. This study showed that serum PSA levels were significantly higher among the group with hypertension or the group of individuals that did not exercise regularly or group of office workers who were considered to have lesser physical activities.

  15. Effect of alpha linolenic acid supplementation on serum prostate specific antigen (PSA): results from the alpha omega trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Klaasen, Veronique M; Smit, Liesbeth A; Giltay, Erik J; de Goede, Janette; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Kromhout, Daan; Katan, Martijn B

    2013-01-01

    Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for prostate cancer. The Alpha Omega Trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00127452) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ALA and the fish fatty acids eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) on the recurrence of cardiovascular disease, using a 2×2 factorial design. Blood was collected at the start and the end of the intervention period. The present analysis included 1622 patients with a history of a myocardial infarction, aged 60-80 years with an initial PSA concentration PSA (both continuously and as a dichotomous outcome, cut-off point: >4 ng/mL). Mean serum PSA increased by 0.42 ng/mL on placebo (n = 815) and by 0.52 ng/mL on ALA (n = 807), a difference of 0.10 (95% confidence interval: -0.02 to 0.22) ng/mL (P = 0·12). The odds ratio for PSA rising above 4 ng/mL on ALA versus placebo was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.84-1.58). An additional amount of 2 g of ALA per day increased PSA by 0.10 ng/mL, but the confidence interval ranged from -0.02 to 0.22 ng/mL and included no effect. Therefore, more studies are needed to establish whether or not ALA intake has a clinically significant effect on PSA or prostate cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00127452. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00127452.

  16. An endoglycosidase-assisted LC-MS/MS-based strategy for the analysis of site-specific core-fucosylation of low-concentrated glycoproteins in human serum using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Robert; Leinenbach, Andreas; Karl, Johann; Swiatek-de Lange, Magdalena; Kobold, Uwe; Vogeser, Michael

    2018-05-01

    Recently, site-specific fucosylation of glycoproteins has attracted attention as it can be associated with several types of cancers including prostate cancer. However, individual glycoproteins, which might serve as potential cancer markers, often are very low-concentrated in complex serum matrices and distinct glycan structures are hard to detect by immunoassays. Here, we present a mass spectrometry-based strategy for the simultaneous analysis of core-fucosylated and total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in human serum in the low ng/ml concentration range. Sample preparation comprised an immunoaffinity capture step to enrich total PSA from human serum using anti-PSA antibody coated magnetic beads followed by consecutive two-step on-bead partial deglycosylation with endoglycosidase F3 and tryptic digestion prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. The method was shown to be linear from 0.5 to 60 ng/ml total PSA concentrations and allows the simultaneous quantification of core-fucosylated PSA down to 1 ng/ml and total PSA lower than 0.5 ng/ml. The imprecision of the method over two days ranged from 9.7-23.2% for core-fucosylated PSA and 10.3-18.3% for total PSA depending on the PSA level. The feasibility of the method in native sera was shown using three human specimens. To our knowledge, this is the first MS-based method for quantification of core-fucosylated PSA in the low ng/ml concentration range in human serum. This method could be used in large patient cohorts as core-fucosylated PSA may be a diagnostic biomarker for the differentiation of prostate cancer and other prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Furthermore, the described strategy could be used to monitor potential changes in site-specific core-fucosylation of other low-concentrated glycoproteins, which could serve as more specific markers ("marker refinement") in cancer research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical performance of serum prostate-specific antigen isoform [-2]proPSA (p2PSA) and its derivatives, %p2PSA and the prostate health index (PHI), in men with a family history of prostate cancer: results from a multicentre European study, the PROMEtheuS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Massimo; Haese, Alexander; Abrate, Alberto; de la Taille, Alexandre; Redorta, Joan Palou; McNicholas, Thomas; Lughezzani, Giovanni; Lista, Giuliana; Larcher, Alessandro; Bini, Vittorio; Cestari, Andrea; Buffi, Nicolòmaria; Graefen, Markus; Bosset, Olivier; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Breda, Alberto; de la Torre, Pablo; Fowler, Linda; Roux, Jacques; Guazzoni, Giorgio

    2013-08-01

    To test the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of serum prostate-specific antigen isoform [-2]proPSA (p2PSA), %p2PSA and the prostate health index (PHI), in men with a family history of prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing prostate biopsy for suspected PCa. To evaluate the potential reduction in unnecessary biopsies and the characteristics of potentially missed cases of PCa that would result from using serum p2PSA, %p2PSA and PHI. The analysis consisted of a nested case-control study from the PRO-PSA Multicentric European Study, the PROMEtheuS project. All patients had a first-degree relative (father, brother, son) with PCa. Multivariable logistic regression models were complemented by predictive accuracy analysis and decision-curve analysis. Of the 1026 patients included in the PROMEtheuS cohort, 158 (15.4%) had a first-degree relative with PCa. p2PSA, %p2PSA and PHI values were significantly higher (P < 0.001), and free/total PSA (%fPSA) values significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the 71 patients with PCa (44.9%) than in patients without PCa. Univariable accuracy analysis showed %p2PSA (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve [AUC]: 0.733) and PHI (AUC: 0.733) to be the most accurate predictors of PCa at biopsy, significantly outperforming total PSA ([tPSA] AUC: 0.549), free PSA ([fPSA] AUC: 0.489) and %fPSA (AUC: 0.600) (P ≤ 0.001). For %p2PSA a threshold of 1.66 was found to have the best balance between sensitivity and specificity (70.4 and 70.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 58.4-80.7 and 59.4-79.5 respectively). A PHI threshold of 40 was found to have the best balance between sensitivity and specificity (64.8 and 71.3%, respectively; 95% CI 52.5-75.8 and 60.6-80.5). At 90% sensitivity, the thresholds for %p2PSA and PHI were 1.20 and 25.5, with a specificity of 37.9 and 25.5%, respectively. At a %p2PSA threshold of 1.20, a total of 39 (24.8%) biopsies could have been avoided, but two cancers with a Gleason score (GS) of 7 would have been missed

  18. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) in diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome - a new insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnicka, Ewa; Radowicki, Stanislaw; Suchta, Katarzyna

    2016-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder and cause of androgen excess in women. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) could be a new marker of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. The aim of the study was to assess the concentration PSA (total PSA - TPSA and free PSA - fPSA) in 165 patients with PCOS and 40 healthy female controls, the relationship between PSA (TPSA and fPSA) and hormonal parameters and to determine the performance of PSA in diagnosis of PCOS. Total PSA was higher in PCOS group versus controls. The fPSA was below the lower detection levels among all patients. The median value of FAI was 4.31 in PCOS patients versus 1.79 in controls, p PSA serum levels in diagnostic of PCOS.

  19. The preoperative serum ratio of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), PSA/FT index ratio, and prostate cancer. Results in 220 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcaro, Antonio B; Caruso, Beatrice; Terrin, Alessandro; De Luyk, Nicolò; Cacciamani, Giovanni; Corsi, Paolo; Inverardi, Davide; De Marchi, Davide; Baldassarre, Roberto; Cerruto, Mariangela; Ghimenton, Claudio; Brunelli, Matteo; Zecchini Antoniolli, Stefano; Petrozziello, Aldo; Artibani, Walter

    2016-03-31

    To evaluate associations of preoperative total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), the PSA/FT index ratio, with features of pathology prostate cancer (PCA) and to investigate its prognostic potential in clustering the PCA population. After excluding criteria, the records of 220 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) were retrospectively reviewed. Serum samples of PSA, total testosterone (TT) and FT were collected at 8.00 A.M., one month after biopsies and before RP. The PSA/FT ratio was computed in the population of patients who were clustered in groups according to ranking intervals of the PSA/FT ratio which identified at least 4 clusters which were coded as A, B, C, and D. The independent associations of the PSA/FT index ratio were assessed by statistical methods and a two-sided P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. TT correlated to FT which was a significant predictor of PSA in the population of patients who were subsequently clustered, according to increasing interval values of the PSA/FT index ratio, in groups that showed a stronger linear association of FT with PSA. The PSA/FT index ratio significantly associated with pathology features of prostate cancer such as pathology Gleason score (pGS), invasion of the seminal vesicles (pT3b), proportion of positive cores (P+) and proportion of cancer involving the volume of the prostate. In the population of patients, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ independently associated with pGS ≥ 7 and pT3b; moreover, the odds ratio (OR) of the PSA/FT index ratio resulted 9.11 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.11) and P+ (OR = 8.84). In the PCA population, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ also independently associated with pT3b PCA; interestingly, the OR of PSA/FT index resulted 54.91 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.31) and P+ (26.43). Preoperative PSA/FT index ratio is an independent strong factor which directly associates with aggressive features of pathology PCA

  20. Peran Volume Prostat Dan PSA Serum Untuk Deteksi Kanker Prostat Pada Penderita LUTS Dengan Colok Dubur Normal

    OpenAIRE

    Ariani, Devinta Tirza; Umbas, Rainy

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peran volume prostat danprostate specific antigen(PSA) serum > 4 ng/ml untuk mendeteksi angka kejadian dangradingkanker prostat pada penderitaLower Urinary Tract Symptoms(LUTS) dengan colok dubur normal yang dilakukan biopsi. Data yang dikumpulkan dari rekam medik penderitabenign prostate hyperplasia(BPH) dan kanker prostat di Klinik Khusus Urologi periode Januari 1995 sampai dengan Desember 2009 di departemen urologi Rumah Sakit Cipto Mangunkusumo da...

  1. Human prostate specific antigen (hPSA) purification and establishment of hPSA radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiquiang Zhong; Li Chen; Renzhi Wang

    1996-01-01

    Human prostate specific antigen (hPSA) RIA was developed with hPSA and anti-PSA prepared in our laboratory. Its standard curve was linear with a sensitivity of 0.5 μ g/L. Serum PSA levels of 130 normal males ranged from O to 3.5 μ g/L (1.15 ± 0.93 μ g/L), which are consistent with the results of other conventinal RIA. The rcovery, intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation conform to the demands of RIA, and the results of 41 samples obtained by both the PSA RA and PSA RIA of DPC were well correlated (γ = 0.990). PSA level of 23 patients with prostatic carcinoma was 10 - 400 μ g/L. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  2. African-American (AA) men with local-regional prostate cancer (PC) present with higher prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels than whites: results of RTOG 94-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Winter, K.; Sause, W.; Gallagher, M.J.; Perez, C.; Bondy, M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To use pretreatment serum PSA levels as an 20), gleason score (2-5,6-7,7-10), race (whites and AAs), and two interactions viz (a) PSA by race (p=0.0012) and (b) PSA by total gleason score (p=0.0001). When race was replaced by educational status, or income, or both, the fits (0.8246,0.8197, and 0.7815, respectively) were not as good as the fit with race in the model. Conclusion: The findings of this nation-wide prospective registration study with a high percentage of AA patient participation confirms previous, smaller, geographically-limited studies (1,2,3) results that AA patients with non-metastatic PC present with a higher mean PSA values than whites. The multivariate findings imply that, for each level of total gleason score, there is a higher percentage of whites with PSA levels 20. Education and/or income as surrogates of sociological status could not completely explain the racial differences. Other reasons for health-care barriers among AAs need to be identified

  3. Application of PSA to Assess the Safety Level of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. P.; Goertz, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of PSA in German nuclear power plant regulation. From a fundamental point of view, it has to be mentioned that as stipulated in the corresponding requirements, regulatory decision making in Germany is primarily based on deterministic analyses and evaluations. Therefore, PSA is not used as a stand alone but as a supplementary basis. In this context PSA has developed a valuable tool with continuously growing importance. Level 1+ PSAs are now elaborated for all German nuclear power plants in operation, most of them are already reviewed by the competent supervisory authority and its experts. Current research activities on the federal level primarily concentrate on the further development of the methodology in the areas human factor, common cause failures, accident management measures and reduction of uncertainties in methods and data. (author)

  4. Application of PSA level 1 for the Fugen prototype ATR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, H.; Iguchi, Y.; Sotsu, M.; Seki, O.; Satou, S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents application of PSA Level-1 for Prototype Advanced Thermal Reactor Plant ''Fugen'' in consideration of the design characteristics of such reactor and verify the safety aspect of Fugen using thus established procedure, ATR resembles the boiling water reactor (BWR) in a number of points, but there are also some differences between the ATR and the BWR. Therefore. PSA procedure have been established by taking such difference into consideration and by referring to experience of PSA in USA and Japan. Moreover, the core damage frequency was calculated on Fugen by using thus established procedure. As a result, it was verified that results including the maximum value of the uncertainty estimation were found to be quite satisfactory against the target value of reactor damage frequency defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  5. Comparative evaluation of PSA-Density, percent free PSA and total PSA

    OpenAIRE

    Ströbel, Greta

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to evaluate the prostate specific antigen (PSA) density (PSAD) (the quotient of PSA and prostate volume) compared with the percent free PSA (%fPSA) and total PSA (tPSA) in different total PSA (tPSA) ranges from 2 ng/mL to 20 ng/mL. Possible cut-off levels depending on the tPSA should be established. METHODS In total, 1809 men with no pretreatment of the prostate were enrolled between 1996 and 2004. Total and free PSA were measured with t...

  6. Long-term prognostic significance of rising PSA levels following radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer - focus on overall survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberger, Carla; Berneking, Vanessa; Vögeli, Thomas-Alexander; Kirschner-Hermanns, Ruth; Eble, Michael J; Pinkawa, Michael

    2017-06-14

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term prognostic significance of rising PSA levels, particularly focussing on overall survival. Two hundred ninety-five patients with localized prostate cancer were either treated with low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy with I-125 seeds as monotherapy (n = 94; 145Gy), high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with Ir-192 as a boost to external beam RT (n = 66; 50.4Gy in 1.8Gy fractions EBRT + 18Gy in 9Gy fractions HDR) or EBRT alone (70.2Gy in 1.8Gy fractions; n = 135). "PSA bounce" was defined as an increase of at least 0.2 ng/ml followed by spontaneous return to pre-bounce level or lower, biochemical failure was defined according to the Phoenix definition. Median follow-up after the end of radiotherapy was 108 months. A PSA bounce showed to be a significant factor for biochemical control (BC) and overall survival (OS) after ten years (BC10 of 83% with bounce vs. 34% without, p PSA recurrence in multivariate Cox regression analysis. A bounce was detected significantly earlier than a PSA recurrence (median 20 months vs. 32 months after RT; p PSA doubling time 5.5 vs. 5.0 months, not significant). PSA doubling time was prognostically significant in case of PSA recurrence (OS10 of 72% vs. 36% with PSA doubling time ˃ 5 months vs. ≤ 5 months; p PSA levels within the first two years can usually be classified as a benign PSA bounce, with favourable recurrence-free and overall survival rates. PSA doubling time is an important predictor for overall survival following the diagnosis of a recurrence.

  7. Main Aspects and Results of Level 2 PSA for KNPP WWER-1000/B320

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancheva, Kaliopa

    2014-01-01

    The PSA Level 2 for Kozloduy NPP (KNPP) is an update of an older study with wider scope of analysis. The older study represented the status of the units up to 2001. The current PSA Level 2 is based on the PSA Level 1 and represents the status of the units up to 2007 year concerning the systems and procedures included in PSA level 1 and status up to 2011 for the systems and procedures (e.g. SAMG) related to containment and severe accident aspects. The study is performed after the PSA level 1 has been finished and approved by the customer. Compare to the older analysis all modes of operation for analyzed in PSA level 1 event groups as well Spent Fuel Pool accidents are investigated. The analysis consists of both deterministic and probabilistic analysis. As part of deterministic analysis a contemporary containment strength analysis and accident progression deterministic analysis using last version of MELCOR are performed. The probabilistic analysis contains of two part: Interface PSA and CET are calculated using Riskspectrum program code. Two types of models for CET have been developed: one for conditional probabilities calculations and a set of simplified CET's for each PDS group-for integral model. The purpose of the first model is to be able to perform quick calculations and for sensitivity analyses as well. The simplified CET's are used for integral calculation of the model. Source Term analysis is mainly based on the MELCOR analyses results. All characteristics of the releases have been defined, i.e. location, mass, energy of radionuclide groups and activity of the released isotopes (most important are reported only). The main goals of the study are to analyze the status of the containment, systems designed to prevent containment failure and operator action required under the severe accident and to give quantitative assessment of the risk parameter LERF (Large Early Release Frequency). This report will present main aspects, results, finding and

  8. Post treatment PSA nadirs support continuing dose escalation study in patients with pretreatment PSA levels >10 ng/ml, but not in those with PSA <10 NG/ML

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, D.H.; Hanlon, A.L.; Movsas, B.; Hanks, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: We have recently shown that ICRU reporting point radiation doses above 71 Gy are not associated with improved bNED survival in prostate cancer patients with pretreatment PSA level 20 ng/ml we found a strong correlation between dose and nadir values < 1.0 ng/ml (p=.003) as well as for nadir's < 0.5 ng/ml (p=.04). This dose/nadir effect held at several dose levels, but 74 Gy for nadir values < 1.0 ng/ml and 72 Gy for nadir's < 0.5 ng/ml remained the most significant. 32% of these patients achieved a nadir < 1.0ng/ml and 15% < 0.5ng/ml. Conclusions: This analysis provides strong additional support that patients with pretreatment PSA values of < 10 ng/ml do not benefit from dose escalation beyond an ICRU reporting point dose of 71 Gy. For patients with pretreatment PSA's of 10-19.9 ng/ml there is no dose/nadir response evaluated at a nadir of 1.0 ng/ml; however, there is a borderline effect observed at a nadir of 0.5 ng/ml. Patients with pretreatment PSA's of 20 ng/ml or greater clearly benefit from higher doses as evaluated by PSA nadirs of 1.0 ng/ml, and 0.5 ng/ml. These studies support the continued investigation of dose escalation in treating patients with PSA levels over 10 ng/ml, they do not support continued investigation of dose escalation beyond 71 Gy in patients with pretreatment PSA levels < 10 ng/ml. The failure to demonstrate any dose response for the low PSA group and the finding of only a borderline effect for the intermediate PSA group may be influenced by the relatively small number of patients in our series treated to doses < 70 Gy and the fact that none of our patients were treated to doses below 65.98 Gy. The lower limit of acceptible dose has yet to be defined

  9. Incidence of high chromogranin A serum levels in patients with non metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnabei Agnese

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ChromograninA in prostate carcinoma (PC indicate NE differentiation. This tumour is more aggressive and resistant to hormone therapy. Patients and methods We analyzed the incidence of pre-operative ChromograninA serum levels in non metastatic PC patients. Serum PSA and ChromograninA were analyzed before treatment. Clinicopathological parameters were evaluated in relation to serum ChromograninA. 486 patients were enrolled. Results We found 352 pT2 and 134 pT3. 21 patients were N+. 278 patients had Gleason score levels 7. Median PSA pre-operative level was 7.61 ng/ml. PSA was significantly associated with pT stage (pT2 with PSA abnormal 23.6% vs pT3 48.5%, p 7 vs 29.5% in the Gleason score = 7 vs 27.3% in the Gleason score 7 (31.4% (p = 0.12. The serum ChromograninA levels in the two groups of patients were subdivided before and after 2005 on the basis of different used assays, showing no correlation with serum ChromograninA and other parameters. Conclusions This study showed that ChromograninA levels correlated to NE differentiation and possible aggressiveness of PC. Pre-operative circulating ChromograninA could complement PSA in selecting more aggressive PC cases, particularly in the presence of a higher Gleason score. Complementary information is provided by the absence of a correlation between serum ChromograninA and PSA levels.

  10. PSA, PSA derivatives, proPSA and prostate health index in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyıldız, Sema Nur; Ayyıldız, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Currently, prostate- specific antigen (PSA) is the most common oncological marker used for prostate cancer screening. However, high levels of PSA in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis decrease the specificity of PSA as a cancer marker. To increase the specificity of PSA, PSA derivatives and PSA kinetics have been used. However, these new techniques were not able to increase the diagnostic specificity for prostate cancer. Therefore, the search for new molecules and derivatives of PSA...

  11. Age-specific serum prostate specific antigen ranges among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels increase with age and varies among different races and communities. The study was aimed at defining the age-specific reference ranges of serum PSA in our environment. Methods: We evaluated the relationship between age and serum PSA levels and the ...

  12. Severe accident management at the Loviisa NPP - Application of integrated ROAAM and PSA level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siltanen, S.; Routamo, T.; Tuomisto, H.; Lundstrom, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM) was developed for assessment and management of rare, high consequence hazards. The purpose of most ROAAM applications has been to solve major, isolated severe accident issues related to early containment failure such as Mark-I Liner Attack and Direct Containment Heating. In addition to ROAAM in the issue resolution context, the so called Integrated ROAAM approach can be used to provide an overall frame of safety evaluation that allows determination of whether an adequate level of safety has been achieved for a plant. Integrated ROAAM approach brings together quantifications of probabilistic elements based on statistical inference and treatment of deterministic elements based on identification of dominant physics, for severe accident phenomenology, in a well defined and clearly structured way. Fortum, as an owner of the Loviisa NPP, used the Integrated ROAAM approach when developing and implementing a comprehensive severe accident management (SAM) strategy for the Loviisa NPP. The SAM strategy is based on unique features of this VVER-440 plant with ice condenser containment and it includes hardware modifications at the plant, substantial new I and C qualified for severe accident conditions, new SAM guidelines, a SAM Handbook, revision of emergency preparedness organization, and versatile training approaches. It could be argued that the resolution of individual severe accident issues is not sufficient for assessing the overall safety of a nuclear power plant, and thus the ROAAM (in an issue resolution context) is not performing the same function as a PSA study (level 2 included). Actually the Integrated ROAAM approach takes on even a more ambitious task than the PSA, since it determines how a balance can be achieved between accident prevention and mitigation of containment-threatening physical phenomena. Thus it provides a tool for implementing a sound diverse defence-in-depth strategy at a plant. Integrated

  13. Development of the Ulchin 34 Melcor1.8.6 Model for Phenomenological Uncertainty analysis in Level 2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gun Hyo; Lee, Jin Young; Ahn, Kwng Il; Park, Soo Yong

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) technology has been widely used to measure safety levels and identify weak points of nuclear power plants. Since the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400), event tree method has been used. In level 2 PSA, mainly three kinds of considerations are included: phenomenological events, operator actions, and heat removal system operations. It was pointed out that a structuring CET with phenomenological events was difficult and there were large uncertainties due to a lack of data used in an expert judgement and an expert judgement itself. PSA has been playing important roles to identify the weak point of NPPs and derive research topics. However, PSA results themselves, like containment failure probability, have no significant physical meaning. In order to use PSA results to design and improve NPPs and apply to decision making in NPPs, the quality of PSA results should be improved and uncertainties lied in PSA methodologies should be eliminated. Various researches to improve the quality of PSAs are ongoing. Phenomenological uncertainty analysis to reduce level 2 PSA uncertainties using the MELCOR code is off the ground. First of all, MELCOR1.8.6 model for the phenomenological uncertainty analysis has been developed

  14. SERUM PROSTATE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN LEVELS IN MEN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... Objective: To determine the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the. PSA test at the conventional cut-off value of 4 ng/ml. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Nairobi Hospital Laboratory, Nairobi. Data Source: Results of serum Prostate specific Antigen (PSA), estimation and prostate.

  15. Multi-Unit Initiating Event Analysis for a Single-Unit Internal Events Level 1 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong San; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011 highlighted the importance of considering the risks from multi-unit accidents at a site. The ASME/ANS probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) standard also includes some requirements related to multi-unit aspects, one of which (IE-B5) is as follows: 'For multi-unit sites with shared systems, DO NOT SUBSUME multi-unit initiating events if they impact mitigation capability [1].' However, the existing single-unit PSA models do not explicitly consider multi-unit initiating events and hence systems shared by multiple units (e.g., alternate AC diesel generator) are fully credited for the single unit and ignores the need for the shared systems by other units at the same site [2]. This paper describes the results of the multi-unit initiating event (IE) analysis performed as a part of the at-power internal events Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for an OPR1000 single unit ('reference unit'). In this study, a multi-unit initiating event analysis for a single-unit PSA was performed, and using the results, dual-unit LOOP initiating event was added to the existing PSA model for the reference unit (OPR1000 type). Event trees were developed for dual-unit LOOP and dual-unit SBO which can be transferred from dual- unit LOOP. Moreover, CCF basic events for 5 diesel generators were modelled. In case of simultaneous SBO occurrences in both units, this study compared two different assumptions on the availability of the AAC D/G. As a result, when dual-unit LOOP initiating event was added to the existing single-unit PSA model, the total CDF increased by 1∼ 2% depending on the probability that the AAC D/G is available to a specific unit in case of simultaneous SBO in both units.

  16. Use of PSA Level 2 analysis for improving containment performance. Report of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    In order to discuss and exchange experience on different aspects of methods associated with Level 2 PSA and its applications for improving containment performance, the IAEA held a Technical Committee meeting in Vienna in December 1996. The meeting, which was attended by 26 participants from 20 Member States, provided a broad forum for discussion. The meeting addressed the issues related to the actual performance of Level 2 PSA studies as well as the insights gained from applications to improve containment performance. Particular attention was given to studies and applications for WWER type reactors, for which Level 2 work is still in its early stages, and for channel type reactors where modelling of accident progression is complex and significantly different from vessel type light water reactors. This TECDOC contains the papers presented at the meeting and the results of extensive discussions which were held in specific working groups

  17. The development of a relationship framework between LERF and Level-3 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae, Moo Sung; Jin, Young Ho; Kang, Kyung Min; Lee, Chang Ju

    2009-01-01

    The concept of LERF(Large Early Release Frequency) has been considered as a suitable metrics for making risk-informed regulatory decisions. However, the definition of 'large early release' and the associated time needs to be evaluated from the regulatory perspective and the potential implication of severe accidents. The definition of what constitutes a large early release differs a lot, and there are many parameters involved in the definition, the most important ones being the time, the amount, and the composition of the release. The underlying reason for the complexity of the release definition largely depends on the fact that the release assessment constitutes the link between the level-2 PSA results and the health effects from the release. Basically, such consequence issues are addressed in level-3 PSA, and can only be fully covered in level-3 analysis. In order to judge the acceptability of consequence results, various criteria relating between LERF and results from level 3 PSA need to be defined

  18. Penile Metastases of Recurrent Prostatic Adenocarcinoma without PSA Level Increase: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pierro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of penile metastases from recurrent prostatic adenocarcinoma that was the first sign of a widespread metastatic disease in the absence of any increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA level. In April 2011, an 80-year-old man presented to our Radiotherapy Unit with multiple palpable hard nodules in the penis, dysuria, and moderate perineal pain, 7 years after he had received radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Nodules in the penis had appeared in February 2011. The ultrasound and magnetic resonance (MR imaging suggested the diagnosis of multiple penile metastases. A total body computed tomography scan revealed a systemic spread of the disease, with multiple metastases in the liver, bones, and lungs. PSA level was 0.126 ng/ml. A fine needle aspiration biopsy of the liver lesion was undertaken, and the histopathologic examination revealed the prostatic origin of the metastases, so androgen deprivation therapy was started. The diagnosis of metastases should be considered in a patient with prior history of prostate malignancies presenting with solid nodules in the penis, even if the PSA level is low.

  19. Serum zinc level in thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keikhaei, B.; Badavi, M.; Pedram, M.; Zandian, K.

    2010-01-01

    To compare serum zinc level between Thalassemia Major (TM) patients and normal population at Shafa Hospital in South West of Iran. A total of 25 male and 36 female of TM patients were enrolled in this study. Out of 61 patients thirty were treated by deferroxamine (DFO) and 31 were on the combination of DFO and deferiprone (DEF) protocol therapy. Sixty normal subjects of the matching age and gender were recruited as controls. From each patient and control group 2 ml of blood was taken in fasting condition. Cell blood count and serum zinc were carried out for both thalassemia patients and normal subjects. The mean age of patients and control group was 15+- 5 years. Mean serum zinc level was 68.97+- 21.12 mu g/dl, 78.10-28.50 mu g/dl, and 80.16+- 26.54 mu g/dl in the TM with DFO, TM with DFO + DEF combination protocol and control group respectively. There was no significant correlation between patients and control group. However 50 percent of TM with DFO, 38.7 percent of TM with DFO + DEF and 32.8 percent of control group had hypozincemia. Nearly 40 to 50 percent of TM patients and one third of normal subjects are suffering from hypozincemia. This study shows that low level of serum zinc is a health problem in both thalassemia patients and normal population in South West of Iran. (author)

  20. A level III PSA for the inherently safe CAREM-25 nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Jorge H.; Nunez McLeod, J.; Rivera, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    A Level III PSA has been performed for the inherently safe CAREM-25 nuclear power station, as a requirement for licensing according to argentinian regulations. The CAREM-25 project is still at a detailed design state, therefore only internal events have been considered, and a representative site has been assumed for dose estimations. Several conservative hypothesis have been formulated, but even so an overall core melt frequency of 2.3E -5 per reactor year has been obtained. The risk estimations comply with the regulations. The risk values obtained are compared to the 700MW(e) nuclear power plant Atucha II PSA result, showing an effective risk reduction not only in the severe accident probability but alto in the consequence component of the risk estimation. (author)

  1. Metastatic prostate cancer with elevated serum levels of CEA and CA19-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Dar Juang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA is well known as a specific tumor marker for prostate cancer, but carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA- and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9-elevating adenocarcinomas originating in the prostate gland are rare. We report a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland with a high serum level of CEA and CA19-9 in a 78-year-old man in whom prostate cancer (T3N1M1 had been diagnosed 2 years ago and who was treated with androgen deprivation therapy. He visited the emergency department because of a loss of appetite and abdominal pain. The serum CEA and CA19-9 levels were increased to 218.9 ng/mL (normal, <5 ng/mL and 212 ng/mL (normal, <27 ng/mL, respectively. The serum PSA level was slightly elevated (4.41 ng/mL. Computed tomography demonstrated multiple liver metastases, para-aortic lymph node enlargement, and lung metastases. A liver biopsy was performed and the specimen showed high-grade adenocarcinoma with focal positive staining for PSA. Despite chemotherapy with docetaxel, the patient died 3 months after treatment. Based on this case and a review of the literature, an aggressive variant of prostatic carcinoma with a high serum level of CEA and CA19-9 and a low PSA level was shown to progress rapidly with a poor prognosis.

  2. Preliminary Consideration for the Development of Regulatory Level 2 PSA Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang-Ju

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess the validity of PSA (probabilistic safety assessment) results and to establish regulatory requirements for relevant safety issues most of the regulators want to develop an independent and convenient risk assessment model including Level 2 PSA area. As this model and framework should be implicitly independent on the licensee's PSA model, it has a primary objective directly for applying to the risk-informed regulatory affairs and for supporting those kinds of works. According this, the regulator can take an objective view for the uncertainty of risk information made by the licensee and keep up the capability and decision-making framework for overall risk assessment results. In addition, the regulatory model may be used to verify and validate the operational risk levels of all engineered safety features of nuclear power plants (NPPs). An issue for plant-specific application of safety goals was previously identified in the US NRC's risk-informed regulatory guidance development activities, and discussed in many Commission papers, e. g. SECY-97-287, which identifies the goal for large early release frequency (LERF). LERF defines a containment performance criteria derived from the quantitative health objectives. As we know, the LERF was chosen to assess risk significance in Regulatory Guide 1.174 (2002) again, which provides one measure of the performance of the containment barrier, and represents a surrogate for early health effects

  3. Extent of disease in recurrent prostate cancer determined by [(68)Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT in relation to PSA levels, PSA doubling time and Gleason score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Frederik A; Pfister, David; Heidenreich, Axel; Vogg, Andreas; Drude, Natascha I; Vöö, Stefan; Mottaghy, Felix M; Behrendt, Florian F

    2016-03-01

    To examine the relationship between the extent of disease determined by [(68)Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC-PET/CT and the important clinical measures prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA doubling time (PSAdt) and Gleason score. We retrospectively studied the first 155 patients with recurrent prostate cancer (PCA) referred to our university hospital for [(68)Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT. PET/CT was positive in 44%, 79% and 89% of patients with PSA levels of ≤1, 1-2 and ≥2 ng/ml, respectively. Patients with high PSA levels showed higher rates of local prostate tumours (p PSA and PSAdt were independent determinants of scan positivity and of extrapelvic lymph node metastases. PSAdt was the only independent marker of bone metastases (p = 0.001). Of 20 patients with a PSAdt PSA ≥2 ng/ml, 19 (95%) had a positive scan and 12 (60%) had M1a disease. Of 14 patients with PSA 6 months, only 5 (36%) had a positive scan and 1 (7%) had M1a disease. [(68)Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT will identify PCA lesions even in patients with very low PSA levels. Higher PSA levels and shorter PSAdt are independently associated with scan positivity and extrapelvic metastases, and can be used for patient selection for [(68)Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT.

  4. The Role of Level-3 PSA in the Regulatory Structure for the Licensing of Future NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Han, Sang Hoon

    2008-01-01

    accomplished. Therefore, the role of Level-3 PSA for the evaluation of dose consequences will be examined in this study

  5. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone and Prostate Specific Antigen Levels in Sprague-Dawley Female Rats Bearing Mammary Tumours Induced by Dimethylbenz (A) Anthracene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgawad, M.R.; EL-Kott, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Breast Cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women in the world and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in females of both developed and developing countries. The present work aimed to study the diagnostic value of prostate specific antigen (PSA) for breast cancer and the importance of treatment by blue green algae Spirulina platensis supplementation on PSA and testosterone levels. Two different analytical techniques based on micro particle enzyme immunoassay (MPIA) and enzyme linked fluorescent assay (ILFA) for quantitative determination of total PSA (free PSA and PSA complexed to alpha-1-antichymptrypsin) were studied in the diagnosis of breast cancer before and after Spirulina platensis supplementation. Female rats secret PSA from female prostate gland, serum testosterone and PSA concentrations were not detected in control and rats supplemented by Spirulina platensis groups. Serum testosterone and PSA concentration were significantly higher (P< 0.05) in rats bearing mammary tumours than rats bearing mammary tumours supplemented with Spirulina platensis. These results suggest that the clinical applicability of total PSA for breast cancer diagnosis and the biological mechanism behind its increase should be further investigated. Finally, the physiological mechanism behind the total PSA increase in breast cancer and its ramifications with respect to tumour progression should be further investigated.

  6. From prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to precursor PSA (proPSA) isoforms: a review of the emerging role of proPSAs in the detection and management of early prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Satoshi; Blanchet, Jean-Sebastien; McLoughlin, John

    2013-10-01

    Despite the popularity of PSA blood testing for prostate cancer, there are a number of important limitations of this popular serum marker including the limited ability to accurately distinguish patients with and without prostate cancer and those who harbour an aggressive form of the disease. This is especially true when the total PSA is PSA (proPSAs), with a special emphasis on [-2]proPSA in the detecion and management of early prostate cancer. The clinical utility of Prostate Health Index (phi) is also discussed. Despite the overall success of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test, its use as a serum marker for prostate cancer has been limited due to the lack of specificity, especially in men presenting with a total PSA (tPSA) level of PSA testing has also resulted in an increase in the number of patients being diagnosed with low-grade, potentially clinically insignificant prostate cancer. There is therefore an urgent need for new markers that can accurately detect as well as differentiate patients with aggressive vs unaggressive prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss the emerging role of precursor forms of PSA (proPSAs) and the Prostate Health Index (phi) measurement in the detection and management of early stage prostate cancer. A literature search was conducted using PubMed® to identify key studies. Studies to date suggest that [-2]proPSA, a truncated form of proPSA is the most cancer-specific form of all, being preferentially expressed in cancerous prostatic epithelium and being significantly elevated in serum of men with prostate cancer. There is evidence to suggest that %[-2]proPSA measurement ([-2]proPSA/free PSA [fPSA] × 100) improves the specificity of both tPSA and fPSA in detecting prostate cancer. phi incorporating [-2]proPSA, fPSA and tPSA measurements has also yielded promising results and appears superior to tPSA and fPSA in predicting those patients with prostate cancer. Increased phi levels also seem to preferentially detect patients

  7. Quality PSA for PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carska, K.; Rybar, J.

    2012-03-01

    The safety guideline defines with more precision Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic requirements of the quality of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for PSA application. Term of quality of PSA is explained in detail. Procedure for determining the quality of PSA is provided. The categorization of PSA study according the quality of PSA is suggested. A comprehensive list of PSA applications for nuclear facilities is provided. What technical features of a PSA should be satisfied to support the PSA applications of interest is stated. (authors)

  8. Report 1: Guidance document on practices to model and implement Seismic hazards in extended PSA. Volume 2 (implementation in Level 1 PSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochaska, J.; Halada, P.; Pellissetti, M.; Kumar, Manorma

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide guidance for the implementation of seismic hazards in extended L1 PSA. This report is a deliverable of the ASAMPSA-E work package 22 (WP22) - 'How to introduce hazards in L1 PSA and all possibilities of events combinations' - which aims to promote exchanges and to identify some good practices on the implementation of seismic events in L1 PSA, having as a perspective the development of extended PSA from an existing (internal events) L1 PSA (event trees). The following topics are addressed: 1) Impact on the SSCs modelled in L1 PSA event trees 2) Impact on Human Reliability Assessment modelling in L1 PSA 3) Site impact modelling in L1 PSA event trees 4) Link between external initiating events of PSA and NPP design basis conditions. (authors)

  9. MODIFICATION OF THE SPAR-H METHOD TO SUPPORT HRA FOR LEVEL 2 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Germain, S.; Boring, R.; Banaseanu, G.; Akl, Y.; Xu, M.

    2016-10-01

    Currently, available Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods were generally developed to support Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) models. There has been an increased emphasis placed on Level 2 PSA in recent years; however, the currently used HRA methods are not ideal for this application, including the SPAR-H method. Challenges that will likely be present during a severe accident such as degraded or hazardous operating conditions, shift in control from the main control room to the technical support center, unavailability of instrumentation, and others are not routinely considered for Level 1 HRA analysis. These factors combine to create a much more uncertain condition to be accounted for in the HRA analysis. While the SPAR-H shaping factors were established to support Level 1 HRA, previous studies have shown it may be used for Level 2 HRA analysis as well. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in a joint project are investigating modifications to the SPAR-H method to create more consistency in applying the performance shaping factors used in the method for Level 2 analysis.

  10. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of pomegranate extract on rising PSA levels in men following primary therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantuck, A J; Pettaway, C A; Dreicer, R; Corman, J; Katz, A; Ho, A; Aronson, W; Clark, W; Simmons, G; Heber, D

    2015-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the effects of pomegranate juice on PSA doubling times (PSADT) in subjects with rising PSA levels after primary therapy for prostate cancer. Double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-institutional study, evaluated the effects of pomegranate liquid extract on serum PSA levels. The primary end point of this study was change in serum PSADT. Additional secondary and exploratory objectives were to evaluate the safety of pomegranate juice and to determine the interaction of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) AA genotype and pomegranate treatment on PSADT. One-hundred eighty-three eligible subjects were randomly assigned to the active and placebo groups with a ratio of 2:1 (extract N=102; placebo N=64; juice N=17). The majority of adverse events were of moderate or mild grade. Median PSADT increased from 11.1 months at baseline to 15.6 months in the placebo group (P0.05). Placebo AA patients experienced a 1.8 month change in median PSADT from 10.9 months at baseline to 12.7 months (P=0.22), while extract patients experienced a 12 month change in median PSADT from 13.6 at baseline to 25.6 months (P=0.03). Compared with placebo, pomegranate extract did not significantly prolong PSADT in prostate cancer patients with rising PSA after primary therapy. A significant prolongation in PSADT was observed in both the treatment and placebo arms. Men with the MnSOD AA genotype may represent a group that is more sensitive to the antiproliferative effects of pomegranate on PSADT; however, this finding requires prospective hypothesis testing and validation.

  11. Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Density and Free to Total PSA Ratio in Diagnosing Prostate Cancer with Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels of 4.0 ng/ml or Less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Tang, Jie; Fei, Xiang; Li, Qiu-Yang

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to value the usefulness of free to total prostate-specific antigen and Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density for prostate cancer in the patients with PSA levels of 4.0 ng/ml or less. A total of 343 subjects with PSA levels of 4.0 ng/ml or less were biopsied. All patients were divided into four groups according to the PSA levels: 0 to 1.0 ng/ml, 1.1 to 2.0 ng/ml, 2.1 to 3.0 ng/ml, and 3.1 to 4.0 ng/ml. The reliability of cancer detection in relation to the f/t PSA ratio and PSAD were estimated. Overall, 65 people were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The detection rate was 16.28%、17.17%, 21.82%, 25.00% in subjects with PSA levels of 0 to 1.0 ng/ml, 1.1 to 2.0 ng/ml, 2.1 to 3.0 ng/ml, and 3.1 to 4.0 ng/ml, respectively. The f/t PSA ratio was significantly lower in patients with prostate cancer and PSA levels of 2.1 to 4.0 ng/ml (PPSA ratio less than 15% with /without abnormal DRE/TRUS findings.

  12. Role of 18F-Choline PET/CT in guiding biopsy in patients with risen PSA levels and previous negative biopsy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Londoño, G A; García Vicente, A M; Amo-Salas, M; Fúnez Mayorga, F; López Guerrero, M A; Talavera Rubio, M P; Gutierrez Martin, P; González García, B; de la Torre Pérez, J A; Soriano Castrejón, Á M

    To study 18 F-Choline PET/CT in the diagnosis and biopsy guide of prostate cancer (pCa) in patients with persistently high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and previous negative prostate biopsy. To compare the clinical risk factors and metabolic variables as predictors of malignancy. Patients with persistently elevated PSA in serum (total PSA >4ng/mL) and at least a previous negative or inconclusive biopsy were consecutively referred for a whole body 18 F-Choline PET/CT. Patient age, PSA level, PSA doubling time (PSAdt) and PSA velocity (PSAvel) were obtained. PET images were visually (positive or negative) and semiquantitatively (SUVmax) reviewed. 18 F-Choline uptake prostate patterns were defined as focal, multifocal, homogeneous or heterogeneous. Histology on biopsy using transrectal ultrasound-guided approach was the gold standard. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp) and accuracy (Ac) of PET/CT for diagnosis of pCa were evaluated using per-patient and per-prostate lobe analysis. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the value of SUVmax to diagnose pCa. Correlation between PET/CT and biopsy results per-prostate lobe was assessed using the Chi-square test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were applied to compare clinical risk factors and metabolic variables as predictors of malignancy. Thirty-six out of 43 patients with histologic confirmation were included. In 11 (30.5%) patients, pCa was diagnosed (Gleason score from 4 to 9). The mean values of patient age, PSA level, PSAdt and PSAvel were: 65.5 years, 15.6ng/ml, 28.1 months and 8.5ng/mL per year, respectively. Thirty-three patients had a positive PET/CT; 18 had a focal pattern, 7 multifocal, 4 homogeneous and 4 heterogeneous. Se, Sp and Ac of PET/CT were of 100%, 12% and 38% in the patient based analysis, and 87%, 29% and 14% in the prostate lobe based analysis, respectively. The ROC curve analysis of SUVmax showed an AUC of 0.568 (p=0.52). On a lobe

  13. Predictors of survival in prostate cancer patients with bone metastasis and extremely high prostate-specific antigen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyo Chul Koo

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: PSA response to androgen deprivation therapy and serum ALP are reliable predictors of survival in patients with BMPCa presenting with extremely high PSA levels. These patients should not be deterred from active treatment based on baseline PSA values.

  14. A source term and risk calculations using level 2+PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. I.; Jea, M. S.; Jeon, K. D.

    2002-01-01

    The scope of Level 2+ PSA includes the assessment of dose risk which is associated with the exposures of the radioactive nuclides escaping from nuclear power plants during severe accidents. The establishment of data base for the exposure dose in Korea nuclear power plants may contribute to preparing the accident management programs and periodic safety reviews. In this study the ORIGEN, MELCOR and MACCS code were employed to produce a integrated framework to assess the radiation source term risk. The framework was applied to a reference plant. Using IPE results, the dose rate for the reference plant was calculated quantitatively

  15. Severe Accident Research Network (SARNET). Level 2 PSA work package: comparison of partners methods for uncertainties assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumont, B.; Haesendonck, M.; Vidal, S.; Eyink, J.; Loeffler, H.; Radu, G.; Kopustinskas, V.; Ming, A.; Guntay, S.; Gustavsson, V.; Ivanov, I.; Dienstbier, J.; Bareith, A.; Hollo, E.; Lajtha, G.

    2007-01-01

    The PSA2 work package (PSA2 WP) is a part of the Joined Programme Activity of the European Severe Accident Network (SARNET) related to level 2 PSA methodologies. The general objectives of this work package is to provide a comparison of the different methodologies used or under development for level 2 PSA application by the partners involved in the work package and to promote their harmonization. The PSA2 WP is organized into three main topics: methodologies in general, methodologies for uncertainties assessment, and dynamic reliability methods. The different tasks initially defined for these three topics are shortly described and the partners involved identified. Attention is then paid on the methodologies used so far by the different partners to assess the uncertainties in their level 2 PSA. A review of partners approaches to assess - as far as possible - the different sources of possible uncertainties is done for the different following topics: - uncertainties propagated from the level 1 PSA, - uncertainties (in sense of approximation) due to the binning of the level 1 sequences in Plant Damage, - uncertainties related to the structure of the Accident Progression Event Tree, - uncertainties related to the probabilities of stochastic events (system failure or recovery, human actions, some physical phenomena such as ignition of hydrogen combustion or triggering of steam explosion), - uncertainties elated to the modelling of the different physical phenomena, - uncertainties related to the cut-off frequency used in the probabilistic quantification of the Accident Progression Event Tree; - uncertainties related to the binning of level 2 sequences in Release Categories (variables not considered, values of eventual continuous variables). First conclusions of the comparison are given in terms of improvement needs and then of perspectives of the work for the following period of work. (authors)

  16. Serum complexed and free prostate specific antigen levels are lower in female elite athletes in comparison to control women [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Eklund

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We hypothesize that prostate specific antigen (PSA, a protein that it is under regulation by androgens, may be differentially expressed in female elite athletes in comparison to control women. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 female athletes and 114 sedentary age-matched controls.  Serum from these women was analyzed for complexed prostate specific antigen (cPSA and free prostate specific antigen (fPSA, by fifth generation assays with limits of detection of around 6 and 140 fg/mL, respectively.  A panel of estrogens, androgens and progesterone in the same serum was also quantified by tandem mass spectrometry.  Results: Both components of serum PSA (cPSA and fPSA were lower in the elite athletes vs the control group (P=0.033 and 0.013, respectively.  Furthermore, estrone (p=0.003 and estradiol (p=0.004 were significantly lower, and dehydroepiandrosterone  (p=0.095 and 5-androstene-3β, 17β-diol (p=0.084 tended to be higher in the athletes vs controls. Oral contraceptive use was similar between groups and significantly associated with increased cPSA and fPSA in athletes (p= 0.046 and 0.009, respectively.  PSA fractions were not significantly associated with progesterone changes. The Spearman correlation between cPSA and fPSA in both athletes and controls was 0.75 (P < 0.0001 and 0.64 (P < 0.0001, respectively.  Conclusions: Elite athletes have lower complexed and free PSA, higher levels of androgen precursors and lower levels of estrogen in their serum than sedentary control women. Abbreviations: cPSA, complexed PSA; fPSA, free PSA; PCOS, polycystic ovarian syndrome; E1, estrone; E2, estradiol; DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone, Testo, testosterone; DHT, dihydrotestosterone; PROG, progesterone; Delta 4, androstenedione; Delta 5, androst-5-ene-3β, 17β-diol; BMD, body mineral density; LLOQ, lower limit of quantification; ULOQ, upper limit of quantification; LOD, limit of detection; ACT, α1-antichymotrypsin

  17. Improving PSA quality of KSNP PSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon Eon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2004-01-01

    In the RIR (Risk-informed Regulation), PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) plays a major role because it provides overall risk insights for the regulatory body and utility. Therefore, the scope, the level of details and the technical adequacy of PSA, i.e. the quality of PSA is to be ensured for the successful RIR. To improve the quality of Korean PSA, we evaluate the quality of the KSNP (Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant) internal full-power PSA model based on the 'ASME PRA Standard' and the 'NEI PRA Peer Review Process Guidance.' As a working group, PSA experts of the regulatory body and industry also participated in the evaluation process. It is finally judged that the overall quality of the KSNP PSA is between the ASME Standard Capability Category I and II. We also derive some items to be improved for upgrading the quality of the PSA up to the ASME Standard Capability Category II. In this paper, we show the result of quality evaluation, and the activities to improve the quality of the KSNP PSA model

  18. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -Development of computing code system for level 3 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Dong Ha; Park, Won Seok; Hwang, Mi Jeong

    1995-07-01

    Among the various research areas of the level 3 PSA, the effect of terrain on the transport of radioactive material was investigated. These results will give a physical insight in the development of a new dispersion model. A wind tunnel experiment with bell shaped hill model was made in order to develop a new dispersion model. And an improved dispersion model was developed based on the concentration distribution data obtained from the wind tunnel experiment. This model will be added as an option to the atmospheric dispersion code. A stand-alone atmospheric code using MS Visual Basic programming language which runs at the Windows environment of a PC was developed. A user can easily select a necessary data file and type input data by clicking menus, and can select calculation options such building wake, plume rise etc., if necessary. And a user can easily understand the meaning of concentration distribution on the map around the plant site as well as output files. Also the methodologies for the estimation of radiation exposure and for the calculation of risks was established. These methodologies will be used for the development of modules for the radiation exposure and risks respectively. These modules will be developed independently and finally will be combined to the atmospheric dispersion code in order to develop a level 3 PSA code. 30 tabs., 56 figs., refs. (Author)

  19. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -Development of computing code system for level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Dong Ha; Park, Won Seok; Hwang, Mi Jeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Among the various research areas of the level 3 PSA, the effect of terrain on the transport of radioactive material was investigated. These results will give a physical insight in the development of a new dispersion model. A wind tunnel experiment with bell shaped hill model was made in order to develop a new dispersion model. And an improved dispersion model was developed based on the concentration distribution data obtained from the wind tunnel experiment. This model will be added as an option to the atmospheric dispersion code. A stand-alone atmospheric code using MS Visual Basic programming language which runs at the Windows environment of a PC was developed. A user can easily select a necessary data file and type input data by clicking menus, and can select calculation options such building wake, plume rise etc., if necessary. And a user can easily understand the meaning of concentration distribution on the map around the plant site as well as output files. Also the methodologies for the estimation of radiation exposure and for the calculation of risks was established. These methodologies will be used for the development of modules for the radiation exposure and risks respectively. These modules will be developed independently and finally will be combined to the atmospheric dispersion code in order to develop a level 3 PSA code. 30 tabs., 56 figs., refs. (Author).

  20. Treatment of the loss of ultimate heat sink initiating events in the IRSN level 1 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Patricia; Georgescu, Gabriel; Corenwinder, Francois

    2014-01-01

    The total loss of the ultimate heat sink is an initiating event which, even it is mainly of external origin, has been considered in the frame of internal events Level 1 PSA by IRSN. The on-going actions on the development of external hazards PSA and the recent incident of loss of the heat sink induced by the ingress of vegetable matter that occurred in France in 2009 have pointed out the need to improve the modeling of the loss of the heat sink initiating event and sequences to better take into account the fact that this loss may be induced by external hazards and thus affect all the site units. The paper presents the historical steps of the modeling of the total loss of the heat sink, the safety stakes of this modeling, the main assumptions used by IRSN in the associated PSA for the 900 MWe reactors and the results obtained. The total loss of the heat sink was not initially addressed in the safety demonstration of French NPPs. On the basis of the insights of the first probabilistic assessments performed in the 80's, the risks associated to this 'multiple failure situation' turned out to be very significant and design and organisational improvements were implemented on the plants. Reviews of the characterization of external hazards and of their consequences on the installations and French operating feedback have revealed that extreme hazards may induce a total loss of the heat sink. Moreover, the accident that occurred at Fukushima in 2011 has pointed out the risk of such a loss of long duration at all site units in case of extreme hazards. In this context, it seems relevant to further improve the modelling of the total loss of the heat sink by considering the external hazards that may cause this loss. In a first step, IRSN has improved the assumptions and data used in the loss of the heat sink PSA model, in particular by considering that such a loss may affect all the site units. The next challenge will be the deeper analysis of the impact of external hazards on

  1. Formal handling of the level 2 uncertainty sources and their combination with the level 1 PSA uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, K.I.; Joon-Eon, Yang; Jaejoo, Ha

    2007-01-01

    As an essential part of the Level 2 PSA, a probabilistic treatment of complex phenomenological accident pathways inevitably leads to two sources of uncertainty: (a) an incomplete modeling of these accident pathways and their subsequent impacts on the Level 2 risk, and (b) an expert-to-expert variation in the their probabilistic estimates. While the former type of uncertainty is epistemic in nature from the viewpoint that we deal with an uncertainty addressed in the deterministic events, the latter type is a random/aleatory uncertainty. The impacts of the preceding sources of uncertainty on the Level 2 risk measures are different for each other, thus leading to a different conclusion in the decision-making process. An important aspect of the foregoing distinction of uncertainty is that it plays an essential role in identifying what sources of uncertainty impact more on the Level 2 risk and what sources among them should be focused on for a greater reduction of the overall Level 2 uncertainty. Another aspect of the importance is closely related to its role in combining the Level 1 and Level 2 uncertainties. A primary objective of this paper is to explore the aforementioned sources of the Level 2 uncertainty and provide the corresponding approaches for handling them formally. An additional purpose is to provide an approach for combining consistently aleatory uncertainties addressed in the Level 1 PSA with the Level 2 epistemic uncertainties, so that the Level 1 and 2 uncertainties are finally represented as an integrated measure. (authors)

  2. Empiric antibiotics for an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level: a randomised, prospective, controlled multi-institutional trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggener, Scott E; Large, Michael C; Gerber, Glenn S; Pettus, Joseph; Yossepowitch, Ofer; Smith, Norm D; Kundu, Shilajit; Kunnavakkam, Rangesh; Zorn, Kevin; Raman, Jay D

    2013-11-01

    To determine the impact of empiric antibiotics on men with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Men of any age with a PSA level of >2.5 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination undergoing their first prostate biopsy were recruited from five medical centres. Patients with previous biopsy, prostate cancer, urinary tract infection (UTI) or prostatitis within the prior year, antibiotic use within 1 month, 5α-reductase inhibitor use, allergy to fluoroquinolones or clinical suspicion of UTI were excluded. Men were randomised to 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin or no antibiotic. A PSA measurement was obtained 21-45 days after randomisation immediately before prostate biopsy. The primary endpoint was the change in PSA level between baseline and immediately before biopsy. Complete data were available for 77 men with a mean (interquartile range) age of 60.6 (53-66) years. In the control group of men not receiving antibiotic (39 men), the mean baseline and pre-biopsy PSA levels were 6.5 and 6.9 ng/mL, respectively (P = 0.8). In men receiving ciprofloxacin (38 men), the mean baseline PSA level was 7.6 ng/mL and after 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin was 8.5 ng/mL (P = 0.7). Compared with controls not receiving antibiotic, use of ciprofloxacin was not associated with a statistically significant change in PSA level (P = 0.33). Prostate cancer was detected in 36 (47%) men, 23 (59%) in the control group and 13 (34%) in the antibiotic group (P = 0.04). Detection rates were not significantly associated with the change in PSA level between baseline and biopsy. The primary limitation of the study is early stoppage due to an interim futility analysis and poor accrual. Despite not meeting the target accrual goal, empiric use of antibiotics for asymptomatic men with an elevated PSA level does not appear to be of clinical benefit. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  3. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) and Prostate Volume: Better Predictor of Prostate Cancer for Bosnian and Herzegovina Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coric, Jozo; Mujic, Jasminka; Kucukalic, Elma; Ler, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The serum prostate specific antigen for the early detection and screening for prostate cancer are very common used among physicians as the best screening tool for prostate cancer. The result of prostate specific antigen levels discriminates whether or not a prostate biopsy should be performed. The lack of specificity is a limitation of PSA as tumor marker, increased PSA concentrations are found not only in patients with prostate cancer but also in patients with benign prostatic disease. The object of this study was to improve the specificity and sensitivity of prostatic cancer detection. We evaluated total PSA levels, free PSA levels and the prostate volume in asymptomatic patients which came for routine check without medical history of prostate cancer. We received medical record of 90 patients between 50-60 years. Total and free PSA in serum was measured with the analyzer Architeckt i2000 SR. Prostate volume was determined by transrectal ultrasound. The ratio of total and free PSA levels to prostate volume was significantly (p PSA in serum. Early studies have demonstrated the advantage of measuring prostate volume with PSA total and free levels in serum as a useful tool for early diagnosis of prostate cancer. Data from this study on 90 patients with total PSA in the range from 0,22-7,0 ng/ml confirmed the well known correlation. All three parameters total PSA, free PSA and prostate volume showed significant correlation and a useful tool in prediction of prostate cancer for Bosnia and Herzegovina men.

  4. Diagnostic value of microRNAs in prostate cancer patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels between 2, and 10 ng/mL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbayır, Serin; Muşlu, Necati; Erden, Sema; Bozlu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objective Prostate specific antigen (PSA), used for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), is one of the best tumour markers known so far. However, in situations when PSA is between 2–10 ng/mL, which is named as grey zone, PSA falls short of distinguishing benign prostate diseases from PCa. On the other hand, it was demonstrated in many previous studies that microRNA (miRNA) could be a marker for cancer. Therefore, in this study, it was aimed to enhance the diagnostic power of PSA, especially with grey zone patients, by the use of miRNA. Material and Methods Ninety-four patients included in the study were divided into three groups as “control group” (n=44, PSA=2–10 ng/mL and benign), “PCa 1 group” (n=37, PSA=2–10 ng/mL), and “PCa 2 group” (n=13, PSA >10 ng/mL), according to their pathological results and PSA levels. Free PSA (fPSA) and total PSA (T-PSA) levels were measured with chemiluminometric sandwich immunoassay method. Expressions of miRNAs were analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) method. The most appropriate specificity, sensitivity and prediction values were found by drawing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of total PSA, free/total PSA (f/T PSA) ratio, and miRNAs, and the diagnostic powers were compared with each other. Results Diagnostic powers of the f/T PSA ratio and miRNA were compared in PCa 1 and the control groups to determine the marker with higher area under the curve (AUC). It was shown that the diagnostic power of the combination of miR-16-5p and f/T PSA was higher than that obtained when they were used separately. Conclusion As a result, while making the the discrimination between benign and malignant prostate in patients with grey zone, it was determined that the combination of miR-16-5p and f/T PSA was more valuable than T-PSA or f/T PSA alone. It was thought that diagnostic role of miRNAs in the early diagnosis of the different stages of PCa needed to

  5. Diagnostic value of microRNAs in prostate cancer patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels between 2, and 10 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbayır, Serin; Muşlu, Necati; Erden, Sema; Bozlu, Murat

    2016-12-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA), used for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), is one of the best tumour markers known so far. However, in situations when PSA is between 2-10 ng/mL, which is named as grey zone, PSA falls short of distinguishing benign prostate diseases from PCa. On the other hand, it was demonstrated in many previous studies that microRNA (miRNA) could be a marker for cancer. Therefore, in this study, it was aimed to enhance the diagnostic power of PSA, especially with grey zone patients, by the use of miRNA. Ninety-four patients included in the study were divided into three groups as "control group" (n=44, PSA=2-10 ng/mL and benign), "PCa 1 group" (n=37, PSA=2-10 ng/mL), and "PCa 2 group" (n=13, PSA >10 ng/mL), according to their pathological results and PSA levels. Free PSA (fPSA) and total PSA (T-PSA) levels were measured with chemiluminometric sandwich immunoassay method. Expressions of miRNAs were analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) method. The most appropriate specificity, sensitivity and prediction values were found by drawing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of total PSA, free/total PSA (f/T PSA) ratio, and miRNAs, and the diagnostic powers were compared with each other. Diagnostic powers of the f/T PSA ratio and miRNA were compared in PCa 1 and the control groups to determine the marker with higher area under the curve (AUC). It was shown that the diagnostic power of the combination of miR-16-5p and f/T PSA was higher than that obtained when they were used separately. As a result, while making the the discrimination between benign and malignant prostate in patients with grey zone, it was determined that the combination of miR-16-5p and f/T PSA was more valuable than T-PSA or f/T PSA alone. It was thought that diagnostic role of miRNAs in the early diagnosis of the different stages of PCa needed to be examined in further studies with larger groups.

  6. Development of a fully-coupled, all atates, all hazards level 2 PSA at leibstadt nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvoncek, Pavol; Nusbaumer, Olivier [Safety Compliance and Technical Support Department, Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant, Leibstadt (Sweden); Torri, Alfred [Risk Management Associates, Inc., Encinitas (United States)

    2017-03-15

    This paper describes the development process, the innovative techniques used and insights gained from the latest integrated, full scope, multistate Level 2 PSA analysis conducted at the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant (KKL), Switzerland. KKL is a modern single-unit General Electric Boiling Water Reactor (BWR/6) with Mark III Containment, and a power output of 3600MWth/1200MWe, the highest among the five operating reactors in Switzerland. A Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) analyses accident phenomena in nuclear power plants, identifies ways in which radioactive releases from plants can occur and estimates release pathways, magnitude and frequency. This paper attempts to give an overview of the advanced modeling techniques that have been developed and implemented for the recent KKL Level 2 PSA update, with the aim of systematizing the analysis and modeling processes, as well as complying with the relatively prescriptive Swiss requirements for PSA. The analysis provides significant insights into the absolute and relative importance of risk contributors and accident prevention and mitigation measures. Thanks to several newly developed techniques and an integrated approach, the KKL Level 2 PSA report exhibits a high degree of reviewability and maintainability, and transparently highlights the most important risk contributors to Large Early Release Frequency (LERF) with respect to initiating events, components, operator actions or seismic component failure probabilities (fragilities)

  7. Extent of disease in recurrent prostate cancer determined by [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT in relation to PSA levels, PSA doubling time and Gleason score

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Frederik A.; Mottaghy, Felix M. [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Pfister, David; Heidenreich, Axel [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Urology, Aachen (Germany); Vogg, Andreas; Drude, Natascha I.; Behrendt, Florian F. [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Voeoe, Stefan [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    To examine the relationship between the extent of disease determined by [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC-PET/CT and the important clinical measures prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA doubling time (PSAdt) and Gleason score. We retrospectively studied the first 155 patients with recurrent prostate cancer (PCA) referred to our university hospital for [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT. PET/CT was positive in 44 %, 79 % and 89 % of patients with PSA levels of ≤1, 1 - 2 and ≥2 ng/ml, respectively. Patients with high PSA levels showed higher rates of local prostate tumours (p < 0.001), and extrapelvic lymph node (p = 0.037) and bone metastases (p = 0.013). A shorter PSAdt was significantly associated with pelvic lymph node (p = 0.026), extrapelvic lymph node (p = 0.001), bone (p < 0.001) and visceral (p = 0.041) metastases. A high Gleason score was associated with more frequent pelvic lymph node metastases (p = 0.039). In multivariate analysis, both PSA and PSAdt were independent determinants of scan positivity and of extrapelvic lymph node metastases. PSAdt was the only independent marker of bone metastases (p = 0.001). Of 20 patients with a PSAdt <6 months and a PSA ≥2 ng/ml, 19 (95 %) had a positive scan and 12 (60 %) had M1a disease. Of 14 patients with PSA <1 ng/ml and PSAdt >6 months, only 5 (36 %) had a positive scan and 1 (7 %) had M1a disease. [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT will identify PCA lesions even in patients with very low PSA levels. Higher PSA levels and shorter PSAdt are independently associated with scan positivity and extrapelvic metastases, and can be used for patient selection for [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT. (orig.)

  8. Main factors determining the KNP units 5 and 6 safety level according to the PSA level 1 result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchev, B.; Marinova, B.; Nenkova, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) is a powerful tool for ascertainment of the safety level reached at nuclear power plants operation. The results of PSA determine very clearly the functions, systems, equipment or operator actions that have to be improved in order to increase the plant safety level as a whole. The present report presents the main results of the last upgraded revision of PSA level 1 of units 5 and 6 of KNPP. The objective of the report is to lay emphasis on the factors determining the result obtained, i.e. to demonstrate the scopes whose improvement leads to an increase of the safety level reached at the units power operation. In the frame of the study presented the following categories of initiating events are included: Internal initiating events; Initiating events result of internal fires; Initiating events result of seismic action; Floods. Only the reactor core is considered as a source of radioactive contamination. Only initiating events related to the reactor work on power are analyzed. Unit 5 of KNPP is accepted as a basic unit for the study. All modifications and design changes implemented up to year 2000 are taken into account. The results of PSA level 1 for units 5 and 6 of KNPP covering the risk of internal initiators are presented. The assessment of the core damage due to internal initiators is based on the analysis of 18 groups of initiating events. 932 consequences and two groups of initial events are identified, leading to core damage. As a result of the quantitative calculation, over 15000 minimal cuts for the core damage are obtained. The first 80 cuts bear over 75% of the frequency obtained, and the first 700 cuts bear over 90%. Distribution of the core damage frequency by different groups of initiators is presented in tables and diagrams. A comparison of the result obtained for the reactor core damage of KNPP units 5 and 6 with assessment obtained for similar power plants is presented. The data for different NPPs are taken

  9. Adverse pathological findings in needle biopsy gleason score 6 prostate cancers with low and intermediate preoperative PSA levels following radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Isabel; Ladurner, Michael; Skradski, Viktor; Klocker, Helmut; Schäfer, Georg; Horninger, Wolfgang; Bektic, Jasmin

    2012-12-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the risk associated with undergrading Gleason score 6 (GS6) prostate cancer (PCa) at biopsy, in patients with preoperative PSA levels of 2-3,99 and 4-10 ng/ml. A total of 674 patients with needle biopsy-diagnosed GS6 PCa, who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) between 1995 and 2011, were evaluated. Patients were stratified by preoperative PSA levels into low PSA (2-3,99 ng/ml) and an intermediate PSA of 4-10 ng/ml. Subsequently, the percentage of patients with extracapsular disease (pathological stage ≥pT3a) and/or positive surgical margins was determined among those whose RP GS was still 6 and compared to undergraded cases. Out of 674 patients with needle biopsy-diagnosed GS6 PCa, 36.2% had no difference between biopsy and RP GS while 11.4% had been overgraded and 52.4% of patients were undergraded at biopsy. Stratified according to preoperative PSA levels, there was a significantly higher incidence of undergrading in the intermediate PSA group. Among those with ≥pT3a tumors, 74.1 % were undergraded in needle biopsy, out of which 67.7% had intermediate PSA levels and 32.3% low PSA levels. Among patients with R1 resections 75.1 % were underdiagnosed, out of which 75.9% had intermediate PSA levels. Stratifying these data according to preoperative PSA levels, ≥pT3a tumors and R1 resection were found significantly more often in the intermediate-PSA group. The incidence of adverse pathological findings, including extraprostatic extension and positive surgical margins, is significantly higher in patients with undergraded biopsy GS6. Low preoperative PSA levels improved the correlation between primary and final GS and led to the reduction of unfavorable pathological findings.

  10. Evaluation of serum prostate-specific antigen levels after postoperative radiation therapy for pathologic stage C prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buskirk, S.J.; Schild, S.E.; Robinow, J.S.; Tomera, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of postoperative radiation therapy following radical prostatectomy on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. From January 1988 through December 1989, 13 patients received postoperative radiation therapy within 3 months following a negative pelvic lymph node dissection and radical prostatectomy. Indications for postoperative radiation therapy included seminal vesicle involvement or positive surgical margins. Median follow-up is 27 months. Eight of the 13 patients had PSA levels ≤0.1 at their last evaluation. Of the five patients with rising PSA levels, two are being followed up with no further therapy, two have undergone orchietomy, and the remaining patient is dead of disease. Ten of the 13 patients had pre-radiation therapy PSA levels of ≤1.0, and eight of the 10 now have levels ≤0.1. The remaining three patients had pre-radiation therapy PSA levels of >1.0, and all three patients have eventually developed a rise in the PSA level following postoperative radiation therapy

  11. Analysis of urinary PSA glycosylation is not indicative of high-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrabés, Sílvia; Llop, Esther; Ferrer-Batallé, Montserrat; Ramírez, Manel; Aleixandre, Rosa N; Perry, Antoinette S; de Llorens, Rafael; Peracaula, Rosa

    2017-07-01

    The levels of core fucosylation and α2,3-linked sialic acid in serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), using the lectins Pholiota squarrosa lectin (PhoSL) and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), can discriminate between Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and indolent prostate cancer (PCa) from aggressive PCa. In the present work we evaluated whether these glycosylation determinants could also be altered in urinary PSA obtained after digital rectal examination (DRE) and could also be useful for diagnosis determinations. For this purpose, α2,6-sialic acid and α1,6-fucose levels of urinary PSA from 53 patients, 18 biopsy-negative and 35 PCa patients of different aggressiveness degree, were analyzed by sandwich ELLA (Enzyme Linked Lectin Assay) using PhoSL and SNA. Changes in the levels of specific glycosylation determinants, that in serum PSA samples were indicative of PCa aggressiveness, were not found in PSA from DRE urine samples. Although urine is a simpler matrix for analyzing PSA glycosylation compared to serum, an immunopurification step was necessary to specifically detect the glycans on the PSA molecule. Those specific glycosylation determinants on urinary PSA were however not useful to improve PCa diagnosis. This could be probably due to the low proportion of PSA from the tumor in urine samples, which precludes the identification of aberrantly glycosylated PSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. PSA Test: What's It for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSA levels. Obesity can also lower PSA levels. Misleading results. The test doesn't always provide an ... Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  13. Nadir prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and time to PSA nadir following primary androgen deprivation therapy as independent prognostic factors in a Japanese large-scale prospective cohort study (J-CaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Ueno, Satoru; Izumi, Kouji; Mizokami, Atsushi; Hinotsu, Shiro; Akaza, Hideyuki; Namiki, Mikio

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether nadir prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and time to PSA nadir (TTN) are independent prognostic factors equivalent to the pretreatment factors in the data of the Japan Study Group of Prostate Cancer registry, which is a large, multicenter, population-based database of patients undergoing primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT). A total of 10,958 patients treated with PADT were enrolled into the present study. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to evaluate the associations of PSA nadir level and TTN with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), adjusting for the pretreatment factors adopted in the Japan Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (J-CAPRA) score. Of the 10,958 patients, 3,451 (31.5%) had lymph node and/or distant metastases. The median PSA level was 27.0 ng/ml before treatment, and the nadir PSA level in 6,983 patients (63.7%) reached below 0.2 ng/ml. Disease progression occurred in 4,736 cases, and 2,163 patients died during a mean follow-up period of 3.86 years. Nadir PSA level and TTN were independent prognostic factors, similar to the pretreatment factors adopted in the J-CAPRA score. The probabilities of PFS and OS showed significant differences among the groups categorized by the combination of nadir PSA level and TTN in all J-CAPRA risk stratifications. The present study demonstrated that nadir PSA level and TTN are strong predictors in patients undergoing PADT in a large-scale prospective cohort study.

  14. Achievement of the level 1 PSA in support to the CEA 2400 MWth gas-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmain, M.; Bassi, C.; Azria, P.

    2012-01-01

    Within Generation IV International Forum, the CEA has developed since 2006 a Level 1 PSA to support the design of the 2400 MWth GFR (Gas-cooled Fast Reactor). A first period, with insights published in 2008, consisted in a model with few initiators representative of medium and high pressure situations, those used for the deterministic design of the Decay Heat Removal (DHR) dedicated loops. In a second period, an iterative work reached the probabilistic targets used for generation III reactors, with prior use of normal loops, and increase of DHR reliability in high pressure conditions. The PSA team covered all the internal initiators, and supported the design of components with instrumentation and control and electrical supplies, and the shutdown operating modes of secondary, tertiary circuits, with possible re-alignment to dedicated DHR loops. Besides, the completed PSA integrated more realistic success criteria than the preliminary model and than the deterministic approach, thanks to CATHARE2 code. In case of loss of Forced Convection, the probability of success of the Natural Convection DHR was assessed by a reliability method for passive systems. The paper underlines the PSA methodology knowledge from the EDF expertise, the improvements co-developed with CEA, and the iteration design-PSA-design. (authors)

  15. Age-Adjusted PSA Levels in Prostate Cancer Prediction: Updated Results of the Tyrol Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Isabel; Fritz, Josef; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate; Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in patients with benign prostatic disease, however, without missing significant PCa the present study re-evaluates the age-dependent PSA cut-offs in the Tyrol Prostate Cancer (PCa) early detection program. The study population included 2225 patients who underwent prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA levels at our department. We divided our patient collective into four age groups: ≤49 years (n = 178), 50-59 years (n = 597), 60-69 years (n = 962) and ≥70 years (n = 488). We simulated different scenarios for PSA cut-off values between 1.25 and 6 ng/mL and fPSA% between 15 and 21% for all four age groups and calculated sensitivity, specificity, confidence intervals and predictive values. PCa was detected in 1218 men (54.7%). We found that in combination with free PSA ≤21% the following PSA cut-offs had the best cancer specificity: 1.75 ng/ml for men ≤49 years and 50-59 years, 2.25 ng/ml for men aged 60-69 years and 3.25 ng/ml for men ≥70 years. Using these adjusted PSA cut-off values all significant tumors are recognized in all age groups, yet the number of biopsies is reduced. Overall, one biopsy is avoided in 13 to 14 men (number needed to screen = 13.3, reduction of biopsies = 7.5%) when decision regarding biopsy is done according to the "new" cut-off values instead of the "old" ones. For the different age groups the number needed to screen to avoid one biopsy varied between 9.2 (≤49 years) and 17.4 (50-59 years). With "new", fine-tuned PSA cut-offs we detect all relevant PCa with a significant reduction of biopsies compared to the "old" cut-off values. Optimization of age-specific PSA cut-offs is one step towards a smarter strategy in the Tyrol PCa Early Detection Program.

  16. Living PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.G.K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to gain an understanding of the requirements for a PSA to be considered a Living PSA. The presentation is divided into the following topics: Definition; Planning/Documentation; Task Performance; Maintenance; Management. 4 figs

  17. Gentilly-2 CANDU nuclear power plant level 1 fire and flood PSA - insights on a work in progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joober, K.; Selman, C.; Bolduc, J-F.; Nava Dominguez, A.; Bellil, A. [GENIVAR LP, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Houasnia, T.; Vaillancourt, R. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of work performed to date on the Level 1 Internal Fire and Flood PSA for the Hydro-Quebec Gentilly-2 CANDU Nuclear Power Plant. The overview will present findings, observations, challenges, and solutions that have been developed to supplement the NUREG/CR-6850 and EPRI-1019194 methodologies. (author)

  18. Serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarla, Sara; Struglia, Manuela; Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Necozione, Stefano; Properzi, Giuliana; Ferri, Claudio

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the relationship among serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome. Anthropometric parameters, serum uric acid and metabolic parameters were evaluated in 139 subjects. Serum uric acid levels were significantly higher in subjects with than without metabolic syndrome (p metabolic syndrome components (p for trend uric acid significantly correlated with various anthropometric and serum metabolic parameters. Serum uric acid levels were higher in individuals with rather than without metabolic syndrome and raised gradually as the number of metabolic syndrome components increased. The relationship between serum uric acid levels and various metabolic parameters suggests that uric acid might be considered as a component of metabolic syndrome. Hyperuricemia is a common finding in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies indicated that hyperuricemia may be also a predictor of metabolic syndrome development.

  19. Plasma carotenoids and tocopherols in relation to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels among men with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Samuel O; Steck, Susan E; Zhang, Hongmei; Stumm, Lareissa; Zhang, Jiajia; Hurley, Thomas G; Hebert, James R

    2015-10-01

    Although men presenting with clinically localized prostate cancer (PrCA) often are treated with radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy with curative intent, about 25-40% develop biochemically recurrent PrCA within 5 years of treatment, which has no known cure. Studies suggest that carotenoid and tocopherol intake may be associated with PrCA risk and progression. We examined plasma carotenoid and tocopherol levels in relation to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels among men with PSA-defined biochemical recurrence of PrCA. Data analyzed were from a 6-month diet, physical activity and stress-reduction intervention trial conducted in South Carolina among biochemically recurrent PrCA patients (n=39). Plasma carotenoids and tocopherol levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Linear regression was used to estimate least-square means comparing PSA levels of men with high versus low carotenoid/tocopherol levels, adjusting for covariates. After adjusting for baseline PSA level, plasma cis-lutein/zeaxanthin level at 3 months was related inversely to PSA level at 3 months (P=0.0008), while α-tocopherol (P=0.01), β-cryptoxanthin (P=0.01), and all-trans-lycopene (P=0.004) levels at 3 months were related inversely to PSA levels at 6-months. Percent increase in α-tocopherol and trans-β-carotene levels from baseline to month 3 were associated with lower PSA levels at 3 and 6 months. Percent increase in β-cryptoxanthin, cis-lutein/zeaxanthin and all-trans-lycopene were associated with lower PSA levels at 6 months only. Certain plasma carotenoids and tocopherols were related inversely to PSA levels at various timepoints, suggesting that greater intake of foods containing these micronutrients might be beneficial to men with PSA-defined PrCA recurrence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Low Serum Testosterone But Not Obesity Predicts High Gleason Score at Biopsy Diagnosed as Prostate Cancer in Patients with Serum PSA Lower than 20 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Masaki; Takeuchi, Ario; Sugimoto, Masaaki; Dejima, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Eiji; Kiyoshima, Keijiro; Inokuchi, Junichi; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Yokomizo, Akira

    2015-11-01

    The impact of testosterone or obesity on the pathological grade of prostate cancer remains controversial. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the relationship of serum testosterone and body mass index (BMI) to Gleason score at biopsy. This study included 128 Japanese patients diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2000 through 2012 whose serum testosterone level and BMI were measured before treatment. Associations between clinical parameters, including pre-treatment serum testosterone level and BMI, and Gleason score at biopsy were examined. The median serum testosterone and BMI were 434 ng/dl (interquartile range=362-542 ng/dl) and 23.5 kg/m(2) (interquartile range=21.7-25.4 kg/m(2)), respectively. Gleason score at biopsy was 7 for 58 patients (45.3%), 52 patients (40.6%) and 18 patients (14.1%), respectively. On univariate analysis, positive finding at digital rectal examination (DRE), high prostate-specific antigen level at diagnosis and low serum testosterone level, but not BMI, were correlated with high Gleason score at biopsy. Multivariate analysis identified positive finding at DRE and low serum testosterone level as significant predictors of a high Gleason score at prostate biopsy. By combining these parameters, the predictive ability of a high Gleason score was improved. This study showed that positive finding at DRE and a low pre-treatment serum testosterone level, but not obesity, may be factors predictive of aggressive prostate cancer, indicating the diagnostic value of serum testosterone, as well as DRE findings, in risk assessment. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. Atopy and prostate cancer: Is there a link between circulating levels of IgE and PSA in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Karagiannis, Sophia N; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2017-12-01

    Atopy has been investigated as a potential risk factor for prostate cancer. IgE antibodies may be major players in protective responses against tumours, through engendering antigen presentation and enhancing adaptive immune responses targeted towards a specific allergen, but potentially also against tumour-associated antigens such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA). We therefore cross-sectionally investigated associations between circulating levels of PSA and IgE in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. We focused on all men aged 40+ years with measurements for PSA and IgE, and no previous diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 1312). We estimated the association between total and specific IgE concentration and levels of PSA with logistic regression models, adjusted for age, ethnicity/race, education, smoking status, body mass index (BMI), physical activity status, and history of asthma. Both total IgE and the sum of specific IgE were inversely associated with the risk of having PSA levels ≥10 ng/mL, though most findings were not statistically significant. The odds ratios for the second and third tertile of total IgE as compared to the first were 0.21 (95% CI 0.06-0.72) and 0.42 (0.08-2.31). The odds ratio for sum of abnormal specific IgE measurements was 0.77 (0.44-1.34). Despite statistical insignificance, the observed trend warrants further research given the increasing evidence of the role of atopy and IgE antibodies in protective responses against tumours. A lifecourse approach of measuring IgE, specific subtypes, and other markers of the humoral immune system (i.e. IgG) could shed more light on its potential anti-cancer characteristics.

  2. Serum homocystein level in patients with scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarinia, Mohammadali; Shams, Mesbah; Kamali Sarvestani, Eskandar; Shenavande, Saeede; Khademalhosseini, Maryam; Khademalhosseini, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic connective tissue disease. In this study, we compared the serum Homocystein (Hcy) level between patients with SSc and normal control group. The current study was conducted to determine whether serum Hcy levels are elevated in SSc patients and whether there is any correlation between Hcy levels and RP, Gastro intestinal and lung involvement. Forty one patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for SSc (39 females and 5 males) and Forty four community-based healthy individuals (sex and age matched) were enrolled in to the study. Serum Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate levels were determined. Thirty three patients (70.45%) had GI involvement, twenty two patients (50%) had lung involvement and twenty seven patients (61.36%) had Raynaud's phenomena. Mean serum Hcy level in control group was 22.78 ± 6.018 μmol/L and in case group was 19.43 ± 7.205 μmol/L, shows that the serum Hcy level in control group was significantly higher than patients (P = 0.020). Serum Hcy level is significantly lower in SSc patients than in control group. There is no statistically significant correlation between serum Hcy level and organ involvements.

  3. The effect of testosterone replacement therapy on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in men being treated for hypogonadism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, De-Ying; Li, Hong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy is used for the treatment of age-related male hypogonadism, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a primary screening tool for prostate cancer. The systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on PSA levels.Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until February 28, 2014, and inclusion criteria were as follows: randomized controlled trial; intervention group received testosterone/androgen replacement therapy; control group did not receive treatment; and no history of prostate cancer. The primary outcome was change of PSA level between before and after treatment. Secondary outcomes were elevated PSA level after treatment, and the number of patients who developed prostate cancer.After initially identifying 511 articles, 15 studies with a total of 739 patients that received testosterone replacement and 385 controls were included. The duration of treatment ranged from 3 to 12 months. Patients treated with testosterone tended to have higher PSA levels, and thus a greater change than those that received control treatments (difference in means of PSA levels = 0.154, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.069 to 0.238, P PSA levels were significant higher for patients that received testosterone intramuscularly (IM) than controls (difference in means of PSA levels = 0.271, 95% CI 0.117-0.425, P = 0.001). Elevated PSA levels after treatment were similar between patients that received treatment and controls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% CI 0.48-2.20, P = 0.953). Only 3 studies provided data with respect to the development of prostate cancer, and rates were similar between those that received treatment and controls.Testosterone replacement therapy does not increase PSA levels in men being treated for hypogonadism, except when it is given IM and even the increase with IM administration is minimal.

  4. The effect on the sensitivities of PSA and PSA-age volume score of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The PSA-age volume (PSA-AV) score was calculated by multiplying the age and prostate volume and then dividing the total by the prebiopsy PSA level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on the sensitivities of PSA and PSA-AV score of International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) and nocturia in ...

  5. HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PROSTATE BIOPSIES AND CORRELATION WITH SERUM TPSA LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laishram Deepak Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In our study, 50 cases of transurethral prostate biopsies were evaluated histopathologically in the Department of Pathology in collaboration with Department of Urology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, from October 2013 to September 2015. Total PSA (tPSA was estimated from serum samples in all cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 50 patients with elevated serum tPSA levels were inducted in this study and prostate needle biopsies taken. Matched prostatectomy specimens were also obtained for 7 cases. Specimens were kept in 10% formalin saline, grossing done and tissues processed. H and E stained sections were examined and the different histomorphological features noted. Gleason scoring system was used in cancers to stratify it. RESULTS Out of the 50 cases, 30 malignant (all adenocarcinomas, 4 premalignant and 16 benign cases were found. Gleason scoring on needle biopsies were compared against the prostatectomy specimens. In 5 carcinoma cases with Gleason score 3+3=6 on needle biopsy, 4 cases had similar findings in the corresponding prostatectomy specimens, however, it was upgraded in 1 case. Intermediate differentiation prostatic carcinomas with Gleason score 3+4=7 in needle biopsies were comparable with prostatectomy specimens in 2 cases. The differentiation of prostatic carcinoma vis-a-vis Gleason scoring correlated well with the PSA values. In carcinomas, tPSA value and the Gleason score had a very good correlation (rs = 0.908. Mean PSA value was found to increase from benign to premalignant and malignant cases, this was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. CONCLUSION Use of newer technologies like MRI and serum PSA as a screening tool for prostate pathology have made it possible to identify prostate cancer at an earlier stage in younger age group and has an increased case detection rate. However, there is no marker to predict disease course and at times lead to overtreatment. Image-guided prostate biopsy

  6. PSA levels of 4.0 - 10 ng/ml and negative digital rectal examination: antibiotic therapy versus immediate prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Shtricker

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The management of mildly elevated (4.0-10.0 ng/ml prostate specific antigen (PSA is uncertain. Immediate prostate biopsy, antibiotic treatment, or short term monitoring PSA level for 1-3 months is still in controversy. Material and Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients in a large community practice (2003 - 2007 who had PSA levels between 4.0-10 ng/mL without any further evidence of infection. Data was gathered regarding patient's age, whether standard antibiotic therapy (10-14 days of ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin had been administered before the second PSA measurement, results of a second PSA test performed at 1- to 2-month intervals, whether a prostate biopsy was performed and its result. Results: One-hundred and thirty-five men met the study inclusion criteria with 65 (48.1% having received antibiotics (group 1; the PSA levels decreased in 39 (60% of which, sixteen underwent a biopsy which demonstrated prostate cancer in 4 (25%. Twenty-six (40% patients of group 1 exhibited no decrease in PSA levels; seventeen of them underwent a biopsy that demonstrated cancer in 2 (12%. The other 70 (51.9% patients were not treated with antibiotics (group 2; the PSA levels decreased in 42 (60% of which, thirteen underwent a biopsy which demonstrated prostate cancer in 4 (31%. In the other 28 (40% patients of group 2 there was no demonstrated decrease in PSA, nineteen of these subjects underwent a biopsy that demonstrated cancer in 8 (42%. Conclusions: There appears to be no advantage for administration of antibacterial therapy with initial PSA levels between 4-10 ng/mL without overt evidence of inflammation.

  7. Computerized systems for high level information processing and decision making in the field of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, P.; Kunitz, H.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive review of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) related program packages is made. Three fields in methodological succession are covered: plant modeling, data quantification procedures and decision-making support. Packages for fault tree construction and minimal cut sets evaluation are referred to and the performances of three of them: RALLY, ORCHARD and SALP-PC, are discussed and compared. Notions on the raw data sources are presented and the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) is given as an example for data base management system generating PSA data. Aggregated risk models for support in safety assessment, plant operation and accident management (SARA, ESSM, PRISIM) are cited. Examples of systems supporting 'living PSA' (SAIS, SUPER-NET, LESSEPS 1300, NUPRA, SPSA) are given. The concluding remarks outline the state-of-the-art developments of computerized systems for reliability analyses. 1 fig., 1 tab., 51 refs. (R.Ts)

  8. The effect on the sensitivities of PSA and PSA-age volume score of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O. Üçer

    2017-04-27

    scorewascalculatedbymultiplyingtheageandprostatevolume and then dividing the total by the prebiopsy PSA level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on the sensitivities of PSA and PSA-AV score of International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) ...

  9. Early diagnostic role of PSA combined miR-155 detection in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, T; Wang, X-X; Fu, H; Tang, Y-C; Meng, B-Q; Chen, C-H

    2018-03-01

    As a kind of malignant tumor in the male genitourinary system, prostate cancer exhibits significantly increased occurrence. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression can be seen in the prostate cancer, prostatitis, and other diseases, therefore, lack of diagnostic specificity. The miR-155 expression is abnormally increased in the tumors. Therefore, this study aims to explore the clinical significance of PSA combined miR-155 detection in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. A total of 86 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. PSA and miR-155 gene expression in tumor tissue were detected by using Real-time PCR. The serum levels of PSA were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation of PSA and miR-155 expression with age, body mass index (BMI), tumor volume, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, lymph node metastasis (LNM), and other clinicopathological features were analyzed, respectively. Serum PSA expression and PSA gene in tumor tissue were significantly higher compared to that in adjacent tissues (pPSA gene and protein increased significantly with the clinical stage of TNM and decreased following the increase of grade (pPSA and miR-155 expressions were positively correlated with TNM stage, tumor volume, and LNM, and negatively correlated with grade (pPSA and miR-155 were closely related to the clinicopathological features of prostate cancer. Combined detection is helpful for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  10. Alteration of serum adropin level in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihua; Gao, Bo; Wu, Zaigui; Wang, Hanzhi; Dong, Minyue

    2017-04-01

    To clarify the alterations in serum adropin and preptin concentrations in preeclampsia, we determined serum adropin and preptin levels in 29 women with normal pregnancy and 32 women with preeclampsia. We found that maternal age, body mass index and fetal gender were not significantly different between two groups; however, blood pressure, gestational age and neonatal birth weight were significantly different. Serum adropin levels were significantly increased in women with preeclampsia compared with those with normal pregnancy but there were no significant differences in preptin levels. An increase in maternal serum adropin level was found in preeclampsia, and this may be a compensation for pregnancy complicated with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Summary report of already existing guidance on the implementation of External Hazards in extended Level 1 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klug, J.; Kumar, M.; Prochaska, J.; Brac, P.; Vasseur, D.; Brinkman, H.; Kahia, S.; Nitoi, Mirela; Apostol, M.; Georgescu, G.; Volkanovski, Andrija; Mustoe, J.; Alzbutas, R.; La Rovere, S.

    2015-08-01

    The report provides a summary of already existing guidance on the implementation of external hazards in extended level 1 PSA. It summarized the lessons learnt from existing standards, existing gaps and possibility for future development within the work-package WP22 'How to introduce hazards in L1 PSA and all possibilities of events combinations'. The report is focused on the four following areas, for several hazards: 1) Impact on the SSCs modelled in L1 PSA event trees; 2) Impact on Human Reliability Assessment modelling in L1 PSA; 3) Site impact modelling in L1 PSA event trees; 4) Link between external initiating events of PSA and NPP design basis conditions. During the review of existing guidance, it appeared that many of the references form a suitable basis to introduce external hazards in L1 PSA including event combination. Available guidelines provide usable recommendations to evaluate failure probabilities of SSCs depending on the influence of single hazard or events combination. The most detailed guidelines are devoted to the seismic events and fires. Even if these guidelines deal only with single event impact, they can be also used for combined events purpose to evaluate particular effects induced by analyzed external hazards. Guidelines provide general systematic framework how to determine the scope of SSCs for extended PSA and failure modes (develop an extended list of components). In general available guidelines provide detailed framework for analysis of seismic event. The other external hazards are not always covered so deeply. This is probably caused by specific site nature of these hazards like external floods, fires etc. In case of HRA, more detailed information and HRA models are available for seismic events or fire events. For the other external hazards, the literature with regard to HRA is not well developed. The PSA for external hazards should take account the potential for human response to be affected by the external event. More

  12. Development of a Fully-Coupled, All States, All Hazards Level 2 PSA at Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Zvoncek

    2017-03-01

    The analysis provides significant insights into the absolute and relative importances of risk contributors and accident prevention and mitigation measures. Thanks to several newly developed techniques and an integrated approach, the KKL Level 2 PSA report exhibits a high degree of reviewability and maintainability, and transparently highlights the most important risk contributors to Large Early Release Frequency (LERF with respect to initiating events, components, operator actions or seismic component failure probabilities (fragilities.

  13. Does obesity affect the accuracy of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for predicting prostate cancer among men undergoing prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jong J; Jeong, Seong J; Lee, Byung K; Jeong, Chang W; Byun, Seok-Soo; Hong, Sung K; Lee, Sang E

    2013-08-01

    What's known on the subject? and what does the study add?: As most urologist known, obesity significantly lowers serum PSA levels. So there is some concern about delayed diagnosis of prostate cancer in obese men. In the present study, we found that the accuracy level of PSA for detecting prostate cancer was not significantly different between different obesity levels. A well-designed study adjusting for several factors, e.g. diet, exercise, medication and comorbidity, which may possibly compensate for the associated effects on PSA levels, is needed for confirmation of the present findings. To investigate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) accuracy in detecting prostate cancer according to body mass index (BMI) in Asian men with a PSA level of PSA levels were PSA accuracy for detecting prostate cancer in each BMI group was assessed based on the receiver operating characteristics-derived area under the curve. The mean age and median PSA level were inversely associated with BMI; the median PSA level in each BMI category was 7.84, 7.75, 7.33 and 5.79 ng/mL, respectively (P PSA accuracy for predicting prostate cancer in all patients was estimated to be 0.607, and PSA accuracies in each BMI category were 0.638, 0.572, 0.613 and 0.544, respectively; there was no significant difference among the groups in terms of PSA accuracy. The accuracy of PSA in predicting prostate cancer did not change regardless of BMI category in Asian men. However, as patients with higher BMIs had lower PSA levels than those with lower BMIs, it can therefore be suggested that the PSA threshold should be lower in obese men to discriminate between prostate cancer and benign conditions in the real clinical situation. © 2013 BJU International.

  14. Effect of ejaculation on Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Tarhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Abstract Purpose:To evaluate the effect of ejaculation on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA concentrations in patients with lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS. Materials and Methods Our study includes 98 men (62 study and 36 control. After three days of sexual abstinence, blood samples were drawn for the measurement of baseline PSA levels. Then the patients were told to ejaculate. One, 5, 24 and 72 hours after ejaculation, serum total (tPSA, free (fPSA and complexed PSA (cPSA levels were measured. Serum PSA sampling was performed at the same intervals in the control group without ejaculation. Results The mean age in study and control groups patients were 59.03±0.99 years, 61.14±1.30 years, respectively. In the study group, changes in tPSA and fPSA levels after ejaculation were found statistically significant while changes in cPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios were not significant (p=0.016, p=0.0003, p=0.176, and p=0.173, respectively. Baseline values showed significant differences with 1st and 5th hours. No significant changes in tPSA, fPSA, cPSA levels and f/tPSA values were found in control group (p=0.223, p=0.224, p=0.444, and p=0.718, respectively. The changes in the number of patients exceeding the cutoff values after ejaculation were not statistically significant for tPSA, cPSA, and f/tPSA ratio. Conclusions In this study, ejaculation increased tPSA and fPSA concentrations but it didn’t have a significant effect on serum cPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios. However, recent ejaculation may affect the biopsy indication at least near cut off PSA values. Further studies are needed to explain the mechanisms of alterations in the concentration of PSA.

  15. Pre-Study of Off-site Consequence Analysis in Level 3 PSA of Wolsong Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won-Jik; Yang, Ho-Chang; Choi, Seong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    In order to perform level 3 PSA, MACCS II (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2) is needed. MACCS II is used in PSA for plants in order to evaluate population dose that is the effects on health and environment caused by released radioisotopes after an accident. In this study, Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) event in CANDU-6 plants is evaluated population dose that is the effects on health and environment caused by released radioisotopes after an accident. In this study, Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) event has been evaluated by using Level 1 PSA result and Level 2 PSA result(ISSAC) and MACCS II. As a result, We are obtained the following conclusion. - Early maximum early fatalities is 5.35E+02 equal to latent maximum early fatalities.(99.5%) - Early and latent maximum cancer fatalities are 2.33E+03 and 1.11E+04, respectively. (99.5%) - Early and latent maximum population doses are 1.25 and 5.00 person-rem/yr, respectively. (99.5%) Other study has shown that MACCS II was performed evaluation for Wolsong NPP. Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident(SBLOCA) event is selected by other study. The results of early and cancer fatalities applied similar assumption were 3.02E+00 and 1.89E+03, respectively. This study's results are higher than other study's result. Because, basis input data is different each studies, and event frequency are different (This study : 2.10E-07/ Other study : 4.93E-09)

  16. Serum zinc level in children with malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.M.; Mahmood, M.T.; Baluch, G.R.; Bhatti, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Serum zinc level amongst children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) was evaluated in a control study conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Allama Iqbal Medical College and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. Twenty-five children with PEM and 25 healthy children as control from the community were screened. Mean serum zinc level was found to be 54.48 -+ 18.91 mg/dl in children with PEM while it was 72.72 -+ 8.21 mg/dl in control group (P < 0.001). No significant difference in zinc level was noted between both sexes in each group. Marasmic 16 children revealed mean serum zinc level of 57.55 -+ 18.16 mg/dl while in Kwashiorkor it was 44.57 -+ 13.66 mg/dl. Serum zinc was significantly low in Kwashiorkor than in marasmus (P < 0.001). It was also significantly low in children with acute or chronic diarrhea associated with malnutrition (44.66 -+ 16.0 mg/dl). Acute respiratory infections in these children were not associated with low serum zinc level (71.66 -+ 16.51 mg/dl). (author)

  17. Advancement of the methodology for automated integration of external hazards into level 1 PSA modeling. Technical report; Weiterentwicklung der Methodik zur automatisierten Integration uebergreifender Einwirkungen in PSA-Modelle der Stufe 1. Technischer Fachbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, Nadine; Herb, Joachim

    2017-03-15

    In the course of the research and development project RS1539 funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economics and Energy (BMWi) the methodology for the automated integration of hazards in Level 1 PSA models has been enhanced. Thereby, the analysis tool pyRiskRobot provides the methodological framework for mapping a generic spectrum of internal and external hazards onto complex PSA plant models. The reimplementation of the software tool via the programming language python extends the applicability and facilitates the handling of pyRiskRobot in comparison to the previous Ruby-based version RiskRobot. Moreover, the development of functions to perform the topological modelling of fault trees and the probabilistic specification of modified fault tree elements have been continued. Due to the reimplementation and further developments, the tool enables to systematically generate fault trees of varying complexity, to flexibly integrate fault trees in existing PSA models and to automatically duplicate interconnected topologies. Thus, pyRiskRobot allows the efficient and traceable realization of hazard specific, usually laborious modifications of PSA models. In addition, pyRiskRobot has been extended to serve as a functional interface between the data compilations comprising the potential influences of hazards on PSA relevant components and the data base of a PSA plant model. Based on this conceptual design, additional analyses of the data can be carried out prior to the integration within the PSA model topology. The reimplemented functionalities of pyRiskRobot have been validated with respect to reference applications, such as the modelling of an internal fire scenario, against the previous version RiskRobot. The existing method collection for the automated modification of fault tree topologies has been extended based on the requirements for further applications, among others the modelling of an external flooding scenario. The deduced hazard specific modelling approaches

  18. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT for the detection of bone metastasis in recurrent prostate cancer and a PSA level <2 ng/ml

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars J; Nielsen, Julie B; Dettmann, Katja

    2017-01-01

    /computed tomography ((68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT) is a novel and promising method for imaging in prostate cancer. The present study reports two cases of patients with prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence, with evidence of bone metastases on (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT images and low prostate specific antigen PSA levels (.../ml) and PSA doubling time >6 months. The bone metastases were verified by supplementary imaging with (18)F-sodium fluoride PET/CT and magnetic resonance imaging as well as biochemical responses to androgen deprivation therapy. Therefore, (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT is promising for the restaging of patients...... with prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence, including patients with low PSA levels and low PSA kinetics....

  19. Serum prolactin level in patients taking olanzapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diganta Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olanzapine is a commonly used antipsychotic. Prolactin elevation is a common adverse effect of anstipsychotics, and serum prolactin elevation is seen in about 30% patients treated with olanzapine. There are confounding results about dose dependency of olanzapine and prolactin elevation, and also the duration of treatment. Method: Fifty six patients, 36 male and 20 female, who were taking olanzapine for any condition for more than a month at a constant dose were enrolled in the study. Patients’ age, weight, body mass index (BMI, serum prolactin levels, and some biochemical values were recorded. Patients were taken from the review outpatient department (OPD after due consent. Results: Five each in male and female groups showed elevation of serum prolactin (estimated to be high if >20 ng/dl for males, and >25 ng/dl for females. In females, the elevation was found at lesser dose of olanzapine (13 mg/day, in males 18 mg/day and early in the treatment (2.4 months vs. 9.7 months in males. Males tended to show raised prolactin with higher doses of olanzapine (mean 18 mg/day. Females (26.31% also showed higher prevalence of prolactin elevation compared to males (13.51%. No other parameter was found to modify the prolactin levels. Conclusion: Olanzapine causes elevation of serum prolactin, though lesser degree than some other antipsychotics. Females are more prone to have raised serum prolactin with olanzapine compared to males. However, the elevation seems to be transient. Higher doses of olanzapine tend to cause elevation of serum prolactin. Serum prolactin estimation in patients taking olanzapine may be undertaken to maintain quality life, particularly in females.

  20. Summary review of PSA topics in connection with Romanian regulatory body activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoian, Alexandru

    2000-01-01

    This presentation includes the Romanian regulatory body guide; PSA level 1 requirements; PSA level 1 project status; PSA level 2 support activities; Scenario for PSA activities; external and internal cooperation

  1. Detection of prostatic carcinoma: the role of TRUS, TRUS guided biopsy, digital rectal examination, PSA and PSA density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, S; Cakar, B; Conkbayir, I; Hekimoglu, B

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of various diagnostic tests including transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), TRUS guided biopsy, digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate specific antigen (PSA), and prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) in detecting prostatic carcinomas. One hundred and thirty-four men underwent TRUS guided random, or directed and random sonographic biopsies of the prostate. The mean age was 64.67 (range, 31- 88) years. Indications for biopsy were abnormal findings suggesting prostatic carcinoma on DRE or increased levels of PSA, defined as 4.0 ng/ml or greater in a monoclonal antibody assay. PSAD was calculated by dividing the serum PSA in ng/ml to the volume of the entire prostate in cm3. The biopsy results were grouped as benign, malign and, prostatitis. The patients were also divided into three groups according to their PSA values. Of the 134 patients evaluated, 31 (23.1%) had prostate adenocarcinoma, 89 (66.4%) had benign prostatic tissue, hyperplasia or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and 14 (10.4%) had prostatitis. The mean PSA and PSAD of the carcinoma group were significantly higher than those of the noncancer group. In the group of patients with PSA levels between 4 and 10 ng/ml, abnormal TRUS or DRE increased cancer detection rate, where neither PSA nor PSAD was capable of discriminating the patients with and without cancer. PSAD did not prove to be superior to the other diagnostic tests in this study. We recommend biopsy when either TRUS or DRE is abnormal in patients with PSA levels between 4 and 10 ng/ml. In the patients with PSA levels greater than 10 ng/ml, biopsy is indicated whatever the findings on TRUS or DRE are, since cancer detection rate is high.

  2. Serum irisin levels in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Anna; Myśliwiec, Hanna; Kiluk, Paulina; Świderska, Magdalena; Flisiak, Iwona

    2017-06-01

    Irisin has been proposed to regulate metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes or metabolic syndrome which are common comorbidities in psoriasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum irisin level in psoriasis and elucidate possible associations with disease activity, inflammatory or metabolic parameters and topical treatment. Thirty-seven individuals with active plaque-type psoriasis and 15 healthy controls were enrolled. Blood samples were collected before and after two weeks of therapy. Serum irisin concentrations were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results were correlated with psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), body mass index (BMI), inflammatory and biochemical markers, lipid profile and effectiveness of topical treatment. Irisin serum levels were insignificantly increased in psoriatic patients in comparison to the controls (p = 0.38). No significant correlations between investigated adipokine and several indicators of metabolic disorders, nor BMI (p = 0.37) or PASI (p = 0.5) were found. Significant positive correlations with C-reactive protein (CRP) (0.009), lipocalin-2 (p = 0.02), age (p = 0.02) and disease duration (p = 0.008) were noted. After topical treatment, serum irisin level did not significantly change (p = 0.31), despite clinical improvement. Irisin might be a marker of inflammation in psoriatic patients, but may not be a reliable indicator of metabolic conditions, severity of psoriasis nor efficacy of antipsoriatic treatment.

  3. PSA kinetics after prostate brachytherapy: PSA bounce phenomenon and its implications for PSA doubling time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciezki, Jay P; Reddy, Chandana A; Garcia, Jorge; Angermeier, Kenneth; Ulchaker, James; Mahadevan, Arul; Chehade, Nabil; Altman, Andrew; Klein, Eric A

    2006-02-01

    the bFn+2 definition. However, a significant difference was found in the time to the first rise in PSA after PI for patients with a PSA bounce vs. patients with bF. The median time to the first rise in PSA after nadir for those with a PSA bounce was 15.1 months vs. 30.0 months using the bF3 definition (p=0.001) and 22.3 months using the bFn+2 definition (p=0.013). Patients experiencing a PSA bounce are more likely to be younger and will have a better bRFS. The PSADT cannot differentiate a PSA bounce from bF. The time to the initial PSA rise after nadir is an excellent discriminator of bF from PSA bounce. The time of the PSA rise after nadir occurs far sooner for a PSA bounce than for bF. This factor should be considered when assessing a patient with a rising PSA level after PI before a patient is administered salvage therapy.

  4. PSA kinetics after prostate brachytherapy: PSA bounce phenomenon and its implications for PSA doubling time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciezki, Jay P.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Garcia, Jorge; Angermeier, Kenneth; Ulchaker, James; Mahadevan, Arul; Chehade, Nabil; Altman, Andrew; Klein, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    using the bF3 definition and 8.8 months using the bFn+2 definition. However, a significant difference was found in the time to the first rise in PSA after PI for patients with a PSA bounce vs. patients with bF. The median time to the first rise in PSA after nadir for those with a PSA bounce was 15.1 months vs. 30.0 months using the bF3 definition (p = 0.001) and 22.3 months using the bFn+2 definition (p = 0.013). Conclusion: Patients experiencing a PSA bounce are more likely to be younger and will have a better bRFS. The PSADT cannot differentiate a PSA bounce from bF. The time to the initial PSA rise after nadir is an excellent discriminator of bF from PSA bounce. The time of the PSA rise after nadir occurs far sooner for a PSA bounce than for bF. This factor should be considered when assessing a patient with a rising PSA level after PI before a patient is administered salvage therapy

  5. Prevalence and causes of abnormal PSA recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Noémie; Müntener, Michael; Zanoni, Paolo; Saleh, Lanja; Saba, Karim; Umbehr, Martin; Velagapudi, Srividya; Hof, Danielle; Sulser, Tullio; Wild, Peter J; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Poyet, Cédric

    2018-01-26

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is of paramount importance as a diagnostic tool for the detection and monitoring of patients with prostate cancer. In the presence of interfering factors such as heterophilic antibodies or anti-PSA antibodies the PSA test can yield significantly falsified results. The prevalence of these factors is unknown. We determined the recovery of PSA concentrations diluting patient samples with a standard serum of known PSA concentration. Based on the frequency distribution of recoveries in a pre-study on 268 samples, samples with recoveries 120% were defined as suspect, re-tested and further characterized to identify the cause of interference. A total of 1158 consecutive serum samples were analyzed. Four samples (0.3%) showed reproducibly disturbed recoveries of 10%, 68%, 166% and 4441%. In three samples heterophilic antibodies were identified as the probable cause, in the fourth anti-PSA-autoantibodies. The very low recovery caused by the latter interference was confirmed in serum, as well as heparin- and EDTA plasma of blood samples obtained 6 months later. Analysis by eight different immunoassays showed recoveries ranging between PSA which however did not show any disturbed PSA recovery. About 0.3% of PSA determinations by the electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA) of Roche diagnostics are disturbed by heterophilic or anti-PSA autoantibodies. Although they are rare, these interferences can cause relevant misinterpretations of a PSA test result.

  6. Outcomes of men with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level as their sole preoperative intermediate- or high-risk feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Farzana A; Sundi, Debasish; Pierorazio, Phillip M; Ball, Mark W; Humphreys, Elizabeth B; Han, Misop; Epstein, Jonathan I; Partin, Alan W; Carter, H Ballentine; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Schaeffer, Edward M; Ross, Ashley E

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the post-prostatectomy and long-term outcomes of men presenting with an elevated pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (>10 ng/mL), but otherwise low-risk features (biopsy Gleason score ≤6 and clinical stage ≤T2a). PSA-incongruent intermediate-risk (PII) cases were defined as those patients with preoperative PSA >10 and ≤20 ng/mL but otherwise low-risk features, and PSA-incongruent high-risk (PIH) cases were defined as men with PSA >20 ng/mL but otherwise low-risk features. Our institutional radical prostatectomy database (1992-2012) was queried and the results were stratified into D'Amico low-, intermediate- and high risk, PSA-incongruent intermediate-risk and PSA-incongruent high-risk cases. Prostate cancer (PCa) features and outcomes were evaluated using appropriate comparative tests. Multivariable analyses were adjusted for age, race and year of surgery. Of the total cohort of 17 608 men, 1132 (6.4%) had PII-risk disease and 183 (1.0%) had PIH-risk disease. Compared with the low-risk group, the odds of upgrading at radical prostatectomy (RP) were 2.20 (95% CI 1.93-2.52; P PSA density (PSAD): men in the PII group who had a PSAD PSA >20 ng/mL or men with PSA >10 and ≤20 ng/mL with a PSAD ≥0.15 ng/mL/g, but otherwise low-risk PCa, are at greater risk of adverse pathological and oncological outcomes and may be inappropriate candidates for active surveillance. These men are at greater risk of having anterior tumours that are undersampled at biopsy, so if treatment is deferred, ancillary testing such as anterior zone sampling or magnetic resonance imaging should be strongly encouraged. Men with elevated PSA levels >10 and ≤20 ng/mL but low PSAD have outcomes similar to those in the low-risk group, and consideration of surveillance is appropriate in these cases. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  7. PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, L.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 1300 1 and EPS 900 2 PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs

  8. [Clinical evaluation of TANDEM PSA in Japanese cases and comparison with other methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, M; Yamamoto, N; Shinoda, I; Kawada, Y; Akimoto, S; Shimazaki, J

    1995-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of TANDEM PSA which is the most frequently used prostate specific antigen (PSA) assay method in the world and a comparison with other methods were performed in Japanese cases in a cooperative research fashion. The minimum detectable level of the method was found to be 0.50 ng of PSA in one ml of serum and 1.9 ng/ml was regarded as the upper normal value in Japanese males. The distribution of serum PSA showed a significant difference between the benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) cases and patients with stage C or D prostate cancer. The sero-diagnosis prostate cancer at an early stage with the TANDEM PSA was difficult. The correlation to other methods of PSA detection was very high. Furthermore, the clinical use of the method in following-up the clinical course of prostate cancer patients was very useful. These findings suggested that the PSA detection using TANDEM PSA is applicable even in Japanese cases although the upper cut-off level is decreased.

  9. Methods and results of a PSA level 2 for a German BWR of the 900 MWe class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffler, H.; Sonnenkalb, M.

    2006-01-01

    On behalf of the federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) GRS has performed a PSA level 2 for a BWR type 69 NPP of the 900 MWe class, equipped with a N 2 inerted steel containment and a pressure suppression system. Integral deterministic accident analyses have been performed with the computer code MELCOR 1.8.5. Additional analyses have been done for those events and phenomena which are not or not sufficiently covered by MELCOR. The probabilistic event tree analysis begins with the core damage states received from PSA level 1, and it ends with the definition of release categories and the determination of their frequencies. Uncertainties about the frequency of core damage states and about events during the accident progression are taken into account by means of Monte Carlo simulations. If there is a core damage state there is a high probability (>50 %) for a very high and rapid release of radionuclides into the environment. This high conditional probability is due to the very low probability to retain a partly destroyed core inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and because the containment almost certainly fails at the bottom of the control rod drives room after melt release from the failed RPV. (authors)

  10. Can delayed time to referral to a tertiary level urologist with an abnormal PSA level affect subsequent Gleason grade in the opportunistically screened population?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Kelly, Fardod

    2013-09-01

    There is growing conflict in the literature describing the effect of delayed treatment on outcomes following radical prostatectomy. There is also evidence to suggest progression of low-risk prostate cancer to develop higher grades and volumes of prostate cancer during active surveillance. It is unknown as to what affect a delay in referral of those men with abnormal screened-PSA levels have on subsequent Gleason grade.

  11. Radioimmunoassay of serum digoxin levels. Clinical exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galland, F.; Geslin, P.; Kerjean, J.; Six, P.; Tadei, A.; Jallet, P.

    1982-01-01

    This work undertakes, in a second part, the clinical exploration of 947 serum digoxin levels of 281 hospitalized patients on a cardiology ward. Our results, which coincide with those of other researchers, have led us to draw certain practical conclusions: the posology is determined first of all according to kidney function, weight and age of the patient. When the treatment is insufficient or, on the other hand, poorly tolerated, a serum digoxin level is performed permitting thus: in the case of ineffective treatment: to be sure of the patient's cooperation, to increase the posology if the serum digoxin level is not in the toxic zone, to discover an eventual pharmacokinetic problem; to establish the responsability of digitalis (when there are signs of intolerance or of intoxication), in case of arrhythmia, in patients with pacemakers, when associated drugs are capable of causing similar adverse effects; to better manage a digitalis treatment in a high risk patient (unstable renal function, advanced myocardial disease, chronic obstructive disease) [fr

  12. Prospective validation of %p2PSA and the Prostate Health Index, in prostate cancer detection in initial prostate biopsies of Asian men, with total PSA 4-10 ng ml-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lincoln Gl; Tan, Yung Khan; Tai, Bee Choo; Tan, Karen Ml; Gauhar, Vineet; Tiong, Ho Yee; Hawkins, Robert Cw; Thamboo, Thomas P; Hong, Felicia Sk; Chiong, Edmund

    2017-01-01

    Despite its widespread use for prostate cancer screening, low specificity makes PSA a suboptimal biomarker, especially in the diagnostic "gray zone" of 4-10 ng ml-1 . False-positives lead to unnecessary biopsies with attendant morbidities. This is the first prospective validation study of %p2PSA and the Prostate Health Index (PHI) in Asian men presenting with a total PSA between 4.0 and 10 ng ml-1 . We studied 157 Asian men between 50 and 75 years old, with normal per rectal prostate examinations, undergoing their first prostate biopsy, using a standardized biopsy protocol, for PSA levels of 4-10 ng ml-1 . Thirty (19.1%) were found to have prostate cancer on biopsy. Statistically significant differences between patients with and without prostate cancer were found for total PSA, p2PSA, %p2PSA, and PHI. The areas under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve for total PSA, %fPSA, %p2PSA, and PHI were 0.479, 0.420, 0.695, and 0.794, respectively. PHI predicts prostatic biopsies results best. At a sensitivity of 90%, the specificity (95% CI) of PHI was 58.3%, more than triple the specificity of total PSA at 17.3%, potentially avoiding 77 (49%) unnecessary biopsies. Similar to studies in mainly Caucasian populations, we have prospectively shown that %p2PSA and PHI greatly outperform total and free to total PSA ratio, in the detection of prostate cancer at first biopsy. Higher PHI levels also correspond to increasing the risk of detecting GS ≥7 cancers. We have validated the use of PHI to aid decision-making regarding prostate biopsies in Asian men with serum PSA between 4 and 10 ng ml-1 .

  13. Predictive value of [-2]propsa (p2psa and its derivatives for the prostate cancer detection in the 2.0 to 10.0ng/mL PSA range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vukovic

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction To assess predictive value of new tumor markers, precursor of prostate specific antigen (p2PSA and its derivates-%p2PSA and prostate health index (PHI in detection of patients with indolent and aggressive prostate cancer (PC in a subcohort of man whose total PSA ranged from 2 to 10ng/mL. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included 129 consecutive male patients aged over 50 years, with no previous history of PC and with normal digital rectal examination findings, but with serum PSA in interval between 2 and 10ng/mL. All patients underwent standard transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy for the first time. For all patients, serum PSA, free PSA (fPSA and p2PSA were measured and PHI and %p2PSA were calculated. Results PHI and %p2PSA levels were significanlty higher in patients with PC compared to those without this malignancy. The same findings have been observed in group of patients with Gleason score ≥7 compared to those with Gleason score <7. ROC analysis reveled the highest area under the curve with these two markers. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant improvement in PC detection and its agressive form (assumed as Gleason score ≥7. Conclusions New markers, derivates of p2PSA (especially %p2PSA and PHI, represente potentially very important clinical tool for predicting presence of PC, and even more important, to discriminate patients with Gleason score <7 from those with Gleason score ≥7 with total PSA in range from 2 to 10ng/mL.

  14. The influence of PSA autoantibodies in prostate cancer patients: a prospective clinical study-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kosei; Heilbrun, Lance K; Smith, Daryn; Hogan, Victor; Raz, Avraham; Heath, Elisabeth

    2017-03-14

    The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended against PSA-based screening for prostate cancer due to potential possibilities of false-results. Since no alternative test is available to replace it, we have initiated a trial with the purpose of establishing whether Galectin-3 (Gal-3) serum level and/or the patients' immune response to PSA and Gal-3 antigens could complement the PSA test as diagnostic tools for prostate cancer patients. A blind, prospective, single institution, pilot study was conducted. A total of 95 men were recruited and classified into 5 different groups: healthy controls (Group1), newly diagnosed patients (Group2), no recurrence after local therapy (Group3), rising PSA after local therapy (Group4), and metastatic patients (Group5). The primary endpoints were the levels of serum PSA, PSA autoantibodies (AAPSA), Gal-3, and Gal-3 autoantibodies (AAGal-3). Data were analyzed by Spearman's rank correlation (rho) and least squares linear regression modeling. The expression levels of PSA, AAPSA, Gal-3, and AAGal-3 were determined in both healthy controls and prostate cancer patients. Negative correlations were observed between PSA and AAPSA levels among all 95 men combined (rho = -0.321, P = 0.0021; fitted slope -0.288, P = 0.0048), and in metastatic patients (rho = -0.472, P = 0.0413; fitted slope -1.145, P = 0.0061). We suggest an association between PSA and AAPSA, whereby the AAPSA may alter PSA levels. It provides a novel outlook for prostate cancer diagnosis, and should serve as a basis for an all-inclusive diagnostic trial centering on patients with metastasis.

  15. Testing the variability of PSA expression by different human prostate cancer cell lines by means of a new potentiometric device employing molecularly antibody assembled on graphene surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Tânia S.C.R. [BioMark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal); LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Noronha, João P.; Galésio, Marco; Santos, Hugo; Diniz, Mário [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Sales, M. Goreti F. [BioMark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, Maria H. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Costa-Rodrigues, João, E-mail: jrodrigues@fmd.up.pt [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); ESTSP — Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal)

    2016-02-01

    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is widely used as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Recently, an electrochemical biosensor for PSA detection by means of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed. This work evaluated the performance and the effectiveness of that PSA biosensor in screening the biomarker PSA in biological media with complex composition, collected from different human prostate cell line cultures. For that, the prostate cancer LNCaP and PC3 cells, and the non-cancerous prostate cell line PNT2 were cultured for 2, 7 and 14 days in either α-MEM or RPMI in the presence of 10% or 30% fetal bovine serum. Human gingival fibroblasts were used as a non-cancerous non-prostatic control. The different culture conditions modulated cellular proliferation and the expression of several prostate markers, including PSA. The electrochemical biosensor was able to specifically detect PSA in the culture media and values obtained were similar to those achieved by a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit, the most commonly used method for PSA quantification in prostate cancer diagnosis. Thus, the tested biosensor may represent a useful alternative as a diagnostic tool for PSA determination in biological samples. - Highlights: • PSA quantification was performed in prostate cancer cell culture media. • Culture media composition and culture period significantly affect PSA production. • The PSA biosensor detected a wide range of PSA levels in complex media. • A high data correlation was observed between the biosensor and the ELISA analysis.

  16. The source of pretreatment serum prostate-specific antigen in clinically localized prostate cancer--T, N, or M?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagars, Gunar K.; Kavadi, Vivek S.; Pollack, Alan; Eschenbach, Andrew C. von; Sands, M. Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an important marker for prostate cancer and has been shown to be secreted from the primary tumor and from metastases. However, the relative contribution of the primary and micrometastatic disease to the serum level of PSA in patients with clinically localized disease has not been delineated. This study addresses the source of pretreatment serum PSA in patients with clinically localized disease. Methods and Materials: The fall in serum PSA level following radical prostatectomy (280 patients; 105 T1, 165 T2, 10 T3) or definitive radiotherapy (427 patients; 122 T1, 147 T2, 158 T3/T4) was analyzed with the assumption that any fall in PSA following local treatment reflects the fraction of PSA produced in the prostate and its primary tumor. Results: Serum PSA level became undetectable in 277 of the 280 (99%) patients within 6 months of radical prostatectomy. The three patients who did not achieve undetectable levels had postsurgical values ≤ 0.9 ng/ml. Following definitive radiotherapy, nadir serum PSA values were between ≤ 0.3 and 20.3 ng/ml, with mean and median values of 1.9 and 1.2 ng/ml, respectively. Nadir PSA was undetectable in 52 patients (12%). Four patients' PSA did not fall, but rose from the start, and each developed metastatic disease within 9 months, and in each metastases appeared to contribute to pretreatment serum PSA. In the remaining patients, the maximal factor by which PSA fell to its nadir was higher the higher the pretreatment PSA level. We present arguments that this is most consistent with the hypothesis that virtually all detectable pretreatment serum PSA derives from the primary tumor. Confirmatory evidence that little of the pretreatment serum PSA came from metastases was obtained by extrapolating the rising PSA profile in 97 patients back to pretreatment time. Back-extrapolated PSA contributed a mean of 7% and a median of 5% to the pretreatment serum value. Because such back-extrapolated values

  17. Serum zinc levels in gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Sharbaf F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy has been related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most studies in which pregnant women have been supplemented with zinc to examine its effects on the outcome of the pregnancy have been carried out in industrialized countries and the results have been inconclusive. It has been shown that women with gestational diabetes (GDM have lower serum zinc levels than healthy pregnant women, and higher rates of macrosomia. Zinc is required for normal glucose metabolism, and strengthens the insulin-induced transportation of glucose into cells by its effect on the insulin signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to assess the serum zinc levels of GDM patients and evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation. "nMethods: In the first stage of this prospective controlled study, we enrolled 70 women who were 24-28 weeks pregnant at the Prenatal Care Center of Mirza Kochak Khan Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The serum zinc level of each subject was determined. In the second stage, among these 70 subjects, the diabetics receiving insulin were divided into two groups, only one of which received a zinc supplement and the other group was the control group. Birth weight of neonates and insulin dosages were recorded. "nResults: The mean serum zinc level in the GDM group was lower than that of the control group (94.83 vs. 103.49mg/dl, respectively and the mean birth weight of neonates from the GDM women who received the zinc supplement was lower than that of the control group (3849g vs. 4136g. The rate of macrosomia was lower in the zinc supplemented group (20% vs. 53%. The mean of increase of insulin after receiving the zinc supplement was lower (8.4u vs. 13.53. "nConclusion: Maternal insulin resistance is associated with the accumulation of maternal fat tissue during early stages of pregnancy and greater fetoplacental nutrient availability in later stages, when 70% of fetal growth occurs, resulting in macrosomia. In

  18. Effect of Alpha Linolenic Acid Supplementation on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA): Results from the Alpha Omega Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Klaasen, V.M.; Smit, L.A.; Giltay, E.J.; de Goede, G.J.; Heijboer, A.C.; Kromhout, D.; Katan, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum

  19. Effect of alpha linolenic acid supplementation on serum prostate specific antigen (PSA): results from the alpha omega trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Klaasen, Veronique M.; Smit, Liesbeth A.; Giltay, Erik J.; de Goede, Janette; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Kromhout, Daan; Katan, Martijn B.

    2013-01-01

    Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum concentrations of

  20. Association of GPs' risk attitudes, level of empathy, and burnout status with PSA testing in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette F; Carlsen, Anders H; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Denne artikel undersøger, om variationen i raten af PSA-tests mellem alment praktiserende læger kan forklares af psykologiske faktorer som f.eks. lægens risikovillighed. Resultaterne viser, at lægens risikovillighed influerer på raten af PSA-tests. Forfatterne finder blandt andet, at patienter, s...

  1. Analytical performance of a new one-step quantitative prostate-specific antigen assay, the FREND™ PSA Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Il; Lee, Seungok; Kim, Yonggoo; Shin, Dong-Yeok; Lee, Changseop; Han, Sunmi; Chung, Chanil; Chang, Jun Keun; Seo, In Bum

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated the analytical performance of a new one-step rapid quantitative sandwich immunoassay for total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), the FREND™ PSA Plus (FREND PSA) (NanoEnTek Inc., Seoul, Korea). The imprecision, linearity, hook effect, detection limit (LoD), and interference were evaluated and trueness verification and matrix validation were performed. For method comparison, 79 patient specimens were analyzed with FREND PSA and two comparative tPSA assays (Architect® total PSA and cobas® total PSA assay). Total CVs of the imprecision for low (0.208 ng/mL), medium (4.051 ng/mL), and high PSA levels (5.469 ng/mL) were 15.9%, 6.4%, and 9.1%, respectively. Linearity was observed from 1.01 to 19.15 ng/mL and the hook phenomenon was absent up to 171.48 ng/mL. The LoD was 0.094 ng/mL. The regression equations between FREND (y) and Architect or cobas were as follows: y=0.0133+1.054x (r=0.973), y=-0.2144+1.066x (r=0.977), respectively. Differences between FREND PSA and the comparative methods at a medical decision level of 4.0 ng/mL were less than the optimum specification bias (9.3%). The percentage biases from the trueness verification and interference test were less than the desirable specifications for bias (18.7%). The plasma tPSA level measured with lithium heparin or K2EDTA was comparable to that in the serum. The FREND PSA provided reliable analytical performance and test results in comparison to two widely used tPSA assays. It is a simple and rapid test for tPSA and can be applied in point-of-care testing.

  2. Radiotherapy options for localized prostate cancer based upon pretreatment serum prostate-specific antigen levels and biochemical control: A comprehensive review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicini, Frank A.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Kini, Vijay R.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To review all the available radiotherapy (RT) literature on localized prostate cancer treatment where serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were used to both stratify patients and evaluate outcome and determine if any conclusions can be reached regarding an optimal radiotherapeutic management for this disease. Methods and Materials: A MEDLINE search was conducted to obtain all articles in English on prostate cancer treatment employing RT from 1986-1997. Studies were considered eligible for review only if they met all the following criteria: 1) pretreatment PSA values were recorded and grouped for subsequent evaluation, 2) posttreatment PSA values were continuously monitored, 3) definitions of biochemical control were stated, and 4) the median follow-up was given. Results: Of the 246 articles identified, only 20 met the inclusion criteria; 4 using conformal external beam RT, 8 using conventional external beam RT, and 8 using interstitial brachytherapy (4 using a permanent implant alone, 3 combining external beam RT with a permanent implant, and 1 combining a conformal temporary interstitial implant boost with external beam RT). No studies using neutrons (with or without external beam RT) or androgen deprivation (combined with external beam RT) were identified where patients were stratified by pretreatment PSA levels. Results for all therapies were extremely variable with the 3-5-year rates of biochemical control for patients with pretreatment PSA levels ≤4 ng/ml ranging from 48 to 100%, for PSA levels >4 and ≤10 ng/ml ranging from 44 to 90%, for PSA levels >10 and ≤20 ng/ml ranging from 27 to 89%, and for PSA levels >20 ranging from 14 to 89%. The median Gleason score, T-stage, definition of biochemical control, and follow-up were substantially different from series to series. No RT option consistently produced superior results. Conclusions: When data are reviewed from studies using serum PSA levels to stratify patients and to evaluate

  3. Admission levels of serum Gc-globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiødt, F V; Bondesen, S; Petersen, I

    1996-01-01

    Gc-globulin scavenges actin released from necrotic hepatocytes to the extracellular space. In 77 patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) (excluding patients treated with liver transplantation), admission levels of serum Gc-globulin and degree of complexing with monomeric actin (complex ratio......) were determined to evaluate their predictive values in relation to survival/nonsurvival. Gc-globulin levels were significantly reduced in 47 nonsurvivors, compared with 30 survivors (96 +/- 71 mg/L vs. 169 +/- 101 mg/L, P ... of patients with non-acetaminophen-induced FHF, whereas a higher value predicted survival in 60 percent. In patients with acetaminophen-induced FHF, nonsurvival was correctly predicted in 100 percent of patients and survival in 53 percent. In comparison, the King's College Hospital (KCH) criteria correctly...

  4. The percentage of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) isoform [-2]proPSA and the Prostate Health Index improve the diagnostic accuracy for clinically relevant prostate cancer at initial and repeat biopsy compared with total PSA and percentage free PSA in men aged ≤65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boegemann, Martin; Stephan, Carsten; Cammann, Henning; Vincendeau, Sébastien; Houlgatte, Alain; Jung, Klaus; Blanchet, Jean-Sebastien; Semjonow, Axel

    2016-01-01

    To prospectively test the diagnostic accuracy of the percentage of prostate specific antigen (PSA) isoform [-2]proPSA (%p2PSA) and the Prostate Health Index (PHI), and to determine their role for discrimination between significant and insignificant prostate cancer at initial and repeat prostate biopsy in men aged ≤65 years. The diagnostic performance of %p2PSA and PHI were evaluated in a multicentre study. In all, 769 men aged ≤65 years scheduled for initial or repeat prostate biopsy were recruited in four sites based on a total PSA (t-PSA) level of 1.6-8.0 ng/mL World Health Organization (WHO) calibrated (2-10 ng/mL Hybritech-calibrated). Serum samples were measured for the concentration of t-PSA, free PSA (f-PSA) and p2PSA with Beckman Coulter immunoassays on Access-2 or DxI800 instruments. PHI was calculated as (p2PSA/f-PSA × √t-PSA). Uni- and multivariable logistic regression models and an artificial neural network (ANN) were complemented by decision curve analysis (DCA). In univariate analysis %p2PSA and PHI were the best predictors of prostate cancer detection in all patients (area under the curve [AUC] 0.72 and 0.73, respectively), at initial (AUC 0.67 and 0.69) and repeat biopsy (AUC 0.74 and 0.74). t-PSA and %f-PSA performed less accurately for all patients (AUC 0.54 and 0.62). For detection of significant prostate cancer (based on Prostate Cancer Research International Active Surveillance [PRIAS] criteria) the %p2PSA and PHI equally demonstrated best performance (AUC 0.70 and 0.73) compared with t-PSA and %f-PSA (AUC 0.54 and 0.59). In multivariate analysis PHI we added to a base model of age, prostate volume, digital rectal examination, t-PSA and %f-PSA. PHI was strongest in predicting prostate cancer in all patients, at initial and repeat biopsy and for significant prostate cancer (AUC 0.73, 0.68, 0.78 and 0.72, respectively). In DCA for all patients the ANN showed the broadest threshold probability and best net benefit. PHI as single parameter

  5. PSA Update Procedures, an Ultimate Need for Living PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegedus, D.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear facilities by their complex nature, change with time. These changes can be both physical (plant modification, etc.), operational (enhanced procedures, etc.) and organizational. In addition, there are also changes in our understanding of the plant, due to operational experience, data collection, technology enhancements, etc. Therefore, it is imperative that PSA model must be frequently up-dated or modified to reflect these changes. Over the last ten years. these has been a remarkable growth of the use of Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs). The most rapidly growing area of the PSA Applications is their use to support operational decision-making. Many of these applications are characterized by the potential for not only improving the safety level but also for providing guidance on the optimal use of resources and reducing regulatory burden. To enable a wider use of the PSA model as a tool for safety activities it is essential to maintain the model in a controlled state. Moreover, to fulfill requirements for L iving PSA , the PSA model has to be constantly updated and/or monitored to reflect the current plant configuration. It should be noted that the PSA model should not only represent the plant design but should also represent the operational and emergency procedures. To keep the PSA model up-to-date several issues should be clearly defined including: - Responsibility should be divided among the PSA group, - Procedures for implementing changes should be established, and - QA requirements/program should be established to assure documentation and reporting. (author)

  6. PSA - a tool for the nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himanen, R.

    1992-01-01

    The PSA-model for BWR-type reactors of Finnish power company, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) was finished in year 1989. This basic PSA model included all safety systems, normal operating systems and auxiliary systems. Today TVO is working to enlarge the PSA to level 2 (environmental effects, for the fires, for the floodings and the outages). The TVO's experiences has been showed the PSA an useful tool for the developing the safety of BWR's (orig.)

  7. Maternal low-level lead exposure reduces the expression of PSA-NCAM and the activity of sialyltransferase in the hippocampi of neonatal rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiansheng; Fu, Hongjun; Ren, Tieling; Wang, Shuyu; Zhou, Wei; Song, Hong; Han, Yifan; Dong, Shengzhang

    2008-07-01

    Highly polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) is transiently expressed specifically in newly generated cells, and is important for cell migration and neurite outgrowth. Developmental lead (Pb) exposure has been considered to affect the expression of PSA-NCAM, which contributes to the neurotoxicity of Pb exposure. However, the effect of maternal low-level Pb exposure on the expression of PSA-NCAM in neonatal rat pups has not been reported. In the present study, female Wistar rats were exposed to vehicle or different dosages of lead chloride (0.5-4mM PbCl2) 2 weeks before and during pregnancy. This exposure protocol resulted in neonatal rat pups blood Pb levels up to 12.12+/-0.38 microg/dl, and hippocampal Pb levels up to 9.22+/-0.81 microg/g at postnatal day 1 (PND 1). Immunohistochemistry analysis and Western blot analysis revealed that the expressions of PSA-NCAM and NCAM in the hippocampi of neonatal rat pups at PND 1 were significantly reduced by the maternal low-level Pb exposures. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of NCAM and polysialyltransferases (STX and PST), measured by the fluorescent real-time quantitative RT-PCR, dosage-dependently and significantly decreased by 13.26-37.62%, 25.17-59.67%, and 10.78-47.81%, respectively. In addition, the sialyltransferase activity in neonatal rat pups was significantly reduced by 6.23-32.50% in the presence of the low-level Pb exposure, too. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal low-level Pb exposure reduces the expression of PSA-NCAM, NCAM, and the activity of sialyltransferase in the hippocampi of neonatal rat pups, which might contribute to the learning and memory impairments in the developmental pups following maternal low-level Pb exposure.

  8. Can Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2 reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies in men with PSA levels of 4-10 ng/ml?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Wu, Yu-Peng; Chen, Dong-Ning; Ke, Zhi-Bin; Cai, Hai; Wei, Yong; Zheng, Qing-Shui; Huang, Jin-Bei; Li, Xiao-Dong; Xue, Xue-Yi

    2018-03-05

    To explore the value of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2 (PI-RADS v2) for predicting prostate biopsy results in patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels of 4-10 ng/ml. We retrospectively reviewed multi-parameter magnetic resonance images from 528 patients with PSA levels of 4-10 ng/ml who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies between May 2015 and May 2017. Among them, 137 were diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa), and we further subdivided them according to pathological results into the significant PCa (S-PCa) and insignificant significant PCa (Ins-PCa) groups (121 cases were defined by surgical pathological specimen and 16 by biopsy). Age, PSA, percent free PSA, PSA density (PSAD), prostate volume (PV), and PI-RADS score were collected. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of pathological results. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to analyze the diagnostic value of PI-RADS v2 in PCa. Multivariate analysis indicated that age, PV, percent free PSA, and PI-RADS score were independent predictors of biopsy findings, while only PI-RADS score was an independent predictor of S-PCa (P PSA, and PI-RADS score were 0.570, 0.430, 0.589 and 0.836, respectively. The area under the curve for diagnosing S-PCa with respect to PI-RADS score was 0.732. A PI-RADS score of 3 was the best cutoff for predicting PCa, and 4 was the best cutoff for predicting S-PCa. Thus, 92.8% of patients with PI-RADS scores of 1-2 would have avoided biopsy, but at the cost of missing 2.2% of the potential PCa cases. Similarly, 83.82% of patients with a PI-RADS score ≤ 3 would have avoided biopsy, but at the cost of missing 3.3% of the potential S-PCa cases. PI-RADS v2 could be used to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies in patients with PSA levels of 4-10 ng/ml.

  9. Radiographic progression with nonrising PSA in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: post hoc analysis of PREVAIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, A H; Alumkal, J J; Armstrong, A; Higano, C S; Iversen, P; Sternberg, C N; Rathkopf, D; Loriot, Y; de Bono, J; Tombal, B; Abhyankar, S; Lin, P; Krivoshik, A; Phung, D; Beer, T M

    2017-06-01

    Advanced prostate cancer is a phenotypically diverse disease that evolves through multiple clinical courses. PSA level is the most widely used parameter for disease monitoring, but it has well-recognized limitations. Unlike in clinical trials, in practice, clinicians may rely on PSA monitoring alone to determine disease status on therapy. This approach has not been adequately tested. Chemotherapy-naive asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic men (n=872) with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who were treated with the androgen receptor inhibitor enzalutamide in the PREVAIL study were analyzed post hoc for rising versus nonrising PSA (empirically defined as >1.05 vs ⩽1.05 times the PSA level from 3 months earlier) at the time of radiographic progression. Clinical characteristics and disease outcomes were compared between the rising and nonrising PSA groups. Of 265 PREVAIL patients with radiographic progression and evaluable PSA levels on the enzalutamide arm, nearly one-quarter had a nonrising PSA. Median progression-free survival in this cohort was 8.3 months versus 11.1 months in the rising PSA cohort (hazard ratio 1.68; 95% confidence interval 1.26-2.23); overall survival was similar between the two groups, although less than half of patients in either group were still at risk at 24 months. Baseline clinical characteristics of the two groups were similar. Non-rising PSA at radiographic progression is a common phenomenon in mCRPC patients treated with enzalutamide. As restaging in advanced prostate cancer patients is often guided by increases in PSA levels, our results demonstrate that disease progression on enzalutamide can occur without rising PSA levels. Therefore, a disease monitoring strategy that includes imaging not entirely reliant on serial serum PSA measurement may more accurately identify disease progression.

  10. Percent free prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer diagnosis in Chinese men with a PSA of 4.0-10.0 ng/mL: Results from the Chinese Prostate Cancer Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Xie, Liping; Cai, Xiaobing; Huang, Yiran; Zhou, Liqun; Ma, Lulin; Gao, Xu; Xu, Chuanliang; Ren, Shancheng; Shao, Pengfei; Xu, Danfeng; Xu, Kexin; Ye, Zhangqun; Liu, Chunxiao; Ye, Dingwei; Lu, Li; Fu, Qiang; Hou, Jianquan; Yuan, Jianlin; He, Dalin; Zhou, Tie; Wang, Fubo; He, Biming; Sun, Yinghao

    2015-04-01

    To test the diagnostic performance of percent free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) in predicting any prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa) in a retrospective multi-center biopsy cohort with a PSA level of 4.0-10.0 ng/mL in China. Consecutive patients with a PSA of 4.0-10.0 ng/mL who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy were enrolled at 16 Chinese medical centers from January 1st, 2010 to December 31st, 2013. Total and free serum PSA determinations were performed using three types of electro-chemiluminescence immunoassays recalibrated to the World Health Organization (WHO) standard. The diagnostic accuracy of PSA, %fPSA, and %fPSA in combination with PSA (%fPSA + PSA) was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). A total of 2310 consecutive men with PSA levels between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/mL were included, and the detection rate of PCa was 25.1%. The AUC of %fPSA and %fPSA + PSA in predicting any PCa was superior to PSA alone in men aged ≥60 years (0.623 vs. 0.534, p  PSA undergoing initial prostate biopsy, adding %fPSA to PSA can moderately improve the diagnostic accuracy for any PCa and HGPCa compared with PSA alone in patients ≥60 but not in patients aged 40-59 years.

  11. High-Risk Prostate Cancer With Gleason Score 8–10 and PSA Level ≤15 ng/ mL Treated With Permanent Interstitial Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, L. Christine; Merrick, Gregory S.; Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Murray, Brian C.; Reed, Joshua L.; Adamovich, Edward; Wallner, Kent E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: With widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, there has been an increase in men diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer defined by a Gleason score (GS) ≥8 coupled with a relatively low PSA level. The optimal management of these patients has not been defined. Cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated in brachytherapy patients with a GS ≥8 and a PSA level ≤15 ng/mL with or without androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to October 2005, 174 patients with GS ≥8 and a PSA level ≤15 ng/mL underwent permanent interstitial brachytherapy. Of the patients, 159 (91%) received supplemental external beam radiation, and 113 (64.9%) received ADT. The median follow-up was 6.6 years. The median postimplant Day 0 minimum percentage of the dose covering 90% of the target volume was 121.1% of prescription dose. Biochemical control was defined as a PSA level ≤0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Multiple parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Ten-year outcomes for patients without and with ADT were 95.2% and 92.5%, respectively, for CSS (p = 0.562); 86.5% and 92.6%, respectively, for bPFS (p = 0.204); and 75.2% and 66.0%, respectively, for OS (p = 0.179). The median post-treatment PSA level for biochemically controlled patients was <0.02 ng/mL. Multivariate analysis failed to identify any predictors for CSS, whereas bPFS and OS were most closely related to patient age. Conclusions: Patients with GS ≥8 and PSA level ≤15 ng/mL have excellent bPFS and CSS after brachytherapy with supplemental external beam radiotherapy. The use of ADT did not significantly impact bPFS, CSS, or OS.

  12. Validation of association of genetic variants at 10q with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in men at high risk for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bao-Li; Hughes, Lucinda; Chen, David Y T; Gross, Laura; Ruth, Karen; Giri, Veda N

    2014-05-01

    To validate six previously identified markers among men at increased risk of prostate cancer (African-American men and those with a family history of prostate cancer) enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP), a prostate cancer screening study. Eligibility criteria for PRAP include age 35-69 years with a family history of prostate cancer, African-American ethnicity regardless of family history, and known BRCA gene mutations. The genome-wide association study markers assessed included rs2736098 (5p15.33), rs10993994 (10q11), rs10788160 (10q26), rs11067228 (12q24), rs4430796 (17q12) and rs17632542 (19q13.33). Genotyping methods included either the Taqman(®) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) or pyrosequencing. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between individual markers and log-transformed baseline PSA levels, while adjusting for potential confounders. A total of 707 participants (37% Caucasian, 63% African-American) with clinical and genotype data were included in the analysis. Rs10788160 (10q26) was strongly associated with PSA levels among Caucasian participants in the high-risk group (P PSA level with each A-allele carried. Furthermore, rs10993994 (10q11) was found to be associated with PSA level (P = 0.03) in Caucasian men in the high-risk group, with a 15% increase in PSA level with each T-allele carried. A PSA adjustment model based on allele carrier status at rs10788160 and rs10993994 was proposed, specific to high-risk Caucasian men. Genetic variation at 10q may be particularly important in personalizing the interpretation of PSA level for Caucasian men in the high-risk group. Such information may have clinical relevance in shared decision-making and individualized prostate cancer screening strategies for Caucasian men in the high-risk group, although further study is warranted. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  13. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  14. Serum Uric Acid Levels among Nigerians with Essential Hypertension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an ongoing debate on the role of serum uric acid as an independent risk factor for hypertension and renal disease. This study determined the serum uric acid levels of Nigerians with essential hypertension and also evaluated the association between serum uric acid levels and blood pressure of these patients.

  15. Medical management in locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer: Does changes in treatment policy have any specific effect on PSA levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagcioglu, Murat; Surcel, Cristian; Ozcan, Serkan; Mirvald, Cristian; Karagoz, Mehmet Ali; Karadag, Mert Ali; Huri, Emre; Sarica, Kemal

    2017-12-31

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is commonly used as a first-line treatment for locally advanced and metastatic prostatic cancer (Pca). There is no consensus about which alternative treatment should be used after the failure of initial ADT. We aimed to investigate the effect of changes in treatment on PSA and testosterone levels. A total of 120 patients with an established diagnosis of either locally advanced or metastatic Pca in two different centers. Depending on the type of medical and/or surgical management protocol planned at initial presentation, all cases were divided into three main groups as follows. Group 1 (n: 80) included the patients who underwent medical management during whole follow-up period in whom the initial management protocol was later on switched to another medical treatment with different agents, Group 2 (n: 20) included patients who were initially treated with a medical management protocol and switched to surgical castration during follow-up evaluation and lastly Group 3 (n: 20) included the patients undergoing treated surgical castration as initial treatment modality without any further medical management protocol. Evaluation of our data did clearly demonstrate a statistically significant difference between the initial and final PSA as well as testosterone levels in Group 1 cases. Mean PSA and testosterone levels increased significantly in these cases despite a change in hormonal therapy by using another agent for androgen deprivation. Cases in Group 2 and 3 cases did not show any statistically significant difference with respect to the mean PSA as well as testosterone values during the same follow-up period. Our data clearly indicated that in case of a biochemical progression, switching into another alternative medical treatment was not effective enough in limiting the rising PSA levels in a statistically significant manner when compared with the approaches of switching to surgical castration after initial medical treatment or

  16. Medical management in locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer: Does changes in treatment policy have any specific effect on PSA levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Bagcioglu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT is commonly used as a first-line treatment for locally advanced and metastatic prostatic cancer (Pca. There is no consensus about which alternative treatment should be used after the failure of initial ADT. We aimed to investigate the effect of changes in treatment on PSA and testosterone levels. Material and methods: A total of 120 patients with an established diagnosis of either locally advanced or metastatic Pca in two different centers. Depending on the type of medical and/or surgical management protocol planned at initial presentation, all cases were divided into three main groups as follows. Group 1 (n: 80 included the patients who underwent medical management during whole follow-up period in whom the initial management protocol was later on switched to another medical treatment with different agents, Group 2 (n: 20 included patients who were initially treated with a medical management protocol and switched to surgical castration during follow-up evaluation and lastly Group 3 (n: 20 included the patients undergoing treated surgical castration as initial treatment modality without any further medical management protocol. Results: Evaluation of our data did clearly demonstrate a statistically significant difference between the initial and final PSA as well as testosterone levels in Group 1 cases. Mean PSA and testosterone levels increased significantly in these cases despite a change in hormonal therapy by using another agent for androgen deprivation. Cases in Group 2 and 3 cases did not show any statistically significant difference with respect to the mean PSA as well as testosterone values during the same follow-up period. Conclusions: Our data clearly indicated that in case of a biochemical progression, switching into another alternative medical treatment was not effective enough in limiting the rising PSA levels in a statistically significant manner when compared with the approaches of

  17. A Study on the Risk Reduction Effect by MLCS (Mid-loop Level Control System) of EUAPR using the Low-Power and Shutdown PSA Result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keunsung; Choi, Sunmi; Kim, Eden

    2016-01-01

    The EU-APR design has been developed in order to expand and diversify the global nuclear power market of APR1400. For the improvement of shutdown risk for the EUAPR, the mid-loop level control system (MLCS) is considered during mid-loop operation for the EU-APR, which is not incorporated into SKN 3 and 4 (APR1400 Type) in Korea. Commonly, the risk associated with the NPP can be identified through the PSA. Thus, this paper discusses the low power and shutdown (LPSD) risk reduction effect by MLCS using the Low-Power and Shutdown PSA Result. LPSD level 1 PSA models for EU-APR have been developed. The risk reduction effect by MLCS is discussed. Because the loss of shutdown cooling function during mid-loop is one of the most vulnerable events, the MLCS have a significant influence on CDF in LPSD PSA. The shutdown risk of domestic power plants would likely be reduced if the MLCS is adopted in all operating NPPs in Korea during the mid-loop operation. It is expected that this work will contribute to reduce shutdown risk of domestic power plants

  18. PSA in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, M.A.; Cunningham, M.A.; Johnson, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Although the concept of acceptable risk has always been the foundation of the nuclear industry design, the use of formal PSA (or PRA-probabilistic risk assessment) in the U.S. nuclear power industry has followed an unusual path in arriving at its current level of notability. Prior to 1975, probabilistic evaluations were limited to a few specific applications such as the evaluation of man-made (i.e., airplane crashes) and natural (i.e., earthquakes) hazards. In 1975, the industry was introduced to comprehensive PSA by the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). However, the study languished in relative obscurity until the accident at Three Mile Island 2 (TMI-2) in 1979. This event significantly altered the industry's view of severe accidents in the U.S. and worldwide. Investigative committees of TMI-2 recommended that PSA techniques be more widely used to augment the traditional deterministic methods of determining nuclear plant safety. This initiated an unprecedented effort by nuclear regulators and licensees worldwide to significantly improve the state of knowledge of severe accidents at nuclear power plants. In the U.S., use of PSA began to increase as evidenced by its application in the anticipated transient without scram and station blackout rulemakings, generic issue prioritization and resolution, risk-based inspection guidelines, backfit policy, and technical specification improvements. However, broad application of probabilistic techniques to the industry as a whole was initiated in 1986 with the publication of Safety Goals for the Operation of Nuclear Power Plant; Policy Statement. This put PSA front and center in the U.S. regulatory arena by open-quotes establish[ing] goals that broadly define an acceptable level of radiological risk that might be imposed on the public as a result of nuclear power plant operation.close quotes Both qualitative safety goals and quantitative objectives were articulated in this policy statement

  19. Value of free/total prostate-specific antigen (f/t PSA) ratios for prostate cancer detection in patients with total serum prostate-specific antigen between 4 and 10 ng/mL: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Li, Zhen-Zhen; Huang, Ya-Liang; Song, Hong-Jun; Wang, You-Juan

    2018-03-01

    Prostate carcinoma is a common disease that occurs in men over 50 years old. Many studies have explored the effect of free/total prostate-specific antigen (f/t PSA) ratio in monitoring prostate cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis to identify the accuracy of the f/t PSA ratio in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients who have PSA levels of 4 to 10 ng/mL. Databases searched included PubMed and OVID databases, from inception to March 2017, after a systematical review, sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of accuracy of the f/t PSA ratio in the diagnosis of prostate cancer were pooled. We used summary receiver operating characteristic curves to summarize overall test performance. Fifteen case-control studies from 14 articles were identified. The results indicated that the sensitivity of the f/t PSA ratio in the diagnosis of prostate cancer ranged from 0.5 to 0.94 (pooled sensitivity 0.70, 95% CI: 0.67-0.72), whereas its specificity ranged from 0.31 to 0.93 (pooled specificity 0.55, 95% CI: 0.57-0.60). The positive likelihood ratio was 1.85 (95% CI: 1.56-2.20), negative likelihood ratio was 0.42 (95% CI: 0.34-0.53), and diagnostic odds ratio was 4.81 (9.53% CI: 3.33-6.94). The f/t PSA ratio determination has a low sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of prostate cancer; it would not be useful for the diagnosis of prostate cancer by itself. The results of f/t PSA ratio measurements should refer to the clinical manifestations and the results of conventional tests such as biopsies.

  20. Serum selenium level in acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah I Ali Kelani

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion This study supports a significant association between deficient serum Se concentration with cut-off value of up to 84 ng/ml and MI. Strikingly, the most predictor of MI is serum Se, followed by total cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, low-density lipoprotein, and hypertension.

  1. PSA Isoforms' Velocities for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Isabel; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate; Horninger, Wolfgang; Bektic, Jasmin

    2015-06-01

    Free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA) and its molecular isoforms are suggested for enhancement of PSA testing in prostate cancer (PCa). In the present study we evaluated whether PSA isoforms' velocities might serve as a tool to improve early PCa diagnosis. Our study population included 381 men who had undergone at least one ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy whose pathologic examination yielded PCa or showed no evidence of prostatic malignancy. Serial PSA, fPSA, and proPSA measurements were performed on serum samples covering 7 years prior to biopsy using Beckmann Coulter Access immunoassays. Afterwards, velocities of PSA (PSAV), fPSA% (fPSA%V), proPSA% (proPSA%V) and the ratio proPSA/PSA/V were calculated and their ability to discriminate cancer from benign disease was evaluated. Among 381 men included in the study, 202 (53%) were diagnosed with PCa and underwent radical prostatectomy at our Department. PSAV, fPSA%V, proPSA%V as well as proPSA/PSA/V were able to differentiate significantly between PCa and non-cancerous prostate. The highest discriminatory power between cancer and benign disease has been observed two and one year prior to diagnosis with all measured parameters. Among all measured parameters, fPSA%V showed the best cancer specificity of 45.3% with 90% of sensitivity. In summary, our results highlight the value of PSA isoforms' velocity for early detection of PCa. Especially fPSA%V should be used in the clinical setting to increase cancer detection specificity. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Correlation of Serum Magnesium with Serum Parathormone Levels in Patients on Regular Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradaran Azar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT is a common, important, and treatable complication of end-stage renal disease. This study was conducted to investigate the role of serum magnesium (Mg in regulating the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH by the parathyroid gland in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD. Pre-dialysis serum levels of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, Mg, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, intact serum PTH (iPTH, serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25-OH Vit D and plasma bicarbonate (HCO3 were measured. The Urea Reduction Rate as well as duration and dosage of HD treatment were noted. Our study did not show any significant correlation between serum Mg levels and duration of HD treatment, levels of serum ALP, and plasma HCO3, Ca and P. An inverse correlation, albeit insignificant, was found between the serum Mg levels and iPTH (r=-0.30 p=0.079; also, a significant positive correlation was found between serum Mg levels and serum 25-OH Vit D levels (r= 0.40 p= 0.009. Our findings are in agreement with previous data, which suggest that factors other than serum Mg are more important in the regulation of PTH secretion in HD patients. A positive and strong association between serum Mg with 25-OH Vit D needs to be studied in greater detail.

  3. Massive naproxen overdose with serial serum levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abri, Suad A; Anderson, Ilene B; Pedram, Fatehi; Colby, Jennifer M; Olson, Kent R

    2015-03-01

    Massive naproxen overdose is not commonly reported. Severe metabolic acidosis and seizure have been described, but the use of renal replacement therapy has not been studied in the context of overdose. A 28-year-old man ingested 70 g of naproxen along with an unknown amount of alcohol in a suicidal attempt. On examination in the emergency department 90 min later, he was drowsy but had normal vital signs apart from sinus tachycardia. Serum naproxen level 90 min after ingestion was 1,580 mg/L (therapeutic range 25-75 mg/L). He developed metabolic acidosis requiring renal replacement therapy using sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED) and continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) and had recurrent seizure activity requiring intubation within 4 h from ingestion. He recovered after 48 h. Massive naproxen overdose can present with serious toxicity including seizures, altered mental status, and metabolic acidosis. Hemodialysis and renal replacement therapy may correct the acid base disturbance and provide support in cases of renal impairment in context of naproxen overdose, but further studies are needed to determine the extraction of naproxen.

  4. Methodology - PSA Regulatory handbook. Comparisons to a modern PSA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, Urban; Jung, Gunnar; Flodin, Yngve

    2003-03-01

    The regulatory handbook is applicable to all types of initiating events and all operating conditions. It should be noted that it does not make the traditional subdivision of PSA into internal and external events, level 1 and level 2 PSA, or power operation and shut-down. The reason for this is that this has given the regulatory handbook a more logical structure, and that this approach underlines the integrated character of PSA when it comes to creating the plan risk profile. The regulatory handbook has been structured following the requirements on a PSA for a nuclear power plant, as this is the most demanding application. However, it is applicable also to the analysis of other nuclear installations. The purpose of the comparative review presented in this report has been to, as part of a quality review establish the PSA Handbook, compare (parts of) the handbook and its criteria with a recent PSA analysis, and to identify major discrepancies. Considerable weight has also been allocated to a review of the plant model (Risk Spectrum event trees and fault trees). The results presented in the report are not based on a complete review of the PSA in question (or of the complete PSA Handbook). Following discussions between the SKI and SwedPower, and based on the experience of the SwedPower reviewers, the following issues were chosen to be the main parts of the project: 1) General comparison according to content and transparency - Levels of ambition in PSA Handbook, PSA method description and actual PSA report. 2) Detailed comparison of: Selected component failure data - Assumptions regarding room events - CCI frequencies, realism, identification, categorisation - Taking credit for non-safety classified systems - Event tree modelling - Presentation of results 3) Fault tree model, specifically - Time frame for crediting of battery capacity - Modelling of regulators - Modelling of dependencies for room events - general quality, like how the paper documentation and the logic

  5. Malakoplakia of the prostate diagnosed by elevated PSA level and transrectal prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacit Nuri Görgel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Malakoplakia is an inflammation which is thought to develop secondary to chronic Escherichia coli infections. Although often seen in the genitourinary tract, it can also be seen in colon, stomach, lung, liver, bone, uterus, and skin. In this case report, we present prostatic malakoplakia diagnosed by elevated prostate-specific antigen level and transrectal prostate biopsy.

  6. Serum angiogenin levels during menstrual cycle and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K; Yanagihara, T; Hata, T

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate alterations in maternal circulating angiogenin levels with advancing gestation and to assess the effect of labor stress on serum angiogenin levels in neonates delivered vaginally and by cesarean section. The maternal circulating angiogenin concentrations were compared in 37 normotensive nonpregnant women, in 60 normotensive pregnant women from 7 to 41 weeks of gestation, and in 12 normotensive postpartum women on the 3rd puerperal day. The serum angiogenin concentrations were also measured in 12 patients with threatened premature labor. Moreover, maternal and fetal serum angiogenin samples before and after delivery were used to determine differences in 12 neonates delivered vaginally and in 11 neonates delivered by elective cesarean section. The serum angiogenin level was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There was no significant difference in serum angiogenin levels during each phase of the menstrual cycle. The serum angiogenin levels were decreasing until 15 weeks of gestation and increasing thereafter. There was no significant difference in serum angiogenin levels between normal pregnant women and in patients with threatened premature labor. Labor stress did not affect either maternal or fetal serum angiogenin concentrations. The serum angiogenin levels of the neonates were significantly lower than those in maternal serum after both vaginal delivery and delivery by cesarean section. These results suggest that regulatory mechanisms of angiogenin may exist during pregnancy. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis methodology in a level-I PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez McLeod, J.E.; Rivera, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    This work presents a methodology for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, applicable to a probabilistic safety assessment level I. The work contents are: correct association of distributions to parameters, importance and qualification of expert opinions, generations of samples according to sample sizes, and study of the relationships among system variables and system response. A series of statistical-mathematical techniques are recommended along the development of the analysis methodology, as well different graphical visualization for the control of the study. (author) [es

  8. The impact of environmental temperature on lithium serum levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, Ingeborg; Fase, Sandra; Martens, Edwin P.; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Nolen, Willem A.; Egberts, Antoine C. G.

    Objectives: Three studies have reported a seasonal variation in lithium serum levels, with higher levels during summer. Our objective was to investigate the impact of actual environmental temperature on lithium serum levels. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using available records of

  9. Generation of monoclonal antibodies against prostate specific antigen (PSA) for the detection of PSA and its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo Castro, Boris Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    The prostate cancer in Cuba is a problem of health (2672 diagnosed cases and 2769 deaths in 2007). Various diagnostic methods have been implemented for the detection and management of this disease, emphasizing among them (PSA) prostate-specific antigen serological determination. At this work was generated and characterized a panel of 11 antibodies (AcMs) monoclonal IgG1 detected with high affinity described major epitopes of the PSA, both in solution and attached to the test plate. From the panel obtained AcMs was the standardization of an essay type ELISA for the detection of serum total PSA (associated and free) equimolar, based on antibody monoclonal CB-PSA.4 in the coating and the CB-PSA.9 coupled with biotin as liner, with a detection limit of 0.15 ng/mL. Similarly, standardized system for detection in serum free PSA, based on the AcMs CB-PSA.4 (coating) and CB-PSA.2 coupled with biotin (liner), with a detection limit of 0.5 ng/mL. Finally, with the purpose of using PSA as standard in trials type ELISA, developed a simple method of inmunopurificación based on the AcM, CB-PSA.2, which was obtained the PSA with a purity exceeding 90%. Immunoassay Centre on the basis of the AcMs panel and the results of this study, developed and recorded two diagnostic systems for the detection of PSA in human serum. (author)

  10. Level 1 and 2 PSA methodology taking into account new design, operating and safety factors. Rev. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirsa, P.; Patrik, M.

    2000-11-01

    The status of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is discussed (i) in relation to the expected nature of 'revolutionary' innovations and (ii) in the light of the EUR document, summarizing requirements put by European NPP operators on the future NPP design. The aims included: (1) analysis of limitations to the current PSA methodology; (2) specification of physical and operation processes the knowledge of which is necessary to ensure the safety criteria of advanced reactors; (3) summarisation of existing knowledge and description formats of the processes; (4) identification of theoretical and experimental work required to address the problem, preparation of data and computer codes, ensuring traceability to EU developmental programs. (P.A.)

  11. Serum alkaline phosphatase levels associate with elevated serum C-reactive protein in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Damera, Sriharsha; Raphael, Kalani L.; Baird, Bradley C.; Cheung, Alfred K.; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2010-01-01

    High serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations are associated with elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the general population. To examine whether this association is independent of serum vitamin D levels or modified in chronic kidney disease (CKD), we determined if such associations exist using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III of 14,420 adult participants in which 5.7% had CKD (defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min per 1.73...

  12. Serum and urinary selenium levels in thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosalis, M G; Solem, L D; Ahrenholz, D H; McCall, J T; McClain, C J

    1986-04-01

    Information concerning selenium status in thermal injury patients is limited. Therefore, both serum selenium concentration and 24 h urinary excretion of selenium were evaluated throughout the hospital course for 23 patients with partial and full skin thickness thermal burns. Serum selenium levels were depressed throughout the hospital course in the majority of patients, and only two patients' serum selenium levels had reached the normal range by discharge. Urinary selenium losses were essentially within normal range throughout the same period and thus were not responsible for the observed depression in serum selenium levels. A possible antagonistic relationship between selenium and silver is discussed.

  13. Serum urea and creatinine levels in Nigerian human malaria patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum urea and creatinine levels were determined in malaria patients infected with P. falciparum. Serum urea levels decreased significantly (P<0.05) in both mild (4.10 ±1.10 mmol/L) and moderate (4.40 ±1.40 mmol/L) parasitaemia when compared to control subjects (5.50 ±1.40 mmol/L). On the other hand, serum ...

  14. The effect of serum magnesium levels and serum endothelin-1 levels on bone mineral density in protein energy malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, C F; Karakelleoglu, C; Orbak, Z; Yildiz, L

    2012-06-01

    An inadequate and imbalanced intake of protein and energy results in protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). It is known that bone mineral density and serum magnesium levels are low in malnourished children. However, the roles of serum magnesium and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in the pathophysiology of bone mineralization are obscure. Thus, the relationships between serum magnesium and ET-1 levels and the changes in bone mineral density were investigated in this study. There was a total of 32 subjects, 25 of them had PEM and seven were controls. While mean serum ET-1 levels of the children with kwashiorkor and marasmus showed no statistically significant difference, mean serum ET-1 levels of both groups were significantly higher than that of the control group. Serum magnesium levels were lower than normal value in 9 (36%) of 25 malnourished children. Malnourished children included in this study were divided into two subgroups according to their serum magnesium levels. While mean serum ET-1 levels in the group with low magnesium levels were significantly higher than that of the group with normal magnesium levels (p malnutrition. Our study suggested that lower magnesium levels and higher ET-1 levels might be important factors in changes of bone mineral density in malnutrition. We recommend that the malnourished patients, especially with hypomagnesaemia, should be treated with magnesium early.

  15. The likelihood of having serum level of PSA of ≥4.0 ng/mL and ≥10.0 ng/mL in non-obese and obese Nigerian men with LUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Temi Adegun

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that, in a sample population of predominantly native African men, there was a non-significantly higher likelihood of overweight/obese patients having a higher serum PSA level than the non-obese. A community based study is needed to further confirm this finding.

  16. Serum leptin levels in female patients with niddm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Z.; Rahman, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare serum leptin levels of diabetic and non-diabetic female subjects and also assess the relationship of hyperglycemia with serum insulin, C-peptide and leptin levels. Results: Serum leptin levels of obese diabetic and non-diabetic subjects were significantly higher as compared with lean diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects (P<0.05). Leptin levels were positively correlated with serum insulin and C-peptide levels. Serum leptin increased with increase in body mass index and waist hip ratio was strongly related with insulin resistance in NIDDM. Conclusion: Leptin levels are increased in obesity and may play a role in development of insulin resistance and NIDDM. (author)

  17. Endogenous and exogenous testosterone and the risk of prostate cancer and increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Peter; Koechlin, Alice; Bota, Maria; d'Onofrio, Alberto; Zaridze, David G; Perrin, Paul; Fitzpatrick, John; Burnett, Arthur L; Boniol, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    To review and quantify the association between endogenous and exogenous testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate cancer. Literature searches were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Prospective cohort studies that reported data on the associations between endogenous testosterone and prostate cancer, and placebo-controlled randomized trials of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) that reported data on PSA and/or prostate cancer cases were retained. Meta-analyses were performed using random-effects models, with tests for publication bias and heterogeneity. Twenty estimates were included in a meta-analysis, which produced a summary relative risk (SRR) of prostate cancer for an increase of 5 nmol/L of testosterone of 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96, 1.02) without heterogeneity (I² = 0%). Based on 26 trials, the overall difference in PSA levels after onset of use of TRT was 0.10 ng/mL (-0.28, 0.48). Results were similar when conducting heterogeneity analyses by mode of administration, region, age at baseline, baseline testosterone, trial duration, type of patients and type of TRT. The SRR of prostate cancer as an adverse effect from 11 TRT trials was 0.87 (95% CI 0.30; 2.50). Results were consistent across studies. Prostate cancer appears to be unrelated to endogenous testosterone levels. TRT for symptomatic hypogonadism does not appear to increase PSA levels nor the risk of prostate cancer development. The current data are reassuring, although some caution is essential until multiple studies with longer follow-up are available. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Pretreatment Serum Cystatin C Levels Predict Renal Function, but Not Tumor Characteristics, in Patients with Prostate Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of Cystatin C (Cys-C in tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer (PCa, we retrospectively collected the clinical information from the records of 492 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, 48 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, and 173 PCa patients, whose disease was newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed. Pretreatment serum Cys-C levels were compared across the various groups and then analyzed to identify relationships, if any, with clinical and pathological characteristics of the PCa patient group. There were no significant differences in serum Cys-C levels among the three groups (P > 0.05. In PCa patients with normal SCr levels, patient age was correlated with serum Cys-C level (P ≤ 0.001 but did not correlate with alkaline phosphatase (AKP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, prostate specific antigen (PSA, Gleason score, or bone metastasis status (P > 0.05. Age and SCr contributed in part to the variations in serum Cys-C levels of PCa patients (r = 0.356, P ≤ 0.001; r = 0.520, P ≤ 0.001. In conclusion, serum Cys-C levels predict renal function in patients with prostate neoplasia, but were not a biomarker for the development of prostate neoplasia, and were not correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics of PCa.

  19. Comparison of serum YKL-40 bio marker levels in primary prostate cancer and recurrent cases after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziada, M.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    YKL-40, also called human cartilage glycoprotein-39 is homologs of family 18 glycosyl hydrolases secreted by human macrophages.Although high levels of YKL-40 is associated with several diseases. YKL-40, a growth factor for connective tissue cells, a migration factor for endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, is expressed by several types of solid human carcinoma, including prostate carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic role of serum YKL-40 levels in primary prostate cancer and detection of recurrences after radiotherapy. Methods: YKL-40 determined in serum samples from 50 patients with primary prostate cancer and 25 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia as control. Serum YKL-40 levels were measured by ELISA. PSA levels were also measured by using IMMULIT system. Results: Serum YKL-40 levels were significantly higher (P= 0.000) in patients with prostate cancer compared with control group whereas no significant elevation in BPH. Conclusion: High serum YKL-40 levels in patients with primary prostate cancer indicate that YKL-40 may have a function in the Progression of malignant diseases, whereas no significant elevation was observed in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Further studies are needed to elucidate the biologic role of YKL-40 in cancer aggressiveness and in progression of malignant diseases.

  20. Serum testosterone levels in Nigerian male marijuana and cigarette ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of marijuana and cigarette use on serum levels of testosterone, the principal androgen in man has been a matter of serious controversy; and there is a paucity of reports on the subject in Nigeria in West Africa south of Sahara. We therefore investigated the effects of the use of these substances on serum levels of ...

  1. Serum YKL-40 and interleukin 6 levels in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biggar, R.J.; Johansen, J.S.; Smedby, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Serum levels of the inflammatory markers YKL-40 and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are increased in many conditions, including cancers. We examined serum YKL-40 and IL-6 levels in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, a tumor with strong immunologic reaction to relatively few tumor cells, especially...

  2. Changes in Serum Proteins and Creatinine levels in HIV Infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the level of total serum proteins and globulins in HIV infected Nigerians. 64 patients with HIV infection and 10 apparently healthy subjects were recruited from 3 hospitals in Lagos Metropolis. They were examined for the presence of TB and malaria. Serum total protein, albumin and creatinine levels ...

  3. Serum Magnesium Levels in Non-Pregnant, Pregnant And Pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the serum magnesium levels in normal pregnancy and pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia since magnesium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction. We measured serum magnesium levels in patients with pre-eclampsia (n=36), patients with normal ...

  4. Periodontal status and serum creatine kinase levels among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: It is hypothesized that soccer players with periodontal disease exhibit raised serum creatine kinase (CK) levels as compared to those without periodontal disease. We assessed the clinical gingival status and serum CK levels among young soccer players. Materials and Methods: Demographic data were ...

  5. Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels and Selected Trace Metals In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There have been several reports on the role of macronutrients in the pathogenesis of high blood pressure (HBP), however, reports on the relationship between micronutrients and trace metals are few, especially in blacks. This study aim to determine the serum levels of trace metals and correlate same with serum levels of ...

  6. Putting PSA to work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, R.; Gomez-Cobo, A.

    1998-01-01

    The IAEA has, during the last three years, been working intensively on PSA applications. The draft TECDOC prepared during these activities, ''PSA Applications'' is summarized in this paper. Actual events at nuclear facilities provide an important basis to compare PSAs with reality. PSA based operational event analysis therefore can be used to evaluate the importance of operational events from a risk perspective but also can contribute to validating and enhancing PSAs and to continuously check whether or not the PSA models are adequate, appropriate and complete. The work of the IAEA in this area is therefore summarized as well. In a companion paper, titled ''Towards a credible PSA fit for applications'', two specific aspects regarding the quality of the PSA to be used are discussed in detail, namely the Living PSA concept, which ensures that the PSA reflects actual design and operational features and Quality Assurance for PSA. (author)

  7. Differential percentage of serum prostate-specific antigen subforms suggests a new way to improve prostate cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrats, Ariadna; Comet, Josep; Tabarés, Glòria; Ramírez, Manel; Aleixandre, R Núria; de Llorens, Rafael; Peracaula, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the tumor marker currently used for prostate cancer (PCa) screening and diagnosis. However, its use is controversial as serum PSA levels are also increased in other non-malignant prostatic diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). PSA sialic acid content is altered in tumor situation and modifies PSA's isoelectric point (pI). Our goal has been to evaluate serum PSA subforms from PCa and BPH patients by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and to investigate whether they could be used to improve PCa diagnosis. PSA from 20 PCa and 20 BPH patients' sera was subjected to a four-step method to obtain serum PSA 2-DE subforms from free PSA (fPSA) plus PSA released from the complex with alpha-1-antichymotrypsin. Relative percentages of PSA spots were quantified and subjected to statistical analysis. Five PSA subforms (F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5) of different pI were obtained. Relative percentages of F3 (%F3) and F4 (%F4) were different between PCa and BPH groups. %F3 decreased in cancers and this decrease correlated with the cancer stage, while F4 behaved oppositely. These observations were also found when only focusing on the patients within the low total PSA (tPSA) range 2-20 ng/ml. %F3 showed a tendency of higher sensitivity and specificity than the currently used tPSA and %fPSA tests. Therefore, %F3 measurement should be investigated in a larger cohort of patients to study whether it could be introduced to improve PCa diagnosis. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Osteoprotegerin Serum Levels in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolarz G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoprotegerin (OPG wird in der entzündeten Synovialis bei chronischer Polyarthritis von Makrophagen, dendritischen Zellen und B-Zellen produziert. OPG hemmt die Differenzierung von Osteoklasten und ihre Aktivierung durch die Bindung an RANKL (receptor activator of NFkappaBbeta ligand. OPG könnte daher eine wichtige Rolle in der Verhinderung des Auftretens von Erosionen bei chronischer Polyarthritis spielen. In der vorliegenden Studie wurde untersucht, ob die Serumspiegel von Osteoprotegerin mit Entzündungsparametern oder der Gelenksdestruktion bei chronischer Polyarthritiskorrelieren. Patienten und Methoden: In 85 Sera von 68 Patienten mit chronischer Polyarthritis wurden die Serumspiegel von OPG untersucht und mit klinischen Parametern, Laborbefunden und dem Larsen-Score verglichen. Zur OPG-Bestimmung wurde ein Sandwich-ELISA (enzyme-linked-im-munosorbent-assay mit zwei spezifischen OPG-Antikörpern verwendet. Mit dem bindenden Antikörper wurde eine Mikrotiterplatte beladen, der zweite Biotin-konjugierte Antikörper wurde durch Streptavidin-Peroxidase und TMB gemessen. Der Immunoassay mißt sowohl freies als auch an RANKL gebundenes OPG. Zur statistischen Auswertung wurde ein SAS-Programm verwendet, als Tests wurden der Mann-Whitney-Test, die Spearman-Korrelation und die Varianzanalyse (ANOVA angewandt. Ergebnisse: Verglichen mit einer gesunden Kontrollgruppe (Alter 56-76 Jahre lagen die Mittelwerte von Serum-OPG bei chronischer Polyarthritis höher. Wenn man den Mittelwert der Gesunden für die Einteilung in höhere oder niedrigere Serum-OPG-Werte bei Patienten mit chronischer Polyarthritis verwendet, zeigt sich im Mann-Whitney-Test eine signifikante Korrelation nicht nur mit BSG und Rheumafaktor, sondern auch mit dem Larsen-Score. Die OPG-Spiegel korrelierten mit dem Rheumafaktor, der BSG und dem Serum-CRP (C-reaktives Protein signifikant positiv, der Larsen-Score zeigte nur einen statistischen Trend. Diskussion: OPG blockiert die

  9. Evaluation of the serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Rostami Mogaddam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Vitiligo is an acquired, idiopathic disorder characterized by circumscribed depigmented macules and patches, which affects approximately 0.1–2% of the general population worldwide. Zinc is an essential trace element that is necessary for growth and development at all stages of life. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and vitiligo. Aim : To measure the serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo compared to healthy subjects. Material and methods : One hundred patients with vitiligo and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. The two groups were matched for age and sex. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc levels. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results : The mean serum level of zinc in vitiligo patients and controls was 80.11 ±17.10 µg/dl and 96.10 ±16.16 µg/dl, respectively. The serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo was significantly lower than in healthy controls (p = 0.0001. Conclusions : The results of our study revealed a significant association between vitiligo and serum zinc levels. A relative decrease in the serum zinc level in vitiligo patients can highlight the role of zinc in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, and large-scale studies need to be conducted to confirm these findings and assess the effect of oral zinc supplements in patients with low zinc levels.

  10. Serum Prohepcidin Levels Are Lower in Patients with Atrophic Gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Keun; Jang, Eun-Chul; Yeom, Ju-Ok; Kim, Sun-Young; Cho, Hyunjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Cho, Young-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Hepcidin, an iron regulatory hormone, is increased in response to inflammation and some infections. We investigated the relationships among serum prohepcidin, iron status, Helicobacter pylori infection status, and the presence of gastric mucosal atrophy. Methods. Seventy subjects undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy underwent multiple gastric biopsies, and the possibility of H. pylori infection and the degree of endoscopic and histologic gastritis were investigated. In all subjects, serum prohepcidin and iron parameters were evaluated. Results. No correlations were observed between serum prohepcidin levels and the other markers of anemia, such as hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity. Serum prohepcidin levels were not significantly different between the H. pylori-positive group and the H. pylori-negative group. Serum prohepcidin levels in atrophic gastritis patients were significantly lower than those in subjects without atrophic gastritis irrespective of H. pylori infection. Conclusion. Serum prohepcidin levels were not altered by H. pylori infection. Serum prohepcidin levels decrease in patients with atrophic gastritis, irrespective of H. pylori infection. It suggests that hepcidin may decrease due to gastric atrophy, a condition that causes a loss of hepcidin-producing parietal cells. Further investigations with a larger number of patients are necessary to substantiate this point. PMID:23533385

  11. Serum Prohepcidin Levels Are Lower in Patients with Atrophic Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Keun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hepcidin, an iron regulatory hormone, is increased in response to inflammation and some infections. We investigated the relationships among serum prohepcidin, iron status, Helicobacter pylori infection status, and the presence of gastric mucosal atrophy. Methods. Seventy subjects undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy underwent multiple gastric biopsies, and the possibility of H. pylori infection and the degree of endoscopic and histologic gastritis were investigated. In all subjects, serum prohepcidin and iron parameters were evaluated. Results. No correlations were observed between serum prohepcidin levels and the other markers of anemia, such as hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity. Serum prohepcidin levels were not significantly different between the H. pylori-positive group and the H. pylori-negative group. Serum prohepcidin levels in atrophic gastritis patients were significantly lower than those in subjects without atrophic gastritis irrespective of H. pylori infection. Conclusion. Serum prohepcidin levels were not altered by H. pylori infection. Serum prohepcidin levels decrease in patients with atrophic gastritis, irrespective of H. pylori infection. It suggests that hepcidin may decrease due to gastric atrophy, a condition that causes a loss of hepcidin-producing parietal cells. Further investigations with a larger number of patients are necessary to substantiate this point.

  12. Serum calcium levels are not associated with coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Y

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yuelong Jin,* Lianping He,* Quanhai Wang, Yan Chen, Xiaohua Ren, Hui Tang, Xiuli Song, Lingling Ding, Qin Qi, Zhiwei Huang, Jiegen Yu, Yingshui Yao Department of Preventive Medicine, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Numerous studies have reported that low calcium intake is related to a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between serum calcium and coronary heart disease is unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare serum calcium levels in patients with coronary heart disease and those in healthy individuals. Methods: This retrospective, case-control study conducted in the People's Republic of China comprised 380 cases and 379 controls. Serum calcium levels, blood lipids, and anthropometric measurements were measured in both groups. The Student's unpaired t-test or Chi-square test was used to compare differences between cases and controls. Pearson's partial correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between serum calcium, blood lipids, and blood pressure in both groups. Results: Our results indicate that the average level of serum calcium in cases was higher than in controls. Serum calcium levels showed no correlation with any parameter except for triglycerides in either group. Conclusion: Overall, these data suggest that serum calcium has no influence on coronary heart disease or triglyceride levels in the general population. Keywords: serum calcium, hypertension, blood lipids

  13. Development and perspectives of PSA in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    During the last decade the GDA/PSA has carried out the pre-operational PSA task for the Juragua Nuclear Power Plant. Since 1991 the work has been accomplished in the frames of the IAEA Technical Assistance Project CUB/9/008. The paper describes the stages of this study, (concluding with the Final Report of the pre-operational Level 1 PSA Rev. O), its assumptions, limitations and the main results and concluding remarks

  14. Personalized prostate cancer screening: improving PSA tests with genomic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, John S

    2010-12-15

    The use of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to screen for prostate cancer is controversial because of its modest predictive value and the potential overdiagnosis and over-treatment of the disease. A research article in this issue of Science Translational Medicine describes single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near six genes that are independently associated with serum PSA concentrations and that help to explain interindividual PSA variation. Three of these SNPs are also associated with prostate biopsy outcomes. These findings are an important step toward incorporating genetic markers into PSA screening, with the ultimate goal of devising personalized PSA tests for use in the clinic.

  15. The role of serum prostate specific antigen assayed by TRFIA in diagnosis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yongmei; Zhang Jinshan; Li Min

    2002-01-01

    The authors evaluate the diagnostic value of serum free prostate specific antigen (F-PSA), total-PSA(T-PSA) and free/total (F/T) PSA ratio in differentiation between benign and malignant prostatic diseases. Serum samples were measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA), there were 86 patients whose T-PSA levels were limited within 2-20 ng/mL, from the results of prostate biopsies after operation, the patients were classified into two groups: the group with prostate hyperplasia (68 patients) and the group with prostate cancer (18 patients). The serum F-PSA and T-PSA of the two groups were analysed and compared, and the F/T PSA ratio was calculated. Results were: 1) the means of F-PSA and T-PSA were not significantly different between patients with prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and with prostate cancer (P>0.05), but the mean of F/T PSA ratio for prostate cancer was significantly lower than that for BPH (P<0.001); 2) sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value for prostate cancer detection at a cutoff value of 0.18 for the F/T PSA ratio were 85%, 72.5% and 43.6%, respectively. Conclusion is the F/T PSA ratio may be used in differentiation prostate cancer from BPH, and when T-PSA level is within the range of 2-20 ng/mL, selecting 0.18 as the cutoff value has great clinical value

  16. Serum Uric Acid Levels among Nigerians with Essential Hypertension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    renal disease. This study determined the serum uric acid levels of Nigerians with essential hypertension and also evaluated .... Table 1: Blood Pressure, Serum Uric Acid, Lipid profile in patients with essential hypertension and control subjects. (Mean+ SEM) .... where rats developed high blood pressure in about 3 to 5 weeks ...

  17. Serum Vitamin E, Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels of Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine if there is a relationship between serum lipid and vitamin E levels and unexplained infertility and recurrent miscarriages. Eighty-two (82) healthy Nigerian Women volunteers were recruited for this study. The mean serum cholesterol and triglyceride were slightly higher in the women with ...

  18. Relationship between stress levels and the status of serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alternative methods for stress monitoring and evaluation prove very useful in proper dealing with it. Thus, establishing a link between stress exposure and serum antioxidant vitamins' levels would certainly provide a clue towards stress management. Aim : The study aimed at evaluating the status of serum ...

  19. A Study of Serum Testosterone and Luteinizing Hormone Levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low libido is considered to be the most prominent symptomatic reflection of low serum testosterone and it is unclear how frequent an individual who reported to the clinic with low libido indicates low serum testosterone levels. Objective: This study seeks to know how many of the self reported patients with low ...

  20. A cohort effect on serum testosterone levels in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perheentupa, A; Mäkinen, J; Laatikainen, T

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a population-level decline in serum testosterone exists in Finnish men. In comparison with other European populations, Finnish men have compared well in the studies of reproductive health (i.e. semen quality, incidence of cryptorchidism and testicular cancer); thus, we...... expected no significant cohort-dependent decrease in serum testosterone....

  1. Serum ferritin levels in children with malaria anaemia in Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    chronic disease, like malaria2. Serum ferritin concentrations of less than 12 µg/L are highly predictive of iron deficiency, defined by the absence of iron stores3. Alteration in serum ferritin levels are important not only in the classical diseases of iron acquisition, transport, and haemochromatosis, but also in diseases ...

  2. Serum levels of fetal antigen 1 in extreme nutritional States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Alin; Niemeier, Andreas; Støving, Rene K

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Recent data suggest that fetal antigen (FA1) is linked to disorders of body weight. Thus, we measured FA1 serum levels in two extreme nutritional states of morbid obesity (MO) and anorexia nervosa (AN) and monitored its response to weight changes. Design. FA1 and insulin serum...

  3. Serum Cystatin C Levels in Nigerian Children: Reference Intervals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Fifty-nine children aged two years to 16 years with no evidence of overt kidney disease were recruited from the Paediatric Clinics of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Serum cystatin C levels were measured using ELISA method while serum creatinine was measured by a rateblanked and compensated Jaffe ...

  4. Serum YKL-40 and interleukin 6 levels in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biggar, R.J.; Johansen, J.S.; Smedby, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Serum levels of the inflammatory markers YKL-40 and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are increased in many conditions, including cancers. We examined serum YKL-40 and IL-6 levels in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, a tumor with strong immunologic reaction to relatively few tumor cells, especially...... in nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed Danish and Swedish patients with incident Hodgkin lymphoma (N=470) and population controls from Denmark (n=245 for YKL-40; n=348 for IL-6). Serum YKL-40 and IL-6 levels were determined by ELISA, and log-transformed data were analyzed...... by linear regression, adjusting for age and sex. RESULTS: Serum levels of YKL-40 and IL-6 increased in Hodgkin lymphoma patients compared with controls (YKL-40, 3.6-fold; IL-6, 8.3-fold; both, PHodgkin lymphoma patients (n=176), levels were correlated...

  5. Serum & cerebrospinal fluid ferritin levels in children with acute leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, A; Rusia, U; Anand, N K; Sood, S K

    1989-06-01

    Serum and CSF ferritin were estimated in 35 consecutive patients of acute leukaemia at the time of admission and on induction of remission. Serum ferritin levels were significantly raised in 94 per cent patients of acute leukaemia. The mean (+/- SD) serum ferritin (314.36 +/- 158.4 micrograms/1) was significantly higher when compared with control values (P less than 0.001). Remission induction resulted in significant fall in serum ferritin values to a mean of 149 (+/- 98.7) micrograms/l (P less than 0.05). Serum ferritin is thus of value in assessing the state of remission and is a sensitive indicator of the leukaemic cell mass and the state of activity of the disease. CSF ferritin levels in acute leukaemia were comparable to normal control values. CSF ferritin did not reflect CNS involvement in acute leukaemia and therefore its value as a tumour marker of CNS infiltration is doubtful.

  6. Serum vitamin A levels among malnourished children aged 6 - 59 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control hospital-based descriptive study carried out at the Institute of Child. Health (ICH) Banzazzau, Zaria. Systematic sampling method was adopted to select undernourished children aged 6-59 months for the study. Serum vitamin A level was.

  7. Correlation between serum zinc level and height of adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-12-01

    4. The recommended ... tics and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) used serum zinc level below 10.71mmol/l as a cut .... demanded increased intake in childhood, adolescence and pregnancy. This may explain the low ...

  8. Serum Biopterin and Neopterin Levels as Predictors of Empty Follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Hamuro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study measured serum and follicular fluid (FF levels of biopterin, neopterin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF in patients receiving mild ovarian stimulation for oocyte retrieval. Patients and Methods Infertile patients who underwent ovarian stimulation were divided into the following: Group 1, no oocyte retrieval ( n = 12, and Group 2, retrieval of more than four oocytes ( n = 13. Median total gonadotropin dose in both groups was 150 IU. Biopterin and neopterin levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. VEGF and M-CSF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Compared to Group 2, serum and FF levels of neopterin and VEGF and serum levels of M-CSF were significantly increased, and serum and FF levels of biopterin were significantly decreased in Group 1 ( P < 0.05 each. Conclusion Biopterin and neopterin levels showed similar differences in FF and serum of patients with empty follicles. Decreased biopterin and increased neopterin in serum could predict poor oocyte retrieval.

  9. The relationship between serum levels of vitamin D and migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Mottaghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is common worldwide. In recent years, vitamin D deficiency has been determined as a global health problem. A few studies have shown inverse relationship between serum vitamin D levels and headache. Thus, in this study, we assessed relationship between serum vitamin D levels with migraine. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional. Seventy-six migraine patients aged 10-61 years were included. The multiple linear regression was used to show association between serum 25-0H-D3 and migraine. Adjustments were performed for age, sex, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, number of chronic diseases, and education level . Results: The positive weak relationship was observed between serum vitamin D and headache diary result (P = 0.042, r = 0.19. But, no significant relationship was observed between serum vitamin D and migraine severity (P = 0.741. Conclusion: High levels of serum 25-OH-D3 was related to higher headache diary result. After adjustment for confounding variables, this significant association remained. No significant relationship was shown between serum vitamin D and migraine severity.

  10. Clinical evaluation of free to total prostate specific antigen ratio in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Wei; Deng Shouzhen; Lin Xiangtong

    1999-01-01

    Free and total prostate specific antigen (F-PSA and T-PSA) in serum were measured with immunoradiometric assay and the F/T-PSA ratio was calculated in 175 patients with T-PSA levels in the range of 4-20 μg/L. Among them 141 patients were benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 23 were untreated prostate cancer (Pca untreated) and 11 were treated prostate cancer (Pca treated). The results showed that difference in F-PSA and F/T-PSA ratio for BPH group and Pca untreated group were statistically significant (P<0.01). The effectiveness of F/T-PSA ratio for Pca (89.9%) was higher than F-PSA (54.8%). The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed an improved diagnostic efficacy of F/T-PSA ratio compared with T-PSA for discrimination between BPH and Pca. If mean F/T-PSA ratio value + 1 SE (13.2%) was used in BPH group as discrimination limits of Pca patients, the diagnostic accuracy of BPH group and Pca untreated group were 90.8% and 82.6% respectively. Thereby F/T-PSA ratio may be useful for the differentiation between BPH and prostate cancer

  11. Serum inhibin B levels during male childhood and puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2001-01-01

    Inhibin B is a testicular peptide hormone that regulates FSH secretion in a negative feedback loop. In males serum levels of inhibin B are detectable throughout life with prominent changes in the first year of life and during puberty. Serum inhibin B is normally detectable throughout childhood...... normal or near-normal levels are seen in cryptorchidism and disorders with preserved Sertoli cell function in spite of absence of germ cells or impaired androgen biosynthesis or action. During puberty a developmental change in the regulation of serum inhibin B occurs. In contrast to childhood inhibin B...

  12. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaojun Qi

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN.For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity-2000 (SLEDAI-2K scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry.Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages.Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest that it might play an

  13. Assessment of Serum Vitamin D Levels in Hypertensive Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.M.; Alkady, M.M.; Saif-Elnasr, M.

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure is very prevalent worldwide, as well as vitamin D deficiency. There are several observation data that support the concept that vitamin D is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Also some clinical data demonstrate positive effect of vitamin D therapy on hypertension. We studied serum levels of vitamin D and its association with blood pressure in 30 hypertensive patients and 20 age and socioeconomic status matched healthy controls. There was no statistically significant difference in serum vitamin D levels in the group of patients compared with controls. In patients group, patients with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m 2 showed statistically significant decrease in serum vitamin D levels as compared to those with BMI ≤ 30 kg/m 2 (P = 0.021). There was no significant association between serum vitamin D levels and age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the group of patients. A negative correlation between serum vitamin D levels and BMI was found in patients group (P = 0.045). In conclusion, no association between serum levels of vitamin D and blood pressure in hypertensive patients, but it is statistically associated with BMI. Further large scale studies are needed putting in consideration the effect of genetic factor

  14. Serum paraoxonase level and paraoxonase polymorphism in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaci, Dilek; Karakas Celik, Sevim; Can, Murat; Ermiş, Esra; Kuzu, Fatih; Kokturk, Furuzan; Hamamcioglu, Ayse Ceylan; Dursun, Ahmet; Bayraktaroglu, Taner

    2016-11-01

    Acromegalic patients have increased cardiometabolic risk factors due to an elevation of growth hormone (GH) levels. Human serum paraoxonase (PON), a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-related enzyme, is one of the major bioscavengers and decreases the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a key regulator in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated a potential relationship between serum PON levels or PON polymorphisms and acromegaly. A total of 48 acromegalic patients and 44 healthy controls were included in this study. Serum GH levels, insulin-like growth factor-1 levels and lipid profiles were measured. Serum PON levels, as well as PON 1 L55M and Q192R gene polymorphisms, were examined. No significant differences were found in terms of age, gender, presence of diabetes, serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C, or triglyceride levels between the case and control groups (P > 0.05). A statistically significant difference was found in serum PON levels between the cases and controls (P = 0.007). The median serum PON level was 101 ± 63.36 U/l in the case group and 63 ± 60.50 U/l in the control group. There was a significant correlation between serum PON levels and IGF-1 levels (P = 0.004, r = 0.319); however, no significant differences were found in PON1 L55M and PON Q192R polymorphisms between the patients and controls (P = 0.607 and P = 0.308, respectively). In addition, no significant differences were found in serum PON levels in acromegalic patients who were and were not in remission (P = 0.385), nor between those with PON1 L55M and Q192R polymorphisms (P = 0.161 and P = 0.336, respectively). Elevated serum PON levels were detected in acromegalic patients, independently of their remission status. This suggests protective effects for cardiometabolic risk parameters.

  15. Proteolytic activity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA towards protein substrates and effect of peptides stimulating PSA activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Mattsson

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA or kallikrein-related peptidase-3, KLK3 exerts chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity. The main biological function of PSA is the liquefaction of the clot formed after ejaculation by cleavage of semenogelins I and II in seminal fluid. PSA also cleaves several other substrates, which may explain its putative functions in prostate cancer and its antiangiogenic activity. We compared the proteolytic efficiency of PSA towards several protein and peptide substrates and studied the effect of peptides stimulating the activity of PSA with these substrates. An endothelial cell tube formation model was used to analyze the effect of PSA-degraded protein fragments on angiogenesis. We showed that PSA degrades semenogelins I and II much more efficiently than other previously identified protein substrates, e.g., fibronectin, galectin-3 and IGFBP-3. We identified nidogen-1 as a new substrate for PSA. Peptides B2 and C4 that stimulate the activity of PSA towards small peptide substrates also enhanced the proteolytic activity of PSA towards protein substrates. Nidogen-1, galectin-3 or their fragments produced by PSA did not have any effect on endothelial cell tube formation. Although PSA cleaves several other protein substrates, in addition to semenogelins, the physiological importance of this activity remains speculative. The PSA levels in prostate are very high, but several other highly active proteases, such as hK2 and trypsin, are also expressed in the prostate and may cleave protein substrates that are weakly cleaved by PSA.

  16. Proteolytic activity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) towards protein substrates and effect of peptides stimulating PSA activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Johanna M; Ravela, Suvi; Hekim, Can; Jonsson, Magnus; Malm, Johan; Närvänen, Ale; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Koistinen, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA or kallikrein-related peptidase-3, KLK3) exerts chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity. The main biological function of PSA is the liquefaction of the clot formed after ejaculation by cleavage of semenogelins I and II in seminal fluid. PSA also cleaves several other substrates, which may explain its putative functions in prostate cancer and its antiangiogenic activity. We compared the proteolytic efficiency of PSA towards several protein and peptide substrates and studied the effect of peptides stimulating the activity of PSA with these substrates. An endothelial cell tube formation model was used to analyze the effect of PSA-degraded protein fragments on angiogenesis. We showed that PSA degrades semenogelins I and II much more efficiently than other previously identified protein substrates, e.g., fibronectin, galectin-3 and IGFBP-3. We identified nidogen-1 as a new substrate for PSA. Peptides B2 and C4 that stimulate the activity of PSA towards small peptide substrates also enhanced the proteolytic activity of PSA towards protein substrates. Nidogen-1, galectin-3 or their fragments produced by PSA did not have any effect on endothelial cell tube formation. Although PSA cleaves several other protein substrates, in addition to semenogelins, the physiological importance of this activity remains speculative. The PSA levels in prostate are very high, but several other highly active proteases, such as hK2 and trypsin, are also expressed in the prostate and may cleave protein substrates that are weakly cleaved by PSA.

  17. Proteolytic Activity of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) towards Protein Substrates and Effect of Peptides Stimulating PSA Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Johanna M.; Ravela, Suvi; Hekim, Can; Jonsson, Magnus; Malm, Johan; Närvänen, Ale; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Koistinen, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA or kallikrein-related peptidase-3, KLK3) exerts chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity. The main biological function of PSA is the liquefaction of the clot formed after ejaculation by cleavage of semenogelins I and II in seminal fluid. PSA also cleaves several other substrates, which may explain its putative functions in prostate cancer and its antiangiogenic activity. We compared the proteolytic efficiency of PSA towards several protein and peptide substrates and studied the effect of peptides stimulating the activity of PSA with these substrates. An endothelial cell tube formation model was used to analyze the effect of PSA-degraded protein fragments on angiogenesis. We showed that PSA degrades semenogelins I and II much more efficiently than other previously identified protein substrates, e.g., fibronectin, galectin-3 and IGFBP-3. We identified nidogen-1 as a new substrate for PSA. Peptides B2 and C4 that stimulate the activity of PSA towards small peptide substrates also enhanced the proteolytic activity of PSA towards protein substrates. Nidogen-1, galectin-3 or their fragments produced by PSA did not have any effect on endothelial cell tube formation. Although PSA cleaves several other protein substrates, in addition to semenogelins, the physiological importance of this activity remains speculative. The PSA levels in prostate are very high, but several other highly active proteases, such as hK2 and trypsin, are also expressed in the prostate and may cleave protein substrates that are weakly cleaved by PSA. PMID:25237904

  18. Association between Chronic Periodontitis and Serum Lipid Levels

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    Ferial Taleghani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the high prevalence of hyperlipidaemia, which is one of the major risk factors of cardiovascular disease, and uncertain reports about the relation between periodontal disease and serum lipid profile, this study was conducted to assess this relation. The historical cohort study was conducted on 52 cases including 26 persons with chronic periodontitis as case group, and 26 healthy subjects as control group. Both groups had the same age and weight ranges, sex, and diet, without any periodontal treatment history in the past six months, underling systemic disease such as diabetes, anti-hyperlipidemic drugs or active tobacco smoking history. Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL, Triglyceride (TG and Total Cholesterol (CHOL were measured by direct enzymatic assay. TG level was 128.4±71.1 mg/dl in control group and 165.2± 83.7 in case group indicating a significantly higher level in case group (P<0.05. In control group, 30.8 percent and in case group, 61.5 percent had abnormal serum cholesterol levels, which presents a significantly higher level in case group (P<0.03. Other serum level indices did not show any significant difference. Although it seems that patients with chronic periodontal disease are more susceptible to hyperlipidemia, it is doubtful that the former causes an increase in serum lipid levels, so we suggest studying the effects of treating chronic periodontitis on serum lipid level.

  19. Serum IgE levels in patients with intracranial tumors

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    George A Alexiou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Several epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between allergy and brain cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare the serum IgE levels between patients with gliomas and nonglial tumors and their possible prognostic role. Methods: A total of 84 patients with intracranial tumors were included in this study. At clinical presentation, estimation of serum IgE levels was assessed by nephelometry. Detailed information regarding the history of allergies was collected by interview. Results: Of the 84 cases, 42 were gliomas, 23 were meningiomas, 16 were metastases and 3 were primary central nervous system lymphomas. Patients with high-grade glioma had lower IgE levels than patients with low-grade glioma. Patients with glioma and meningioma had statistical significant lower serum IgE levels than patients with metastases. Patients with glioblastoma with serum IgE levels greater than 24 U/mL had a better survival. Conclusion: Patients with glioma and meningioma had lower IgE levels than patients with metastatic lesions. A prognostic role of serum IgE levels was found in glioblastoma. Further studies in larger patient series are required in order to verify our preliminary observations.

  20. Circulating angiostatin serum level in patients with systemic sclerosis

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    Zofia Gerlicz-Kowalczuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Systemic sclerosis (SSc is achronic connective tissue disease characterized by microangiopathy with inadequate angiogenesis. Angiostatin (AS is a potent antiangiogenic factor specifically inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells. Aim : To evaluate the level of angiostatin in the serum of patients with SSc. Material and methods : Serum levels of AS were measured in 20 SSc patients and 12 healthy controls. Results : A statistically significant difference in the serum levels of AS in SSc patients was observed compared to the control group (636.51 vs. 869.20 ng/ml; p = 0.012. Significant correlations between limited and disseminated SSc (lSSc/dSSc were not found, however, a difference between lSSc and the control group was demonstrated (620.00 vs. 869.20 ng/ml; p = 0.011. The serum level of AS was not associated positively with organ changes caused by SSc. However, a statistically significant lower serum level of AS was observed in patients with SSc and no esophageal (p = 0.008 or pulmonary changes (p = 0.007 compared to the control group. Conclusions : Our results reveal significant differences in AS level in SSc patients compared to the healthy controls, and suggest that a low level of AS may occur as a result of impaired angiogenesis.

  1. Serum copper and zinc levels in melanoma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, G.L. (Battelle Columbus Labs., OH); Spitler, L.E.; McNeill, K.L.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1981-04-01

    Serum copper levels (SCL) and serum zinc levels (SZL) were evaluated in malignant melanoma patients at various clinical stages. Copper levels were generally found to be elevated, reflecting the degree and extent of tumor activity. Zinc levels and, hence, SCL:SZL ratios did not reflect tumor activity. SCL appeared to prognosticate disease progression in that all patients whose values never declined below 150 ..mu..g/100 ml died during the course of the study. However, not all patients who died from tumor metastases displayed persistent elevations of SCL. Patients receiving BCG immunotherapy appeared to have higher SCL than untreated patients.

  2. Serum hyaluronic acid in polymyositis: high serum levels tend to correlate with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M B; Silva, M G; Shinjo, S K

    2014-01-01

    Polymyositis (PM) is a rare systemic idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is closely linked to inflammatory cellular reactions and disease activity. Increased serum levels of HA have been reported in several inflammatory diseases, but currently, there are no studies analysing the HA in PM. Thus, clinical association of HA with PM in patients was determined in the present study. The present cross-sectional study was performed at one centre from 2012 to 2013 and included 35 consecutive adult patients with PM (Bohan and Peter criteria, 1975) and 38 adult healthy volunteers. The serum HA was assessed with anti-HA antibody, using the specific ELISA/EIA kits according to the manufacturer's protocol. The average age, distribution of females and ethnicity were comparable in patients with PM and the control group. Regarding disease status, patients with PM had a median patient visual analogue score (VAS) of 2 [0-6], physician VAS of 1 [0-3], MMT-8 of 74 [68-80] and HAQ of 0.48 [0.00-1.14]. The serum levels of HA were also significantly increased in patients with PM (390±412 ng/mL) compared to healthy subjects (129±119 ng/mL), p=0.001. In an additional analysis, the serum levels of HA did not correlate with PM demographic data (gender and ethnicity), current organ involvement or autoantibodies and were not been influenced by the use of prednisolone and/or immunosuppressives by the PM patients. However, there was a positive correlation between serum levels of HA and VAS (patient and physician), and a negative correlation between serum levels of HA and MMT-8. High serum levels of HA were observed in patients with PM and tended to correlate with PM disease activity. Additional studies are needed to assess this correlation, as well as to understand the mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of PM by HA.

  3. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a possible biomarker in non-prostatic cancer: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ibave, Diana Cristina; Burciaga-Flores, Carlos Horacio; Elizondo-Riojas, Miguel-Ángel

    2018-03-23

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a serine protease produced by epithelial prostatic cells and its main function is to liquefy seminal coagulum. Currently, PSA is a biomarker for the diagnosis and screening of prostate cancer and it was the first cancer biomarker approved by the FDA. The quantity and serum isoforms of male PSA, allows distinguishing between carcinoma and benign inflammatory disease of the prostate. Initially, it was thought that PSA was produced only by the prostate, and thus, a protein that was expressed exclusively in men. However, several authors report that PSA is a protein that is expressed by multiple non-prostatic tissues not only in men but also in women. Some authors also report that in women, the expression of this protein is highly related to breast and colon cancer and therefore can act as a possible biomarker for early detection, diagnosis and prognosis of these cancers in women. In this review, we will focus on the characteristics of the PSA at a molecular level, its current clinical implications, the expression of this protein in non-prostatic tissues, and its relationship with cancer, especially in women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum Osteocalcin Levels in Children With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Saleh; El Amrousy, Doaa; Elrifaey, Shaymaa; Gamal, Rasha; Hodeib, Hossam

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between osteocalcin and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children with obesity. 60 obese children with NAFLD were taken as a patient group and 60 obese children and normal liver with matching age, sex, and body mass index were taken as a control group. Anthropometric measurements, abdominal ultrasonography for diagnosis and grading of NAFLD, and laboratory investigations in the form of liver function tests, lipid profile, fasting serum glucose and insulin, and serum osteocalcin levels were done for all children. Patients with NAFLD were further divided into patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and patients without MS. Age of NAFLD children was (10.55 ± 2.71), 20 boys and 40 girls, whereas age of children in control group was (10.05 ± 3.51), 24 boys and 36 girls (P > 0.05). Patients with NAFLD showed significant increase in waist and hip circumference, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin resistance (IR), fasting serum glucose, and insulin, but lower serum osteocalcin level than control group. Serum osteocalcin level is inversely correlated with waist circumference, triglyceride, liver enzymes, fasting serum insulin, fasting serum glucose, IR, and grades of fatty liver. Increase in alanine aminotransferase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting insulin, and IR went with increase in degree of hepatic steatosis. Serum osteocalcin level <44.5 ng/mL is a good predictor for severity of hepatic steatosis with sensitivity and specificity of 80%. Osteocalcin plays an important role in glucose and lipid metabolism for protection against NAFLD occurrence and progression. Moreover, it could be a useful marker for progression of NAFLD in children with obesity.

  5. Reduced total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Schieffer

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD results in increased oxidative stress that damages the colonic microenvironment. Low levels of serum bilirubin, an endogenous antioxidant, have been associated with increased risk for Crohn's disease (CD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC. We identified a retrospective case-control population (n = 6,649 from a single tertiary care center, Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSU and a validation cohort (n = 1,996 from Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center (VCU. Cases were age- and sex-matched to controls (PSU: CD n = 254, UC n = 187; VCU: CD n = 233, UC n = 124. Total serum bilirubin levels were obtained from de-identified medical records and segregated into quartiles. Logistic regression analysis was performed on each quartile of total serum bilirubin compared to the last quartile (highest bilirubin levels to determine the association of total serum bilirubin with UC. Similar to CD patients, UC patients demonstrated reduced levels of total serum bilirubin compared to controls at PSU and VCU. The lowest quartile of total serum bilirubin was independently associated with UC for the PSU (OR: 1.98 [95% CI: 1.09-3.63] and VCU cohorts (OR: 6.07 [95% CI: 3.01-12.75]. Lower levels of the antioxidant bilirubin may reduce the capability of UC patients to remove reactive oxygen species leading to an increase in intestinal injury. Therapeutics that reduce oxidative stress may be beneficial for these patients.

  6. Serum anti - TPO levels in benign and malignant breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabitha; Suneetha; Mohanty, Shruti; Rao, Pragna

    2009-07-01

    Breast cancer is a hormone dependent neoplasm. Conflicting results regarding the clinical correlation between breast cancer and thyroid diseases have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the association of anti - TPO levels in patients having complaints of a lump in breast. Serum samples and Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) samples were collected from 31 female patients with a lump in breast between the age group of 20-75 years. 31 age matched normal healthy controls were also examined for the same parameters. Serum samples were analyzed for its anti - TPO levels. FNAC reports confirmed patients as having duct cell carcinoma. They had raised serum anti - TPO levels compared to controls. FNAC results of others (n=26) were reported as fibroadenoma whose anti - TPO levels were less than the controls.

  7. Serum selenium level and risk of lung cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Hein, H O; Gyntelberg, F

    2011-01-01

    Serum selenium has been implicated as a risk factor for lung cancer, but the issue remains unsettled. We tested in a cohort of 3,333 males aged 53 to 74 years the hypothesis that a low serum selenium would be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality.During 16 years, 167 subjects(5.......1%) died from lung cancer; 48 males (5.0%) among males with low serum selenium, 0.4-1.0 μmol·l(-1), n=965, 57 males (5.1%) among males with medium serum selenium, 1.1-1.2 μmol·l(-1), n=1,141, and 62 males (5.1%) among males with high serum selenium, 1.3-3.0 μmol·l(-1), n=1,227. After adjustment for age...... (chronic bronchitis and peak flow), referencing the lowest level of serum selenium HRs were 1.17(0.79-1.75), and 1.43(0.96-2.14), respectively. Among heavy smokers a high serum selenium was associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer mortality after taking into account all potential...

  8. Undetectable inhibin B serum levels in men after testicular irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P M; Andersson, A M; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    A group of men treated with testicular irradiation for carcinoma in situ in the remaining testis after orchidectomy for unilateral testicular germ cell cancer was used as a model to study of the effect of selective eradication of germ cells on the levels of serum inhibin B in the human male....... Thirteen men with verified spermatogenesis and detectable preirradiation levels of serum inhibin B (median, 55; range, 23-193 pg/mL) were investigated before and after testicular irradiation (14-20 Gy). All patients had undetectable levels of inhibin B 2-12 months (median, 5 months) after radiotherapy (...

  9. The effect of essential hypertension on serum uric acid level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawed, S.; Khawaja, T.F.; Sultan, M.A.; Ahmad, S.

    2005-01-01

    Patient with arterial hypertension and no definable cause are said to have essential, primary or idiopathic hypertension. A total of 100 patients suffering from essential hypertension and 100 control subjects with almost same mean age and sex distribution were enrolled in this study. Levels of serum uric acid, total cholesterol, TG, and HDL-c were determined by enzymatic colorimetric method. Serum LDL-c and VLDL-c was calculated by using Friedewald and Wilson's formulae. The study was aimed to find out the levels of serum uric acid and lipid profile in patients with essential hypertension and to compare them with levels of normal healthy individuals. Results show increased level of serum uric acid and lipid parameters except for HDL-c, which was significantly, decreased in patients with essential hypertension as compared to the control subjects. Variations in aforementioned parameters were also observed on comparing the obese and the non-obese patients. It can be concluded from the present study that the essential hypertension is associated with abnormalities in the levels of serum uric acid and lipid profile. (author)

  10. Serum homocysteine level in vegetarians in District Tharparker, Sindh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Aneel; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Rathore, M. Imran; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of present study was to investigate serum homocysteine levels in apparently healthy vegetarians and ominvores in Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI), Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi and blood samples were collected from Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan, in 2012. One hundred vegetarian and one hundred omnivores (age ranging from 20-40 years) were enrolled for this study. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by the chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Serum homocysteine (Hcy) level was considerably higher (p15µmol/L compared to omnivores 6%, (p15µmol/L serum Hcy level in vegetarian group and 6.9% male and 3.5% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in omnivores group, but the difference was not significant in any group. Conclusion: Vegetarians are more prone to develop hyperhomocysteinemia, so they are at high risk to develop cardiovascular disease. PMID:25878628

  11. Development of severe accident evaluation technology (level 2 PSA) for sodium-cooled fast reactors. (5) Identification of dominant factors in ex-vessel accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Shuji; Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of accident progression outside of a reactor vessel (ex-vessel) and subsequent transfer behavior of radioactive materials is of great importance from the viewpoint of Level 2 PSA. Hence typical ex-vessel accident sequences in the JAEA Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor are qualitatively discussed in this paper and dominant behaviors or factors in the sequences are investigated through parametric calculations using the CONTAIN/LMR code. Scenarios to be focused on are, 1) sodium vapor leakage from the reactor vessel and 2) sodium-concrete reaction, which are both to be considered in the accident category of LOHRS (loss of heat removal system) and might be followed by an early containment failure due to the thermal effect of sodium combustion and hydrogen burning respectively. The calculated results clarify that the sodium vapor leak rate and the scale of sodium-concrete reaction are the important factors to dominate the ex-vessel accident progression. In addition to the understandings of the dominant factors, the analyzed results also provide the specific information such as pressure loading value to the containment and the timing of pressurization, which is indispensable as technical base in Level 2 PSA for developing event trees and for quantifying the accident consequences. (author)

  12. Combination of Autoantibody Signature with PSA Level Enables a Highly Accurate Blood-Based Differentiation of Prostate Cancer Patients from Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, Petra; Keller, Andreas; Milchram, Lisa; Harz, Christian; Hart, Martin; Werth, Angelika; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Weinhäusel, Andreas; Keck, Bastian; Wullich, Bernd; Ludwig, Nicole; Meese, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    Although an increased level of the prostate-specific antigen can be an indication for prostate cancer, other reasons often lead to a high rate of false positive results. Therefore, an additional serological screening of autoantibodies in patients' sera could improve the detection of prostate cancer. We performed protein macroarray screening with sera from 49 prostate cancer patients, 70 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 28 healthy controls and compared the autoimmune response in those groups. We were able to distinguish prostate cancer patients from normal controls with an accuracy of 83.2%, patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia from normal controls with an accuracy of 86.0% and prostate cancer patients from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia with an accuracy of 70.3%. Combining seroreactivity pattern with a PSA level of higher than 4.0 ng/ml this classification could be improved to an accuracy of 84.1%. For selected proteins we were able to confirm the differential expression by using luminex on 84 samples. We provide a minimally invasive serological method to reduce false positive results in detection of prostate cancer and according to PSA screening to distinguish men with prostate cancer from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  13. Serum IL-6 level and associated factors: hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifi S, Mokhtari A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The annual amount of mortality in ESRD exceeds the expectation and represents the recent evidences of the inflammation as its etiology. The etiology of inflammation is not clearly known. Chronic inflammation is a dominant occurrence of ESRD which increases the risk of atherosclerosis, malnutrition and peripheral vascular disease. Inflammatory responses are orchestrated by cytokines. Some of the proinflammatory cytokines like IL-6 have a crucial role in this phenomenon. The IL-6 and its receptor activity is up regulated in ESRD patients and the increased level of IL-6 predicts cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in normal and CRF patients. This study devotes itself to determining the serum level of IL-6 and factors affecting it in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis in Imam Khomeini Hospital which can represent the Iranian Society. By identifying factors affecting the serum level of IL-6 and high-risk patients we can provide treatment possibilities, a decrease in mortality and an improvement in its prognosis. "n"nMethods: In this study 42 patients in Imam Dialysis Center were chosen and their serum IL-6 levels were measured at 2 times at three month interval and at the same time blood sample analysis were done for the following: Alb CPR, Ca, P, PTH, TIBC, Ferritin, TG, Chol, LDL, HDL, Uric Acid, Hb, WBC and urea."n"nResults: The mean serum level of IL-6 in hemodialysis patients was 6.35±4.47pg/ml (minimum: 0.55, maximum: 18.25 with the normal range of 1.3±3.2pg/ml."n"nConclusions: The IL-6 level was higher than normal range in the 52% of the patients. The serum IL-6 level had a significant correlations with CPR, Ferritin, TIBC, WBC and their serum IL-6 level was significantly higher in patients with hypertension, but no significant correlation was observed between other parameters and IL-6

  14. The use of PSA in the French regulatory practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennesiez, H.

    1994-01-01

    The presentation gives a description of fundamental documents (since 1977-1978) through which have been set up in France probabilistic objectives, and PSAs, including shutdown states, performed for 900-1300 MWe PWR-type nuclear power plants. PSA developments and use, including fire PSA, level 2 and PSA for the future French-German European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) are also discussed

  15. Patients with fibromyalgia have normal serum levels of hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Henning; Møller, H J; Schaadt, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the levels of hyaluronic acid (HA) in Danish patients with fibromyalgia (FM). METHODS: Serum levels of HA were determined in 53 patients with established FM and 55 control samples using a radiometric assay. Values were correlated to clinical disease severity variables...

  16. Metabolic Changes and Serum Ghrelin Level in Patients with Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydar Ucak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Serum ghrelin levels may be related to metabolic and clinical changes in patients with psoriasis. Objective. This study was performed to determine the possible effects of serum ghrelin in patients with psoriasis. Methods. The study population consisted of 25 patients with plaque psoriasis. The patients were questioned with regard to age, gender, age of onset, duration of disease, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI. In addition, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, cholesterol levels, insulin, and ghrelin levels were measured. Results. The mean serum ghrelin level was 45.41 ± 22.41 in the psoriasis group and 29.92 ± 14.65 in the healthy control group. Serum ghrelin level was significantly higher in the psoriasis group compared with the controls (P=0.01. The mean ghrelin level in patients with a lower PASI score was significantly higher than in those with a higher PASI score (P=0.02. Conclusion. The present study was performed to determine the effects of ghrelin in psoriasis patients. We found a negative correlation between severity of psoriasis and ghrelin level. Larger and especially experimental studies focusing on correlation of immune system-ghrelin levels and severity of psoriasis may be valuable to clarify the etiopathogenesis of the disease.

  17. Evaluation of Serum Leptin Level in Children With Acute Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Shahramian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Leptin is a multifunctional hormone plays an important role in regulating lipid, energy, homeostasis, angiogenesis, inflammation, hematopoiesis and cell cycle. This polypeptide is effective in growth and differentiation of leukemic cells through an Ob-R receptor expressed by them. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum leptin levels in patients with acute leukemia and compare it in lymphoid and myeloid groups. Patients and Methods This analytical case-control study, conducted on 60 children in age ranged from 6 months to 16 years in two case and control groups in Ali ibn Abi Talib hospital, Zahedan. They matched based on age and gender and examined after their parent’s satisfaction according to the parental consent forms. None of patients had heart disease, digestive, glandular and metabolic problems, iron deficiency anemia and chronic kidney disease. After collecting the samples, leptin levels of both groups were measured with ELISA kit. Then, the gathered data were analyzed in SPSS-20 software, using independent t-test in considering of 95% confidence interval. Results Leptin serum levels in patients with acute leukemia and controls showed significant difference (P < 0.05. Leptin serum levels in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloblastic leukemia showed significant difference (P < 0.05. Leptin serum level in relation to age and gender groups was not statistically significant. Conclusions The findings of this study showed that in patients with acute leukemia, leptin serum levels increase independently of age and gender. In addition, leptin serum levels in acute lymphoid leukemia were higher than acute myeloid leukemia in this study.

  18. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Ota

    Full Text Available Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES. The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models.With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L. The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model.Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  19. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Asami; Kondo, Naoki; Murayama, Nobuko; Tanabe, Naohito; Shobugawa, Yugo; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES). The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women) aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models. With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L). The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model. Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  20. A multivariate analysis of serum nutrient levels and lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Henriette A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting evidence that estimates of intakes of a range of dietary nutrients are related to both lung function level and rate of decline, but far less evidence on the relation between lung function and objective measures of serum levels of individual nutrients. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive examination of the independent associations of a wide range of serum markers of nutritional status with lung function, measured as the one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1. Methods Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a US population-based cross-sectional study, we investigated the relation between 21 serum markers of potentially relevant nutrients and FEV1, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Systematic approaches were used to guide the analysis. Results In a mutually adjusted model, higher serum levels of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin A, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, normalized calcium, chloride, and iron were independently associated with higher levels of FEV1. Higher concentrations of potassium and sodium were associated with lower FEV1. Conclusion Maintaining higher serum concentrations of dietary antioxidant vitamins and selenium is potentially beneficial to lung health. In addition other novel associations found in this study merit further investigation.

  1. Serum Homocysteine level in patients with Multiple Sclerosis

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    F Ashtari

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS, a chronic demyelinative disease-is unknown. The damage of blood–brain barrier (BBB vasculature is a characteristic of MS and Homocystein (Hcy can damage BBB, then increase in total Hcy may be important in MS pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to compare the serum level of total Hcy in MS patients with control group. Methods: In a case control study, serum level of total Hcy measured in 35 MS patient and compared with 30 healthy matched controls. All patients had definitive MS according to Poser criteria, without history of myocardial infarction, stroke, neuropathy, transient ischemic attack, homocystinuria or renal failure. Results: The serum concentration of total homocystein was significantly higher in multiple sclerosis patients than healthy controls. The mean total Hcy level was 17.92± 6.9 mmol/lit in cases and 14.6±2.92 mmol/lit in controls (P=0.013. Conclusion: Serum total Homocystein may have a role in MS pathogenesis and reduction of it should be studied moreover. Key words: Multiple Sclerosis, Homocystein, Serum level

  2. Serum level of tumor marker CA-125 in ovarian pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagni, B.; Feggi, L.M.; Prandini, N.; Pasini, S.; Mollica, G.

    1987-01-01

    The tumor marker CA-125 is an embrional glycoprotein detectable in tissues derived from celomatic epitelium. Serum Ca-125 was determined by RIA in 66 patients with various ovarian pathologies (16 malignant at stage III-IV and 50 benign). Six patients with ovarian carcinoma were monitored during the first week after surgery and chemiotherapy for a total of 150 days of treatment. It has been observed that CA-125 serum level is consistently above the normal range (>35 U/ml) in all malignant diseases. In benign pathology, levels above the normal were found to be represented almost exclusively by ovarian endometriosis. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that chemiotherapy alone is capable of lowering CA-125 serum levels. This tumor marker may be of great advantage in diagnosis and follow-up of ovarian malignancy

  3. Serum nicotine level among various tobacco users: A study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanandam Mala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of tobacco and its products has increased in the population over the past two decades, resulting in considerable systemic exposure to nicotine. Aims and Objectives: To estimate and compare the serum nicotine levels among smokers and gutkha chewers, along with the effect of nicotine replacement therapy on serum nicotine levels between them. Materials and Methods: Forty individuals were selected and divided into two groups with 20 individuals in each group. First group included individuals with a smoking habit, whereas the second group included individuals with the habit of chewing gutkha exclusively. Four blood samples were collected from all the participants in both the groups and subjected to serum nicotine estimation. Two blood samples were obtained (first sample after 30 min and the next sample after 60 min following smoking/chewing on the first day, and the other two were obtained after 24 h of tobacco abstinence (after 24 h all the participants were asked to chew nicotine chewing gums each containing 2 mg of nicotine. Statistical Analysis Used: The particulars of age, frequency of habit (smoking and chewing gutkha, and serum nicotine levels before and after replacement therapy (nicotine chewing gum were recorded and analyzed statistically by cross-tabulation for calculation of mean and frequency. Results: The serum concentration of nicotine in smokers at 30 min after smoking ranged 120-309 ng/ml and at 60 min ranged 29-77 ng/ml. In group 1, individuals′ serum nicotine concentration after replacement therapy with nicotine chewing gum ranged 29-77 ng/ml at 30 min and 1-6 ng/ml at 60 min. Serum concentration of nicotine at 30 min after chewing gutkha ranged 86-200 ng/ml and at 60 min ranged 61-102 ng/ml. The serum nicotine concentration in group 2 individuals at 30 min following chewing nicotine gum ranged 24-55 ng/ml and at 60 min ranged 0-3 ng/ml. Conclusion: Serum nicotine concentration in chewers was less at 30 min

  4. Evaluating serum prolactin and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in patients with pemphigus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Maryam; Mozafari, Nikoo; Hosseini, Mahboobeh Sadat; Gholamin, Sharareh; Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Namazi, Mohammad Reza; Younespour, Shima

    2016-06-01

    Altered levels of sex hormones have been observed in many autoimmune disorders, but there is no considerable data about pemphigus. The aim of this study is to compare serum total and free prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels between patients with pemphigus and healthy controls and to determine the correlation of these hormones with disease severity. This study included 52 newly diagnosed cases of pemphigus and 57 healthy controls. Serum prolactin (total and free) and DHEAS were measured in all subjects. Data analyses were performed using JMP, Version 7. Pemphigus patients had significantly higher levels of total and free serum prolactin (both P = 0.01) and lower levels of DHEAS (P = 0.005) than healthy controls. A significant association was found between severity of pemphigus and total prolactin levels (r = 0.40, P = 0.003). The patients with pemphigus had higher total and free prolactin and lower DHEAS concentrations, and patients with more severe disease had higher levels of serum total prolactin. These new data may suggest a potential role for sex hormones in the pathogenesis of pemphigus disease and provide new insights for the better management of this chronic and life-threatening disease. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. EVALUATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN LEVELS IN ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

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    Shilpa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. Serum albumin levels are inversely related with age, smoking, blood pressure and obesity. It is not clear whether low serum albumin level is a nonspecific , prognostic variable, a marker of subclinical disease, or whether it is a part of causal mechanism leading to death due to cardiovascular disease. Some studies have reported an inverse association between serum albumin and cardiovascular mortality but oth ers have not . 1 The association between serum albumin and cardiovascular mortality remains controversial. This study was done to evaluate the serum albumin levels in patients with ST segment elevation Myocardial infarction (STEMI over a period of three days from the date of admission and whether the changes had any relationship with the prognosis of the patient. AIM: to associate changes in serum albumin levels in AMI patients over a period of three days i.e., day zero - at the time of admission, day+1 - the following day(12 to 30hrs after collecting first sample, day +2(32 to 54 hrs after collecting first sample with the clinical prognosis of the patient. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Prospective follow up study in patents admitted with AMI in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: 30 pati ents admitted with STEMI were included in the study and serum albumin levels were estimated in them on admission and for two days thereafter. Statistical analysis used. The data was analysed using SPSS 15.0, STATA 8.0, MEDLAC 9.0.1, And SYSTAT 11 softwares. Repeated measures analysis of variance and student t test was used to find the significance in changes of serum albumin levels and prognosis of the patient on different days. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: This study found that there was fall in serum albumin le vels in patients with AMI in the course of three days compared with the day of admission and it was significantly associated with bad prognosis.

  6. Serum homocyst(e)ine levels in women with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhofer, K; Hefler, L; Zeisler, H; Tempfer, C; Bodner, K; Stöckler-Ipsiroglu, S; Mühl, A; Kaider, A; Schatten, C; Leodolter, S; Husslein, P; Kainz, C

    2000-03-24

    Endothelial dysfunction has been described as the final common pathophysiological pathway in the development of preeclampsia. Since it has been suggested that homocyst(e)ine damages endothelial cells, we measured serum homocyst(e)ine levels in women with preeclampsia and in healthy pregnant women in order to find a new prognostic parameter for women with preeclampsia. Forty-five women with preeclampsia and 45 healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, matched for age and parity, were entered into the study. Serum homocyst(e)ine levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and correlated to clinical data. Logistic regression models were used to analyse the influence of serum homocyst(e)ine levels on the presence of preeclampsia versus healthy pregnant women and on the risk of premature termination of pregnancy due to preeclampsia. Median serum homocyst(e)ine levels in women with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women were 14.2 (range 5.7-38.1) mumol/L and 15.1 (range 5.2-23.1) mumol/L, respectively (Mann-Whitney U-test, p = 0.8). In univariate logistic regression models, serum homocyst(e)ine levels had no significant influence on the odds of presenting with preeclampsia versus healthy pregnant women (univariate logistic regression model, p = 0.8) and on the odds of premature termination of pregnancy due to preeclampsia (univariate logistic regression model, p = 0.3). Serum homocyst(e)ine levels are not elevated in women with preeclampsia and are not associated with clinical outcome in women with preeclampsia.

  7. Evaluation of the Impact That PARs Have on the Hydrogen Risk in the Reactor Containment: Methodology and Application to PSA Level 2

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    Ahmed Bentaib

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology and its application to a Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA-2, to evaluate the impact of the Passive Autocatalytic Recombiners (PARs on the hydrogen risk in the reactor containment in case of a severe accident. Among the whole set of accidental scenarios calculated in the framework of the PSA-2, nine have been selected as representative in terms of the in-vessel hydrogen production rate and in-vessel total produced hydrogen mass. Five complementary scenarios have been added as representative of the core reflooding situations. For this set of selected scenarios the evolution of the conditions in the containment (i.e., pressure, temperature, and composition during the in-vessel phase of the accident has been evaluated by means of a lumped parameter approach. The use of spray systems in the containment has also been considered as well as the presence of recombiners. Moreover, the ignition by recombiners of the flammable atmosphere has been considered.

  8. Elevated serum level of human alkaline phosphatase in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Rehman; Awan, Fazli Rabbi; Najam, Syeda Sadia; Islam, Mehboob; Siddique, Tehmina; Zain, Maryam

    2015-11-01

    To investigate a correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase level and body mass index in human subjects. The comparative cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from April 2012 to June 2013. Blood serum alkaline phosphatase levels were estimated and the subjects were divided into three sub-groups on the basis of their body mass. normal weight (27kg/m2) subjects. The serum samples were used for the estimation of clinically important biochemical parameters, using commercial kits on clinical chemistry analyser. Of the 197 subjects, 97(49%) were obese and 100(51%) were non-obese. The serum alkaline phosphatase level increased in obese (214±6.4 IU/L) compared to the non-obese subjects (184.5±5 IU/L). Furthermore, a significant linear relationship (r=0.3;p-0.0001) was found between serum alkaline phosphatase and body mass index. Other biochemical variables were not correlated to the body mass index. Over activity and higher amounts of alkaline phosphatase were linked to the development of obesity.

  9. Elevated Serum Level of Human Alkaline Phosphatase in Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A. R.; Awan, F. R.; Najam, S. S.; Islam, M.; Siddique, T.; Zain, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase level and body mass index in human subjects. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from April 2012 to June 2013. Blood serum alkaline phosphatase levels were estimated and the subjects were divided into three sub-groups on the basis of their body mass index: normal weight (<25kg/m2), overweight (25-27kg/m2) and obese (>27kg/m2) subjects. The serum samples were used for the estimation of clinically important biochemical parameters, using commercial kits on clinical chemistry analyser. Results: Of the 197 subjects, 97(49 percent) were obese and 100(51 percent) were non-obese. The serum alkaline phosphatase level increased in obese (214±6.4 IU/L) compared to the non-obese subjects (184.5±5 IU/L). Furthermore, a significant linear relationship (r=0.3;p-0.0001) was found between serum alkaline phosphatase and body mass index. Other biochemical variables were not correlated to the body mass index. Conclusion: Over activity and higher amounts of alkaline phosphatase were linked to the development of obesity. (author)

  10. Elevated Adiponectin Serum Levels in Women with Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Toussirot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue produces a wide range of proteins that may influence the immune system. In this study, we assessed the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, in association with the measurements of body composition, in 15 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, CREST syndrome, and polymyositis and in 15 healthy female controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls with regard to serum leptin, serum ghrelin, global fat mass, adiposity, and fat mass in the android or gynoid regions, whereas serum adiponectin levels were higher in patients than controls (16.3±1.6 μg/mL versus 9.7±0.6 μg/mL; =.01. As adiponectin is known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties, a high adiponectinemia in patients with systemic autoimmune disease may mitigate the inflammatory response. However, the precise consequences of these elevated serum adiponectin levels on the metabolic syndrome development and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in this patient population still needs to be determined.

  11. Serum Cotinine Levels and Prehypertension in Never Smokers

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    Omayma Alshaarawy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few studies have shown that self-reported secondhand smoke exposure in never smokers is associated with high blood pressure. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine levels, and high blood pressure in never smokers. Methods. We examined never smokers (n=2027 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008. Our exposure of interest was the secondhand smoke exposure estimated by serum cotinine level and our outcome was prehypertension (n=734, defined as a systolic blood pressure of 120–139 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of 80–89 mmHg. Results. We found that, in never smokers, serum cotinine levels were positively associated with prehypertension. Compared to those with cotinine levels in the lowest quartile (≤0.024 ng/mL, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval of prehypertension among those with cotinine levels in the highest quartile (≥0.224 ng/mL was 1.45(1.00, 2.11; P trend =0.0451. In subsequent subgroup analyses, the positive association was found to be stronger among men, non-Whites, and non-obese subjects. Conclusion. Higher secondhand smoke exposure measured objectively by serum cotinine levels was found to be associated with prehypertension in certain subgroups of a representative sample of the US population.

  12. Serum total and free carnitine levels in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asilsoy, Suna; Bekem, Ozlem; Karaman, Ozkan; Uzuner, Nevin; Kavukçu, Salih

    2009-02-01

    Serum carnitine is decreased in recurrent pulmonary infections. We aimed to evaluate serum carnitine levels in asthmatic children. Study group consisted of children with stable asthma and those with acute asthma attacks, while control group included healthy children. Attack severity was determined by the pulmonary score system. Total and free carnitine levels were studied in one blood sample from the control group and stable asthmatics and in two samples from children with acute asthma exacerbation during and after the attack. All the 40 patients in the study group had moderate asthma including 30 with acute attack (13 mild and 17 moderate) and 10 with stable asthma. Carnitine levels were significantly lower in acute attack asthmatics than in the stable asthmatics and controls, while there was no significant difference between the latter two groups. Carnitine levels were not different between asthmatics with mild and moderate attack, and were similar during and after an acute attack. Serum carnitine levels decrease in children with moderate asthma during exacerbation of asthma and shortly thereafter. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of carnitine treatment on serum carnitine level.

  13. Changes in serum desnutrin levels in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Betul; Ucak, Haydar; Cicek, Demet; Aydin, Suleyman; Erden, Ilker; Dertlioglu, Selma Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Androgens and insulin may contribute to increased sebum production in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. We investigated the association between serum desnutrin levels and acne vulgaris in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. 25 patients presenting with acne vulgaris and 25 control subjects participated in this study. Fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, HDL, total cholesterol, insulin, C-peptide and thyroid function tests were measured. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to calculate insulin resistance. Desnutrin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) according to the manufacturer's protocol. Patients with acne vulgaris had a mean serum desnutrin level of (8.83 ± 1.13 μIU/mL), which was statistically significantly lower in the control group (10:58 ± 3.43 μIU/mL). In patients with acne vulgaris the serum glucose levels, insulin levels and HOMA-IR values (87.92 ± 7:46 mg/dL, 11.33 ± 5.93 μIU/mL, 2.49 ± 1.40, respectively) were significantly higher than the control group (77.36 ± 9.83 mg/dL, 5.82 ± 2.68 μIU/mL, 1.11 ± 0.51, respectively) (p = 0.01, pacne vulgaris, as a result of increased levels of serum glucose and insulin, the function of desnutrin was suppressed, perhaps contributing to insulin resistance.

  14. The Effect of Trimethoprim on Serum Folate Levels in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kasper Meidahl; Eplov, Kasper; Nielsen, Torben Kjær

    2016-01-01

    allocations within sealed opaque envelopes. Participants and all staff were kept blinded to treatment allocations during the trial. Serum folate was measured at baseline and at end of trial. In the 58 participants analyzed (30 in the trimethoprim group and 28 in the placebo group), 8 had folate deficiency......Trimethoprim antagonize the actions of folate by inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase. This could diminish serum folate levels in humans and causes folate deficiency in some patients. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, to investigate the effect of trimethoprim...... on serum folate levels in healthy participants after a 7-day trial period. Thirty young, healthy males were randomly allocated to receive trimethoprim, 200 mg twice daily, and 30 were randomly allocated to placebo. Before trial initiation, participant numbers were given randomly generated treatment...

  15. Prostate-specific antigen superior serum marker for prostatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaney, J.A.; Allen, M.A.; Keane, T.; Duffy, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    A new immunoradiometric assay based on dual monoclonal antibody reaction system (Hybritech-TANDEM R ) was used to measure serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in 39 patients with prostatic carcinoma (CaP), in 57 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 14 without prostatic disease. Serum PSA was elevated in 82% of patients with CaP while PAP was elevated in only 54%. In this and other studies, PSA is superior to conventional serum markers in sensitivity, prediction of CaP stage and in longitudinal monitoring of disease. A 16% false positive rate precludes PSA as a screening test. The assay used was found to be simple and reliable. (author)

  16. Does thyroid gland examination by palpation alter serum hormone levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toros, Sema Zer; Ozel, Leyla; Yekrek, Mehmet Murat; Toros, Ahmet Burak; Naiboglu, Baris; Kara, Melih; Erdoğdu, Erdal; Egeli, Erol; Titiz, Izzet

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of routine thyroid gland palpation on serum thyroid hormone levels. Prospective study at Haydarpaşa Numune Research and Education Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. This study was carried out in two groups with a total of 50 consecutive adults. Group I consisted of 20 patients (12 female and 8 male, aged 20-48 years) with a diagnosis of nodular thyroid disease confirmed by ultrasound imaging techniques. The second group consisted of 30 otherwise healthy subjects (17 female and 13 male, aged 18-50 years) referred for neck and thyroid ultrasound and with no thyroid pathology detected. Thyroid gland palpations were performed by the same physician. Blood samples were obtained before and 2 hours after thyroid gland palpation. Serum total T3 (TT3), total T4 (TT4), free T3 (FT3), free T4 (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroglobulin (TG) measurements were made. We found that routine palpation in the first group caused a significant increase in serum TT3 (P .05). Preliminary data proposing a possible effect of routine thyroid gland palpation on serum thyroid hormone levels suggest that serum thyroid hormone measurements should be performed before any manipulation of the gland, including palpation, to avoid misdiagnosis.

  17. Postmortem serum levels of total IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lara; Palmiere, Cristian

    2016-11-01

    The first aim of this study was to assess whether non-allergic deaths in non-atopic individuals with increasing postmortem intervals are characterized by progressively greater concentrations of total IgE in postmortem serum from femoral blood. Our second goal was to determine whether traumatic deaths with different survival times, septic deaths, and deaths in individuals suffering from diseases with significant systemic inflammation are systematically characterized by increased concentrations of total IgE in postmortem serum from femoral blood. Four study groups were prospectively and retrospectively formed (non-allergic deaths in non-atopic individuals with increasing postmortem intervals, traumatic deaths in non-atopic individuals with different survival times, deaths possibly related to sepsis in non-atopic individuals, and deaths occurring in non-atopic individuals with disseminated malignancies at autopsy). Unenhanced computed tomography, autopsy, histology, and biochemistry were performed in all cases. First results indicate that increasing postmortem intervals are not associated with progressively increasing postmortem serum IgE levels. Moreover, the obtained results do not reveal that severe trauma, bacterial sepsis, and disseminated malignancies are systematically associated with increased postmortem serum IgE levels, irrespective of survival time duration. Though the usefulness of increased total IgE concentrations in postmortem samples to assess any underlying atopic disposition or death preceded by acute IgE-mediated allergic reaction remains questionable, measurements of total IgE are possible in postmortem serum samples.

  18. Interleukin-10 serum level in acute coronary syndrome patients

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    Idrus Alwi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim To compare plasma IL-10 concentrations in patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS with those in Coronary Artery Disease (CAD.Methods ACS patients hospitalized in intensive coronary care unit (ICCU of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital/Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia (CMH/FMUI, Persahabatan Hospital, MMC Hospital, and Medistra Hospital, Jakarta, between May 2005 and May 2006, were included in this study. The ambulatory CAD patients were taken as comparator. The serum IL-10 level was measured by immunoassay method, and compared by using Independent Student’s t-test. To investigate whether IL-10 serum level could predict ACS, the sensitivity and specificity of this parameter towards ACS in various IL-10 serum levels were calculated as well.Results In this observational study, as many as 146 subjects were analyzed, consisting of 84 ACS patients, and 62 coronary artery disease (CAD. The IL-10 level was higher in the group of ACS patients (7.37 pg/mL + 7.81, CI 95% 5.68-9.07 than that in CAD patients (1.59 pg/mL + 1.55, CI 95% 1.2-1.98. The optimal cut-off point for serum IL-10level is >1.95 pg/mL, with 79.76 % sensitivity and 77.42 % specificity.Conclusion The IL-10 level was higher in the ACS patients compared to that in CAD patients. Serum IL-10 measurement is a quite superior method to distinguish acute and stable condition, eventhough it is not as good as hsCRP for the same purpose. (Med J Indones 2009;18:165-9Key words: Interleukin-10, acute coronary syndrome

  19. Association between serum uric acid level and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Mi; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Cho, Hye Min; Oh, Sun Min; Choi, Dong Phil; Suh, Il

    2012-05-01

    Serum uric acid levels have been reported to be associated with a variety of cardiovascular conditions. However, the direct association between uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome remains controversial. Thus, we evaluated the association of serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome in a community-based cohort study in Korea. We performed cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of 889 males and 1491 females (aged 38 to 87) who participated in baseline examinations of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study: Kanghwa study. Blood samples were collected after at least an 8 hour fast. Uric acid quartiles were defined as follows: Metabolic syndrome was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III Criteria with adjusted waist circumference cutoffs (90 cm for males; 80 cm for females). The association between serum uric acid quartiles and metabolic syndrome was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. The odds ratio for having metabolic syndrome in the highest versus lowest quartiles of serum uric acid levels was 2.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60 to 4.46) in males and 2.14 (95% CI, 1.50 to 3.05) in females after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, total cholesterol, HbA1c, albumin, γ-glutamyltransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and log C-reactive protein. The number of metabolic abnormalities also increased gradually with increasing serum uric acid levels (adjusted p for trend uric acid levels are positively associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome in Korean males and females.

  20. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels in patients with suppressed pituitary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasavada, P.; Chen, I.; Maxon, H.; Barnes, E.; Sperling, M.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of borderline hyperthyroidism is difficult. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting subnormal levels of serum TSH may be of value in confirming this diagnosis because of the suppressed pituitary function in this disease state. This sensitive assay may also be useful in monitoring the suppression of pituitary function in thyroid cancer patients receiving thyroid hormone therapy. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting serum TSH levels as low as 0.25 μU/m1 with coefficients of variation less than 17.2% was used to measure serum TSH levels in 80 healthy subjects, 44 hyperthyroid patients, and 25 athyrotic thyroid cancer patients on daily suppressive doses of thyroxine. All healthy subjects had detectable TSH levels with a mean value of 1.17 and two standard deviation ranges of 0.41 - 2.70 μU/m1 (lognormal distribution). Although the mean +-1 SEM value of 0.63 +- 0.003 μUm1 for hyperthyroid patients and 0.76 +- 0.08 μU/ml for thyroid cancer patients were significantly lower than that of healthy subjects (t-test, p<0.05), subnormal levels of serum TSH were found in only 28.6% (12/42) and 24% (6/25) of hyperthyroid and thyroid cancer patients, respectively. TSH stimulation tests performed in 6 of the cancer patients all gave suppressed responses. Because of considerable overlap, serum TSH levels alone cannot distinguish hyperthyroidsm from euthyroidism. However, a sensitive TSH radioimmunoassay such as the one described here may be of value in evaluating the extent of pituitary suppression in thyroid cancer therapy

  1. Comparative study of serum lipid levels in normotensive and pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim : This study was performed to compare the serum lipid levels of pregnant normotensive and pre-eclamptic women. Methods: It was a case control study involving 50 normotensive and 50 preeclamptic women at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, making a total of 100 participants. Their venous blood (5mls) was ...

  2. Relationship Between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Intrarenal Hemodynamic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Uedono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hyperuricemia has been reported to affect renal hemodynamics in rat models. We evaluate the relationship between serum uric acid and intrarenal hemodynamic parameters in humans, utilizing the plasma clearance of para-aminohippurate (CPAH and inulin (Cin. Methods: Renal and glomerular hemodynamics were assessed by simultaneous measurement of CPAH and Cin in 58 subjects. Of these, 19 subjects were planned to provide a kidney for transplantation; 26 had diabetes without proteinuria; and 13 had mild proteinuria. Renal and glomerular hemodynamics were calculated using Gomez`s formulae. Results: Cin was more than 60 ml/min/1.73m2 in all subjects. Serum uric acid levels correlated significantly with vascular resistance at the afferent arteriole (Ra (r = 0.354, p = 0.006 but not with that of the efferent arteriole (Re. Serum uric acid levels (β = 0.581, p = a after adjustment for several confounders (R2 = 0.518, p = Conclusions: These findings suggest, for the first time in humans, that higher serum uric acid levels are associated significantly with Ra in subjects with Cin > 60 ml/min/1.73m2. The increase in Ra in subjects with higher uric acid levels may be related to dysfunction of glomerular perfusion.

  3. The relationship between serum bilirubin level with interleukin‑6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-21

    Dec 21, 2013 ... However, in one study,[5] clinical factors may have influenced serum bilirubin levels. Bilirubin suppresses ... of inducible nitric oxide, as well as, the secretion of phospholipase A2 and NO; therefore, ... hypoxia, severe hemodynamic instability and/or possible brain death were excluded. Blood samples were ...

  4. Relationship between Serum Zinc Levels and Preeclampsia at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    The Cochrane. Library2012. 5. Shazia Q, Mohammad ZH, Rahman T, Shekhar HU. Correlation of oxidative stress with serum trace element levels and antioxidant enzyme status in Beta thalassemia major patients: a review of the literature. Anemia2012, 2012:270923. 6. Powell SR. The antioxidant properties of zinc. The.

  5. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Serum levels of the immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA and IgM were determined by the single radial immunodiffusion technique of Mancini in a total of 122 apparently healthy subjects consisting of 43 children (20 males; 23 females) aged 5-12 years and 79 adults (39 males; 40 females) aged 18-65 years resident in Port ...

  6. Associations between body mass index and serum levels of C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. An analysis of 8 453 adults aged .20 years was performed. Every subject completed a household interview and a questionnaire regarding personal health, and their BMI and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level were measured. The BMI data were divided into quintiles, using multiple linear regression to estimate ...

  7. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum levels of the immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA and IgM were determined by the single radial immunodiffusion technique of Mancini in a total of 122 apparently healthy subjects consisting of 43 children (20 males; 23 females) aged 5-12 years and 79 adults (39 males; 40 females) aged 18-65 years resident in Port Harcourt, ...

  8. The effect of chronic periodontitis on serum levels of matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... pathogenesis of several other diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (Katrib et al., 2003; Yoshihara et al.,. 2000), which share several features with periodontitis, including the chronic nature of the inflammatory reaction and tissue destruction activity. In the present study, TIMP-1 serum levels were increa-.

  9. Haematology and serum indices of broiler starter fed graded levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the haematology and serum indices of broiler starter fed graded levels of raw pride of Barbados (Caesalpina pulcherima) seedmeal. Seventy two day old Marshal broiler chicks obtained from Obasanjo Farms, Igboora, Oyo state, Nigeria were randomly assigned into four treatments, each ...

  10. Assessment of Serum Levels of Magnesium and Manganese among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnant women in developing countries have been reported to consume diets with low density of minerals and essential trace elements. Therefore, this study aims to assess the serum levels of magnesium and manganese and its trimester correlates among pregnant women in Ika community of Delta state, Nigeria.

  11. Effect of chronic kidney disease on serum resistin level | Dan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... between two groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: Our study is probably the first study in India comparing serum resistin levels of CKD patients vis-à-vis control subjects. Further cellular research may be needed to explore this relation. Key words: Chronic kidney disease, HOMA-IR, insulin resistance, resistin ...

  12. Serum Vitamin A Levels in Patients with Chalazion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekahmadi, Mohammad; Farrahi, Fereydoun; Tajdini, Afshin

    2017-01-01

    Chalazion is a chronic, localized lipogranulomatous inflammation of the sebaceous glands of the lids. Chalazion occurs often secondary to blockage of the sebaceous gland ducts. Some studies have reported vitamin A deficiency as a risk factor for chalazion. In this study, we determined the serum levels of vitamin A in patients with chalazion. The study involved a total of 107 subjects (52 patients with chalazion and 55 control healthy subjects). The study was conducted at the Ophthalmology Clinics of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahwaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahwaz, Iran between September 2014 and February 2015. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: 7-12 years old, 13-19 years old, and more than 19 years old. Patients were further divided into four subgroups based on the type of chalazion: single, multiple, primary, and recurrent. Blood samples were collected and the serum was tested for levels of vitamin A using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The average serum vitamin A levels in patients with chalazion in the age groups of 7-12 and 13-19 years were significantly lower than in their control counterparts. Serum vitamin A levels in patients with recurrent, multiple chalazia were significantly lower than in patients with primary, multiple chalazia (P = 0.026) and patients with a recurrent, single chalazion (P = 0.029). In conclusion, chalazion could be one of the ocular presentations of vitamin A deficiency.

  13. Serum Levels of Thyroid Hormones and Thyrotropin in Some Sickle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The serum levels of the thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) and thyrotropin (TSH) were measured by radio-immunoassay (RIA) in the steady state of 10 homozygous sickle cell anaemia patients and 10 normal subjects of the same age group in years (15-25) who were the control group. The results showed that sickle cell disease ...

  14. Serum aminotransferases and bilirubin levels in malaria patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (p<0.05) than those of the control samples. Serum aminotransferases and bilirubin levels should therefore be routinely monitored in malaria patients since Plasmodium parasites invasion could produce liver and blood complications, even when least suspected. International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences Vol.

  15. Serum vitamin A levels among malnourished children aged 6 - 59 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects an estimated 6 million pre-school children in Nigeria and 20 million in Africa. When associated with severe malnutrition, it significantly increases morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To determine serum vitamin A levels in children with Protein Energy Malnutrition and age and ...

  16. Total Serum Calcium and Inorganic Phosphate levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is still a very common cause of morbidity and mortality around the globe and the disorder of calcium and inorganic phosphate metabolism has been poorly associated with the infection. This study was aimed at assessing the total serum calcium and inorganic phosphate levels in PTB patients in ...

  17. Haematological profiles and serum lead levels in male fuel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematological profiles and serum lead levels of male fuel station attendants in Calabar metropolis were determined. The haematological parameters assessed included haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrit (HCT), total white blood cell count (WBC), differential white cell counts and platelet count. Age range of ...

  18. Study of serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels in Egyptian autistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Autism is a behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology. Objective: To assess serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels in Egyptian autistic children patients. Subjects and methods: 40 participants have been subjected to thorough history taking, complete clinical examination, ...

  19. Seasonal disease activity and serum vitamin D levels in rheumatoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin D is a steroid hormone that plays essential roles in calcium and phosphorus metabolism, bone formation and mineralization homeostasis, also has a role in the maintenance of immune-homeostasis. Objective: We aimed to investigate seasonal serum vitamin D levels and seasonal disease activity in ...

  20. Serum obestatin and omentin levels in patients with diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed that higher serum levels of obestatin were associated with macro albuminuria suggesting that obestatin may have a role in underlying pathogenic mechanisms that leads to diabetic nephropathy. Key words: Diabetes mellitus type 2, diabetic nephropathy, obestatin, omentin ...

  1. Classifying AKI by Urine Output versus Serum Creatinine Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellum, John A; Sileanu, Florentina E; Murugan, Raghavan; Lucko, Nicole; Shaw, Andrew D; Clermont, Gilles

    2015-09-01

    Severity of AKI is determined by the magnitude of increase in serum creatinine level or decrease in urine output. However, patients manifesting both oliguria and azotemia and those in which these impairments are persistent are more likely to have worse disease. Thus, we investigated the relationship of AKI severity and duration across creatinine and urine output domains with the risk for RRT and likelihood of renal recovery and survival using a large, academic medical center database of critically ill patients. We analyzed electronic records from 32,045 patients treated between 2000 and 2008, of which 23,866 (74.5%) developed AKI. We classified patients by levels of serum creatinine and/or urine output according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes staging criteria for AKI. In-hospital mortality and RRT rates increased from 4.3% and 0%, respectively, for no AKI to 51.1% and 55.3%, respectively, when serum creatinine level and urine output both indicated stage 3 AKI. Both short- and long-term outcomes were worse when patients had any stage of AKI defined by both criteria. Duration of AKI was also a significant predictor of long-term outcomes irrespective of severity. We conclude that short- and long-term risk of death or RRT is greatest when patients meet both the serum creatinine level and urine output criteria for AKI and when these abnormalities persist. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. Changes In Serum Electrolyte Levels In Typhoid Fever Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica, subspecies enterica, serotype Typhi, which is mostly contracted through the ingestion of food or water contaminated by the faeces of an infected person. Serum sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate levels were determined in sixty ...

  3. Serum Bicarbonale Levels In Cement Factory Workers: A Predictor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulmonary function tests are routinely used to assess the pulmonary functional status of workers exposed to cement dust in cement factories. There is a no biochemical marker as yet employed for this. A comparison of the serum bicarbonate levels of workers in the production line against those in the administration is under ...

  4. Lowered Serum Triglyceride Levels among Chronic Hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lowered Serum Triglyceride Levels among Chronic Hepatitis B-Infected Patients in Ghana. JK Kwarteng, L Owusu, M Afihene, E Mica, O Opare-Sem, FKN Arthur. Abstract. Dyslipidemia is a common finding in most studies of liver diseases. Little is however known about the effect of the two pathological stages of chronic ...

  5. Detection of serum midkine levels in cancer patients using rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of serum midkine levels in cancer patients using rabbit anti-human midkine monoclonal antibodies. X Yao, FC Qian, LC Dai, LS Min. Abstract. Midkine (MK) is a heparin-binding growth factor and was found to be highly expressed in many types of human carcinomas. MK may become a novel tumor marker. In this ...

  6. The relationship between serum bilirubin level with interleukin.6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Bilirubin has been shown to influence the mechanisms of both apoptosis and inflammation. Aims: The aim of the following study is to investigate the relationship between the serum bilirubin level with sepsis progression. Settings and Design: A total of 20 patients from intensive care unit were included for this study.

  7. Relationship between Serum Testosterone Levels and Features of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between Serum Testosterone Levels and Features of the Metabolic Syndrome Defining Criteria in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. ... West African Journal of Medicine ... Methods: A total of 203 men with type 2 DM aged 30–86 years were evaluated for the testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS).

  8. Investigating the Effects of Regular Resistance Training and Prostatic Massage on Proinflammatory Markers and Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels in Males with Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathollahi Shoorabeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Prostate cancer (PC is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Some studies support that chronic inflammation of prostate tissue plays a role in the development of PC. A variety of growth factors and cytokines may lead to proinflammatory processes within the prostate. Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular resistance training and prostatic massage on proinflammatory markers CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels in males with PC. Patients and Methods Forty-five patients with PC were selected for this study. They were randomized into either the resistance training intervention group (n = 15, the massage intervention group (n = 15, or the control group (n = 15. Resistance-training patients participated in resistance training for eight weeks, and massage was performed for six weeks on the massage group. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyze the data (P ≤ 0.05. Results In the resistance training group, IL-10 levels significantly increased after four (P = 0.055 and eight weeks (P = 0.000. Four and eight weeks of resistance training showed a significant reduction in PSA, CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels (P < 0.05. Patients of massage intervention showed an increase in IL-10 after four (P = 0.045 and six weeks (P = 0.005. In addition, four and six weeks of massage intervention showed a significant reduction in PSA, CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels (P < 0.05. Conclusions Regular resistance training and prostatic massage can improve proinflammatory markers and PSA levels in men with PC.

  9. Association between Serum Cholesterol Level and Osteoporotic Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanmao; Dai, Jiezhi; Zhong, Wanrun; Hu, Chengfang; Lu, Shengdi; Chai, Yimin

    2018-01-01

    Previous epidemiological studies have found an association between serum cholesterol level and bone mineral density. However, epidemiological studies evaluating the association between serum cholesterol level and the incidence of osteoporotic fracture are scant. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether serum cholesterol levels in Chinese participants aged 55 years or older was associated with an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. We performed a cross-sectional study, including 1,791 participants (62.1% postmenopausal women and 213 fractures). Standardized self-administered questionnaires, physical examination, laboratory tests, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry examination were performed. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between serum cholesterol [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C)] levels and the osteoporotic fracture risk. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, there were no associations between per SD increase in TC and LDL level and an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture in total participants, and in men and women as individual groups. There was a significant association between per SD increase in HDL-C level and an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture in total participants [odds ratios (OR) 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 1.40, P  = 0.023] and in women (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.12, 1.68, P  = 0.003), whereas no association was observed in men (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.73, 1.40, P  = 0.951). Additionally, we found a significant association between per SD increase in TG level and an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture in total participants (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.04, 1.38, P  = 0.015). In women, a nonlinear relationship was observed between per SD increase in TG level and an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. The risk of osteoporotic fracture in women increased

  10. Metabolism and serum levels of tryptophan in senile cataract patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C; Angi, M R; De Carli, M; Vanzan, S; Allegri, G

    1982-03-30

    In order to clarify the role of tryptophan in the patogenesis of senile cataract, we have studied the serum total and free levels of tryptophan in cataract patients as compared with age and sex-matched controls, and the urinary excretion of 10 metabolites after oral load of the amino acid. This excretion increases in the cataract group both as total per cent and as kynurenine. No difference has been found in the free and total serum tryptophan between normal subjects and cataract patients. A possible role of the kynurenines in the pathogenesis of senile cataract is suggested.

  11. Kinetics of serum prostate-specific antigen after external beam radiation for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagars, Gunar K.; Pollack, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine the kinetics of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after radiation therapy of localized prostate cancer and to evaluate whether such kinetics provide prognostic information. Materials and methods: Eight hundred forty-one men with serial PSA determinations who underwent external beam radiation without androgen ablation were analyzed to determine postradiation PSA kinetic parameters (half-life and doubling time) and to correlate these parameters with disease outcome. Non-linear regression techniques were used to determine half-lives and doubling times. Results: The postradiation serum PSA data fitted well to first order kinetic models. The median PSA half-life was 1.6 months (range 0.5-9.2 months). There was no correlation between half-life and T-stage or Gleason grade. A significant but quantitatively weak correlation was present between the pretreatment PSA level and half-life; lower pretreatment levels were associated with longer half-lives. Half-life did not correlate with disease outcome whether the endpoint was local recurrence, distant metastasis or rising PSA. In 263 men with a rising postradiation PSA profile the median PSA doubling time was 12.2 months (range 0.8-80.2 months). Faster doubling times were significantly associated with higher T-stage, higher Gleason grade and higher pretreatment PSA levels. Thus, patients with initially adverse disease developed faster rising PSA values after treatment than patients with less adverse disease. The most striking correlation was between rapid doubling time and the likelihood of metastatic relapse. Patients who developed metastases had a median PSA doubling time of 4.2 months compared to a median doubling time of 11.7 months in patients who developed local recurrence. Overall, patients with a PSA doubling time of less than 8 months had a 7-year actuarial metastatic rate of 54%, while patients with a PSA doubling time exceeding 8 months had only a 7% metastatic rate

  12. Serum malondialdehyde level in patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Eser; Yazar, Süleyman; Saraymen, Recep; Ozbilge, Hatice

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the changes of serum malondialdehyde level, i.e; the oxidative stress hypothesis in patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides. METHODS: Serum malondialdehyde activity was measured in 43 patients who were positive for intestinal parasite of Ascaris lumbricoides. Scores were obtained for the positives and their age-and sex-matched 60 Ascaris lumbricoides negative healthy controls. RESULTS: The difference between malondialdehyde levels of patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and control group was statistically significant both for females (P 0.05) both in females and in males. In addition, no significant correlation could be found between malondialdehyde levels of both females and males for patients and control groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Malondialdehyde levels clearly increase in patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides. PMID:14562404

  13. On the correlation between FSH, LH and prolactin serum levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, W.

    1978-01-01

    In 188 males FSH, LH, and prolactin serum levels determined by radioimmunoassay from a single blood sample were found to be closely correlated. No correlation appeared to testosterone levels. The same correlation is observed, if serum levels of FSH, LH, and prolactin are measured after stimulation with LH-RH and TRH. In order to explain the close correlation, in five young men hormone levels were measured at 2-min-intervals over a period of 2 hours. Peaks of prolactin often correspond to those of FSH and LH, and a statistical correlation was found in two cases between FSH and prolactin. Results suggest a common releasing mechanism, which is superposed to the main mediating mechanism. (author)

  14. Evaluation of serum osteopontin level and gene polymorphism as biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasmickaite, Lina; Berge, Gisle; Bettum, Ingrid J

    2015-01-01

    patients with poor prognosis that might benefit from IFN-α. The choice of osteopontin was based on the knowledge about the dual role of this protein in cancer and immune response, an apparent association between OPN and IFN signaling and a prognostic value of OPN in multiple other tumor types. Serum...... relapse-free survival, the effect on overall survival is not significant. However, a small subset of patients benefits from the treatment, signifying the need for biomarkers able to identify a responding subgroup. Here we evaluated whether serum osteopontin (OPN) could function as a biomarker identifying...... samples from 275 high-risk melanoma patients enrolled in the Nordic Adjuvant IFN Melanoma trial were analyzed for circulating OPN concentrations and OPN promoter polymorphisms in position -443. The potential relation between serum OPN levels, the genotypes and survival in non-treated patients and patients...

  15. Serum aluminium levels of workers in the bauxite mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kom, J F; Dissels, H M; van der Voet, G B; de Wolff, F A

    1997-01-01

    Aluminium is produced from the mineral bauxite. Occupational exposure is reported during the industrial processing of aluminium and is associated with pulmonary and neurotoxicity. However, data on exposure and toxicity of workers in the open bauxite mining industry do not exist. Therefore, a study was performed to explore aluminium exposure in employees involved in this bauxite mining process in a Surinam mine. A group of workers occupationally exposed to aluminium in an open bauxite mine were compared with a group of nonexposed wood processors. Serum aluminium was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry Data from the clinical chemistry of the blood and a questionnaire were used to explore determinants for aluminium exposure. No significant difference between serum aluminium in the exposed (4.4 +/- 2.0 micrograms/L, n = 27) and control group (5.1 +/- 1.5 micrograms/L, n = 27) was detected. For the serum concentration of the clinical chemical variables (calcium, citrate, and creatinine), a statistically significant difference was computed (p < or = 0.02) between the exposed and control group. All levels were slightly higher in the exposed group; no statistically significant correlations with serum aluminium were found. In this study, serum aluminium values were in the normal range, no significant difference between the groups could be detected despite long-term occupational exposure.

  16. Serum hyaluronic acid levels during pregnancy and labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Sun, G W; Tanaka, Y; Kondo, T; Terao, T

    1999-04-01

    To study the changes in concentrations of serum hyaluronic acid in uncomplicated human pregnancies. We determined the concentrations of serum hyaluronic acid, using a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in 70 nonpregnant women, 250 women during their pregnancies, and 68 women at the time of parturition. Results were analyzed for statistical significance with Scheffé test for multiple comparisons. During pregnancy, mean (+/- standard deviation) serum hyaluronic acid levels were 11.4 +/- 4.5, 13.6 +/- 2.8, 20.6 +/- 1.5, and 46.9 +/- 7.9 ng/mL at 5-14 (n = 47), 15-26 (n = 46), 27-37 (n = 58), and 38-40 (n = 99) weeks' gestation, respectively. Pregnant women in labor (n = 68) had significantly higher levels (100.4 +/- 11.3 ng/mL) than did women at term but not in labor (P hyaluronic acid concentrations increase as pregnancy progresses and serum levels increase significantly at term. Hyaluronic acid may be associated with cervical ripening during parturition.

  17. Serum vitamin D levels decrease in children with acute urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, B; Köksal, B T; Karakaş, N M; Ozbek, O Y

    Acute urticaria is an immune-inflammatory disease, characterised by acute immune activation. There has been increasing evidence showing that vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased incidence and severity of immune-inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum vitamin D levels in acute urticaria. We enrolled 30 children with acute urticaria and 30 control subjects. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], a biomarker of vitamin D status, were measured in serum of acute urticaria patients and compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in baseline variables (age, gender, weight) between the groups. Vitamin D deficiency (urticaria than in control patients. Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in the study group compared to those in the control group (13.1±4.3 vs 28.2±7.4ng/mL, purticaria and serum vitamin D levels (purticaria and an inverse relationship with disease duration. These findings may open up the possibility of the clinical use of vitamin D as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of acute urticaria and a predictive marker for disease activity in acute urticaria. A potential role of vitamin D in pathogenesis and additive therapy in acute urticaria needs to be examined. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. SERUM LEVELS OF COPPER AND IRON IN DENGUE FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendiran SOUNDRAVALLY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The role of trace elements in dengue virulence is not yet known. The present study assessed the serum levels of two micronutrients, copper and iron, in cases of dengue fever. The study involved 96 patients of whom 48 had either severe or non-severe forms of dengue (with and without warning signs, and the remaining 48 were patients with other febrile illnesses (OFI, used as controls. Serum levels of copper and iron were evaluated at admission and by the time of defervescence using commercially available kits. At admission, no difference in the level of serum copper was observed between cases and controls. In the group of dengue cases, the copper level was found to be significantly decreased in severe and non-severe cases with warning signs, compared to non-severe cases without warning signs. In contrast, by the time of defervescence the copper level was found to be increased in all dengue cases compared to OFI controls, but no difference was observed among dengue cases. Unlike OFI controls, dengue cases showed an increasing pattern of copper levels from admission until defervescence. On the other hand, no such significant differences were observed in the serum level of iron in the clinical groups, except for a decreased iron level found in severe cases, compared to non-severe dengue without warning signs. The results show that copper is associated with dengue severity and this finding emphasizes the need to investigate the involvement of trace elements in disease severity so as to improve the prognosis of dengue.

  19. Serum Gastrin Levels in Patients with Reflux Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of investigation of basal gastrin serum level and its relationships at chronic reflux gastritis. It has been established that gastrin level was increased in 100 % of patients. It was directly dependent on the biliary acid concentration in gastric acid, H.pylori-infection, stomach alkalization. Thus, duodenogastrical reflux causes hypergastrinemia that can result in chronic gastritis development.

  20. Serum Prohepcidin Levels in Children with Thalassemia Major and Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celil Yılmaz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the role of hepcidin hormone levels in iron accumulation in patients with thalassemia major (TM and thalassemia intermedia (TI. Materials and Methods: Serum prohepcidin and ferritin levels were determined in 34 patient with TM, 10 patient with TI, who attended the Department of Pediatric Hematology Adnan Menderes University Medical Faculty and the Department of Pediatrics at Aydın Atatürk State Hospital between 1 September 2006 and 30 September 2007 and 40 control patients without infection/inflammation, hepatitis or liver failure. Serum prohepcidin levels were measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (DRG International, Inc. Marburg, Germany; ferritin was studied with chemiluminescence method (Immulite 2000 DPC. Results: Mean serum ferritin levels in TM, TI and control groups were 2347.97±1724.81 ng/mL (range: 144-8015 ng/mL, 1352.40±918.94 ng/mL (range: 311-3109 ng/mL, and 33.35±12.03 ng/mL (range: 20-69.1 ng/mL, respectively. Serum prohepcidin levels in the same groups were 221.78±74.38 ng/mL (range: 7l.14-446.57 ng/mL, 173.31±52.14 ng/mL (range: 100.83-267.69 ng/mL, and 218.20±50.37 ng/mL (range: 116.18-330.43 ng/mL, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in prohepcidin levels between patients with TI and control group only (p=0.016. No correlation was found between prohepcidin and ferritin levels in all groups (r=-0.023, p=0.839. Conclusion: Low levels of prohepcidin in patients with TI may be related to increased erythropoietic activity. Prohepcidin can be an indicator of active erythropoiesis.

  1. Decreased Serum 25-Hydroxycalciferol Levels in Pre-diabetic Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ain, Q. A.; Khan, D. A.; Ijaz, A.; Khan, F. A.; Latif, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels [25(OH)D] in adults with pre-diabetes and normoglycaemia to examine a possible association of vitamin D deficiency with pre-diabetes. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from November 2012 to July 2013. Methodology: A total of 272 adults including 136 pre-diabetics and 136 normoglycaemics of either gender aged 20 years and above were consecutively inducted. Patients with diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, rickets and osteomalacia, ischemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease and chronic liver disease were excluded. Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) was estimated with hexokinase method on Modular p800 Roche chemistry analyzer while serum 25(OH)D was measured on Diasorin Liaison immunoassay analyzer using the chemiluminescent technique. Mean 25(OH)D levels in pre-diabetic and normoglycaemic groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman's correlation coefficient 'rs' was determined between serum 25(OH)D and FPG. Odds ratio for vitamin D deficiency was also calculated. Results: Mean serum 25(OH)D level was low in pre-diabetics (23.2 nmol/L) as compared to normoglycaemics (29 nmol/L; p=0.001). Serum 25(OH)D level had inverse correlation with FPG (rs = -0.448, p=0.000). There was also significant association of vitamin D deficiency with pre-diabetes compared with normoglycaemia (OR: 2.21, p= 0.016; 95 percentage CI: 1.15-4.27). Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency with pre-diabetes suggested that vitamin D may have an important role in pathogenesis of pre-diabetes. (author)

  2. Radioimmunoassay of serum digoxin levels in digitalis intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, G.

    1981-01-01

    For 101 hospitalized patients where clinical symptoms of a glucosidine intoxication as a consequence of oral digoxin treatment were noted, serum digoxin levels were determined using a RIA kit of the Boehringer company (I-125 tracer, solid phase tube separation technique) on a fasted stomach prior to oral drug administration. An ECG was performed simultaneously and in addition kidney function parameters and electrolyte levels were determined. An anamnesis and clinical examination of the patients were also conducted. Interferences in the RIA method and gastro-intestinal illness resulting in changes in resorption behaviour were excluded. The group of patients showed collectively an average serum digoxin level of 2.9 +- 0.9 ng/ml with a range from 1.8 to 6.8 ng/ml, which was statistically significantly higher than the average value for 101 patients receiving long-term oral medication but without symptoms of glycosidine intoxication. According to the manufacture's specifications for the RIA kit, values > 2.0 ng/ml are considered as toxic, with values between 1.6 and 2.0 ng/mg falling into a ''grey zone''. A correlation was found between toxic serum values with changes in ECG pattern and subjective clinical symptoms of intoxication. A limitation of kidney function was responsible for the high serum glycoside levels in 62% of the patients. It was shown that the differing response of patients towards digitalis medication, above all in the case of long-term therapy, warrants an RIA determination of serum glycoside values in order to adjust the digoxin dose to individual requirements. (orig./MG) [de

  3. CORRELATION OF GALLSTONE FORMATION WITH SERUM IRON LEVELS

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    Rohini Bipin Bhadre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Gallstones are one of the most common problem associated with the gallbladder, affecting millions of people throughout the world. Bile is excreted from liver and gallbladder into Duodenum for digestion. After digestion, if the gallbladder is not emptied out completely, the Bile Juice that remains in the gallbladder can become too concentrated with cholesterol leading to gallstone formation. Cholesterol and calcium bilirubinate are the two main substances involved in gallstone formation. Gallstones derived from bile consists of mixture of cholesterol, bilirubin with or without calcium. Based on their chemical composition, gallstones found in the gallbladder are classified as cholesterol, pigmented or mixed stones. Iron deficiency has been shown to alter the activity of several hepatic enzymes, leading to increased gallbladder bile cholesterol saturation and promotion of cholesterol crystal formation. AIMS & OBJECTIVE Attempt to establish a correlation with gallstones and decreased serum iron levels. MATERIAL & METHODS This study was a prospective cohort study which included 100 consecutive patients with imaging studies suggestive of Cholelithiasis. The Gallstone surgically removed was crushed with mortar and pestle and then analysed for cholesterol, calcium, phosphate and bilirubin (pigment. Serum samples were analysed for Cholesterol, iron and iron binding capacity. RESULTS 86% patients had increased cholesterol levels (p=0.04 and 93% had decreased serum Iron levels (p=0.96. The most common type of gallstone was found to be Cholesterol type of gallstone followed by Mixed and Pigment gallstones. CONCLUSION Serum cholesterol levels were found to be raised in majority of the patients and serum iron was found to be low in these majority of the patients indicating iron deficiency may play a role in gallstone formation.

  4. Effect of body mass index on serum leptin levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, R.F.; Hassan, M.; Nazar, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Leptin is product of ob gene, an adipose tissue derived hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of body fat mass by regulating appetite and metabolism while balancing energy intake and energy expenditure. The objective of the study was to evaluate possible association between serum leptin levels and Body Mass Index (BMI) of gender in adult age group. Methods: Two-hundred-seventy subjects aged 20-50 years were randomly selected from general population of Abbottabad. The subjects were grouped on the basis on BMI (89 normal, 92 overweight, and 89 obese). After complete evaluation, demographic data was recorded and BMI. Non-fasting venous blood samples were drawn to measure serum leptin and serum glucose levels. The data were analysed using SPSS-15 calculating mean, percentage, independent t-test and chi-square test. Correlation and regression curve analysis were obtained, and p and r values were calculated. Results: Serum leptin levels and differences between genders were significant in all body mass indices. For normal BMI group the mean values for leptin were 2.6+-1.5 gamma g/ml in men, and 17.3+9-10.2 gamma g/ml for women. For Group-2 mean leptin levels in men were 9.9+-6.8 gamma g/ml and in women were 34.8+-13.6 gamma g/ml. For Group-3 BMI comprising obese subjects mean values for men were 21.3+-14.2 gamma g/ml and for women were 48.21+-21.2 gamma g/ml (p<0.001). Conclusion: A progressive increase in serum leptin concentration was observed with an increase in BMI. Significant difference between leptin concentrations in either gender was found in normal, overweight and obese subjects. (author)

  5. Serum Leptin Levels in Asthma, COPD and Bronchiectasis

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    Ercan Kurtipek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study is to compare body mass indexes (BMI and serum leptin levels of most frequently observed three chronic airway diseases; namely, Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and bronchiectasis. Material and Method: The study included a total of 216 people, 78 asthma, 67 COPD, and 37 bronchiectasis patients who were in stable period and 34 healthy individuals all aged above 18. Control group consisted of non-smokers and non-corticosteroid users. Of all the participants, the blood samples were taken in order to determine serum leptin levels and BMI were calculated, and pulmonary function tests measured at rest. Results: The BMI levels of all the groups was above >25 kg/m2. There were no statistical differences between the control and patient groups with regard to BMI (p>0.05. Comparing patient groups, the BMI of asthma patients was higher than those with COPD and bronchiectasis (29.84±6.46, 25.78±4.96, 27.64±5.19, p=0.0001, p=0.20. FEV1 results of COPD patients were lower than those with asthma and bronchiectasis (63.25±19.26, 76.73±20.35, 72.75±20.17 and p=0.0001, p=0.06. Serum leptin levels of asthma patients were higher than the COPD, bronchiectasis patients, as well as that of the control group (12.36±11.16 ng/ml, 3.35±4.71 ng/ml, 8.49±7.85 ng/ml and 5.21±6.83 ng/ml, p=0.0001, p=0.09 and p=0.0001, respectively. Serum leptin level of COPD patients was lower than control group, but it was not statistically significant (p=0.71. Serum leptin levels of the patients with bronchiectasis were higher than healthy control group members; yet , not statistical significant (p=0.34. However serum leptin levels of the patients with bronchiectasis were higher than the patient COPD groups and this was statisticaly significant (p=0.01. Istatistically significant different emerge on comparing serum leptin levels and BMI of the asthma, COPD and bronchiectasis patients in the Lineear regression analysis made (beta

  6. Effect of obesity on serum prostate-specific antigen in Nigerian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuerowo, S O; Omisanjo, O A; Bioku, M J; Ajala, M O; Esho, J O

    2012-01-01

    Lower serum total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels (tPSA) have been reported in obese men. It has not been confirmed if this association truly exists in all ethnic groups. Thus, we evaluated the relationship between tPSA and obesity among Nigerian men. Men aged ≥ 40 years with tPSA Obesity was defined using the body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). Multivariate linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between tPSA and either BMI or WHR. The odds of having abnormal tPSA were estimated using logistic regression. A total of 3,191 men participated, and 3,049 (95.6%) were eligible for analysis. A BMI ≥ 25.0 and a WHR ≥ 0.9 were found in 47.7 and 64.6%, respectively. tPSA was significantly associated with age (p obesity (BMI, p = 0.581; WHR, p = 0.160). Adjusting for age and digital rectal examination status, logistic regression showed no significantly observable trend of having a tPSA level greater than thresholds for men with a BMI ≥ 25 or a WHR ≥ 0.9 when compared with normal BMI or WHR, respectively. Although overweight and obesity were common among healthy Nigerian men, there was no associated tendency towards lower serum tPSA. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Thyroid iodine uptake and serum triiodothyronine level in eldery subjects

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    Paradowski, L.; Dolinska, G.; Knapik, Z.; Rynowiecka, M. (Akademia Medyczna, Wroclaw (Poland))

    1980-01-01

    Iodine uptake by the thyroid and serum triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) level in subjects aged from 65 to 93 years were determined. Low T/sub 3/ level and normal uptake of inorganic iodine by the thyroid were found. In the light of these results it is suggested that normal accumulation of inorganic iodine and low production of T/sub 3/ are characteristic features of euthyroidism in elderly subjects. It is believed that the function of the thyroid is expressed better by determination of the serum levels of thyroid hormones than determination of the uptake of radioactive iodine. Elaboration of standard normal values which would take into account abnormalities encountered in old age is postulated.

  8. Serum carnitine levels in bone marrow transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirvelä, O; Antila, H; Heinonen, O; Toivanen, A

    1990-12-01

    This study investigated plasma carnitine levels in patients undergoing allogenic bone marrow transplantation. The patients received fat-based TPN (50% fat, 50% CHO; calorie: nitrogen ratio 125:1) for an average of 33 +/- 7.5 days. TPN was started before transplantation and stopped when patients were able to eat. Caloric needs were estimated using the Harris-Benedict equation; 150% of the estimated BEE was given for the first two weeks after transplantation. The amount of TPN was gradually decreased as patients resumed their oral intake. All patients had low-normal serum carnitine levels before transplantation. There was no significant change in total or free serum carnitine levels during the course of TPN. However, in patients who had symptoms of graft vs. host reaction (GVH), the highest carnitine values during GVH (total 72.3 +/- 6.5 and free 61.2 +/- 12.4 mumol/l) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the baseline values (total 27.1 +/- 9.3 and free 24.9 +/- 9.6 mumol/l) or the highest non GVH values after transplantation (total 32.0 +/- 10.7 and free 29.0 +/- 10.7 mumol/l, respectively). The serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol remained within normal range. In conclusion, bone marrow transplant patients receiving fat-based TPN have normal circulating levels of carnitine. GVH reaction caused an increase in the carnitine levels, which was probably due to increased tissue catabolism.

  9. The role of serum vitamin D levels in vitiligo

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    Ebru Karagün

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Vitiligo is a common acquired pigmentary skin disorder. Vitamin D is responsible for skin pigmentation, increases tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis, and exhibits immunoregulatory functions. Low levels of vitamin D are associated with many autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and alopecia areata. Few reports have evaluated serum vitamin D levels in vitiligo patients, and their results are conflicting. Aim : To evaluate serum vitamin D levels of vitiligo patients and compare the results with controls. Material and methods : In total, 50 vitiligo patients and 47 controls were enrolled in the study. Vitamin D levels were measured from blood samples. Group comparisons were performed using appropriate statistical methods. Results : The patients had lower serum vitamin D levels than the controls, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.570. Conclusions : It remains unknown whether vitamin D deficiency causes vitiligo. Larger controlled studies are required to prove whether low circulating vitamin D is a causative factor in vitiligo.

  10. The long-term effect on PSA values of incidental prostatic irradiation in patients with pelvic malignancies other than prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietman, Anthony L.; Zehr, Elizabeth M.; Shipley, William U.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of external beam radiation therapy on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) production by the benign prostate. Methods and Materials: We studied a cohort of 24 men receiving treatment for cancer of the bladder or rectum. The radiation fields in all cases encompassed the prostate gland, and none of the patients were known to have prostate cancer. All patients had 2 or more PSA estimations obtained in the years following their radiation treatment. A second group of 46 patients who had undergone radical external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer and who were clinically disease free 8-22 years later were also observed, with a median of 5.8 years of PSA observations. Results: Only 3 of the 24 patients in the first group showed a significant rise of > 0.2 ng/ml in their serum PSA levels, with a median of 3.3 years follow-up from the first PSA test. Seven of 24 showed progressive declines, and 14 of 24 showed steady levels. The median PSA for this group was ≤ 0.5 ng/ml. Only 6 of the 46 in the second group showed a PSA rise of > 0.2 ng/ml. Thirty-four had stable values, and 6 had further declines. Again, the median PSA for the entire group was ≤ 0.5 ng/ml. Conclusion: Recovery of prostatic secretory function is an uncommon event after external beam radiation. The concern that this might significantly confound new definitions of biochemical failure after radical radiation for prostate cancer that are based on progressively rising PSA values thus appears to be unfounded

  11. Elevated serum levels of Chromogranin A in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Antonio; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Vacante, Marco; Berretta, Massimiliano; D'Agata, Velia; Malaguarnera, Michele; Basile, Francesco; Drago, Filippo; Bertino, Gaetano

    2012-01-01

    During the past three decades, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States has tripled. The neuroendocrine character has been observed in some tumor cells within some hepatocellular carcinoma nodules and elevated serum chromogranin A also been reported in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of serum concentration of chromogranin A in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at different stages. The study population consisted of 96 patients (63 males and 33 females age range 52-84) at their first hospital admission for hepatocellular carcinoma. The control group consisted of 35 volunteers (20 males and 15 females age range 50-80). The hepatocellular carcinoma patients were stratified according the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer classification. Venous blood samples were collected before treatment from each patients before surgery, centrifuged to obtain serum samples and stored at -80° C until assayed. The chromogranin A serum levels were elevated (> 100 ng/ml) in 72/96 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The serum levels of chromogranin A were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with alpha-fetoprotein. In comparison with controls, the hepatocellular carcinoma patients showed a significant increase (p<0.001) vs controls. The chromogranin A levels in the Barcelona staging of hepatocellular carcinoma was higher in stage D compared to stage C (p<0.01), to stage B (p<0.001), and to stage A (p<0.001). Molecular markers, such as chromogranin A, could be very useful tools for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. However the molecular classification should be incorporated into a staging scheme, which effectively separated patients into groups with homogeneous prognosis and response to treatment, and thus serves to aid in the selection of appropriate therapy.

  12. STUDY OF BCG SCAR AND SERUM ADA LEVELS IN INFANTS

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    Harishchandra Venkata Yanamandala

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In developing countries, in both adults and children, tuberculosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In 1993, it is declared as the first infectious disease by global health emergency.1 According to WHO report globally, there were an estimated 9.27 million ancient cases of TB in 2009. The cases reported were 8.3 million, the children covered an estimated percentage of 11 and it ranged from 3-25 percent.2 BCG vaccination was advocated for prevention of tuberculosis in children. The aim of the study is to estimate serum ADA levels in newborns before BCG vaccination, serum ADA levels in children with and without BCG scar, after receiving BCG vaccination, serum ADA levels in children without BCG vaccination and to find significance of serum ADA levels in BCG vaccinated children by comparing the above groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted at the Department of Paediatrics, Gitam Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Institute, October 2015 to September 2016. Babies who were in postnatal ward and infants of age of 12 weeks attending for BCG vaccination were included in the study. The total numbers of infants studied were 150. RESULTS In our study, out of 120 children included in the study before BCG vaccination comprising group-1, 61% were males and 39% were females. Out of 120 children received BCG vaccination, only 100 came for follow up comprising group-2, of which 67 (67% were males and 33 (33% were females. 15 children who did not receive BCG vaccination at 12 weeks of age were included in group 3 out of which 11 (73.33% were males and 4 (26.67% were females. Mean ADA levels at the age of 12 weeks in group-2 who were vaccinated at birth were 30.89 ± 5.27 U/L compared to mean ADA levels at the age of 12 weeks in group-3, which was 15.47 ± 1.85 U/L. This shows significant rise in mean ADA levels at 12 weeks of age in those who were vaccinated at birth comprising group-2 compared to their mean ADA

  13. Serum levels of acylcarnitines are altered in prediabetic conditions.

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    Manuel Mai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The role of mitochondrial function in the complex pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not yet completely understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of short-, medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines as markers of mitochondrial function in volunteers with normal, impaired or diabetic glucose control. METHODS: Based on a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, 1019 studied subjects were divided into a group with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 636, isolated impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG; n = 184, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 87 or type 2 diabetes (T2D; n = 112. Serum concentrations of free carnitine and 24 acylcarnitines were measured by mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Serum levels of acetylcarnitine (C2, propionylcarnitine (C3, octanoylcarnitine (C8, malonylcarnitine/hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (C3DC+C4OH, hexanoylcarnitine (C6, octenoylcarnitine (C8:1, decanoylcarnitine (C10, decenoylcarnitine (C10:1, dodecanoylcarnitine (C12, tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1, tetradecadienylcarnitine (C14:2, hydroxytetradecanoylcarnitine (C14OH, hydroxyhexadecanoylcarnitine (C16OH and octadecenoylcarnitine (C18:1 were significantly different among the groups (all p<0.05 adjusted for age, gender and BMI. Between the prediabetic states C14:1, C14:2 and C18:1 showed significantly higher serum concentrations in persons with IGT (p<0.05. Compared to T2D the IFG and the IGT subjects showed lower serum concentrations of malonylcarnitine/hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (C3DC+C4OH (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Alterations in serum concentrations of several acylcarnitines, in particular tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1, tetradecadienylcarnitine (C14:2, octadecenoylcarnitine (C18:1 and malonylcarnitine/hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (C3DC+C4OH are associated not only with T2D but also with prediabetic states.

  14. Association between serum hepcidin level and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Chenini, Sofiene; Vialaret, Jérôme; Delaby, Constance; Guiraud, Lily; Gabelle, Audrey; Lopez, Regis; Hirtz, Christophe; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lehmann, Sylvain

    2018-02-08

    To better understand the role of iron homeostasis dysregulation in restless legs syndrome, we compared serum hepcidin and ferritin levels in drug-free patients with primary restless legs syndrome and healthy controls and studied the relationship between hepcidin level and restless legs syndrome severity. One hundred and eight drug-free patients with primary restless legs syndrome (65 women; median age, 61.5 years) and 45 controls (28 women; median age, 53.9 years) were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were: normal ferritin level (>50 ng/mL) and absence of iron disorders, chronic renal or liver failure, and inflammatory or neurological diseases. Each subject underwent a thorough clinical examination and a polysomnography assessment. Serum hepcidin-25 was quantified using a validated mass spectrometry method. Restless legs syndrome severity was evaluated according to the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Despite no group difference between normal ferritin levels and demographic features, serum hepcidin level and hepcidin/ferritin ratio were higher in patients than in controls. Hepcidin level and hepcidin/ferritin ratio, but not ferritin level, were positively correlated with periodic leg movements during sleep and wakefulness in the whole sample. Hepcidin level seem to be associated with restless legs syndrome severity in a complex U-shaped relationship, without relationship with age at restless legs syndrome onset, positive family history, sleep and depressive symptoms, genetic background, and polysomnographic measurements. No relationship was found between ferritin level and restless legs syndrome severity. In drug-free patients with primary restless legs syndrome, hepcidin level is higher than in controls and may be associated with restless legs syndrome clinical severity. This result emphasizes the complex peripheral iron metabolism deregulation in restless legs syndrome, opening potential perspectives for a personalized approach with a hepcidin

  15. Evaluation of total PSA assay on vitros ECi and correlation with Kryptor-PSA assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinat, B; Wacquet, M; Toubert, M E; Rain, J D; Schlageter, M H

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of multiparametric immuno-analysers for PSA assays are available. As different immuno-assays may vary in their analytical quality and their accuracy for the follow-up of patients, expertise is necessary for each new assay. The PSA assay on the Vitros-ECi analyser has been evaluated and compared with the PSA assay from the Kryptor analyser. Variation coefficients were 0.91 to 1.98% for within-run assays, and 4.2% to 5.4% for interassay (PSA levels = 0.8 microgram/L to 33.6 micrograms/L). Dilution tests showed 93 to 136% recovery until 70 micrograms/L PSA. Functional sensitivity was estimated at 0.03 microgram/L. Equimolarity of the test was confirmed. Correlation of PSA levels measured with Vitros-ECi and Kryptor analysers displayed a correlation coefficient r2 of 0.9716. The half-lives and doubling times of PSA were similar using both methods. Vitros-ECi PSA assay meets the major criteria for the management of prostate cancer patients.

  16. [Retrospective evaluation of PSA density for selection of biopsy candidates with prostate specific antigen in the gray zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochigi, T; Kawamura, S; Numahata, K; Tokuyama, S; Kuwahara, M; Horaguchi, T; Satou, S

    2001-09-01

    We examined the usefulness of prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) for selection of biopsy candidate with prostate specific antigen levels between 4.1 and 10.0 ng./ml. in prostate cancer screening retrospectively. The screening was conducted on male candidates in Natori city, aged 55 years or older, for 6 years from 1994 through 1999. We could analyze serum PSA levels and PSA density in 118 men with PSA levels between 4.1 and 10.0 ng./ml. All of 118 men underwent ultrasound guided systematic prostate biopsy regardless of findings of digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound. Prostate volume was estimated by transrectal ultrasound measurements using the prolate ellipse formula (pi/6 x length x width x height). PSAD was calculated by dividing serum PSA level by prostate volume. Serum PSA levels were determined by Tandem-R assay. In 118 men, twenty-five men had prostate cancer. There was no significant difference in mean PSA between those with prostate cancer and those without prostate cancer, but the difference was significant in the mean PSA density (mean 0.26 and 0.16, respectively, p PSA and PSAD demonstrated superior benefit for PSAD in 118 men. A sensitivity, a specificity, a positive predictive value and a negative predictive value of PSAD cut-off of 0.15 were 88%, 52.7%, 33.3% and 94.2%. PSAD cut-off of 0.18 showed the highest sum of sensitivity and specificity, which gave a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 72%, a positive predictive value of 43.5% and a negative predictive value of 93.1%. PSAD cut-off of 0.15 would seem to be preferable to cut-off of 0.18 because of less cancer missing. Although further studies are needed to determine optimal cut-off value to be used in clinical practice, PASD seems to be useful for the selection of biopsy candidates with PSA levels of 4.1 to 10.0 ng./ml. in the prostate cancer screening.

  17. The relationship between ovarian volume and serum CA-125 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulec, U K; Paydas, S; Guzel, A B; Vardar, M A; Urunsak, I F; Cetin, M T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ovarian volume and serum CA-125 levels. Serum CA-125 levels and ovarian volume were compared among the cases with benign ovarian neoplasms, primary epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Also, the correlation between CA-125 levels and ovarian volume were evaluated in the presence of peritoneal fluid and/or peritoneal carcinomatosis. Although ovarian volume was not different among the groups, CA-125 levels were higher in the cases with EOC than with benign ovarian tumors (p = 0.001). Baseline CA-125 levels were not found to have increased while ovarian volume went up with controlled hyperstimulation in the infertile group (p = 0.555). However, uncontrolled hyperstimulation of the ovaries and the presence of peritoneal fluid caused an increase in the levels of CA-125 (p = 0.001). There was no correlation between ovarian volume and CA-125 levels in the cases with malignant ovarian tumors (r = 0.083). The results of this study have confirmed that CA-125 is a peritoneal marker and increased ovarian volume with benign ovarian neoplasms or controlled hyperstimulation does not increase CA-125 levels in the same way. The presence of peritoneal carcinomatosis and/or peritoneal fluid seems to be an important factor for high CA-125 levels in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).

  18. The radioimmunoassay of serum alpha-fetoprotein levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. H.; Choi, K. A.; Ahn, K. S.; Suh, W. H.; Lee, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was first described in the human fetus in 1956 and became a marker protein of primary liver cancer in adults. Serum AFP levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 212 patients with a variety of malignant and nonmalignant diseases to determine the incidence of leveis elevated above 40 ng/ml. The results obtained are as follows: In 44 cases of total 212 patients, abnormal AFP levels above 40 ng/ml in serum were measured; 24 of 31 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma and primary hepatocellular carcinoma with liver cirrhosis (77.4%), 7 of 51 patients with only liver cirrhosis (13.7%), 4 of 10 patients with metastatic liver cancer (40.0%), 4 of 15 patients with chronic hepatitis (26.7%), 2 of 23 patients with acute hepatitis (8.7%), and each one patient with 6 pancreatic carcinoma and 9 cholangiocarcinoma had elevated serum AFP levels. One pregnant woman with gestation 35 weeks had elevated level, but within normal limit during pregnancy

  19. PSA response signatures - a powerful new prognostic indicator after radiation for prostate cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, James W.; Lamb, David S.; Joseph, David; Matthews, John; Atkinson, Chris; Spry, Nigel A.; Duchesne, Gillian; Ebert, Martin; Steigler, Allison; D'Este, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Background: We sought to determine whether inter-patient variations in pattern of PSA changes after radiation exist and, if so, are they prognostically significant. Methods: In the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 96.01 randomized controlled trial, patients with T2b,c,3,4 N0 prostate cancer (PC) were randomised to 0, 3 or 6 months maximal androgen deprivation prior to 66 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles (XRT). Patterns of anatomical site of failure were one of the trial endpoints. Serial serum PSA's were mandated at all follow-up visits. Pattern recognition software was developed to characterize PSA response 'signatures' (PRS) after therapy in individual patients. Results: By 2000, 270 eligible patients were randomised to radiation alone. Individual patient PSA values were observed to descend after radiation according to one of two characteristic 'signatures': single exponential (PRS Type 1), non-exponential (PRS Type 2). Compared to PRS Type 1, men with PRS Type 2 (50% of the group) had lower PSA nadir (nPSA) levels (p < .0001), longer doubling times on relapse (p = .006) and significantly lower rates of local (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.47, 95% confidence interval [0.30-0.75], p = .0014) and distant failure (HR: 0.25[0.13-0.46], p < .0001), death due to PC (HR: 0.20[0.10-0.42], p < .0001) and death due to any cause (HR: 0.37 [0.23-0.60], p < .0001). PRS retained its powerful prognostic significance in Cox models that incorporated all key pre-treatment covariates and nPSA. Conclusions: PRS reflect the presence of tumor phenotypes that vary substantially in their clinical behavior and response to XRT. Molecular characterization is now necessary

  20. Effect of enteral tube feeding on serum phenytoin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuna, J; Friel, P

    1984-12-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to determine if altering the timing of phenytoin administration in relation to delivery of tube feedings increased serum phenytoin levels. Stopping tube feedings for two hours before and two hours after administration is a procedure that nurses could employ independently for better patient care. However, this adds an extra procedure to the nurse's already busy routine. It also requires the nurse to adjust either the tube feeding flow rate or bolus amount in order to deliver the same amount of calories per day. Based on this study, it appears that this intervention procedure is not effective for the patient and is time-consuming for the nurse. Instead, the focus for increasing phenytoin serum levels in patients receiving tube feedings should probably be on increasing the dosage.

  1. INFLUENCE OF HIGH CORTISOL DOSES UPON THE SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voja Pavlovic

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Cortisol upon the serum immunoglobulin concentration areexamined. The experiment involved male guinea pigs of the body weight from 300 to400 g that were nonnally fed and lived under the common laboratory conditions. Theguinea pigs were divided into an experimental and a control group. The experimentalgroup's guinea pigs were given every day (in a 6 days' period a subcutaneous dose of80 g of corti sol/kg/per day, while the control group ones were given only one ml ofthe physiological solution. Two weeks after the last received dose of Cortisol orphysiological solution the cordial puncture was applied to take a blood sample inwhich the level of the serum IgA, IgG and IgM was determined. In the experimentalgroup animals the serum IgG value was 11,2 mg/ml at the beginning and 8,7 mg/ml at the end of the experiment (reduction for 22,1%, while the TgA concentration at theend of the experiment was reduced for 5,8%, while the IgM concentration for 12,9%.The serum immunoglobulin concentration in the control group guinea pigs does notreveal any significant differences at the beginning and the end of the experiment.

  2. Serum procalcitonin levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Mustafa; Oktay, Esin; Tarhan, Emine F; Aslan, Ozgur; Oflazoglu, Utku; Koseoglu, Mehmet H

    2016-05-01

    Procalcitonin is a marker of bacterial and fungal infection and sepsis. The present study evaluated the relationship between serum procalcitonin levels and disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A total of 61 patients who met the 1984 New York criteria for AS were studied. Twenty-four age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited to this study as a control group. Disease activity was assessed by the Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). The functional status of patients was evaluated by the Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI). Spinal mobility was measured by the Bath AS Metrology Index (BASMI). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum procalcitonin levels were measured. Thirty patients were on anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment and 31 patients were on conventional treatment. Seventeen (28%) of the AS patients were active (BASDAI > 4) and 44 (72%) of the AS patients were in remission. The median ESR was 14 (34-6) mm/h and 4 (7-2) mm/h (P < 0.001) for the patient and control groups, respectively. The median CRP level was 0.91 (2.72-0.37) mg/dL and 0.15 (0.25-0.07) mg/dL in the patient and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Median BASDAI, BASFI and BASMI scores for all AS patients were 3.6 (5.25-2.29), 2.5 (4.22-0.91) and 3 (5-1), respectively. Serum procalcitonin levels were normal (< 0.05 ng/mL) for all patients and controls. Serum procalcitonin levels were not high in AS patients and controls, and the levels were independent of disease activity and medications. If bacterial or fungal infection is suspected in an AS patient, serum procalcitonin level may be useful for diagnosis. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Repeat prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test before prostate biopsy: a 20% decrease in PSA values is associated with a reduced risk of cancer and particularly of high-grade cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nunzio, Cosimo; Lombardo, Riccardo; Nacchia, Antonio; Tema, Giorgia; Tubaro, Andrea

    2018-03-13

    To analyse the impact of repeating a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level assessment on prostate biopsy decision in a cohort of men undergoing prostate biopsy. From 2015 onwards, we consecutively enrolled, at a single institution in Italy, men undergoing 12-core transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate needle biopsy. Indication for prostate biopsy was a PSA level of ≥4 ng/mL. Demographic, clinical, and histopathological data were collected. The PSA level was tested at enrolment (PSA 1 ) and 4 weeks later on the day before biopsy (PSA 2 ). Variations in PSA level were defined as: stable PSA 2 within a 10% variation, stable PSA 2 within a 20% variation, PSA 2 decreased by ≥10%, PSA 2 decreased by ≥20%, PSA 2 increased by ≥10%, PSA 2 increased by ≥20%, and PSA 2 PSA within 20% variation had a higher risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] 1.80, P PSA2 decreased by ≥20% had a lower risk of prostate cancer (OR 0.37, P PSA2 increased by ≥10% had an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR 1.93, P PSA returned to normal values (PSA levels significantly reduced the risk of high-grade prostate cancer. Further multicentre studies should validate our present results. © 2018 The Authors BJU International © 2018 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Elevated serum angiotensin converting enzyme levels in metastatic ovarian dysgerminoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    A case of a 32-year-old XY genotype female is described, presenting with mediastinal and abdominal lymphadenopathy and associated with an elevated serum angiotensin I converting enzyme (SACE) level. Lymph node histology showed a malignant dysgerminoma of ovarian origin. Combined chemotherapy led to a radiological regression of the lymphadenopathy and coincided with a decrease in SACE concentration. The authors suggest that SACE may be a marker for disseminated germinoma tumours and may be useful for monitoring treatment.

  5. Serum protein and enzyme levels in rats following administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group 1 served as control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were respectively gavaged with 200mg/kg body weight, 400mg/kg body weight and 600mg/kg body weight of the extract daily for 21 days. At the end of treatments, animals were sacrificed, serum and liver tissues obtained for assay of total protein concentration and levels of ...

  6. MMP-1 serum levels predict coronary atherosclerosis in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiser Maximilian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Myocardial infarction results as a consequence of atherosclerotic plaque rupture, with plaque stability largely depending on the lesion forming extracellular matrix components. Lipid enriched non-calcified lesions are considered more instable and rupture prone than calcified lesions. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are extracellular matrix degrading enzymes with plaque destabilisating characteristics which have been implicated in atherogenesis. We therefore hypothesised MMP-1 and MMP-9 serum levels to be associated with non-calcified lesions as determined by CT-angiography in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods 260 patients with typical or atypical chest pain underwent dual-source multi-slice CT-angiography (0.6-mm collimation, 330-ms gantry rotation time to exclude coronary artery stenosis. Atherosclerotic plaques were classified as calcified, mixed or non-calcified. Results In multivariable regession analysis, MMP-1 serum levels were associated with total plaque burden (OR: 1.37 (CI: 1.02-1.85; p Conclusion MMP-1 serum levels are associated with total plaque burden but do not allow a specification of plaque morphology.

  7. Serum cotinine levels and diabetes mellitus in never smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaarawy, Omayma; Elbaz, Hosam A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the association of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure evident by serum cotinine level, and diabetes mellitus in never smokers. Previous studies suggest that active tobacco cigarette smoking is associated with diabetes mellitus risk. However it is not clear if the low-level "background" ETS exposure is associated with diabetes among never smokers. We present evidence from five independent replications based on the US nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted 2003-12. Our exposure of interest is ETS exposure among never smokers, measured by serum cotinine levels (ng/mL), and our main outcome is diabetes mellitus assessed via self-reported physician-diagnosis, current use of insulin and/or oral hypoglycemic medications, plasma fasting glucose levels ≥126mg/dL or glycohemoglobin levels ≥6.5%. The conceptual model encompassed age, sex, ethnic self-identification, education, poverty-income ratio, alcohol drinking, total cholesterol and body mass index. In never smokers, higher serum cotinine levels were positively associated with diabetes mellitus (the meta-analytic summary estimate is 1.2, 95% CI=1.1, 1.2). This association was not evident among never smokers with cotinine levels below 3ng/mL. These replications help sustain evidence of ETS-diabetes mellitus association, which might be explained by shared psychosocial characteristics. Prospective studies with appropriate biomarkers are needed to further investigate this association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Integrated PSA Database and Application Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Kim, Seung Hwan; Choi, Sun Yeong; Jung, Woo Sik; Ha, Jae Joo; Ahn, Kwang Il

    2007-06-01

    The high quality of PSA is essential for the risk informed regulation and applications. The main elements of PSA are the model, methodology, reliability data, and tools. The purpose of the project is to develop the reliability database for the Korean nuclear power plants and PSA analysis and management system. The reliability database system has been developed and the reliability data has been collected for 4 types of reliability data such as the reactor trip, the piping, the component and the common cause failure. The database provides the reliability data for PSAs and risk informed applications. The FTREX software is the fastest PSA quantification engine in the world. The license agreement between KAERI and EPRI is made to sell FTREX to the members of EPRI. The advanced PSA management system AIMS- PSA has been developed. The PSA model is stored in the database and solved by clicking one button. All the information necessary for the KSNP Level-1 and 2 PSA is stored in the PSA information database. It provides the PSA users a useful mean to review and analyze the PSA

  9. The Serum Pepsinogen Level of Dairy Cows with Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali HAJIMOHAMMADI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of abomasal mucosal diseases in dairy cows suffering from gastrointestinal disorders is becoming more frequent in modern intensive production. Clinical signs are often non-specific. In this study, 67 dairy cows with gastrointestinal disorders and 9 healthy dairy cows as the control group were used. In order to make a tentative diagnosis, a complete physical examination was performed, and the fecal samples were taken from each cow for the fecal occult blood (FOB and the fecal egg count (FEC. Blood samples were taken from the coccygeal vein for WBC, Hematocrit (PCV evaluations, and serum biochemical analysis. Serum pepsinogen activity and total protein; albumin and globulin were measured using validated standard methods. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. The level of significance was set at P<0.05. A significant increase in serum pepsinogen activity was seen in all the cases of abomasal displacements compared to the control group. Among the abomasal displacement groups a significant increase in serum pepsinogen activity was seen in abomasal displacements with suspected abomasal ulcer in comparison with those without any signs of abomasal ulcer (positive FOB and melena. No considerable differences were observed between WBC, PCV, and total protein and globulin in different gastrointestinal disorders and the control group. In this study, the serum pepsinogen activity in all dairy cows with signs of abomasal ulcer (melena and positive fecal occult blood test was higher than the control group, since all of the cases had negative abomasal parasites; these increases in the signs of abomasal ulcer could predict abomasal ulcer complication in the cases of displacements.

  10. Association between serum uric acid level and metabolic syndrome components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejatinamini, Sara; Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Qorbani, Mostafa; Nikoohemat, Shideh; Kelishadi, Roya; Asayesh, Hamid; Hosseini, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Serum uric acid levels is reported to be associated with a variety of cardiometabolic risk factors; however, its direct association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains controversial. Thus, we examined the association of serum uric acid concentrations with the MetS components. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria. This case-control study comprised 101 non-smoking individuals (41 in the MetS group and 60 in the non-MetS group). Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profiles, uric acid, and anthropometric measures were determined, and body composition was assessed by using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). After adjustment for confounding factors, serum uric acid was significantly higher in MetS group than non-MetS group (5.70 ± 1.62 vs 4.97 ± 1.30 mg/dL, respectively, P = 0.001). After controlling for age, sex and body mass index in partial correlation analysis, uric acid was positively correlated with triglycerides, and negatively with HDL-C. In multiple logistic regression analysis, every 1 mg/dl elevation in the serum uric acid level increased the risk of MetS approximately by 2-folds (OR: 2.11, 95 % CI: 1.30-3.41). This study showed that those individuals with MetS have higher uric acid levels; the association of uric acid and MetS components supports that it might be an additional components of MetS.

  11. High levels of serum hyaluronic acid in adults with dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Ausciutti Victorino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background / objectives. Hyaluronic acid (HA is rarely described in dermatomyositis (DM. Thus, we determined any clinical association of serum levels of hyaluronic acid (HA in patients with dermatomyositis (DM. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional single-center analysis 75 DM and 75 healthy individuals, during the period from January 2012 to July 2013. An anti-HA antibody assay was performed using specific ELISA/EIA kits, according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Results. The patients with DM and control subjects had comparable demographic distributions (p>0.05. The median time duration between disease diagnosis and initial symptoms was 6.0 [3.0-12.0] months, with a median DM disease duration of 4.0 [1.0-7.0] years. The median level of serum HA was significantly increased in patients with DM compared to the control group [329.0 (80.0-958.0 vs. 133.0 (30.0-262.0 ng/mL, respectively; p0.05. Serum HA also did not correlate with gender, ethnicity, auto-antibodies or drug use (p>0.05, but did correlate with cutaneous features, such as photosensitivity (p=0.001, “shawl” sign (p=0.018, “V-neck” sign (p=0.005 and cuticular hypertrophy (p=0.014. Conclusions. A high level of serum AH was observed in DM compared to healthy individuals. In DM, HA did not correlate to demographic, auto-antibodies and therapy parameters. However, HA correlated specifically with some cutaneous features, suggesting that this glycosaminoglycan could be involved in modulating cutaneous inflammation in this population. More studies are necessary to understand the correlation between AH and patients with DM.

  12. Maternal serum CA-125 level is elevated in severe preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Erbil; Karaman, Yasemin; Alkış, İsmet; Han, Agahan; Yıldırım, Gökhan; Ark, Hasan Cemal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum concentrations of cancer antigen-125 (CA-125) and pre-eclampsia severity. We evaluated 91 females with a singleton pregnancy. Serum CA-125 levels were measured in subjects with severe pre-eclampsia (n=34) and those with mild pre-eclampsia (n=24). Females with healthy pregnancies (n=31) served as the control group. The three study groups were statistically similar in terms of maternal age, gestational age, and body mass index. The CA-125 level was significantly higher in the severe pre-eclampsia group than that in the mild pre-eclampsia and control groups (pCA-125 levels between the mild pre-eclampsia and control groups was observed. CA-125 level was positively correlated with proteinuria (r=0.489, p=0.000), systolic blood pressure (r=0.503, p=0.018), and diastolic blood pressure (r=0.532, p=0.000). In contrast, CA-125 was negatively correlated with birth weight (r=0.266, p=0.012) and gestational age at birth (r=0.250, p=0.018). CA-125 level increased in severe pre-eclampsia, which reflected abnormal trophoblastic invasion and chronic inflammation. Elevated levels of CA-125 in pre-eclamptic patients may be a marker of the disease severity. Copyright © 2013 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dickkopf-1 levels and serum Osteoprotegerin in women with Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Hajialilo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In bone the Wnt signaling pathway has diverse roles in bone modeling and remodeling. Dickkopf related protein 1(DKK-1,as an end ogenous inhibitors of the canonical Wnt/–catenin path ways pecific to bone and Osteoprotegerin(OPG,have been demonstrated to be key molecules involved in bone erosion and bone remodeling.The present study aimedto evaluate DKK-1 and OPG in women with osteoporosis to predict activity and severity of this common disease. METHODS: The study population included 44 women with osteoporosis and 44 controls with normal bone mineral density (BMD. Serum levels of DKK-1 and OPG were measured by standard methods. RESULTS: The serum Dkk1 concentration in the osteoporosis group (2.91 ± 1.27 was significantly increased compared to the control group (2.07 ± 0.87 (P < 0.010. The serum concentration of OPG was significantly higher incontrol group than patients (4.70 ± 2.16 vs. 4.56 ± 1.21; P = 0.005. CONCLUSIONS: Although the results of this study indicate that DKK-1 and OPG may play different roles in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, the increase of DKK-1 level and its correlation with FN-BMD might be related to disease activity and bone remodeling in osteoporosis.

  14. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) kinetics after 125I seed implantation (permanent Brachytherapy) for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebara, Shin; Katayama, Norihisa; Manabe, Daisuke

    2007-01-01

    Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) bounce (over 0.1 ng/ml) was observed in 25.7% of patients (18 of 70) within 30 month after brachytherapy in our series. Several reports demonstrated that PSA bounce was observed in 30-50% of patients, observed within 2 years after brachytherapy and continued following 1 year. PSA bounce should be considered when assessing a patient with a rising PSA level before PSA nadir was achieved 4-5 years after brachytherapy. (author)

  15. Increased serum asymmetric dimethylarginine levels in hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Nermin; Akhin, Okan

    2012-02-01

    We sought to investigate the serum levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine in pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum. Thirty-seven patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and 33 healthy controls were included in the study. Participants in the control group had no symptoms, or suffered only mild nausea without vomiting. The groups did not differ in age, weight, gestational week, or levels of hemoglobin, glucose or creatinine. The group with hyperemesis gravidarum had higher levels of blood urea nitrogen and liver transaminase than the controls (p = 0.005, 0.01, and 0.04, respectively). They also had lower levels of sodium and thyroid-stimulating hormone (p = 0.004 and 0.03, respectively). Serum levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine were 0.79 ± 0.39 μM in the group with hyperemesis gravidarum and 0.68 ± 0.21 μM in the control group (p = 0.001). The results of this study showed the role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum.

  16. The Effect of Serum Vitamin D on Serum ALT Levels in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Elaine; Qayyum, Rehan

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship between vitamin D (VD) and liver disease but none have explored this relationship in adults with normal liver enzymes. Our aim was to explore an independent association of VD with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in a large sample of the US adults with liver enzymes in normal range (≤39 U/L). We used the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2006. We excluded individuals with serum ALT>39 U/L. We built linear regression models to estimate unadjusted and adjusted (age, sex, race, diabetes, hypertension, alcohol use, smoking, and body mass index) effect sizes, taking into account the complex probability survey design. Of the 12,155 participants, 6635 (54.6%) were women, mean±SD age was 49.9±19.4 years, VD was 21.9±9.2 ng/mL, and ALT was 20.9±6.9 U/L. In unadjusted analysis, VD was significantly associated with serum ALT (0.02 U/L/ng/mL of VD, P=0.007). After adjustment for confounders, VD remained statistically significantly associated with serum ALT levels (0.04 U/L, PALT than those in the lowest quartile (unadjusted difference=0.98 U/L, PALT after excluding individuals with suspected active liver injury (ALT>39 U/L). The underlying mechanisms for this association are not known and needs further study.

  17. Serum uric acid levels during leprosy reaction episodes

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    Yvelise T. Morato-Conceicao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum. Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions. Methods. The study included patients aged 18–69 years assisted at a leprosy treatment reference center in the Central Region of Brazil. Patients who were pregnant; were using immunosuppressant drugs or immunobiologicals; or had an autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or tuberculosis were excluded. Upon recruitment, all individuals were clinically assessed for skin lesions and neural or systemic impairment. Some patients had already completed treatment for leprosy, while others were still undergoing treatment or had initiated treatment after being admitted. The treatment of the reactional episode was started only after the initial evaluation. Laboratory assessments were performed upon admission (baseline and at approximately 30 and 60 days (time points 1 and 2, respectively. Results. A total of 123 leprosy patients were recruited between June 2012 and June 2015; among them, 56, 42, and 25 presented with type 1, type 2, and no reactions, respectively. Serum UA levels were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions compared with patients in the control group and remained lower in the two subsequent assessments, after initiation of anti-reaction treatments, with similar values to those recorded before the treatment. Discussion. The decreased serum UA levels in

  18. Serum Leptin Levels in Women with Immunological Recurrent Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Saeed; Soltanghoraee, Haleh; Mohammadzadeh, Afsaneh; Arefi, Soheila; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Idali, Farah; Tavangar, Banafsheh; Savadi Shiraz, Elham; Moshref Behzad, Narges; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recurrent abortion (RA) may be a consequence of aberrant expression of immunological factors during pregnancy. Although the relative importance of immunological factors in human reproduction remains controversial, substantial evidence suggests that autoantibodies contribute to reproductive failure. Production of such antibodies is under the control of cytokines; and leptin, besides its role in reproductive success, has a profound effect on directing the cytokine profile toward Th1 (cellular) pattern. Therefore, the present study was performed to assess serum leptin levels in women with immunological recurrent abortion. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 250 women who attended Avicenna Infertility Clinic with RA were screened for known causes of abortion from July to December 2008 in Tehran, Iran. Eighty-one patients with normal karyotypes and hormonal profile with normal ovaries and uterus and no signs of infection were categorized as patients with immunological (IRA, n = 39) or unexplained (URA, n = 42) recurrent abortion based on presence or absence of autoantibodies. After blood sampling, levels of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-double stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA), lupus anti-coagulant antibody (LACAb), anti-phospholipid antibody (APA), anti-cardiolipin antibody (ACA), anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) and anti-thrombin III antibody (ATIIIAb) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). Results In IRA group, 9 (23.1%), 24 (61.5%), 25(64.1%) and 1 (2.6%) women were above the normal cut-off point for ANA, TgAbs, TPOAbs and AT-III Abs, respectively. IRA patients had normal values of LACAbs, APA and ACA. With normal level of fasting blood sugar (FBS), IRA and URA groups had similar serum leptin levels (23.7 ± 13.2 ng/ml vs. 22.7 ± 12.5 ng/ml, respectively). Serum leptin concentrations showed a positive correlation with weight

  19. Serum visfatin levels in Behçet's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Emiroğlu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The genetic predisposition, infectious agents, various antibodies and oxidative stress has been suggested to be among the possible causes of the etiopathogenesis of Behçet’s disease (BD. Recently, a new protein called visfatin, synthesized by adipose tissue has been identified. Visfatin has been found to be associated with many cases like insulin resistance, obesity, atherosclerosis, inflammation, immunity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum visfatin levels and the activity of Behçet's disease, and determine the role of visfatin in the inflammatory process of BD. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients (43 M, 57 F who were diagnosed as Behçet’s disease according to BD International Working Group criteria and 60 (31 M, 29 F healthy individuals joined the study. Patient group was composed of 50 active and 50 inactive Behçet's patients. Statistical analyzes were performed with SPSS 15.0 program. Results: Visfatin levels were significantly higher in both group of patients compared to the control group (p<0.001 (p<0.001. Serum visfatin levels in patients with active disease were found statistically significantly higher than inactive patients (p<0.001. Conclusions: Serum visfatin levels in both active and inactive patient groups were higher than the control group. Visfatin is a proinflammatory cytokine and has a role in chronic inflammatory reaction by inducing cellular expression of inflammatory cytokines. Visfatin may play a role via this method in the pathogenesis of active and chronic phase of Behcet's disease.

  20. Serum levels of osteopontin are increased in SIRS and sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaschetto, Rosanna; Nicola, Stefania; Olivieri, Carlo; Boggio, Elena; Piccolella, Fabio; Mesturini, Riccardo; Damnotti, Federica; Colombo, Davide; Navalesi, Paolo; Della Corte, Francesco; Dianzani, Umberto; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

    2008-12-01

    In sepsis, dysregulation of the immune response leads to rapid multiorgan failure and death. Accurate and timely diagnosis is lifesaving and should discriminate sepsis from the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) caused by non-infectious agents. Osteopontin acts as an extracellular matrix component or a soluble cytokine in inflamed tissues. Its exact role in immune response and sepsis remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the role of osteopontin in SIRS and sepsis. Prospective, observational study. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Fifty-six patients with SIRS or sepsis and 56 healthy subjects were enrolled. We analyzed the serum levels of osteopontin and TH1-TH2 cytokines and investigated the role of osteopontin on interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes. Serum osteopontin levels were strikingly higher in patients than in controls and in sepsis than in SIRS, and decreased during the resolution of both the disorders. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that osteopontin levels have discriminative power between SIRS and sepsis with an area under the curve of 0.796. Osteopontin levels directly correlated with those of interleukin 6 and in vitro, recombinant osteopontin increased interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes in both the absence and presence of high doses of lipopolysaccharide. These data suggest that osteopontin might be a mediator involved in the pathogenesis of SIRS and sepsis, possibly by supporting interleukin 6 secretion. 45. SIRS/Sepsis: clinical studies.

  1. Cutoff Values of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) in Normal Korean Adults and Factors Influencing Serum CEA Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Soon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    1994-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic Antigen is one of most frequently checked tumor markers in cancer management. We performed statistical analysis with serum CEA data of 2626 persons who received regular health examination and were thought to be free of active disease to determine the cutoff values of serum CEA level in normal Korean adults and to study the factors influencing serum CEA levels in normal subjects. 1) The cutoff values of serum CEA in normal Korean adults in general were 9.28 ng/ml for men, 5.90 ng/ml for women. 2) Serum CEA level was influenced by age, present smoking history, sex, and abnormal findings in chest X ray. 3) Serum CEA level had no correlation with the history of amount of alcohol consumption or obesity. 4) Cutoff values of serum CEA in normal Korean adults were tabulated according to age, sex, and smoking history. Serum CEA level was influenced by age, sex, present smoking history and abnormal findings in chest X ray and cutoff values of serum CEA were tabulated according to age, sex, and smoking history.

  2. Programmable automation systems in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkinen, U.

    1997-06-01

    The Finnish safety authority (STUK) requires plant specific PSAs, and quantitative safety goals are set on different levels. The reliability analysis is more problematic when critical safety functions are realized by applying programmable automation systems. Conventional modeling techniques do not necessarily apply to the analysis of these systems, and the quantification seems to be impossible. However, it is important to analyze contribution of programmable automation systems to the plant safety and PSA is the only method with system analytical view over the safety. This report discusses the applicability of PSA methodology (fault tree analyses, failure modes and effects analyses) in the analysis of programmable automation systems. The problem of how to decompose programmable automation systems for reliability modeling purposes is discussed. In addition to the qualitative analysis and structural reliability modeling issues, the possibility to evaluate failure probabilities of programmable automation systems is considered. One solution to the quantification issue is the use of expert judgements, and the principles to apply expert judgements is discussed in the paper. A framework to apply expert judgements is outlined. Further, the impacts of subjective estimates on the interpretation of PSA results are discussed. (orig.) (13 refs.)

  3. Body mass index and its effect on serum cortisol level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeniyi, I A; Fasanmade, O A; Ogbera, A O; Ohwovoriole, A E

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol measurement is indicated in suspected over or under production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. The finding of low cortisol can create concern and initiate further investigations for the exclusion of adrenal insufficiency. Cushing's syndrome is frequently included in the differential diagnosis of obesity. Some literature describes reduced serum cortisol levels in obesity, however, this is not a well-recognized phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum cortisol levels. Seventy healthy participants agreed to take part in the study. The anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist and hip circumferences) were done. Exclusion criteria include those with a history of adrenal/pituitary disease or medications altering cortisol level. The basal cortisol (BC) sample was taken at 8 a.m. immediately before administration of an intravenous bolus injection of 250 μg adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). BMI categories were defined as normal and high if BMI was 18.5-24.99 kg/m² and ≥ 25 kg/m², respectively. Forty (57.1%) participants had normal BMI while 30 (42.9%) participants had BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² (P0 = 0.053). The mean BC level was lower in participants with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² but not significant. There was a negative correlation between BMI and BC level ( r = -0.205, P = 0.88) while a positive correlation existed between stimulated cortisol level and BMI (r = 0.009, P = 0.944). Persons with BMI above 25 kg/m² had lower BC level though not statistically significant, the trend was noticed. Subjecting people whose BMI is above 25 kg/m² to further stimulation with ACTH because of low BC is not advised because their response to ACTH stimulation was similar to those who have normal BMI.

  4. Correlation of EPO and VEGF levels in serum and aqueous humor with ocular hemodynamics and oxidative stress - mitochondrial function in patients with glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ya Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of EPO and VEGF levels in serum and aqueous humor with ocular hemodynamics and oxidative stress - mitochondrial function in patients with neovascular glaucoma (NVG. Methods: A total of 47 patients who were diagnosed with neovascular glaucoma in Mianyang Wanjiang Ophthalmic Hospital between April 2015 and April 2017 were selected as the NVG group of the study, and 75 patients who were diagnosed with cataract in Mianyang Wanjiang Ophthalmic Hospital over the same period were selected as the CAT group of the study. The aqueous humor and serum samples were collected to determine the contents of EPO, VEGF, oxidative stress molecules and mitochondrial function molecules; the intraocular vascular hemodynamic parameters were detected. Results: EPO and VEGF contents in serum as well as EPO and VEGF contents in aqueous humor of NVG group were significantly higher than those of CAT group; EDV and PSA levels of central retinal artery as well as EDV and PSA levels of short posterior ciliary artery in NVG group were significantly lower than those in CAT group and negatively correlated with EPO and VEGF contents in aqueous humor; MDA, AOPP, Drp1, CytC, Apaf-1 and caspase-3 contents in aqueous humor of NVG group were significantly higher than those of CAT group and positively correlated with EPO and VEGF contents in aqueous humor while SOD, GSH-Px, CAT, Mfn1 and Mfn2 contents were significantly lower than those of CAT group and negatively correlated with EPO and VEGF contents in aqueous humor. Conclusion: The abnormal increase of EPO and VEGF contents in serum and aqueous humor of patients with glaucoma is closely related to the increase of ocular blood resistance, activation of oxidative stress reaction and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  5. Serial ricinine levels in serum and urine after ricin intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røen, Bent Tore; Opstad, Aase Mari; Haavind, Anniken; Tønsager, Janne

    2013-06-01

    Ricinine is an alkaloid present in the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) that can be used as a biomarker for ricin poisoning. Serial ricinine levels are reported in the serum and urine of a patient suffering from intentional ricin intoxication. The patient was brought to the hospital 4 h after injection and oral intake of a castor bean extract, but died 38 h later, despite intensive medical care. Ricinine was isolated from the samples by solid-phase extraction and quantitatively determined by isotopic dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ricinine level in serum declined from 33 to 23 ng/mL between 10 and 29 h post-exposure. Three urine samples collected from 12 to 41 h after ricin intoxication showed ricinine concentrations in the range of 20-58 ng/mL. The creatinine corrected values (21-30 µg/g) indicated a concentration-time profile with a maximum ricinine level in urine between 12 and 29 h after exposure.

  6. Serum selenium and zinc levels in critically ill surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji Young; Shim, Hongjin; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Jae Gil

    2014-04-01

    The authors designed this study to determine how serum selenium and zinc affect the outcomes of critically ill surgical patients. The medical records of 162 patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) from October 2010 to July 2012 and managed for more than 3 days were retrospectively investigated. Overall, the mean patient age was 61.2 ± 15.0 years, and the median ICU stay was 5 (3-115) days. The mean Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 18.0 ± 8.0. Eighteen (11.1%) of the study subjects died in ICU. mean selenium levels were 83.5 ± 23.8 ng/dL in the survivor group and 83.3 ± 29.6 ng/dL in the nonsurvivor group, and corresponding mean zinc levels were 46.3 ± 21.7 and 65.6 ± 41.6 μg/dL, respectively. Mean selenium concentrations were significantly different in patients with and without shock (77.9 ± 25.4 and 87.2 ± 23.1 ng/dL, P = .017). Furthermore, mean serum selenium was lower in patients with sepsis than in traumatic or simply postoperative patients (P selenium and zinc levels on critically ill surgical patients, a large-scale prospective study is needed. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Serum Levels of Oxylipins in Achilles Tendinopathy: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Nording, Malin L.; Gaida, Jamie E.; Forsgren, Sture; Alfredson, Håkan; Fowler, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Linoleic acid-derived oxidation products are found in experimental pain models. However, little is known about the levels of such oxylipins in human pain. In consequence, in the present study, we have undertaken a lipidomic profiling of oxylipins in blood serum from patients with Achilles tendinopathy and controls. Methodology/Principal findings A total of 34 oxylipins were analysed in the serum samples. At a significance level of Ptendinopathy samples. This difference remained significant when the dataset was controlled for age, gender and body-mass index. In contrast, 0/21 of the arachidonic acid- and 0/4 of the dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahenaenoic acid-derived oxylipins were higher in the patient samples at this level of significance. The area under the Receiver-Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve for 12,13-DiHOME was 0.91 (Ptendinopathy. Given the ability of two of these, 9- and 13-HODE to activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, it is possible that these changes may contribute to the symptoms seen in Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:25875933

  8. Serum transferrin levels in children with protein-energy malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selime Aydoğdu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although the diagnosis of patients with severemalnutrition is easy, it is very difficult to recognize patientswith mild and moderate malnutrition. A variety of methodsattempts to develop for early diagnosis of these cases.In this study, we evaluated the serum transferrin and albuminlevels in children with mild, moderate and severeprotein-energy malnutrition (PEM.Materials and methods: Children admitted to our policlinic,aged between 3 and 25 months, 45 subjects withPEM and 39 healthy subjects (control group were evaluated.According to the Gomez, Waterlow and Kanawatisubjects with PEM were divided in 3 subgroups mild,moderate and severe PEM. Anthropometric measurementsand biochemical results of 4 groups were compared.Results: For albumin levels in mild to moderate PEMgroups, 37.7% sensitivity, and 28.5% specificity, positivepredictive value 54%; negative predictive value 16.6%was found. For severe PEM sensitivity, specificity, positivepredictive value and negative predictive value were71%, 62.5%, 45%, and 83.3% respectively.With respect to the levels of transferrin, a significant differencewas found between mild PEM-control and moderatePEM-control groups (p0.05.Conclusion: Our study results showed that albumin isa weak indicator in mild-moderate PEM. In these cases,serum transferrin level reduces before decreasing of albuminlevel, thus it may be an early sensitive finding thatcan be used as a sensitive parameter in the diagnosis ofearly stages of malnutrition.Key words: Protein energy malnutrition, children, albumin,transferrin

  9. IAEA work with guides for PSA quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstroem, Per

    2004-09-01

    IAEA has a project on development of a TECDOC 'PSA Quality for Various Applications'. The project develops the guidance document in stages with intermediate meetings with exchange of ideas, thoughts and experience. Draft versions are being produced successively. The objective with the project is to use attributes to describe the quality of different elements of a PSA (Analysis of initiating events, accident progression, system, data, human reliability, etc) making the PSA suitable for application in various risk informed activities. Two of the meetings in this project took place in February 2004 and in July 2004. The February meeting discussed different aspects of PSA quality in relation to applications and a draft of the TECDOC was reviewed. The meeting made recommendations for preparation of a final document and set priorities for further work in the area. The July meeting elaborated the document further in a small working group and a new draft version was prepared. A final version is expected to be published during 2005. The project has come to the conclusion that it is a limited number of PSA element attributes that are specific for a certain application. Most of the attributes concern plant specificity, realism and level of detail in a general manner, how plant specific is the model, how realistic and how detailed? Many attributes have the characteristic that they are good to have, but not necessarily needed to do the job. This last statement is valid both for a baseline PSA and a PSA application. The IAEA project has identified a limited number of attributes that are necessary to describe characteristics needed for specific applications. The PSA scope needed for a specific application is not covered by the project/document, even though it is obvious that different applications will need different scope or approaches to handle scope limitations. The guidance on performing a PSA available today is old. It is a need to review these guides and update with regard

  10. An assessment ofvitamin D serum levels in allergic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Rustecka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a worldwide increase in the incidence of allergy, particularly in the paediatric population. The most common allergic conditions include asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, food allergies and urticaria. There are a number of publications showing the importance of serum vitamin D levels in atopic diseases. The effects of vitamin D on the balance between Th1 and Th2 lymphocyte-mediated immune response as well as the antiinflammatory effects by limiting TNF-α overproduction are emphasised. The role of vitamin D in the formation of natural endogenous antibiotics and antimicrobials, such as defensins and cathelicidins, is also known. Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to assess serum vitamin D levels in allergic children. Material and methods: Children diagnosed with allergy and/or monitored for atopic disease as well as children with recurrent respiratory infections were included in the study. The children were diagnosed and treated at the Department of Paediatrics, Paediatric Nephrology and Allergology of the Military Institute of Medicine in the period from September 2011 to August 2013. A total of 60 children were qualified to a group with allergy diagnosis (group I, and 49 children formed a group with recurrent respiratory infections (group II. Vitamin D levels were measured in 109 children aged from 2 months to 18 years. Results: Low levels of vitamin D (below the normal limit were shown in both paediatric groups. No statistically significant (p = 0.25 effects of the season on vitamin D levels were found in the whole evaluated population of children. A statistically significant (p < 0.0001 negative correlation was shown between vitamin D serum levels and the age of the assessed children (vitamin D levels decreased with age.

  11. Obesity itself does not influence BDNF serum levels in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewska, E; Sobieska, M; Łojko, D; Wieczorowska-Tobis, K; Suwalska, A

    2014-01-01

    In European countries more than 50% of the population are overweight, 30% with obesity. In Poland overweight was present in 41% of men and 28.7% of women (obesity 15.7% and 19.9%). It was examined whether obesity affects serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which may lead to the consequences of obesity, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and finally the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to examine whether obesity affects the serum levels of BDNF and IL-6. The study involved 144 people aged 45 to 86 years, 80 subjects with diagnosed obesity and 64 with normal body weight, ≤ 65 years old (n = 45) and > 65 years old (n = 99). All patients underwent tests of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides levels, using routine laboratory methods. A test of the concentration of IL-6 and BDNF was carried out. The declared level of physical activity (gymnastics, cycling or walking) was considered. It was shown that in women ≤ 65 years old, obesity was associated with higher levels of interleukin-6. When the test group, divided into the above categories, was analyzed for the diagnosis of hypertension, heart failure or diabetes mellitus, no statistically significant differences in the investigated parameters were detected. The concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor did not differ in the investigated subjects, regardless of sex, age, obesity, or the declared physical activity. The concentration of interleukin-6 in younger people, including those with normal body weight, correlated with total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and it was significantly higher in obese women compared to those with normal body weight.

  12. Workshop on PSA for New and Advanced Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This workshop was organized by the NEA Working Group on Risk Assessment (WGRISK). The key objective of the workshop was to share the current state-of-the art on the PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) applied for new reactors and advanced reactors. Fifty experts from 13 countries and one international organization (IAEA) participated in the present workshop, and 35 technical papers were presented. The main topics of interest, discussed during the workshop, included the followings: regulatory aspects, risk-informed methods, technical aspects of the PSA for new and advanced reactors, hazards of PSA (internal and external), severe accident/source term/Level 2 PSA, and consequence analysis/Level 3 PSA. Among the technical aspects of the PSA, the assessment of the reliability of passive safety systems appears to be a recurrent issue

  13. Deconvolution of serum cortisol levels by using compressed sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose T Faghih

    Full Text Available The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R (2 above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders.

  14. Serum level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Renato Santos; de Oliveira, Daniel Arcuschin; Martinho, Vitor Augusto Melão; Antoneli, Célia Beatriz Gianotti; Marcussi, Ludmilla Altino de Lima; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma patients, with or without disease activity, with reference values and with patients from a general hospital. Methods The serum levels of vitamin D3 were measured in cutaneous melanoma patients, aged 20 to 88 years, both genders, from January 2010 to December 2013. The samples from the general group were processed at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (control group). Data analysis was performed using the Statistics software. Results A total of 100 patients were studied, 54 of them men, with mean age of 54.67 years, and 95 Caucasian. Out of these 100 patients, 17 had active disease. The average levels of vitamin D3 in the melanoma patients were lower than the level considered sufficient, but above the average of the control group. Both groups (with or without active disease) of patients showed a similar distribution of vitamin D3 deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D3 levels in melanoma patients were higher than those of general patients and lower than the reference level. If the reference values are appropriate, a large part of the population had insufficient levels of vitamin D, including those with melanoma, or else, this standard needs to be reevaluated. No difference in vitamin D3 levels was found among melanoma patients with or without active disease. More comprehensive research is needed to assess the relation between vitamin D and melanoma. PMID:25628199

  15. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Miller, Austin; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Underwood, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) were obtained from four groups of men: (1) Controls (2) with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx) (3) with clinically localized CaP and (4) with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93) and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97) were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP). The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997). The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992) and PSA (AUC = 0.963) levels. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted. PMID:25593898

  16. Serum prostate-specific antigen in monitoring the response of carcinoma of the prostate to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fijuth, J.; Chauvet, B.; Vincent, P.; Felix-Faure, C.; Reboul, F.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess value of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in the monitoring of patients with localized prostatic carcinoma undergoing radical radiation therapy, 146 previously untreated patients were studied. To the prostate 60-70 Gy were administered over 8-9 weeks. Median follow-up was 28 every 3 months during 1st year and every 6 months after. Serum PSA levels were measured prior to radiotherapy. Pre-treatment PSA values exceeded 10 ng/ml in 62%. Initial PSA values were correlated with tumor size and Gleason score. PSA levels decreased 6 months after completion of radiation therapy, compared to initial value in 88.3%. It had fallen to 10 ng/ml or less in 59% with initial abnormal PSA levels. Patients whose initial PSA exceeded 50 ng/ml attained levels of 10 ng/ml or less in only 19%. Only 3/55 with both initial and 6-month PSA values ≤ 10 ng/ml developed metastases. Of 91 patients with initial PSA values over 10 ng/ml 54 had a 6-month PSA level of 10 ng/ml or less, and only 4/54 relapsed. By contrast, 13/37 patients with a 6-month PSA level persistently above 10 ng/ml relapsed. The 3-year relapse-free survival is 85.1% for 6-month PSA level ≤ 10 ng/ml, and 50.2% for patients with persistently elevated PSA values. This difference is highly significant (p 10 ng/ml and relative difference between an initial and a 6-month PSA value of less than 50%, developed metastases. By contrast, when relative difference was ≥50%, only 6/69 belonging to this group had local recurrence or developed metastases. The 3-year relapse-free survival rate was significantly superior in latter group (76.9 versus 30.2%, p<0.0001). It is concluded that a PSA value in excess of 10 mg/nl 6 months after radiation therapy or a relative difference between an initial and a 6- month PSA value of less than 50% have a poor prognostic significance and are discriminant criteria to identify a subset of patients with a high risk of relapse who may benefit from early hormonal therapy

  17. [Severely increased serum lipid levels in diabetic ketoacidosis - case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Hrafnkell; Sigvaldason, Kristinn; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Sigurjonsdottir, Helga Águsta

    2017-01-01

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia is a known, but uncommon complication of diabetic ketoacidosis. We discuss the case of a 23-year-old, previously healthy, woman who initially presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain. Grossly lipemic serum due to extremely high triglyceride (38.6 mmol/L) and cholesterol (23.2 mmol/L) levels were observed with a high blood glucose (23 mmol/L) and a low pH of 7.06 on a venous blood gas. She was treated successfully with fluids and insulin and had no sequale of pancreatitis or cerebral edema. Her triglycerides and cholesterol was normalized in three days and she was discharged home on insulin therapy after five days. Further history revealed a recent change in diet with no meat, fish or poultry consumption in the last 12 months and concomitantly an increase in carbohydrate intake which might have contributed to her extremely high serum lipid levels. This case demonstrates that clinicians should be mindful of the different presentations of diabetic ketoacidosis. Key words: diabetic ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia, vegan diet, carbohydrate diet. Correspondence: Hrafnkell Stefansson, hrafnkell.stefans@gmail.com.

  18. Interleukin-6 genotypes and serum levels in Chinese Hui population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-Ping; Liang, Shu; Pan, Min; Sun, Rong-Liang; Chen, Chu; Luan, Hong; Jiang, Min-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in different physiologic and pathophysiologic processes, and circulating levels of IL-6 differ greatly between individuals. The Chinese Hui is one of the largest ethnic minorities, little is known about the distribution of IL-6 genetic variations and their effects on serum levels in Hui population. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of -174G/C (rs1800795), -597G/A (rs1800797), and -634C/G (rs1800796) polymorphisms in the IL-6 gene promoter region and their association with IL-6 serum levels in the Ningxia Hui population. A total of 96 Hui subjects, (57 men and 39 women; mean age 49.65 ± 19.73 years) unrelated nationality residents in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region were enrolled. Genotyping of the three polymorphisms were performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) combined with gel electrophoresis and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The -174G/C (97.92% GG, 2.08% GC, and 0% CC) and -597G/A (98.96% GG, 1.04% GA, and 0% AA) polymorphisms were rare. The frequencies of -634C/G genotypes CC, CG, and GG were found to be 54.17%, 40.62%, and 5.21%, respectively in total studied subjects, the derived allele frequencies for the C and G alleles were 74.48% and 25.52%. Increased IL-6 levels were correlated with the IL-6 -634G allele carriers (CG+GG genotypes). The results suggest that IL-6 -174G/C and -597G/A are rare but -634C/G is common in the Ningxia Hui population, and the -634G allele is associated with circulating levels of IL-6.

  19. Serum levels of growth hormone binding protein in children with normal and precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Fisker, Sidse; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2000-01-01

    To study the regulation of GHBP serum levels by gonadal steroids in normal and precocious puberty.......To study the regulation of GHBP serum levels by gonadal steroids in normal and precocious puberty....

  20. Depression and BMI influences the serum vascular endothelial growth factor level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elfving, Betina; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Foldager, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    in serum by immunoassay and independent determinants of the serum VEGF level were assessed by generalized linear models.The main findings were that depression, severity of depression, previous depressive episodes, age and body mass index (BMI) were associated with higher serum VEGF levels. The genetic...... marker rs10434 was significantly associated with depression after correction for multiple testing, but not with the serum VEGF level. Our final model included depression and BMI as predictors of serum VEGF levels. Our study suggests a role for circulating serum VEGF in depression. Furthermore, our data...

  1. Association between physical activity and serum C-peptide levels among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Meng, Lu; Miao, QianQian; Sato, Yasuto

    2014-07-01

    Serum C-peptide is an active peptide that has important physiological functions and characteristics in the elderly. The present study aimed to investigate the association between physical activity and serum C-peptide level independent of insulin level among the elderly. The study included 1700 elderly participants aged ≥ 65 years. Stratified analysis of covariance was used to compare serum C-peptide levels in participants with different physical activity levels. Two separate multiple linear regression models were created to estimate the association between physical activity and serum C-peptide level. The results of analysis of covariance stratified by sex, body mass index and serum insulin level showed that those who engaged in vigorous physical activity had lower serum C-peptide levels than those who engaged in light or no physical activity. Separate multiple linear regression analysis showed that in those with low serum C-peptide levels (≤ 0.621 nmol/L), physical activity was significantly positively associated with the serum C-peptide level. In contrast, physical activity was negatively associated with the serum C-peptide level among those with serum C-peptide level >0.621 nmol/L. The serum C-peptide level showed a significant two-way association with physical activity. The present findings suggest that physical activity modification is important for improving serum C-peptide levels among the elderly. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Mutational analysis of photosystem I polypeptides in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Targeted inactivation of psaI reveals the function of psaI in the structural organization of psaL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Hoppe, D.; Chitnis, V. P.; Odom, W. R.; Guikema, J. A.; Chitnis, P. R.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    We cloned, characterized, and inactivated the psaI gene encoding a 4-kDa hydrophobic subunit of photosystem I from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The psaI gene is located 90 base pairs downstream from psaL, and is transcribed on 0.94- and 0.32-kilobase transcripts. To identify the function of PsaI, we generated a cyanobacterial strain in which psaI has been interrupted by a gene for chloramphenicol resistance. The wild-type and the mutant cells showed comparable rates of photoautotrophic growth at 25 degrees C. However, the mutant cells grew slower and contained less chlorophyll than the wild-type cells, when grown at 40 degrees C. The PsaI-less membranes from cells grown at either temperature showed a small decrease in NADP+ photoreduction rate when compared to the wild-type membranes. Inactivation of psaI led to an 80% decrease in the PsaL level in the photosynthetic membranes and to a complete loss of PsaL in the purified photosystem I preparations, but had little effect on the accumulation of other photosystem I subunits. Upon solubilization with nonionic detergents, photosystem I trimers could be obtained from the wild-type, but not from the PsaI-less membranes. The PsaI-less photosystem I monomers did not contain detectable levels of PsaL. Therefore, a structural interaction between PsaL and PsaI may stabilize the association of PsaL with the photosystem I core. PsaL in the wild-type and PsaI-less membranes showed equal resistance to removal by chaotropic agents. However, PsaL in the PsaI-less strain exhibited an increased susceptibility to proteolysis. From these data, we conclude that PsaI has a crucial role in aiding normal structural organization of PsaL within the photosystem I complex and the absence of PsaI alters PsaL organization, leading to a small, but physiologically significant, defect in photosystem I function.

  3. Quantitative Assessment of Serum Nickel and Chromium Levels in Orthodontic Patients: An in vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Rai

    2011-01-01

    Results : Results obtained indicated that although nickel level in the serum was significant initially in the samples when compared to the controls, there was a gradual decrease of serum nickel level when the appliance was present for a longer duration. However, serum chromium levels showed no significant changes with time.

  4. UV/EB curable psa's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glotfelter, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The author describe both water-based and 100% solids UV/EB curable PSA's (Pressure Sensitive Adhesives) and their properties. A new acrylate monomer, ethoxylated nonyl phenol acrylate, has great utility in the formulation of water-based PSA's

  5. A case report of monitoring PSA level changes in two prostate cancer patients treated with Mountain Ginseng Pharmacopuncture and Sweet Bee Venom along with western anticancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhee Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this report is to find out how Mountain Ginseng Pharmacopuncture(MGP and Sweet Bee Venom(SBV treatments are effective on prostate cancer patients by monitoring Prostate specific antigen(PSA values. Methods: We treated two prostate cancer patients with MGP and SBV from October 2008 to April 2011. One patient had localized prostate cancer, the other was in the terminal stage of prostate cancer with lung and bone metastasis and both had been receiving western anticancer therapy. We had monitored the changes of PSA value. Results: In case 1, MGP and SBV treatments seemed to be helpful in preventing the recurrence of localized prostate cancer. In case 2, PSA value was decreased by MGP treatment. Conclusions: It is conceivable that MGP and SBV are effective treatments for patients with prostate cancer.

  6. Cytokine Levels in the Serum of Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Kleiner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing knowledge about the cytokine network response has led to a better comprehension of mechanisms of pathologies and to the development of new treatments with biological drugs, able to block specific molecules of the immune response. Indeed, when the cytokine production is deregulated, diseases often occur. The understanding of the physiological mechanism of the cytokine network would be useful to better comprehend pathological conditions. Moreover, since the immune system and response change their properties with development, differences in patients' age should be taken into account, both in physiological and in pathological conditions. In this study, we analyzed the profile of 48 cytokines and chemokines in the serum of healthy subjects, comparing adults (≥18 years with young children and children (1–6 and 7–17 years. We found that a certain number of cytokines were not being produced in healthy subjects; others showed a constant serum level amongst the groups. Certain cytokines exhibited a downward or an upward trend with increasing age. The remaining cytokines were up- or downregulated in the group of the children with respect to the other groups. In conclusion, we drew some kinds of guidelines about the physiological production of cytokines and chemokines, underling the difference caused by aging.

  7. Serum adipocytokine levels in patients with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Uslu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Adipose tissue, besides its main function as an energy storage depot, is currently considered an endocrine organ that secretes several self-produced cytokines. Leptin and resistin play an important role in energy homeostasis, glucose, lipid metabolism and regulation of body weight. The aim of the current study was to determine the concentration of leptin and resistin in pre-operational and post-operational periods of patients diagnosed as colorectal cancer.Materials and methods: The body mass index (BMI and values of leptin and resistin in blood at diagnosis were measured in 12 colorectal cancer patients in pre- and post-operational periods and in 12 age- and sex-matched controls. Serum leptin and resistin concentrations were measured by ELISA method.Results: Decreased leptin (1.95±0.62 ng/ml and resistin (4.32±1.83 ng/ml levels were found in pre-operational group compared with the control group (leptin: 6.12±0.82 ng/ml; resistin: 10.75±1.46 ng/ml (p0.05.Conclusion: We conclude that serum concentration of leptin and resistin may have a role in patients with colorectal cancers. Further studies are needed to investigate the possible prognostic value of leptin and resistin in clinical practice of patients with colorectal cancers.

  8. Comparative study of serum ferritin levels after oral supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron supplementation is almost universally recommended during pregnancy to correct or prevent iron deficiency. Iron status can be assessed prepartum by estimating blood hemoglobin concentration, serum iron, serum total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin. This study attempts to know the therapeutic efficacy ...

  9. Serum and hair zinc levels of infants and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özden, Tülin Ayşe; Gökçay, Gülbin; Işsever, Halim; Durmaz, Özlem; Sökücü, Semra; Saner, Günay

    2012-07-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the zinc status of mothers and their infants attending a well-child clinic. Blood and hair samples were collected from infants and their mothers at 2nd, 6th,12th month after delivery. Information on infant and their mothers' dietary habits was gathered. Of all infants and their mothers, 54.6% and 12.6% had low hair zinc levels; 17% and 4.6% low serum zinc levels respectively. There was a positive relationship between mother's hair zinc level and her meat consumption at 2 and 6 months after delivery. A significant number of infants and mothers had low hair zinc levels. Hair zinc concentrations of infants decreased significantly towards the end of first year. This may be due to low zinc intake of mothers. The main contribution of our study to the literature was the positive relationship between the red meat intake and maternal hair zinc levels. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Serum leptin levels in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, S.; Ahmed, Z.; Fayyaz, I.; Mehmood, S.; Chani, M.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of morbidity, mortality and disability worldwide. Leptin, a 16kDa product of ob gene, is an endocrine hormone produced by white adipose tissue. It is primarily involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Hyperleptinemia is one of the novel risk factors contributing in many ways to CVD. Objective: The objective of the study was to find the level of leptin in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and compare it with healthy people in our population. Methods: Our study was an analytical and cross-sectional study. Our study included 60 patients with a history of CAD and 60 healthy controls (aged 40-60 years, both sexes). Leptin levels were measured by ELISA. Results: Mean serum leptin level in patients was 11.48+-11.25 g/ml, while control group had a mean leptin level of 8.22+-8.01 g/ml (p=0.071). Conclusion: Leptin levels were higher in patients but the difference was non-significant. More studies are needed with larger sample size in our population. (author)

  11. Prostate specific antigen level in a fertilizer factory workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, K.M.; Khan, A.A.; Loother, B.A.; Afzal, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To find the effect of the fertilizer factory environment on serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA) levels. Subjects and Methods: A total of 205 workers, all male, of Pak Arab Fertilizer Factory, Multan had their prostatic specific antigen (PSA) estimated. The age of the workers varied between 22 to 65 years (mean age= 48.3 plus minus 8.5 years). The people belonged to various working groups and most of them were on normal Pakistani diet. They had been residing/working in the factory area for a period varying from 5 to 30 years. PSA levels were also estimated in 118 normal persons to serve as a control group. The age of these persons varied from 19 to 64 years. These were mostly hospital staff and general public not residing in the factory area and had no history of prostatic disease. Sensitive and specific immunoradiometric assay techniques were applied to measure the PSA concentrations in serum. Results: Observed PSA levels in this population were between 0.2 and 11.5 ng/ml. Overall mean PSA level was 1.9 plus minus 0.84 ng PSA/ml. Mean PSA level observed in control group was 0.73 plus minus 0.64 ng/ml (upper 95% limit was 3.2 ng/ml). Comparison of PSA levels of factory workers with values in normal subjects showed that 9 out of 205 male workers (4.3% of total) had significantly elevated levels of PSA. In 2 workers (1 % of total) observed PSA levels were above 10 ng/ml. The levels above this limit are most commonly observed in the cancer patients. Conclusion: A significant proportion of the workers of the fertilizer factory are at risk of malignant and non-malignant disease of the prostate. (author)

  12. Use of PSA for improving the safety of French PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanore, J.M.; Chambon, J.L.

    1994-06-01

    Two French PWR Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies were conducted for the standardized PWR series of 900 and 1300 MWe. Both PSA 900 and PSA 1300 are level 1 PSAs, that means their objective is the evaluation of core meltdown frequency. These studies have some specific features, in particular the treatment of shutdown conditions, the treatment of long term post-accidental situations, and a wide use of French experience feedback. The PSAs are used for safety improvements of the French PWRs. Following the PSA results, several modifications to plants concerning the dominant sequences were decided. (R.P.). 2 refs., 4 figs

  13. Probabilistic safety analyses (PSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The guide shows how the probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) are used in the design, construction and operation of light water reactor plants in order for their part to ensure that the safety of the plant is good enough in all plant operational states

  14. Babesiosis PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-25

    This 60 second PSA describes babesiosis, a preventable and treatable tickborne disease, including the signs and symptoms of infection and ways to prevent it.  Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 4/26/2012.

  15. Introduction to PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.G.K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to show how the PSA can be used to determine the risk impact of the various deterministic processes for plant design or operational changes, and the evaluation of off normal events that occurred at the plant. The presentation is divided into the following topics: Identification of issues; Tasks/element identification; Modelling changes; Data changes. 6 figs

  16. PSA testing anxiety, psychological morbidity, and PSA utility in the management of prostate cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Micsunescu, Anamaria Elia

    2017-01-01

    Anecdotal reports from urologists and medical oncologists have suggested that patients with prostate cancer (PCa) often present with anxiety related to ongoing monitoring of their PSA levels as part of their disease management. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the prevalence and severity of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing anxiety in a population of patients with either localised or metastatic PCa living in Australia. Other aspects of psychological morbidit...

  17. Aortic valve sclerosis is associated with lower serum adiponectin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çabuk, Gizem; Guray, Umit; Kafes, Habibe; Guray, Yesim; Cabuk, Ali Kemal; Bayir, Pinar T; Asarcikli, Lale D

    2015-06-01

    The sclerotic lesions of the aortic valve share common features with atherosclerosis. An anti-inflammatory protein, adiponectin, seems to have a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. The goal of our study is to determine adiponectin levels in patients with aortic sclerosis and to compare these values with the control group with similar age and cardiovascular risk profile. Sixty-eight patients with aortic sclerosis and 40 controls were included. Serum adiponectin levels were measured by solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There were no significant differences regarding age, sex and other cardiovascular risk factors between groups. Also, mean body mass index values were similar. The rate of mitral annular calcification and left ventricular hypertrophy were significantly higher in patients with aortic sclerosis. Among laboratory variables, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were significantly higher in patients with aortic sclerosis than in those without (4.0 ± 2.9 vs. 2.9 ± 2.3 mg/dl, P = 0.04). Adiponectin levels were found to be significantly lower in aortic sclerosis group than in controls (9.7 ± 4.4 vs. 11.7 ± 4.9 μg/ml, P = 0.034). In the whole group, adiponectin levels were significantly correlated with BMI (r = -0.22, P = 0.02), white blood cell count (r = -0.2, P = 0.03), hsCRP (r = -0.25, P = 0.008), total cholesterol (r = -0.18, P = 0.05), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (r = 0.31, P = 0.001) and triglyceride (r = -0.36, P sclerosis, serum adiponectin levels were significantly lower compared with those with normal aortic valves. Our findings suggested that adiponectin might play a role in the progression of degenerative aortic valve disease.

  18. The CEC NRWG task force on regulatory actions related to PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    The aims and objectives of the Task Force were: Assessment of how regulatory bodies currently estimate the value of PSA results, including the understanding of benefits and limitations with regard to methods and approaches; to show the current use of the PSA tool at the regulatory level, and to establish differences in the approach in various countries, for example whether PSA is part of the licensing process or is used outside the licensing process as a supplementary tool by the utility; specific requirements in PSA methodology and guides by regulatory bodies on PSA procedures. Also guidelines on how to review a PSA once it has been submitted by the licensee; contributions made by the regulatory body in PSA with regard to review of the PSA and the evaluation of the numerical values in the PSA

  19. Serum level of hormone and metabolites in pregnant rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Brecchia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the hormones and metabolites serum levels and the reproductive performances of nulliparous (n=100 and primiparous pregnant does submitted to artificial insemination (AI 11 days post-partum. On the day of AI, all the does were weighed and the sexual receptivity was evaluated. The kits were weaned at 26 day. Blood samples were collect by punc- ture of the marginal ear vein from one day before AI until few days before the kindling and assayed for hormones and metabolites. The higher sexual receptivity and the fertility in nulliparous than in primiparous does confirmed the negative effect of lactation. Nulliparous does showed higher blood con- centration of leptine than primiparous, and in both the groups such level lowered during pregnancy, probably reflecting the reduction of the fat reserve. The insuline level increased during pregnancy in either groups as a consequence of the growing of the foetuses. In nulliparous does the cortisol, NEFA and T3 concentrations were higher than primiparous does. The glucose levels were similar in both the groups probably due to the homeostatic mechanisms controlling the glycemia. Hormonal and metabo- lite analyses represent a good tool for understanding the physiological mechanisms required to meet higher reproductive performance.

  20. Carbohydrate 19.9 Antigen Serum Levels in Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Bertino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carbohydrate 19.9 antigen (CA19.9 has been used in the diagnosis and followup of gastrointestinal tumours. The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was the evaluation of CA19.9 levels in patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis hepatitis C virus and B virus correlated. Materials and Methods. 180 patients were enrolled, 116 with HCV-related chronic liver disease (48% chronic hepatitis, 52% cirrhosis and 64 with HBV-related chronic liver disease (86% chronic hepatitis, 14% cirrhosis. Patients with high levels of CA19.9 underwent abdominal ecography, gastroendoscopy, colonoscopy, and abdominal CT scan. Results. 51.7% of patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease and 48.4% of those with HBV-related chronic liver disease presented high levels of CA19.9. None was affected by pancreatic or intestinal neoplasia, cholestatic jaundice, or other diseases potentially able to induce Ca19.9 elevations. CA19.9 levels were elevated in 43.3% of HCV chronic hepatitis, in 56.3% of HCV cirrhosis, in 45.1% of HBV chronic hepatitis, and in 58% of HBV cirrhosis. Conclusions. CA19.9 commonly increases in the serum of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Elevation of CA 19.9 is not specific for neoplastic disease and is related to the severity of fibrosis and to the viral aetiology of hepatitis.

  1. Serum lipid levels in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmir Jose de Lima

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Pre-eclampsia is a disorder that occurs only during pregnancy. Postpartum changes relating to lipid metabolism may contribute towards the endothelial lesions observed in preeclampsia. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the lipid profile among patients who present preeclampsia and correlate these parameters with 24-hour proteinuria. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study including 77 pregnant patients seen at Hospital Dório Silva. METHODS: This study involved 42 women with preeclampsia and 35 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy as controls. Blood samples were obtained from all the patients, and the serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL, high-density lipoproteins (HDL and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL were determined. Cases and controls were matched for maternal age, gestational week and body mass index. RESULTS: The VLDL and triglyceride values from the women with preeclampsia were significantly higher than those of the healthy women. There was a positive correlation between increased proteinuria and higher VLDL and triglyceride levels in patients with preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: Among the patients with preeclampsia, higher VLDL and triglyceride levels were positively correlated with proteinuria. These observations indicate that the pregnant women who presented elevated lipid levels were more susceptible to cardiovascular disorders and, consequently, pre-eclampsia.

  2. In-vitro radioimmunoassay of prostate specific antigen (PSA) for the screening and management of prostate cancer in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ezzi, Asmahan; El Ahmadiyeh, Nabil

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Immunoassays for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are used to detect early-stage prostate cancer, monitor disease progress, and evaluate therapeutic response. At least two forms of PSA, free PSA (F-PSA) and PSA complexed to alpha-1 anti-chymotrypsin (PSA-ACT) are detected by commercial PSA assays. The fraction of F-PSA is shown to be smaller in patients with untreated prostate cancer than in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Thus, combined measurements of both total and free PSA are used for a better discrimination between BPH and prostate cancer. Detection of PSA for screening of prostate cancer has been a subject of debate for many years. The reason of this debate is mainly because screening for prostate cancer is not cost-effective, as was shown by studies undertaken in Europe and United States. In Lebanon, no previous programs of screening for prostate cancer were done and so the incidence of this cancer is not known. Recently, the cancer registry in Lebanon found that lung and prostate are the highest cancers in the Lebanese men. The Lebanese association of urologists noted that 80% of men suffering from prostate cancer consult their urologists when the cancer is spread outside the prostate capsule. There is a socio-economic barrier behind this delay. We decided to undertake this study for the screening of prostate cancer in Lebanon, taking into consideration the above-mentioned facts and the experience of other countries. Volunteer men aged 45 and above, who were not visitors of a urology clinic, were selected randomly. A blood sample was withdrawn from each man, then a rectal examination was done and a questionnaire was filled. The blood serum separated was assayed for total PSA first and where abnormal or borderline, was assayed for free PSA. The percentage of free to total PSA was calculated. Men having borderline or abnormal results did undergo more investigations for the definitive diagnosis of their samples. IRMA

  3. PSA in operator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nos, V.; Faig, J.; Plesa, P.; Delgado, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    The systematic approach to training is internationally accepted as the best method to achieve and maintain the qualification and competence of power plant personnel and to guarantee the quality of their training. Following the recommendations and guidelines of international organisations competent in the field, TECNATOM SA has developed projects based on the systematic approach to training for all Spanish nuclear power plants. One of the latest projects was the systematic approach to training developed for the operation personnel of ASCO Nuclear Power Plant. In this case, certain results of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) which complement the systematic safety and reliability criteria of the systematic approach to training process have been incorporated in the traditional processes of work and task analysis and training plan design. This incorporation provides the training manager with additional criteria based not only on safety aspects obtained through the statistical treatment of considerations of skilled technical personnel (operators, operation chief supervisors, etc), but also on the independent criterion of the PSA. The inclusion of this approach basically affects all systematics in two of its stages: During the selection process of operating practices in SMR or SGI, the possible scenarios have been associated with all those situations where human actions which lead to an initiating event or human actions to mitigate an initiating event, may take place, as defined in the PSA. During the scenario development process, the instruments involved in the performance of human actions which originate or mitigate an event taking place have been identified. This pakes it possible to reconcile the scenario event sequence with the sequence considered in the PSA study, as the most likely to provoke a more serious accident. The incorporation of these PSA results contributes to the strengthening of safety aspects in training in an objective way, and confirms that

  4. Upgrade of the PSA level 2 developed by the CNSNS; Actualizacion del APS nivel 2 desarrollado por la CNSNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez R, I. E.; Godinez S, V.; Lopez M, R., E-mail: iejrivera@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) in Mexico has concluded the upgrade of the study of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment level 2 for internal events to full power of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. The study was based on the methodology described in the NUREG-1150, an Events Tree of the Accident Progression (ETAP) was built and 25 damage states of the plant were analyzed. In the ETAP has been considered the phenomenology of severe accidents, the action of mitigation systems and operator actions. The conditional probabilities of failure of the primary container were quantified through the ETAP evaluation by means of the EVNTRE code. In order to establish the times and parameters of the accidents evolution, dominant sequences were selected and the thermal-hydraulics simulation was realized by means of the MELCOR code. A specific code denominated LVSOR was developed for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, by means of this, the inventory of liberated fission products in the accident sequences simulated with MELCOR formed parameters that is possible to estimate the term source in each one of the liberation trajectories reported by EVNTRE. To maintain an appropriate quality control was taken the regulatory guide 1.200 of the NRC like reference. The main incorporate changes to the pattern are the power increase and the initiator even Loca outside of the contention. In this work the main results of the study upgrade are presented and compared with the results of the first version as well as with those of the Individual Exam of Plant. (Author)

  5. Stable cystatin C serum levels confirm normal renal function in patients with dronedarone-associated increase in serum creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, David; Oswald, Hanno; Gardiwal, Ajmal; Lüsebrink, Ulrich; König, Thorben; Schreyer, Hendrik; Klein, Gunnar

    2013-03-01

    Dronedarone is a new antiarrhythmic drug for patients with nonpermanent atrial fibrillation (AF). A relatively consistent finding in all trials studying dronedarone was a moderate but significant elevation of serum creatinine. Since dronedarone competes for the same organic cation transporter in the distal renal tubule with creatinine, serum creatinine and its derived estimated glomerular filtration rate might not reflect true renal function in patients on dronedarone. We therefore investigated alternative markers for renal function in these patients. We prospectively included 20 patients with nonpermanent AF in whom dronedarone 400 mg twice daily was started. Patients had normal renal function and serum creatinine; serum cystatin C and creatinine clearance were measured before treatment and 10 and 90 days after treatment started. Mean serum creatinine level for all 20 patients at baseline (day 0) was 84.55 ± 12.14 and 87.8 ± 17.59 µmol/L on day 10. This slight increase in all patients was not significant. Patients were now divided into the predefined groups of "increased creatinine" (increase in serum creatinine level > 1 standard deviation) and "not increased creatinine." Patients with increased creatinine levels (n = 5) showed a significant elevation of serum creatinine levels from day 0 to day 10 (82.4 ± 9.18 to 104.4 ± 12.74 µmol/L; P = .003), whereas change in serum creatinine levels in the not increased creatinine group (n = 15) was not significant. Serum cystatin C levels remained stable in both of these groups (increased creatinine group: 0.76 ± 0.08 to 0.78 ± 0.08 mg/L; P = .65; not increased creatinine group: 0.77 ± 0.108 to 0.77 ± 0.107 mg/L; P = .906). In conclusion, cystatin C represents an easily available and reliable biomarker for estimation of true renal function in patients on dronedarone treatment.

  6. Serum uric acid levels correlate with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikbilek, A; Gencer, Z K; Saydam, L; Zararsiz, G; Tanik, N; Ozkiris, M

    2014-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a frequently encountered condition that can severely affect the quality of life. In this study, we aimed to assess the possible relations between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and BPPV. Fifty patients with BPPV, and 40 age- and sex-matched control subjects were enrolled in the study. All the patients and controls underwent a complete audio-vestibular test battery including the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and supine roll test for posterior semicircular canal (PSC) and horizontal semicircular canal, respectively. Routine hematological and biochemical analyses were performed in both groups. In the BPPV group, measurements of SUA levels were repeated 1 month after the vertigo attack. The lipid profiles and SUA levels were higher in patients with BPPV than detected in controls (P vertigo attack compared with the values obtained during the attack (P 0.05). Elevated SUA is positively correlated with BPPV, requiring further efforts to clarify the exact mechanism. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  7. Serum levels of S-100B after recreational scuba diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinou, L C; Kalamatianos, T; Stavrinou, P; Papasilekas, T; Psachoulia, C; Tzavara, C; Stranjalis, G

    2011-12-01

    Recreational scuba diving is a sport of increasing popularity. Previous studies indicating subtle brain injury in asymptomatic divers imply a cumulative effect of minor neural insults in association with diving for professional and/or recreational purposes, over the long-term. This is the first study to investigate putative neural tissue burden during recreational scuba diving by measuring circulating levels of S-100B, a sensitive biomarker of brain injury. 5 male divers performed 3 consecutive dives under conservative recreational diving settings (maximum depth 15 m, duration of dive 56 min, ascend rate 1.15 m/min) with an interval of 12 h between each session. Although a small increase in serum S-100B levels after each dive was apparent, this increase did not quite reach statistical significance (p=0.057). Moreover, no abnormal S-100B values were recorded (mean baseline: 0.06 μg/L, mean post-dive: 0.086 μg/L) and no effect of the 3 consecutive dives on changes in S-100B levels was detected. These results suggest that under the experimental conditions tested, diving does not seem to have a discernible and/or cumulative impact on central nervous system integrity. The extent to which variable diving settings and practices as well as individual susceptibility factors underlie putative neural tissue burden in asymptomatic divers, remains to be established. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and serum cytokine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Bassig, Bryan A; Vermeulen, Roel; Hu, Wei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Meng, Tao; Xu, Jun; Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Yang, Jufang; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Silverman, Debra; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zheng, Yuxin

    2018-03-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response using data from a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of 41 diesel engine testing workers and 46 unexposed controls. Repeated personal exposure measurements of PM 2.5 and other DEE constituents were taken for the diesel engine testing workers before blood collection. Serum levels of six inflammatory biomarkers including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were analyzed in all subjects. Compared to unexposed controls, concentrations of MIP-1β were significantly reduced by ∼37% in DEE exposed workers (P 397 µg/m 3 ) compared to unexposed controls. Further, significant inverse exposure-response relationships for IL-8 and MCP-1 were also found in relation to increasing PM 2.5 levels among the DEE exposed workers. Given that IL-8, MIP-1β, and MCP-1 are chemokines that play important roles in recruitment of immunocompetent cells for immune defense and tumor cell clearance, the observed lower levels of these markers with increasing PM 2.5 exposure may provide insight into the mechanism by which DEE promotes lung cancer. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:144-150, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Determination of serum interleukin 33 (IL-33) levels in atopic asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares serum IL-33 levels in atopic asthma (AA) patients and normal controls to determine serum IL-33 levels. 5 mL of blood were withdrawn from subjects and centrifuged for 5 min at 2000 rpm to obtain the serum and were analyzed for IL-33 using kits. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version ...

  10. Carcinoembryonic Antigen Serum Levels in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saverio Latteri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA is a glycoprotein, which is present in the foetal colon, some benign conditions and different malignancies, particularly in colon adenocarcinoma. We focused this study on non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC. NMSC is a common malignancy and it is an important source of morbidity and death in the world. In this study we evaluated whether CEA level increases in NMSC. Patients and Methods: A total of 566 patients with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC were enrolled; 286 patients with NMSC showed CEA levels above normal values, and 280 showed CEA levels below normal values. Patients with high levels of CEA underwent abdominal ultrasound, gastro endoscopy, colonoscopy, and abdominal CT scans. Results: We studied 566 patients, 286 were positive to CEA and 280 were negative. Of the 286 patients positive to CEA, 132 had basal cell carcinoma (64 patients had an associated cancer and 154 had squamous cell carcinoma (75 patients were affected by cancer. Of the 280 patients negative to CEA, 130 had basal cell carcinoma (12 were associated with cancer, and 150 had squamous cell carcinoma (18 were associated with cancer. The mean age of the 566 case control subjects were 65–81 years. Of the 10 subjects that were the positive control for CEA, two had cancer. Of the 556 subjects that were the negative control for CEA, three had cancer. Conclusions: In patients that present high serum levels of CEA, we give attention to adenocarcinoma tumour first. The pattern of association may be attributable to bias because the group with NMSC were frequently evaluated than those with no history of NMSC. Our results showed that out of 286 patients that were CEA-positive, 139 had cancer, and of the 280 that were CEA-negative, 30 had cancer. Therefore, 20% of patients do not follow the trend. Other markers should be investigated.

  11. Serum vitamin D levels and hypogonadism in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchbaum, E; Pilz, S; Trummer, C; Rabe, T; Schenk, M; Heijboer, A C; Obermayer-Pietsch, B

    2014-09-01

    There is inconsistent evidence on a possible association of vitamin D and androgen levels in men. We therefore aim to investigate the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with androgen levels in a cohort of middle-aged men. This cross-sectional study included 225 men with a median (interquartile range) age of 35 (30-41) years. We measured 25(OH)D, total testosterone (TT) and SHBG concentrations. Hypogonadism was defined as TT hypogonadism was 21.5% and lowest in men within 25(OH)D quintile 4 (82-102 nmol/L). We found a significantly increased risk of hypogonadism in men within the highest 25(OH)D quintile (>102 nmol/L) compared to men in quintile 4 (reference) in crude (OR 5.10, 1.51-17.24, p = 0.009) as well as in multivariate adjusted analysis (OR 9.21, 2.27-37.35, p = 0.002). We found a trend towards increased risk of hypogonadism in men within the lowest 25(OH)D quintile (≤43.9 nmol/L). In conclusion, our data suggest that men with very high 25(OH)D levels (>102 nmol/L) might be at an increased risk of hypogonadism. Furthermore, we observed a trend towards increased risk of hypogonadism in men with very low vitamin D levels indicating a U-shaped association of vitamin D levels and hypogonadism. With respect to risk of male hypogonadism, our results suggest optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations of 82-102 nmol/L. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  12. Influence of catheterization on the prostate specific antigen level in patient suffering from prostate disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Osman Sianipar, Osman Sianipar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The increase of life expectancy may increase the number of patients suffered from prostate disorder. In Indonesia prostate cancer is in the top ten malignancies in men and is the second most frequent malignancies in urology clinics. Early detection may decreasies its fatality rate and increase the quality of life. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is clinically the most useful tumor marker; its serum level has positive correlation with the prostate cancer. Serum PSA level will also ...

  13. Time to PSA rise differentiates the PSA bounce after HDR and LDR brachytherapy of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchardt, Wojciech; Skowronek, Janusz

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the differences in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce (PB) after high-dose-rate (HDR-BT) or low-dose-rate (LDR-BT) brachytherapy alone in prostate cancer patients. Ninety-four patients with localized prostate cancer (T1-T2cN0), age ranged 50-81 years, were treated with brachytherapy alone between 2008 and 2010. Patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, Gleason score ≤ 7. The LDR-BT total dose was 144-145 Gy, in HDR-BT - 3 fractions of 10.5 or 15 Gy. The initial PSA level (iPSA) was assessed before treatment, then PSA was rated every 3 months over the first 2 years, and every 6 months during the next 3 years. Median follow-up was 3.0 years. Mean iPSA was 7.8 ng/ml. In 58 cases, PSA decreased gradually without PB or biochemical failure (BF). In 24% of patients, PB was observed. In 23 cases (24%), PB was observed using 0.2 ng/ml definition; in 10 cases (11%), BF was diagnosed using nadir + 2 ng/ml definition. The HDR-BT and LDR-BT techniques were not associated with higher level of PB (26 vs. 22%, p = 0.497). Time to the first PSA rise finished with PB was significantly shorter after HDR-BT then after LDR-BT (median, 10.5 vs. 18.0 months) during follow-up. Predictors for PB were observed only after HDR-BT. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and higher Gleason score decreased the risk of PB (HR = 0.11, p = 0.03; HR = 0.51, p = 0.01). The higher PSA nadir and longer time to PSA nadir increased the risk of PB (HR 3.46, p = 0.02; HR 1.04, p = 0.04). There was no predictors for PB after LDR-BT. HDR-BT and LDR-BT for low and intermediate risk prostate cancer had similar PB rate. The PB occurred earlier after HDR-BT than after LDR-BT. ADT and higher Gleason score decreased, and higher PSA nadir and longer time to PSA nadir increased the risk of PB after HDR-BT.

  14. Protein Intakes and Serum Albumin Levels in a Japanese General Population: NIPPON DATA90

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Makoto; Higashiyama, Aya; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Ono, Yuu; Okayama, Akira; Okamura, Tomonori

    2010-01-01

    Background It is well-known that albumin is synthesized in the liver; serum albumin is a major component of serum proteins. However, it has not been well elucidated how dietary protein intakes are associated with serum albumin levels in general populations without extreme malnutrition. We cross-sectionally investigated in the representative Japanese the association between dietary protein intake and serum albumin levels. Methods A total of 7715 subjects (3220 men and 4495 women, aged 30 years...

  15. Method comparison for determination of the tumor markers AFP, CEA, PSA and free PSA between Immulite 2000 XPI and Dimension Vista 1500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur, Berndt; Holdenrieder, Stefan; Walgenbach-Brünagel, Gisela; Albers, Eike; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    For the Luminescent Oxygen Channeling Immunoassay (LOCI) technology as established for Dimension Vista 1500, assays have been developed for the serum tumor markers AFP, CEA, PSA and free PSA. We performed a method analysis for these parameters using the Immulite 2000 XPI. Determination of within-day and total imprecision of the methods was carried out according to CLSI guidelines with three serum pools. In addition, parallel measurements were performed with both systems in 1,871 routine serum samples and correlations were calculated. Calculated total imprecision of the three serum pools for AFP was 3.8 - 4.3%, for CEA 3.3 - 4.3%, for tPSA 3.6 - 4.0% and for fPSA it was 3.5 - 8.2%. Correlations of these markers across the entire value range were very good with the following correlation coefficients: 0.997 for AFP, 0.996 for CEA, 0.971 for tPSA and 0.988 for fPSA. While values for AFP and tPSA from both methods were comparable (slopes 1.02 and 1.01), lower values were measured for CEA and fPSA with the Dimension Vista (slopes 0.83 and 0.91). For AFP, a sample cluster with considerably higher values than with Dimension Vista was observed in the lower measurement range (CEA, tPSA and fPSA, as developed with the LOCI technology for the Dimension Vista, show good comparability with results obtained from the Immulite 2000 XPI. However, lower measurement ranges for CEA and fPSA as well as individual divergences, especially with AFP, must be taken into consideration in the event of method changeover.

  16. NPP Krsko Living PSA Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrbanic, I.; Spiler, J.

    2000-01-01

    NPP Krsko developed PSA model of internal and external initiators within the frame of the Individual Plant Examination (IPE) project. Within this project PSA model was used to examine the existing plant design features. In order to continue with use of this PSA model upon the completion of IPE in various risk-informed applications in support of plant operation and evaluations of design changes, an appropriate living PSA concept needed to be defined. The Living PSA concept is in NPP Krsko considered as being a set of activities pursued in order to update existing PSA model in a manner that it appropriately represents the plant design, operation practice and history. Only a PSA model which is being updated in this manner can serve as a platform for plant-specific risk informed applications. The NPP Krsko living PSA concept is based on the following major ponts. First, the baseline PSA model is defined, which is to be maintained and updated and which is to be reference point for any risk-informed application. Second, issues having a potential for impact on baseline PSA model are identified and procedure and responsibilities for their permanent monitoring and evaluation are established. Third, manner is defined in which consequential changes to baseline PSA model are implemented and controlled, together with associated responsibilities. Finally, the process is defined by which the existing version of baseline PSA model is superseded by a new one. Each time a new version of baseline PSA model is released, it would be re-quantified and the results evaluated and interpreted. By documenting these re-quantifications and evaluations of results in a sequence, the track is being kept of changes in long-term averaged risk perspective, represented by long-term averaged frequencies of core damage and pre-defined release categories. These major topics of NPP Krsko living PSA concept are presented and discussed in the paper. (author)

  17. Serum B/sub 12/ levels in iron definiency anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, L.A.; Ohki, Keiichi

    1964-04-23

    As part of its research program to study the late effects of radiation in survivors of the atomic bombs, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in conjunction with the Japanese National Institute of Health (JNIH), conducts biennial medical examinations on the selected population which comprises the ABCC-JHIN Adult Health Study sample. The patients herein described as Groups 1 and 2 were selected from among those examined in Nagasaki who had had a hemoglobin value of less than 11.0 g/100 ml at examination 2 years previously and who had responded to iron therapy sufficiently to justify a diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia. Almost all were women of child bearing age. The effect of iron therapy on the level of serum B/sub 12/ was investigated. Of 58 patients so studied, 46 showed some rise in post-treatment levels of B/sub 12/. This is evaluated as indicating that gastric secretion of intrinsic factor is depressed in the majority of iron deficient patients.

  18. Elevated serum osteoprotegerin levels in women: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Baracat, Maria Cândida Pinheiro; Soares Júnior, José Maria; Baracat, Edmund Chada

    2015-01-01

    osteoprotegerin has emerged as a new candidate for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, high levels of osteoprotegerin have been linked to vascular calcification, an independent and well-defined risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Thus, the action of osteoprotegerin in these situations has been questioned. to evaluate the effect of osteoprotegerin (OPG) on the human body, especially in bone tissue and in vascular diseases. the scientific databases consulted were PubMed-Medline and Cochrane, using keywords (MeSH terms) grouped into the following syntaxes: (Osteoprotegerin OR Osteoclastogenesis Inhibitory Factor OR Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 11b OR Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 11b OR FDCR-1 Protein OR FDCR 1 Protein OR OCIF Protein OR Follicular Dendritic Cell-Derived Receptor-1) AND (Bones AND Bone OR Bones AND Bone Tissue OR Bones OR Bone Tissue OR Cardiovascular Diseases). Osteoprotegerin is present in various organs and binds to two ligands: nuclear factor kB (RANKL) related to the differentiation of osteoclasts, and tumor necrosis factor related to the apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). OPG inhibits the regulation effects of nuclear factor kB on inflammation and on the skeletal and vascular systems, preventing the apoptosis induced by TRAIL, being related to the preservation of bone tissue. a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the association between OPG serum levels, bone integrity and cardiovascular disease can provide important data for future therapeutic interventions.

  19. The association of serum leptin levels with metabolic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Pi Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a 167-amino-acid protein released by white adipose tissue and encoded by the obese gene. It has a role as a negative regulator of appetite control through sending a satiety signal to act on receptors within the hypothalamus. At normal levels, leptin can exert its effects on weight regulation according to white fat mass, induce sodium excretion, maintain vascular tone, and repair the myocardium. Beyond these effects, elevated serum leptin levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and multiple cardiovascular diseases. In addition, hyperleptinemia had been reported to contribute to renal diseases through multiple mechanisms resulting in glomerulopathy presenting with a decreased glomerular filtration rate, increased albuminuria, and related clinical symptoms, which are pathophysiological features of chronic kidney disease. Because these cardiovascular and metabolic disorders are great challenges for physicians, understanding the related pathophysiological association with leptin might become a valuable aid in handling patients in daily clinical practice. This review will discuss the roles of leptin in the regulation of biological functions of multiple organs beyond the maintenance of feeding and metabolism.

  20. Serum homocysteine level in gestational diabetes: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari Tanha F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Increased total plasma homocysteine (Hcy is an accepted risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD, stroke, preclampsia, recurrent abortion and diabetes type I and II. The aim of the current study was to assess serum homocysteine and its relation with serum folat, vitamine B12 and lipid profile in gestational diabetes mellitus and to compare these with those of pregnant women."n"n Methods: In a prospective controlled survey 80 pregnant women (24-28 weeks with uncomplicated pregnancies were evaluated. They were assigned to one of two groups according to the results of 100g-OGTT. In the case group there were pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus according to the OGTT and in the control group women who had normal OGTT results were put. Levels of fasting glucose, homocysteine, vit B12, and folic acid, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL were measured in both groups."n"nResults: The mean level of homocysteine in GDM group was significantly higher than control group (p=0.000. The mean level of folic acid and vit B12 was significantly lower than the level in control group (p=0.001, p=0.004 respectively. Body

  1. Radiographic progression with nonrising PSA in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryce, A H; Alumkal, J J; Armstrong, A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Advanced prostate cancer is a phenotypically diverse disease that evolves through multiple clinical courses. PSA level is the most widely used parameter for disease monitoring, but it has well-recognized limitations. Unlike in clinical trials, in practice, clinicians may rely on PSA...... in the PREVAIL study were analyzed post hoc for rising versus nonrising PSA (empirically defined as >1.05 vs ⩽1.05 times the PSA level from 3 months earlier) at the time of radiographic progression. Clinical characteristics and disease outcomes were compared between the rising and nonrising PSA groups. RESULTS......: Of 265 PREVAIL patients with radiographic progression and evaluable PSA levels on the enzalutamide arm, nearly one-quarter had a nonrising PSA. Median progression-free survival in this cohort was 8.3 months versus 11.1 months in the rising PSA cohort (hazard ratio 1.68; 95% confidence interval 1...

  2. Serum thyrotropin levels following levothyroxine administration at breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Camila Luhm Silva; Araki, Fernanda Sumire; Graf, Hans; de Carvalho, Gisah Amaral

    2013-07-01

    Hypothyroidism is treated with oral levothyroxine. Some patients fail to attain adequate control because of poor compliance. Delaying breakfast to take levothyroxine on an empty stomach can decrease adherence to hypothyroidism treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether administering levothyroxine with breakfast can maintain thyrotropin (TSH) levels in the therapeutic range, without major clinical changes. A prospective, randomized, open-label, crossover study was conducted to compare usual levothyroxine administration while in a fasting state with administration during breakfast. From September 2008 to April 2009, 45 patients with primary hypothyroidism who received levothyroxine were recruited. The patients completed 180 days of the protocol and were randomized to 90 days of each levothyroxine administration regimen (while fasting or with breakfast). Clinical and biochemical analyses were performed at baseline and on days 45, 90, 135, and 180. The primary outcome was TSH level. Forty-two patients completed the protocol. The TSH level was higher for levothyroxine administration with breakfast than while fasting (2.89 vs. 1.9 mIU/L, p=0.028). Uncontrolled hypothyroidism (TSH ≥3.5 mIU/L) occurred regardless of the type of levothyroxine administration (p=0.26). No risk factors were identified for TSH elevation. Levothyroxine administration with breakfast could be an alternative regimen for patients who have adherence difficulties due to the need for delaying intake, and is more likely to cause variability in the TSH level, meaning the patient should be followed more closely. For patients in whom a specific serum TSH goal is important, taking levothyroxine while fasting is recommended.

  3. Serum cortisol level and its correlation to serum insulin and fasting blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jianzhong; Zhang Jun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of serum cortisol levels and its correlation to blood sugar and serum insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Blood sugar with oxidase method and serum cortisol insulin levels with RIA (8 AM fasting specimen) were measured in 26 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 30 controls. Results: The serum cortisol levels in the diabetic patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). The cortisol levels were positively correlated to the blood sugar levels (r=0.32, p<0.01), but not correlated to insulin levels. Conclusion: There were cortisol secretion disturbances in patients with type 2 diabetes

  4. Serum Calcium Level is Associated with Lipids in Young Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with high blood pressure in a representative sample of United States of American adults without cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) which was independent of age, sex, race, alcohol, smoking, diabetes, lipids, serum albumin, serum vitamin D and phosphorus.[23]. Calcium is an important intracellular messenger ...

  5. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  6. Whooping Cough PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This 30 second PSA encourages pregnant women to get the whooping cough vaccine, called Tdap, during the third trimester of each pregnancy in order to pass antibodies to their babies so they are born with protection against this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  7. Changes in serum NGF levels after the exercise load in dogs: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Izumi; Karasawa, Kaoru; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akane

    2016-12-01

    Serum nerve growth factor (NGF) levels are increased by the external stress in mice, humans and horses; however, similar variations have been unclear in dogs. Since dogs are usually subjected to conditions of work, exercise and activity as important partners of humans, we measured serum NGF levels post-exercise and compared them with serum cortisol levels, as a biomarker of physical stress. Serum cortisol levels were immediately elevated post-exercise and returned to basal levels within 1 hr. On the other hand, serum NGF levels were significantly increased 1 hr post-exercise and gradually returned to basal levels. Further research is necessary; nevertheless, we have demonstrated for the first time that serum NGF levels respond to exercise stress in dogs.

  8. Lower serum albumin level is associated with higher fractional excretion of creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Masaru; Imai, Enyu; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2014-06-01

    Creatinine clearance (Ccr) overestimates glomerular filtration rate (GFR) due to the tubular secretion of creatinine. It is known that fractional excretion of creatinine (FE-Cr) increases with decreasing GFR. Association of serum albumin level with the tubular secretion of creatinine was also reported previously. Alteration of FE-Cr may affect the performance of GFR estimating equations based on serum creatinine. Therefore, we analyzed the factors influencing FE-Cr and compared the performance of GFR equations in subjects stratified by serum albumin levels. Seven hundred and fifty-seven Japanese subjects were included. GFR was measured by inulin renal clearance. GFR and Ccr were measured simultaneously. FE-Cr was calculated as the ratio of Ccr to GFR. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the factors influencing FE-Cr. Age, gender, GFR, body mass index (BMI), body weight, height and serum albumin level were analyzed as the parameters. Estimated GFR was calculated by Japanese GFR equations based on serum creatinine (Eq-cr), serum cystatin C (Eq-cys) and 5 variables including serum albumin (Eq-5var). FE-Cr in subjects with serum albumin serum albumin serum albumin ≥4.0 g/dl. Multivariate analysis showed that GFR (p serum albumin level (p = 0.004) were independent parameters affecting FE-Cr. Biases of Eq-cr, Eq-cys and Eq-5var in subjects with serum albumin serum albumin ≥4.0 g/dl were 6.4 ± 18.8, 2.0 ± 18.1 and 3.0 ± 18.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Eq-cr significantly underestimated GFR compared with Eq-cys or Eq-5var. GFR and serum albumin level were independent parameters affecting FE-Cr. Alteration of FE-Cr according to the serum albumin levels may be one of the reasons of the bias of GFR equation based on serum creatinine.

  9. Serum Triamcinolone Levels following Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J. Lamer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections (ESIs are commonly performed procedures to treat painful cervical radiculopathy, but little is known about the systemic absorption and serum levels of steroids following injection. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of fluoroscopy-guided cervical epidural-administered triamcinolone acetonide in a cohort of patients with cervical radicular pain seeking treatment in a pain medicine clinic. Methods. The study cohort included eight patients undergoing a fluoroscopically guided C7-T1 interlaminar ESI at a pain medicine specialty clinic. Blood was collected prior to the ESI and on days 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 following the injection. The sample extract was analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Results. The terminal elimination half-life of cervical epidural-administered triamcinolone in a noncompartmental analysis was 219 hours. In the noncompartmental analysis, peak triamcinolone concentrations of 5.4 ng/mL were detected within 22.1 hours after administration. Conclusions. The pharmacokinetics of cervical epidural-administered triamcinolone is consistent with our previous study of lumbar ESI, demonstrating that the elimination half-life is longer than that which has been reported following intravenous triamcinolone. The elimination half-life was shorter following cervical ESI than that which has been reported following lumbar ESI.

  10. Alteration in serum osteocalcin levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.S.; Abdel-Messeih, Ph.L.; Mansour, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    The fact that bone mass density (BMD) is not useful for assessing fracture risk in diabetic patients (DM) seems problematic, because those populations are increasing in every country. Osteocalcin (OC) is synthesized by osteoblasts and is considered to be a marker of bone formation. The present study was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of OC as noninvasive biomarker of bone formation in diabetes mellitus type 2 (uncomplicated) and diabetic nephropathy. Immunoradiometric assay(IRMA) was used for the quantitative measurement of human intact OC both N-terminal and C-terminal fragments in the serum of the control and the studied groups. OC levels in the uncomplicated diabetic group were significantly lower while in the diabetic nephropathy group was significantly higher compared to control values . There was a weak negative correlation between OC and both fasting blood glucose and glycated Hb% in the diabetic group. In diabetic nephropathy patients, a weak positive correlation was observed between OC and protein creatinine ratio. The results concluded that changes in bone remodelling marker OC are present in both DM type 2 and diabetic nephropathy explaining osteopenia and osteoporosis observed in both cases.Therefore, an effective glycaemic control should be the hallmark of prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus induced osteoporosis

  11. Association of serum paraoxonase concentration with serum lipid levels and bone mineral density measurements in early postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldemir, T; Yavuz, D G

    2015-06-01

    To determine the association of serum paraoxonase concentration with serum lipid levels and bone mineral density in early postmenopausal Turkish women. One hundred healthy postmenopausal women were included in a cross-sectional study in a University hospital clinic. Blood was drawn from women who had bone mineral density (BMD) measurements during routine visits. BMD of the lumbar vertebrae was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The serum paraoxonase concentration and serum lipid levels were measured. Women were divided into two groups: those with normal lumbar vertebrae BMD and those with osteopenic lumbar vertebrae. Serum paraoxonase concentration was compared between the groups. The correlation between serum paraoxonase concentration and bone mass parameters was performed using Pearson's test. The paraoxonase concentration in the osteopenic group was significantly lower than in the group with normal lumbar vertebrae BMD. The paraoxonase concentration was moderately correlated with total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels among early postmenopausal Turkish women. Early postmenopausal women with osteopenic lumbar vertebrae have significantly lower paraoxonase concentration than those with normal lumbar vertebrae BMD. Further studies are needed to clarify the associations between the osteoporosis risk factors and paraoxonase concentration during late postmenopausal years.

  12. Association between chronic periodontitis and serum lipid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejčić Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Periodontitis is a local inflammatory process mediating destruction of periodontal tissues triggered by bacterial insult. However, this disease is also characterized by systemic inflammatory host responses that may contrbute, in part, to the recently reported increased risk for systemic diseases, including an altered lipid metabolism. On the other hand, many people in the world are affected by hyperlipidemia, which is a known risk faktor for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between periodontal disease and blood lipid levels. Methods. A total of 50 patients with periodontitis included in this study had no documented history of recent acute coronary events. The healthy, non-periodontal subjects (comparison group comprised 25 subjects. All the patients were periodontology examined and completed a medical history. Dental plaque index, probing depth, gingival index bleeding on probing and clinical attechment levels were recorded. Blood samples were taken on admission for measurements of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, hight density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol. Results. The obtained results showed that mean levels of cholesterol (6.09 ± 1.61 mmol/L, triglycerdes (2.19+1.67mmol/l and LDL cholesterol (4.09 ± 1.40 mmol/L in individuals with periodontitis were higer, and levels od HDL (1.43 ± 0.51 mmol/L was lower than those of individuals without periodontitis (4.86 ± 1.37; 1.14 ± 0.71; 3.18 ± 0.64; 1.53 ± 0.32 mmol/L, respectively. Conclusion. This study confirms a significant relationship between periodontal disease, regardless its intensity, and blood lipid levels in the studied population. The results imply that periodontitis may be a risk factor and may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. However, future prospective randomized studies have to determine whether

  13. High serum YKL-40 level after surgery for colorectal carcinoma is related to short survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cintin, Christina; Johansen, Julia S; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2002-01-01

    .0002) and shorter relapse free intervals (P = 0.004) than patients with normal postoperative serum YKL-40. This result was independent of simultaneous serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels at six months. Analysis of survival by scoring serum YKL-40 as a time-dependent covariate in a Cox regression analysis showed...

  14. Impact of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan, M.; Shabbir, I.; Ali, Z.; Ali, S.F.; Rahat, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:To see the effects of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels. Study type, settings and duration:Cross sectional analytical study conducted at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College,Lahore from Jun-Dec 2011. Materials and Methods: One hundred type 2 diabetes mellitus and equal numbers of gender matched healthy controls were randomly selected for the study. After an overnight fasting, blood specimens were drawn for lipid profile where total cholesterol,high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were measured by standard enzymatic endpoint methods and LDL-cholesterol by Friedweld's formula. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-15. Results Odd ratios of age for total cholesterol (OR 1.198); high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.144); and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.576) revealed that subjects aged 45 years or more had greater risk of having deranged lipid levels. Female gender had higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p 0.000); and triglycerides (p 0.001). Odd ratios of men for total cholesterol (OR 0.775); high density lipoprotein cholesterol(OR 0.183); and low density lipoprotein Cholesterol (OR 0.683) illustrated that men were significantly less prone to dyslipidemia than women. Odd ratio of diabetes for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.802) suggested that diabetics had 1.8 times more risk of having low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Diabetic females over 45 years of age have significantly high chances of having disturbed or high lipid profile. Policy message:All persons in general and diabetics in particular over the age of 45 years should be screened for dyslipidemia and informed using behavior change communication to prevent disease complications. (author)

  15. Serum Lipid Levels in Patients with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Fukusima, Mitsuo; Taniguchi, Ataru; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate some risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in feeding and eating disorders, the degree of lipid abnormalities was investigated in a large Japanese cohort of different groups of feeding and eating disorders, according to the Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines for the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases 2012 (JAS Guidelines 2012). Methods Participants in the current study included 732 women divided into four groups of feeding and eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R); anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; bulimia nervosa (BN); and binge-eating disorder (BED). We measured the serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride in these participants. Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels were also calculated. Results The concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were widely distributed in all groups. When the LDL cholesterol risk was defined as ≥120 mg/dL and the non-HDL cholesterol risk as ≥150 mg/dL, according to the JAS Guidelines 2012, the proportion of LDL cholesterol risk ranged from 29.6% (BN) to 38.6% (AN-R), and the proportion of non-HDL cholesterol risk ranged from 17.8% (BN) to 30.1% (BED). Conclusion The present findings suggest the existence of LDL cholesterol risk and non-HDL cholesterol risk in all groups of eating disorders. Given the chronicity of this condition, the development of elevated concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol at an early age may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Serum Testosterone Kinetics After Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taira, Al V. [Western Radiation Oncology, Mountain View, CA (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Allen, Zachariah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate temporal changes in testosterone after prostate brachytherapy and investigate the potential impact of these changes on response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and March 2009, 221 consecutive patients underwent Pd-103 brachytherapy without androgen deprivation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Prebrachytherapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum testosterone were obtained for each patient. Repeat levels were obtained 3 months after brachytherapy and at least every 6 months thereafter. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine an association with temporal testosterone changes. In addition, analysis was conducted to determine if there was an association between testosterone changes and treatment outcomes or the occurrence of a PSA spike. Results: There was no significant difference in serum testosterone over time after implant (p = 0.57). 29% of men experienced an increase {>=}25%, 23% of men experienced a decrease {>=}25%, and the remaining 48% of men had no notable change in testosterone over time. There was no difference in testosterone trends between men who received external beam radiotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.12). On multivariate analysis, preimplant testosterone was the only variable that consistently predicted for changes in testosterone over time. Men with higher than average testosterone tended to experience drop in testosterone (p < 0.001), whereas men with average or below average baseline testosterone had no significant change. There was no association between men who experienced PSA spike and testosterone temporal trends (p = 0.50) nor between initial PSA response and testosterone trends (p = 0.21). Conclusion: Prostate brachytherapy does not appear to impact serum testosterone over time. Changes in serum testosterone do not appear to be associated with PSA spike phenomena nor with initial PSA response to treatment; therefore, PSA response

  17. Changes of serum leptin and other related hormones levels in simple obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jinhua; Wang Yaping; Xu Yan; Gao Yufeng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To measure the serum leptin concentration in simple obese children together with other four kinds of related hormones. Methods: Serum Leptin, Ins, T 3 , T 4 and GH levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in thirty-eight obese children and thirty healthy controls. Results: The levels of serum leptin, Ins and T 3 in obese group were dramatically higher than those in control group (all P 4 concentration between simple obese children and control group (P > 0.05), Serum GH levels was significantly decreased in simple obese children (P < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between serum leptin levels and lns levels (r = 0.46, P < 0.01). Conclusion: In simple obese children there were leptin resistance and endocrine metabolic disturbances, the later might be correlated with the increasing of serum leptin levels; It is suggested that Leptin resistance might play a key role in the development of obesity

  18. Study on the relationship between serum levels of leptin thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Pingan; Zhai Chuntao; Yuan Sufen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between serum levels of leptin and thyroid functional status. Methods: Serum leptin (with RIA) and pituitary-thyroid axis hormones (with CLIA) were measured in 75 euthyroid controls, 44 hyperthyroid subjects and 27 hypothyroid subjects. Results: The levels of leptin in euthyroid controls, hyperthyroid subjects and hypothyroid subjects were (5.40 ± 3.78) ng/ml, (5.99 ± 5.24) ng/ml and (5.59 ± 4.23) ng/ml respectively with no significant differences among them. The serum leptin levels were positively correlated with serum TSH levels (r=0.27, P<0.01). Conclusion: Thyroid function has no effect on serum leptin levels and TSH levels correlates closely with those of serum leptin. (authors)

  19. The open PSA standard as a framework for migration of probabilistic models. Experiences with the KKB PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.; Hussels, U.; Epstein, S.; Rauzy, A.; Schubert, B.

    2008-01-01

    In its present state, the open PSA standard is helpful to determine capabilities of PSA approaches, which have been taken into account by those who formulated it. As soon, as tools come up, which can automatically bring a given PSA into the standard form, the data will be accessible by other software tools, which either are supplementary to the original one, or they may act in the context of quality control. Taking into account, that a PSA model represents a value of some two to ten person years (dependent on level of completeness and level of detail), it is important to have the data in a transparent way, which does not depend on proprietary formats, and can thus be used for more purposes than those, which are implemented in given PSA codes. (orig.)

  20. Diagnosis of prostate cancer: comparison of serum prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, K H; Chang, P L; Wang, T M; Hsieh, M L

    1997-03-01

    While prostate specific antigen (PSA) is useful as a tumor marker for monitoring patients with prostate cancer after definitive therapy, limitations have been noted when it is used for early detection of prostate cancer. We reviewed the charts of 121 patients who had undergone prostate needle biopsies, documented digital rectal examination (DRE) and serum PSA determination before biopsy from January 1993 to October 1994. Indications for biopsy included abnormal DRE. PSA level greater than 4.0 ng/ml or abnormal lesions on transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS). Seventeen patients (14%) had stage A carcinoma with normal DRE and PSA levels from 0.1 to 34.9 ng/ml (mean 9.0 ng/ml). Four patients (3%) had stage B carcinoma with an average PSA level of 32.3 ng/ml and less than one lobe indurated on DRE. Six patients (5%) had stage C carcinoma