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Sample records for serum potassium concentration

  1. Serum potassium concentrations: Importance of normokalaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Manuel; Fernández-Reyes, María José

    2017-06-21

    Abnormalities in potassium concentrations are associated with morbidity and mortality. In recent years it has been considered that small variations in serum potassium concentrations within normal intervals may also be associated with mortality. Strategies for achieving normokalaemia include dietary measures, limiting the use of potassium retaining drugs, and use of conventional cation exchange resins (calcium/sodium polystyrene sulfonate) and/or the new non-absorbed cation exchange polymer (patiromer). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and iron in the serum of dairy cows with subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhigang; Li, Xiaobing; Wang, Hongbin; Guo, Changming; Gao, Li; Liu, Lei; Gao, Ruifeng; Zhang, Yi; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhe; Li, Yanfei; Liu, Guowen

    2011-12-01

    Serum concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and iron were measured in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis. Compared with healthy cows, the subclinically ketotic cows had significantly higher levels of non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutirate in serum and significantly lower levels of blood glucose (p ketosis.

  3. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  4. Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Potassium and magnesium are the two most abundant intra cellular cations. They play pivotal roles in many essential biological processes. Deficiencies of these electrolytes are of clinical importance in hospitalised patients. Aim: To determine the relationship between serum total magnesium and potassium ...

  5. Dialysate Potassium, Serum Potassium, Mortality, and Arrhythmia Events in Hemodialysis: Results From the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaboyas, Angelo; Zee, Jarcy; Brunelli, Steven M; Usvyat, Len A; Weiner, Daniel E; Maddux, Franklin W; Nissenson, Allen R; Jadoul, Michel; Locatelli, Francesco; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Port, Friedrich K; Robinson, Bruce M; Tentori, Francesca

    2017-02-01

    Sudden death is a leading cause of death in patients on maintenance hemodialysis therapy. During hemodialysis sessions, the gradient between serum and dialysate levels results in rapid electrolyte shifts, which may contribute to arrhythmias and sudden death. Controversies exist about the optimal electrolyte concentration in the dialysate; specifically, it is unclear whether patient outcomes differ among those treated with a dialysate potassium concentration of 3 mEq/L compared to 2 mEq/L. Prospective cohort study. 55,183 patients from 20 countries in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) phases 1 to 5 (1996-2015). Dialysate potassium concentration at study entry. Cox regression was used to estimate the association between dialysate potassium concentration and both all-cause mortality and an arrhythmia composite outcome (arrhythmia-related hospitalization or sudden death), adjusting for potential confounders. During a median follow-up of 16.5 months, 24% of patients died and 7% had an arrhythmia composite outcome. No meaningful difference in clinical outcomes was observed for patients treated with a dialysate potassium concentration of 3 versus 2 mEq/L (adjusted HRs were 0.96 [95% CI, 0.91-1.01] for mortality and 0.98 [95% CI, 0.88-1.08] for arrhythmia composite). Results were similar across predialysis serum potassium levels. As in prior studies, higher serum potassium level was associated with adverse outcomes. However, dialysate potassium concentration had only minimal impact on serum potassium level measured predialysis (+0.09 [95% CI, 0.05-0.14] mEq/L serum potassium per 1 mEq/L greater dialysate potassium concentration). Data were not available for delivered (vs prescribed) dialysate potassium concentration and postdialysis serum potassium level; possible unmeasured confounding. In combination, these results suggest that approaches other than altering dialysate potassium concentration (eg, education on dietary potassium sources and

  6. Race, Serum Potassium, and Associations With ESRD and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana H; Tin, Adrienne; Chang, Alex R; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Molnar, Miklos Z; Grams, Morgan E

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that potassium levels may differ by race. The basis for these differences and whether associations between potassium levels and adverse outcomes differ by race are unknown. Observational study. Associations between race and potassium level and the interaction of race and potassium level with outcomes were investigated in the Racial and Cardiovascular Risk Anomalies in Chronic Kidney Disease (RCAV) Study, a cohort of US veterans (N=2,662,462). Associations between African ancestry and potassium level were investigated in African Americans in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (N=3,450). Race (African American vs non-African American and percent African ancestry) for cross-sectional analysis; serum potassium level for longitudinal analysis. Potassium level for cross-sectional analysis; mortality and end-stage renal disease for longitudinal analysis. The RCAV cohort was 18% African American (N=470,985). Potassium levels on average were 0.162mmol/L lower in African Americans compared with non-African Americans, with differences persisting after adjustment for demographics, comorbid conditions, and potassium-altering medication use. In the ARIC Study, higher African ancestry was related to lower potassium levels (-0.027mmol/L per each 10% African ancestry). In both race groups, higher and lower potassium levels were associated with mortality. Compared to potassium level of 4.2mmol/L, mortality risk associated with lower potassium levels was lower in African Americans versus non-African Americans, whereas mortality risk associated with higher levels was slightly greater. Risk relationships between potassium and end-stage renal disease were weaker, with no difference by race. No data for potassium intake. African Americans had slightly lower serum potassium levels than non-African Americans. Consistent associations between potassium levels and percent African ancestry may suggest a genetic component to these differences. Higher and

  7. Glycyrrhetinic acid decreases plasma potassium concentrations in patients with anuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Andreas; Uehlinger, Dominik E; Ferrari, Paolo; Dick, Bernhard; Frey, Brigitte M; Frey, Felix J; Vogt, Bruno

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Licorice-associated hypertension is thought to be due to increased renal sodium retention. The active compound of licorice, glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), inhibits renal 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2) and by that mechanism increases access of cortisol to the mineralocorticoid receptor that causes renal sodium retention and potassium loss. In addition, a direct vascular effect of 11beta-HSD activity has recently been incriminated to promote hypertension, a contention based on in vitro observations. This investigation was designed to establish whether this extrarenal effect of 11beta-HSD is relevant for BP regulation and potassium concentrations in plasma. In a prospective, double-blind, cross-over study, seven patients with anuria on chronic hemodialysis were randomly assigned after a baseline period of 2 wk to placebo or GA (1 g/d) for 2 wk, separated by a washout phase of 3 wk. The ratio of plasma cortisol/cortisone, determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, increased in all patients after GA intake (F = 9.705; P < 0.004), which indicates inhibition of 11beta-HSD. Twenty-four-hour BP values did not change throughout the study. The increase of the plasma cortisol/cortisone ratio was paralleled by a decline in the plasma potassium concentration in every patient. The mean +/- SD plasma potassium concentration decreased from 5.5 +/- 0.6 mM/L at baseline to 4.9 +/- 0.7 and 4.5 +/- 0.8 mM/L after 1 and 2 wk on GA, respectively (F = 9.934, P < 0.003). Extrarenal 11beta-HSD activity influences serum potassium concentrations but does not regulate BP independently of renal sodium retention.

  8. Comparative Study of Sodium and Potassium in Different Types of Gallstones and in Serum of Subjects with Gallstones and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Soomro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study comprises evaluation of sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of human gallstones as well as measurement of the concentration of these elements in gallstones and in sera of 109 gallstone subjects and 100 controls (age and sex matched with no personal or family history of gallstone disease. It was observed that serum concentrations for both sodium and potassium were comparable (p>0.05 between gallstone subjects and control subjects. In gallstones the concentration of sodium was significantly higher as compared to potassium (p<0.05. Normal sodium to potassium ratio was seen in serum of gallstone subjects, whereas, low sodium to potassium ratio was seen in gallstone carriers. Amongst the different types of gallstones, significantly high (p<0.05 concentrations of sodium and potassium were seen in calcium bilirubinate gallstones. The levels for these mineral elements were also raised in serum of pure calcium carbonate gallstone subjects.The results demonstrate that the higher concentration of sodium and potassium in gallstones may involve in both calcium bilirubinate gallstones and in serum of calcium carbonate gallstone subjects, which indicate their association with calcium in the precipitation of calcium bilirubinate and calcium carbonate in bile. Furthermore, low sodium to potassium ratio in gallstones indicates low ratio in bile of gallstone subjects.

  9. Sodium and potassium concentrations in floral nectars in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium and potassium concentrations have been measured in nectar from a variety of flowering plants visited by honey bees (Apis mellifera capensis). In 18 plant species the mean sodium concentration was 9,8 ± 1,4 mmol (± S.E.), and the mean potassium concentration was 18,7 ± 4,3 mmol. These results are compared ...

  10. Sodium and potassium concentrations in floral nectars in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-03

    Aug 3, 1989 ... Sodium and potassium concentrations have been measured in nectar from a variety of flowering plants visited by honey bees fApis me/litera capensis). In 18 plant species the mean sodium concentration was 9,8 ± 1,4 mmol (± S.E.), and the mean potassium concentration was 18,7 ± 4,3 mmol.

  11. Evaluation of the effects of occupational noise exposure on serum aldosterone and potassium among industrial workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Zare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature indicates that occupational exposure to noise may have adverse effects on workers′ health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of exposure to different sound pressure levels (SPLs on serum aldosterone and potassium concentration among Iranian blue collar workers in Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company in Sirjan, Kerman Province, Iran. This case-control study was performed on 45 workers of Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company. The subjects consisted of 30 workers from manufacturing departments and 15 office employees of the mining company. The controls, mainly with administrative jobs were exposed to 72 dBA SPL. Cases, in two separate groups, were exposed to noise levels of 88 dBA and 103 dBA, respectively. Noise intensity was measured at the desired locations. Noise measurements were performed according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 9612. To measure the serum aldosterone and potassium concentrations, a 5 mL blood sample was taken from each worker at the specified time intervals and aldosterone concentration was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test in the laboratory. Repeated measurement and Spearman′s correlation coefficient analysis were used with α = 0.05. Exposure to the different levels of sound pressure resulted in different aldosterone concentrations and meanwhile an increase in the SPL did not affect the concentration of potassium. From 10:00 AM to 10:30 AM, as SPL increased, aldosterone concentrations did not increase significantly but from 13:30 PM to 14:00 PM, raised SPL led to a significant increase in aldosterone concentration. However, there was no correlation between the concentration of potassium and different factors. This study indicated that increases in SPLs affect aldosterone concentration but at the same time do not have significant effects on serum potassium level.

  12. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant...

  13. The predicting ability of serum potassium to assess the duration of mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javdan, Zahra; Talakoub, Reihanak; Honarmand, Azim; Golparvar, Mohammad; Farsani, Enayatolah Yadollahi

    2015-01-01

    No previous study has been done to evaluate the admission serum potassium level as a predictor of morbidity or need for mechanical ventilation. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive ability of serum potassium on admission, in critically ill trauma patients, and to evaluate the relation of the potassium level to organ failure, length of stay, ventilator need, and duration of mechanical ventilation. A prospective, observational study was done on 100 patients >16 years old, admitted to the Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Units (ICU), for over one year. Patients were classified into Group A: Patients who required equal or less than five days of mechanical ventilation and Group B: Patients who required more than five days of mechanical ventilation. The total serum potassium concentrations were measured and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was recorded at the time of admission to the ICU, when connected to the ventilator, and then at the time of weaning from the ventilator. There was no significant difference between the Serum K concentrations between the two groups, on admission. However, there were significant difference between the Serum K concentrations at times of receiving and weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV) between the two groups. We found the best cut-off point of 3.45 for serum potassium concentration, to predict the need for longer duration of MV. Development of hypokalemia during an ICU stay is associated with the need for mechanical ventilation. Monitoring of the serum potassium levels may be a good prognostic factor for the requirement of mechanical ventilation.

  14. Effect of different concentrations of potassium and magnesium on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi largely depends on the concentration of nutrient elements in roots and soil. In this study, the effects of different concentrations of potassium and magnesium on mycorrhizal colonization of maize grown in pot cultures were studied. This experiment was performed using natural ...

  15. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  16. [Concentration of various bioelements in the serum of otosclerosis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, A; Vespasiani, F

    1985-01-01

    Serum biochemistry was monitored in 50 patients with otosclerosis confirmed surgically. Age distribution was 25 to 50 years (mean:30 years), and the group included 8 men. Constants determined were serum sodium, potassium, chlorine, iron, phosphorus, aluminium, magnesium, copper and alkaline phosphatase. All patients were free from systemic or metabolic disease. Results failed to demonstrate variations in sodium, potassium, iron, and chlorine concentrations when compared with controls, with non-significant differences in copper, magnesium, phosphorus, aluminium and alkaline phosphatases. These findings were observed both in young patients in whom the otosclerotic process is in the active phase, and in older patients, this excluding correlations between duration of the disease and variations in concentrations of specific ions. The presence of aluminium in the active otosclerotic process is therefore due to local factors of which the mechanism is unknown at the present time.

  17. Serum Potassium Changes During Therapeutic Hypothermia After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest-Should It Be Treated?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soeholm, Helle; Kirkegaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    that an infusion of supplementary potassium be initiated during the early cooling phase in order to avoid severe hypokalemia (serum potassium 3.0 mmol/L) and terminated in due time before normothermia is reached during rewarming in order to avoid severe hyperkalemia (serum potassium >5.5 mmol/L), as serum...

  18. [Significance of serum digoxin concentration and its influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, E; Krawietz, W; Vogt, W

    1976-04-08

    In recent years it has become possible by means of a radioimmunoassay to measure Digoxin concentration in the serum of digitalized patients. With this method it could be shown that the resorption of Digoxin is decreased by partial resection of the samll intestines, by malabsorption syndromes, after ingestion of Neomycin, Colestyramine and antacids. In renal insufficiency, however, the elimination half-life period of Digoxin is increased conspiciously (from about 35 hours up to about 120 hours). This results in a raised serum concentration of cardiac glycosides unless the dosage is decreased considerably. The incidence of Digitalis intoxication in Digitalis treated patients has been reported to rank as high as 20%. There is, however, no strict correlation between the serum glycoside level and the clinical symptoms, because the glykoside concentration in the serum does not represent the pharmacologically active concentration at the receptor. Experimental investigations of cardiac glycoside binding to the receptor for cardiac glycosides in human heart cell membranes revealed, that receptor bound Digoxin for instance is diminished in serious renal insufficiency and it depends on the serum concentration of potassium, calcium and magnesium. In hypoxia, after myocardial infarction and in myxedema the sensitivity for cardiac glycosides is increased. The opposite is true in hyperthyreoidism, fever and in children. All of these factors have to be kept in mind and paid attention to in the clinical evaluation of the measured Digoxin concentration in the serum.

  19. Serum potassium levels and its variability in incident peritoneal dialysis patients: associations with mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingdong Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abnormal serum potassium is associated with an increased risk of mortality in dialysis patients. However, the impacts of serum potassium levels on short- and long-term mortality and association of potassium variability with death in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients are uncertain. METHODS: We examined mortality-predictability of serum potassium at baseline and its variability in PD patients treated in our center January 2006 through December 2010 with follow-up through December 2012. The hazard ratios (HRs were used to assess the relationship between baseline potassium levels and short-term (≤1 year as well as long-term (>1 year survival. Variability of serum potassium was defined as the coefficient of variation of serum potassium (CVSP during the first year of PD. RESULTS: A total of 886 incident PD patients were enrolled, with 248 patients (27.9% presented hypokalemia (serum potassium <3.5 mEq/L. During a median follow-up of 31 months (range: 0.5-81.0 months, adjusted all-cause mortality hazard ratio (HR and 95% confidence interval (CI for baseline serum potassium of <3.0, 3.0 to <3.5, 3.5 to <4.0, 4.5 to <5.0, and ≥5.0 mEq/L, compared with 4.0 to <4.5 (reference, were 1.79 (1.02-3.14, 1.15 (0.72-1.86, 1.31 (0.82-2.08, 1.33 (0.71-2.48, 1.28 (0.53-3.10, respectively. The increased risk of lower potassium with mortality was evident during the first year of follow-up, but vanished thereafter. Adjusted all-cause mortality HR for CVSP increments of 7.5% to <12.0%; 12.0% to <16.7% and ≥16.7%, compared with <7.5% (reference, were 1.35 (0.67-2.71, 2.00 (1.05-3.83 and 2.18 (1.18-4.05, respectively. Similar association was found between serum potassium levels and its variability and cardiovascular mortality. CONCLUSIONS: A lower serum potassium level was associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality during the first year of follow-up in incident PD patients. In addition, higher variability of serum potassium levels conferred an

  20. Short-term mortality risk of serum potassium levels in hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Maria Lukács; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Diuretics and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors are central in the treatment of hypertension, but may cause serum potassium abnormalities. We examined mortality in relation to serum potassium in hypertensive patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: From Danish National Registries, we...... identified 44 799 hypertensive patients, aged 30 years or older, who had a serum potassium measurement within 90 days from diagnosis between 1995 and 2012. All-cause mortality was analysed according to seven predefined potassium levels: 5.......0 mmol/L (hyperkalaemia). Outcome was 90-day mortality, estimated with multivariable Cox proportional hazard model, with the potassium interval of 4.1-4.4 mmol/L as reference. During 90-day follow-up, mortalities in the seven strata were 4.5, 2.7, 1.8, 1.5, 1.7, 2.7, and 3.6%, respectively. Adjusted risk...

  1. Serum Potassium Levels and Outcome in Acute Heart Failure (Data from the PROTECT and COACH Trials)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, Jasper; ter Maaten, Jozine M.; Damman, Kevin; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Metra, Marco; Dittrich, Howard C.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Teerlink, John R.; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth; Cleland, John G. F.; Givertz, Michael M.; Bloomfield, Daniel M.; van der Wal, Martje H. L.; Jaarsma, Tiny; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Hillege, Hans L.; Voors, Adriaan A.; van der Meer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Serum potassium is routinely measured at admission for acute heart failure (AHF), but information on association with clinical variables and prognosis is limited. Potassium measurements at admission were available in 1,867 patients with AHF in the original cohort of 2,033 patients included in the

  2. Intraerythrocytic sodium and potassium concentrations during acute and chronic digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K E; Koldkjaer, O; Berndtz, N H; Hvidt, S; Kjaer, K; Midtskov, C; Sanchez, G

    1982-01-01

    To assess the cellular effects of digoxin, intraerythrocytic sodium and potassium concentrations were measured in 17 patients during the early phase of digitalization, in 45 patients on long-term therapy and in 64 non-digitalized control patients. Acute digitalization raised intraerythrocytic sodium from 11.6 +/- 0.4 to 16.7 +/- 1.0 mmol/l (mean +/- SEM) (p less than 0.01) and reduced intraerythrocytic potassium from 100.1 +/- 1.3 to 95.9 +/- 1.8 mmol/l (p less than 0.01). These changes were strongly correlated with the steady-state plasma digoxin concentration. During a few weeks of digoxin therapy, the intraerythrocytic cation composition normalized gradually. In patients on chronic treatment, neither intraerythrocytic sodium (11.3 +/- 0.3 mmol/l) nor potassium concentrations (100.0 +/- 0.6 mmol/l) differed significantly from the values of the control group (11.4 +/- 0.2 and 99.9 +/- 0.5 mmol/l, respectively). The changes in intraerythrocytic cation concentrations, induced by acute digitalization, seem to disappear during chronic administration of the drug.

  3. Serum Sodium and Potassium Levels in Cerebro-vascular Accident Patients

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    Farahmand, Farahmand; Choobi Anzali, Babak; Heshmat, Ramin; Ghafouri, Hamed-Basir; Hamedanchi, Sepehr

    2013-01-01

    Background: We aim to assess serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with different types of cerebro-vascular accidents (CVA) in comparison to control group. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study conducted on patients admitted to the emergency department from January to August 2012. Control group consisted of patients admitted to emergency department due to common cold, urinary tract infection, low back pain, cluster, and tension headache or migraine. Serum sodium and potassium levels were measured via standard laboratory methods. Results: There were 77 patients in control group and 78 in CVA group. Forty nine patients from the CVA group had ischemic CVA, 11 had hemorrhagic CVA and 18 suffered a transient ischemic attack (TIA). Serum sodium level in control group was significantly lower than in patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). Serum potassium level in control group was higher than patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). Patients with hemorrhagic CVA showed significantly lower serum potassium level than patients with TIA and ischemic CVA (P < 0.001). Correspondingly, it was observed that serum sodium to potassium ratio was higher in patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). In patients with hemorrhagic CVA serum sodium to potassium ratio was higher when compared to patients with TIA and ischemic CVA (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study shows that higher serum sodium and lower serum potassium level may be associated with higher incidence of CVA. Further studies are paramount to elucidate the role of serum electrolyte levels in vascular events. PMID:23966823

  4. Serum Sodium and Potassium Levels in Cerebro-vascular Accident Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Farahmand; Choobi Anzali, Babak; Heshmat, Ramin; Ghafouri, Hamed-Basir; Hamedanchi, Sepehr

    2013-05-01

    We aim to assess serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with different types of cerebro-vascular accidents (CVA) in comparison to control group. A comparative cross-sectional study conducted on patients admitted to the emergency department from January to August 2012. Control group consisted of patients admitted to emergency department due to common cold, urinary tract infection, low back pain, cluster, and tension headache or migraine. Serum sodium and potassium levels were measured via standard laboratory methods. There were 77 patients in control group and 78 in CVA group. Forty nine patients from the CVA group had ischemic CVA, 11 had hemorrhagic CVA and 18 suffered a transient ischemic attack (TIA). Serum sodium level in control group was significantly lower than in patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). Serum potassium level in control group was higher than patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). Patients with hemorrhagic CVA showed significantly lower serum potassium level than patients with TIA and ischemic CVA (P < 0.001). Correspondingly, it was observed that serum sodium to potassium ratio was higher in patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). In patients with hemorrhagic CVA serum sodium to potassium ratio was higher when compared to patients with TIA and ischemic CVA (P < 0.001). This study shows that higher serum sodium and lower serum potassium level may be associated with higher incidence of CVA. Further studies are paramount to elucidate the role of serum electrolyte levels in vascular events.

  5. Comparison of Serum Levels of Magnesium and Potassium in Stroke Patient and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdokht Mazdeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: CVA (cerebrovascular accident is the most common debilitating disease. Studies show that magnesium and potassium have significant neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study is evaluation of serum levels of potassium and magnesium in stroke patients. Materials & Methods: In this case study, 70 stroke patients were entered in following manner. For a patient, a questionnaire include: age, sex, and kind of stroke was provided and then, in which the serum levels of magnesium and potassium were entered. These levels were compared with those of control group (70 people whose individuals were sexual and age wise identical and results from these were analyzed with statistical test, t-test. Results: From 70 patients who were entered in this study, 39 (55.7% individuals were male and 31 (44.3% female. The mean age of case group was 72.11±10.76. The mean serum level of magnesium and potassium in case group was 1.89±0.25meq/L and 3.81±0.26 meq/L respectively and in control group was 1.95±0.46 meq/L and 3.9±0.41 meq/L that showed the mean serum level of magnesium and potassium in CVA patients was lower than control group, and only about serum level K is significant (P=0.004 Conclusion: The serum level of magnesium and potassium in stroke patients is lower than control group.

  6. Tomato yield and potassium concentrations in soil and in plant petioles as affected by potassium fertirrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FONTES PAULO CEZAR REZENDE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Santa Clara was grown on a silt clay soil with 46 mg dm-3 Mehlich 1 extractable K, to evaluate the effects of trickle-applied K rates on fruit yield and to establish K critical concentrations in soil and in plant petioles. Six potassium rates (0, 48, 119, 189, 259 and 400 kg ha-1 K were applied in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Soil and plant K critical levels were determined at two plant growth stages (at the beginning of the second and fourth cluster flowering. Total, marketable and weighted yields increased with K rates, reaching their maximum of 86.4, 73.4, and 54.9 ton ha-1 at 198, 194, and 125 kg ha-1 K , respectively. At the first soil sampling date K critical concentrations in the soil associated with K rates for maximum marketable and weighted yields were 92 and 68 mg dm-3, respectively. Potassium critical concentrations in the dry matter of the petioles sampled by the beginning of the second and fourth cluster flowering time, associated with maximum weighted yield, were 10.30 and 7.30 dag kg-1, respectively.

  7. The Effect of Salt Intake and Potassium Supplementation on Serum Gastrin Levels in Chinese Adults: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; He, Wen-Wen; Liu, Yan-Chun; Lin, Yi-Feng; Hong, Lu-Fei

    2017-04-14

    Excess dietary salt is strongly correlated with cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality. Conversely, potassium likely elicits favorable effects against cardiovascular disorders. Gastrin, which is produced by the G-cells of the stomach and duodenum, can increase renal sodium excretion and regulate blood pressure by acting on the cholecystokinin B receptor. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of altered salt and potassium supplementation on serum gastrin levels in humans. A total of 44 subjects (38-65 years old) were selected from a rural community in northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained on a relatively low-salt diet for 7 days (3.0 g/day of NaCl), a high-salt diet for 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl), and then a high-salt diet supplemented with potassium for another 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl + 4.5 g/day of KCl). The high-salt intake significantly increased serum gastrin levels (15.3 ± 0.3 vs. 17.6 ± 0.3 pmol/L). This phenomenon was alleviated through potassium supplementation (17.6 ± 0.3 vs. 16.5 ± 0.4 pmol/L). Further analyses revealed that serum gastrin was positively correlated with 24 h urinary sodium excretion (r = 0.476, p gastrin level was negatively correlated with blood pressure in all dietary interventions (r = -0.188, p = 0.031). The present study indicated that variations in dietary salt and potassium supplementation affected the serum gastrin concentrations in the Chinese subjects.

  8. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual′s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, pfamily. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust

  9. Serum Potassium Profile and Associated Factors in Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Abnormal potassium profiles are common in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. We studied the factors associated with serum potassium profiles in incident PD patients. Methods: Patients were enrolled from two hospital-facilitated PD centers from May 2013 to May 2016 and January 2009 to December 2015. A total of 319 incident PD patients were examined for factors associated with serum potassium profile. Average serum potassium levels were obtained for analysis during the first 3 months after PD initiation. Clinically factors and parameters associated with PD were assessed by logistic regression. Results: There were 168 men and 151 women (mean age, 50.8 years. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine (Cr, and intact parathyroid hormone levels were significantly increased in patients in the higher serum potassium group. There were no significant risk factors for hypokalemia, including sex, age, diabetes, blood examination parameters, medication use, or PD-related parameters by multivariate logistic regression analysis. BUN (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, p = 0.001 and Cr (adjusted OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16, p = 0.029 levels were significant risk factors for hyperkalemia by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: Hyperkalemia and blood BUN and Cr levels were significantly associated in incident PD patients.

  10. 20-Day Trend of Serum Potassium Changes in Bam Earthquake Victims with Crush Syndrome; a Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Safari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many of those who survive following an earthquake die in the next phase due to preventable and treatable medical conditions such as hyperkalemia. The present study aimed to evaluate the trend of potassium changes in crush syndrome patients of Bam earthquake. Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, using the database of Bam earthquake victims, which were developed by Iranian Society of Nephrology following Bam earthquake, Iran, 2003, the 20-day trend of potassium changes in > 15 years old crush syndrome patients was evaluated. Results: 135 crush syndrome patients with the mean age of 29.9 ± 9.91 years were evaluated (56.3% male. Mean potassium concentration during the first 3 days of admission was 5.6 ± 1.3 mEq/L. On the day of admission, 43.1% (95% CI: 34.0 - 52.2 had normal potassium concentration, 3.4% (95% CI: 0.1 - 6.8 had hypokalemia, and 53.4% (44.3 - 62.6 had hyperkalemia. During 20-day follow-up, 62.3% (95% CI: 66.7-71.9 of the patients had normal potassium. While, 11.5% (95% CI: 9.7-13.3 had hypokalemia and 19.2% (95% CI: 17.0-21.5 had hyperkalemia. As the days of hospitalization increased, prevalence of hyperkalemia decreased while hypokalemia increased. On the 17th day 21.2% (95% CI: 2.2-39.9 had hypokalemia and 10.5% (95% CI: 0.1 – 24.7 had hyperkalemia. Conclusion: Findings of the present study showed that following urine alkalinization and fluid resuscitation, the prevalence of hyperkalemia reduced, but hypokalemia developed. It seems that the correction of serum potassium level should be accompanied by precise monitoring of intake and output of the patient and prescription of reasonable amount of intravenous fluid.

  11. 20-Day Trend of Serum Potassium Changes in Bam Earthquake Victims with Crush Syndrome; a Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Saeed; Najafi, Iraj; Hosseini, Mostafa; Baratloo, Alireza; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Mohammadi, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    Many of those who survive following an earthquake die in the next phase due to preventable and treatable medical conditions such as hyperkalemia. The present study aimed to evaluate the trend of potassium changes in crush syndrome patients of Bam earthquake. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, using the database of Bam earthquake victims, which were developed by Iranian Society of Nephrology following Bam earthquake, Iran, 2003, the 20-day trend of potassium changes in > 15 years old crush syndrome patients was evaluated. 135 crush syndrome patients with the mean age of 29.9 ± 9.91 years were evaluated (56.3% male). Mean potassium concentration during the first 3 days of admission was 5.6 ± 1.3 mEq/L. On the day of admission, 43.1% (95% CI: 34.0 - 52.2) had normal potassium concentration, 3.4% (95% CI: 0.1 - 6.8) had hypokalemia, and 53.4% (44.3 - 62.6) had hyperkalemia. During 20-day follow-up, 62.3% (95% CI: 66.7-71.9) of the patients had normal potassium. While, 11.5% (95% CI: 9.7-13.3) had hypokalemia and 19.2% (95% CI: 17.0-21.5) had hyperkalemia. As the days of hospitalization increased, prevalence of hyperkalemia decreased while hypokalemia increased. On the 17th day 21.2% (95% CI: 2.2-39.9) had hypokalemia and 10.5% (95% CI: 0.1 - 24.7) had hyperkalemia. Findings of the present study showed that following urine alkalinization and fluid resuscitation, the prevalence of hyperkalemia reduced, but hypokalemia developed. It seems that the correction of serum potassium level should be accompanied by precise monitoring of intake and output of the patient and prescription of reasonable amount of intravenous fluid.

  12. Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and blackberries Root vegetables, such as carrots and potatoes Citrus fruits, such as oranges and grapefruit Your kidneys help to keep the right amount of potassium in your body. If you have chronic kidney disease, your kidneys may not remove extra potassium from ...

  13. Serum selenium concentration in Mashhad prisoners, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehteshamfar, Seyed-Morteza; Shapouri-Moghaddam, Abbas; Safarian, Mohammad; Nematy, Mohsen; Bahrami-Taghanaki, Hamidreza; Azizi, Hoda

    2012-08-01

    To determine the serum selenium concentration among prisoners in the central jail of Mashhad, Northeast of Iran. In a cross-section study, a sample of 435 prisoners (387 men [34.5±10 years] and 48 women [36.4±11 years]) recruited during May 2008 to June 2008 from Mashhad Central Prison, Mashhad, Iran, using multistage sampling method, proportionate to gender, age groups and kind of crime. Serum level of selenium was assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean of serum selenium concentration was 121±20 ug/l. Prevalence of selenium deficiency was 9.7% in selected sample. The selenium deficiency was more prevalent in women than men (25.5% versus 7.8%, p=0.00). Age distribution of serum selenium level had a different pattern among men and women. While in men serum selenium level on average was least in those aged 50 and over, in women, serum selenium did not change with age. Body mass index (BMI) and weight change had no relations. Results of this study suggest that selenium status of the prisoners in Mashhad central prison is of concern. Women may be at higher risk for selenium deficiency. These results have implications for officials in charge with prisoners and health policy makers.

  14. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Thirty five (35) adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g were divided into seven groups of five (5) rats each. Group I rats served as the control and received 2.

  15. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquinetreated rats: effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Thirty five (35) adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g were divided into seven groups of five (5) rats each. Group I rats served as the control and received 2 ml/kg of normal ...

  16. Potassium Concentration in Blood of Brazilian Athletes Using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Lourenço, Thiago F.; Nunes, Lázaro A. S.; Macedo, Denise V.

    2011-08-01

    In this study the potassium levels in blood were determined in male athletes, age 18 to 26 years, before, during and after the tread mill exercise protocol using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA). These data are important to check the potassium imbalance in blood during the period of competition preparation.

  17. Serum triglyceride concentration in dogs with epilepsy treated with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Elissa K; Malik, Richard; Ilkin, William J; Snow, David; Sullivan, David R; Govendir, Merran

    2008-10-15

    To compare serum triglyceride concentrations obtained after food had been withheld (i.e., fasting concentrations) in dogs with epilepsy that had been treated long term (> or = 3 months) with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and potassium bromide with concentrations in healthy control dogs. Cross-sectional study. 57 epileptic dogs that had been treated with phenobarbital (n=28) or with phenobarbital and bromide (29) and 57 healthy, untreated control dogs matched on the basis of age, breed, sex, neuter status, and body condition score. Blood samples were collected after food had been withheld for at least 12 hours, and serum biochemical and lipid concentrations were determined. Oral fat tolerance tests were performed in 15 control dogs and 9 dogs with epilepsy treated with phenobarbital alone. 19 of the 57 (33%) epileptic dogs had fasting serum triglyceride concentrations greater than the upper reference limit. Nine (16%) dogs had a history of pancreatitis, and 5 of the 9 had high fasting serum triglyceride concentrations at the time of the study. A significant relationship was found between body condition score and fasting serum triglyceride concentration in all dogs, but serum triglyceride concentration was not significantly associated with phenobarbital dosage or serum phenobarbital concentration. Results suggested that dogs treated long term with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and bromide may develop hypertriglyceridemia. Fasting serum triglyceride concentration should be periodically monitored in dogs treated with phenobarbital because hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for pancreatitis.

  18. Hemodynamic Behavior During Hemodialysis: Effects of Dialysate Concentrations of Bicarbonate and Potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno C. Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ultrafiltration that occurs during hemodialysis (HD promotes profound alterations in a relatively short period of time. The dialysate content of bicarbonate (DBic and potassium (DK may have impact over intradialytic hemodynamics, which goes beyond ultrafiltration, and its impact was evaluated in a prospective cohort. Methods: 30 patients under HD were submitted to hemodynamic assessment (HA at the beginning and at the end of HD sessions, through a non-invasive method. Serum minus dialysate potassium concentration was expressed as K-Gap. Cardiac index (CI and peripheral arterial resistance (PAR variation (post-HD minus pre-HD were expressed as ΔCI and ΔPAR. Dialysate content of sodium and calcium were expressed as DNa and DCa, respectively. Results: Mean DNa, DK and DBic were, respectively, 136.4 ± 1.1, 2.1 ± 0.6 and 38.2 ± 2.1 mEq/L. In 15 patients, DCa was >1.5 mmol/L and in the other 15 patients ≤ 1.5 mmol/L. The K-Gap ranged from 1.4 to 5.1 mEq/l (median 3.0 mEq/L. There was a reduction in post-HD CI and systolic blood pressure (ΔCI = -0.72l/min/m2 and -11.3±15.1mmHg, respectively, p5, pConclusion: We confirmed that Na and Ca dialysate content exerts and important role on hemodynamic during HD. In addition, our findings pointed out that higher dialysate concentrations of bicarbonate and potassium promote lower cardiac performance at the end of hemodialysis session.

  19. Serum aluminum levels in dialysis patients after sclerotherapy of internal hemorrhoids with aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Akira; Nakagi, Masafumi; Kano, Nobuyasu; Mizutani, Masahiko; Yamaguchi, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) is an effective sclerosing agent for internal hemorrhoids. However, it is contraindicated for patients with chronic renal failure on dialysis, because the aluminum in ALTA can cause aluminum encephalopathy when it is not excreted effectively. We conducted this study to measure the serum aluminum concentrations and observe for symptoms relating to aluminum encephalopathy in dialysis patients after ALTA therapy. Ten dialysis patients underwent ALTA therapy for hemorrhoids. We measured their serum aluminum concentrations and observed them for possible symptoms of aluminum encephalopathy. The total injection volume of ALTA solution was 31 mL (24-37). The median serum aluminum concentration before ALTA therapy was 9 μg/L, which increased to 741, 377, and 103 μg/L, respectively, 1 h, 1 day, and 1 week after ALTA therapy. These levels decreased rapidly, to 33 μg/L by 1 month and 11 μg/L by 3 months after ALTA therapy. No patient suffered symptoms related to aluminum encephalopathy. Although the aluminum concentrations increased temporarily after ALTA therapy, dialysis patients with levels below 150 μg/L by 1 week and thereafter are considered to be at low risk of the development of aluminum encephalopathy.

  20. Pathogenic Candida species differ in the ability to grow at limiting potassium concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hušeková, B; Elicharová, H; Sychrová, H

    2016-05-01

    A high intracellular concentration of potassium (200-300 mmol/L) is essential for many yeast cell functions, such as the regulation of cell volume and pH, maintenance of membrane potential, and enzyme activation. Thus, cells use high-affinity specific transporters and expend a lot of energy to acquire the necessary amount of potassium from their environment. In Candida genomes, genes encoding 3 types of putative potassium uptake systems were identified: Trk uniporters, Hak symporters, and Acu ATPases. Tests of the tolerance and sensitivity of C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis to various concentrations of potassium showed significant differences among the species, and these differences were partly dependent on external pH. The species most tolerant to potassium-limiting conditions were C. albicans and C. krusei, while C. parapsilosis tolerated the highest KCl concentrations. Also, the morphology of cells changed with the amount of potassium available, with C. krusei and C. tropicalis being the most influenced. Taken together, our results confirm potassium uptake and accumulation as important factors for Candida cell growth and suggest that the sole (and thus probably indispensable) Trk1 potassium uptake system in C. krusei and C. glabrata may serve as a target for the development of new antifungal drugs.

  1. Potassium Concentration on Admission Is an Independent Risk Factor for Target Lesion Revascularization in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Honda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is accompanied by excessive production of catecholamines, which is characterized by a hypokalemic dip. A polymorphism of the adrenergic receptor has also been reported to be associated with target lesion revascularization (TLR after coronary intervention. Subjects and Methods. We enrolled 276 consecutive patients with AMI within 24 hours of symptom onset, who underwent emergency coronary intervention using bare metal stents and had examinations over a 5–10-month follow-up period. The patients were divided into tertiles based on their serum potassium level on admission (low K, <3.9; mid K, ≥3.9, <4.3; and high K, ≥4.3. Results. Sixty-four TLRs were observed in the study. Increased potassium concentration was associated significantly with TLR. Patients in the high K group were about two and a half times more likely to have a TLR after AMI compared to those in the low K group. Multiple logistic analysis showed that potassium level on admission was an independent risk factor for TLR (odds ratio 1.69; confidence interval 1.04 to 2.74; P=0.036. Conclusions. These findings indicated that increased potassium levels on admission might predict TLRs in AMI patients treated with bare metal stents.

  2. Concentrations of Uranium,Thorium and Potassium in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunholm, Bo; Linden, Anders H.; Gustafsson, Bosse [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    This report is largely a result of the Swedish contribution to an IAEA co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on the use of selected safety indicators in the assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The CRP was focusing on the assessment of the longterm safety of radioactive waste disposal by means of additional safety indicators based on data from natural systems with emphasis on description of existing data on radioactive elements and radionuclides. A major part of the work was focused on collecting data on geophysics as well as geochemistry and groundwater chemistry; mainly uranium (U), thorium (Th) and potassium (K). Data were interpreted resulting in maps and statistical description.

  3. Serum potassium levels predict blood pressure response to aldosterone antagonists in resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlomai, Gadi; Sella, Tal; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Leibowitz, Avshalom; Grossman, Ehud

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with the blood pressure (BP) response to spironolactone--aldosterone receptor antagonist as an add-on therapy in patients with resistant hypertension (HTN). We retrospectively reviewed the data of subjects with resistant HTN who were treated with add-on spironolactone in a large HTN clinic. A paired Student's t-test was used to assess the differences between the BP values before and during spironolactone administration, and multivariate analysis was used to assess the predictors of a satisfactory BP response (a decrease in systolic BP >10%). We analyzed the data of 48 hypertensive participants. The add-on spironolactone therapy had a significant BP-lowering effect in both systolic and diastolic BP values (P < 0.01 for both). Baseline serum potassium levels of <4.5 mEq l(-1) were associated with a satisfactory BP response (P < 0.01). Furthermore, every decrement of 1 mEq l(-1) of serum potassium was independently associated with a fivefold higher rate of achieving a satisfactory BP response to spironolactone therapy (P = 0.024). Additional factors independently associated with an improved systolic BP response were old age (P = 0.033), body mass index (P = 0.033) and high baseline systolic BP (P=0.004). Our results support the use of add-on spironolactone therapy in patients with resistant HTN who are elderly and obese and have high systolic BP and serum potassium levels <4.5 mEq l(-1).

  4. The constant value of the total concentration of potassium and sodium in tissue water in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillak, R

    1978-01-01

    With age, the Musculus longissimus dorsi in pigs showed an increase in the potassium content and a decrease in the sodium content. The total concentration of potassium and sodium in milimoles in one litre of tissue water, here referred to as the "Sum k", is a constant value. The same mean Sum k had been obtained earlier by Blaxter and Rook for various kinds of tissue in cattle of different age. Approximate mean Sums k were calculated from the water, potassium and sodium contents in the muscles of man and pig at different stages of development, as reported in another publication. The constant character of Sum k was shown to be due to the equal concentration of potassium and sodium ions. This allows to calculate the quantity of water in the tissue from the potassium and sodium ions it contains and the percentage of extracellular or cellular water in total water. A consideration of the relationship between Sum k and osmotic pressure in the tissues proved an absence of concentration symmetry between the cellular and extracellular fluids which Sum k had seemed to suggest. Consequently, the total potassium content was multiplied by the asymmetry coefficient, fK, and then the Sum kc = mM (FKK + Na) per litre of water. From Blaxter and Rook's equation it was calculated that fK = 0.856 and Sum kc 148.8 mM.

  5. Serum testosterone concentrations in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C

    1987-01-01

    Median serum testosterone concentration of men with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 216) did not differ significantly from normal controls (n = 51), but serum testosterone concentrations varied by a factor 43.9 in patients compared to 3.2 in controls (P less than .001). Nineteen percent of the patients...... had serum testosterone concentrations above 30 nmol/L. Serum concentrations of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly (P less than .001) raised, and serum concentrations of calculated nonprotein-bound and non-SHBG-bound testosterone were significantly (P less than .001) decreased...... in patients compared to normal control values. A number of background variables were analyzed with reference to serum testosterone concentrations by means of multiple regression techniques after having divided the patients into groups (A, B, C) with decreasing liver function by a modification of the Child...

  6. Influence of antihypertensive therapy, sodium intake and the concentration of potassium in plasma on concentration of aldosterone and plasma renin activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Tijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary aldosteronism (PA is a group of disorders which are characterized by inadequate and non-suppressible production of aldosterone. The prevalence of PA is increasing in hypertensive population. The golden standard of screening for primary aldosteronism, determination of aldosterone/plasma renin activity (ARR, is influenced by numerous exogenous and endogenous factors. Testing cannot always be conducted under optimal conditions. Objective: To determine influence of antihypertensive drugs and concentrations of potassium and sodium in blood and urine on values of aldosterone and plasma renin activity. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed medical reports of patients admitted to Department of thyroid gland disease in the period from 2009 to 2011, with increased risk for primary aldosteronism. Body weight and height, sodium and potassium in serum and urine, plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity, data on medicines and comorbidity were analyzed in all patients. In processing data, statistical methods descriptive analysis, Student T test and univariate linear regression were applied. Result: Of 137 patients, there were more patients with resistant hypertension (53,28% than with adrenal tumors (46,72%. Most patients used calcium channel blockers. Treatment with alpha blockers and calcium channel blockers does not influence ARR. Beta blockers and ACE inhibitors can influence ARR and diuretics and vasodilatators have definite influence. Diabetes mellitus can have higher risk of false negative results. Urine sodium excretion is significantly correlated with plasma aldosteron and serum potassium. Plasma aldosteron and PRA are significantly correlated with concentrations of electrolites in urine. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of primary aldosteronism necessitates need for accurate and better diagnostics.

  7. PHOSPHORUS-POTASSIUM AND NITROGEN-PHOSPHORUS-POTASSIUM FERTILIZER BASED ON WASHED AND DRIED CONCENTRATE FROM CENTRAL KYZYLKUM PHOSPHORITE

    OpenAIRE

    NAZIROVA RAXNAMO MUXTAROVNA; TADJIEV SAYFUDDIN MUKHTAROVICH; TUKHTAYEV SAYDIAXRAL

    2016-01-01

    In this article the findings on the production of complex phosphorus-potassium and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer by decomposition of washed and dried phosphoconcentrate from Central Kyzylkum phosphorite with incomplete norms of sulfuric acid with the addition of potassium chloride, sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea have been given. It has been revealed that the addition of potassium chloride and ammonium salts significantly affect on expansion coefficient and NP and NPK fertilizer...

  8. A Model to Determine the Level of Serum Aldosterone in the Workers Attributed to the Combined Effects of Sound Pressure Level, Exposure Time and Serum Potassium Level: A Field-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nassiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Occupational exposure to excessive noise is one of the biggest work-related challenges in the world. This phenomenon causes the release of stress-related hormones, which in turn, negatively affects cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives The current study study aimed to determine the level of workers’ serum aldosterone in light of the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time and serum potassium level. Methods This cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study was conducted on 45 workers of Gol-Gohar Mining and Industrial Company in the fall of 2014. The subjects were divided into three groups (one control and two case groups, each including 15 workers. Participants in the control group were selected from workers with administrative jobs (exposure to the background noise. On the other hand, participants in the case groups were selected from the concentrator and pelletizing factories exposed to excessive noise. Serum aldosterone and potassium levels of participants were assessed at three different time intervals: at the beginning of the shift and before exposure to noise (7:30 - 8:00 AM, during exposure to noise (10:00 - 10:30 AM, and during continuous exposure (1:30 - 2:00 PM. The obtained data were transferred into SPSS ver. 18. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to develop the statistical model of workers’ aldosterone level in light of the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time, and serum potassium level. Results The results of the final statistical model to determine the level of serum aldosterone based on the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time and serum potassium level indicated that the sound pressure level had a significant influence on the human’s serum aldosterone level (P = 0.04. In addition, the effects of exposure time and serum potassium on aldosterone level were statistically significant with P-values of 0.008 and 0.001, respectively. Conclusions

  9. role of potassium and nitrogen on sugar concentration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar is obtained from root of su gar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in addition to other sources. Three important economic parameters are often considered and these are root yield, sugar concentration in root juice and total sugar"yield. All the three are affected by cropping period and use of fertilisers. Existingliterature suggests the ...

  10. Magnesium concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid of mice and its response to changes in serum magnesium concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyuan; Kosugi, Yuki; Kawakami, Emiko; Piao, Ying-Shan; Hashimoto, Tomoyo; Oyanagi, Kiyomitsu

    2009-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is essential for cell functions such as the transport of calcium and potassium ions, and modulates signal transduction, energy metabolism, and cell proliferation. Although mice have been used as models of various neurological diseases of humans, and for investigating the therapeutic effects of Mg, neither the normal concentration of Mg in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), nor its response to alteration of the serum level of Mg has yet been reported. The present study investigated the normal Mg concentration in the CSF of C57BL/6J (B6) and ICR mice and its response to elevation of the serum Mg level in B6 mice. In B6 mice, the normal Mg concentration in the CSF was 0.89 ± 0.11 mM, being lower than that in serum, which was 1.38 ± 0.12 mM, whereas in ICR mice the corresponding values were 1.00 ± 0.12 mM and 1.10 ± 0.09 mM, respectively. No significant alteration was found in the CSF of B6 mice injected intraperitoneally with Mg, even though the serum Mg concentration was significantly increased.

  11. Obtaining of yttrium concentrate by means of fractional precipitation of lanthanon-potassium chromates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubicki, W.; Ozga, W. (Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej, Lublin (Poland))

    1976-01-01

    A modified method of fractional precipitation of lanthanon-potassium chromates was found. It consisted of the introduction of a previously calculated amount of KHCO/sub 3/ solution saturated with CO/sub 2/ into the solution of lanthanon dichromates. This method permits quick obtaining of a non-neodymium yttrium concentrate containing 85% of this element and of 78.2% efficiency.

  12. Urine and serum concentrations of inhaled and oral terbutaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Hostrup, Morten; Pedersen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    We examined urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic use of single and repetitive doses of inhaled and supratherapeutic oral use of terbutaline. We compared the concentrations in 10 asthmatics and 10 healthy subjects in an open-label, cross-over study with 2 mg inhaled and 10 mg oral...... differences in urine and serum concentrations between asthmatic and healthy subjects. We compared urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic inhaled doses and supratherapeutic oral doses and observed significant statistical differences in both groups but found it impossible to distinguish between...... therapeutic and prohibited use based on doping tests with urine and blood samples....

  13. Metrological assessment of TDR performance for measurement of potassium concentration in soil solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac de M. Ponciano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite the growing use of the time domain reflectometry (TDR technique to monitoring ions in the soil solution, there are few studies that provide insight into measurement error. To overcome this lack of information, a methodology, based on the central limit theorem error, was used to quantify the uncertainty associated with using the technique to estimate potassium ion concentration in two soil types. Mathematical models based on electrical conductivity and soil moisture derived from TDR readings were used to estimate potassium concentration, and the results were compared to potassium concentration determined by flame spectrophotometry. It was possible to correct for random and systematic errors associated with TDR readings, significantly increasing the accuracy of the potassium estimation methodology. However, a single TDR reading can lead to an error of up to ± 18.84 mg L-1 K+ in soil solution (0 to 3 dS m-1, with a 95.42% degree of confidence, for a loamy sand soil; and an error of up to ± 12.50 mg L-1 of K+ (0 to 2.5 dS m-1 in soil solution, with a 95.06% degree of confidence, for a sandy clay soil.

  14. Increased serum chemerin concentration in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrych, Krystian; Stojek, Magdalena; Smoczynski, Marian; Sledzinski, Tomasz; Sylwia, Szrok-Wojtkiewicz; Swierczynski, Julian

    2012-05-01

    Chemerin is a potent chemoattractant for chemokine-like receptor 1 expressing cells and is involved in inflammatory and immune processes that play an important role in chronic pancreatitis. To test the hypothesis that serum chemerin concentration may be affected in chronic pancreatitis patients and that chemerin can influence the course of chronic pancreatitis by increasing profibrotic cytokine production. Serum concentrations of chemerin and the major cytokines involved in pancreatic fibrosis such as platelet-derived growth factor BB and transforming growth factor β-1 were determined by ELISA in samples from 40 nondiabetic and 28 diabetic male patients with chronic pancreatitis of alcoholic origin and 40 age-matched healthy controls. Serum concentrations of chemerin were increased both in nondiabetic and diabetic chronic pancreatitis patients compared to controls. Moreover, in chronic pancreatitis patients a positive correlation was found between serum chemerin and platelet-derived growth factor BB as well as transforming growth factor β-1 concentrations. The results indicate for the first time that: (a) chronic pancreatitis in humans is associated with an increased serum chemerin concentration and (b) serum chemerin concentration correlates with serum concentrations of the major profibrotic cytokines. Elevated level of chemerin, by stimulating macrophage infiltration of the pancreas, might lead to overproduction of platelet-derived growth factor BB and transforming growth factor β-1 and, consequently, to pancreatic fibrosis. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of Serum Adropin Concentrations with Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adropin is a newly identified regulatory protein encoded by the Enho gene and is critically involved in energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. This study aims to determine the correlation of serum adropin concentrations with diabetic nephropathy (DN. Methods. This study consisted of 245 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and 81 healthy subjects. Then T2DM patients were divided into normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria subgroups based on urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR. Results. T2DM patients showed significantly lower serum adropin concentrations than those in the controls. T2DM patients with macroalbuminuria had significantly decreased serum adropin concentrations compared with the other three groups. In addition, T2DM patients with microalbuminuria showed lower serum adropin concentrations than those in patients with normoalbuminuria. Logistic regression analysis showed that serum adropin was correlated with decreased risk of developing T2DM and DN. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that serum adropin was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and ACR and positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis showed that BMI and ACR were negatively correlated with serum adropin levels. Conclusion. Serum adropin concentrations are negatively associated with renal function. Adropin may be implicated in the pathogenesis of DN development.

  16. Serum dioxin concentration and age at Menarche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.; Samuels, S.; Eskenazi, B. [Univ. of California at Berkeley (United States); Mocarelli, P.; Gerthoux, P.M. [Univ. of Milano-Biococca (Italy); Needham, L.; Patterson, D. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States)

    2004-09-15

    To date, no epidemiologic studies have examined the association of TCDD exposure and age at menarche. Three studies, however, have examined the relation of dioxin-like compounds to pubertal development, with inconsistent conclusions. A study of daughters of Michigan women who had consumed polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) in food in 1973, found an earlier age at menarche among daughters whose mothers had higher serum PBB levels 8. No differences were found in age at menarche of Taiwanese women who were exposed postnatally (but premenarche) to PCBs and PCDFs via consumption of contaminated rice oil (Yu-Cheng) compared to unexposed 9. In Flemish adolescents, there was no relation of age at menarche with current serum levels of dioxin-like compounds as measured by Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression bioassay toxic equivalents (CALUX-TEQ) or individual PCB congeners 118, 153, and 180 10. On July 10, 1976, as a result of a chemical explosion, residents of Seveso, Italy experienced the highest levels of TCDD exposure in a human population. Twenty years later (1996-1998), the Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS), a retrospective cohort study, was initiated to determine whether the women were at higher risk for reproductive disease. Among participants in SWHS, we have observed that TCDD levels are associated with an increase in menstrual cycle length among those who were premenarcheal at exposure, but not in those who were postmenarcheal at exposure 11. Consistent with animal studies 12, this suggests that females may be particularly susceptible to the effects of TCDD during early stages of development, e.g. in utero or pre-pubertal. Thus, here we examine the association of individual serum TCDD and age of menarche among women who were premenarcheal in 1976, at the time of explosion.

  17. Efficient Extraction of Vanadium from Vanadium–Titanium Magnetite Concentrate by Potassium Salt Roasting Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renmin Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, potassium salt roasting additives were applied to extract vanadium from vanadium–titanium magnetite concentrate. Meanwhile, the mechanisms of potassium salt roasting and acid leaching kinetics were investigated. The results indicate that potassium salt roasting additives are more efficient than sodium and calcium salt and that K2SO4 works best. Under certain conditions (a dosage of K2SO4 of 4 wt %, a roasting temperature of 900 °C, a roasting time of 1 h, a leaching temperature of 95 °C, a sulfuric acid concentration of 10% (v/v, and a leaching time of 1.5 h with a liquid to solid ratio of 3 mL/g the vanadium leaching efficiency reached 71.37%, an increase of 30.20% compared to that of blank roasting. Additionally, XRD and related SEM-EDS analyses indicated that K2SO4 fully destroyed the structure of vanadium-bearing minerals such as magnetite, and promoted the generation of soluble KVO3 to inhibit the formation of insoluble Ca(VO32 in the roasting process. Furthermore, it promoted the dissolution of sphene and the release of its vanadium in the leaching process, which increased the vanadium leaching efficiency significantly. Meanwhile, leaching kinetics analyses showed that the leaching process was controlled by internal diffusion; the apparent activation energy decreased from 37.43 kJ/mol with blank roasting to 26.31 kJ/mol with potassium salt roasting. The reaction order, with regards to the sulfuric acid concentration, decreased from 0.6588 to 0.5799. Therefore, potassium salt roasting could improve mineral activity, accelerating the leaching process and reducing the dependence on high temperature and high acidity.

  18. Serum concentrations of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with abomasal ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Tajik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the serum concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp and serum amyloid A (SAA in water buffaloes with abomasal ulcers, the abomasums of 100 randomly selected water buffaloes were examined after slaughter. Type I abomasal ulcers were found in 56 out of 100 buffaloes. Serum concentrations of Hp and SAA were measured. There was no significant difference between affected and non-affected buffaloes in the serum concentrations of Hp and SAA. The serum concentrations of Hp and SAA had no significant correlation with age and the serum SAA revealed no significant correlation with the number of abomasal ulcers. A significant correlation was found between the serum Hp and the number of abomasal ulcers (r =0.29, p = 0.04. There was no significant difference in the serum concentrations of Hp and SAA between buffaloes with different ulcer locations in the abomasums. Although more work on a larger number of animals is required in this area, it seems that the measurement of the serum Hp can be used to predict the abundance of type I abomasal ulcers.

  19. Serum CA 125 concentrations in women with endometriosis or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist analogue therapy in women with endometriosis and uterine fibroids. Serum concentrations of this cell surface antigen did not correlate with uterine volume and appeared to have no value in the assessment of ...

  20. Serum vaccine antibody concentrations in children exposed to perfluorinated compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have emerged as important food contaminants. They cause immune suppression in a rodent model at serum concentrations similar to those occurring in the US population, but adverse health effects of PFC exposure are poorly understood....

  1. [Effect of intravenous infusion of KCl on the electrocardiogram and serum potassium in dogs with normal renal function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Zúñiga, Jessica; Huapaya, Julio; Valencia, Cesar; Bezada, Sandra; Leon, Cristian; Ferrandiz-Espadin, Renato; Cieza, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Variations in serum potassium (K+) and electrocardiographic changes at different infusion speeds of intravenous K+ were studied in dogs. Solutions of 20, 40, 60 and 80 mEq of K+ were infused in one hour to dogs with normal renal function and normal serum K+. Nine dogs were studied: three without prior hydration and six with previous hydration. Infusing 20 mEq/hour of K+ produced an increase in heart rate without changes in the electrocardiogram. With 40 mEq/hour there were changes in the "t" and "p" waves, and with 60 and 80 mEq/hour, alterations consistent with cardiac ischemia and ventricular tachycardia. Dogs without hydration had more obvious and fatal electrocardiographic changes. Doses of 20 mEq/hour of K + caused no morbidity or mortality in the animals studied. Higher doses showed various complications which depended on the hydration status of the animal, its urinary flow and potassium level.

  2. [Serum potassium levels and long-term mortality in the elderly with hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras Benito, M; Fernández-Reyes, M J; Guerrero Díaz, M T; Muñoz Pascual, A

    There is increasing evidence that small variations within the normal range (3.5-5mEq/L) of potassium are associated with mortality. To determine whether there is an association between serum potassium level (sK) and mortality in a cohort of elderly hypertensive patients. A retrospective, observational study was conducted on patients who had sK levels available in a period of clinical stability during their recruitment between January and April 2006 and followed-up for 10 years. The study obtained a total of 62 stable patients, with a mean age of 82.19±6 years (range 69-97), with 74.2% women, 33.9% diabetics, 20.3% with a history of heart failure, Ischaemic heart disease was observed in 19.4% and 44.3% received Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. An analysis was performed on the mortality rate during the 10 year period. The statistics were performed using the SPSS15.0 package. There were 49 deaths. The sK had a normal distribution. Baseline mean sK levels and median were 4.45±0.5mEq/L (range 3.1-5.5 mEq/L). Baseline sK levels were significantly higher in diabetic patients and patients on ACE inhibitors. The patients that died had higher sK levels (4.53±0.49mEq/L versus 4.14±0.40mEq/L, P=.011). Survival estimated using Kaplan Meier showed that patients with sK levels higher than the median and P75 had higher mortality. In our study, sK levels greater than 4.45mEq/L were associated with mortality. When selecting antihypertensive treatment in hypertensive elderly patients,, the use of ACE inhibitors should be assessed individually, with close monitoring at sK levels and try to keep them in the lower limit of the normal range (<4.45 mEq/L). Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Serum T(4) and serum T(3) concentrations in immature captive whitetip reef sharks, Triaenodon obesus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, G L; Ron, B; Atkinson, S; Rasmussen, L E

    1999-10-01

    Serum T(3) (3,5,3' triiodothyronine) and serum T(4) (thyroxine) concentrations were repetitively assayed by radioimmunoassay over a three-year period in two male and two female immature captive whitetip reef sharks, Triaenodon obesus. These sharks were maintained at the Waikiki Aquarium, Honolulu, Hawaii, in an open system holding pool receiving 568 liters per minute of water from a saltwater well with an iodide concentration of 0.076 mg/liter. No significant male-female difference was observed for either serum T(3) or serum T(4). No seasonal pattern of serum T(3) was detected (P = 0.07). Serum T(3) concentrations ranged (mean +/- SEM) from 0. 52 to 0.83 ng/mL (0.67 +/- 0.01; n = 64). A significant seasonal difference was observed for serum T(4) (P < 0.001). Serum T(4) concentration was higher in winter (October-January) with a mean (range +/- SEM) of 6.58 ng/mL (1.48-8.77 +/- 0.35; n = 24) and lower in summer (May-August) with a mean of 3.62 ng/mL (1.34-5.71 +/- 0. 22; n = 24). The thyroid hormone T(4) has a seasonal rhythm even in immature sharks and may have an important role in physiology. J. Exp. Zool. 284:500-504, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Refractometric total protein concentrations in icteric serum from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aradhana; Stockham, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether high serum bilirubin concentrations interfere with the measurement of serum total protein concentration by refractometry and to assess potential biases among refractometer measurements. Evaluation study. Sera from 2 healthy Greyhounds. Bilirubin was dissolved in 0.1M NaOH, and the resulting solution was mixed with sera from 2 dogs from which food had been withheld to achieve various bilirubin concentrations up to 40 mg/dL. Refractometric total protein concentrations were estimated with 3 clinical refractometers. A biochemical analyzer was used to measure biuret assay-based total protein and bilirubin concentrations with spectrophotometric assays. No interference with refractometric measurement of total protein concentrations was detected with bilirubin concentrations up to 41.5 mg/dL. Biases in refractometric total protein concentrations were detected and were related to the conversion of refractive index values to total protein concentrations. Hyperbilirubinemia did not interfere with the refractometric estimation of serum total protein concentration. The agreement among total protein concentrations estimated by 3 refractometers was dependent on the method of conversion of refractive index to total protein concentration and was independent of hyperbilirubinemia.

  5. Multiple sclerosis influences on the augmentation of serum Klotho concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Mona; Aleagha, Mohammad Sajad Emami; Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    We have already shown that the concentration of secreted form of Klotho decreases in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The current study aimed at assessing possible changes in the serum Klotho concentration of MS patients. Participants involved......, demographic and clinical data (e.g. gender, age, duration of disease and expanded disability status scale) were obtained. Serum Klotho concentration was measured using ELISA method. The results showed no statistically meaningful difference between new cases of RRMS (585.56 pg/ml ± 153.99) and control group...

  6. Serum vitamin D and parathormone (PTH) concentrations as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rania Naguib Abdel Mouteleb Abdel Reheem

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... Abstract Background: Vitamin D is suggested to be an inhibitor of angiogenesis. The degree of severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) may be related to serum vitamin D concentration. Aim: Investigating vitamin D and parathormone (PTH) concentrations as predictors of the devel- opment and severity of ...

  7. Plasma catecholamine and serum gastrin concentrations during sham feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker, Carsten; Andersen, D; Kronborg, O

    1983-01-01

    Plasma adrenaline, plasma noradrenaline and serum gastrin concentrations were measured before and after sham feeding in eight patients with duodenal ulcer and in four normal subjects. No significant change in the concentrations was observed after sham feeding. In three patients with duodenal ulce...

  8. Serum Vaccine Antibody Concentrations in Adolescents Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Heilmann, Carsten; Weihe, Pal

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postnatal exposure to perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs) is associated with lower serum concentrations of specific antibodies against certain childhood vaccines at 7 y. OBJECTIVES: We prospectively followed a Faroese birth cohort to determine these associations at 13 y. METHODS......: In 516 subjects (79% of eligible cohort members) who were 13 years old, serum concentrations of PFASs and of antibodies against diphtheria and tetanus were measured and were compared with data from the previous examination at 7 y. Multiple regression analyses and structural equation models were applied...... to determine the association between postnatal PFAS exposures and antibody concentrations. RESULTS: Serum concentrations of PFASs and antibodies generally declined from 7 y to 13 y. However, 68 subjects had visited the emergency room and had likely received a vaccination booster, and a total of 202 children...

  9. Comparative study of glycine single crystals with additive of potassium nitrate in different concentration ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gujarati, Vivek P., E-mail: vivekgujarati@gmail.com; Deshpande, M. P., E-mail: vishwadeshpande@yahoo.co.in; Patel, Kamakshi R.; Chaki, S. H. [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat (India)

    2016-05-06

    Semi-organic crystals of Glycine Potassium Nitrate (GPN) with potential applications in Non linear optics (NLO) were grown using slow evaporation technique. Glycine and Potassium Nitrate were taken in three different concentration ratios of 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 respectively. We checked the solubility of the material in distilled water at different temperatures and could observe the growth of crystals in 7 weeks time. Purity of the grown crystals was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) and CHN analysis. GSN Powder X-ray diffraction pattern was recorded to confirm the crystalline nature. To confirm the applications of grown crystals in opto-electronics field, UV-Vis-NIR study was carried out. Dielectric properties of the samples were studied in between the frequency range 1Hz to 100 KHz.

  10. Characterization for organic ion-sensitive field effect transistor response for measurement of physiological potassium ion-concentration measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Pratysh; Jung, Soyoun; Ji, Taeksoo; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2009-03-01

    Potassium ion monitoring, in human body, is important for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The dynamic response of potassium selective ISFET sensors is instrumental in formulating calibration schema and signal compensations to correct systematic errors. In the research reported here, response characteristics of potassium selective ISFETs were studied. The range of detection was set between 1mM and 25mM to cover all the physiological potassium concentrations. The signals were obtained from an array of sensors, with different aspect ratios, by varying potassium ion concentrations in a time dependent fashion. Normalization of the drain current was used to compensation for variance in order of magnitude observed in different sensors. Sensor response time and linear response range were analyzed, in relation to difference in aspect ratios. Probable modifications in calibration scheme and compensation technique, subjective to the findings, have been suggested.

  11. Serum vitamin A concentrations in captive sea otters (Enhydra lutris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righton, Alison L; St Leger, Judy A; Schmitt, Todd; Murray, Michael J; Adams, Lance; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2011-03-01

    Individual dietary preferences and difficulty with animal training create challenges and nutritional concerns when evaluating a captive sea otter (Enhydra lutris) diet. The importance of vitamin A within the body reflects the necessity that it be ingested in adequate amounts to ensure optimal health. To compare levels of serum vitamin A concentrations from captive sea otters on daily oral vitamin A supplementation, serum samples from eight adult sea otters from three institutions were evaluated for serum vitamin A concentrations. The eight animals were fed a total of four different diets and received oral supplementation via three different methods. Multiple diet items were analyzed for vitamin A content and were found to have low to nondetectable levels of vitamin A. Oral vitamin A supplementation, as a slurry with dietary items, was shown to be effective and a mean serum concentration of approximately 170 +/- 51 microg/L was obtained for serum vitamin A concentrations in captive sea otters. Captive diets can be modified to increase vitamin A concentration and supplementation and, if accepted, can be used as a means to ensure adequate vitamin A intake.

  12. Major determinants of serum homocysteine concentrations in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ja; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kim, Jeong Uk; Ha, Hun Young; Choi, Bo Youl

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the factors that determine serum homocysteine concentrations in Korean population. In a community-based study, 871 participants completed detailed questionnaires and physical examination. We found that increased age, male sex, family history of stroke, deficiencies of serum folate and vitamin B12, and elevated serum creatinine significantly increased the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia. However, hormonal and behavioral factors (smoking, alcohol drinking, coffee consumption, and sedentary time) were not associated with the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia. The risk of hyperhomocysteinemia was steeply increased in subjects with two or more risk factors among four selected risk factors (deficiencies of serum folate and vitamin B12, elevated creatinine, and family history of stroke) compared to subjects who did not have any risk factors, especially subjects over the age of 65 yr (odds ratio [OR], 33.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.71-302.0 in men; OR, 39.2; 95% CI, 7.95-193.2 in women). In conclusion, increased age, male sex, family history of stroke, deficiencies of serum folate and vitamin B12, and elevated serum creatinine are important determinants of serum homocysteine concentrations with interaction effects between these factors.

  13. Short-term mortality risk of serum potassium levels in acute heart failure following myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Maria Lukács; Eggers-Kaas, Lotti; Aasbjerg, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Diuretic treatment is often needed in acute heart failure following myocardial infarction (MI) and carries a risk of abnormal potassium levels. We examined the relation between different levels of potassium and mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: From Danish national registries we identified 2596...... patients treated with loop diuretics after their first MI episode where potassium measurement was available within 3 months. All-cause mortality was examined according to seven predefined potassium levels: hypokalaemia ... hazard model. After 90 days, the mortality rates in the seven potassium intervals were 15.7, 13.6, 7.3, 8.1, 10.6, 15.5, and 38.3%, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted risk for death was statistically significant for patients with hypokalaemia [hazard ratio (HR): 1.91, confidence interval (95%CI): 1...

  14. Serum transferrin receptor concentration indicates increased erythropoiesis in Kenyan children with asymptomatic malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, H.; West, C.E.; Ndeto, P.; Burema, J.; Benguin, Y.; Kok, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Serum transferrin receptor concentrations indicate both erythropoietic activity and the deficit of functional iron in the erythron. In contrast with serum ferritin concentrations, serum transferrin receptor concentrations are not or are only marginally influenced by the inflammatory

  15. Serum Vaccine Antibody Concentrations in Adolescents Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Heilmann, Carsten; Weihe, Pal

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postnatal exposure to perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs) is associated with lower serum concentrations of specific antibodies against certain childhood vaccines at 7 y. OBJECTIVES: We prospectively followed a Faroese birth cohort to determine these associations at 13 y. METHODS...... to determine the association between postnatal PFAS exposures and antibody concentrations. RESULTS: Serum concentrations of PFASs and antibodies generally declined from 7 y to 13 y. However, 68 subjects had visited the emergency room and had likely received a vaccination booster, and a total of 202 children...... showed higher vaccine antibody concentrations at 13 y than at 7 y. Therefore, separate analyses were conducted after exclusion of these two subgroups. Diphtheria antibody concentrations decreased at elevated PFAS concentrations at 13 y and 7 y; the associations were statistically significant...

  16. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid cytokine concentrations in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Omer Faruk; Ichiyama, Takashi; Anlar, Banu

    2010-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a neurodegenerative disease due to persistent measles virus infection. Its immunopathogenesis is unknown. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-4 concentrations were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from 30 SSPE patients and 19 control subjects by cytometric bead array. CSF and serum IFN-gamma, IL-12 and IL-18 levels were measured in 18 SSPE patients by ELISA. Serum IL-4 and IL-10 (p<0.001), CSF IL-4 (p<0.001) and IL-6 (p=0.049) concentrations were lower, and serum IL-2 concentrations, higher (p=0.001) in SSPE patients. Serum TNF-alpha and IL-6, CSF TNF-alpha, IL-10, and IL-2 concentrations were not different between SSPE and control groups. Serum IFN-gamma levels were higher in stage I and II than stage III patients (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference between stages in terms of other cytokines. The levels of Th2-type cytokines: IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 were suppressed in our SSPE cases. This finding, along with relatively elevated IFN-gamma and IL-2 levels, may suggest more active effector T cells compared to regulatory T cells (Treg), especially induced Treg, in early disease. High serum IL-2 concentrations might indicate peripheral Th1 activation. Discrepancies between various reports in the literature should be examined in view of the ages, stage and treatments of the patients studied. The interplay of various cytokines or cellular systems which may vary over time and between patients. Studies of treatment measures favoring the preservation of the early inflammatory response may be of interest in SSPE. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic Determinants of Serum Testosterone Concentrations in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Marcello; Coviello, Andrea D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Heier, Margit; Hofman, Albert; Holliday, Kate L.; Jansson, John-Olov; Kähönen, Mika; Karasik, David; Karlsson, Magnus K.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Liu, Yongmei; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Meitinger, Thomas; Mellström, Dan; Melzer, David; Miljkovic, Iva; Nauck, Matthias; Nilsson, Maria; Penninx, Brenda; Pye, Stephen R.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Reincke, Martin; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Teumer, Alexander; Uitterlinden, André G.; Ulloor, Jagadish; Viikari, Jorma; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. Erich; Wu, Tsung-Sheng; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Ziv, Elad; Wu, Frederick C. W.; Raitakari, Olli; Eriksson, Anna; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Harris, Tamara B.; Murray, Anna; de Jong, Frank H.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Bhasin, Shalender; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Haring, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one in silico (n = 871) and two de novo replication cohorts (n = 4,620) to identify genetic loci significantly associated with serum testosterone concentration in men. All these loci were also associated with low serum testosterone concentration defined as testosterone concentration (rs12150660, p = 1.2×10−41 and rs6258, p = 2.3×10−22). Subjects with ≥3 risk alleles of these variants had 6.5-fold higher risk of having low serum testosterone than subjects with no risk allele. The rs5934505 polymorphism near FAM9B on the X chromosome was also associated with testosterone concentrations (p = 5.6×10−16). The rs6258 polymorphism in exon 4 of SHBG affected SHBG's affinity for binding testosterone and the measured free testosterone fraction (ptestosterone concentrations and increased risk of low testosterone. rs6258 is the first reported SHBG polymorphism, which affects testosterone binding to SHBG and the free testosterone fraction and could therefore influence the calculation of free testosterone using law-of-mass-action equation. PMID:21998597

  18. Serum Potassium Levels Inversely Correlate with D-Dimer In Patients with Acute-Onset Atrial Fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervellin, Gianfranco, E-mail: gcervellin@ao.pr.it; Bonfanti, Laura; Picanza, Alessandra; Lippi, Giuseppe [1Academic Hospital of Parma (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    D-dimer values are frequently increased in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to subjects in sinus rhythm. Hypokalemia plays a role in several cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about the association with AF. D-dimer values are frequently increased in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with subjects in sinus rhythm. Hypokalemia plays a role in several cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about the association with AF. The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between D-dimer and serum potassium in acute-onset AF (AAF). To investigate the potential correlation between the values of serum potassium and D-dimer in patients with AAF, we retrospectively reviewed clinical and laboratory data of all emergency department visits for AAF in 2013. Among 271 consecutive AAF patients with D-dimer assessments, those with hypokalemia (n = 98) had significantly higher D-dimer values than normokalemic patients (139 versus 114 ng/mL, p = 0.004). The rate of patients with D-dimer values exceeding the diagnostic cut-off was higher in the group of patients with hypokalemia than in those with normal serum potassium (26.5% versus 16.2%; p = 0.029). An inverse and highly significant correlation was found between serum potassium and D-dimer (r = −0.21; p < 0.001), even after adjustments for age and sex (beta coefficient −94.8; p = 0.001). The relative risk for a positive D-dimer value attributed to hypokalemia was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.02 to 2.63; p = 0.040). The correlation remained statistically significant in patients free from antihypertensive drugs (r = −0.25; p = 0.018), but not in those taking angiotensin-receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or diuretics. The inverse correlation between values of potassium and D-dimer in patients with AAF provides important and complementary information about the thromboembolic risk of these patients.

  19. [Evaluation of erythromycin concentration in the umbilical artery serum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulska, Magdalena; Szcześniak, Piotr; Stepowicz, Anna; Wasiak, Aleksandra; Pięta-Dolińska, Agnieszka; Oszukowski, Przemysław; Orszulak-Michalak, Daria

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of erythromycin in preventing intrauterine infection caused by group B streptococcus (GBS). The study included 20 pregnant women with GBS-positive screening or whose laboratory screening was not available, who delivered between April 17, 2013 and July 22, 2013. The women were given 600 mg of erythromycin intravenously After delivery blood was drawn in parallel from maternal antecubital vein and umbilical cord artery Serum erythromycin concentrations were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Statistical analysis for measurable and non-measurable characteristics were performed, correlation coefficients for each pair of variables were calculated in order to investigate the sought dependence. Mean placental transfer of erythromycin was 2.04%. There was a high correlation between umbilical artery serum and maternal serum erythromycin concentration. Selected variables of mothers in the control group had no effect on serum erythromycin concentration in the umbilical artery Transplacental transfer of erythromycin is limited (2.04%). Intravenous application of erythromycin at a dose of 600 mg does not allow to achieve the value of MIC50 and MIC90 for erythromycin against strains S. agalactiae in umbilical artery serum, what suggests a compromised efficacy in the treatment of intrauterine fetal infections. At the same time, the placenta seems to be an effective barrier reducing fetal exposure when this macrolide is used to treat maternal infections.

  20. Serum Potassium Is Positively Associated With Stroke and Mortality in the Large, Population-Based Malmö Preventive Project Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Linda S; Mattsson, Nick; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Wollmer, Per; Söderholm, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Low serum potassium is associated with stroke in populations with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus but has not been studied in a mainly healthy population. We aimed to study the relation between serum potassium and incident stroke and mortality in the Malmö Preventive Project, a large cohort with screening in early mid-life and follow-up >25 years. Serum potassium measurements and covariates were available in 21 353 individuals (79% men, mean age 44 years). Mean follow-up time was 26.9 years for stroke analyses and 29.3 years for mortality analyses. There were 2061 incident stroke events and 8709 deaths. Cox regression analyses adjusted for multiple stroke risk factors (age, sex, height, weight, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, serum sodium, current smoking, prevalent diabetes mellitus, prevalent coronary artery disease, and treatment for hypertension) were fitted. There was an independent, linear association between serum potassium, per mmol/L increase, and both stroke (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.52; P stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage and in both hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Serum potassium, measured in early mid-life, was linearly associated with both incidence of ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage and all-cause mortality. An interaction with serum sodium implies that factors related to electrolyte balance and incident hypertension may be mediating factors. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Low serum leptin concentration in vegetarian prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, J; Laskowska-Klita, T; Klemarczyk, W

    2004-01-01

    Vegetarian diet may play a positive role in reducing risk of several chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and some types of cancer. There are different vegetarian dietary patterns, some of which are nutritionally adequate for children, whereas other may lack some essential nutrients. Leptin, a hormone from adipose tissue plays a key role in the control of body fat stores and energy expenditure. Higher leptin levels were observed in obese subjects and lower in anorectic patients. Recent studies support that diet may be a factor which influences leptin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of leptin, lipids and apolipoproteins in prepubertal children with two different nutritional habits: vegetarian and omnivorous diet. We examined 22 vegetarians and 13 omnivores in age 2-10 years. Serum leptin concentration was determined by immunoenzyme assay (ELISA) and serum lipids were measured by enzymatic and immunoturbidimetric methods. Average daily dietary energy intake and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates were similar for both groups of children. We observed that in vegetarian diet there is a high rate of fiber nearly twice as high as in omnivorous diet. Vegetarians had lower total cholesterol and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations than children on traditional mixed diet. There is no significant differences in triglyceride concentration between studied groups. The apolipoproteins levels in vegetarian children were significantly below that of omnivores. The serum concentration of leptin was lower in vegetarians (3.0 +/- 1.1 ng/mL) than in nonvegetarians (5.1 +/- 2.0 ng/mL) (p vegetarian diet may be accompanied by lower serum leptin concentration. Further studies on large group of children are needed for understanding this problem better.

  2. Genetic determinants of serum testosterone concentrations in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one in silico (n = 871 and two de novo replication cohorts (n = 4,620 to identify genetic loci significantly associated with serum testosterone concentration in men. All these loci were also associated with low serum testosterone concentration defined as <300 ng/dl. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG locus (17p13-p12 were identified as independently associated with serum testosterone concentration (rs12150660, p = 1.2×10(-41 and rs6258, p = 2.3×10(-22. Subjects with ≥ 3 risk alleles of these variants had 6.5-fold higher risk of having low serum testosterone than subjects with no risk allele. The rs5934505 polymorphism near FAM9B on the X chromosome was also associated with testosterone concentrations (p = 5.6×10(-16. The rs6258 polymorphism in exon 4 of SHBG affected SHBG's affinity for binding testosterone and the measured free testosterone fraction (p<0.01. Genetic variants in the SHBG locus and on the X chromosome are associated with a substantial variation in testosterone concentrations and increased risk of low testosterone. rs6258 is the first reported SHBG polymorphism, which affects testosterone binding to SHBG and the free testosterone fraction and could therefore influence the calculation of free testosterone using law-of-mass-action equation.

  3. The association between fluid balance and mortality in patients with ARDS was modified by serum potassium levels: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongheng Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is characterized by pulmonary edema and may benefit from conservative fluid management. However, conflicting results exist in the literature. The study aimed to investigate the association between mean fluid balance and mortality outcome in ARDS patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation.Methods. The study was a secondary analysis of a prospectively collected dataset obtained from the NHLBI Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center. ARDS patients with invasive mechanical ventilation were eligible. Demographic and laboratory data were extracted from the dataset. Multivariable regression model was built by stepwise selection of covariates. A fractional polynomial approach was used to test the linearity of mean fluid balance in the model. The potential interactions of mean fluid balance with other variables were tested.Main Results. A total of 282 patients were eligible for the analysis, including 61 non-survivors with a mortality rate of 21.6%. After stepwise regression analysis, mean fluid balance remained to be an independent predictor of death (OR: 1.00057; 95% CI [1.00034–1.00080]. The two-term model obtained using fractional polynomial analysis was not superior to the linear model. There was significant interaction between mean fluid balance and serum potassium levels (p = 0.011. While the risk of death increased with increasing mean fluid balance at potassium levels of 1.9, 2.9 , 3.9 and 4.9 mmol/l, the risk decreased at potassium level of 5.9 mmol/l.Conclusion. The present study demonstrates that more positive fluid balance in the first 8 days is significantly associated with increased risk of death. However, the relationship between mean fluid balance and mortality can be modified by serum potassium levels. With hyperkalemia, more positive fluid balance is associated with reduced risk of death.

  4. Serum lipid concentrations in patients with cholesterol and pigment gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerakoon, Harshi Thilanka Welegedara; Ranasinghe, Shirani; Navaratne, Ayanthi; Sivakanesan, Ramaiah; Galketiya, Kuda Banda; Rosairo, Shanthini

    2014-08-19

    Gallstones (GS) are formed as a result of impaired metabolic regulation of the human body. Abnormal lipid metabolism is partly responsible for the pathogenesis of GS mainly rich in cholesterol. Thus abnormalities of serum lipids would reflect the possibilities of the formation of cholesterol GS. This study aims to identify the significance of serum lipids on the development of GS disease. Serum lipid profiles were estimated in 73 patients with symptomatic GS, admitted to the Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka for GS removal surgeries from May 2011 to December 2012. Patients with normal serum bilirubin level and not being on lipid lowering drugs were recruited for the study. Serum lipid profile of each patient was analyzed by enzymatic kit assays and the chemical composition of GS was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Of the 73 patients, 37 (51%) had cholesterol GS while 36 (49%) had pigment GS. Serum lipid parameters of a majority of patients were within the normal range. Body mass index values of the patients with two types of GS were not significantly different (Two sample t test, p = 0.335). Out of the lipid parameters tested, only serum triglyceride concentration was significantly high in patients with cholesterol GS than that of pigment GS (Two sample t test, p = 0.038). None of the lipid parameters were significantly different between males and females (Two sample t test, p > 0.05). Compared to the patients with pigment GS who were aged below 50 years, mean total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were higher in the same age category patients with cholesterol GS. Abnormal serum lipid profiles doesn't seem to be an essential feature in patients with cholesterol GS. However when the two groups of patients with cholesterol and pigment GS with no significant difference of body mass indexes were compared, patients with cholesterol GS are more likely to have serum lipid parameters towards the undesirable cutoff levels

  5. Modified Atkins diet may reduce serum concentrations of antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kverneland, M; Taubøll, E; Selmer, K K; Iversen, P O; Nakken, K O

    2015-03-01

    Modified Atkins diet is a treatment option for patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy that is not suitable for surgery. In the last few years, we have tried dietary treatment added to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in adult patients with severe epilepsy. To examine a possible pharmacokinetic interaction between the modified Atkins diet and AEDs. In four patients, AED serum concentrations were measured before onset and after 4 and 12 weeks on the diet. The patients used combinations of two or three AEDs, including carbamazepine, clobazam, lamotrigine, nitrazepam, oxcarbazepine, valproate, zonisamide, and topiramate. The patients did not change the type or dose of their AEDs during the diet period. After 12 weeks on the diet, the average serum concentrations of the respective AEDs were reduced by 35% (range 6-46%) compared to prediet values. Modified Atkins diet used as add-on therapy to AEDs in four patients with drug resistant seizures caused a considerable decrease in AED serum concentrations. In individual patients, this could be of clinical relevance, and we recommend that AED serum concentrations should be closely monitored when offering this diet to adults with epilepsy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Serum Chemistry concentrations of captive Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix Lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ferket, P.; Stoskopf, M.; Heugten, van E.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix sp.) are threatened species and numerous zoos have failed to sustain successful populations. The most common causes of death in captive woolly monkeys are related to pregnancy and hypertension. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum concentrations

  7. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration in Subclinical Carotid Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deleskog, Anna; Piksasova, Olga; Silveira, Angela; Gertow, Karl; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Sennblad, Bengt; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Larsson, Malin; Leander, Karin; Gigante, Bruna; Kauhanen, Jussi; Rauramaa, Rainer; Smit, Andries J.; Mannarino, Elmo; Giral, Philippe; Gustafsson, Sven; Ostenson, Claes-Goran; Humphries, Steve E.; Tremoli, Elena; de Faire, Ulf; Ohrvik, John; Hamsten, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Objective Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in cardiovascular disease and is associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. We investigated the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in relation to latitude, baseline carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), and IMT progression,

  8. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Total Cholesterol and Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most dangerous tropical diseases that complicates HIV infection in Nigeria to date. Over two million Nigerians are known to be infected with TB and many more are at risk of the infection. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol and total lipid of 117 female TB patients attending chest clinic at ...

  9. INVESTIGATION OF SERUM MICROCYSTIN CONCENTRATIONS AMONG DIALYSIS PATIENTS, BRAZIL, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigation of Serum Microcystin Concentrations Among Dialysis Patients, Brazil, 1996Elizabeth D. Hilborn 1, Wayne W. Carmichael 2, Sandra M.F.O. Azevedo 31- USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC2- Wright State University, Dayton, OH3- Federal Univers...

  10. Correlation studies between serum concentrations of zinc and lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, e-mail: eralves@ipen.br, e-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br; Sumita, Nairo M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas.Central Lab. Division and Laboratories of Medical Investigation (LIM-03)], e-mail: dlc.bioquimica@hcnet.usp.br; Jaluul, Omar; Jacob-Filho, Wilson [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina], e-mail: jaluul@uol.com.br, wiljac@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    In this study, serum zinc and lipoprotein concentrations were determined in order to assess the health status of an elderly population residing in Sao Paulo city, SP, Brazil. This population consisted of elderly considered healthy and participating of a 'Successful Ageing' program of the Sao Paulo University Medical School. Fasting blood samples were collected from 87 elderly individuals (63 females and 24 males) aged 60-91 and mean age of 72 +- 7 years. Zn concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis at the IPEN/CNEN/ SP and, the lipoprotein (HDL, LDL and total cholesterol) concentrations were determined using routine analysis methods of the Central Laboratory Division, Hospital das Clinicas, FMUSP. Results obtained for Zn indicated that all the individuals presented this element within the recommended value. For total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, 96 % of elderly presented levels within the desired range but for LDL cholesterol concentrations only about 70.0 % of individuals were in the desired range. Serum concentration of Zn were positively correlated to LDL-cholesterol levels (correlation coefficient r = 0.21, p < 0.06). Furthermore, the ratios of [HDL-cholesterol] / [LDL-cholesterol] were negatively correlated with Zn concentrations (r = - 0.234, p < 0.04). The positive correlation found between the serum concentrations of Zn and LDL-cholesterol indicates the possible effect of this element in serum lipoprotein profiles. Thus ,these findings suggest that more investigations should be conducted on Zn supplementation in elderly subjects with cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  11. [Serum leptin concentration and some lipid parameters in vegetarian children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowska-Klita, Teresa; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold

    2004-04-01

    Leptin, a hormone from adipose tissue, regulates feeding behavior, satiation rate, energy expenditure and also plays an important role in maturation and reproduction. Recent studies support the concept that several factors such as a diet may influence on leptin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentration of leptin and lipids status in prepubertal children aged from 2 to 10 years with two different nutritional habits: vegetarian (n = 24) and omnivorous diet (n = 20). Serum leptin concentration was determined by immunoenzymeassay (ELISA). Serum lipids (cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride) were measured by enzymatic and apolipoproteins by immunoturbidimetric methods. We noticed that in vegetarian diet there is a high rate of fiber (nearly twice as high as in omnivorous diet) and polyunsaturated acids (35% as much). In our study vegetarian children had lower total cholesterol and cholesterol in fractions HDL and LDL than meat eaters did. Also the apolipoproteins levels in vegetarian children were significantly below that of nonvegetarians. There is no differences in triglyceride concentration between the two groups of children. The mean serum leptin level in vegetarian children was significantly lower (3.1 +/- 1.2 ng/mL) as compared with the omnivores (5.6 +/- 2.1 ng/mL) (p < 0.0001).

  12. Increased serum concentrations of adiponectin in canine hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki-Tovi, Michal; Abood, Sarah K; Kol, Amir; Farkas, Amnon; Schenck, Patricia A

    2015-02-01

    Serum concentrations of adiponectin were compared between sex-matched hypothyroid (n = 18) and euthyroid (n = 18) client-owned dogs with comparable ages and body condition scores (BCS). Concentrations of adiponectin (mean; 95% confidence interval) were significantly (P hypothyroid (17.2 µg/mL; 12.1-20.5 µg/mL) than healthy (8.0 µg/mL; 5.6-11.4 µg/mL) dogs following adjustment for potential confounders (BCS, age and sex). Serum concentrations of adiponectin were significantly negatively associated with concentrations of total thyroxine (P hypothyroid dogs. In conclusion, this study demonstrated increased serum concentrations of adiponectin in dogs with hypothyroidism. Suggestive of the presence of resistance to adiponectin that could have contributed to development of hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in these dogs or alternatively, could be a consequence of these metabolic alterations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Macular pigment density in relation to serum and adipose tissue concentrations of lutein and serum concentrations of zeaxanthin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, WMR; Berendschot, TTJM; Klopping-Ketelaars, IAA; de Vries, AJ; Goldbohm, RA; Tijburg, LBM; Kardinaal, AFM; van Poppel, G

    Background: Macular pigment (MP), concentrated in the central area of the retina, contains the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. A low MP density could be a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration. Little information is available regarding MP density in relation to serum lutein and

  14. Macular pigment density in relation to serum and adipose tissue concentrations of lutein and serum concentrations of zeaxanthin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, W.M.R.; Berendschot, T.T.J.R.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Vries, A.J. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Tijburg, L.B.M.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Poppel, G. van

    2002-01-01

    Background: Macular pigment (MP), concentrated in the central area of the retina, contains the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. A low MP density could be a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration. Little information is available regarding MP density in relation to serum lutein and

  15. Serum Vaccine Antibody Concentrations in Adolescents Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Carsten; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Mogensen, Ulla B.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2017-01-01

    Background: Postnatal exposure to perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs) is associated with lower serum concentrations of specific antibodies against certain childhood vaccines at 7 y. Objectives: We prospectively followed a Faroese birth cohort to determine these associations at 13 y. Methods: In 516 subjects (79% of eligible cohort members) who were 13 years old, serum concentrations of PFASs and of antibodies against diphtheria and tetanus were measured and were compared with data from the previous examination at 7 y. Multiple regression analyses and structural equation models were applied to determine the association between postnatal PFAS exposures and antibody concentrations. Results: Serum concentrations of PFASs and antibodies generally declined from 7 y to 13 y. However, 68 subjects had visited the emergency room and had likely received a vaccination booster, and a total of 202 children showed higher vaccine antibody concentrations at 13 y than at 7 y. Therefore, separate analyses were conducted after exclusion of these two subgroups. Diphtheria antibody concentrations decreased at elevated PFAS concentrations at 13 y and 7 y; the associations were statistically significant for perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) at 7 y and for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) at 13 y, both suggesting a decrease by ∼25% for each doubling of exposure. Structural equation models showed that a doubling in PFAS exposure at 7 y was associated with losses in diphtheria antibody concentrations at 13 y of 10–30% for the five PFASs. Few associations were observed for anti-tetanus concentrations. Conclusions: These results are in accord with previous findings of PFAS immunotoxicity at current exposure levels. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP275 PMID:28749778

  16. Serum D-lactate concentrations in cats with gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, R A; Moore, G E; Chang, C-Y; Zello, G A; Abeysekara, S; Naylor, J M; Steiner, J M; Suchodolski, J S; O'Brien, D P

    2012-01-01

    Increased D-lactate concentrations cause neurological signs in humans with gastrointestinal disease. To determine if serum D-lactate concentrations are increased in cats with gastrointestinal disease compared to healthy controls, and if concentrations correlate with specific neurological or gastrointestinal abnormalities. Systematically selected serum samples submitted to the Gastrointestinal Laboratory at Texas A&M University from 100 cats with clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and abnormal gastrointestinal function tests, and 30 healthy cats. Case-control study in which serum D- and L-lactate concentrations and retrospective data on clinical signs were compared between 30 healthy cats and 100 cats with gastrointestinal disease. Association of D-lactate concentration with tests of GI dysfunction and neurological signs was evaluated by multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. All 100 cats had a history of abnormal gastrointestinal signs and abnormal gastrointestinal function test results. Thirty-one cats had definitive or subjective neurological abnormalities. D-lactate concentrations of cats with gastrointestinal disease (median 0.36, range 0.04-8.33 mmol/L) were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (median 0.22, range 0.04-0.87 mmol/L; P = .022). L-lactate concentrations were not significantly different between the 2 groups of cats with gastrointestinal disease and healthy controls. D-lactate concentrations were not significantly associated with fPLI, fTLI, cobalamin, folate, or neurological abnormalities (P > .05). D-lactate concentrations can be increased in cats with gastrointestinal disease. These findings warrant additional investigations into the role of intestinal microbiota derangements in cats with gastrointestinal disease, and the association of D-lactate and neurological abnormalities. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudo, Antonio, E-mail: a.agudo@iconcologia.net [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Goni, Fernando [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Etxeandia, Arsenio [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Vizcaya, 48010 Bilbao (Spain); Vives, Asuncion [Laboratorio Unificado Donostia, Hospital N. S. Aranzazu, 20014 San Sebastian (Spain); Millan, Esmeralda [Departamento de Quimica Aplicada, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Facultad de Quimica, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Lopez, Raul [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Amiano, Pilar [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Instituto de Salud Publica de Navarra, 31003 Pamplona (Spain); Dolores Chirlaque, M. [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Dorronsoro, Miren [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Jakszyn, Paula [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Larranaga, Nerea [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Martinez, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Escuela Andaluza de Salud Publica, 18080 Granada (Spain); Navarro, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Rodriguez, Laudina [Consejeria de Salud y Servicios Sanitarios de Asturias, 33001 Oviedo (Spain); and others

    2009-07-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 {mu}g/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 {mu}g/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  18. Serum concentrations of amoxicillin in neonates during continuous intravenous infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boekholt, A; Fleuren, H; Mouton, J; Kramers, C; Sprong, T; Gerrits, P; Semmekrot, B

    2016-06-01

    Amoxicillin is commonly used for the treatment of neonatal bacterial infection with intermittent dosing (ID) regimens. However, increasing bacterial resistance, in addition to a lack of new antimicrobial agents, urges the optimization of current therapeutic options. Clinical studies in adults suggest continuous infusion (CI) regimens of beta-lactam antibiotics to be superior to ID. There are as yet no guidelines concerning the CI dosing of amoxicillin. The present study was developed to describe the CI pharmacokinetics and -dynamics of amoxicillin during the first 3 days of life in search of the optimal dosing regimen. Neonates with a gestational age above 34 weeks, at risk of neonatal infection and requiring amoxicillin therapy, were included. Serum concentrations of amoxicillin were measured during CI on days 1 and 3 in the steady state. Twenty-two serum samples of 11 patients were collected. All patients reached and retained serum concentrations of amoxicillin within the therapeutic range without exceeding the toxic concentration (serum concentrations on day 1 mean 55.4 mg/l, range 30.9-69.5, SD 10.5, and on day 3 48.8 mg/l, range 25.5-92.4, SD 18.4). There was no significant decrease in concentration from day 1 to day 3 (p = 0.38). This study showed therapeutic, nontoxic concentrations of amoxicillin in neonates on CI of amoxicillin in the first 3 days of life. Randomized controlled trials should reveal whether the clinical benefits of the CI of amoxicillin exceed those of ID regimens.

  19. Serum activin B concentration as predictive biomarker for ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Pooja; Senthilkumar, G P; Rajendiran, Soundravally; Sivaraman, K; Soundararaghavan, S; Kulandhasamy, Maheshwari

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of activin B in discriminating tubal ectopic pregnancy (tEP) from intrauterine miscarriages (IUM), and normal viable intrauterine pregnancy (IUP). We included 28 women with tEP, 31 women with IUM, and 29 normal IUP, confirmed both by clinical examination and ultrasonography. Serum activin B concentration was measured at the time of admission using the ELISA kit. The median serum activin B concentration was found to be significantly decreased in both tEP (p=0.004) and IUM (p=0.022) compared to normal IUP. When compared between tEP and IUM, activin B concentrations did not differ significantly. ROC analysis of activin B and free β-hCG demonstrated AUC of 0.722 and 0.805, respectively to discriminate tEP from viable IUP. The model including both activin B and free β-hCG improved the discriminating potential with greater AUC (0.824), and specificity (93%) than individual one. To discriminate tEP from IUM, activin B, free β-hCG and combination of both performed poorly. We conclude that serum activin B concentration is lower in tubal ectopic pregnancy, and can discriminate it from normal pregnancy with moderate accuracy. It also shows improved diagnostic potential along with free β-hCG, but cannot distinguish tEP from IUM reliably. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Serum protein concentrations in calves with experimentally induced pneumonic pasteurellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagliari J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten healthy 2 to 4-week-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into control and infected groups. Control calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5ml of Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline solution (DPBSS. Infected calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5x10(9 log-phase Mannheimia haemolytica organisms suspended in 5ml of DPBSS. Blood samples were obtained 15 minutes before and one, two, four and six hours after inoculation. Serum protein concentrations were determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of proteins with molecular weights of 125,000 D (ceruloplasmin, 60,000 D (a 1-antitrypsin, 45,000 D (haptoglobin, and 40,000 D (acid glycoprotein were significantly increased in calves with pneumonic pasteurellosis, compared with concentrations in control calves. Results indicate that acute phase proteins increase more rapidly after the onset of inflammation than previously thought. Measurement of serum protein concentrations may be useful in monitoring the progression of the induced pneumonic pasteurellosis in calves.

  1. Effect of serum concentration on the cytotoxicity of clay particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Sinéad; Higginbotham, Clement L

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle cytotoxicity testing based on in vitro methods frequently lack consistency. Even the inclusion of the commonly employed growth supplement, FCS (fetal calf serum), generates variable results. Thus, our object was to investigate the effect of FCS concentration on the cytotoxic behaviour of the unmodified nanoclay, Cloisite® Na(+). Human monocytic U937 cells in medium supplemented with 5% FCS, 2.5% FCS or serum-free medium were treated with 1 mg/ml Cloisite Na(+). Cell growth in 2.5% FCS was significantly inhibited by Cloisite Na(+) within 48 h, whereas little effect was seen with a supplement of 5% FCS. Without serum, cell growth was inhibited and Cloisite Na(+) had a detrimental effect on these cells. In media supplemented with FCS, the nanoclays agglomerated together to form large bundles, whereas they were evenly dispersed throughout the medium in the absence of serum. Clay particles, therefore, have cytotoxic properties that may be linked to their dispersion pattern. These adverse effects seem to be masked by 5% FCS. Serum supplementation is an important consideration in the toxicological assessments of nanomaterials on cells, which needs to be addressed in the standardization of in vitro testing methods. © The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2012 Portland Press Limited

  2. Comparison of some blood parameters, serum vitamin E and mineral concentrations of Arabian and English thoroughbred race horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Tarik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine some blood parameters, serum vitamin E and mineral concentrations of Arabian and English thoroughbred racehorses fed the same diets. The diet was formulated to provide 2.31 Mcal DE/kg, and 10.96% crude protein. Total protein, lactate, calcium, phosphorus, potassium copper, cobalt and zinc were determined in serum obtained from 40 Arabian and 40 English healthy racing thoroughbred horses aged 2-3. The copper, cobalt and zinc concentrations were determined by atomic absorption, vitamin E by HPLC and the other biochemical parameters by a spectrophotometer. Mean values were 6.77 and 6.86 g/dl for total protein, 1.88 and 2.16 mg/dl for lactate 13.18 and 12.80 mg/dl for calcium, 4.35 and 4.39 mmol/l for phosphorus, 2.64 and 3.14 mmol/l for potassium, 129 and 166 μg/dl for copper, 36 and 44 μg/dl for cobalt and, 160 and 58 μg/dl for zinc in Arabian and English horses respectively, and Mean serum vitamin E levels were 2.65 and 2.81 μg/ml respectively. This study did not demonstrate a significant effect of breed on serum total protein, lactate, calcium, phosphorus, copper, cobalt and vitamin E. However, breed may have an effect on potassium and zinc concentration in Arabian and English thoroughbred racehorses (p<0.05.

  3. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations are negatively correlated with serum 25(OHD concentrations in healthy women

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    Heffernan Mary E

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circulating 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OHD, an accurate measure of vitamin D status, is markedly greater in individuals with increased exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB light via sunlight or the use of artificial UV light. Aside from the known relationship between vitamin D and bone, vitamin D has also been implicated in immune function and inflammation. Furthermore, a mass of evidence is accumulating that vitamin D deficiency could lead to immune malfunction. Our overall objective was to study the relationship between vitamin D status (as determined by serum 25(OH D concentrations and inflammatory markers in healthy women. Methods This observational study included 69 healthy women, age 25–82 years. Women with high UVB exposure and women with minimal UVB exposure were specifically recruited to obtain a wide-range of serum 25(OHD concentrations. Health, sun exposure and habitual dietary intake information were obtained from all subjects. Body composition was determined by dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry. A fasting blood sample was collected in the morning and analyzed for serum 25(OHD, parathyroid hormone (iPTH, estradiol (E2, cortisol, and inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor -alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 and -10 (IL-6, IL-10, and C-reactive protein (CRP]. Results Women with regular UVB exposure (Hi-D had serum 25(OHD concentrations that were significantly higher (p p Conclusion Serum 25(OHD status is inversely related to TNF-α concentrations in healthy women, which may in part explain this vitamin's role in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases. Results gleaned from this investigation also support the need to re-examine the biological basis for determining optimal vitamin D status.

  4. [Serum and tissue concentrations after a single dose of cefaclor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaue, R; Müller, O; Fabricius, K; Bethke, R O

    1979-01-01

    Serum and tissue concentrations of cefaclor were determined a total of 155 and 96 times respectively in 16 volunteers after a single dose of 1 g. At this dosage peak concentrations of 13.5, 14.5 and 13.4 mcg/ml were measured after 60, 90 and 120 minutes respectively. Tissues in which concentrations were measured included cortical bone, spongy bone, muscle, fascia, cutis and subcutis. By measuring blood concentrations of the tissue samples, a division could be made for purposes of calculation into intravascular and extravascular active components. Low amounts of extravascular cefaclor could be established merely in the fascia and in the cutis. The cefaclor concentrations found in spongy bone, muscles and subcutis proved to be determined to a large extent by the intravascular antibiotic. No cefaclor could be detected in cortical bone at the given dosage.

  5. Increased serum leptin and insulin concentrations in canine hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki-Tovi, Michal; Feuermann, Yonatan; Segev, Gilad; Klement, Eyal; Yas-Natan, Einat; Farkas, Amnon; Kol, Amir; Shamay, Avi

    2010-01-01

    Serum concentrations of leptin and insulin were compared between gender-matched hypothyroid (n=25) and healthy (n=25) client-owned dogs within comparable age and body condition score (BCS) ranges. Fasted blood samples were collected from each dog and analysed for glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, leptin and insulin concentrations. Leptin and insulin concentrations were significantly higher in the hypothyroid compared to normal dogs (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively) following adjustment for potential confounders. A nearly significant (P=0.051) interaction with BCS was found in the association between hypothyroidism and leptin. Leptin concentrations were significantly higher in hypothyroid dogs compared to normal dogs, in separate analyses for BCS 6 (P=0.036) and 7 (P=0.049). There was no significant difference in glucose concentration between the hypothyroid and normal groups (P=0.84) following adjustment for BCS. This study showed that canine hypothyroidism is associated with increased serum leptin and insulin concentrations, neither of which may be attributed to obesity alone. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study of Serum Selenium Concentrations

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    Ulrike Peters

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential trace element and circulating selenium concentrations have been associated with a wide range of diseases. Candidate gene studies suggest that circulating selenium concentrations may be impacted by genetic variation; however, no study has comprehensively investigated this hypothesis. Therefore, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study to identify genetic variants associated with serum selenium concentrations in 1203 European descents from two cohorts: the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO Cancer Screening and the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI. We tested association between 2,474,333 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and serum selenium concentrations using linear regression models. In the first stage (PLCO 41 SNPs clustered in 15 regions had p < 1 × 10−5. None of these 41 SNPs reached the significant threshold (p = 0.05/15 regions = 0.003 in the second stage (WHI. Three SNPs had p < 0.05 in the second stage (rs1395479 and rs1506807 in 4q34.3/AGA-NEIL3; and rs891684 in 17q24.3/SLC39A11 and had p between 2.62 × 10−7 and 4.04 × 10−7 in the combined analysis (PLCO + WHI. Additional studies are needed to replicate these findings. Identification of genetic variation that impacts selenium concentrations may contribute to a better understanding of which genes regulate circulating selenium concentrations.

  7. Urine and serum concentrations of Cytokeratin 19 in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuessel, Lorenz; Wild, Julia; Haslacher, Helmuth; Perkmann, Thomas; Ristl, Robin; Zeisler, Harald; Schmid, Maximilian

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of Cytokeratin 19 as biomarker for the diagnosis of preeclampsia. Cytokeratin 19 protein fragment CYFRA 21-1 was measured by means of electrochemiluminescence immunoassays in urine and serum samples of 32 women with preeclampsia and 32 samples of normotensive healthy singleton pregnancies at random, matched for gestational age, as controls. The median serum concentrations of CYFRA 21-1 in controls and women with preeclampsia were 2.4 (range 1.3-6.6)ng/mL and 4.4 (range 2.1-16.2)ng/mL, respectively (ppreeclampsia were 13.7 (range 0.7-441.4)ng/mL and 11.8 (range 1.5-338.6)ng/mL, respectively (p=0.629). Calculation of a ROC curve to study the use of serum CYFRA 21-1 concentration as a predictor of preeclampsia revealed cut-off points with the highest sum of specificity and sensitivity of 3.2ng/mL, leading to specificity of 75% and sensitivity of 84%. A similar curve calculated for CYFRA 21-1 in urine showed an area under the curve of 0.536 meaning no predictive power. The correlation between urinary excretion of protein in 24h and serum concentrations of CYFRA 21-1 in the case group was r=0.26, which is not significant (p=0.258). The correlation between proteinuria and urine values of CYFRA 21-1 was r=0.10, which also is not significant (p=0.666). Serum levels of Cytokeratin 19 fragment are increased in women with preeclampsia. However this does not result in a significant difference in CYFRA 21-1 levels in maternal urine. Thus Cytokeratin 19 fragment may prove to be a valuable biomarker for preeclampsia in serum but not urine. We propose further longitudinal studies to investigate the role of Cytokeratin 19 in maternal serum of women with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduction in serum sphingosine 1-phosphate concentration in malaria.

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    Chuchard Punsawad

    Full Text Available Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P is a lipid mediator formed by the metabolism of sphingomyelin which is involved in the endothelial permeability and inflammation. Although the plasma S1P concentration is reportedly decreased in patients with cerebral malaria, the role of S1P in malaria is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of malaria on circulating S1P concentration and its relationship with clinical data in malaria patients. Serum S1P levels were measured in 29 patients with P. vivax, 30 patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum, and 13 patients with complicated P. falciparum malaria on admission and on day 7, compared with healthy subjects (n = 18 as control group. The lowest level of serum S1P concentration was found in the complicated P. falciparum malaria group, compared with P. vivax, uncomplicated P. falciparum patients and healthy controls (all p < 0.001. In addition, serum S1P level was positively correlated with platelet count, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in malaria patients. In conclusions, low levels of S1P are associated with the severity of malaria, and are correlated with thrombocytopenia and anemia. These findings highlight a role of S1P in the severity of malaria and support the use of S1P and its analogue as a novel adjuvant therapy for malaria complications.

  9. Genetic disorders of potassium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Gaurav; Ong, Song; Warnock, David G

    2013-05-01

    Hereditary disorders of potassium homeostasis are an interesting group of disorders, affecting people from the newborn period to adults of all ages. The clinical presentation varies from severe hypotension at birth to uncontrolled hypertension in adults, often associated with abnormal potassium values, although many patients may have a normal serum potassium concentration despite being affected by the genetic disorder. A basic understanding of these disorders and their underlying mechanisms has significant clinical implications, especially in the few patients with subtle clinical signs and symptoms. We present a summary of these disorders, with emphasis on the clinical presentation and genetic mechanisms of these disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Communicating serum chemical concentrations to study participants: follow up survey

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    Louis Germaine M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A considerable literature now supports the importance of effective communication with study participants, including how best to develop communication plans focusing on the uncertainty of health risks associated with particular environmental exposures. Strategies for communicating individual concentrations of environmental chemicals in human biological samples in the absence of clearly established safe or hazardous levels have been discussed from a conceptual basis and to a lesser extent from an empirical basis. We designed and evaluated an empirically based communication strategy for women of reproductive age who previously participated in a prospective study focusing on persistent environmental chemicals and reproductive outcomes. Methods A cohort of women followed from preconception through pregnancy or up to 12 menstrual cycles without pregnancy was given their individual serum concentrations for lead, dichloro-2,2-bisp-chlorophenyl ethylene, and select polychlorinated biphenyl congeners. Two versions of standardized letters were prepared depending upon women's exposure status, which was characterized as low or high. Letters included an introduction, individual concentrations, population reference values and guidance for minimizing future exposures. Participants were actively monitored for any questions or concerns following receipt of letters. Results Ninety-eight women were sent letters informing them of their individual concentrations to select study chemicals. None of the 89 (91% participating women irrespective of exposure status contacted the research team with questions or concerns about communicated exposures despite an invitation to do so. Conclusions Our findings suggest that study participants can be informed about their individual serum concentrations without generating unnecessary concern.

  11. The distribution of potassium and sodium concentrations in the erythrocytes of some breeds of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, J J; Bayón, Y; Primitivo, F

    1994-01-12

    The distribution of erythrocyte potassium and sodium concentrations was studied in Sayaguesa (n = 150), Brown Swiss (n = 163) and two populations of Avileña-Negra Ibérica cattle (n = 141 and 141 respectively). No polymorphism was detected for red-cell cation content in any of the breeds investigated. Mean values of potassium concentrations varied between 21.42 and 24.92 mmol/l red cells, those of sodium contents ranging from 77.50-93.44 mmol/1. The cattle studied can thus be considered as belonging to the 'low potassium' (LK) type. Significant differences were found both in potassium and sodium concentrations between one of the populations of Avileña-Negra Ibérica and the other groups examined. Mean values of sodium levels in Brown Swiss were also significantly different from the other groups. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Verteilung von Kalium- und Natriumblutspiegelwerten in Erythrozyten einiger Rinderrassen Die Verteilung von Kalium- und Natriumkonzentrationen in Erythrozyten wurde in vier Gruppen untersucht: Sayaguesa (n = 150), Braunvieh (n = 163) und zwei Gruppen von Avileña-Negra Ibérica Rindern (n = 141). In keiner der untersuchten Gruppen wurde Polymorphismus für den Cationenspiegel gefunden. Mittelwerte für Kaliumkonzentration schwankten zwischen 21,4 und 24,9 mmol/l roter Zellen, die für Natriumgehalt zwischen 77,5 und 93,4 mmol/1. Die Rinder könnten daher als 'niedrigere Kalium' Type bezeichnet werden. Signifikante Unterschiede wurden sowohl für den Kalium-als auch für der Natriumspiegel zwischen den beiden Avileña-Negra Ibérica Gruppen gefunden. Die Mittelwerte für Natriumspiegel in Braunvieh waren ebenfalls significant unterscniedlich im Vergleich zu den anderen. RESUMEN: Distributión del potasio y sodio eritrocitarios en algunas razas de ganado vacuno Se estudió la distribución de las concentraciones de potasio y sodio eritrocitarios en cuatro grupos de ganado vacuno: Sayaguesa (n = 150), Pardo Alpina (n = 163) y dos poblaciones de Avile

  12. Serum concentration of biochemical bone turnover markers in vegetarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, J; Klemarczyk, W; Gajewska, J; Chełchowska, M; Laskowska-Klita, T

    2007-01-01

    In general, most children on well-planed vegetarian diets can achieve normal growth and development. However, elimination of animal products from the diet decreases the intake of some essential nutrients, such as calcium and vitamin D, and may influence bone metabolism. This is especially important in childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum concentrations of biochemical bone turnover markers in prepubertal vegetarian children. We examined 50 children on vegetarian and 50 on omnivorous diets aged 2-10 years. Dietary constituents were analyzed using a local nutritional program. Serum bone formation (OC, BALP) and resorption (CTX) markers were determined by specific enzyme immunoassays (ELISA) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D by the chemiluminescence method (CLIA). The average daily energetic value and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates in the diets were similar in both groups of children and were within the recommended range. The vegetarian children showed about a two-fold lower daily intake of calcium and vitamin D than their omnivorous counterparts. The level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the serum of vegetarian children was also nearly 2-fold lower compared with omnivores. In vegetarians, as compared to non-vegetarians, mean serum concentrations of OC, BALP and CTX were lower by about 20%, 10% and 15%, respectively. Our preliminary results suggest that an inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may impair bone turnover rate in vegetarian children. The parameters of bone metabolism should be monitored in these children in order to prevent bone abnormalities.

  13. Trends in serum relaxin concentration among elite collegiate female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoo, Jason L; Castillo, Tiffany N; Korotkova, Tatiana A; Kennedy, Ashleigh C; Kim, Hyeon Joo; Stewart, Dennis R

    2011-01-19

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between serum relaxin concentration (SRC) and menstrual history and hormonal contraceptive use among elite collegiate female athletes. Evaluation of SRC in athletes is necessary, because relaxin has been associated with increased knee joint laxity and decreased anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strength in animal models. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female athletes participating in sports at high risk for ACL tears - basketball, field hockey, gymnastics, lacrosse, soccer, and volleyball - were invited to participate. All participants completed a questionnaire about their menstrual history and hormonal contraceptive use. Venipuncture was performed to obtain samples of serum progesterone and relaxin. Samples were obtained during the mid-luteal phase from ovulating participants, and between the actual or projected cycle days 21 to 24, from anovulatory participants. Serum concentration of relaxin and progesterone was determined by ELISA and the data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software with significance set at P = 0.05. 169 female athletes participated. The mean SRC among all participants was 3.08 ± 6.66 pg/mL). The mean SRC differed significantly between those participants using hormonal contraceptives (1.41 pg/mL) and those not using hormonal contraceptives (3.08 pg/mL, P = 0.002). Mean SRC was lowest among amenorrheic participants (1.02 pg/mL) and highest among oligomenorrheic participants (3.71 pg/mL) and eumenorrheic participants (3.06 pg/mL); these differences were not significant (P = 0.53). Mean serum progesterone concentration (SPC) differed significantly between those participants using hormonal contraceptives (2.80 ng/mL), and those not using hormonal contraceptives (6.99 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). There is a positive correlation between serum progesterone and SRC and an attenuation of SRC with hormonal contraceptive use. Our results underscore the significant role that hormonal

  14. Trends in serum relaxin concentration among elite collegiate female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L Dragoo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jason L Dragoo1, Tiffany N Castillo1, Tatiana A Korotkova1, Ashleigh C Kennedy1, Hyeon Joo Kim1, Dennis R Stewart21Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 2Corthera Inc. San Mateo, CA, USAPurpose: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between serum relaxin concentration (SRC and menstrual history and hormonal contraceptive use among elite collegiate female athletes. Evaluation of SRC in athletes is necessary, because relaxin has been associated with increased knee joint laxity and decreased anterior cruciate ligament (ACL strength in animal models.Methods: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female athletes participating in sports at high risk for ACL tears – basketball, field hockey, gymnastics, lacrosse, soccer, and volleyball – were invited to participate. All participants completed a questionnaire about their menstrual history and hormonal contraceptive use. Venipuncture was performed to obtain samples of serum progesterone and relaxin. Samples were obtained during the mid-luteal phase from ovulating participants, and between the actual or projected cycle days 21 to 24, from anovulatory participants. Serum concentration of relaxin and progesterone was determined by ELISA and the data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software with significance set at P = 0.05.Results: 169 female athletes participated. The mean SRC among all participants was 3.08 ± 6.66 pg/mL. The mean SRC differed significantly between those participants using hormonal contraceptives (1.41 pg/mL and those not using hormonal contraceptives (3.08 pg/mL, P = 0.002. Mean SRC was lowest among amenorrheic participants (1.02 pg/mL and highest among oligomenorrheic participants (3.71 pg/mL and eumenorrheic participants (3.06 pg/mL; these differences were not significant (P = 0.53. Mean serum progesterone concentration (SPC differed significantly between those participants using hormonal contraceptives (2

  15. Simultaneous determination of serum mannose and glucose concentrations in dog serum using high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Katayama, K; Arai, T; Sako, T; Tazaki, H

    2008-02-01

    Serum mannose and glucose concentrations in dogs before and after eating a meal were determined simultaneously with a recently established HPLC method combined with a UV and fluorescence detection system of p-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester (ABEE)-derivatized monosaccharides. In this newly established HPLC method, detection limits were 0.09 micromol/L for mannose and 0.04 mmol/L for glucose. Linearity of peak areas vs. amounts of mannose and glucose in the range of 0.27-320 micromol/L and 0.13-64 mmol/L were observed, respectively. The value of the glucose content measured by the HPLC method was in good agreement with that of the commonly used enzymatic method (control). Serum glucose concentrations in dogs 90 min after the meal were almost the same as those before the meal, whereas serum mannose concentrations decreased significantly after the meal. This HPLC method may be useful for determination of monosaccharides in animal blood.

  16. Emergency Do Not Consume/do Not Use concentrations for potassium permanganate in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhite, C C; Bhat, V S; Ball, G L; McLellan, C J

    2013-03-01

    Over the past decade, regulatory authorities and water purveyors have become increasingly concerned with accidental or intentional adulteration of municipal drinking water. Emergency response guidelines, such as the 'Do Not Consume' or use concentration limits derived herein, can be used to notify the public in such cases. Potassium permanganate (KMnO(4)) is used to control iron concentrations and to reduce the levels of nuisance materials that affect odor or taste of finished drinking water. Manganese (Mn) is recognized an essential nutrient, permanganate (MnO4 (-)) and manganous (Mn(+2)) ions are caustic, and the acute toxicity of KMnO(4) is defined by its oxidant/irritant properties and by the toxicity of Mn. Ingestion of small amounts (4-20 mg/kg) of aqueous KMnO(4) solutions that are above 200 mg/L causes gastrointestinal distress, while bolus ingestion has caused respiratory arrest following coagulative necrosis and hemorrhage in the esophagus, stomach, or liver. Dilute KMnO(4) solutions (1-100 mg/L) are used as a topical antiseptics and astringents, but >1:5000 (200 mg/L) dilutions can irritate or discolor sensitive mucous membranes and direct skin or ocular contact with concentrated KMnO(4) can perforate tissues. Based on clinical experience with 200 mg/L KMnO(4), a Do Not Consume concentration of 7 mg/L KMnO(4) (equivalent to 2 mg Mn/L) is recommended. Recognizing limited empirical data from which to calculate an ocular reference value, a skin contact 'Do Not Use' concentration of 30 mg Mn/L is recommended based on the skin irritation in some patients after a 10-min contact with 100 mg KMnO4/L.

  17. Seawater desalination and serum magnesium concentrations in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gideon; Shlezinger, Meital; Katz, Rachel; Shalev, Varda; Amitai, Yona

    2017-04-01

    With increasing shortage of fresh water globally, more countries are consuming desalinated seawater (DSW). In Israel >50% of drinking water is now derived from DSW. Desalination removes magnesium, and hypomagnesaemia has been associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality. Presently the impact of consuming DSW on body magnesium status has not been established. We quantified changes in serum magnesium in a large population based study (n = 66,764), before and after desalination in regions consuming DSW and in regions where DSW has not been used. In the communities that switched to DSW in 2013, the mean serum magnesium was 2.065 ± 0.19 mg/dl before desalination and fell to 2.057 ± 0.19 mg/dl thereafter (p < 0.0001). In these communities 1.62% of subjects exhibited serum magnesium concentrations ≤1.6 mg/dl between 2010 and 2013. This proportion increased by 24% between 2010-2013 and 2015-2016 to 2.01% (p = 0.0019). In contrast, no such changes were recorded in the communities that did not consume DSW. Due to the emerging evidence of increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with hypomagnesaemia, it is vital to consider re-introduction of magnesium to DSW.

  18. Dietary Sodium Modifies Serum Uric Acid Concentrations in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Alwyn S; Walker, Robert J; MacGinley, Robert J; Kelly, Jaimon; Merriman, Tony R; Major, Tanya J; Johnson, Richard J

    2017-09-07

    Subjects with hypertension are frequently obese or insulin resistant, both conditions in which hyperuricemia is common. Obese and insulin-resistant subjects are also known to have blood pressure that is more sensitive to changes in dietary sodium intake. Whether hyperuricemia is a resulting consequence, moderating or contributing factor to the development of hypertension has not been fully evaluated and very few studies have reported interactions between sodium intake and serum uric acid. We performed further analysis of our randomized controlled clinical trials (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #12609000161224 and #12609000292279) designed to assess the effects of modifying sodium intake on concentrations of serum markers, including uric acid. Uric acid and other variables (including blood pressure, renin, and aldosterone) were measured at baseline and 4 weeks following the commencement of low (60 mmol/day), moderate (150 mmol/day), and high (200-250 mmol/day) dietary sodium intake. The median aldosterone-to-renin ratio was 1.90 [pg/ml]/[pg/ml] (range 0.10-11.04). Serum uric acid fell significantly in both the moderate and high interventions compared to the low sodium intervention. This pattern of response occurred when all subjects were analyzed, and when normotensive or hypertensive subjects were analyzed alone. Although previously reported in hypertensive subjects, these data provide evidence in normotensive subjects of an interaction between dietary sodium intake and serum uric acid. As this interaction is present in the absence of hypertension, it is possible it could play a role in hypertension development, and will need to be considered in future trials of dietary sodium intake. The trials were registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12609000161224 and ACTRN1260.

  19. Effect of ejaculation on Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen concentration

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    Fatih Tarhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Abstract Purpose:To evaluate the effect of ejaculation on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA concentrations in patients with lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS. Materials and Methods Our study includes 98 men (62 study and 36 control. After three days of sexual abstinence, blood samples were drawn for the measurement of baseline PSA levels. Then the patients were told to ejaculate. One, 5, 24 and 72 hours after ejaculation, serum total (tPSA, free (fPSA and complexed PSA (cPSA levels were measured. Serum PSA sampling was performed at the same intervals in the control group without ejaculation. Results The mean age in study and control groups patients were 59.03±0.99 years, 61.14±1.30 years, respectively. In the study group, changes in tPSA and fPSA levels after ejaculation were found statistically significant while changes in cPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios were not significant (p=0.016, p=0.0003, p=0.176, and p=0.173, respectively. Baseline values showed significant differences with 1st and 5th hours. No significant changes in tPSA, fPSA, cPSA levels and f/tPSA values were found in control group (p=0.223, p=0.224, p=0.444, and p=0.718, respectively. The changes in the number of patients exceeding the cutoff values after ejaculation were not statistically significant for tPSA, cPSA, and f/tPSA ratio. Conclusions In this study, ejaculation increased tPSA and fPSA concentrations but it didn’t have a significant effect on serum cPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios. However, recent ejaculation may affect the biopsy indication at least near cut off PSA values. Further studies are needed to explain the mechanisms of alterations in the concentration of PSA.

  20. Acetaminophen overdose associated with double serum concentration peaks

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    Cristian Papazoglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is the most commonly used analgesic–antipyretic medication in the United States. Acetaminophen overdose, a frequent cause of drug toxicity, has been recognized as the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal hepatic necrosis. N-Acetylcysteine is the recommended antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Despite evidence on the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine for prevention of hepatic injury, controversy persists about the optimal duration of the therapy. Here, we describe the case of a 65-year-old male with acetaminophen overdose and opioid co-ingestion who developed a second peak in acetaminophen serum levels after completing the recommended 21-hour intravenous N-acetylcysteine protocol and when the standard criteria for monitoring drug levels was achieved. Prolongation of N-acetylcysteine infusion beyond the standard protocol, despite a significant gap in treatment, was critical for successful avoidance of hepatotoxicity. Delay in acetaminophen absorption may be associated with a second peak in serum concentration following an initial declining trend, especially in cases of concomitant ingestion of opioids. In patients with acetaminophen toxicity who co-ingest other medications that may potentially delay gastric emptying or in those with risk factors for delayed absorption of acetaminophen, we recommend close monitoring of aminotransferase enzyme levels, as well as trending acetaminophen concentrations until undetectable before discontinuing the antidote therapy.

  1. The relationship between serum potassium, potassium variability and in-hospital mortality in critically ill patients and a before-after analysis on the impact of computer-assisted potassium control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, Lara; Hoekstra, Miriam; Mijzen, Lisa J.; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Dieperink, Wim; Oude Lansink, Annemieke; Nijsten, Maarten W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The relationship between potassium regulation and outcome is not known. Our first aim in the present study was to determine the relationship between potassium level and variability in (ICU) stay and outcome. The second aim was to evaluate the impact of a computer-assisted potassium

  2. Nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations affects atrial inward rectifier potassium current sensitive to acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bébarová, Markéta; Matejovič, Peter; Švecová, Olga; Kula, Roman; Šimurdová, Milena; Šimurda, Jiří

    2017-05-01

    Nicotine abuse is associated with variety of diseases including arrhythmias, most often atrial fibrillation (AF). Altered inward rectifier potassium currents including acetylcholine-sensitive current I K(Ach) are known to be related to AF pathogenesis. Since relevant data are missing, we aimed to investigate I K(Ach) changes at clinically relevant concentrations of nicotine. Experiments were performed by the whole cell patch clamp technique at 23 ± 1 °C on isolated rat atrial myocytes. Nicotine was applied at following concentrations: 4, 40 and 400 nM; ethanol at 20 mM (∼0.09%). Nicotine at 40 and 400 nM significantly activated constitutively active component of I K(Ach) with the maximum effect at 40 nM (an increase by ∼100%); similar effect was observed at -110 and -50 mV. Changes at 4 nM nicotine were negligible on average. Coapplication of 40 nM nicotine and 20 mM ethanol (which is also known to activate this current) did not show cumulative effect. In the case of acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach), a dual effect of nicotine and its correlation with the current magnitude in control were apparent: the current was increased by nicotine in the cells showing small current in control and vice versa. The effect of 40 and 400 nM nicotine on acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach) was significantly different at -110 and -50 mV. We conclude that nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations significantly increased constitutively active component of I K(Ach) and showed a dual effect on its acetylcholine-induced component, similarly as ethanol. Synchronous application of nicotine and ethanol did not cause additive effect.

  3. Sweat sodium loss influences serum sodium concentration in a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, B; Salinero, J J; Areces, F; Ruiz-Vicente, D; Gallo-Salazar, C; Abián-Vicén, J; Del Coso, J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of sweat electrolyte concentration on body water and electrolyte homeostasis during a marathon. Fifty-one runners completed a marathon race in a warm and dry environment (24.4 ± 3.6 °C). Runners were classified as low-salt sweaters (n = 21; sweat Na + concentration), typical sweaters (n = 20; ≥30 and sweat Na + concentration), and salty sweaters (n = 10; ≥60 mmol/L of sweat Na + concentration). Before and after the race, body mass and a sample of venous blood were obtained. During the race, sweat samples were collected by using sweat patches, and fluid and electrolyte intake were recorded by using self-reported questionnaires. Low-salt, typical and salty sweaters presented similar sweat rates (0.93 ± 0.2, 0.92 ± 0.29, 0.99 ± 0.21 L/h, respectively), body mass changes (-3.0 ± 1.0, -3.3 ± 1.0, -3.2 ± 0.8%), total Na + intake (12.7 ± 8.1, 11.5 ± 9.7, 14.5 ± 16.6 mmol), and fluid intake (1.3 ± 0.8, 1.2 ± 0.8, 1.2 ± 0.6 L) during the race. However, salty sweaters presented lower post-race serum Na + concentration (140.8 ± 1.3 vs 142.5 ± 1.1, 142.4 ± 1.4 mmol/L; P Sweat electrolyte concentration could influence post-race serum electrolyte concentration in the marathon. However, even the saltiest sweaters did not develop exercise-associated hyponatremia or associated symptoms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Reduced Levels of Serum Potassium and Plasma Cholinesterase in Acute Organophosphate Poisoning: Possible Predictive Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanur Prasad

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: For severe clinical features of OP poisoning, serum [K+] and PChE level are greatly reduced. Hence, these biochemical findings can be proposed as OP poisoning predictive markers. Clinicians and medical toxicologists should consider hypokalemia associated with reduced PChE level as alarming signs of poor prognosis in OP poisoned patients.

  5. Changes in the concentration of copper in serum of sheep during halothane anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrewartha, K A; Caple, I W

    1978-09-01

    Concentrations of serum copper and caeruloplasmin were measured in jugular blood samples of sheep before, during and after halothane anaesthesia. Significant decreases were recorded in the concentration of serum copper during anaesthesia, but caeruloplasmin activity did not change significantly. The serum copper concentration increased when the sheep were allowed to recover, and returned to pre-anaesthetic values after 3 h.

  6. Towards Addressing the Body Electrolyte Environment via Sweat Analysis:Pilocarpine Iontophoresis Supports Assessment of Plasma Potassium Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Vairo, Donato; Bruzzese, Laurie; Marlinge, Marion; Fuster, Lea; Adjriou, Nabil; Kipson, Nathalie; Brunet, Philippe; Cautela, Jennifer; Jammes, Yves; Mottola, Giovanna; Burtey, Stephane; Ruf, Jean; Guieu, Regis; Fenouillet, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Electrolyte concentration in sweat depends on environmental context and physical condition but also on the pathophysiological status. Sweat analyzers may be therefore the future way for biological survey although how sweat electrolyte composition can reflect plasma composition remains unclear. We recruited 10 healthy subjects and 6 patients to have a broad range of plasma electrolyte concentrations (chloride, potassium and sodium) and pH. These variables were compared to those found in sweat ...

  7. Serum concentrations of PCBs and OCPs among prepubertal Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Hyun; Hong, Young Sun; Ha, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2016-02-01

    Although children are more vulnerable than adults to environmental hazards, due to their physiological and behavioral characteristics, few studies have assessed their internal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The objective of this study was to determine the serum levels of certain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) among pre-pubertal children in Korea and examine their variation with age and gender. We analyzed a total of 51 POPs in 214 children (age range, 7-9 years), using data from the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort Study. To examine change over time, POP concentrations were measured at both 7 and 9 years of age in a sub-cohort of 26 children. The median and interquartile range (IQR, 25th to 75th percentiles) data for the sum of PCB congeners was 26.44 ng/g lipid (18.27-37.63 ng/g lipid). The median (IQR) concentration for the sum of OCPs was 74.82 ng/g lipid (51.11-112.45 ng/g lipid). Our results showed significant increases in serum concentrations of total PCBs with age (p = 0.0001), no gender dependence of total PCBs (p = 0.38) and total OCPs (p = 0.12), and strong correlations between individual POPs. Childhood exposure to POPs was relatively low compared to other studies carried out in different countries. However, even though the use of POPs has been banned since 2001, our results indicated that children in the general population are still exposed to various POPs. Because long-term, low-level exposure to POPs in the general population remains a concern for human health, future research should examine major routes of exposure and identification of risk factors.

  8. Towards Addressing the Body Electrolyte Environment via Sweat Analysis:Pilocarpine Iontophoresis Supports Assessment of Plasma Potassium Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairo, Donato; Bruzzese, Laurie; Marlinge, Marion; Fuster, Lea; Adjriou, Nabil; Kipson, Nathalie; Brunet, Philippe; Cautela, Jennifer; Jammes, Yves; Mottola, Giovanna; Burtey, Stephane; Ruf, Jean; Guieu, Regis; Fenouillet, Emmanuel

    2017-09-18

    Electrolyte concentration in sweat depends on environmental context and physical condition but also on the pathophysiological status. Sweat analyzers may be therefore the future way for biological survey although how sweat electrolyte composition can reflect plasma composition remains unclear. We recruited 10 healthy subjects and 6 patients to have a broad range of plasma electrolyte concentrations (chloride, potassium and sodium) and pH. These variables were compared to those found in sweat produced following cycling exercise or pilocarpine iontophoresis, a condition compatible with operating a wearable device. We found no correlation between plasma and sweat parameters when exercise-induced sweat was analyzed, and we could identify a correlation only between plasma and sweat potassium concentration (R = 0.78, p sweat was induced using pilocarpine iontophoresis. We tested measurement repeatability in sweat at 24hr-interval for 3 days in 4 subjects and found a great intra-individual variability regarding all parameters in exercise-induced sweat whereas similar electrolyte levels were measured in pilocarpine-induced sweat. Thus, electrolyte concentration in sweat sampled following physical activity does not reflect concentration in plasma while pilocarpine iontophoresis appears to be promising to reproducibly address sweat electrolytes, and to make an indirect evaluation of plasma potassium concentration in chronic kidney disease and arrhythmia.

  9. Antioxidative phytochemicals from Rhododendron oldhamii Maxim. leaf extracts reduce serum uric acid levels in potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yu-Tang; Lin, Lei-Chen; Liu, Ya-Ling; Ho, Shang-Tse; Lin, Chi-Yang; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Huang, Chi-Chang; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2015-12-01

    Some of the genus Rhododendron was used in traditional medicine for arthritis, acute and chronic bronchitis, asthma, pain, inflammation, rheumatism, hypertension and metabolic diseases and many species of the genus Rhododendron contain a large number of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties that could be developed into pharmaceutical products. In this study, the antioxidative phytochemicals of Rhododendron oldhamii Maxim. leaves were detected by an online HPLC-DPPH method. In addition, the anti-hyperuricemic effect of the active phytochemicals from R. oldhamii leaf extracts was investigated using potassium oxonate (PO)-induced acute hyperuricemia. Six phytochemicals, including (2R, 3R)-epicatechin (1), (2R, 3R)-taxifolin (2), (2R, 3R)-astilbin (3), hyposide (4), guaijaverin (5), and quercitrin (6), were isolated using the developed screening method. Of these, compounds 3, 4, 5, and 6 were found to be major bioactive phytochemicals, and their contents were determined to be 130.8 ± 10.9, 105.5 ± 8.5, 104.1 ± 4.7, and 108.6 ± 4.0 mg per gram of EtOAc fraction, respectively. In addition, the four major bioactive phytochemicals at the same dosage (100 mmol/kg) were administered to the abdominal cavity of potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemic mice, and the serum uric acid level was measured after 3 h of administration. H&E staining showed that PO-induced kidney injury caused renal tubular epithelium nuclear condensation in the cortex areas or the appearance of numerous hyaline casts in the medulla areas; treatment with 100 mmol/kg of EtOAc fraction, (2R, 3R)-astilbin, hyposide, guaijaverin, and quercitrin significantly reduced kidney injury. In addition, the serum uric acid level was significantly suppressed by 54.1, 35.1, 56.3, 56.3, and 53.2 %, respectively, by the administrations of 100 mmol/kg EtOAc fraction and the derived major phytochemicals, (2R, 3R)-astilbin, hyposide, guaijaverin, and quercitrin, compared to the PO group. The administration

  10. Hyperimmune serum from rabbits immunized with potassium thiocyanate extract of Pasteurella multocida protects against homologous challenge.

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Y S; Pakes, S P; Massey, L

    1987-01-01

    Hyperimmune rabbit sera directed to the KSCN extract of 3:A Pasteurella multocida were characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), presolubilized cell radioimmunoprecipitation, and immunoblotting analysis. The results showed that the hyperimmune serum had a very high titer of immunoglobulin G ELISA antibody and a negligible immunoglobulin A ELISA antibody, precipitated 10 different outer membrane protein antigens by radioimmunoprecipitation, and reacted to 10 different membran...

  11. The relationship between serum potassium, potassium variability and in-hospital mortality in critically ill patients and a before-after analysis on the impact of computer-assisted potassium control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessels, Lara; Hoekstra, Miriam; Mijzen, Lisa J; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Dieperink, Wim; Lansink, Annemieke Oude; Nijsten, Maarten W

    2015-01-06

    The relationship between potassium regulation and outcome is not known. Our first aim in the present study was to determine the relationship between potassium level and variability in (ICU) stay and outcome. The second aim was to evaluate the impact of a computer-assisted potassium regulation protocol. We performed a retrospective before-after study including all patients >15 years of age admitted for more than 24 hours to the ICU of our university teaching hospital between 2002 and 2011. Potassium control was fully integrated with computerized glucose control (glucose and potassium regulation program for intensive care patients (GRIP-II)). The potassium metrics that we determined included mean potassium, potassium variability (defined as the standard deviation of all potassium levels) and percentage of ICU time below and above the reference range (3.5 through 5.0 mmol/L). These metrics were determined for the first ICU day (early phase) and the subsequent ICU days (late phase; that is, day 2 to day 7). We also compared potassium metrics and in-hospital mortality before and after GRIP-II was implemented in 2006. Of all 22,347 ICU admissions, 10,451 (47%) patients were included. A total of 206,987 potassium measurements were performed in these patients. Glucose was regulated by GRIP-II in 4,664 (45%) patients. The overall in-hospital mortality was 22%. There was a U-shaped relationship between the potassium level and in-hospital mortality (P <0.001). Moreover, potassium variability was independently associated with outcome. After implementation of GRIP-II, in the late phase the time below 3.5 mmol/L decreased from 9.2% to 3.9% and the time above 5.0 mmol/L decreased from 6.1% to 5.2%, and potassium variability decreased from 0.31 to 0.26 mmol/L (all P <0.001). The overall decrease in in-hospital mortality from 23.3% before introduction of GRIP-II to 19.9% afterward (P <0.001) was not related to a specific potassium subgroup. Hypokalemia, hyperkalemia and

  12. Patiromer Lowers Serum Potassium When Taken without Food: Comparison to Dosing with Food from an Open-Label, Randomized, Parallel Group Hyperkalemia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, Pablo E; Spiegel, David M; Warren, Suzette; Yuan, Jinwei; Weir, Matthew R

    2017-01-01

    Patiromer is a sodium-free, nonabsorbed, potassium binder approved for treatment of hyperkalemia. This open-label study compares the efficacy and safety of patiromer administered without food versus with food. Adults with hyperkalemia (potassium ≥5.0 mEq/L) were randomized (1:1) to receive patiromer once daily without food or with food for 4 weeks. The dosage was adjusted (maximum: 25.2 g/day) using a prespecified titration schedule to achieve and maintain potassium within a target range (3.8-5.0 mEq/L). The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients with serum potassium in the target range at either week 3 or week 4. Safety was assessed by adverse events (AEs) and laboratory testing. Efficacy was evaluated in 112 patients; 65.2% were ≥65 years of age, 75.9% had chronic kidney disease, and 82.1% had diabetes. Baseline mean serum potassium was similar in the without-food (5.44 mEq/L) and with-food (5.34 mEq/L) groups. The primary endpoint was achieved by 87.3% (95% CI 75.5-94.7) and 82.5% (95% CI 70.1-91.3) of patients in the with-food and without-food groups, respectively; least squares mean changes in serum potassium from baseline to week 4 were -0.65 and -0.62 mEq/L, respectively (p food or with food, thereby offering the potential for dosing flexibility. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Nebulized salbutamol for asthma: Effects on serum potassium and phosphate levels at the 60 min

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sahan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We conducted this prospective study to expand available information in relation to serum phosphate levels in treatment of acute asthma. A β-adrenergic agonist, salbutamol, was used for this purpose. Material and methods: Twenty-six patients who met the inclusion criteria as; age over 16 years, asthma history, and an acute exacerbation were included. Serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose were within normal limits in all the patients. None of the patients were on chronic theophylline therapy. Baseline serum phosphate and potassium levels were measured. Nebulized salbutamol (2.5 mg was used three times at every hour. After 60 min, serum phosphate and potassium levels were measured. Results: Serum phosphate levels decreased from 3.7 ± 0.9 mg/dL (baseline to 3.6±0.9 mg/dL at 60 min. This decrease was not statistically significant (p = 0.373. Serum potassium levels decreased significantly (p < 0.001 from 4.6 ± 0.7 mmol/L (baseline to 4.3 ± 0.7 mmol/L (60 min. Conclusion: Administration of nebulized salbutamol during the emergency treatment of acute exacerbation of asthma is not associated with a statistical decrease in serum phosphate. There was significant hypokalemia. This study indicates that a further study is needed to elucidate the clinical significance of nebulized salbutamol on serum phosphate. Resumo: Objetivo: Levámos a cabo este estudo prospetivo para ampliar a informação disponível relativamente aos níveis de fosfato sérico no tratamento de asma aguda. Foi utilizado um agonista β-adrenérgico, salbutamol, para este efeito. Materiais e métodos: Foram incluídos 26 doentes que cumpriam os critérios de inclusão de: idade superior a 16 anos, história de asma, incluindo uma exacerbação aguda. A ureia do soro sanguíneo, creatinina e glucose estavam nos limites normais em todos os doentes. Nenhum dos doentes era

  14. Evaluation of serum biochemical marker concentrations and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Equilino, Mirjam; Théodoloz, Vincent; Gorgas, Daniela; Doherr, Marcus G.; Heilmann, Romy M.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Steiner, JöRg M.; Burgener, Iwan A.

    2015-01-01

    Results—Serum C-reactive protein concentration was high in 13 of 18 dogs with PLE and in 2 of 18 dogs with FRD. Serum concentration of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity was high in 3 dogs with PLE but within the reference interval in all dogs with FRD. Serum a1-proteinase inhibitor

  15. Aluminum concentrations in serum, dialysate, urine and bone among patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, P; Olsen, F; Heaf, J G

    1989-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) concentration in serum, urine, and dialysate was estimated in 21 patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In 12 of the patients bone Al concentration was measured as well. Mean serum Al level was 32.4 +/- 21.0 micrograms/l. The Al concentrations in the d......Aluminum (Al) concentration in serum, urine, and dialysate was estimated in 21 patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In 12 of the patients bone Al concentration was measured as well. Mean serum Al level was 32.4 +/- 21.0 micrograms/l. The Al concentrations...

  16. Serum electrolytes in children with neurocardiogenic syncope treated with fludrocortisone and salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, M A; DiSessa, T G

    1996-07-15

    We examined the changes in serum electrolytes of patients with syncope treated with salt and fludrocortisone. The most significant change was an increase in serum bicarbonate concentration, with minimal alteration of sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations; none was clinically significant.

  17. Serum leptin concentration during puberty in healthy nonobese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandão C.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data obtained during the past five years have indicated that there are important age- and gender-based differences in the regulation and action of leptin in humans. To study the physiological changes of leptin during puberty in both sexes, and its relationship with body composition and sexual maturation, we measured leptin concentrations in 175 healthy adolescents (80 girls, 95 boys, 10-18 years of age, representing all pubertal stages. We excluded individuals with a body mass index (BMI below the 5thor above the 95th percentile relative to age. Serum concentrations of leptin were determined by a monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorimetric assay, developed in our laboratory. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pubertal stage was assigned by physical examination, according to Tanner criteria for breast development in females and genital development in males. Leptin concentration in girls (N = 80 presented a positive linear correlation with age (r = 0.35, P = 0.0012, BMI (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001 and %fat mass (r = 0.76, P < 0.0001. In boys (N = 95 there was a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.49, P < 0.0001 and %fat mass (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001, but a significant negative linear correlation with Tanner stage (r = -0.45, P < 0.0001 and age (r = -0.40, P < 0.0001. The regression equation revealed that %fat mass and BMI are the best parameters to be used to estimate leptin levels in both sexes. Thus, the normal reference ranges for circulating leptin during adolescence should be constructed according to BMI or %fat mass to assure a correct evaluation.

  18. The reference range of serum magnesium substance concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation, with only a small proportion of the body's content being in the extracellular fluid. It is required for the active transport of other cations such as calcium, sodium and potassium across the membrane by active transport system. It is also needed for many ...

  19. Serum carnitine concentration is decreased in patients with Lyme borreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB is a serious infectious disease. Carnitine plays a crucial role in metabolism and inflammatory responses. Carnitine may be important in improving neuronal dysfunction and loss of neurons. Aim: To evaluate serum carnitine concentration in adult patients with various clinical types of LB. Material/Methods: Groups: 1 patients with erythema migrans (EM, n=16, 2 neuroborreliosis (NB, n=10, 3 post-Lyme disease (PLD, n=22 and healthy controls (HC, n=32. Total (TC and free (FC carnitine were determined with the spectrophotometric method. Results: TC levels (44.9±10.4, 28.0±8.4, 35.9±15.6 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower than in HC (54.0±11.4 μmol/L, p < 0.001. FC levels (32.7±7.7, 23.6±6.8, 26.3±11.2 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower than in HC (40.5±7.6 μmol/L, p < 0.001. AC levels (12.2±5.2, 4.4±2.6, 9.6±7.4 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower in the NB and PLD patients than in HC (13.5±8.40 μmol/L, p <0.001. AC/FC ratio was 0.31±0.14, 0.18±0.09, 0.39±0.33 in the EM, NB and PLD patients. Conclusions: LB patients exhibit a significant decrease of their serum carnitine concentrations. The largest changes were in the NB and PLD patients. To prevent late complications of the disease a possibility of early supplementation with carnitine should be considered. Further studies are required to explain the pathophysiological significance of our findings.

  20. Serum carnitine concentration is decreased in patients with Lyme borreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB is a serious infectious disease. Carnitine plays a crucial role in metabolism and inflammatory responses. Carnitine may be important in improving neuronal dysfunction and loss of neurons.Aim: To evaluate serum carnitine concentration in adult patients with various clinical types of LB.Material/Methods: Groups: 1 patients with erythema migrans (EM, n=16, 2 neuroborreliosis (NB, n=10, 3 post-Lyme disease (PLD, n=22 and healthy controls (HC, n=32. Total (TC and free (FC carnitine were determined with the spectrophotometric method.Results: TC levels (44.9±10.4, 28.0±8.4, 35.9±15.6 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower than in HC (54.0±11.4 μmol/L, p < 0.001. FC levels (32.7±7.7, 23.6±6.8, 26.3±11.2 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower than in HC (40.5±7.6 μmol/L, p < 0.001. AC levels (12.2±5.2, 4.4±2.6, 9.6±7.4 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower in the NB and PLD patients than in HC (13.5±8.40 μmol/L, p <0.001. AC/FC ratio was 0.31±0.14, 0.18±0.09, 0.39±0.33 in the EM, NB and PLD patients.Conclusions: LB patients exhibit a significant decrease of their serum carnitine concentrations. The largest changes were in the NB and PLD patients. To prevent late complications of the disease a possibility of early supplementation with carnitine should be considered. Further studies are required to explain the pathophysiological significance of our findings.

  1. Evaluation of the Iodine Concentration in Serum and Urine of Hypothyroid Males Using an Inexpensive and Rapid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Abbas Kandhro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the iodine/iodide status in biological samples (serum and urine of 172 male hypothyroid patients (HPs and their supplemental effects on thyroid hormones. For comparison purpose, non-goitrous subjects (n= 220 of same age group and socioeconomic status were also studied. A simple and rapid iodide-ion selective electrode (ISE was used to measure the concentration of iodine in microwave assisted acid digested serum and urine samples. Quality control for the methodology was established with certified samples and with those obtained by conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference materials (CRMs and real samples. A linear calibration curve was obtained for a reasonable concentration range of the potassium iodide solutions. The mean concentration of iodine in the serum and urine samples of the HPs was significantly reduced as compared to control male subjects (p< 0.01. The low levels of free triiodothyronine and thyroxin were found in HPs than age matched healthy control (p< 0.005 and 0.002 respectively while high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone were observed in HPs (p< 0.008. The proposed method was relatively efficient as well as cost effective by using inexpensive equipment. It was observed that iodine in biological samples of HPs can play an important role in determining the severity of the hypothyroidism.

  2. Serum Potassium Levels Inversely Correlate with D-Dimer In Patients with Acute-Onset Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Bonfanti, Laura; Picanza, Alessandra; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-12-09

    Background: D-dimer values are frequently increased in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to subjects in sinus rhythm. Hypokalemia plays a role in several cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about the association with AF. Objective: D-dimer values are frequently increased in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with subjects in sinus rhythm. Hypokalemia plays a role in several cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about the association with AF. The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between D-dimer and serum potassium in acute-onset AF (AAF). Methods: To investigate the potential correlation between the values of serum potassium and D-dimer in patients with AAF, we retrospectively reviewed clinical and laboratory data of all emergency department visits for AAF in 2013. Results: Among 271 consecutive AAF patients with D-dimer assessments, those with hypokalemia (n = 98) had significantly higher D-dimer values than normokalemic patients (139 versus 114 ng/mL, p = 0.004). The rate of patients with D-dimer values exceeding the diagnostic cut-off was higher in the group of patients with hypokalemia than in those with normal serum potassium (26.5% versus 16.2%; p = 0.029). An inverse and highly significant correlation was found between serum potassium and D-dimer (r = -0.21; p papel em várias doenças cardiovasculares, mas pouco se sabe sobre a associação com FA. Objetivo: As concentrações de D-dímero encontram-se frequentemente aumentadas em pacientes com FA, quando comparados com indivíduos em ritmo sinusal. A hipopotassemia desempenha um papel importante nas doenças cardiovasculares, porém, pouco é conhecido sobre sua associação com a FA. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a correlação entre os níveis séricos de D-dímero e potássio na FA aguda (FAA). Métodos: Para investigar a existência de uma potencial correlação entre os níveis séricos de potássio e D-dímero em pacientes com FAA

  3. Long-Term Reduction in 137Cs Concentration in Food Crops on Coral Atolls Resulting from Potassium Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L

    2004-04-14

    Bikini Island was contaminated March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing {sup 137}Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces {sup 137}Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 2070 kg ha{sup -1} lead to a {sup 137}Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4% of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs remains low 8 to 10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

  4. Long-Term Reduction in 137Cs Concentration in Food Crops on Coral Atolls Resulting from Potassium Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W; Stone, E; Hamilton, T; Conrado, C

    2005-04-08

    Bikini Island was contaminated March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing {sup 137}Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces {sup 137}Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 1970 kg ha{sup -1} lead to a {sup 137}Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4 % of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs remains low 8 to 10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

  5. Variability in teicoplanin protein binding and its prediction using serum albumin concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    YANO, Ryouichi; NAKAMURA, Toshiaki; TSUKAMOTO, Hitoshi; IGARASHI, Toshiaki; GOTO, Nobuyuki; WAKIYA, Yoshifumi; MASADA, Mikio

    2007-01-01

    The impact of lower serum albumin levels on teicoplanin pharmacokinetics has not been previously determined. The authors assessed the relationship between total and free concentrations of teicoplanin in serum samples obtained from patients receiving teicoplanin therapy for Gram-positive bacterial infections. In addition, the authors determined the contribution of serum albumin concentrations to the unbound fraction of teicoplanin. One hundred ninety-eight serum samples were obtained from 65 p...

  6. Serum Phosphorus Concentrations in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Ian H.; Rue, Tessa C.; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Background Higher serum phosphorus concentrations within the normal laboratory range have been associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in large prospective cohort studies of individuals with and without kidney disease. Reasons for interindividual variation in steady-state serum phosphorus concentrations are largely unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 15,513 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Predictors Demographic data, dietary intake measured by means of 24-hour dietary recall and food-frequency questionnaire, and established cardiovascular risk factors. Outcome & Measurements Serum phosphorus concentration. Results Mean serum phosphorus concentrations were significantly greater in women (+0.16 mg/dL versus men; P phosphorus and phosphorus-rich foods were associated only weakly with circulating serum phosphorus concentrations, if at all. Higher serum phosphorus levels were associated with lower calculated Framingham coronary heart disease risk scores, which are based on traditional atherosclerosis risk factors. In aggregate, demographic, nutritional, cardiovascular, and kidney function variables explained only 12% of the variation in circulating serum phosphorus concentrations. Limitations Results may differ with advanced kidney disease. Conclusions Serum phosphorus concentration is weakly related to dietary phosphorus and not related to a diverse array of phosphorus-rich foods in the general population. Factors determining serum phosphorus concentration are largely unknown. Previously observed associations of serum phosphorus concentrations with cardiovascular events are unlikely to be a result of differences in dietary intake or traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18992979

  7. Evaluation of serum cobalamin concentrations in dogs of 164 dog breeds (2006-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützner, Niels; Cranford, Shannon M; Norby, Bo; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2012-11-01

    Altered serum cobalamin concentrations have been observed in dogs with gastrointestinal disorders such as exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) or gastrointestinal inflammation. The aims of the current study were 1) to identify breeds with a higher proportion of dogs with a decreased serum cobalamin concentration, 2) to determine whether dogs with such decreased concentrations tend to have serum canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) concentrations diagnostic for EPI, and 3) to compare the number of submissions for serum cobalamin analysis by breed to the American Kennel Club (AKC) breed ranking list of 2009. In this retrospective study, results of 28,675 cobalamin tests were reviewed. Akitas, Chinese Shar-Peis, German Shepherd Dogs, Greyhounds, and Labrador Retrievers had increased proportions of serum cobalamin concentrations below the lower limit of the reference interval (Dogs, and Border Collies had increased proportions of serum cobalamin concentrations below the detection limit of the assay (Dogs with serum cobalamin concentrations <150 ng/l were more likely to have a serum cTLI concentration considered diagnostic for EPI (≤2.5 µg/l; all P ≤ 0.001). The breed with the highest proportion of samples submitted for serum cobalamin analysis in comparison with the AKC ranking list was the Greyhound (odds ratio: 84.6; P < 0.0001). In Akitas and Border Collies, further investigations are warranted to clarify if a potentially breed-specific gastrointestinal disorder is responsible for the increased frequency of decreased serum cobalamin and cTLI concentrations.

  8. The Influence of Type and Serum Concentration to Oocyte Maturation Level on Sheep In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Wattimena

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to know the effect of serum type and concentration on in vitro maturation ovine oocyte. The result was expected to give information about the effect of serum type and concentration on in vitro maturation ovine oocyte, in order to find an alternative serum to reduce the use of serum from pharmacy industry. The result of research shows that concentration and type of serum significantly (P0,05 influence on cumulus expansion rate grade 0, 1 and 2. (Animal Production 8(2: 94-99 (2006   Key Words: Oocyte, Maturation, Sheep

  9. A sensory assessment of color and textural quality of refrigerated tomatoes preserved with different concentrations of potassium permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabali, Victor C; Esiri, Akpevwe; Zitte, Leelee

    2017-05-01

    Freshly harvested mature tomato fruits were treated with different concentrations of potassium permanganate to evaluate their effect on color and texture of the fruits. This was to determine the degree of acceptability and shelf life of the tomatoes. Fifty grams of mature unripe tomato fruits was washed and weighed into a transparent plastic container containing different concentrations of potassium permanganate (control, 2.5 ppm, 5.0 ppm, 7.5 ppm. 10.0 ppm, 12.5 ppm, and 15.0 ppm). The experiment was carried out in a complete randomized design and replicated four times. All the treatments were refrigerated at a temperature range 14-18°C and a sensory assessment of color and textural changes was carried out through a team of selected panelists using the hedonic scale ranking to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance DMRT at 5% level of probability and least significant difference (LSD). Results obtained indicated that 7.5 ppm of potassium permanganate had a preservative effect on color and texture of refrigerated tomatoes. Therefore, the tomatoes were of acceptable color and texture for a period of 21 days as revealed in the result. Color quality had a mean score of 1.64 and texture ranking was 1.73 after 3 weeks of storage.

  10. Serum Concentrations of Trace Elements in Patients with Tuberculosis and Its Association with Treatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihwa Choi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in essential trace elements are associated with impaired immunity in tuberculosis infection. However, the trace element concentrations in the serum of Korean patients with tuberculosis have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to compare the serum trace element concentrations of Korean adult patients with tuberculosis with noninfected controls and to assess the impact of serum trace element concentration on clinical outcome after antituberculosis treatment. The serum concentrations of four trace elements in 141 consecutively recruited patients with tuberculosis and 79 controls were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics were also analyzed. Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis compared with controls, while zinc and selenium concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.01. Moreover, serum selenium and zinc concentrations were positively correlated (ρ = 0.41, p < 0.05. A high serum copper concentration was associated with a worse clinical outcome, as assessed after one month of antituberculosis therapy. Specifically, culture-positive patients had higher serum copper concentrations than culture-negative patients (p < 0.05. Patients with tuberculosis had altered serum trace element concentrations. Further research is needed to elucidate the roles of individual trace elements and to determine their clinical impact on patients with tuberculosis.

  11. Serum concentration of adipocytokines in prepubertal vegetarian and omnivorous children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Rowicka, Grażyna; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    THE AIM of our study was to investigate associations between serum adipocytokines status and anthropometric parameters as well as total energy and macronutrient intake in vegetarian, normal-weight omnivorous and obese omnivorous children. We examined 90 healthy prepubertal children aged 4-10 years who had been referred to the Department of Nutrition at the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw for dietary consultation. Patients with endocrine disorders or genetic syndromes, as well as those who were taking medications that could affect growth, pubertal development or nutritional status were excluded. Children were divided into groups: vegetarians (n=30), normal-weight omnivores (n=30) and obese omnivores (n=30). Anthropometric measurement (weight, height) was performed in all children and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. A whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was performed to determine fat mass, the percentage of body fat and lean body mass using a Lunar Prodigy (GE, USA). Dietary constituents were assessed by questionnaire (nutrient intake from a 3-day period: 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) and calculated using the nutritional computer program Dietetyk2®. Serum total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides concentrations were assessed by standard enzymatic methods. Serum levels of leptin, soluble leptin receptor and adiponectin were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. There were no significant differences in body weight, height, BMI and lean mass values between vegetarians and normal-weight children on traditional mixed diet. Children on vegetarian diet had lower fat mass (pvegetarian as well to normal-weight omnivorous children. The fat mass/lean mass ratio in obese children was about 2.5-fold higher than in normal-weight subjects on traditional diet. Total energy and percentage of energy from macronutrients in diets of all children were within the recommended daily intake. Children on vegetarian diet

  12. Metabolic Syndrome, Alcohol Consumption and Genetic Factors Are Associated with Serum Uric Acid Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Stibůrková, Blanka; Pavlíková, Markéta; Sokolová, Jitka; Kožich, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Objective Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans, and increased serum uric acid concentrations lead to gout. The objective of the current study was to identify factors that are independently associated with serum uric acid concentrations in a cohort of Czech control individuals. Methods The cohort consisted of 589 healthy subjects aged 18–65 years. We studied the associations between the serum uric acid concentration and the following: (i) demographic, anthropometric and ...

  13. Evaluation the effects of L-arginine supplementation on exercise performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium in healthy male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanger Karimian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: L- Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that can affect athletic performance. Thus the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of L- arginine supplementation on athletic performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels in male athletes. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial. Participants, 56 male athletes with an average age of 20.85±4.29 years were selected in Isfahan University of Medical Science clubs in the winter of 2014. Athletes received l- arginine supplementation with a dose of 2 g daily for 45 days in the intervention group and the same amount of placebo (maltodextrin in the control group received. At the beginning and end of the study, the level of athletic performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels were measured and data were analysis with using SPSS software version 19. Results: At the end of the study athletic performance in the group receiving supplements of L - arginine significantly improved compared to the control group (P=0.035. However, no significant changes in body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels were observed (P>0.05. Conclusion: Supplementation of L - arginine can improve athletic performance in semi-professional athletes.

  14. Effect of delayed serum separation and storage temperature on serum glucose concentration in horse, dog, alpaca, and sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collicutt, Nancy B; Garner, Bridget; Berghaus, Roy D; Camus, Melinda S; Hart, Kelsey

    2015-03-01

    Although delays between blood sample collection and analysis are common in veterinary medicine, the effect of prolonged serum-clot contact time on serum glucose concentration is not well established and species differences have not been elucidated. The objective was to investigate the effect of storage time and temperature on serum glucose concentration in stored whole blood samples from horse, dog, alpaca, and sturgeon. Whole blood specimens were divided into 7 no-additive tubes and serum was separated from one sample within one hour, serving as the reference sample. The remaining samples were stored at 4°C and 25°C, then centrifuged and serum glucose measured by automated analysis at 2, 4, and 8 hours postcollection. Glucose concentrations were compared using linear mixed models. The decline in serum glucose concentration for all samples stored at 4°C was not statistically significant, except for the 8-hour samples from sturgeon and dog. At 25°C, serum glucose concentration was comparable to reference values at 2 hours in sturgeon and alpaca, but significantly lower at 4 and 8 hours in those species, and at all time points in equine and canine specimens, being most prominent after 8 hours of storage in canine specimens. Storage at 4°C limits serum glucose decline for at least 4 hours in all species tested and up to 8 hours in specimens of horse and alpaca. At 25°C, serum-clot contact time should not exceed 1 hour in equine and canine samples, and 2 hours in specimens from alpaca and sturgeon. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  15. Evaluation of Serum Lipid, Thyroid, and Hepatic Clinical Chemistries in Association With Serum Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in Cynomolgus Monkeys After Oral Dosing With Potassium PFOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bruce C.; Andres, Kara L.; Ehresman, David J.; Falvo, Ria; Provencher, Anne; Olsen, Geary W.; Butenhoff, John L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract An oral dose study with perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was undertaken to identify potential associations between serum PFOS and changes in serum clinical chemistry parameters in purpose-bred young adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). In this study, control group (n = 6/sex) was sham-dosed with vehicle (0.5% Tween 20 and 5% ethanol in water), low-dose group (n = 6/sex) received 1 single K+PFOS dose (9 mg/kg), and high-dose group (n = 4–6/sex) received 3 separate K+ PFOS doses (11–17.2 mg/kg). Monkeys were given routine checkups and observed carefully for health problems on a daily basis. Scheduled blood samples were drawn from all monkeys prior to, during, and after K+PFOS administration for up to 1 year and they were analyzed for PFOS concentrations and clinical chemistry markers for coagulation, lipids, hepatic, renal, electrolytes, and thyroid-related hormones. No mortality occurred during the study. All the monkeys were healthy, gained weight, and were released back to the colony at the end of the study. The highest serum PFOS achieved was approximately 165 μg/ml. When compared with time-matched controls, administration of K+PFOS to monkeys did not result in any toxicologically meaningful or clinically relevant changes in serum clinical measurements for coagulation, lipids, hepatic, renal, electrolytes, and thyroid-related hormones. A slight reduction in serum cholesterol (primarily the high-density lipoprotein fraction), although not toxicologically significant, was observed. The corresponding lower-bound fifth percentile benchmark concentrations (BMCL1sd) were 74 and 76 μg/ml for male and female monkeys, respectively. Compared to the 2013–2014 geometric mean serum PFOS level of 4.99 ng/ml (0.00499 μg/ml) in US general population reported by CDC NHANES, this represents 4 orders of magnitude for margin of exposure. PMID:28115654

  16. Serum tryptase concentrations in beekeepers with and without Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballada, F; Alonso, M; Vizcaino, L; Coutinho, V; Núñez, R; Vidal, C; Boquete, M; González-Quintela, A

    2013-01-01

    Increased tryptase concentrations are a risk marker for the severity of reactions to Hymenoptera stings or venom immunotherapy To investigate serum tryptase concentrations in beekeepers with and without Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA). Serum tryptase concentrations were measured in adult patients with HVA (n = 91, 37 of whom were beekeepers), beekeepers without HVA (n = 152), and control individuals from the general adult population (n = 246). Multivariate analyses revealed that serum tryptase levels were positively associated with beekeeping activities (P Beekeeping and HVA are independently associated with increased concentrations of serum tryptase.

  17. Inadequate hepcidin serum concentrations predict incident type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechlaner, Raimund; Weiss, Günter; Bansal, Sukhvinder; Mayr, Manuel; Santer, Peter; Pallhuber, Barbara; Notdurfter, Marlene; Bonora, Enzo; Willeit, Johann; Kiechl, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is closely associated with elevated body iron stores. The hormone hepcidin is the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Inadequately low hepcidin levels were recently reported in subjects with manifest T2DM. We investigated whether alterations of hepcidin levels precede the manifestation of T2DM and predict T2DM development independently of established risk conditions. This prospective population-based study included 675 subjects aged 50-89 years, 51.9% of whom were female. Hepcidin levels were measured by gold standard tandem mass spectrometry. Diabetes was diagnosed according to American Diabetes Association criteria, and incident diabetes was recorded between baseline in 2000 and 2010. The baseline hepcidin-to-ferritin ratio in subjects that subsequently developed diabetes during follow-up was reduced on average by 29.8% as compared with subjects with normal glucose tolerance (95% confidence interval, -50.7% to -0.2%; p = 0.049). After adjustment for age, sex, and serum ferritin, higher hepcidin levels were associated with reduced risk of incident diabetes (hazard ratio per 1-unit higher log2 hepcidin, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.98; p = 0.035; 33 events). Additional adjustment for established diabetes risk factors and determinants of hepcidin concentration did not appreciably change these results (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-0.99). Likewise, inadequately low hepcidin levels were also detected in subjects with prevalent T2DM (n = 76). Hepcidin levels that are inadequately low in relation to body iron stores are an independent predictor for incident T2DM and may contribute to diabetes-related tissue iron overload. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Preparation of Potassium Dichromate Crystals from the Chromite Concentrate by Microwave Assisted Leaching

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    Hua Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the oxidizing roasting process of chromite with sodium carbonate to prepare potassium dichromate crystals was studied in the microwave field with air, by heating the chromite and sodium carbonate. The chromite and sodium carbonate heated separately at 1000 °C in the microwave oven (frequency: 2.45 GHz; power 1.5 kW in order to study the microwave absorption properties. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor of the chromite and sodium carbonate examined. Then, chromite with sodium carbonate taken in (1:2 ratio and heated at 750 °C. Thus obtained samples were characterized using various techniques includes Powder-XRD (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF. The XRD pattern reveals the existence of Fe3O4, Fe2O3, NaAlO2, and Na2CrO4. The iron and aluminum were leached out as Fe2O3 and Al(OH3 respectively. The resulting sample treated with the KCl to prepare potassium dichromate crystals. Finally, potassium dichromate crystals formed.

  19. Factitious increases in serum testosterone concentrations related to phenylbutazone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzzan, Bernard; Dumont-Fischer, Dominique; Lahlou, Najiba; Bihan, Hélène; Boissier, Marie-Christophe; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Perret, Gérard-Yves; Cohen, Régis

    2008-04-01

    We report 6 additional observations of a drug/hormone assay interaction between serum testosterone and phenylbutazone intake. This interaction had been described previously only once. We discuss its potential mechanisms, based upon our experimental findings, and its clinical implications.

  20. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d concentrations are associated with increased risk for melanoma and unfavourable prognosis.

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    Benjamin Bade

    Full Text Available Low vitamin D status (serum 25(OHD concentration is associated with increased incidence and unfavourable outcome of various types of cancer. However, there are limited data on influence of serum 25(OHD on risk and prognosis of malignant melanoma.Basal serum 25(OHD concentrations were retrospectively analyzed in a cohort of melanoma patients (n = 324 and healthy controls (n = 141. We tested the hypothesis that serum 25(OHD concentrations are predictive of melanoma risk, thickness of primary melanomas, and overall survival (OS.Median serum 25(OHD concentrations were significantly lower (p = 0.004 in melanoma patients (median = 13.6 ng/ml as compared to controls (median = 15.6 ng/ml. Primary tumors of patients with low serum 25(OHD concentrations (20 ng/ml; median: 1.00 mm. Patients with 25(OHD serum concentrations in the lowest quartile had inferior overall survival (median: 80 months comparing with the highest quartile (median: 195 months; p = 0.049.Our data support the concept that serum 25(OHD concentrations are associated with risk and prognosis of melanoma. Whether normalizing serum 25(OHD concentrations in these patients improves outcomes will require testing in future clinical trials.

  1. Serum HER-2 concentration is associated with insulin resistance and decreases after weight loss

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    Moreno-Navarrete José

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER2/neu is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family easily detectable in the serum of cancer patients. We aimed to evaluate circulating HER-2 concentrations in association with insulin resistance in healthy and obese subjects. Methods Insulin sensitivity (minimal model and serum HER-2 concentrations were evaluated in a cross sectional study in men (cohort 1, n = 167 and longitudinally after weight loss in obese subjects (cohort 2, n = 30. Results Serum HER-2 concentrations were positively associated with BMI and waist circumference (both r = 0.18, p = 0.02, post-load glucose (r = 0.28, p = 0.001 and fasting triglycerides (r = 0.26, p = 0.001; and negatively associated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.29, p = 0.002, n = 109. Subjects with type 2 diabetes showed significantly increased soluble serum HER-2 concentrations. In different multivariate regression models, fasting triglycerides emerged as the factor that independently contributed to 10-11% of serum HER-2 variance. Serum HER-2 concentrations correlated significantly with fasting triglycerides and insulin sensitivity index in subjects from cohort 2. Weight loss led to a significant decrease of serum HER-2 concentrations. The change in serum HER-2 concentrations were significantly associated with the change in percent body fat and fasting triglycerides in young (below the median age of the cohort subjects. Conclusions Serum HER-2 concentrations might be implicated in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and associated comorbidities.

  2. Reference Intervals of Serum Sodium, Potassium, and Chlorine in Chinese Han Population and Comparison of Two ISE Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Keke; Zhang, Chuanbao; Huang, Xianzhang; Wang, Lanlan; Hao, Xiaoke; Mu, Runqing; Pan, Baishen; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Wenxiang; Xu, Ning; Li, Guixing; Ma, Yueyun; Ma, Ming; Guo, Wei; Shang, Hong

    2015-05-01

    Currently there are no reference intervals (RIs) of sodium (Na), potassium (K), and chlorine (Cl) on Chinese population. Two kinds of ion-selective electrode (ISE) methods were commonly used to determine K, Na, and Cl levels in China, the difference between these two methods needs to be evaluated. A total of 4,524 healthy participants (1,916 males and 2,608 females) between 20-79 years old from six cities in China were selected by strict criteria. Serum K, Na, and CL were tested on Roche Modular analyzers in six assigned laboratories. According to EP-9A2, using Roche Modular analyzer (indirect ISE) as comparative method, Olympus AU 5400 analyzer (indirect ISE) and Johnson&Johnson Fusion 5.1 analyzer (direct ISE) were evaluated. In Chinese population, the RIs for K, Na, and CL are 3.6-5.2, 136-146, and 99-110 mmol/l, respectively. Compared to the Roche indirect ISE method, Johnson direct ISE method showed a positive bias; and Olympus indirect ISE method just showed a very slight bias. The RIs of K, Na, and Cl of Han Chinese healthy adult population were found to be smaller than those provided by the manufacturer. By a criteria of biological variations for CV, the differences of Na and K between Roche analyzer and Johnson analyzer were not acceptable for clinical application, while the differences of Na, K, and Cl between Roche and Olympus analyzers were acceptable for clinical application. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Serum Concentrations of Trace Elements in Patients with Tuberculosis and Its Association with Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Rihwa; Kim, Hyoung-Tae; Lim, Yaeji; Kim, Min-Ji; Kwon, O Jung; Jeon, Kyeongman; Park, Hye Yun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Koh, Won-Jung; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2015-01-01

    Deficiencies in essential trace elements are associated with impaired immunity in tuberculosis infection. However, the trace element concentrations in the serum of Korean patients with tuberculosis have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to compare the serum trace element concentrations of Korean adult patients with tuberculosis with noninfected controls and to assess the impact of serum trace element concentration on clinical outcome after antituberculosis treatment. The serum concentrations of four trace elements in 141 consecutively recruited patients with tuberculosis and 79 controls were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics were also analyzed. Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis compared with controls, while zinc and selenium concentrations were significantly lower (p trace elements and to determine their clinical impact on patients with tuberculosis. PMID:26197334

  4. The production and use of citric acid for the removal of potassium from the iron ore concentrate of the Sishen Iron Ore Mine, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Williams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of the richer iron ore worldwide has made it necessary to process lower quality iron ore. Certain substances, such as potassium, contained within the lower quality iron ore, have a detrimental effect on the smelting process during steel manufacturing. Therefore, international steel-making companies charge penalties when purchasing iron ore concentrates containing high concentrations of potassium. To date, lower quality iron ore has been blended with high quality iron ore in an attempt to alleviate the potassium concentrations in the export iron ore; however, the ratio of low quality iron ore to high quality iron ore is increasing, thereby becoming an escalating problem within the economic functioning of the Sishen Iron Ore Mine. It has, therefore, become necessary to develop an economically viable and environmentally friendly process to reduce the high potassium concentrations contained in the iron ore concentrate of the Sishen Iron Ore Mine. In this study, we compared solid substrate and submerged fermentation using Aspergillus niger for the production of citric acid, which is used for the chemical leaching of potassium from the iron ore concentrate. It was found that submerged fermentation proved to be more economical and efficient, producing a maximum citric acid concentration of 102.3 g/L in 96 h of fermentation. ‘Heap leaching’ simulation experiments were found to be uneconomical, due to the required addition of fungal growth medium every 5 days as a result of growth factor depletion within this time; however, this process removed 17.65% of the potassium from the iron ore concentrate. By contrast, chemical leaching of potassium from the iron ore concentrate proved to be most efficient when using a 1 mol citric acid leaching solution at 60 ºC, removing 23.53% of the potassium contained within the iron ore concentrate. Therefore, the most economical and efficient process for the removal of potassium from the iron

  5. A Common Variant in the SETD7 Gene Predicts Serum Lycopene Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Christopher R; D'Urso, Antonietta; Ryan, Kathleen A; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Semba, Richard D; Steinle, Nanette I; Mitchell, Braxton D; Shuldiner, Alan R; McArdle, Patrick F

    2016-02-06

    Dietary intake and higher serum concentrations of lycopene have been associated with lower incidence of prostate cancer and other chronic diseases. Identifying determinants of serum lycopene concentrations may thus have important public health implications. Prior studies have suggested that serum lycopene concentrations are under partial genetic control. The goal of this research was to identify genetic predictors of serum lycopene concentrations using the genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach among a sample of 441 Old Order Amish adults that consumed a controlled diet. Linear regression models were utilized to evaluate associations between genetic variants and serum concentrations of lycopene. Variant rs7680948 on chromosome 4, located in the intron region of the SETD7 gene, was significantly associated with serum lycopene concentrations (p = 3.41 × 10(-9)). Our findings also provided nominal support for the association previously noted between SCARB1 and serum lycopene concentrations, although with a different SNP (rs11057841) in the region. This study identified a novel locus associated with serum lycopene concentrations and our results raise a number of intriguing possibilities regarding the nature of the relationship between SETD7 and lycopene, both of which have been independently associated with prostate cancer. Further investigation into this relationship might help provide greater mechanistic understanding of these associations.

  6. A Common Variant in the SETD7 Gene Predicts Serum Lycopene Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. D’Adamo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake and higher serum concentrations of lycopene have been associated with lower incidence of prostate cancer and other chronic diseases. Identifying determinants of serum lycopene concentrations may thus have important public health implications. Prior studies have suggested that serum lycopene concentrations are under partial genetic control. The goal of this research was to identify genetic predictors of serum lycopene concentrations using the genome-wide association study (GWAS approach among a sample of 441 Old Order Amish adults that consumed a controlled diet. Linear regression models were utilized to evaluate associations between genetic variants and serum concentrations of lycopene. Variant rs7680948 on chromosome 4, located in the intron region of the SETD7 gene, was significantly associated with serum lycopene concentrations (p = 3.41 × 10−9. Our findings also provided nominal support for the association previously noted between SCARB1 and serum lycopene concentrations, although with a different SNP (rs11057841 in the region. This study identified a novel locus associated with serum lycopene concentrations and our results raise a number of intriguing possibilities regarding the nature of the relationship between SETD7 and lycopene, both of which have been independently associated with prostate cancer. Further investigation into this relationship might help provide greater mechanistic understanding of these associations.

  7. Serum theophylline concentrations during multiple dosing with two sustained release methylxanthine preparations in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, J. G.; Berry, D.; Cochrane, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    In normal subjects, receiving multiple dosing regimens with Slophyllin and Phyllocontin in does calculated to give either 4 mg/kg or 6mg/kg theophylline free acid twice daily, serum theophylline concentrations were frequently less than 8 mg/l. Accumulation of the serum theophylline trough concentration occurred during the first 3 days of multiple dosing, and was followed by subsequent stabilization or even decline in serum theophylline trough concentrations. Side effects were noted with both Slophyllin and Phyllocontin, but only on the higher dosage regimens; they occurred within 24--48 hr of starting the drug, and tended to diminish if dosing was continued. The accumulation effect of serum theophylline concentrations may explain the timing of adverse effects, and should be avoided by starting methylxanthine therapy at a low dose. This may be increased after a few days. Further dosage adjustment may be necessary in some patients and should be facilitated by measurement of serum theophylline trough concentrations. PMID:7465472

  8. Serum concentrations of antibodies against vaccine toxoids in children exposed perinatally to immunotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, C; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Nielsen, F

    2010-01-01

    pregnancy serum, maternal milk, and, for a subgroup, the child's serum at 18 months of age. RESULTS: A total of 587 children participated in the examinations at ages 5 and/or 7 years. At age 5 years, before the booster vaccination, the antidiphtheria antibody concentration was inversely associated with PCB......BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may cause immunotoxic effects, but the detailed dose-response relationship and possible vulnerable time windows of exposure are uncertain. In this study we applied serum concentrations of specific antibodies against childhood vaccines as sentinels......-2001, children were invited for examination with assessment of serum antibody concentrations at 5 years (before and after a booster vaccination) and at 7 years of age. Total PCB concentrations were determined in serum from ages 5 and 7 years, and data were also available on PCB concentrations in maternal...

  9. Serum concentrations of mast cell tryptase are reduced in heavy drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beceiro, Carmen; Campos, Joaquín; Valcarcel, Maria-Angeles

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Baseline serum tryptase concentrations are commonly used in clinical practice as a marker of the body's mast cell burden. This study aimed to investigate serum tryptase concentrations in heavy drinkers. METHODS: Serum tryptase concentrations were determined in 126 heavy drinkers (75...... test positivity) was not associated with serum tryptase concentrations in heavy drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: Serum concentrations of mast cell tryptase are lower in heavy drinkers than in healthy controls.......% males, median age 47 years) who were admitted to the hospital because of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (n = 60), general symptoms with abnormalities on biochemical tests that indicated acute liver disease (n = 19), complications of advanced liver disease (n = 33), and miscellaneous reasons (n = 14...

  10. Association of serum omentin-1 concentrations with the presence and severity of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiping; Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Haiyu; Sheng, Lianbing; Tang, Ning; Li, Yunfei; Hao, Tianyu

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Omentin is a newly discovered adipokine that possesses an anti-inflammatory function. The aim of this study was to determine the association of serum omentin-1 concentration with the presence and severity of preeclampsia. Serum concentrations of omentin-1 were measured in 128 women with preeclampsia and 96 women with uncomplicated pregnancies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Patients with preeclampsia had significantly lower serum concentrations of omentin-1 compared to healthy controls. In addition, those patients with severe preeclampsia had significantly lower concentrations of serum omentin-1 compared to those with mild preeclampsia. Simple linear regression analysis showed that in patients with preeclampsia the serum concentrations of omentin-1 showed significant correlation with body mass index (P preeclampsia. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Urinary ascorbic acid and serum concentrations of circulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to determine the presence or absence of ascorbic acid in urine and serum levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC) and albumin in HIV infected subjects. A total of 90 participants (30 Symptomatic HIV infected subjects on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 30 Symptomatic HIV infected ...

  12. determination of serum chloride ion concentration in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yusif

    Increased level of chloride indicates dehydration but can occur with other problems causing high blood sodium or hyperventilated. (Anderson and Scotti, 1980). Decreased levels of serum chloride also occur with disorders that result in low blood sodium, prolonged vomiting or gastric sunction, chronic diarrhea, with loss of ...

  13. Serum chromium concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A highly refined diet that contains too few micronutrients has been recognized as the dominant factor in the rising incidence of diabetes and other insulin related conditions. Among the missing micronutrients, chromium has the greatest impact on insulin response. The objective of this study was to determine serum chromium ...

  14. Hemolymph osmolality and cation concentrations in Litopenaeus vannamei during exposure to artificial sea salt or a mixed-ion solution: relationship to potassium flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, A D; Young, S P; Grosell, M; Browdy, C L; Tomasso, J R

    2006-10-01

    Interest in culturing the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in low-salinity and brackish-well waters has led to questions about the ability of this species to osmo- and ionoregulate in environments containing low concentrations of ions and in environments with ionic ratios that differ from those found in sea water. After seven days, hemolymph osmolality and potassium, sodium and calcium values were all significantly affected by salinity (as artificial sea salt) with values decreasing with decreasing salinity. These decreases were small, however, relative to decreases in salinity, indicating iono- and osmoregulation with adjustment for gradients. The hemolymph osmolality and sodium and calcium concentrations in shrimp exposed to either 2 g/L artificial sea salt or 2 g/L mixed-ion solution (a mixture of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chlorides that approximate the concentrations and ratios of these cations found in 2 g/L dilute seawater) did not differ significantly. However, hemolymph potassium levels were significantly lower in shrimp held in the mixed-ion environment. Potassium influx rates were similar in shrimp held in either artificial sea salt or mixed ions. The results of this study indicate that salinity affects hemolymph-cation concentrations and osmolality. Further, differential potassium-influx rates do not appear to be the basis for low hemolymph potassium levels observed in shrimp held in mixed-ion environments.

  15. Serum selenium concentration is associated with metabolic factors in the elderly: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hui-Ying

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium is an essential micronutrient known for its antioxidant function. However, the association of serum selenium with lipid profiles and fasting glucose are inconsistent in populations with average intake of selenium. Furthermore, there were few studies conducted specifically for the elderly. This study examined the relationship of serum selenium concentration with serum lipids and fasting glucose in the Taiwanese elderly population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 200 males and females aged 65-85 years (mean 71.5 ± 4.6 years from Taipei, Taiwan. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The association between serum selenium and metabolic factors was examined using a multivariate linear regression analysis after controlling several confounders. Results The mean serum selenium concentration was 1.14 μmol/L, without significant difference between sexes. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol increased significantly with serum selenium concentration (P P P P Conclusions Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting serum glucose concentrations increased significantly with serum selenium concentration in the Taiwanese elderly. The underlying mechanism warrants further research.

  16. Serum iron concentration and total iron binding capacity in patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhawat Hossain

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The serum iron concentration and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC status of 24 patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC were compared with the findings of 13 healthy subjects. OSCC was found to have association with low serum iron level. More patients were found to be with significantly lower iron content in serum (p<0.05. But no association between serum TIBC and increased risk of cancer was found (p>0.05. Irrespective of age, sex, smoking and betel nut chewing habit of subjects, low serum iron level significantly increase the risk of oral malignancy.

  17. Genome-wide association study of serum selenium concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Jian; Hsu, Li; Harrison, Tabitha

    2013-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element and circulating selenium concentrations have been associated with a wide range of diseases. Candidate gene studies suggest that circulating selenium concentrations may be impacted by genetic variation; however, no study has comprehensively investigated this ...

  18. Serum serotonin concentration associated with bone mineral density in Chinese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiu-Shi; Chen, Zhen-Qiu; Tan, Xin; Kang, Lu-Chen; Jiang, Xiao-Bing; Liang, Jiang; He, Wei; Deng, Wei-Min

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that circulating serotonin plays a potential role in bone metabolism. However, conflicting results have been reported for the relationship between serum serotonin concentrations and bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated whether the serum serotonin concentrations related to BMD in Chinese postmenopausal women. Serum serotonin and bone turnover concentrations of 117 premenopausal women and 262 asymptomatic postmenopausal women were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The relationship between serotonin and BMD was investigated. The postmenopausal women had lower mean serum serotonin concentrations compared to the premenopausal women. Serotonin concentrations were negatively associated with age, weight, BMI, fat mass, and β-CTX concentrations in postmenopausal women. No significant correlations were found between serotonin and these parameters in premenopausal women. In postmenopausal women, age- and BMI-adjusted serotonin concentrations were positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Multiple regression analyses showed serum serotonin and β-CTX were the predictors for lumbar spine BMD. Only serum serotonin was the determinant for femoral neck BMD. In conclusion, lower serum serotonin concentrations are linked to low lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD in postmenopausal women.

  19. Potential life-threatening variations of drug concentrations in intravenous infusion systems: potassium chloride, insulin, and heparin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, N.; Vellar, I.D.

    1982-09-18

    The investigation of concentrations of active agents in common carrier media for intravenous infusion revealed that potassium chloride tends to form a pool when it is added without mixing to carrier media in glass or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers which are already suspended in their functional position with ports pointing downwards. Heparin behaves in a similar fashion when added without mixing to carrier media in PVC containers. Such uneven distribution may expose a patient to potentially dangerous, possibly lethal, concentrations of a drug even when a relatively small amount of it is used. Insulin floats to the top of a Haemaccel container if its contents are not adequately mixed after addition of insulin. The resultant irregularity of insulin dosage may make the management of diabetic ketoacidosis more difficult. It is recommended that the instructions for the adequate mixing of contents should appear on all containers of carrier media for intravenous infusions.

  20. Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein

    OpenAIRE

    Bettler, Jodi; Zimmer, J. Paul; Neuringer, Martha; DeRusso, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Aim of the study To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein. Methods A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infant...

  1. Serum cobalamin and methylmalonic acid concentrations in dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghoff, Nora; Parnell, Nolie K; Hill, Steve L; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of hypocobalaminemia or methylmalonic acidemia (or both) in dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease. Serum samples from 56 dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease and 43 control dogs. Serum cobalamin and methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations were measured in all samples and compared between groups. A correlation between serum cobalamin and MMA concentrations and the canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index was evaluated via the Spearman rank correlation. 20 of 56 (36%) dogs with gastrointestinal disease had hypocobalaminemia. Serum cobalamin concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with gastrointestinal disease than in control dogs. Five of 56 (9%) dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease and 5 of 20 (25%) hypocobalaminemic dogs had increased MMA concentrations. There was a significant negative correlation (Spearman r = -0.450) between serum cobalamin and MMA concentrations in dogs with gastrointestinal disease. No correlation was found between the canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index and serum cobalamin or MMA concentrations. These data indicated the prevalence of hypocobalaminemia in dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease was 20 of 56 (36%). Five of 20 (25%) hypocobalaminemic dogs had increased serum MMA concentrations, which indicated that although hypocobalaminemia was common in these dogs, it did not always appear to be associated with a deficiency of cobalamin on a cellular level. Hypocobalaminemia is a risk factor for negative outcome in dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease and should be considered in every patient with corresponding clinical signs.

  2. Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine in cats with kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Li, Jun; Yerramilli, Murthy; Jewell, Dennis E

    2017-01-01

    Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) correlate with renal function in cats and SDMA has been shown to be a more reliable and earlier marker for chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared with serum creatinine (Cr). Calcium oxalate uroliths tend to develop in mid-to-older aged cats and kidney stones may cause a reduction in renal function with increased SDMA, but normal serum Cr. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine if cats with kidney stones had increased serum SDMA concentrations, and whether SDMA increased earlier than serum creatinine concentrations. Cats in the colony with kidney stones diagnosed between August 2010 and December 2015 (n = 43) were compared with healthy geriatric cats (n = 21) without kidney stones. Serum SDMA concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and serum Cr concentrations were determined by enzymatic colorimetry. Cats with kidney stones were diagnosed antemortem by radiographic imaging (n = 12) or by postmortem necropsy (n = 31). Retrospectively, serum SDMA was found to be increased above the upper reference limit in 39 of 43 cats with kidney stones. Serum Cr was increased above the upper reference limit in 18 of 43 cats; 6 of these 18 cats had terminal azotemia only. The mean time that serum SDMA was increased before serum Cr was increased was 26.9 months (range 0 to 60 months). Kidney stones were composed of calcium oxalate in 30 of 34 cats. The lifespan for cats with kidney stones (mean, 12.5 years; range, 6.1 to 18.1 years) was shorter (P kidney stones have an effect on mortality rate or rate of CKD progression. In conclusion, if SDMA concentrations are elevated in mid-to-older aged cats, further imaging studies are warranted to check for the presence of kidney stones.

  3. Serum and vitreous fibulin-1 concentrations in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Meiling; Wang, Jing; Wei, Yuqin; Lu, Qingle; Huang, Baohua

    2016-10-01

    Fibulin-1, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, is closely correlated with angiogenesis. The purpose of this investigation is to determine serum and vitreous fibulin-1 concentrations in diabetic retinopathy (DR). This cross-sectional investigation was carried out in a population of 154 diabetic patients (54 without DR, 42 with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and 58 with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR)) and 49 control subjects. The diabetic group showed higher serum and vitreous fibulin-1 concentrations than the controls. Serum and vitreous fibulin-1 concentrations in PDR patients were significantly elevated compared with those in the other 3 groups. NPDR patients showed elevated levels of serum and vitreous fibulin-1 concentrations compared with patients without DR. Logistic regression analysis revealed that serum and vitreous fibulin-1 were risk factors for developing DR. Pearson correlation analysis showed that serum fibulin-1 was correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting plasma glucose and vitreous fibulin-1. Furthermore, Pearson correlation analysis showed that vitreous fibulin-1 was correlated with SBP, DBP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and serum fibulin-1. Serum and vitreous fibulin-1 concentrations are elevated under DR condition. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  4. Increased serum phosphate concentrations in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease treated with diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, Francisco; García-Pino, Guadalupe; Martínez-Gallardo, Rocío; Ferreira-Morong, Flavio; Luna, Enrique; Alvarado, Raúl; Ruiz-Donoso, Enrique; Chávez, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Serum phosphate concentrations usually show great variability in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD) not on dialysis. Diuretics treatment can have an influence over the severity of mineral-bone metabolism alterations related to ACKD, but their effect on serum phosphate levels is less known. This study aims to determine whether diuretics are independently associated with serum phosphate levels, and to investigate the mechanisms by which diuretics may affect phosphate metabolism. 429 Caucasian patients with CKD not on dialysis were included in this cross-sectional study. In addition to conventional serum biochemical measures, the following parameters of renal phosphate excretion were assessed: 24-hours urinary phosphate excretion, tubular maximum phosphate reabsorption (TmP), and fractional excretion of phosphate (FEP). 58% of patients were on treatment with diuretics. Patients on diuretics showed significantly higher mean serum phosphate concentration (4.78 ± 1.23 vs. 4.24 ± 1.04 mg/dl; Pdiuretics. By multivariate linear and logistic regression, significant associations between diuretics and serum phosphate concentrations or hyperphosphataemia remained after adjustment for potential confounding variables. In patients with the highest phosphate load adjusted to kidney function, those treated with diuretics showed significantly lower FEP than those untreated with diuretics. Treatment with diuretics is associated with increased serum phosphate concentrations in patients with ACKD. Diuretics may indirectly interfere with the maximum renal compensatory capacity to excrete phosphate. Diuretics should be considered in the studies linking the relationship between serum phosphate concentrations and cardiovascular alterations in patients with CKD.

  5. Preeclampsia is associated with decreased serum alpha(2)-HS glycoprotein (fetuin-A) concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molvarec, Attila; Kalabay, László; Derzsy, Zoltán; Szarka, András; Halmos, Amrita; Stenczer, Balázs; Arnaud, Philippe; Karádi, István; Prohászka, Zoltán; Rigó, János

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum alpha(2)-HS glycoprotein (AHSG) concentration and its diagnostic accuracy in preeclampsia. In this case-control study, the serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and AHSG levels were measured in 93 preeclamptic patients and in 127 healthy pregnant women by immunoturbidimetry and radial immunodiffusion. The serum CRP levels were significantly higher, whereas the serum AHSG concentrations were significantly lower in the preeclamptic group than in the control group (median (25th to 75th percentile), CRP: 6.71 mg l(-1) (2.76-12.69) vs. 3.38 mg l(-1) (1.69-7.27), respectively; AHSG: 660 microg ml(-1) (612-768) vs. 744 microg ml(-1) (660-816), respectively; PAHSG concentrations showed significant inverse correlations with systolic blood pressure and serum CRP levels. A low serum AHSG level (AHSG concentrations was as accurate as that of serum CRP levels to detect preeclampsia. In conclusion, serum AHSG concentration is decreased and reflects-at least partly-systemic inflammation in preeclampsia.

  6. Metabolic syndrome, alcohol consumption and genetic factors are associated with serum uric acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibůrková, Blanka; Pavlíková, Markéta; Sokolová, Jitka; Kožich, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans, and increased serum uric acid concentrations lead to gout. The objective of the current study was to identify factors that are independently associated with serum uric acid concentrations in a cohort of Czech control individuals. The cohort consisted of 589 healthy subjects aged 18-65 years. We studied the associations between the serum uric acid concentration and the following: (i) demographic, anthropometric and other variables previously reported to be associated with serum uric acid concentrations; (ii) the presence of metabolic syndrome and the levels of metabolic syndrome components; and (iii) selected genetic variants of the MTHFR (c.665C>T, c.1286A>C), SLC2A9 (c.844G>A, c.881G>A) and ABCG2 genes (c.421C>A). A backward model selection procedure was used to build two multiple linear regression models; in the second model, the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met replaced the metabolic syndrome-related variables. The models had coefficients of determination of 0.59 and 0.53. The serum uric acid concentration strongly correlated with conventional determinants including male sex, and with metabolic syndrome-related variables. In the simplified second model, the serum uric acid concentration positively correlated with the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met, and this model retained the explanatory power of the first model. Moderate wine drinking did not increase serum uric acid concentrations, and the urate transporter ABCG2, unlike MTHFR, was a genetic determinant of serum uric acid concentrations. Metabolic syndrome, moderate wine drinking and the c.421C>A variant in the ABCG gene are independently associated with the serum uric acid concentration. Our model indicates that uric acid should be clinically monitored in persons with metabolic syndrome.

  7. Metabolic syndrome, alcohol consumption and genetic factors are associated with serum uric acid concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Stibůrková

    Full Text Available Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans, and increased serum uric acid concentrations lead to gout. The objective of the current study was to identify factors that are independently associated with serum uric acid concentrations in a cohort of Czech control individuals.The cohort consisted of 589 healthy subjects aged 18-65 years. We studied the associations between the serum uric acid concentration and the following: (i demographic, anthropometric and other variables previously reported to be associated with serum uric acid concentrations; (ii the presence of metabolic syndrome and the levels of metabolic syndrome components; and (iii selected genetic variants of the MTHFR (c.665C>T, c.1286A>C, SLC2A9 (c.844G>A, c.881G>A and ABCG2 genes (c.421C>A. A backward model selection procedure was used to build two multiple linear regression models; in the second model, the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met replaced the metabolic syndrome-related variables.The models had coefficients of determination of 0.59 and 0.53. The serum uric acid concentration strongly correlated with conventional determinants including male sex, and with metabolic syndrome-related variables. In the simplified second model, the serum uric acid concentration positively correlated with the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met, and this model retained the explanatory power of the first model. Moderate wine drinking did not increase serum uric acid concentrations, and the urate transporter ABCG2, unlike MTHFR, was a genetic determinant of serum uric acid concentrations.Metabolic syndrome, moderate wine drinking and the c.421C>A variant in the ABCG gene are independently associated with the serum uric acid concentration. Our model indicates that uric acid should be clinically monitored in persons with metabolic syndrome.

  8. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1998-01-01

    contraceptives. DESIGN: Cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Examinations included a detailed questionnaire on medical history and lifestyle factors, a seven day food record, and blood samples. SETTING: National health and nutrition survey among healthy people living in private homes in West Germany in 1987...... types of oral contraceptives, elevation was more pronounced among women taking oral contraceptives with antiandrogen effective progestins like antiandrogens or third generation oral contraceptives containing desogestrel. Further investigation is required to shed light on the possible role of high serum...

  9. Effect of breed on plasma endothelin-1 concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, K.; Lequarré, A.-S.; Ljungvall, I.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are breed differences in several blood variables in healthy dogs. OBJECTIVE: Investigate breed variation in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration. ANIMALS: Five-hundred and thirty-one healthy dogs of 9 breeds examined a...

  10. Early postictal serum lactate concentrations are superior to serum creatine kinase concentrations in distinguishing generalized tonic-clonic seizures from syncopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Oliver; Heckelmann, Jan; Zechbauer, Sebastian; Litmathe, Jens; Brokmann, Jörg C; Willmes, Klaus; Schulz, Jörg B; Dafotakis, Manuel

    2017-09-12

    Concentrations of serum creatine kinase (CK) and serum lactate are frequently measured to help differentiate between generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) and syncope. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to systematically compare these two markers. The primary outcome is the measurement of serum lactate and CK in blood samples drawn within 2 h of the event in patients admitted with either a GTCS (n = 49) or a syncope (n = 36). Furthermore, the specificity and sensitivity of serum lactate and CK are determined as diagnostic markers in distinguishing between GTCS and syncope. GTCS patients have significantly higher serum lactate levels compared to syncope patients (p seizure, we identify a cut-off for serum lactate of 2.45 mmol/l for diagnosing GTCS as the cause of an impairment of consciousness with a sensitivity of 0.94 and a specificity of 0.93 (AUC: 0.97; 95% CI 0.94-1.0). In the second hour after the event, the ROC analysis yields similar results (AUC: 0.94; 95% CI 0.85-1.0). Serum lactate is a sensitive and specific diagnostic marker to discriminate GTCS from syncope and is superior to CK early after admission to the emergency department.

  11. Rat brain and serum lithium concentrations after acute injections of lithium carbonate and orotate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, M A; Manowitz, P; Pollack, I W

    1978-06-01

    Eight hours after intraperitoneal injections of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0m equiv Li kg-1, the serum and brain lithium concentrations of rats were significantly greater after lithium orotate than after lithium carbonate. While little serum lithium remained at 24 h after injection of 2.0 m equiv kg-1 lithium carbonate, two-thirds of the 2 h serum lithium concentration was present 24h after lithium orotate. Furthermore, the 24 h brain concentration of lithium after lithium orotate was approximately three times greater than that after lithium carbonate. These data suggest the possibility that lower doses of lithium orotate than lithium carbonate may achieve therapeutic brain lithium concentrations and relatively stable serum concentrations.

  12. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and Adults in California

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiangmei (May); Bennett, Deborah H.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Tulve, Nicolle S.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual’s exposure over a one-year period. The st...

  13. Serum Magnesium Concentration Is Inversely Associated with Albuminuria and Retinopathy among Patients with Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Lu; Yuying Gu; Meixiang Guo; Peihong Chen; Hongtao Wang; Xuemei Yu

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the association between serum magnesium levels and microvascular complications among patients with diabetes. Methods. Patients with diabetes were recruited between April 2012 and January 2015. All patients received an assay of serum magnesium concentration, were screened for 24?h albumin excretion rate, and underwent nonmydriatic fundus photography. Albuminuria and retinopathy were defined accordingly. A total of 3,100 patients with normal serum magnesium levels were inclu...

  14. Determination of Voriconazole Concentrations in Serum by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alisha; Leung-Pineda, Van

    2016-09-01

    Voriconazole is a broad spectrum triazole antifungal drug used to treat systemic fungal infections. Therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole is necessary for achieving maximal efficiency without inducing toxic side effects. Other publications have reported methods for measuring voriconazole in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Here, we report for the first time a method for the measurement of voriconazole in serum samples using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Protein precipitation with methanol was used to extract the antifungal that was derivatized with BSTFA (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and analyzed by GC-MS. Linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and drug interferences were evaluated for this assay. Our method was linear up to 10 μg/ml of voriconazole. The LOQ was determined to be 0.4 μg/ml. CV for between-day precision was 10% error in measurement. To our knowledge, we report here the first GC-MS method for voriconazole measurement with acceptable performance. We hope that this method allows clinical laboratories without HPLC or LC-MS/MS instrumentation to measure voriconazole. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [The technological progress in haemodialysis: potassium profiling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kes, Petar; Racki, Sanjin; Basić-Jukić, Nikolina; Ratković-Gusić, Iva

    2008-01-01

    Patients with the end-stage renal disease often suffer from numerous concomitant diseases. The most common are complications of the cardiovascular system. During the haemodialysis treatment, rapid changes in volume status, osmolality and electrolyte composition of the blood, cause disturbances which manifest as haemodynamic instability, hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias. Especially vulnerable are elderly patients and patients with generalized atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and severe anaemia. Rapid decrease in serum potassium concentration may cause fatal arrhythmias. Contemporary dialysis machines enable slow lowering of potassium concentration during the haemodialysis session (or during the acetate-free biofiltration), what significantly decreases incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and improve cardiovascular stability.

  16. Evaluation of flesh and serum concentrations of Al, Zn, Mn and Sb in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of flesh and serum concentrations of Al, Zn, Mn and Sb in African cat fish ( Clarias gariepinus ) reared in plastic ponds in Benin City, Nigeria. ... of aluminum, antimony, manganese and zinc in the body and serum of Clarias gariepinus were above the WHO recommended limit for fish and fish products. Hence, it is ...

  17. Serum concentration and interaction properties of MBL/ficolin associated protein-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoedt, Mikkel-ole; Hummelshoj, Tina; Palarasah, Yaseelan

    2011-01-01

    without the signal peptide. We found that serum MAP-1 was very stable when subjected to repeated freeze and thaw cycles. The mean serum concentration of MAP-1 was found to be 240ng/ml (range: 115-466ng/ml). MAP-1 was predominantly found in complex with Ficolin-3 and to a lesser degree with Ficolin-2...

  18. Can serum concentration of C-reactive protein, albumin and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine whether serum concentration of C-reactive protein, serum albumin level and body weight can serve as an index of disease progression and treatment assessment in HIV/AIDS. Methodology: The study investigated 80 subjects (40 subjects on anti-retroviral therapy and 40 not on therapy) and 40 ...

  19. Determination of serum carbamazepine concentration using dried blood spot specimens for resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saibal; Fleming, Denise H; Mathew, Binu S; Winston A, Blessed; Prabhakar, Appaswamy T; Alexander, Mathew

    2017-04-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a commonly used anti-epileptic in rural hospitals in India. These hospitals lack the facilities to measure CBZ concentration; however, in larger hospitals this is performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Dried blood spot (DBS) represents a feasible matrix for safe transportation by post/courier. This study was to determine whether the concentration of CBZ in serum can be predicted from that measured in DBS using an inexpensive HPLC method and inexpensive standard filter paper. CBZ in serum and DBS from 80 epileptic patients were measured using a validated HPLC assay. The data was then randomly divided into two groups; simple Deming regression was performed with the first group and validation was performed using the second. There was a good correlation between the serum and DBS concentrations (r = 0.932) in the first group. The regression equation obtained was: predicted serum concentration = DBS concentration x 0.83 + 1.09. In the validation group, the correlation between the predicted and actual serum concentrations was also good (r = 0.958), and the mean difference between them was only 0.28 μg/ml (p = 0.8062). The imprecision and bias in both the groups were acceptable. Using inexpensive materials, serum CBZ concentrations can be accurately predicted from DBS specimens. This method can be recommended for the therapeutic drug monitoring of CBZ in resource-limited settings.

  20. Association of serum BDNF concentration with high-intensity interval training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    東, 宏一郎; 大澤, 祐介; 田畑, 尚吾; 堀澤, 栞里; 勝川, 史憲; 石田, 浩之; 小熊, 祐子; 河合, 俊英; 小口, 修司; 太田, 敦美; 菊池, 春人; 村田, 満; 松本, 秀男

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association of serum BDNF concentration with high-intensity interval training, 12 healthy male volunteers, aged 28-48 years, completed 16-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) using ergometer...

  1. Relation between serum folate status and blood mercury concentrations in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyesook; Kim, Ki-Nam; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Ha, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyesook; Ha, Mina; Kim, Yangho; Hong, Yun-Chul; Chang, Namsoo

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the relation between maternal serum folate status and blood mercury in pregnant Korean women. The nutritional status of folate and the blood mercury concentration were measured in pregnant Korean women who participated in a multicenter prospective study from 2006 through 2011. We analyzed existing blood mercury data based on serum folate status at two gestational time points (mid and late pregnancy, n = 1105 and 841, respectively). Serum folate concentrations in pregnant women were negatively associated with blood mercury concentrations at mid and late pregnancy (P trend = 0.012 and 0.002, respectively). A general linear model developed after adjusting for covariates indicated a significant negative association between the two at mid and late pregnancy. We found a negative association between serum folate and blood mercury concentrations in pregnant Korean women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prescriptions for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and monitoring of serum creatinine and potassium in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Tzu Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs are commonly used in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We studied the status of ACEI/ARB prescriptions and serum creatinine (Scr and potassium monitoring in CKD patients. A retrospective observational study was conducted on patients who had at least two sets of Scr data at outpatient visit. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR based on the second Scr value was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease four-variable equation. CKD was defined and staged according to the National Kidney Foundation Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative Guideline. Patients with diabetes and/or hypertension with an eGFR over 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and without proteinuria were defined as the CKD-at-risk group. The percentages and factors associated with ACEI/ARB prescription and Scr and potassium monitoring were calculated and analyzed by logistic regression. Among the 5714 subjects included, ACEIs/ARBs were prescribed to over 50% of patients in the CKD-at-risk group and in CKD stages 1–5. After adjusting for age, sex, potassium level, eGFR, and co-morbidities, the odds ratios for prescriptions of ACEIs/ARBs were 1.66 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.44–1.91, p < 0.001 and 2.80 (95% CI 2.12–3.70, p < 0.001 in CKD stage 3, and stages 4 and 5, respectively, compared with the reference group (eGFR≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2. During the year of ACEI/ARB treatment, Scr was monitored in 91.6% of ACEI/ARB-treated patients, while potassium was monitored in only 38.1%. Renal function status was the independent factor for monitoring of Scr and potassium. In conclusion, prescription of ACEIs/ARBs was common in all stages of CKD. Most patients underwent Scr monitoring, but potassium monitoring was less frequent, and this should be improved in clinical practice.

  3. Serum iron concentration and total iron binding capacity in patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhawat Hossain, Motiur Rahman Molla and Mahmuda Akhter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The serum iron concentration and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC status of 24 patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma were compared with 13 healthy subjects. Biochemical evidence shows oral squamous cell carcinoma is found to have association with low serum iron level. More patients were found to be with significantly lower iron content in serum (p0.05. Irrespective of age, sex, smoking and betel nut chewing habit of subjects, low serum iron level significantly increase the risk of oral malignancy.

  4. Determination of chicken and turkey plasma and serum protein concentrations by refractometry and the biuret method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, C B; Latimer, K S; Kircher, I M; Brown, J

    1989-01-01

    Plasma and serum protein concentrations were determined in chickens and turkeys by refractometry (with human and veterinary refractometers) and by the biuret method. Chicken and turkey serum protein values were significantly lower than respective plasma protein values according to both methods. Refractometer readings for both plasma and serum correlated closely with the results of the biuret test (r2 = 0.72 to 0.97). These findings indicate that plasma and serum protein values may be determined accurately in chickens and turkeys with a handheld refractometer.

  5. Relationship of serum bilirubin concentration to kidney function and 24-hour urine protein in Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Ho Sik; Jung, Yeon Soon; Rim, Hark

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, kidney function and proteinuria have yet to be fully elucidated, nor have these relationships been investigated in Korean adults. Method We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of Korean adults who were evaluated at Kosin University Gospel Hospital (Busan, Republic of Korea) during a five-year period from January 2005 to December 2009. We evaluated the relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, estimate...

  6. Comparison of lacosamide concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Theodor W; Brandt, Christian; Helmer, Renate; Bien, Christian G; Cawello, Willi

    2015-07-01

    This study was carried out to estimate the exposure of the central nervous system (CNS) to the antiepileptic drug (AED) lacosamide, under steady state conditions, in patients with epilepsy who take oral lacosamide alongside up to three other AEDs. Twenty-seven serum and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from 21 patients receiving lacosamide for the treatment of epilepsy (50-600 mg/day over two or three doses). This included 23 time-matched pairs of serum and CSF samples from 19 patients. The concentration of lacosamide in each sample was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Linear regression was used to characterize the relationship between the CSF-to-serum ratio of lacosamide concentration and the time since dosing, the daily lacosamide dose, or the daily dose normalized by volume of distribution (Vd , approximated to total body water), and between the drug concentrations in each compartment (CSF vs. serum). Concentrations of lacosamide in CSF (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 7.37 ± 3.73 μg/ml, range 1.24-14.95, n = 27) and serum (mean ± SD 8.16 ± 3.82 μg/ml, range 2.29-15.45, n = 27) samples showed a good correlation over the dose range investigated. The mean CSF-to-serum ratio of lacosamide concentrations was 0.897 ± 0.193 (range 0.492-1.254, n = 23 time-matched pairs) and was independent of lacosamide dose. Drug concentrations in the CSF are often used to indicate those in the brain interstitial fluid. In patients with epilepsy who follow a stable oral AED dosing regimen, lacosamide concentration in CSF is approximately 85% of that found in serum, suggesting that serum may be a valuable indicator of lacosamide concentration in the CNS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  7. Lactation history, serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants, and maternal risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Geng; Grandjean, Philippe; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lactation may help curb diabetes risk and is also known as an excretion route for some environmental pollutants. We evaluated associations of lifetime lactation history with serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination.......91; P trend=0.03). Lifetime lactation history was inversely associated with serum concentrations of 17 out of the 24 organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), and perfluoroalkyl substances (Ptrend

  8. Toxicokinetics and correlation of carbamazepine salivary and serum concentrations in acute poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Saliva is a body fluid which, like serum, can be used for determination of concentrations of certain drugs, both in pharmacotherapy as well as in acute poisonings. The aim of this study was to determine carbamazepine concentrations in both saliva and serum in acute poisoning in order to show if there is a correlation between the obtained values, as well as to monitor toxicokinetics of carbamazepine in body fluides. Methods. Saliva and serum samples were obtained from 26 patients treated with carbamazepine and 20 patients acutely poisoned by the drug immediately after their admission in the Emergency Toxicology Unit. Determination of salivary and serum carbamazepine concentrations was performed by the validated high pressure liquid chromatographyultraviolet (HPLC-UV method. Results. A significant correlation of salivary and serum carbamazepine concentrations in both therapeutic application and acute poisoning (r = 0.9481 and 0.9117, respectively was confirmed. In acute poisonings the mean ratio between salivary and serum concentrations of carbamazepine (0.43 was similar to the mean ratio after its administration in therapeutic doses (0.39, but there were high inter-individual variations in carbamazepine concentrations in the acutely poisoned patients, as a consequence of different ingested doses of the drug. In acute poisoning the halftime of carbamazepine in saliva and serum was 12.57 h and 6.76 h, respectively. Conclusion. Our results suggest a possible use of saliva as an alternative biological material for determination of carbamazepine concentrations in therapeutic application and acute poisoning as well, and a possible extrapolation of the results obtained in saliva to serum concentrations of carbamazepine.

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ether serum concentrations in a Californian population of children, their parents, and older adults: an exposure assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundPolybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in many household items. Given concerns over their potential adverse health effects, we identified predictors and evaluated temporal changes of PBDE serum concentrations.MethodsPBDE serum concentrations...

  10. Pregnancy-induced rise in serum C-peptide concentrations in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Rehfeld, Jens F; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    diabetes. At 8, 14, 21, 27, and 33 weeks blood samples were drawn for measurements of A1C, C-peptide, and serum glucose. C-peptide (detection limit: 6 pmol/l) was considered stimulated at a corresponding serum glucose concentration >or=5.0 mmol/l. GAD antibody concentration was determined at 8 and 33 weeks...... in 35 women. RESULTS: C-peptide concentrations gradually increased throughout pregnancy regardless of serum glucose concentrations in the 90 women with a median duration of diabetes of 17 years (range 1-36 years). Among 35 women with paired recordings of stimulated C-peptide, C-peptide production.......85). Multivariate regression analysis revealed a positive association between the absolute increase in C-peptide concentrations during pregnancy and decreased A1C from 8 to 33 weeks (P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: A pregnancy-induced increase in C-peptide concentrations in women with long-term type 1 diabetes...

  11. Serum Vaccine Antibody Concentrations in Adolescents Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Heilmann, Carsten; Weihe, Pal

    2017-01-01

    for perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) at 7 y and for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) at 13 y, both suggesting a decrease by for each doubling of exposure. Structural equation models showed that a doubling in PFAS exposure at 7 y was associated with losses in diphtheria antibody concentrations at 13 y of 10-30% for the five PFASs. Few...

  12. Serum Magnesium Concentration Is Inversely Associated with Albuminuria and Retinopathy among Patients with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Gu, Yuying; Guo, Meixiang; Chen, Peihong; Wang, Hongtao; Yu, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the association between serum magnesium levels and microvascular complications among patients with diabetes. Methods. Patients with diabetes were recruited between April 2012 and January 2015. All patients received an assay of serum magnesium concentration, were screened for 24 h albumin excretion rate, and underwent nonmydriatic fundus photography. Albuminuria and retinopathy were defined accordingly. A total of 3,100 patients with normal serum magnesium levels were included in this study. Results. Patients with albuminuria and/or retinopathy had lower levels of serum magnesium than patients without these complications (P albuminuria, isolated retinopathy, and combined albuminuria and retinopathy decreased as the concentration of serum magnesium increased. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds ratio for isolated albuminuria, isolated retinopathy, and concomitant albuminuria and retinopathy decreased by approximately 20% for every 0.1 mmol/L increase in serum magnesium concentration. Conclusion. Serum magnesium levels were negatively associated with the risk of diabetic microvascular complications among patients with serum magnesium levels within the normal range.

  13. Serum Magnesium Concentration Is Inversely Associated with Albuminuria and Retinopathy among Patients with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the association between serum magnesium levels and microvascular complications among patients with diabetes. Methods. Patients with diabetes were recruited between April 2012 and January 2015. All patients received an assay of serum magnesium concentration, were screened for 24 h albumin excretion rate, and underwent nonmydriatic fundus photography. Albuminuria and retinopathy were defined accordingly. A total of 3,100 patients with normal serum magnesium levels were included in this study. Results. Patients with albuminuria and/or retinopathy had lower levels of serum magnesium than patients without these complications (P<0.001. The prevalence of isolated albuminuria, isolated retinopathy, and combined albuminuria and retinopathy decreased as the concentration of serum magnesium increased. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds ratio for isolated albuminuria, isolated retinopathy, and concomitant albuminuria and retinopathy decreased by approximately 20% for every 0.1 mmol/L increase in serum magnesium concentration. Conclusion. Serum magnesium levels were negatively associated with the risk of diabetic microvascular complications among patients with serum magnesium levels within the normal range.

  14. Association of serum and vitreous concentrations of osteoprotegerin with diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gehua; Ji, Xiaoyan; Jin, Ji; Bu, Shuyang

    2015-03-01

    Angiogenesis is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Osteoprotegerin, a recently identified glycoprotein belonging to the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily, has been implicated to be correlated with angiogenesis. This study aims to determine whether serum and vitreous concentrations of osteoprotegerin are associated with diabetic retinopathy. This study consisted of 254 diabetic patients (100 without diabetic retinopathy, 64 with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 90 with proliferative diabetic retinopathy) and 62 control subjects. Serum and vitreous concentrations of osteoprotegerin were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Serum and vitreous osteoprotegerin concentrations in proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients were significantly elevated compared with those of the other three groups. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients showed elevated concentrations of serum and vitreous osteoprotegerin compared with patients without diabetic retinopathy. In addition, control subjects had significantly lower serum and vitreous osteoprotegerin concentrations compared with diabetic patients without retinopathy, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients and proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients. Serum and vitreous osteoprotegerin concentrations are associated with the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Serum C-reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations in dogs with hepatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, S M; Fry, J K; Rodrigues Hoffmann, A; Manino, P; Heilmann, R M; Suchodolski, J S; Steiner, J M; Hottinger, H A; Hunter, S L; Lidbury, J A

    2016-09-01

    To describe serum C-reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations in dogs with hepatic disease and to determine whether there is a relationship between the concentration of either and the severity of hepatic necroinflammation. Serum C-reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations were measured in 46 dogs undergoing hepatic biopsy. Dogs were divided into three groups: congenital portosystemic shunts, chronic hepatitis and hepatic neoplasia. The histological severity of hepatic necroinflammation was scored. C-reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations were greater than the upper limit of the reference intervals in 39 and 26% of dogs, respectively. There was no association of disease group with C-reactive protein (P=0·1733) or S100A12 (P=0·1513) concentrations. There was a positive correlation between serum C-reactive protein concentration and hepatic necroinflammatory activity (rs =0·428, P=0·006). Increased serum C-reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations were observed in a subpopulation of dogs with various types of hepatic diseases, suggesting acute-phase inflammation and activation of phagocytic cells, respectively. Dogs with higher hepatic necroinflammatory activity scores tended to have higher serum C-reactive protein concentrations. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding in a larger group of dogs. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  16. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and lung cancer risk in never-smoking postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Song, Xiaoling; Beresford, Shirley A A; Ho, Gloria Y F; Johnson, Karen C; Datta, Mridul; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Qi, Lihong; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D has been implicated in lowering lung cancer risk, but serological data on the association among never-smoking women are limited. We report results examining the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with lung cancer risk among female never smokers. We also examined whether the association was modified by vitamin D supplementation and serum vitamin A concentrations. In the Women's Health Initiative, including the calcium/vitamin D (CaD) Trial, we selected 298 incident cases [191 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) including 170 adenocarcinoma] and 298 matched controls of never smokers. Baseline serum 25(OH)D was assayed by a chemiluminescent method. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for quartiles and predefined clinical cutoffs of serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Comparing quartiles 4 versus 1 of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, ORs were 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-1.84] for all lung cancer, 0.94 (95% CI 0.52-1.69) for NSCLC, and 0.91 (95% CI 0.49-1.68) for adenocarcinoma. Comparing serum 25(OH)D ≥ 75 (high) versus never-smoking postmenopausal women, the results did not support the hypothesis of an association between serum 25(OH)D and lung cancer risk.

  17. Evaluation of serum concentration of sialic acid in foals affected by Rhodococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali hassanpour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for evaluation of sialic acid concentration in serum of 19 foals with Rhodococcosis and compared with 18 normal foals in horse stables in Tabriz area in Iran. Sick foals were detected using clinical and laboratory (culture of nasal discharge findings. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein in all foals and serum was separated. Sialic acid (serum total sialic acid, lipid-bound sialic acid and protein-bound sialic acid concentrations in the serum were measured in all samples. Increasing of total sialic acid, lipid-bound sialic acid and protein-bound sialic acid in the sick group was significant (p=0.000, p=0.012 and p=0.001, respectively. In the normal group, the correlation between serumic parameters was not significant. In the sick group, the correlation between total sialic acid and protein-bound sialic acid was not significant (r=0.095 but there was a significant correlation between total sialic acid and lipid-bound sialic acid (r=0.842. The correlation between lipid-bound and protein-bound sialic acid was also insignificant (r=0.196. The results obtained revealed that Rhodococcosis increases the serumic concentration of sialic acid and there is a correlation between increases in serumic concentration of various parameters.

  18. Evaluation of serum biochemical marker concentrations and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equilino, Mirjam; Théodoloz, Vincent; Gorgas, Daniela; Doherr, Marcus G; Heilmann, Romy M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M; Burgener Dvm, Iwan A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate serum concentrations of biochemical markers and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE). Prospective study. 29 dogs with PLE and 18 dogs with food-responsive diarrhea (FRD). Data regarding serum concentrations of various biochemical markers at the initial evaluation were available for 18 of the 29 dogs with PLE and compared with findings for dogs with FRD. Correlations between biochemical marker concentrations and survival time (interval between time of initial evaluation and death or euthanasia) for dogs with PLE were evaluated. Serum C-reactive protein concentration was high in 13 of 18 dogs with PLE and in 2 of 18 dogs with FRD. Serum concentration of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity was high in 3 dogs with PLE but within the reference interval in all dogs with FRD. Serum α1-proteinase inhibitor concentration was less than the lower reference limit in 9 dogs with PLE and 1 dog with FRD. Compared with findings in dogs with FRD, values of those 3 variables in dogs with PLE were significantly different. Serum calprotectin (measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA) and S100A12 concentrations were high but did not differ significantly between groups. Seventeen of the 29 dogs with PLE were euthanized owing to this disease; median survival time was 67 days (range, 2 to 2,551 days). Serum C-reactive protein, canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, and α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations differed significantly between dogs with PLE and FRD. Most initial biomarker concentrations were not predictive of survival time in dogs with PLE.

  19. Serum leptin concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malecha-Jedraszek Arleta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing importance of early type 2 diabetes (DM2 and obesity detection, it is useful to reevaluate leptin role in these conditions. Our study aimed at investigating circulating leptin concentrations in a group of patients with DM2, and at assessing in detail whether leptin concentrations correlate with selected biochemical, clinical parameters and markers of systemic inflammation in patients with DM2 and in healthy volunteers. In our work, we analysed samples and data drawn from 71 patients aged 61.4 ± 11.7 years, who have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, as well as from a healthy control group (HC consisting of 51 healthy subjects with a mean age of 57.8 ± 13.7 years. Therein, the concentration of leptin in the DM2 patients was significantly higher than in the HC (p < 0.01, with median value of 16.59 (IQR 8.58-33.39 ng/ml in the DM2, vs median value of 6.66 (IQR 4.52-21.40 ng/ml in the HC. In the analysis of variance, higher leptin concentrations were revealed in the DM2 group as compared to the HC, and this figure remained significant after adjusting for gender and age (p < 0.001. Moreover, it was independent of HOMA-IR (p = 0.003. However, the differences in leptin levels between the groups disappeared when additional adjustments for anthropometric parameters (BMI, waist circumference were applied (p = 0.088. Beyond the aforementioned, significant positive correlations were found in the DM 2 group between leptin level and CRP (r=0.256; p < 0.05 and IL-6 (r = 0.345; p < 0.01. Among the selected variables, only gender and BMI were included in the predictive model explaining the variability of leptin, and, in total, were responsible for 72.6% of the original variation of the studied adipocytokine. The results of this study have led to conclusion that leptin may participate in the complex pathogenesis of DM2 and be a predictor of the development of this disease. As higher concentrations of leptin coexist with obesity, and this

  20. Observations on serum thyroxine concentrations in lambs and ewes to assess iodine nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrewartha, K A; Caple, I W; Davies, W D; McDonald, J W

    1980-01-01

    Thyroxine levels in serum of lambs and ewes were measured to determine their usefulness in assessing iodine nutrition of sheep. Lambs born on properties with no history of goitre had serum thyroxine concentrations more than twice that recorded in their mothers. These high values decreased to a level similar to that in the ewes after 8 weeks. In goitrous lambs younger than 2 weeks old, serum thyroxine concentrations were less than their ewe levels. Lambs born to ewes supplemented with iodine during pregnancy had higher thyroxine levels than lambs of control ewes. A survey of 80 flocks of ewes in Victoria showed that 40% had a low mean thyroxine concentration (less than 50 nmol/l), but only one of these properties had reported an outbreak of goitre. It is suggested that serum thyroxine levels in newborn lambs may provide a more sensitive indicator of hypothyroidism associated with iodine deficiency than ewe levels.

  1. Approach to the hemodialysis patient with an abnormal serum bicarbonate concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisawat, Panupong; Gennari, F John

    2014-07-01

    We present a patient receiving hemodialysis with a persistently high serum bicarbonate concentration to illustrate the evaluation and management issues for patients with both high (>25 mEq/L) and low (bicarbonate concentrations typically are malnourished and have low rates of endogenous acid production. Evaluation should begin with assessment of whether an acute and potentially reversible cause of metabolic alkalosis is present. If not, management should be directed at treating malnutrition. By contrast, patients with low predialysis serum bicarbonate concentrations, in the absence of an acute and reversible cause, may benefit from increasing the level by an adjustment in dialysate bicarbonate concentration. However, the level at which one should intervene and to what extent serum bicarbonate concentration should be increased are unresolved issues. Whether such an intervention will reduce mortality risk has not been determined. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF SERUM 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN D CONCENTRATIONS IN TWO COLLECTIONS OF CAPTIVE GORILLAS (GORILLA GORILLA GORILLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Susan L; Chen, Tai C; Murphy, Hayley; Holick, Michael F; Tlusty, Michael; Baitchman, Eric

    2017-03-01

    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were assessed in subadult to adult captive lowland gorillas ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (n = 26) at two institutions with different husbandry and management practices. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations for gorillas managed predominantly indoors was low (14.2 ± 5.9 ng/ml), despite consuming commercial biscuits fortified with vitamin D3. Concentrations of 25(OH)D in gorillas with near daily outdoor access were significantly higher than gorillas managed indoors, although many individuals still had serum values below concentrations recommended for adult humans. Consideration should be given to assessing 25(OH)D concentrations in all captive gorillas and providing specific supplementation, particularly to juveniles without access to direct sunlight.

  3. The effect of magnesium deficit on serum immunoglobulin concentrations in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, M; Cheta, Nina; Cheta, D M; Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; Farcaşiu, Eugenia

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between changes in the concentration of serum magnesium and serum immunoglobulin concentrations in type 1 diabetes mellitus. In this study were included 110 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (64 men and 46 women) with ages ranging from 19 to 54 years (mean age 41.6+/-6.8 years). The mean duration of the disease was 8.7+/-7.5 years. Thirty-six healthy subjects served as a control group. The serum magnesium concentrations were evaluated by VITROS 750 XRC, Johnson & Johnson kit, (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics). Total serum IgA, IgG and IgM were determined by laser nephelometry (MININEPH The Binding Site kit). Values are means (x) + standard deviations (SD). Serum magnesium concentrations confirmed the magnesium deficit in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (1.8+/-0.11 mg/dL, range 1.73-2.47 mg/dL vs 2.2+/-0.2 mg/dL, range 1.6-2.4 mg/dL). In patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, IgA levels are mildly elevated (4.03+/-0.51 g/L vs 3.43+/-0.48 g/L; p0.05). Therefore, magnesium deficit has profound immunosuppressive capabilities in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus by significantly reducing the number of IgG synthesizing cells and serum IgG concentrations.

  4. Role of potassium and nitrogen on sugar concentration of sugar beet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar is obtained from root of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in addition to other sources. Three important economic parameters are often considered and these are root yield, sugar concentration in root juice and total sugar yield. All the three are affected by cropping period and use of fertilisers. Existing literature suggests the ...

  5. Concentrations of phthalate metabolites in milk, urine, saliva, and Serum of lactating North Carolina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Erin P; Calafat, Antonia M; Silva, Manori J; Mendola, Pauline; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2009-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous in the environment, but concentrations in multiple media from breast-feeding U.S. women have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to accurately measure and compare the concentrations of oxidative monoester phthalate metabolites in milk and surrogate fluids (serum, saliva, and urine) of 33 lactating North Carolina women. We analyzed serum, saliva, urine, and milk for the oxidative phthalate metabolites mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate using isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy. Because only urine lacks esterases, we analyzed it for the hydrolytic phthalate monoesters. We detected phthalate metabolites in few milk (saliva samples. MECPP was detected in > 80% of serum samples, but other metabolites were less common (3-22%). Seven of the 10 urinary metabolites were detectable in > or = 85% of samples. Monoethyl phthalate had the highest mean concentration in urine. Metabolite concentrations differed by body fluid (urine > serum > milk and saliva). Questionnaire data suggest that frequent nail polish use, immunoglobulin A, and fasting serum glucose and triglyceride levels were increased among women with higher concentrations of urinary and/or serum phthalate metabolites; motor vehicle age was inversely correlated with certain urinary phthalate concentrations. Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites are most frequently detected in urine of lactating women and are less often detected in serum, milk, or saliva. Urinary phthalate concentrations reflect maternal exposure and do not represent the concentrations of oxidative metabolites in other body fluids, especially milk.

  6. Correlation between serum homocysteine concentration and severity of mitral valve disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Min; Jeong, Da-Min; Kang, Min-Hee; Kim, Seung-Gon; Han, Jae-Ik; Park, Hee-Myung

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure serum homocysteine concentrations in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and identify any association between this variable and stage of MMVD. ANIMALS 53 client-owned dogs with MMVD and 10 healthy control Beagles. PROCEDURES Dogs with MMVD were allocated to 3 groups in accordance with the staging system for chronic valvular heart disease in dogs and cats of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Blood samples were collected from all dogs, and serum homocysteine and cardiac troponin 1 concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassay and chemiluminescence immunoassay, respectively. Analyte values were tested for associations with each other and with stage of MMVD. RESULTS A significant correlation was identified between serum homocysteine concentration and stage of MMVD. Mean ± SD concentrations were 6.72 ± 1.65 μmol/L for control dogs, 13.37 ± 4.16 μmol/L for dogs with stage B MMVD, 18.86 ± 6.73 μmol/L for dogs with stage C disease, and 28.26 ± 4.48 μmol/L for dogs with stage D disease. In addition, serum homocysteine concentration was correlated with serum cardiac troponin 1 (r = 0.34) and creatinine (r = 0.46) concentrations, systolic blood pressure (r = 0.57), and left atrium-to-aortic root ratio (r = 0.28), all of which were positively correlated with stage of MMVD. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Serum homocysteine concentrations of dogs with MMVD were significantly higher than those of control dogs, and significant correlations were identified between these values and several risk factors for heart failure. Measurement of serum homocysteine concentration may be useful in the prediction of severity of disease in dogs with MMVD.

  7. Serum concentrations of gastrin after famotidine and omeprazole administration to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, N L; Bari Olivier, N; Refsal, K R; Johnson, C A

    2014-01-01

    The duration of antacid-induced hypergastrinemia after cessation of administration of omeprazole and famotidine apparently has not been determined in dogs. That serum gastrin will return to basal concentrations by 7 days after cessation of famotidine or omeprazole administration. Nine healthy, adult, male, research colony dogs. Randomized, cross-over design. Serum gastrin was determined daily for 7 days to establish baseline concentrations. Famotidine (1.0 mg/kg q24h) or omeprazole (1.0 mg/kg q24h) was administered PO for 7 days followed by a 14-day washout. Serum concentrations of gastrin were determined daily during 7 days of administration and daily for 7 days after cessation of administration. Each drug was evaluated in 8 of the 9 dogs. Omeprazole caused a significant increase in serum gastrin concentration (37.2 ± 7.3 to 71.3 ± 19.0 ng/L; P = .006). Famotidine induced a transient increase in serum gastrin (37.2 ± 7.3 to 65.5 ± 38.5 ng/L; P = .02) that peaked at administration day 3 and declined thereafter. By day 7 after cessation of both drugs, there was no difference in serum gastrin concentrations compared to those before administration (famotidine P = .99; omeprazole P = .99). During or after administration, gastrin concentrations above 3 times the upper reference range were rare (12 of 224 samples). A 7-day withdrawal from short-term administration of famotidine or omeprazole is sufficient for serum gastrin to return to baseline concentrations. Withholding famotidine or omeprazole for longer before investigating pathologic causes of hypergastrinemia is unnecessary. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Concentration of amoxicillin in maternal serum, cord blood, amniotic fluid and the placenta after vaginal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaręba-Szczudlik, Julia; Romejko-Wolniewicz, Ewa; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Różańska, Hanna; Czajkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the amoxicillin concentration in maternal serum, cord blood, amniotic fluid and the placenta, 2 h following vaginal administration and the factors influencing the drug level. Twenty-eight full-term pregnant women who qualified for elective cesarean delivery were included in the study. Vaginal suppositories containing 250 mg of amoxicillin were administered 2 h prior to the operation. Amoxicillin levels were determined using the diffusion microbial assay. The amoxicillin level in amniotic fluid was significantly higher in comparison to that of maternal serum, cord blood or the placenta. Maternal age positively and gestational weight gain negatively correlated with the amoxicillin concentration in maternal serum. The maternal serum hemoglobin level and red blood cell count were positively correlated with amoxicillin concentration in the amniotic fluid. Neonatal birth weight was positively correlated with maternal serum and cord blood amoxicillin levels. Hypertensive women had significantly higher amoxicillin concentrations in amniotic fluid, and women with thrombocytopenia presented significantly higher cord blood amoxicillin concentrations. Amoxicillin presented poor concentration in maternal-fetal compartments after vaginal administration, but the factors influencing the drug level in different compartments require further investigation.

  9. Colonic Mucosal Bacteria Are Associated with Inter-Individual Variability in Serum Carotenoid Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuric, Zora; Bassis, Christine M; Plegue, Melissa A; Ren, Jianwei; Chan, Rena; Sidahmed, ElKhansa; Turgeon, D Kim; Ruffin, Mack T; Kato, Ikuko; Sen, Ananda

    2017-12-21

    Relatively high serum carotenoid levels are associated with reduced risks of chronic diseases, but inter-individual variability in serum carotenoid concentrations is modestly explained by diet. The bacterial community in the colon could contribute to the bioaccessibility of carotenoids by completing digestion of plant cells walls and by modulating intestinal permeability. To evaluate whether colonic bacterial composition is associated with serum and colon carotenoid concentrations. The study was a randomized dietary intervention trial in healthy individuals who were at increased risk of colon cancer. Colon mucosal biopsy samples were obtained before and after 6 months of intervention without prior preparation of the bowels. Participants were recruited from Ann Arbor, MI, and nearby areas from July 2007 to November 2010. Biopsy data were available from 88 participants at baseline and 82 participants after 6 months. Study participants were randomized to counseling for either a Mediterranean diet or a Healthy Eating diet for 6 months. At baseline, bacterial communities in biopsy samples from study participants in the highest vs the lowest tertile of total serum carotenoid levels differed by several parameters. Linear discriminant analysis effect size identified 11 operational taxonomic units that were significantly associated with higher serum carotenoid levels. In linear regression analyses, three of these accounted for an additional 12% of the variance in serum total carotenoid concentrations after including body mass index, smoking, and dietary intakes in the model. These factors together explained 36% of the inter-individual variance in serum total carotenoid concentrations. The bacterial community in the colonic mucosa, however, was resistant to change after dietary intervention with either a Mediterranean diet or Healthy Eating diet, each of which doubled fruit and vegetable intakes. The colonic mucosal bacterial community was associated with serum carotenoid

  10. Human skin condition and its associations with nutrient concentrations in serum and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Vijver, L.P.L. van de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Roza, L.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Nutritional factors exert promising actions on the skin, but only scant information is available on the modulating effects of physiologic concentrations of nutrients on the skin condition of humans. Objective: The objective was to evaluate whether nutrient concentrations in serum and

  11. Serum concentrations of buprenorphine after oral and parenteral administration in male mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Hau, Jann

    2011-01-01

    Buprenorphine is the most commonly used drug for peri-operative pain relief in laboratory rodents. The systemic concentrations of buprenorphine were measured in mice following administration intravenously (IV), subcutaneously (SC), orally by gavage and by voluntary ingestion, to determine the post......-administration serum concentration of buprenorphine. Voluntarily ingested buprenorphine resulted in long-lasting high serum concentrations, as did oral gavage administration (24h serum concentration: 110ngh/mL for both routes of administration). In contrast, buprenorphine administered parenterally remained...... of the oral boli, as well as saturation of the hepatic buprenorphine metabolising pathways. Voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine was found to constitute a practical way to provide laboratory mice with efficient pain relief....

  12. Effect of acute irradiation on concentration of some serum proteins in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlebovska, K.; Liskova, E.; Chlebovsky, O.; Praslicka, M. (Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie)

    1981-01-01

    The relationship is studied between the effect of a dose of acute radiation and the character of changes in the serum concentration of prealbumin, albumin, A/sub 1/-globulin, A/sub 1/-macroglobulin (A/sub 1/M), transferrin, IgG, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, hemopexin, and the C/sub 3/ component of the complement in rats irradiated with doses of 1.91 Gy, 5.26 Gy and 6.70 Gy. With proteins whose serum concentrations decreased, the decrease was found to depend on the radiation dose. With proteins whose concentration increased as a result of irradiation, the most effective dose was found to be 5.26 Gy. The concentration of the serum proteins was determined by 2-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis.

  13. Reduced serum concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in transsexual Brazilian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Aguiar, Bianca; Tusset, Cíntia; Andreazza, Tahiana; Schneider, Maiko; da Rosa, Eduarda Dias; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Schwarz, Karine; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Borba, André Oliveira; Mueller, Andressa; Massuda, Raffael; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2016-09-06

    Serum BDNF levels are significantly decreased in transsexual Brazilian women when compared to cis-sexual men. Since transsexual men are also exposed to chronic social stress and have a high prevalence of associated psychopathologies, it is plausible to inquire if BDNF serum levels are altered in transsexual men as well. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate differences in BDNF serum level of transsexual men when compared to cis-sexual men and women. Our sample comprises 27 transsexual men, 31 cis-sexual women and 30 cis-sexual men recruited between 2011 and 2015. We observed that BDNF serum concentration is decreased in transsexual men comparing to cis-sexual men and women. Cross-sex hormone treatment, chronic social stress or long-term gender dysphoria (GD) could explain the variation found in BDNF serum levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mercury separation from concentrated potassium iodide/iodine leachate using Self-Assembled Mesoporous Mercaptan Support (SAMMS) technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, S.V.; Feng, X.; Fryxell, G.E. [and others

    1997-10-01

    A study was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel adsorber, the Self-Assembled Mesoporous Mercaptan Support (SAMMS) material to remove mercury (Hg) from potassium iodide/iodine (KI/I{sub 2}) waste streams. This study included investigations of the SAMMS material`s binding kinetics, loading capacity, and selectivity for Hg adsorption from surrogate and actual KI/I{sub 2} waste solutions. The kinetics data showed that binding of Hg by the adsorber material occurs very rapidly, with 82% to 95% adsorption occurring within the first 5 min. No significant differences in the rate of adsorption were noted between pH values of 5 and 9 and at Hg concentrations of {approximately}100 mg/1. Within the same range of pH values, an approximate four-fold increase in initial Hg concentration resulted in a two-fold increase in the rate of adsorption. In all cases studied, equilibrium adsorption occured within 4 h. The loading capacity experiments in KI/I{sub 2} surrogate solutions indicated Hg adsorption densities between 26 to 270 mg/g. The loading density increased with increasing solid: solution ratio and decreasing iodide concentrations. Values of distribution coefficients (1.3x10{sup 5} to >2.6x10{sup 8} ml/g) indicated that material adsorbs Hg with very high specificity from KI/I{sub 2} surrogate solutions. Reduction studies showed that compared to metallic iron (Fe), sodium dithionite can very rapidly reduce iodine as the triiodide species into the iodide form. Adsorption studies conducted with actual KI/I{sub 2} leachates confirmed the highly specific Hg adsorption properties (K{sub d}>6x10{sup 7} to>1x10{sup 8} ml//g) of the adsorber material. Following treatment, the Hg concentrations in actual leachates were below instrumental detection limits (i.e., < 0.00005 mg/l), indicating that the KI solutions can be recycled.

  15. The relation between extracellular potassium concentration and pH in the border zone during regional ischemia in isolated porcine hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coronel, R.; Wilms-Schopman, F. J.; Fiolet, J. W.; Opthof, T.; Janse, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    During regional ischemia gradients of extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o) and extracellular pH (pHo) exist. In globally ischemic papillary muscles increased PCO2 causes a rise in [K+]o. We studied whether pHo and [K+]o are causally related during acute regional ischemia in the isolated

  16. Alpha-tocopherol concentration in serum and colostrum of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Barros S. Resende

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the levels of α-tocopherol in colostrum and in the serum of healthy and diabetic mothers.METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 51 volunteer mothers, 20 with the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus and 31 without associated diseases. Serum and colostrum samples were collected in fasting in the immediate postpartum period and α-tocopherol was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. In order to define the nutritional status of vitamin E, the cutoff point for the serum (697.7µg/dL was adopted. Student's t-test for independent variables compared the average concentrations of α-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum between control and gestational diabetes mellitus groups. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the relationship between the concentration of α-tocopherol in serum and colostrum for both groups. Differences were considered significant when p<0.05.RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in colostrum was 1,483.1±533.8µg/dL for Control Group and 1,368.8±681.8µg/dL for diabetic women, without differences between groups (p=0.50. However, α-tocopherol concentration in the serum was 1,059.5±372.7µg/dL in the Control Group and 1,391.4±531.5µg/dL in the diabetic one (p<0.01. No correlation was found between the concentration of α-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum for control and diabetic groups.CONCLUSIONS: The groups had adequate nutritional status of vitamin E. Gestational diabetes was not associated with changes in α-tocopherol concentration in colostrum.

  17. Evaluation of Serum Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Concentration as a Diagnostic Test for Hyperthyroidism in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M E; Guterl, J N; Nichols, R; Rishniw, M

    2015-01-01

    In humans, measurement of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration is commonly used as a first-line discriminatory test of thyroid function. Recent reports indicate that canine TSH (cTSH) assays can be used to measure feline TSH and results can help diagnose or exclude hyperthyroidism. To investigate the usefulness of cTSH measurements as a diagnostic test for cats with hyperthyroidism. Nine hundred and seventeen cats with untreated hyperthyroidism, 32 euthyroid cats suspected of having hyperthyroidism, and 131 clinically normal cats. Prospective study. Cats referred to the Animal Endocrine Clinic for suspected hyperthyroidism were evaluated with serum T4, T3, free T4 (fT4), and TSH concentrations. Thyroid scintigraphy was used as the gold standard to confirm or exclude hyperthyroidism. Median serum TSH concentration in the hyperthyroid cats (hyperthyroid cats had measurable TSH concentrations (≥0.03 ng/mL), whereas 114 (69.9%) of the 163 euthyroid cats had detectable concentrations. Combining serum TSH with T4 or fT4 concentrations lowered the test sensitivity of TSH from 98.0 to 97.0%, but markedly increased overall test specificity (from 69.9 to 98.8%). Serum TSH concentrations are suppressed in 98% of hyperthyroid cats, but concentrations are measurable in a few cats with mild-to-moderate hyperthyroidism. Measurement of serum TSH represents a highly sensitive but poorly specific test for diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and is best measured in combination with T4 and fT4. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Optimal serum selenium concentrations are associated with lower depressive symptoms and negative mood among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Tamlin S; Richardson, Aimee C; Miller, Jody C

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that low, and possibly high, selenium status is associated with depressed mood. More evidence is needed to determine whether this pattern occurs in young adults with a wide range of serum concentrations of selenium. The aim of this study was to determine if serum selenium concentration is associated with depressive symptoms and daily mood states in young adults. A total of 978 young adults (aged 17-25 y) completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale and reported their negative and positive mood daily for 13 d using an Internet diary. Serum selenium concentration was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. ANCOVA and regression models tested the linear and curvilinear associations between decile of serum selenium concentration and mood outcomes, controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, and weekly alcohol intake. Smoking and childhood socioeconomic status were further controlled in a subset of participants. The mean ± SD serum selenium concentration was 82 ± 18 μg/L and ranged from 49 to 450 μg/L. Participants with the lowest serum selenium concentration (62 ± 4 μg/L; decile 1) and, to a lesser extent, those with the highest serum selenium concentration (110 ± 38 μg/L; decile 10) had significantly greater adjusted depressive symptoms than did participants with midrange serum selenium concentrations (82 ± 1 to 85 ± 1 μg/L; deciles 6 and 7). Depressive symptomatology was lowest at a selenium concentration of ∼85 μg/L. Patterns for negative mood were similar but more U-shaped. Positive mood showed an inverse U-shaped association with selenium, but this pattern was less consistent than depressive symptoms or negative mood. In young adults, an optimal range of serum selenium between ∼82 and 85 μg/L was associated with reduced risk of depressive symptomatology. This range approximates the values at which glutathione peroxidase is maximal, suggesting that future research should investigate

  19. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. VI. Serum progestagen concentrations during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arab mares aged 6-12 years were used, of which 40 were non-lactating and 24 lactating. Foals from these 24 mares were weaned at the age of 6 months. Non-lactating and lactating mares were divided into 4 dietary groups each. The total daily protein intake and the protein quality (essential amino-acid content differed in the 4 groups of non-lactating and 4 groups of lactating mares. The mares were covered and the effect of the quantity and quality of dietary protein on serum progestagen concentrations during pregnancy was studied. A sharp decline in serum progestagen concentrations was recorded in all dietary groups from Days 18 to 40 of pregnancy, with some individual mares reaching values of less than 4 ng/mℓ. Serum progestagen concentrations recorded in some of the non-lactating mares on the low-quality protein diet increased to higher values (p<0.05 than those of mares in the other 3 dietary groups at 35-140 days of pregnancy. A similar trend was observed for the lactating mares on a low-quality protein diet at 30-84 days of pregnancy. No such trends were observed in any of the other dietary groups. High-quality protein supplementation increased serum progestagen concentrations during the 1st 30 days of pregnancy. Lactation depressed serum progestagen concentrations until after the foals were weaned.

  20. Association between Obesity and Serum 25(OH)D Concentrations in Older Mexican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Avila, Jaqueline C; Kaul, Sapna; Wong, Rebeca; Veeranki, Sreenivas P

    2017-01-31

    Vitamin D is essential for maintaining bone mineralization and calcium homeostasis, and prevents falls and fractures in older adults. Mexico is undergoing an epidemiologic and demographic transition with increasing obesity rates. The study's aim was to determine the association of obesity with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in older Mexican adults. Data from 1772 Mexicans, aged ≥50 years, enrolled in a sub-sample of the 3rd wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study, were included. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were used to define vitamin D status, and were categorized into tertiles. Body mass index measures were used to categorize older adults into under/normal weight, overweight, and obese groups. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship, adjusting for potential confounders. Approximately 40% and 37% of older Mexican adults were either overweight or obese, respectively. Compared to under/normal weight older Mexicans, obese adults were 1.78 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.27-2.48) and 1.94 times (95% CI 1.40-2.68) more associated with the first and second tertile concentrations of serum 25(OH)D, respectively. Overweight adults were 1.52 times (95% CI 1.12-2.06) more associated with the second tertile of serum 25(OH)D concentration than under/normal weight adults. Overweight/Obesity was found to be significantly associated with low concentrations of serum 25(OH) in older Mexican adults.

  1. Serum Beta Hydroxybutyrate Concentrations in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease, Hyperthyroidism, or Hepatic Lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, L; Sharkey, L C; Armstrong, P J; Little, K; Rendahl, A

    2016-01-01

    Ketones, including beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB), are produced in conditions of negative energy balance and decreased glucose utilization. Serum BHB concentrations in cats are poorly characterized in diseases other than diabetes mellitus. Serum BHB concentrations will be increased in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD), hyperthyroidism (HT), or hepatic lipidosis (HL). Twenty-eight client-owned cats with CKD, 34 cats with HT, and 15 cats with HL; 43 healthy cats. Prospective observational study. Serum BHB concentrations were measured at admission in cats with CKD, HT, and HL, for comparison with a reference interval established using healthy cats. Results of dipstick urine ketone measurement, when available, were compared to BHB measurement. Beta hydroxybutyrate was above the reference interval (cats (21%) with CKD, 7/34 cats (20%) with HT, and 11/15 cats (73%) with HL, significantly exceeding the expected 2.5% above the reference interval for healthy cats (P cats (median BHB 0.2 mmol/L, 80th percentile 0.84 mmol/L). None of 11 cats with increased serum BHB concentration having urine dipstick analysis performed within 24 h of sampling for BHB were ketonuric. Increases in serum BHB concentrations occur in cats with CKD, HT, and HL, and might provide an useful index of catabolism. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Serum ascorbic acid concentration in patients with acute Falciparum malaria infection: possible significance

    OpenAIRE

    Garba Ibrahim Hassan; Ubom Gregory; Haruna Maryam

    2004-01-01

    Falciparum malaria infection is associated with significant destruction of erythrocytes. This leads to the release of toxic metabolic products, including oxidant compounds.We measured the serum concentration of the antioxidant, ascorbic acid, in 129 patients presenting with acute falciparum malaria infection and in 65 healthy individuals. None of the study subjects administered any form of ascorbic acid supplementation within one week prior to participation in this study. The mean serum ascor...

  3. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations and atrophic gastritis in older New Zealanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T J; Venn, B J; Skeaff, C M; Williams, S M

    2005-02-01

    To determine the serum vitamin B(12) status of older New Zealanders and to assess the impact of atrophic gastritis on vitamin B(12) status. A cross-sectional nationally representative population-based survey. Serum vitamin B(12) concentrations were used to assess vitamin B(12) status. The presence and severity of atrophic gastritis was classified using serum pepsinogen I and II. A total of 466 noninstitutionalized urban and rural dwelling New Zealanders aged 65 y or older who participated in the 1997 National Nutrition Survey. The prevalence of deficient (gastritis was 6.7% (severe 3.1%, mild-moderate 3.6%). While atrophic gastritis increased the relative risk (RR, 95% CI) of having a deficient or marginal serum vitamin B(12) concentration by 21-fold (6-67) and five-fold (1-17), respectively, those who had atrophic gastritis made up only 33 and 6% of the participants with deficient or marginal serum vitamin B(12) concentrations. An intake of vitamin B(12) from food that exceeded the recommended dietary allowance (2.4 mug/day) did not protect against deficient (RR 0.5; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.2) or marginal (RR 0.9; 95% CI: 0.5, 1.7) serum vitamin B(12) status. Vitamin B(12) supplement users had a reduced risk of having deficient and marginal vitamin B(12) status (RR 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.8). There is a relatively high prevalence of deficient and marginal serum vitamin B(12) concentrations among older New Zealanders. However, the prevalence of atrophic gastritis was low in the New Zealand elderly compared with other surveys. Although atrophic gastritis was a risk factor for low vitamin B(12) status, it did not fully explain the prevalence of low serum vitamin B(12).

  4. Potassium maldistribution revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medication errors contribute significantly to human and financial costs.1-4 One of these errors involves incorrect identification of concentrated potassium chloride ampoules. After coronary artery bypass grafting, potassium concentrations lower and higher than 3.3 and 5.2 mmol per liter respectively have been associated ...

  5. The effect of formulation and amount of potassium fertilizer on macromineral concentration and cation-anion difference in tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, M L; Bittman, S; Hunt, D E; Kowalenko, C G

    2007-02-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of altering the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) in grass by altering the grass variety and the amount and formulation of K fertilizer application. In experiment 1, treatments were combinations of 2 varieties (Barcel and Hi-Mag) of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb); 2 rates of K (0 and 250 kg/ha), supplied as KCl; and 2 rates of Mg (0 and 60 kg/ha), supplied as MgO. In experiment 2, K fertilizer was applied at 0 or 125 kg/ha as KCl or K2SO4. There was no difference between HiMag and Barcel tall fescue in the concentrations of Mg, S, and Cl. Application of K fertilizer decreased concentrations of Mg, but the magnitude of the decrease was not consistent across harvests. Conversely, application of Mg fertilizer increased Mg concentrations, but again, the magnitude of the increase was not consistent across harvests. The concentrations of Ca were higher in HiMag than in Barcel tall fescue, with the magnitude of the difference increasing from first to last harvest. Potassium fertilizer decreased Ca concentrations in the first, fourth, and fifth harvests only. Calcium concentration was decreased by a greater magnitude in HiMag tall fescue as a result of Mg fertilization. The HiMag tall fescue contained lower concentrations of K than did Barcel tall fescue in the first, second, and third harvests. Application of K fertilizer increased the K concentration in all 5 harvests but did not affect Na concentrations except in the last harvest. The HiMag tall fescue contained less Na than did Barcel, but the magnitude of the difference was affected by K and Mg fertilization. Application of K fertilizer decreased S concentrations in first-harvest grass, increased concentrations in second-and third-harvest grasses, and had no effect in fourth-or fifth-harvest grasses. Application of Mg fertilizer decreased S concentrations of tall fescue. Application of K fertilizer increased DCAD values for grass harvested from the second through

  6. Estimate of serum immunoglobulin G concentration using refractometry with or without caprylic acid fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, K M; Polo, J; Lago, A; Campbell, J; Quigley, J; Tyler, H

    2013-07-01

    Objectives of this study were to develop a rapid calf-side test to determine serum IgG concentrations using caprylic acid (CA) fractionation, followed by refractometry of the IgG-rich supernatant and compare the accuracy of this method with results obtained using refractometry using raw serum. Serum samples (n=200) were obtained from 1-d-old calves, frozen (-20°C), and shipped to the laboratory. Samples were allowed to thaw for 1h at room temperature. Fractionation with CA was conducted by adding 1mL of serum to a tube containing 45, 60, or 75µL of CA and 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5mL of 0.06 M acetic acid. The tube contents were mixed well, allowed to react for 1 min, and then centrifuged at 3,300 × g for 0, 10, or 20 min at 25°C. The %Brix and refractive index of the fractionated supernatant were determined using a digital refractometer. Nonfractionated serum was analyzed for %Brix (BRn), refractive index (nDn), and IgG concentration by radial immunodiffusion. The mean serum IgG concentration was 19.0 mg/mL [standard deviation (SD)=9.7], with a range of 3.5 to 47.0 mg/mL. The mean serum BRn was 8.6 (SD=0.91), with a range of 6.8 to 11.0. The mean serum nDn was 1.34566 (SD=0.00140), with a range of 1.34300 to 1.34930. Serum nDn was positively correlated with IgG concentration (correlation coefficient=0.86; n=185). Fractionated samples treated with 1mL 0.6 M acetic acid and 60µL of CA and not centrifuged before analysis resulted in a strong relationship between the refractive index of the fractionated supernatant and IgG (correlation coefficient=0.80; n=45). Regression was used to determine cut points indicative of 10, 12, and 14 mg of IgG/mL to determine the sensitivity and specificity of refractometry to identify failure of passive transfer (serum IgG refractometry of nonfractionated calf serum provides a strong estimate of IgG concentration and 7.8% Brix may be used as the cut point to identify failure of passive transfer in 1-d-old calves. Copyright © 2013 American

  7. Calibration-free concentration analysis of protein biomarkers in human serum using surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover Shah, Veenita; Ray, Sandipan; Karlsson, Robert; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2015-11-01

    In complex biological samples such as serum, determination of specific and active concentration of target proteins, independent of a calibration curve, will be valuable in many applications. Calibration-free concentration analysis (CFCA) is a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based label-free approach, which calculates active concentration of proteins using their known diffusion coefficient and observed changes in binding rates at different flow rates under diffusion-limited conditions. Here, for the first time we demonstrate the application of CFCA for determining protein biomarker abundance, specifically serum amyloid A (SAA), directly in the serum samples of patients suffering from different infectious and non-infectious diseases. The assay involves preparation of appropriate reaction surfaces by immobilizing antibodies on CM5 chips via amine coupling followed by serum sample preparation and injection over activated and reference surfaces at flow-rates of 5 and 100 μL/min. The system was validated in healthy and diseased (infectious and non-infectious) serum samples by quantifying two different proteins: β2-microglobulin (β2M) and SAA. All concentration assays were performed for nearly 100 serum samples, which showed reliable quantification in unattended runs with high accuracy and sensitivity. The method could detect the serum β2M to as low as 13 ng/mL in 1000-fold serum dilution, indicating the possible utility of this approach to detect low abundance protein biomarkers in body fluids. Applying the CFCA approach, significant difference in serum abundance of SAA was identified in diseased subjects as compared to the healthy controls, which correlated well with our previous proteomic investigations. Estimation of SAA concentration for a subset of healthy and diseased sera was also performed using ELISA, and the trend was observed to be similar in both SPR assay and ELISA. The reproducibility of CFCA in various serum samples made the interpretation of assay

  8. Serum Concentrations of Leptin and Adiponectin in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, H. S.; Kang, J. H.; Jeung, E.?B.; Yang, M.?P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The concentrations of circulating adipokines in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) have not been investigated in detail. Objectives To determine whether serum concentrations of adipokines differ between healthy dogs and dogs with MMVD and whether circulating concentrations depend on the severity of heart failure resulting from MMVD. Animals In the preliminary study, 30 healthy dogs and 17 client?owned dogs with MMVD, and in the subsequent study, 30 healthy dogs and 46...

  9. The Effect of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations on Elevated Serum C-Reactive Protein Concentrations in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Participants of a Preventive Health Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara S. B. S. Mastroeni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesized effect of vitamin D on C-reactive protein (CRP has received substantial attention as a potential means to alleviate the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, observational studies have been inconsistent in their reporting of associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and CRP concentrations, and trials and meta analyses have been inconsistent in their conclusions regarding the effect of vitamin D supplementation on CRP concentrations. These supplementation trials were mostly conducted among patients with more or less inflammatory complications and did not consider potential distinctive effects by weight status. To further our understanding of the potential influences of vitamin D on CRP, we analyzed longitudinal observations of 6755 participants of a preventative health program. On average, serum 25(OHD concentrations increased from 88.3 to 121.0 nmol/L and those of CRP decreased from 1.7 to 1.6 mg/L between baseline and follow up. Relative to obese participants without temporal increases in 25(OHD, those who showed improvements of <25, 25–50, 50–75, and more than 75 nmol/L at follow up were 0.57 (95% confidence interval: 0.37–0.88, 0.54 (0.34–0.85, 0.49 (0.30–0.80, and 0.48 (0.29–0.78 times as likely to have elevated CRP concentrations (≥1 mg/L, respectively. These associations were less pronounced and not statistically significant for normal weight and overweight participants. Herewith, the findings suggest that promotion of adequate serum 25(OHD concentrations among obese individuals along with healthy lifestyles may alleviate the public health burden associated with cardiovascular disease.

  10. Urinary estrogen excretion and concentration of serum human placental lactogen in pregnancies following legally induced abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, E B; Madsen, Mette

    1980-01-01

    concentration of hPL in serum were no lower in this group than in women without previous induced abortion. Neither was the frequency of a low 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine or low concentration of hPL in serum (values less than mean - 1.96 s) found to be increased. This study could not demonstrate......Feto-placental function was assessed by 24-hour excretion of estrogen in urine and by the concentration of human Placental Lactogen (hPL) in serum in pregnant women whose previous pregnancy was terminated by legally induced abortion. The mean 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine and the mean...... an increased frequency of dysfunction of the feto-placental unit during the last part of pregnancy in women with previous legally induced abortion. These findings indicate that legal abortion does not seem to increase the frequency of retarded intrauterine growth in a subsequent pregnancy....

  11. Urinary estrogen excretion and concentration of serum human placental lactogen in pregnancies following legally induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obel, E B; Madsen, M

    1980-01-01

    Feto-placental function was assessed by 24-hour excretion of estrogen in urine and by the concentration of human Placental Lactogen (hPL) in serum in pregnant women whose previous pregnancy was terminated by legally induced abortion. The mean 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine and the mean concentration of hPL in serum were no lower in this group than in women without previous induced abortion. Neither was the frequency of a low 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine or low concentration of hPL in serum (values less than mean - 1.96 s) found to be increased. This study could not demonstrate an increased frequency of dysfunction of the feto-placental unit during the last part of pregnancy in women with previous legally induced abortion. These findings indicate that legal abortion does not seem to increase the frequency of retarded intrauterine growth in a subsequent pregnancy.

  12. Serum concentrations of extracellular fatty acid synthase in patients with steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsillach, Judit; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Beltrán, Raúl; Rull, Anna; Aragonès, Gerard; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Vázquez-Martín, Alejandro; Joven, Jorge; Menéndez, Javier A; Camps, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is an enzyme synthesized by the liver and plays an important role in lipogenesis. The present study aimed to assess whether serum FASN concentrations are altered in patients with chronic liver disease, and to investigate whether its measurement may be a useful tool in the clinical evaluation of this derangement. We investigated 93 patients with chronic liver disease (14 minimal change disease, 79 steatohepatitis) and 100 control subjects. Serum FASN concentrations were measured using ELISA. Patients had a significant increase in serum FASN concentration (pconcentrations were significantly correlated with the circulating levels of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (Spearman rho=0.375; pconcentrations are increased in patients with chronic liver impairment, and are associated with specific histological alterations and biochemical markers of portal inflammation. These data suggest that FASN measurement may contribute significantly to the evaluation of these patients.

  13. Additional predictive value of serum potassium to Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk score for early malignant ventricular arrhythmias in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jianling; Fu, Xianghua; Tian, Yingping; Ma, Yuteng; Chen, Hui; Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xuechao; Liu, Huining

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the additional predictive value of serum potassium (SK) to Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score for malignant ventricular arrhythmias (MVA) in patients within 24 hours of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This was a 6-year retrospective study. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the predictive value of SK and TIMI risk score for MVA attack. In addition, SK-modified TIMI risk score was created by incorporating SK information into the usual score; the accuracy of new score was compared with that of the usual TIMI risk score by comparing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Among the 468 patients enrolled, the incidence of MVA 24 hours after AMI was 9.4%, and it was higher in the hypokalemia group compared with that of the normokalemic group (27.3% vs 7.5%, P value of SK was indicated by AUC of 0.787 (95% CI, 0.747-0.823, P risk score. The AUC of TIMI risk score in relation to MVA was 0.586 (95% CI, 0.54-0.631; P = .0676). The incorporation of SK into TIMI risk score improved its predictive value for MVA attack (AUC = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.568-0.753; P risk score (Z = 2.474, P = .013). Serum potassium on admission to the emergency department may be used as a valuable predictor and could add predictive information to some extent to TIMI risk score for MVA attack during 24-hour post-AMI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The association between etanercept serum concentration and psoriasis severity is highly age-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrez, Iris; Van Steen, Kristel; Segaert, Siegfried; Gils, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The association between etanercept serum concentration and psoriasis disease severity is poorly investigated, and currently etanercept serum concentration monitoring that is aiming to optimize the psoriasis treatment lacks evidence. In this prospective study, we investigated the relation between etanercept exposure and disease severity via measuring etanercept concentrations at five consecutive time points in 56 psoriasis patients. Disease severity assessments included the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), body surface area (BSA) and Physician Global Assessment (PGA), and etanercept and anti-etanercept antibody concentrations were determined every 3 months for a period of 1 year. The present study demonstrated that the association between etanercept concentration and psoriasis severity is age-dependent: when patients were stratified into three groups, patients in the youngest age group (-50 years) showed a lower PASI at a higher etanercept concentration (β = -0.26), whereas patients in the oldest age group (+59 years) showed the opposite trend (β =0.22). Similar age effects were observed in the relation of etanercept concentration with BSA (P=0.02) and PGA (P=0.02). The influence of age and length of time in therapy on the etanercept concentration-disease severity relation was unaffected by body mass index (BMI) or any other possible confounder. Incidence of anti-etanercept antibodies was low (2%). The age-dependent relation between etanercept serum concentrations is both unexpected and intriguing and needs further investigation. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  15. Relationship of serum bilirubin concentration to kidney function and 24-hour urine protein in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ho Sik; Jung, Yeon Soon; Rim, Hark

    2011-06-28

    The relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, kidney function and proteinuria have yet to be fully elucidated, nor have these relationships been investigated in Korean adults. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of Korean adults who were evaluated at Kosin University Gospel Hospital (Busan, Republic of Korea) during a five-year period from January 2005 to December 2009. We evaluated the relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and 24-hour urinary protein excretion in a sample of 1363 Korean adults aged 18 years or older. The values of eGFR urine albumin ≥150 mg/day were observed in 26.1% (n = 356) and 40.5% (n = 553) of subjects, respectively. Fasting glucose levels ≥126 mg/dL were observed in 44.9% (n = 612) of the total sample. After adjustment for potential confounding factors including demographic characteristics, comorbidities and other laboratory measures, total serum bilirubin was positively associated with eGFR and negatively associated with proteinuria both in the whole cohort and in a subgroup of diabetic individuals. To our knowledge, this is the first hospital-based study specifically aimed at examining the relationships among serum total bilirubin concentration, 24-hour urine protein and kidney function in Korean adults. We demonstrated that serum total bilirubin concentration was negatively correlated with 24-hour urine protein and positively correlated with eGFR in Korean non-diabetic and diabetic adults.

  16. The Effect of Marshallagia marshalli on Serum Gastrin Concentrations in Experimentally Infected Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradpour, Nona; Borji, Hassan; Razmi, Gholamreza; Maleki, Mohsen; Kazemi, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    :  Because there appeared to be no data available on serum gastrin concentrations in animals infected with Marshallagia marshalli, and considering the high prevalence of this parasite in livestock throughout many countries, we decided to perform research in the field using experimental infection. After surgical implantation of abomasal cannula into 10 male Baluchi sheep, each animal was orally infected with 5,000 M. marshalli larvae. Serum gastrin concentrations and abomasal pH were measured with a human ELISA kit and a PHM LE438 standard pH electrode, respectively. According to the results obtained from the study, serum gastrin increased after 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi), while abomasal pH increased after 7 dpi and reached a maximal value 16 dpi. The increase in serum gastrin concentration was revealed 6 days after elevation in abomasal pH, which could be the result of reduced acid secretion. Generally, the present study pointed out that a limited number of M. marshalli could increase serum gastrin concentrations.

  17. Does determining serum alcohol concentrations in emergency department patients influence physicians' civil suit liability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simel, D L; Feussner, J R

    1989-05-01

    Emergency physicians may incur liability when impaired patients who have been treated and released are subsequently involved in traffic crashes. We surveyed attorneys to assess their perception of how serum alcohol determinations might influence their liability in civil suits. Overall, 63.9% of the attorneys surveyed would advise patients that they received potentially negligent care if they were impaired following treatment in the emergency department and were involved in a traffic crashes. Perceived liability was altered by physician behavior as follows: 43.1% of attorneys would advise clients that they received potentially negligent care when impairment was documented by a test for serum alcohol concentration and no advice was given regarding drunk driving, and 17.3% of attorneys would give similar advice when impairment was not documented by a test for serum alcohol concentration and no advice was given regarding drunk driving. In contrast, only 3.5% of attorneys would suggest possible negligence when impairment was documented by a test for serum alcohol concentration and with advice subsequently given not to drive. The coupling of diagnosing impairment by the serum alcohol concentration and driving advice is medically sensible and might result in minimal civil liability.

  18. Markedly increased serum and urinary fructose concentrations in diabetic patients with ketoacidosis or ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takahiro; Igarashi, Kanji; Ogata, Nobuyuki; Oka, Yoko; Ichiyanagi, Kaoru; Yamanouchi, Toshikazu

    2012-04-01

    To investigate fructose concentrations in diabetic patients with ketoacidosis or ketosis, serum fructose concentrations and daily urinary fructose excretion were measured in 23 patients with ketoacidosis (n = 16) and ketosis (n = 7) on the first day of admission. Seventeen patients were diagnosed with type 1, one patient with mitochondrial, and 4 patients with atypical diabetes. In 16 of the 23 patients, serum and urinary fructose could be assessed after starting treatments. Mean serum fructose concentration was 71.6 ± 108.1 μmol/l, and mean daily urinary fructose excretion was 352.1 ± 473.7 μmol/day. Serum fructose levels in patients with atypical diabetes were much higher (205.0 ± 213.3 μmol/l) than those in patients with type 1 diabetes (45.1 ± 44.5 μmol/l), while urinary fructose levels in atypical diabetes (249.7 ± 92.4 μmol/day) tended to be lower than those in type 1 diabetes (382.6 ± 533.2 μmol/day). Serum fructose concentrations decreased significantly (P ketosis.

  19. Serum IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations in bitches with pyometra undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Roman; Pastor, Josep; Szczubiał, Marek; Piech, Tomasz; Bochniarz, Mariola; Wawron, Władysław; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta

    2015-09-26

    Pyometra is a serious bacterial infection of the uterus affecting female dogs and manifests as an accumulation of pus in the uterine lumen. The aim of the study was to assess changes in serum interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 concentrations in bitches with pyometra undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Blood samples were collected from healthy bitches (controls) and bitches with pyometra before surgery, and 3 and 10 days after ovariohysterectomy. Before surgery, bitches with pyometra had significantly higher serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10 than the controls. After surgery, the serum concentration of IL-6 and IL-10 decreased significantly. In healthy dogs, the concentration of IL-6 and IL-10 showed a significant increase 3 days after surgery followed by a decrease on day 10. An increase in serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10 was present before surgery in bitches with pyometra and 3 days after ovariohysterectomy in healthy controls. Concentrations decreased after ovariohysterectomy and/or proper healing, suggesting that these cytokines can be useful for assessment of the postoperative period in bitches.

  20. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in pooled serum of people in different age groups from five Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghua; Yuan, Haodong; Jin, Jun; Li, Peng; Ma, Yulong; Wang, Ying

    2017-05-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in human serum samples pooled by donor age (≥60, 50-59, 40-49, 30-39, and 20-29y). The pooled samples were supplied by hospitals in five Chinese cities, Yitong (Jilin Province), Weifang (Shandong Province), Ganzi (Sichuan Province), Huaihua (Hunan Province), and Lingshui (Hainan Province). p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and endosulfan I were the dominant OCPs in the serum samples. The total OCP concentrations and individual concentrations of p,p'-DDE, HCB, and β-HCH were relatively high compared with concentrations that have been found in other parts of the world. The total OCP, p,p'-DDE, and β-HCH concentrations decreased as age decreased but the HCB and endosulfan I concentrations were slightly higher in the samples from younger donors than in samples from older donors. HCB must be currently used and have new sources to people to cause this. Chinese government policies and the characteristics of the OCPs have led to OCP concentrations in serum decreasing with decreasing age. Different OCP usage patterns in different Chinese cities have led to the inhabitants of different cities having different OCP distributions in their serum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Ramadan fasting on serum immunoglobulin G and M, and salivary immunoglobulin A concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Develioglu, Omer Necati; Kucur, Mine; Ipek, Havva Duru; Celebi, Saban; Can, Gunay; Kulekci, Mehmet

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on serum concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM, and salivary IgA concentrations. Blood and saliva samples were collected one week before and during the last week of Ramadan from healthy male volunteers. Albumin, total lymphocyte count, electrolytes, and IgG and IgM concentrations were determined in serum; salivary IgA concentrations were measured. Anthropometric measurements were also recorded. Samples were collected from 35 subjects (mean age 35.86 years, range 20-59 years). Weight, body mass index, albumin levels and the nutritional risk index decreased significantly during Ramadan fasting compared with before fasting. In addition, Na(+) and Cl(-) electrolyte levels were significantly decreased during Ramadan. Serum IgG concentrations decreased significantly during Ramadan compared with before fasting, but were still within the normal range. Salivary IgA concentrations also decreased significantly, whereas serum IgM levels did not change. Lymphocyte numbers increased significantly, but there was no correlation between Ig levels and lymphocyte count. Ramadan fasting did not result in severe immunological disturbances.

  2. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid endothelin-1 concentrations as diagnostic biomarkers of canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, E; Heikkilä, H P; Jespers, P; Peeters, D; Day, M J; Rajamäki, M M; Mc Entee, K; Clercx, C

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is challenging. Endothelin-1 (ET1) is a biomarker of IPF in humans, but whether ET1 can detect and differentiate IPF from other canine respiratory diseases is unknown. To evaluate whether measurement of the concentration of ET1 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) can be used to distinguish canine IPF from chronic bronchitis (CB) and eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy (EBP). Twelve dogs with IPF, 10 dogs with CB, 6 dogs with EBP, 13 privately owned healthy West Highland White Terriers (WHWT), and 9 healthy Beagle dogs. Prospective, case control study. ET1 concentration was determined by ELISA in serum and in BALF. No significant difference in serum ET1 concentration was detected between healthy Beagle dogs and WHWT. Serum ET1 concentration was higher in dogs with IPF (median interquartile range; 2.32 pg/mL, 2.05-3.38) than healthy Beagle dogs (1.28, 1.07-1.53; P < .001), healthy WHWT (1.56, 1.25-1.85; P < .001), dogs with EBP (0.94 0.68-1.01; P = .001), and dogs with CB (1.54 0.74-1.82; P = .005). BALF ET1 concentration was below the detection limit in healthy WHWT and in dogs with CB, whereas it was measurable in all dogs with IPF. A cut-off serum concentration of 1.8 pg/mL had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 81.2% for detection of IPF, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.818. Serum ET1 can differentiate dogs with IPF from dogs with EBP or CB. ET1 can be detected in BALF of dogs with IPF. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Various Oscillation Patterns of Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Concentrations in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ah Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 was originally identified as a paroxysm proliferator activated receptor-α target gene product and is a hormone involved in metabolic regulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diurnal variation of serum FGF21 concentration in obese and non-obese healthy volunteers.MethodsBlood samples were collected from five non-obese (body mass index [BMI] ≤23 kg/m2 and five obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 healthy young men every 30 to 60 minutes over 24 hours. Serum FGF21 concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Anthropometric parameters, glucose, free fatty acid, insulin, leptin, and cortisol concentrations were also measured.ResultsThe serum FGF21 concentrations displayed various individual oscillation patterns. The oscillation frequency ranged between 6 and 12 times per day. The average duration of oscillation was 2.52 hours (range, 1.9 to 3.0 hours. The peaks and troughs of FGF21 oscillation showed no circadian rhythm. However, the oscillation frequency had a diurnal variation and was lower during the light-off period than during the light-on period (2.4 vs. 7.3 times, P<0.001. There was no difference in the total frequency or duration of oscillations between non-obese and obese subjects, but obese individuals had increased numbers of larger oscillations (amplitude ≥0.19 ng/mL.ConclusionVarious oscillation patterns in serum FGF21 concentration were observed, and reduced oscillation frequencies were seen during sleep. The oscillation patterns of serum FGF21 concentration suggest that FGF21 may be secreted into systemic circulation in a pulsatile manner. Obesity appeared to affect the amplitude of oscillations of serum FGF21.

  4. Effect of radiotherapy on activity and concentration of serum paraoxonase-1 in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Meritxell; García-Heredia, Anabel; Cabré, Noemí; Luciano-Mateo, Fedra; Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Sabater, Sebastià; Bonet, Marta; Gascón, Marina; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Fort-Gallifa, Isabel; Camps, Jordi; Joven, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an intra-cellular antioxidant enzyme found also in the circulation associated with high-density lipoproteins. The activity of this enzyme has been shown to be decreased in breast cancer (BC) patients. The aims of our study were to investigate the changes produced by radiotherapy (RT) on activity and concentration of serum PON1 in BC patients, and to evaluate the observed variations in relation to clinical and pathological characteristics of patients and tumors, and the response to treatment. We studied 200 women with BC who were scheduled to receive RT following excision of the tumor. Blood for analyses was obtained before and after the irradiation procedure. The control group was composed of 200 healthy women. Relative to control, BC patients had significantly lower serum PON1 activities pre-RT, while PON1 concentrations were at similar levels. RT was associated with a significant increase in serum PON1 activities and concentrations. We observed significant differences in serum PON1 concentrations post-RT between patients with luminal A or luminal B tumors. Serum PON1 concentration post-RT was markedly lower in BC patients with metastases. We conclude that benefit from RT accrues to the BC patients not only through its direct effect on cancer cells but also indirectly by improving the organism's anti-oxidant defense mechanisms. In addition, our preliminary evidence suggests that the measurement of serum PON1 concentration post-RT could be an efficient prognostic biomarker, and may be used as an index of the efficacy of the RT.

  5. The validity of the proteins concentrations in the ascitic liquid and serum for the differential diagnosis of the ascitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdivia R, Mario; Llanos C, Alejandro; Zapata S, Carlos; Muñoz O, Norvinda

    2002-01-01

    ... in the ascitic serum and fluid, for the discrimination of possible etiological causes of ascites, including in these parameters Protein Concentration in the Ascitic Fluid, the Serum-Ascites Albumin Gradient...

  6. Evaluation of cumulative PCB exposure estimated by a job exposure matrix versus PCB serum concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Avima M.; Succop, Paul; Waters, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned in many countries for more than three decades, exposures to PCBs continue to be of concern due to their long half-lives and carcinogenic effects. In National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health studies, we are using semiquantitative plant-specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) to estimate historical PCB exposures for workers (n=24,865) exposed to PCBs from 1938 to 1978 at three capacitor manufacturing plants. A subcohort of these workers (n=410) employed in two of these plants had serum PCB concentrations measured at up to four times between 1976 and 1989. Our objectives were to evaluate the strength of association between an individual worker’s measured serum PCB levels and the same worker’s cumulative exposure estimated through 1977 with the (1) JEM and (2) duration of employment, and to calculate the explained variance the JEM provides for serum PCB levels using (3) simple linear regression. Consistent strong and statistically significant associations were observed between the cumulative exposures estimated with the JEM and serum PCB concentrations for all years. The strength of association between duration of employment and serum PCBs was good for highly chlorinated (Aroclor 1254/HPCB) but not less chlorinated (Aroclor 1242/LPCB) PCBs. In the simple regression models, cumulative occupational exposure estimated using the JEMs explained 14–24 % of the variance of the Aroclor 1242/LPCB and 22–39 % for Aroclor 1254/HPCB serum concentrations. We regard the cumulative exposure estimated with the JEM as a better estimate of PCB body burdens than serum concentrations quantified as Aroclor 1242/LPCB and Aroclor 1254/HPCB. PMID:23475397

  7. The effect of diet on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Claire R; Selting, Kim A; Ringold, Randy

    2015-09-15

    Vitamin D (vitD) deficiency is linked to many disease states including rickets and cancer, and vitD supplementation to improve response to cancer therapy has been explored. Supplementation may be most appropriate for dogs with suboptimal vitD concentrations. In dogs, the primary source of vitD is diet (predominantly via commercial dog food). Our goal was to determine how food source and supplements affect 25(OH)D concentrations, the storage form of vitD. Serum was collected from clinically healthy dogs, and pet owners were surveyed about food source and supplements. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured using a quantitative chemiluminescent assay (LIASON, DiaSorin, Stillwater, MN). Dogs (n = 320) were tested for serum 25(OH)D concentrations (range 9.5-249.2 ng/mL). Dogs were fed commercial diets from forty different manufactures (n = 292); additionally some dogs were fed homemade diets (n = 18) or a combination of commercial and homemade diets (n = 10). Median serum 25(OH)D concentrations in dogs fed commercial foods ranged from 47.4 to 100.1 ng/mL with an overall median of 67.9 ng/ml (CV 29%). Analysis for differences among manufacturers was significant (P = 0.0006). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations amongst dogs fed homemade diets had the largest range (9.5-129 ng/mL) and the lowest value (9.5 ng/mL). Dogs receiving salmon oil as a supplement (n = 22) had significantly higher serum 25(OH)D (on average a 19.6 ng/mL increase) than those not receiving a supplement (P = 0.007). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations in dogs vary widely which likely reflects varying dietary vitD content. Notable differences exist among manufacturers and brands and may reflect differences in proprietary formulations. Given the variability of measured serum 25(OH)D concentrations in dogs and the importance vitD appears to have on health status, dietary vitD content should be optimized.

  8. Serum paraquat concentration detected by spectrophotometry in patients with paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Bin; Li, Xin-Hua; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Cheng-Hua; Peng, Ai

    2011-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a world-wide used herbicide and also a type of common poison for suicide and accidental poisoning. Numerous studies have proved that the concentration of serum PQ plays an important role in prognosis. Spectrophotometry, including common spectrophotometry and second-derivative spectrophotometry, is commonly used for PQ detection in primary hospitals. So far, lack of systematic research on the reliability of the method and the correlation between clinical features of patients with PQ poisoning and the test results has restricted the clinical use of spectrophotometry. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and value of spectrophotometry in detecting the concentration of serum PQ. The wavelengths for detecting the concentration of serum PQ by common and second-derivative spectrophotometry were determined. Second-derivative spectrophotometry was applied to detect the concentration of serum PQ. The linear range and precision for detection of PQ concentration by this method were confirmed. The concentration of serum PQ shown by second-derivative spectrophotometry and HPLC were compared in 8 patients with PQ poisoning. Altogether 21 patients with acute poisoning 4 hours after PQ ingestion treated in the period of October 2008 to September 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into higher and lower than 1.8 μg/mL groups based on their concentrations of serum PQ measured by second-derivative spectrophotometry on admission. The severity of clinical manifestations between the two groups were analyzed with Student's t test or Fisher's exact test. The absorption peak of 257 nm could not be found when common spectrophotometry was used to detect the PQ concentration in serum. The calibration curve in the 0.4-8.0 μg/mL range for PQ concentration shown by second-derivative spectrophotometry obeyed Beer's law with r=0.996. The average recovery rates of PQ were within a range of 95.0% to 99.5%, relative standard deviation (RSD) was

  9. Serum paraquat concentration detected by spectrophotometry in patients with paraquat poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-bin; Li, Xin-hua; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Cheng-hua; Peng, Ai

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paraquat (PQ) is a world-wide used herbicide and also a type of common poison for suicide and accidental poisoning. Numerous studies have proved that the concentration of serum PQ plays an important role in prognosis. Spectrophotometry, including common spectrophotometry and second-derivative spectrophotometry, is commonly used for PQ detection in primary hospitals. So far, lack of systematic research on the reliability of the method and the correlation between clinical features of patients with PQ poisoning and the test results has restricted the clinical use of spectrophotometry. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and value of spectrophotometry in detecting the concentration of serum PQ. METHODS: The wavelengths for detecting the concentration of serum PQ by common and second-derivative spectrophotometry were determined. Second-derivative spectrophotometry was applied to detect the concentration of serum PQ. The linear range and precision for detection of PQ concentration by this method were confirmed. The concentration of serum PQ shown by second-derivative spectrophotometry and HPLC were compared in 8 patients with PQ poisoning. Altogether 21 patients with acute poisoning 4 hours after PQ ingestion treated in the period of October 2008 to September 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into higher and lower than 1.8 μg/mL groups based on their concentrations of serum PQ measured by second-derivative spectrophotometry on admission. The severity of clinical manifestations between the two groups were analyzed with Student's t test or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The absorption peak of 257 nm could not be found when common spectrophotometry was used to detect the PQ concentration in serum. The calibration curve in the 0.4–8.0 μg/mL range for PQ concentration shown by second-derivative spectrophotometry obeyed Beer's law with r=0.996. The average recovery rates of PQ were within a range of 95.0% to 99.5%, relative

  10. Maternal age and serum concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavaldsen, Camilla; Fedorcsak, Peter; Tanbo, Tom; Eskild, Anne

    2014-12-01

    To study whether maternal age is associated with serum concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin in early pregnancy. Cross-sectional study. Oslo University Hospital in Oslo, Norway. All vital pregnancies in gestational week 8 conceived by in vitro fertilization between February 1996 and February 2013 (n = 4472). Serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin were measured on day 12 after embryo transfer/day 16 following ovulation induction. Trends in geometric means of human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations by maternal age group were tested by linear regression analysis. We also studied the association of maternal age (years) with log-transformed human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations, and adjustments were made for number of embryos transferred, method of in vitro fertilization and year (period) of embryo transfer. Serum concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin. Geometric mean concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin decreased with increasing maternal age (p = 0.024, test for trend by weighted linear regression). Also, we estimated a significant negative association of maternal age with log-transformed human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations (adjusted regression coefficient -0.011, standard error 0.003, p early pregnancy decreased with maternal age. Since human chorionic gonadotropin is synthesized in trophoblast cells only, the lower human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations in women of advanced age may reflect functional impairment or delayed proliferation of trophoblast cells in early pregnancy in these women. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Human Milk and Matched Serum Demonstrate Concentration of Select miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wenyi; Dasgupta, Santanu; Corradi, John; Sauter, Edward R

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancers (PABCs), especially those diagnosed after childbirth, are often aggressive, with a poor prognosis. Factors influencing PABC are largely unknown. Micro(mi)RNAs are present in many human body fluids and shown to influence cancer development and/or growth. In six nursing mothers, we determined if breast cancer-associated miRNAs were (1) detectable in human breast milk and (2) if detectable, their relative expression in milk fractions compared to matched serum. We evaluated by quantitative PCR the expression of 11 cancer-associated miRNAs (10a-5p, 16, 21, 100, 140, 145, 155, 181, 199, 205, 212) in breast milk cells, fat and supernatant (skim milk), and matched serum. miRNA expression was detectable in all samples. For 10/11 miRNAs, mean relative expression compared to control (ΔCt) values was lowest in milk cells, the exception being miR205. Relative concentration was highest in the skim fraction of milk for all miRNAs. Expression was higher in skim milk than matched serum for 7/11 miRNAs and in serum for 4/11 miRNAs. miR205 expression was higher in all milk fractions than in matched serum. In conclusion, the expression of breast cancer-associated miRNAs is detectable in human breast milk and serum samples. The concentration is highest in skim milk, but is also detectable in milk fat and milk cells.

  12. Serum Leptin Concentrations during the Menstrual Cycle in Iranian Healthy Women

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    Nahid Einollahi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nLeptin, a circulating 16-kd polypeptide consisting of 167 amino acids, appears to be involved in the body weight homeostasis. Moreover leptin plays an important role for the reproductive system, early embryogenesis, and fat metabolism during pregnancy and puberty. Significant correlations have been found between leptin and sexual hormones, which is a cytokine and has hormonal properties. The aim of this study was to determine serum leptin levels during the menstrual cycle, and the association between serum leptin and reproductive hormones in young, healthy Iranian women. 42 healthy women volunteered for the study. They all had regular menstrual cycles, with cycle length varying between 26 and 32 days. None of them used oral contraceptives. All were of normal weight, with body mass index ( BMI < 25 Kg/m2. Fasting blood samples were collected during the follicular phase, mid cycle and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. FSH and LH were measured with coated tube immunoradiometric assay. Estrogen and progesterone were measured using antibody -coated tubes. Serum Leptin concentration were measured by Leptin (sandwich ELISA. In menstruating women, serum leptin increased from 13.15+/-1.60 ng/ml in the early follicular phase to 16.57+/-1.68 ng/ml (P<0.01 at the luteal phase. Serum leptin concentration negatively correlated with LH and progesterone (P<0.05. Mean serum leptin levels correlated with body mass index (BMI (r =0.78, P<0.001.

  13. Use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to quantify immunoglobulin G concentrations in alpaca serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J; Hou, S; Riley, C B; Shaw, R A; Jewett, N; McClure, J T

    2014-01-01

    Rapid, economical, and quantitative assays for measurement of camelid serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) are limited. In camelids, failure of transfer of maternal immunoglobulins has a reported prevalence of up to 20.5%. An accurate method for quantifying serum IgG concentrations is required. To develop an infrared spectroscopy-based assay for measurement of alpaca serum IgG and compare its performance to the reference standard radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay. One hundred and seventy-five privately owned, healthy alpacas. Eighty-two serum samples were collected as convenience samples during routine herd visits whereas 93 samples were recruited from a separate study. Serum IgG concentrations were determined by RID assays and midinfrared spectra were collected for each sample. Fifty samples were set aside as the test set and the remaining 125 training samples were employed to build a calibration model using partial least squares (PLS) regression with Monte Carlo cross validation to determine the optimum number of PLS factors. The predictive performance of the calibration model was evaluated by the test set. Correlation coefficients for the IR-based assay were 0.93 and 0.87, respectively, for the entire data set and test set. Sensitivity in the diagnosis of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) ([IgG] alpaca serum. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Effect of the ergot derivative lisuride hydrogen maleate on serum prolactin concentrations in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, K J; Neumann, F; Horowski, R

    1976-03-01

    The influence of a new synthetic ergot derivative, lisuride hydrogen maleate (LHM) on serum prolactin (PRL) concentrations was investigated in female rats using different test models: 1. in reserpine (R)-pretreated intact females, and 2. in ovariectomized (OVX) estradiol benzoate (E2)-primed animals with or without an additional pretreatment with R. In all the models used LHM was strongly effective in lowering serum PRL. Doses from 0.025 to 0.5 mg/kg LHM, given orally as well as subcutaneously, suppressed serum PRL. Depending on the dose used, the serum PRL was lowered to a different extent for up to 12 h. LHM was at least as effective as the well-known potent inhibitor of PRL secretion CB-154 in lowering serum PRL in OVX rats primed with E2. The effects of R, E2, and LHM are described in relation to their mode of action within the hypothalamic-hypophyseal system which regulates PRL secretion. While the increase in serum PRL induced by R seems to be directly relatable to its known catecholamine depletion, the circadian rhythm of PRL secretion induced by E2 seems to be influenced or mediated by central neural mechanisms. The effects of LHM on serum PRL in these test models can be related to its dopaminergic action and constitute further evidence for the central functions of dopaminergic mechanisms in the regulation of PRL secretion.

  15. Predictors of Serum Dioxin, Furan and PCB Concentrations among Women from Chapaevsk, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humblet, Olivier; Williams, Paige L.; Korrick, Susan A.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Emond, Claude; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Altshul, Larisa; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Lee, Mary M.; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent and bioaccumulative toxic chemicals that are ubiquitous in the environment. We assessed predictors of their serum concentrations among women living in a Russian town contaminated by past industrial activity. METHODS Blood samples from 446 mothers aged 23–52 years were collected between 2003–2005 as part of the Russian Children’s Study. Serum dioxin, furan and PCB concentrations were quantified using high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Potential determinants of exposure were collected through interviews. Multivariate linear regression models were used to identify predictors of serum concentrations and toxic equivalencies (TEQs). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The median total PCB concentrations and total TEQs were 260 ng/g lipid and 25 pg TEQ/g lipid, respectively. In multivariate analyses, both total PCB concentrations and total TEQs increased significantly with age, residential proximity to a local chemical plant, duration of local farming, and consumption of local beef. Both decreased with longer breastfeeding, recent increases in body mass index, and later blood draw date. These demographic and lifestyle predictors showed generally similar associations with the various measures of serum dioxins, furans, and PCBs. PMID:20578718

  16. Serum Sialic Acid Concentration and Content in ApoB-Containing Lipoproteins in Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska, Monika; Gruszewska, Ewa; Cylwik, Bogdan; Panasiuk, Anatol; Filisiak, Robert; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Chrostek, Lech

    2016-01-01

    The great significance for the metabolism of lipoproteins is the composition of carbohydrate chain of apolipoproteins, where sialic acid (SA) is located. In VILDL and LDL sialic acid is attached to apolipoprotein B. The sialylation of serum proteins including apolipoprotein B can be affected in the course of liver diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of liver diseases on the concentration and content of SA in ApoB-containing lipoproteins. The tested group consisted of 165 patients (118 males, 47 females) with liver diseases: alcoholic cirrhosis, non-alcoholic cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, toxic hepatitis, chronic viral hepatitis, and liver cancer. ApoB-containing lipoproteins were isolated by a turbidimetric procedure and SA concentration was measured according to an enzymatic method. There was a significant increase in the serum concentration of SA in ApoB-containing lipoproteins in viral hepatitis. Although the serum concentration of ApoB was not significantly different between specific liver diseases, the serum levels of SA in ApoB-containing lipoproteins appeared to be different. There is an association between SA concentration and triglycerides in alcoholic cirrhosis and viral hepatitis. Also, in viral hepatitis SA concentration correlated negatively with HDL-cholesterol. The content of SA in ApoB-containing lipoproteins in alcoholic cirrhosis and viral hepatitis was significantly higher than that in the control group, but did not differ between diseases. This study may explain the variations in serum lipids and lipoproteins in liver diseases. It seems that the reason for these abnormalities is the changes in the concentration of sialic acid in ApoB-containing lipoproteins.

  17. CA15.3 Serum Concentrations in Older Women with Infiltrating Ductal Carcinomas of the Breast

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    Álvaro Ruibal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is currently becoming a disease of the elderly. We have studied the relation between CA 15.3 serum concentrations and clinical-pathological parameters in 69 women with IDC aged over 70 years (76.3 ± 4.2; range: 71–88; median 76. A group of 205 women with the same tumor but aged <70 years (62.8 ± 4.0; range: 55–70; median 63 was also considered for comparison. Tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, distant metastasis and histological grade were taken account. Serum CA 15.3 was determined by luminescence assay. CA 15.3 serum concentrations ranged between 6 and 85 U/mL (median 22.9 U/mL, and were higher only in patients with greater (qualitative and quantitative; p: 0.041 tumor size. Our results show that in women with IDCs, and aged over 70 years, serum CA 15.3 serum concentrations are associated exclusively with a greater tumor size, being these findings different to those described in women with the same subtype of tumor considered as a whole or with lower age.

  18. Association between Serum Albumin Concentration and Ketosis Risk in Hospitalized Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Po-Chung; Hsu, Shang-Ren; Cheng, Yun-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the association between serum albumin concentration and ketosis risk in hospitalized individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at a medical center in Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were endocrinology ward inpatients exceeding 21 years of age, with preexisting diagnosis of T2DM, and blood glucose above 13.9 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) at admission. Individuals without measurement of serum albumin, urine ketone, or hemoglobin A1C, or harboring active infection, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular event, cirrhosis, malignancy, or overt proteinuria were excluded. Using serum albumin concentration below 3.0 grams per deciliter to define hypoalbuminemia, 151 hypoalbuminemic cases and 104 normoalbuminemic controls were enrolled. The presence of ketones in urine established ketosis. Results. The prevalence of ketonuria was 48% in hypoalbuminemic subjects compared to 30% in normoalbuminemic controls (odds ratio (OR): 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26-3.57; P = 0.004). Moreover, among the 156 subjects with serum beta-hydroxybutyrate measurement in addition to urine ketone, 33% of the hypoalbuminemic individuals had ketonemia exceeding 3 mmol/L compared to 19% of those with normoalbuminemia (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 0.99-4.48, P = 0.051). Conclusions. Serum albumin concentration is inversely associated with ketosis risk in hospitalized individuals with T2DM.

  19. Association between Serum Albumin Concentration and Ketosis Risk in Hospitalized Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Po-Chung Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined the association between serum albumin concentration and ketosis risk in hospitalized individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at a medical center in Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were endocrinology ward inpatients exceeding 21 years of age, with preexisting diagnosis of T2DM, and blood glucose above 13.9 millimoles per liter (mmol/L at admission. Individuals without measurement of serum albumin, urine ketone, or hemoglobin A1C, or harboring active infection, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular event, cirrhosis, malignancy, or overt proteinuria were excluded. Using serum albumin concentration below 3.0 grams per deciliter to define hypoalbuminemia, 151 hypoalbuminemic cases and 104 normoalbuminemic controls were enrolled. The presence of ketones in urine established ketosis. Results. The prevalence of ketonuria was 48% in hypoalbuminemic subjects compared to 30% in normoalbuminemic controls (odds ratio (OR: 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.26–3.57; P=0.004. Moreover, among the 156 subjects with serum beta-hydroxybutyrate measurement in addition to urine ketone, 33% of the hypoalbuminemic individuals had ketonemia exceeding 3 mmol/L compared to 19% of those with normoalbuminemia (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 0.99–4.48, P=0.051. Conclusions. Serum albumin concentration is inversely associated with ketosis risk in hospitalized individuals with T2DM.

  20. Serum and urine inorganic fluoride concentrations and urine oxalate concentrations following methoxyflurane anesthesia in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunson, D B; Stowe, C M; McGrath, C J

    1979-02-01

    Plasma fluoride, urine fluoride and urine oxalate concentrations were measured before administering an anesthetic to 8 dogs, and at 0, 3, 9, 24, 48, and 72 hours following 1.5 hours of anesthesia with 1% methoxyflurane. Plasma and urine osmolalities were measured and compared with fluoride and oxalate values. Fluoride concentration increased in both plasma and urine following anesthesia when compared with the preanesthetic concentrations. Maximum mean plasma inorganic fluoride was 106.71 mumoles per liter (+/- 25.44 SE) at 9 hours after exposure to methoxyflurane was completed. By 72 hours after exposure to methoxyflurane the plasma fluoride concentration was 23.47 microM/L (+/- 5.74 SE). Mean urine inorganic fluoride concentration was highest at 9 hours after exposure to methoxyflurane and reached 6047.03 microM/L (+/- 1378.46 SE) as compared to the mean preanesthetic base-line concentration of 542.68 microM/L (+/- 132.93 SE), and the 72 hour mean urine fluoride concentration which was 1593.78 microM/L (+/- 579.46 SE). Urine oxalate concentrations, when compared with urine osmolality (mg/mOsm), increased throughout the study. The 72-hour concentration after exposure to methoxyflurane was 2.5 times the preanesthetic (mg/mOsm) oxalate concentration. Plasma osmolality did not change markedly during the study. Urine osmolalities varied between animals and collection times, but a consistent pattern did not occur. Clinical and laboratory signs of renal dysfunction were not observed in any animal during the study.

  1. The serum concentration of soluble interleukin-2 receptor in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraura, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Minami, Takaomi; Takeshima, Taro; Shimooki, Osamu; Kajii, Eiji

    2017-03-01

    Kawasaki disease is a febrile disease of childhood that is associated with increased inflammatory cytokines and immunoregulatory abnormalities. While the serum concentrations of soluble IL-2 receptor can change under such pathologies, the relevance of the soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with Kawasaki disease has not been specified. We aimed to summarize the existing studies that reported the soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations in patients with Kawasaki disease. Original articles that were published up to July 2016 were collected using a PubMed/Medline-based search engine. A total of nine articles that reported the serum soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations in acute-phase Kawasaki disease were eligible. All of the articles described a high soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with Kawasaki disease relative to the level of controls or the reference range. Two of five articles on patients with coronary artery aneurysms described a significantly higher soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with coronary artery aneurysms than patients without. Two articles on patients with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy described a significant decrease of the soluble IL-2 receptor concentration after the therapy. Accordingly, the serum soluble IL-2 receptor can be a potent marker of disease activity and therapeutic effects in patients with Kawasaki disease; further studies are thus warranted for its use in the clinical setting.

  2. Potassium carbonate as a cation source for early-lactation dairy cows fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Avila, A R; Charbonneau, É; Chouinard, P Y; Tremblay, G F; Gervais, R

    2017-03-01

    decreased with K2CO3 as compared with KHCO3 or KCl. A positive relationship was established between milk Cl concentration and milk yield (R2 = 0.34) across all dietary treatments. Cation-anion difference (Na + K - Cl - S) in ruminal fluid was increased with K2CO3 as compared with control or KCl. Blood pH tended to decrease in cows fed KCl compared with K2CO3. Our results suggest that mineral supplementation tends to affect milk and milk fat synthesis and that factors other than DCAD, potassium ion, or buffer ability may be implicated. The variations observed in mineral composition of milk suggest an allostatic process to maintain an ionic equilibrium in mammary epithelial cells in response to mineral composition of the diet. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in serum mineral concentrations, biochemical and hematological parameters in horses with pica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytekin, Ismail; Onmaz, Ali Cesur; Aypak, Serap Unubol; Gunes, Vehbi; Kucuk, Osman

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare hematological, some biochemical parameters, and serum trace element concentrations in horses with or without pica. Fifteen horses with pica (group I) and another 15 healthy horses without pica (group II) were used. The hematological parameters were not changed between the two groups. In group I, hemoglobin values were lower than those of group II. However, the difference in hemoglobin values between the two groups was not significant (P > 0.05). Serum iron and copper concentrations and the copper/zinc ratio were lower in group I than those of group II (P  0.05). It was concluded that serum iron and copper deficiency may play an important role for the etiology of pica in horses. Prophylactic use of iron and copper supplements in horses may be beneficial to prevent pica.

  4. Reduced serum vitamin D concentrations in healthy early-lactation dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, S J; Wisnieski, L; Gandy, J; Norby, B; Sordillo, L M

    2017-11-22

    Cattle obtain vitamin D by ingestion or cutaneous exposure to UV light. Dairy cattle diets are frequently supplemented with vitamin D to compensate for limited sun exposure or during times of increased metabolic demands, such as the periparturient period, to maintain calcium homeostasis. Whether housing and supplemental vitamin D practices supply adequate amounts of vitamin D to optimally support the transition from gestation to lactation in dairy cattle is unknown. Our objective was to determine how serum vitamin D concentrations of dairy cows change with season, age, parity, and stage of lactation. Clinically healthy cows (n = 183) from 5 commercial dairies were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected at dry off, within 7 d of entering the close-up group, and within 7 d after calving (calving+7). Vitamin D status was determined by measuring serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] by radioimmunoassay. We performed repeated-measures mixed-effects linear regression to determine the effects of season, age, parity, and lactation stage (dry off, close-up, and calving+7) on 25(OH)D concentrations in serum. Bivariable analysis indicated that parity, age, and season were not associated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Sample period affected 25(OH)D concentrations, with the highest 25(OH)D levels at dry off (99.7 ± 1.9 ng/mL) followed by close up (93.8 ± 2.1 ng/mL), with the lowest levels at calving+7 (82.6 ± 1.7 ng/mL). These data showed a large depletion of 25(OH)D in dairy cattle postpartum compared with late prepartum, although the biological significance of this change in these healthy cattle is unclear. Consumption of serum 25(OH)D by immune system functions and calcium homeostasis in early lactation likely caused the reduction in serum 25(OH)D concentrations after calving. These results suggest that determining whether serum 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with the incidence of transition period disease is an appropriate next step. Assessing the

  5. Concentration of beta-carotene and vitamin A in blood serum of cows in peripartal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Miljan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a herd of high-productive dairy cows of the Holstein breed, 40 cows were selected for an experiment. The animals were chosen at the period of advanced gravidity. Data on mean values of beta-carotene concentrations in blood serum of the cows show that significantly higher values (p<0.01 were established in advanced gravidity (x=9.53± 3.49 μmol/l in comparison with the values on calving day (x=5.69±3.14 μmol/l and in early puerperium (x=2.25±1.00 μmol/l. The average concentration of vitamin A in blood serum of cows varied approximately the same as the concentration of beta-carotene. The highest average concentration of vitamin A in blood serum of cows was determined in advanced gravidity (x=1.856±0.52 μmol/l, and the lowest in early puerperium (x=0.988±0.31 μmol/l (p<0.05. It can be concluded on the grounds of the results obtained in this work that the average concentration of beta-carotene and vitamin A in blood serum of cows in advanced gravidity and on the day of calving is within the limits of physiological values and in keeping with the values cited in literature, and that concentrations of beta-carotene and vitamin A in blood serum of cows two weeks after calving are significantly lower than the values obtained in advanced gravidity and on the day of calving and are lower than the physiological values most often reported in literature for this animal specie.

  6. Increased Concentrations of Interleukin-33 in the Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

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    Abdollah Jafarzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Interleukin (IL-33 is a cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects involved in the pathogenesis of some inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF IL-33 concentrations in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: Blood specimens were obtained from 140 patients with MS (46 males and 94 females with various disease patterns and treatment plans and 140 healthy subjects (47 males and 93 females, who acted as a control group. CSF samples were collected from 20 MS group and 20 sex- and age-matched patients with other neurological diseases of nonautoimmune etiology. The serum and CSF concentrations of IL-33 were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The serum and CSF IL-33 levels were significantly higher in the MS group compared to the control group (p<0.001 and p<0.050, respectively. The serum IL-33 concentrations were also significantly higher in newly diagnosed (untreated patients and patients treated with methylprednisolone or with interferon-β and methylprednisolone compared to the healthy patient group (p<0.007, p<0.002, and p<0.010, respectively. Moreover, the serum IL-33 concentrations in patients with relapsing-remitting (RRMS, primary progressive (PPMS, and secondary progressive (SPMS forms of the disease were significantly higher than in the healthy control group (p<0.006, p<0.001, and p<0.020, respectively. Conclusions: Our results showed increased concentrations of IL-33 in patients with MS including both untreated and treated MS patients and patients with the RRMS, SPMS, and PPMS forms. This suggests that IL-33 may be involved in the pathogenesis of all MS forms and treatment with methylprednisolone or both interferon-β plus methylprednisolone has no influence on IL-33 concentrations.

  7. Determinants of serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds in Swedish pregnant women: a cross-sectional study

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    Cnattingius Sven

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We performed a cross-sectional study of associations between personal characteristics and lipid-adjusted serum concentrations of certain PCB congeners and chlorinated pesticides/metabolites among 323 pregnant primiparous women from Uppsala County (age 18–41 years sampled 1996–1999. Methods Extensive personal interviews and questionnaires about personal characteristics were performed both during and after pregnancy. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in serum lipids in late pregnancy were analysed by gas chromatography. Associations between personal characteristics and serum levels of organochlorine compounds were analysed by multiple linear regression. Results Participation rate was 82% (325 of 395 women. Serum concentrations of PCB congeners IUPAC no. 28, 52, 101, 105 and 167, and o, p'-DDT and -DDE, p, p'-DDT and -DDD, oxychlordane, and γ- and α-HCH were in many cases below the limit of quantification (LOQ. No statistical analysis of associations with personal characteristics could be performed for these substances. Concentrations of PCB congeners IUPAC no. 118, 138, 153, 156 and 180, HCB, β-HCH, trans-nonachlor and p, p'-DDE increased with increased age and were highest in women sampled early during the 4 year study period. This shows that older women and women sampled early in the study had experienced the highest life-time exposure levels, probably mainly during childhood and adolescence. The importance of early exposures was supported by lower PCB concentrations and higher β-HCH and p, p'-DDE concentrations among women born in non-Nordic countries. Moreover, serum concentrations of certain PCBs and pesticide/metabolites were positively associated with consumption of fatty fish during adolescence, and concentrations of CB 156, CB 180 and p, p'-DDE increased significantly with number of months women had been breast-fed during infancy. Short-term changes in bodily constitution may, however, also influence

  8. Breakthrough Pain Associated with a Reduction in Serum Buprenorphine Concentration during Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salili, Ali Reza; Müller, Daniel; Skendaj, Roswitha; Jehle, Andreas W; Taegtmeyer, Anne B

    2016-01-01

    To describe a case of breakthrough pain associated with a reduction in serum buprenorphine concentration during dialysis. Pharmacokinetic sampling of total and free buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine in an 80 year old male undergoing haemodialysis three times per week who received 5760 µg oral and transdermal buprenorphine daily was performed. The patient's serum albumin concentration was 23g/l (reference range: 35-52 g/l). Pharmacokinetic sampling revealed a free buprenorphine fraction of 32% (consistent with the hypoalbuminaemia), which was markedly reduced at the end of dialysis (free buprenorphine concentration 2.4 µg/l before vs. buprenorphine doses during dialysis to prevent significant falls in the concentration of active drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High YKL-40 serum concentration is correlated with prognosis of Chinese patients with breast cancer.

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    Dong Wang

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the association between serum YKL-40 and prognosis of breast cancer in a Chinese population. Expression of YKL-40 of 120 Chinese patients with breast cancer and 30 controls (benign breast lesions was measured in tumor tissue by immunohistochemistry and in serum by ELISA. Differences in YKL-40 positivity grouped by specific patients' characteristics were compared using Pearson Chi-square test for rates of intratumoral staining, one-way ANOVA with a Bonferroni post-hoc comparison, or two-sample t-test for mean YKL-40 serum concentrations. Factors associated with overall survival were identified by univariate and multivariate cox-regression analyses. YKL-40 was elevated in approximately 75% of Chinese patients with breast cancer. A significantly higher percentage of patients with YKL-40 positive tumors had larger tumor size, higher TNM stage, and/or lymph node metastasis. Significantly higher mean YKL-40 serum concentrations were observed in patient subgroups with invasive lobular carcinoma (P<0.0167, higher TNM stage (P<0.001, and positive lymph node metastasis (P<0.001. The estimated mean survival time of patients with YKL-40 positive tumors was significantly shorter than for patients with YKL-40 negative tumors (55.13 months vs 65.78 months, P = 0.017. Multivariable Cox-regression analysis identified a significant association of overall survival time with YKL-40 serum concentration. Patients with YKL-40 positive tumors had significantly shorter disease free survival times than those with YKL-40 negative tumors. We propose that the potential utility of YKL-40 intratumoral staining or serum concentration as a biomarker for breast cancer is greatest within 5 years of diagnosis.

  10. Effects of aerobic activity on serum IgG concentration in male physical education students

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    Arshadi Arshadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic activity on Serum IgG concentration. Consequently, 10 male physical education students with age ranging from 21 to 24 years old and mean body mass index 22.22 kg m2 volunteered to participate in this study. Aerobic activity was performed on bicycle ergometer for 30 minutes at intensity of 70 to 75 percent of maximum heart rate. Blood samples were obtained from subjects before and after aerobic activity. Changes in serum IgG concentration in pre-test and post-test were analyzed by dependent t-test using spss software. The results showed that aerobic activity not significantly effect on Serum IgG concentration (p=0.357. This study concludes that sub maximal aerobic activity does not affect on serum IgG concentration and there is no concern for athletes and coaches that sub maximal aerobic activity can impair immune function.

  11. Protein and fat mobilization and associations with serum beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, S. G. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959544; Houweling, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/094875642; Schonewille, J. T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185364306; Tielens, A. G. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069043035; Jorritsma, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/24462013X

    The objective of this study was to obtain information on variation between dairy cows in muscle and fat tissue mobilization around parturition and to study the association between protein and fat mobilization and serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations (hyperketonemia) in this period.

  12. Serum selenium concentration in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relation to course and outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Berendtsen, H; Nørgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    The present knowledge of the role of selenium in human fetal and neonatal development is sparse. In this study we measured serum selenium concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood from 500 Danish mothers at delivery, looking for a relationship between various maternal and fetal...

  13. Serum aldosterone and cortisol concentrations before and after suppression with fludrocortisone in cats: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Mayu; Behrend, Ellen N; Kemppainen, Robert; Refsal, Kent; Johnson, Aime; Lee, Hollie

    2015-05-01

    Primary hyperaldosteronism is an increasingly recognized syndrome in cats, and diagnosis can be difficult. A potential diagnostic method has been reported, utilizing oral fludrocortisone administered twice daily for 4 days followed by collection of urine. In the current study, we sought to determine if blood sampling and a shorter dosing period would provide a possible means to test for primary hyperaldosteronism. Also, cortisol concentrations were measured to assess the potential of fludrocortisone to act as a glucocorticoid in cats. In phase I, 8 healthy laboratory cats were studied in a placebo-controlled, crossover design. Serum aldosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured before and on the second, third, and fourth day of treatment and compared within groups. In phase II, based on the results obtained in phase I, 8 healthy client-owned cats were administered 3 doses of fludrocortisone or placebo. Serum aldosterone and cortisol concentrations were compared before and after treatment within groups. In both phases, serum aldosterone and cortisol concentrations were significantly suppressed in fludrocortisone-treated cats. Thus, it was determined that oral administration of fludrocortisone causes suppression of serum aldosterone in healthy adult cats after only 3 doses. Further research is needed to determine the effects of oral fludrocortisone in cats with primary hyperaldosteronism and cats with other disorders causing hypertension and/or hypokalemia to determine if this protocol can be used as a tool for the definitive diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Genome-wide association analyses identify 18 new loci associated with serum urate concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köttgen, Anna; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Krumsiek, Jan; Hundertmark, Claudia; Pistis, Giorgio; Ruggiero, Daniela; O'Seaghdha, Conall M; Haller, Toomas; Yang, Qiong; Tanaka, Toshiko; Johnson, Andrew D; Kutalik, Zoltán; Smith, Albert V; Shi, Julia; Struchalin, Maksim; Middelberg, Rita P S; Brown, Morris J; Gaffo, Angelo L; Pirastu, Nicola; Li, Guo; Hayward, Caroline; Zemunik, Tatijana; Huffman, Jennifer; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Demirkan, Ayse; Feitosa, Mary F; Liu, Xuan; Malerba, Giovanni; Lopez, Lorna M; van der Harst, Pim; Li, Xinzhong; Kleber, Marcus E; Hicks, Andrew A; Nolte, Ilja M; Johansson, Asa; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H; Bakker, Stephan J L; Peden, John F; Dehghan, Abbas; Steri, Maristella; Tenesa, Albert; Lagou, Vasiliki; Salo, Perttu; Mangino, Massimo; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Woodward, Owen M; Okada, Yukinori; Tin, Adrienne; Müller, Christian; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Putku, Margus; Czamara, Darina; Kraft, Peter; Frogheri, Laura; Thun, Gian Andri; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti Kjartan; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; McArdle, Patrick; Shuldiner, Alan R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Helena; Schallert, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Munroe, Patricia B; Samani, Nilesh J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; D'Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Devuyst, Olivier; Navarro, Pau; Kolcic, Ivana; Hastie, Nicholas; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Esko, Tõnu; Salumets, Andres; Khaw, Kay Tee; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; Isaacs, Aaron; Kraja, Aldi; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wild, Philipp S; Scott, Rodney J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Org, Elin; Viigimaa, Margus; Bandinelli, Stefania; Metter, Jeffrey E; Lupo, Antonio; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Sorice, Rossella; Döring, Angela; Lattka, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Theis, Fabian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Stolk, Ronald P; Kooner, Jaspal S; Zhang, Weihua; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Boehm, Bernhard O; Lucae, Susanne; Penninx, Brenda W; Smit, Johannes H; Curhan, Gary; Mudgal, Poorva; Plenge, Robert M; Portas, Laura; Persico, Ivana; Kirin, Mirna; Wilson, James F; Mateo Leach, Irene; van Gilst, Wiek H; Goel, Anuj; Ongen, Halit; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Imboden, Medea; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Cucca, Francesco; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Piras, Maria Grazia; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Ernst, Florian; Farrington, Susan M; Theodoratou, Evropi; Prokopenko, Inga; Stumvoll, Michael; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Shin, So-Youn; Spector, Tim D; Sala, Cinzia; Ridker, Paul M; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Hengstenberg, Christian; Nelson, Christopher P; Meschia, James F; Nalls, Michael A; Sharma, Pankaj; Singleton, Andrew B; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Zeller, Tanja; Burnier, Michel; Attia, John; Laan, Maris; Klopp, Norman; Hillege, Hans L; Kloiber, Stefan; Choi, Hyon; Pirastu, Mario; Tore, Silvia; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Völzke, Henry; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Parsa, Afshin; Schmidt, Reinhold; Whitfield, John B; Fornage, Myriam; Gasparini, Paolo; Siscovick, David S; Polašek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Metspalu, Andres; Loos, Ruth J F; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Borecki, Ingrid B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Chambers, John C; März, Winfried; Pramstaller, Peter P; Snieder, Harold; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wright, Alan F; Navis, Gerjan; Watkins, Hugh; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Sanna, Serena; Schipf, Sabine; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Tönjes, Anke; Ripatti, Samuli; Soranzo, Nicole; Toniolo, Daniela; Chasman, Daniel I; Raitakari, Olli; Kao, W H Linda; Ciullo, Marina; Fox, Caroline S; Caulfield, Mark; Bochud, Murielle; Gieger, Christian

    Elevated serum urate concentrations can cause gout, a prevalent and painful inflammatory arthritis. By combining data from >140,000 individuals of European ancestry within the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC), we identified and replicated 28 genome-wide significant loci in association with

  15. Cure of tuberculosis despite serum concentrations of antituberculosis drugs below published reference ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Monica; Corti, Natascia; Müller, Daniel; Henning, Lars; Gutteck, Ursula; von Braun, Amrei; Weber, Rainer; Fehr, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic target serum concentrations of first-line antituberculosis drugs have not been well defined in clinical studies in tuberculosis (TB) patients. We retrospectively investigated the estimated maximum serum concentrations (eC max) of antituberculosis drugs and clinical outcome of TB patients with therapeutic drug monitoring performed between 2010-2012 at our institution, and follow-up until March 2014. The eC max was defined as the highest serum concentration during a sampling period (2, 4 and 6 hours after drug ingestion). We compared the results with published eC max values, and categorised them as either "within reference range", "low eC max", or "very low eC max".Low/very low eC max-levels were defined as follows: isoniazid 2-3/max levels were classified as "low" or "very low". The eC max was below the relevant reference range in 80% of isoniazid, 95% of rifampicin, 30% of pyrazinamide, and 30% of ethambutol measurements. All but one patient were cured of tuberculosis. Although many antituberculosis drug serum concentrations were below the widely used reference ranges, 16 of 17 patients were cured of tuberculosis. These results challenge the use of the published reference ranges for therapeutic drug monitoring.

  16. Ascorbic acid prevents cimetidine-induced decrease of serum hydrocortisone concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Boidin (Marinus Pieter); A. Stuurman (Arie); W. Erdmann (Wilhelm)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract A blind, parallel, prospective, clinical study was conducted to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid on human serum hydrocortisone concentrations which were decreased by the administration of cimetidine. The study population included 16 male adults scheduled for major

  17. Maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations and neonatal bone mineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Händel, Mina N; Moon, Rebecca J; Titcombe, Philip

    2016-01-01

    the associations between maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations during late pregnancy and offspring bone mineralization assessed at birth with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DESIGN: In the Southampton Women's Survey mother-offspring birth cohort, maternal health, lifestyle, and diet...

  18. Serum lathosterol concentration is an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, H.J.M.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Gevers Leuven, J.A.; Voort, van der H.A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    The power of serum lathosterol concentration as an indicator of whole- body cholesterol synthesis was investigated in 47 human volunteers consuming two diets differing in fatty acid composition. The cholesterol balance (fecal excretion of neutral and acid steroids minus cholesterol intake) was

  19. Serum lathosterol concentration is an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, H.J.M.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Gevers Leuven, J.A.; Voort, H.A. van der; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    The power of serum lathosterol concentration as an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis was investigated in 47 human volunteers consuming two diets differing in fatty acid composition. The cholesterol balance (fecal excretion of neutral and acid steroids minus cholesterol intake) was

  20. An association of serum vitamin D concentrations respiratory tract infection in young Finnish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksi, Ilkka; Ruohola, Juha-Petri; Tuohimaa, Pentti; Auvinen, Anssi; Haataja, Riina; Pihlajamäki, Harri; Ylikomi, Timo

    2007-09-01

    The effects of vitamin D in regulating bone mineralization are well documented. The action of vitamin D as a key link between Toll-like receptor activation and antibacterial responses in innate immunity has recently been shown. The data suggest that differences in the ability of human populations to produce vitamin D may contribute to susceptibility to microbial infection. We aimed to explore whether an association exists between vitamin D insufficiency and acute respiratory tract infection in young Finnish men. Young Finnish men (n = 800) serving on a military base in Finland were enrolled for this study. Their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin [25(OH)D] concentrations were measured in July 2002. They were followed for 6 mo, and the number of days of absence from duty due to respiratory infection were counted. The mean (+/- SD) serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 80.2 +/- 29.3 nmol/L (n = 756). Subjects with serum 25(OH)D concentrations respiratory infection (median: 4; quartile 1-quartile 3: 2-6) than did control subjects (2; 0-4; n = 628; incidence rate ratio 1.63; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.24). We found a significant (P = 0.004) association between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and the amount of physical exercise before induction into military service. We also found significantly (P vitamin D supplementation are needed to investigate whether it enhances immunity to microbial infections.

  1. Increased serum neuron specific enolase concentrations in patients with hyperglycemic cortical ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elting, JW; De Keyser, J; Sulter, G.

    1998-01-01

    A detrimental effect of hyperglycemia in ischemic brain has been demonstrated in laboratory experiments and it has been found that hyperglycemia in ischemic stroke is a predictor of poor outcome. We determined serum neuron specific enolase (NSE) concentrations in 41 consecutive patients with a

  2. Effects of pregnancy and delivery on serum concentrations of Clara Cell Protein (CC16), an endogenous anticytokine: lower serum CC16 is related to postpartum depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes; Ombelet; Libbrecht; Stevens; Kenis; De Jongh R; Lin; Cox; Bosmans

    1999-10-11

    There is now some evidence that lower serum concentrations of Clara Cell Protein (CC16) are related to stress-induced anxiety, psychoses and major depression. This study was developed to determine whether serum CC16 is lowered in the early puerperium and whether Postnatal Depression and Postnatal Blues are associated with lower levels of serum CC16. Serum concentrations of CC16 were assayed in 17 non-pregnant women and in 98 pregnant women before delivery and 1 and 3 days after delivery. On each occasion the parturients completed the State version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDS). Serum CC16 was significantly lower in pregnant women, at the end of pregnancy as well as 1 and 3 days after delivery, than in the non-pregnant women. Serum CC16 was somewhat, although significantly, higher 1 and 3 days after delivery than before delivery. Parturients who developed a postpartum depression had significantly lower serum CC16 concentrations than women who did not. There were no significant differences in serum CC16 between the puerperal women whose STAI or ZDS scores increased in the puerperium and those whose scores did not. It is concluded that in puerperal women there is a decreased anti-inflammatory capacity in the serum, in part caused by lowered serum CC16, and that the latter may be related to the development of postpartum depression.

  3. The Effect of Phytosterol on Serum Beta-Carotene Concentration of Hypercholesterolaemic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dina-Keumala

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Treatment of optic neuritic as recommended by the Optic Neuritic Treatment Trial (ONTT was intravenous methylprednisolon followed by oral prednisone. This study aims to describe characteristics and response to intravenous methylprednisolone followed by oral prednisone treatment of optic neuritic patient in Sanglah General Hospital Denpasar. Method: The study was a parallel clinical trial, forty subjects with hipercholesterolaemia were selected using certain criteria. The subjects were divided into two groups using block randomization. Twenty subjects in phytosterol group received phytosterol 2x0.6 g/day and dietary counseling (P, while twenty subjects in counseling group received only dietary counseling (C. Serum total cholesterol and β-carotene concentration were assessed on day 0 and 42. Before and after treatment, dietary intake were assessed with 2x24 hour recall methods. Results: Seventeen subjects in P group and fourteen subjects in C group completed the study. There was no significant differences in baseline data both groups. After 42 days treatment, there was no significant differences in nutrients intakes in two groups except for β-carotene and phytosterol intakes in P group. There was a 9.17% significant reduction in serum total cholesterol concentration in P group while no change was observed in the C group (p<0.05. Serum β-carotene concentration was increased significantly in P group, 0.44±0.376 μmol/L to 0.536(0.21–1.95 μmol/L, while there was no significant increased in C group, 0.493±0.349 μmol/L to 0.56±0.33 μmol/L. There was a significant difference in serum β-carotene concentration after adjusted with serum total cholesterol concentration between two groups (p<0.05. Conclusions: Dietary advice to consume an additionally of high β-carotene sources when consuming phytosterol 2x0.6 g/day for 42 consecutive days maintains serum β-carotene concentration while lowering serum total cholesterol concentration

  4. Dose-response effect of ergocalciferol therapy on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration during critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Roland N; Berry, Scott C; Ziebarth, Jamie D; Swanson, Joseph M; Maish, George O; Minard, Gayle; Brown, Rex O

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-response relationship between ergocalciferol therapy and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in enterally fed, critically ill patients with traumatic injuries. A retrospective cohort of critically ill patients with traumatic injuries and vitamin D deficiency (25-OH vitamin D vitamin D and ionized calcium concentrations were monitored weekly. Ergocalciferol therapy was stopped when the serum 25-OH vitamin D was >75 nmol/L, if the patient experienced hypercalcemia (ionized calcium >1.34 mmol/L), when the patient was discharged from the ICU, or if enteral nutrition was discontinued. Sixty-five patients (16, 18, and 31 per dosage group) were examined. One (6%), two (11%), and eight (26%) patients achieved normal 25-OH vitamin D concentrations after 2 to 4 wk of ergocalciferol therapy for each dosage group, respectively (P vitamin D concentrations improved from 36 ± 6, 40 ± 7, and 37 ± 6 nmol/L to 50 ± 15, 54 ± 21, and 62 ± 17 nmol/L, respectively, after 2 wk of ergocalciferol therapy (P vitamin D concentrations but was inadequate for consistently achieving normal serum concentrations of 25-OH vitamin D during critical illness. The trend in increasing appearance of mild hypercalcemia for the highest dosage group is concerning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Sample Handling Effects on Serum Vitamin E and Cholesterol Concentrations in Alpacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Lear

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical cases of vitamin E deficiencies have been diagnosed in camelids and may indicate that these species are more sensitive to inadequate vitamin E in hay-based diets compared to other ruminant and equine species. In bovine, cholesterol has been reported to affect vitamin E concentrations. In order to evaluate vitamin E deficiencies in camelids, the effects of collection and storage of the blood samples prior to processing were necessary. Reports vary as to factors affecting vitamin E and cholesterol in blood samples, and diagnostic laboratories vary in instructions regarding sample handling. Blood was collected from healthy alpacas and processed under conditions including exposure to fluorescent light, serum and red blood cell contact, tube stopper contact, temperature, and hemolysis. Serum vitamin E and cholesterol concentrations were then measured. Statistical analyses found that the vitamin E concentrations decreased with prolonged contact with the tube stopper and with increasing hemolysis. Vitamin E concentration variations were seen with other factors but were not significant. Time prior to serum separation and individual animal variation was found to alter cholesterol concentrations within the sample, yet this finding was clinically unremarkable. No correlation was seen between vitamin E and cholesterol concentration, possibly due to lack of variation of cholesterol.

  6. Association of Mood Disorders with Serum Zinc Concentrations in Adolescent Female Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Kobra; Amani, Reza; Nazari, Zahra; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Moazzen, Sara; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2017-08-01

    Among various factors influencing mood disorders, the impact of micronutrient deficiencies has attracted a great attention. Zinc deficiency is considered to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of mood disorders in different stages of life. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc levels and mood disorders in high school female students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 100 representative high school female students. The participants completed 24-h food recall questionnaires to assess the daily zinc intakes. Serum zinc status was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and zinc deficiency was defined accordingly. Mood disorders were estimated by calculating the sum of two test scores including Beck's depression inventory (BDI) and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS) tests. General linear model (GLM) and Pearson's regression test were applied to show the correlation of serum zinc levels and mood disorder scores and the correlation between zinc serum levels and BDI scores, respectively. Dietary zinc intake was higher in subjects with normal zinc concentrations than that of zinc-deficient group (p = 0.001). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with BDI and HADS scores (p mood disorders including depression and anxiety in adolescent female students. Increasing serum levels of zinc in female students could improve their mood disorders.

  7. Serum zinc and magnesium concentrations in type 2 diabetes mellitus with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushparani, D S; Anandan, S Nirmala; Theagarayan, P

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the serum levels of zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) with periodontitis patients and to correlate them with the levels of serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and triglycerides among the study subjects. A total of 600 subjects participated in the study, who were divided into four groups as control healthy individuals (group I), type 2 DM without periodontitis (group II), type 2 DM with periodontitis (group III), and periodontitis subjects without DM (group IV), matched for age, sex, and duration of diabetes. Serum concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-c, Zn, and Mg were measured using enzymatic methods in an UV absorption spectrophotometer, and LDL-c was calculated using Friedwald's formula. Student's t-test, Pearson correlations, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used for statistical analysis. The serum zinc level was found to be significantly increased in type 2 DM without periodontitis (group II) and periodontitis subjects without type 2 DM (group IV) (P periodontitis (group III) when compared to control. The serum Mg level was found to be significantly decreased (P periodontitis (group III, P periodontitis had altered metabolism of Zn and Mg which were linked to increased values of serum cholesterol and LDL-c and decreased HDL-c, contributing to the progression and complications of type 2 DM with periodontitis.

  8. Multiple linear regression analysis of the seasonal changes in the serum concentration of beta-cryptoxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Minoru; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Kato, Masaya; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Yano, Masamichi; Nagao, Akihiko

    2004-06-01

    Beta-cryptoxanthin (beta-CRX) is a carotenoid pigment found in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit, which is heavily produced in Japan. In this study, we evaluated the seasonal changes in the serum beta-CRX level and investigated predictors of serum beta-CRX level by multiple linear regression analysis. Blood tests and self-administered questionnaires were used every other month for one year. The subjects were healthy volunteers, 15 males and 12 females. The serum beta-CRX levels increased dramatically as the intake of Satsuma mandarin increased; the maximum increase was noted in January. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that, in males, the serum beta-CRX level could be predicted by Satsuma mandarin intake, age and the month of blood sampling; however, it was inversely associated with alcohol and smoking habits. Conversely, in females, the serum beta-CRX concentration could be predicted by Satsuma mandarin intake, the month of blood sampling and age; however, it was inversely associated with body mass index. The results of multiple linear regression analysis suggest that the serum beta-CRX levels can be used to evaluate the intake volume of Satsuma mandarin. Furthermore, beta-CRX is a useful biomarker to estimate the beneficial effects of Satsuma mandarin intake in epidemiological studies.

  9. Evaluation of a Brix refractometer to estimate serum immunoglobulin G concentration in neonatal dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelen, S M; Ollivett, T L; Haines, D M; Leslie, K E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of a digital Brix refractometer for the assessment of success of passive transfer of maternal immunoglobulin compared with the measurement of serum total protein (STP) by refractometry. Blood samples (n = 400) were collected from calves at 3 to 6d of age. Serum IgG concentration was determined by radial immunodiffusion (RID), and STP and percentage Brix (%Brix) were determined using a digital refractometer. The mean IgG concentration was 24.1g/L [standard deviation (SD) ± 10.0] with a range from 2.1 to 59.1g/L. The mean STP concentration was 6.0 g/dL (SD ± 0.8) with a range from 4.4 to 8.8 g/dL. The mean %Brix concentration was 9.2% (SD ± 0.9) with a range of 7.3 to 12.4%. Brix percentage was highly correlated with IgG (r = 0.93). Test characteristics were calculated to assess failure of passive transfer (FPT; serum IgG <10 g/L). The sensitivity and specificity of STP at 5.5 g/dL were 76.3 and 94.4%, respectively. A receiver operating characteristic curve was created to plot the true positive rate against the false positive rate for consecutive %Brix values. The optimal combination of sensitivity (88.9%) and specificity (88.9%) was at 8.4% Brix. Serum total protein was also positively correlated with %Brix (r = 1.00) and IgG (r = 0.93). Dairy producers can successfully monitor their colostrum management and the overall success of passive transfer using a digital Brix refractometer to estimate IgG concentration of colostrum and calf serum. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Serum Zinc Concentration and Acute Diarrhea in Children from Different Regions of Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibadova, Gulnara A.; Merkushina, T. A.; Abdumutalova, E. S.; Khodiev, Aybek V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the blood serum zinc concentration in children with acute diarrhea (AD) in in-patient facilities before and after therapy. Introduction There are several reports of zinc deficiency in pathogenesis of acute and chronic diarrhea. The literature review showed children with diarrhea and chronic gastroduodenitis performed zinc deficiency in majority of cases (1). The normal values of zinc in blood serum are 12.8–27.8 μmol/l (2). There is a threshold of 13μmol/l zinc concentration for zinc deficiency diagnosis. The zinc level 8.2 μmol/l and below is poor prognostic criteria (3). Methods Totally 102 children (1–14 years old) with AD in in-patient facility from different regions were studied for serum zinc concentration before and after treatment. Termez and Saraosie cities are located in south of Uzbekistan, in the region with high negative impact from the nearly Tajikistan located aluminum producing plant. The serum zinc level measured by neutron-activation method in the Institute of Nuclear Research (INR). Results The zinc concentration in serum significantly varied by the region (Table 1). The level of zinc in children from Tashkent estimated at lower normal limit with reduction below normal values after treatment. Children from Termez during admission to the in-patient facilities were zinc deficient with further reduction to the poor prognostic level. Children in Saraosie admitted to the in-patient with significant zinc deficiency that remained on poor prognostic level after treatment. Conclusions The study results may indicate the treatment of AD in children do not replenish the zinc to the appropriate level. Though some confounding factors may contribute the observed zinc disorders the results may indicate environmental factors, such as pollution by aluminum producing plant emission to contribute the difference in zinc concentration and should be considered for the correction and treatment of AD in children.

  11. Association between Obesity and Serum 25(OHD Concentrations in Older Mexican Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria G. Rontoyanni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D is essential for maintaining bone mineralization and calcium homeostasis, and prevents falls and fractures in older adults. Mexico is undergoing an epidemiologic and demographic transition with increasing obesity rates. The study’s aim was to determine the association of obesity with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations in older Mexican adults. Methods: Data from 1772 Mexicans, aged ≥50 years, enrolled in a sub-sample of the 3rd wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study, were included. Serum 25(OHD concentrations were used to define vitamin D status, and were categorized into tertiles. Body mass index measures were used to categorize older adults into under/normal weight, overweight, and obese groups. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Approximately 40% and 37% of older Mexican adults were either overweight or obese, respectively. Compared to under/normal weight older Mexicans, obese adults were 1.78 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.27–2.48 and 1.94 times (95% CI 1.40–2.68 more associated with the first and second tertile concentrations of serum 25(OHD, respectively. Overweight adults were 1.52 times (95% CI 1.12–2.06 more associated with the second tertile of serum 25(OHD concentration than under/normal weight adults. Conclusion: Overweight/Obesity was found to be significantly associated with low concentrations of serum 25(OH in older Mexican adults.

  12. Serum hepcidin levels are associated with serum triglycerides and interleukin-6 concentrations in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samouilidou, Elisabeth; Pantelias, Konstantinos; Petras, Dimitrios; Tsirpanlis, George; Bakirtzi, Joulia; Chatzivasileiou, George; Tzanatos, Helen; Grapsa, Eirini

    2014-06-01

    Hepcidin has emerged as a peptide with a key role in the regulation of iron homeostasis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), having a strong dependence on inflammation. Recent studies reveal that hepcidin may be also associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. This study was performed to analyze the relation of hepcidin to markers of atherosclerosis and inflammation in patients on dialysis. A total of 90 individuals were enrolled. Sixty patients with end-stage renal disease, who were on hemodialysis (HD) (N = 30) and peritoneal dialysis (N = 30) were compared with 30 normal controls (NC). Age, body mass index, time on dialysis, serum lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured and analyzed in correlation with hepcidin concentration. It was found that patients on HD and peritoneal dialysis have significantly higher (P triglycerides (r = 0.401, P = 0.005), HDL-C (r = -0.268, P = 0.048), CRP (r = 0.436, P = 0.0007) and IL-6 (r = 0.569, P triglycerides (β = 0.402, P = 0.041) and IL-6 (β = 0.559, P = 0.006). Moreover, patients with high triglycerides in combination with high IL-6 levels have significantly increased concentrations of hepcidin than those with low triglycerides and low IL-6 levels (P triglycerides and high IL-6 serum concentrations. This probably suggests that hepcidin may play a role to the progression of atherosclerosis and inflammation, but this hypothesis should be further evaluated. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  13. Chromium and cobalt ion concentrations in blood and serum following various types of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christopher; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Duus, Benn R

    2013-01-01

    Widely different metal ion concentrations in blood and serum have been reported with metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. We reviewed the literature on blood and serum ion concentrations of chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) following various MoM hip arthroplasties.......Widely different metal ion concentrations in blood and serum have been reported with metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. We reviewed the literature on blood and serum ion concentrations of chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) following various MoM hip arthroplasties....

  14. Perfluoroalkyl substance serum concentrations and immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cheryl R; Ge, Yongchao; Wolff, Mary S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Kraus, Thomas; Moran, Thomas M

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were shown to be immunotoxic in laboratory animals. There is some epidemiological evidence that PFAS exposure is inversely associated with vaccine-induced antibody concentration. We examined immune response to vaccination with FluMist intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine in relation to four PFAS (perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorohexane sulfonate) serum concentrations among 78 healthy adults vaccinated during the 2010-2011 influenza season. We measured anti-A H1N1 antibody response and cytokine and chemokine concentrations in serum pre-vaccination, 3 days post-vaccination, and 30 days post-vaccination. We measured cytokine, chemokine, and mucosal IgA concentration in nasal secretions 3 days post-vaccination and 30 days post-vaccination. Adults with higher PFAS concentrations were more likely to seroconvert after FluMist vaccination as compared to adults with lower PFAS concentrations. The associations, however, were imprecise and few participants seroconverted as measured either by hemagglutination inhibition (9%) or immunohistochemical staining (25%). We observed no readily discernable or consistent pattern between PFAS concentration and baseline cytokine, chemokine, or mucosal IgA concentration, or between PFAS concentration and change in these immune markers between baseline and FluMist-response states. The results of this study do not support a reduced immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults in relation to serum PFAS concentration. Given the study's many limitations, however, it does not rule out impaired vaccine response to other vaccines or vaccine components in either children or adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of serum fetuin-A with valvular calcium concentration in rheumatic mitral valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagli, Kumral; Basar, Nurcan; Cagli, Kerim; Armutcu, Ferah; Aylak, Firdevs; Yalcinkaya, Adnan; Erden, Gonul; Kadirogullari, Ersin

    2010-09-01

    Fetuin-A is an acute-phase glycoprotein that inhibits ectopic calcification. The study aim was to assess serum fetuin-A levels in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease (RMVD), and to evaluate the association of fetuin-A with the extent of mitral valve calcification, determined either echocardiographically or by the measurement of calcium and phosphorus concentrations in the resected valve tissues. The study group comprised 21 patients (14 females, seven males; mean age 48 +/- 12.4 years) with RMVD, who were scheduled for mitral valve replacement surgery, while 30 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (17 females, 13 males; mean age 43.6 +/- 11.1 years) served as a control group. Baseline serum fetuin-A levels were measured using ELISA, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels using immunonepholometry. A Wilkins score was calculated using transesophageal echocardiography, and the resected valve tissues were analyzed for concentrations of calcium and phosphorus. Serum fetuin-A levels were lower and hs-CRP levels higher in the study group than in controls (300.4 +/- 92.5 microg/ml versus 352.6 +/- 55.3 microg/ml, p = 0.028; and 1.9 +/- 1.2 mg/dl versus 0.3 +/- 0.2 mg/dl, p < 0.0001, respectively). An inverse correlation was found between serum fetuin-A and hs-CRP levels (r = -0.690, p = 0.001). A significant association of either serum fetuin-A or hs-CRP was also found to occur with calcium concentration in the mitral valve tissue (r = -0.684, p = 0.001, and r = 0.510, p = 0.018, respectively), but not with the Wilkins calcium score. Serum fetuin-A and phosphorus concentrations in the MV tissue were independent predictors of calcium concentration in the MV tissue. Serum fetuin-A, which is significantly decreased in patients with RMVD, is an independent predictor of calcium concentration in the mitral valve tissue.

  16. Association between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and bone stress fractures in Finnish young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohola, Juha-Petri; Laaksi, Ilkka; Ylikomi, Timo; Haataja, Riina; Mattila, Ville M; Sahi, Timo; Tuohimaa, Pentti; Pihlajamäki, Harri

    2006-09-01

    Low vitamin D level may predict rickets, osteomalacia, or osteoporosis. We examined serum 25(OH)D concentration as a predisposing factor for bone stress fracture in 756 military recruits. The average serum 25(OH)D concentration was significantly lower in the group with fracture, suggesting a relationship between vitamin D and fatigue bone stress fracture. Low vitamin D level may predict rickets, osteomalacia, or osteoporosis. Fatigue bone stress fracture is one of the most frequently seen types of overuse injuries in athletes and military recruits. An association was recently shown between vitamin D and BMC. A correlation has also been found between low femoral BMD and stress fractures. We measured serum 25(OH)D concentration in a population sample of military recruits to determine if vitamin D is a predisposing factor for fatigue bone stress fracture. We prospectively followed 800 randomly selected, healthy Finnish military recruits with a mean age of 19 years for developing stress fractures in homogenous circumstances. Blood for serum 25(OH)D concentration was drawn at entry into military service, and the weight, height, body mass index (BMI), muscle strength, and 12-minute running were measured for all subjects. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured with enzyme immunoassay. At end of the 90-day follow-up, 756 subjects completed the study. Subjects without fracture constituted controls. Twenty-two recruits with stress fracture were identified (2.9%), the incidence being 11.6 (95% CI: 6.8-16.5) per 100 person-years. In the final multivariate analysis, the significant risk factor for stress fracture in conscripts was a below median serum 25(OH)D level (75.8 nM), OR being 3.6 (95% CI: 1.2-11.1). No significant associations between BMI (p = 0.255), age (p = 0.216), or smoking (p = 0.851) and bone stress fracture were found in this study population. A lower level of serum 25(OH)D concentration may be a generally predisposing element for bone stress fractures

  17. The association between HIV (treatment), pregnancy serum lipid concentrations and pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Marissa J; Browne, Joyce L; Venter, Francois; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Rijken, Marcus J

    2017-07-11

    Observed adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the lipid profile could be of significance in pregnancy. This systematic review aims to summarize studies that investigated the association between HIV, ART and serum lipids during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes. A systematic search was conducted in five electronic databases to obtain articles that measured serum lipid concentrations or the incidence of dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected pregnant women. Included articles were assessed for quality according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The extracted data was analysed through descriptive analysis. Of the 1264 articles screened, 17 articles were included in this review; eleven reported the incidence of dyslipidaemia, and twelve on maternal serum lipid concentrations under the influence of HIV-infection and ART. No articles reported pregnancy outcomes in relation to serum lipids. Articles were of acceptable quality, but heterogenic in methods and study design. Lipid levels in HIV-infected women increased 1.5-3 fold over the trimesters of pregnancy, and remained within the physiological reference range. The percentage of women with dyslipidaemia was variable between the studies [0-88.9%] and highest in the groups on first generation protease inhibitors and for women on ART at conception. This systematic review observed physiologic concentrations of serum lipids for HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy. Serum lipids were increased in users of first generation protease inhibitors and for those on treatment at conception. There was no information available about pregnancy outcomes. Future studies are needed which include HIV-uninfected control groups, control for potential confounders, and overcome limitations associated with included studies.

  18. Serum concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor and depth of trophoblastic invasion in ampullary ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabar, Fábio Roberto; Teshima, Décio Roberto Kamio; Pereira, Pedro Paulo; Antonangelo, Leila; Schultz, Regina; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the association between the depth of trophoblastic infiltration and serum vascular endothelial growth factorconcentration in patients with an ampullary pregnancy. This prospective cross-sectionalstudy involved 34 patients with an ampullary ectopic pregnancy who underwent salpingectomy between 2012 and 2013. Maternal serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations were measured using Luminex technology. Trophoblastic invasion was classified histologically as follows: stage I, limited to the tubal mucosa; stage II, reaching the muscle layer; and stage III,involving the full thickness. The qualitative data were compared using Fisher's exact test. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to evaluate differences in serum vascular endothelial growth factor among the degrees of trophoblastic invasion. ROC curves were constructed to determine vascular endothelial growth factor cut-off values that predict the degree of tubal invasion based on the best sensitivity and specificity. Eight patients had stage I trophoblastic invasion, seven had stage II, and 19 had stage III. The median serum vascular endothelial growth factorconcentration was 69.88 pg/mL for stage I, 14.53 pg/mL for stage II and 9.08 pg/mL for stage III, with a significant difference between stages I and III. Based on the ROC curve, a serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentration of 25.9 pg/mL best differentiated stage I from stages II and III with asensitivity of 75.0%, specificity of 76.9%, and area under the curve of 0.798. The depth of trophoblastic penetration into the tubal wall isassociated with serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentration in ampullary pregnancies.

  19. Measles severity and serum retinol (vitamin A) concentration among children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J C; Havens, P L; Sowell, A L; Huff, D L; Peterson, D E; Day, S E; Chusid, M J; Bennin, R A; Circo, R; Davis, J P

    1993-06-01

    Studies in developing countries have shown that children with measles have low serum retinol concentrations and that lower retinol levels are associated with measles-related mortality. Vitamin A therapy has been shown to reduce mortality among African children with acute measles. To determine whether serum retinol concentration is low among children with measles in the United States and to determine whether retinol concentration is associated with illness severity. Pediatric referral hospital and clinic in Milwaukee, WI, during the measles outbreak of 1989-1990. One hundred fourteen patients < or = 5 years of age evaluated for serologically confirmed measles with serum obtained within 5 days following rash onset. Serum retinol concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Clinical data were collected by hospital record review. A modified Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) score was used to assess physiologic instability as a measure of illness severity. Retinol concentrations ranged from 0.25 to 1.18 mumol/L (median 0.58 mumol/L); 82 (72%) patients had low retinol concentration (< or = 0.70 mumol/L). Median retinol concentrations were lower among hospitalized patients (0.56 vs 0.70, P = .006) and patients with pneumonia (0.52 vs 0.64, P = .02) but higher among children with otitis media (0.63 vs 0.54, P = .01). Higher modified PRISM scores, reflecting greater physiologic instability, were associated with lower retinol concentration (beta coefficient -.0147, P = .025). In multivariate analysis, higher modified PRISM scores were associated with lower retinol concentration (beta coefficient -.0144, P = .025) even after controlling for hospitalization, presence of complications, race, age, receipt of Aid to Families With Dependent Children, gender, and interval from rash onset until serum was collected. Among these children with measles in an urban United States community, retinol concentrations were depressed, and the degree of depression

  20. Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease Are Associated with Decreased Serum Selenium Concentrations and Increased Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Aguilar-Tablada, Teresa; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Quesada Granados, Javier; Samaniego Sánchez, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José Ángel; Nogueras-Lopez, Flor

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and associated oxidative stress is increasing. The antioxidant mineral selenium (Se) was measured in serum samples from 106 IBD patients (53 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 53 with Crohn's disease (CD)) and from 30 healthy controls. Serum Se concentrations were significantly lower in UC and CD patients than in healthy controls (p nutritional (protein, albumin, prealbumin, cholinesterase and total cholesterol) and iron status-related (hemoglobin, Fe and hematocrit) parameters (p nutritional Se status is important in IBD patients to minimize the cardiovascular risk associated with increased inflammation biomarkers, especially in undernourished CD patients, and is also related to an improved nutritional and body iron status.

  1. Serum glucose concentration in subacute intoxication with chlorpyrifos – Organophosphate insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Łukaszewicz-Hussain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides enhances the risk of various diseases, including neurological disorders, e.g. Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease, arteriosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. For this reason the aim of the presented study was to estimate serum concentration of glucose in subchronic intoxication with low doses of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate insecticide. Materials and Methods: The rats received chlorpyrifos at a daily dose of 0.2, 2 or 5 mg/kg b.w./day for 14 or 28 days. For biochemical determinations of serum glucose in the rats ready-to-use kit was applied. Results: In subacute intoxication with chlorpyrifos the increased serum concentration of glucose was observed after 14 days of intoxication with the highest dose (5 mg/kg b.w. and after 28 days of intoxication with all dose levels used. Conclusions: The results of this study showing the increased concentration of serum glucose in subacute intoxication with low doses of chlorpyrifos, as well as the literature data suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides can increase the risk of diabetes mellitus. It may thus be concluded that people occupationally exposed to these compounds should be subjected to diagnostic tests for early detection of diabetes. Med Pr 2013;64(4:527–531

  2. Serum ascorbic acid concentration in patients with acute Falciparum malaria infection: possible significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Garba Ibrahim; Gregory, Ubom; Maryam, Haruna

    2004-10-01

    Falciparum malaria infection is associated with significant destruction of erythrocytes. This leads to the release of toxic metabolic products, including oxidant compounds. We measured the serum concentration of the antioxidant, ascorbic acid, in 129 patients presenting with acute falciparum malaria infection and in 65 healthy individuals. None of the study subjects administered any form of ascorbic acid supplementation within one week prior to participation in this study. The mean serum ascorbate concentration in infected adult males (n = 49, age range 18-50 years) was found to be 2.02 +/- 0.20 mg/dL, and it was 2.03 +/- 0.24 mg/dL in infected adult females (n = 56, age range 18-50 years). These values were significantly greater than the serum ascorbate levels (1.54 +/- 0.10 mg/dL) in healthy adult males (n = 28) and females (n = 28) (p children (age range 3 to 5 years), the serum ascorbate concentration was significantly lower (1.95 +/- 0.20 mg/dL) during infection (n = 25) than in their healthy counterparts (2.9 +/- 0.24 mg/dL, n = 9) (p ascorbic acid plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute falciparum malaria in adults. Infected children also need to be given supplemental doses of ascorbate in view of the weakness of their immune system.

  3. Serum ascorbic acid concentration in patients with acute Falciparum malaria infection: possible significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garba Ibrahim Hassan

    Full Text Available Falciparum malaria infection is associated with significant destruction of erythrocytes. This leads to the release of toxic metabolic products, including oxidant compounds.We measured the serum concentration of the antioxidant, ascorbic acid, in 129 patients presenting with acute falciparum malaria infection and in 65 healthy individuals. None of the study subjects administered any form of ascorbic acid supplementation within one week prior to participation in this study. The mean serum ascorbate concentration in infected adult males (n = 49, age range 18-50 years was found to be 2.02 ± 0.20 mg/dL, and it was 2.03 ± 0.24 mg/dL in infected adult females (n = 56, age range 18-50 years. These values were significantly greater than the serum ascorbate levels (1.54 ± 0.10 mg/dL in healthy adult males (n = 28 and females (n = 28 (p < 0.05. In children (age range 3 to 5 years, the serum ascorbate concentration was significantly lower (1.95 ± 0.20 mg/dL during infection (n = 25 than in their healthy counterparts (2.9 ± 0.24 mg/dL, n = 9 (p < 0.05. It is evident therefore that ascorbic acid plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute falciparum malaria in adults. Infected children also need to be given supplemental doses of ascorbate in view of the weakness of their immune system.

  4. Serum Metal Ion Concentrations in Paediatric Patients following Total Knee Arthroplasty Using Megaprostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Friesenbichler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of cobalt, chromium, and molybdenum in the serum of paediatric tumour patients after fixed hinge total knee arthroplasty. Further, these metal ion levels were compared with serum metal ion levels of patients with other orthopaedic devices such as hip and knee prostheses with metal-on-metal or metal-on-polyethylene articulation to find differences between anatomical locations, abrasion characteristics, and bearing surfaces. After an average follow-up of 108 months (range: 67 to 163 of 11 paediatric patients with fixed hinge total knee arthroplasty, the mean concentrations for Co and Cr were significantly increased while Mo was within the limits compared to the upper values from the reference laboratory. Furthermore, these serum concentrations were significantly higher compared to patients with a standard rotating hinge device (P=0.002 and P<0.001 and preoperative controls (P<0.001. On the other hand, the serum levels of patients following MoM THA or rotating hinge arthroplasty using megaprostheses were higher. Therefore, periodic long-term follow-ups are recommended due to the rising concerns about systemic metal ion exposure in the literature. Upon the occurrence of adverse reactions to metal debris the revision of the fixed hinge implant should be considered.

  5. Short communication: effect of difructose anhydride III on serum immunoglobulin G concentration in newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Hanada, M; Ohtani, M; Nakai, T; Teramura, M; Sadoya, H; Takahashi, T; Hongo, A

    2012-09-01

    Difructose anhydride (DFA) III is an indigestible disaccharide that promotes paracellular absorption of calcium, magnesium, and other minerals in the intestine by acting on epithelial tight junctions. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of DFA III on serum IgG concentration. One hundred and twenty Holstein and Holstein/Japanese Black crossbred calves were randomly divided into 4 groups of 30 to receive untreated colostrum (DFA0) or colostrum containing 3, 6, or 18 g of DFA III (DFA3, DFA6, or DFA18, respectively). At 24 h after birth, both serum IgG (ranging from 16.4 to 21.2 mg/mL) and apparent efficiency of absorption (26.0 to 37.2%) showed increases with the amount of DFA III intake. By multiple regression analysis, the standardized partial regression coefficient for DFA III was 0.25, the second highest following that for the colostrum IgG concentration (0.80), indicating a positive effect of DFA III on serum IgG. A positive linear regression was found between colostrum IgG and serum IgG concentrations at 24h of age. These results indicate that IgG absorption occurred as a nonsaturable process, which might be characteristic of gradient-dependent paracellular transport. Thus, it was concluded that DFA III improves not only minerals but IgG absorption in calves. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in dogs - correlation with health and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selting, K A; Sharp, C R; Ringold, R; Thamm, D H; Backus, R

    2016-09-01

    25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is important in bone health as well as many diseases including cancer. Supplementation may increase responsiveness of cancer cells to chemotherapy. Serum 25(OH)D, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and canine C-reactive protein (c-CRP) were measured in healthy dogs and dogs with haemoabdomen. Regression analysis determined optimal 25(OH)D concentrations. In healthy dogs (n = 282), mean iPTH concentrations correlated inversely (r(2) = 0.88, P dogs (n = 63, 43 malignant and 20 benign) had 25(OH)D concentrations ranging from 19.4 to >150 ng mL(-1) . Relative risk of cancer increased with decreasing 25(OH)D concentrations [RR = 3.9 for 25(OH)D below 40 ng mL(-1) (P = 0.0001)]. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations in dogs vary widely, and are influenced by dietary VitD content. Serum vitD measurement can identify dogs for which supplementation may improve health and response to cancer therapy. © 2014 The Authors. Veterinary and Comparative Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice.

  8. Concentrations of environmental phenols and parabens in milk, urine and serum of lactating North Carolina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2015-07-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The effects of venous cannulation technique and cardioplegia type on plasma potassium concentration and arterial blood pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E T

    2012-02-03

    The cannulation method and cardioplegia solution used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may both influence plasma potassium concentrations ([K+]) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Bi-caval or right atrial cannulation methods are routinely used in conjunction with crystalloid or blood cardioplegia. We investigated the influence of cannulation method and cardioplegia solutions on plasma [K+] and MAP during cardiopulmonary bypass. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using CPB were studied. They were randomly divided into three groups of 20 patients. Patients in Group A underwent bi-caval venous cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group B patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group C patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received blood cardioplegia. In each case. cardioplegia was administered antegrade via the aortic root. Plasma [K+], MAP. and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) were measured over an 8-min period following cardioplegia administration (pilot studies indicated pressure changes occuring post cardioplegia administration up to this time). The combination of bi-caval cannulation and crystalloid cardioplegia (Group A) was associated with the least increase in plasma [K+] and no decrease in MAP. The maximum [K+] for this Group was 4.2 mmol\\/L (4.6% increase). The minimum mean pressure was 57 mmHg (13.6% increase). Both right atrial cannulation groups (B and C) showed a large rise in plasma [K+] and a decrease in MAP. Group B maximum [K+] was 5.2 mmol\\/L (27.5% increase). Group C was also 5.2 mmol\\/L (26.0% increase). Group C showed the largest pressure decrease, the minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (21.3% decrease). The Group B minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (8.7% decrease). Our results show that patients undergoing CPB operations who are deemed to be at increased risk of suffering adverse effects from hypotensive episodes may

  10. Relationship of serum bilirubin concentration to kidney function and 24-hour urine protein in Korean adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Yeon Soon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, kidney function and proteinuria have yet to be fully elucidated, nor have these relationships been investigated in Korean adults. Method We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of Korean adults who were evaluated at Kosin University Gospel Hospital (Busan, Republic of Korea during a five-year period from January 2005 to December 2009. We evaluated the relationships among serum bilirubin concentration, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and 24-hour urinary protein excretion in a sample of 1363 Korean adults aged 18 years or older. Results The values of eGFR 2 and 24-hour urine albumin ≥150 mg/day were observed in 26.1% (n = 356 and 40.5% (n = 553 of subjects, respectively. Fasting glucose levels ≥126 mg/dL were observed in 44.9% (n = 612 of the total sample. After adjustment for potential confounding factors including demographic characteristics, comorbidities and other laboratory measures, total serum bilirubin was positively associated with eGFR and negatively associated with proteinuria both in the whole cohort and in a subgroup of diabetic individuals. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first hospital-based study specifically aimed at examining the relationships among serum total bilirubin concentration, 24-hour urine protein and kidney function in Korean adults. We demonstrated that serum total bilirubin concentration was negatively correlated with 24-hour urine protein and positively correlated with eGFR in Korean non-diabetic and diabetic adults.

  11. Pain involving the motor system and serum vitamin D concentration in postmenopausal women working in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Owoc, Alfred; Sarecka-Hujar, Beata; Bojar, Iwona

    2017-03-22

    Since the role of vitamin D is essential in numerous biological processes its deficiency was suggested to be a risk factor for e.g. osteoporosis, musculoskeletal pain and spine pain. The purpose of the study was to analyse whether serum vitamin D concentration is related to pain involving the motor system in Polish postmenopausal women working in agriculture. The study group consisted of 1,751 post-menopausal women, aged 45-65, at least 12 months from the last menstrual period, living in rural areas and working in agriculture. The research method was self-assessment of pain involving the motor system using VAS, laboratory test of serum vitamin D concentration and a medical interview. Statistical methods included generalized linear models, analysis of variance, t test for two means in two independents, χ2 test of stochastic independence. Postmenopausal women working in agriculture and suffering from pain in at least one part of the motor system were younger and lower educated, they also had higher abdominal obesity and lower serum vitamin D, compared to those without pain in any part of the motor system. Decreased serum vitamin D concentration in postmenopausal women working in agriculture is important from the aspect of a higher prevalence of pain in the thoracic spine and more severe pain in the neck spine, but not for severity of pain in the lumbar spine; higher occurrence of pain in both hands or wrists; higher prevalence and more severe pain in at least one knee; and no prevalence or severity of pain in the shoulders and elbows. Serum vitamin D concentration is important for the prevalence and severity of pain in the neck and thoracic spine, knees and hands or wrists, but not for the lumbar spine, shoulders and elbows.

  12. Increased plasma concentration of serum amyloid P component in centenarians with impaired cognitive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, M; Olsen, H; Jeune, B

    1998-01-01

    higher SAP concentration (60.2 microg/ml), while the subgroup of cognitive intact centenarians (MMSE score >24) showed a normal SAP concentration (38.4+/-9.3 microg/ml). No dehydration or hepatic dysfunction was demonstrable in the centenarians. We conclude that the centenarians with impaired cognitive......Serum amyloid P component (SAP) binds to all amyloid fibrils including those in the plaques and tangles of Alzheimer patients. To investigate whether the plasma SAP concentration correlated to cognitive impairment, we measured SAP levels in blood samples from 41 centenarians and compared...... these to the cognitive performance evaluated by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). We observed a significantly (p

  13. Relevance of Serum Leptin and Leptin-Receptor Concentrations in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Koch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The adipocyte-derived cytokine leptin was implicated to link inflammation and metabolic alterations. We investigated the potential role of leptin components in critically ill patients, because systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia are common features of critical illness. Upon admission to Medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU, free leptin and soluble leptin-receptor serum concentrations were determined in 137 critically ill patients (95 with sepsis, 42 without sepsis and 26 healthy controls. Serum leptin or leptin-receptor did not differ between patients or controls and were independent of sepsis. However, serum leptin was closely associated with obesity and diabetes and clearly correlated with markers of metabolism and liver function. Leptin-receptor was an unfavourable prognostic indicator, associated with mortality during three years follow-up. Our study indicates a functional role of leptin in the pathogenesis of severe illness and emphasizes the impact of complex metabolic alterations on the clinical outcome of critically ill patients.

  14. Immunotoxicity of perfluorinated alkylates: calculation of benchmark doses based on serum concentrations in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Joergensen, Esben

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immune suppression may be a critical effect associated with exposure to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), as indicated by recent data on vaccine antibody responses in children. Therefore, this information may be crucial when deciding on exposure limits. METHODS: Results obtained from...... with complete data using linear and logarithmic curves, and sensitivity analyses were included to explore the impact of the low-dose curve shape. RESULTS: Under different linear assumptions regarding dose-dependence of the effects, benchmark dose levels were about 1.3 ng/mL serum for perfluorooctane sulfonic...... acid and 0.3 ng/mL serum for perfluorooctanoic acid at a benchmark dose response of 5%. These results are below average serum concentrations reported in recent population studies. Even lower results were obtained using logarithmic dose--response curves. Assumption of no effect below the lowest observed...

  15. Serum uric acid concentrations are directly associated with the presence of benign multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Mendía, Esteban; Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2017-09-01

    It has been reported that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibit lower serum uric acid levels; however, the association between uric acid concentrations and benign MS (BMS) has not been assessed. Hence, the objective of the present study was to determine whether the serum concentrations of uric acid are associated with the presence of BMS. Men and non-pregnant women over 16 years of age with diagnosis of MS were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Expanded Disability Status Scale score acid were exclusion criteria. According to subtype of disease, the eligible patients were allocated into groups with BMS and other varieties of MS. A logistic regression analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the association between serum concentrations of uric acid and BMS. A total of 106 patients were included, 39 in the group with BMS and 67 in the group with other varieties of MS. The logistic regression analysis adjusted by age, sex, and disease duration showed that increased concentrations of uric acid, indeed within the physiological levels, are significantly associated with the presence of BMS (OR = 2.60; 95% CI: 1.55-4.38, p uric acid, indeed within the physiological range, are likely linked to the presence of BMS.

  16. Serum and aqueous humor concentrations of interleukin-27 in diabetic retinopathy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssen, Maha E; El-Hussiny, Mona Abo Bakr; El-Kannishy, Amr; Sabry, Dalia; El Mahdy, Rasha; Shaker, Mohamed E

    2017-07-24

    Interleukin (IL)-27 has been reported to possess anti- and proinflammatory properties in several immune related-disorders, but its role in diabetic retinopathy is still elusive. Here, we aimed to (i) evaluate IL-27 concentrations in serum and aqueous humor of diabetic patients with or without retinopathy and (ii) test whether IL-27 is correlated with some risk factors of diabetic retinopathy. The study comprised 60 diabetic patients with and without retinopathy along with 20 healthy controls. Serum and aqueous humor concentrations of IL-27 were assessed by ELISA. The mean of IL-27 concentration in aqueous humor in patients with diabetic retinopathy (6.7 ± 2.7 ng/L) was significantly elevated in comparison with either diabetic patients without retinopathy (4.6 ± 0.5 ng/L) or healthy control group (4.1 ± 0.8 ng/L). Besides, IL-27 concentration in aqueous humor was positively correlated with serum glucose, lipid profile and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Based on this study, IL-27 is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and positively correlates with the disorder progression.

  17. Serum paraoxonase-3 concentration in HIV-infected patients. Evidence for a protective role against oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, Gerard; García-Heredia, Anabel; Guardiola, Marta; Rull, Anna; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Marsillach, Judit; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Michael; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Pardo-Reche, Pedro; Joven, Jorge; Camps, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the HIV infection on serum paraoxonase-3 (PON3) concentration and assessed the relationships with lipoprotein-associated abnormalities, immunological response, and accelerated atherosclerosis. We studied 207 HIV-infected patients and 385 healthy volunteers. Serum PON3 was determined by in-house ELISA, and PON3 distribution in lipoproteins was investigated by fast-performance liquid chromatography (FPLC). Polymorphisms of the PON3 promoter were analyzed by the Iplex Gold MassArray(TM) method. PON3 concentrations were increased (about three times) in HIV-infected patients with respect to controls (P concentrations. In a multivariate linear regression analysis, these relationships were still strong when the main confounding covariates were considered. PON3 was mainly found in HDL in HIV-infected patients, but a substantial amount of the protein was detected in LDL particles. This study reports for the first time an important increase in serum PON3 concentrations in HIV-infected patients that is associated with their oxidative status and their treatment with NNRTI. Long-term, prospective studies are needed to confirm the possible influence of this enzyme on the course of this disease and its possible utility as an analytical biomarker.

  18. Marijuana use and serum testosterone concentrations among U.S. males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistle, J E; Graubard, B I; Braunlin, M; Vesper, H; Trabert, B; Cook, M B; McGlynn, K A

    2017-07-01

    Marijuana has been reported to have several effects on the male reproductive system. Marijuana has previously been linked to reduced adult testosterone, however, a study in Denmark reported increased testosterone concentrations among marijuana users. This study was performed to estimate the effect of marijuana use on testosterone in U.S. males. Data on serum testosterone, marijuana use, and covariates for 1577 men from the 2011-2012 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Information on marijuana use was collected by a self-administered computer-assisted questionnaire. Serum testosterone was determined using isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The effects of marijuana use on serum testosterone concentrations were examined by frequency, duration, and recency of use. Adjusted means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of serum testosterone across levels of marijuana use were estimated using multiple linear regression weighted by the survey weights. The majority (66.2%) of the weighted study population reported ever using marijuana with 26.6% reporting current marijuana use. There was no difference in serum testosterone between ever users (adjusted mean = 3.69 ng/mL, 95% CI: 3.46, 3.93) and never users (adjusted mean = 3.70 ng/mL, 95% CI: 3.45, 3.98) upon multivariable analysis. However, serum testosterone was inversely associated with time since last regular use of marijuana (p-value for trend = 0.02). When restricted to men aged 18-29 years, this relationship strengthened (p-value for trend testosterone was also inversely associated with time since last use (p-value for trend testosterone levels. Serum testosterone concentrations were higher in men with more recent marijuana use. Studies are needed to determine the extent to which circulating testosterone concentrations mediate the relationship of marijuana use with male reproductive outcomes. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government

  19. Randomized Comparison of Serum Teicoplanin Concentrations following Daily or Alternate Daily Dosing in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouveix, Bernard; Jehl, François; Drugeon, Henri; Brumpt, Ivan; Caulin, Evelyne

    2004-01-01

    Trough serum teicoplanin concentrations were compared in healthy adults following intravenous administration of one of two regimens: (i) 12 mg/kg of body weight every 12 h for 3 doses and then 15 mg/kg every 48 h for 4 doses (n = 16 subjects) or (ii) 6 mg/kg every 12 h for 2 doses and then 6 mg/kg every 24 h for 9 doses (n = 8 subjects). The mean ± standard deviation trough concentrations in serum on day 11 (24 and 48 h after administration of the last dose for the daily and alternate-day dosing schedules, respectively) were 16.0 ± 2.1 and 17.9 ± 3.5 mg/liter for subjects receiving the two regimens, respectively, by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The limits of the 95% confidence interval of the difference (−0.2, 3.6 mg/liter) determined by a nonparametric test were situated above the −1.3-mg/liter maximum set difference and indicated a noninferiority of the alternate-day dosing to the daily dosing. Throughout the study the individual trough concentrations in serum in the alternate-day dosing group constantly exceeded 10 mg/liter, the presently recommended target concentration for the treatment of severe infections. The trough concentrations in the sera of all subjects were bactericidal for six Staphylococcus aureus strains for which teicoplanin MICs are between 0.5 and 4 mg/liter. The bactericidal activity of serum was related to total teicoplanin (protein bound and unbound). In conclusion, an alternate-day dosing schedule (15 mg/kg on alternate days following administration of a 12-mg/kg loading dose three times every 12 h) could be considered for further efficacy and safety studies. PMID:15215086

  20. Neural synchronization via potassium signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry E; Ryazanova, Ludmila S; Mosekilde, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Using a relatively simple model we examine how variations of the extracellular potassium concentration can give rise to synchronization of two nearby pacemaker cells. With the volume of the extracellular space and the rate of potassium diffusion as control parameters, the dual nature...... junctional coupling, potassium signaling gives rise to considerable changes of the cellular response to external stimuli....

  1. Serum zinc and copper concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relation to course and outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Berendtsen, H; Nørgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    Abnormal serum zinc and copper concentrations in pregnant women have been associated with a number of maternal and foetal complications during pregnancy and delivery. However, the results of previous studies are contradictory and few large scale studies have been reported. In this study we measured...... serum zinc and copper concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood from 500 Danish mothers at delivery, looking for an association between serum zinc and copper levels and various maternal and foetal complications. Preterm infants (n = 30) had significantly lower serum copper concentrations than...

  2. Serum Galanin Concentration is Increased in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenwen; Fang, Penghua; Yu, Mei; Wang, Yan; Li, Yin; Shi, Mingyi; Bo, Ping; Gu, Xuewen; Zhu, Yan

    2017-04-14

    Although extensive data have shown that galanin can regulate the food intake and glucose metabolism of animals, little is known regarding the galanin concentration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate whether serum galanin levels and other metabolic parameters are changed in patients with IGT compared with controls with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Data regarding serum galanin levels and relative metabolic parameters were collected in 12 patients with IGT and 12 healthy patients with NGT. At 1 hour and 2 hours after dinner, serum galanin, insulin and glucose levels were significantly higher in patients with IGT than in controls with NGT. Additionally, the body weights of patients with IGT was higher than those of the controls. Furthermore, a negative correlation was found between galanin levels and 1-hour glucose concentrations (r=-0.580; p=0.048) in patients with IGT. The higher serum galanin levels as well as the negative correlation between galanin levels and 1-hour glucose content in patients with IGT may result from the interaction between insulin and galanin in differing conditions, suggesting that the galanin level may be used as a potential biomarker for the prediction of IGT in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy children during growth and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Ljiljana; Savić, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Many changes happen during growth and development in an organism as a result of important hormon changes, especially biohumoral ones. These changes make a problem when interpreting biochemical results in pediatric population. The most important changes are intensive calcium and phosphorus metabolic turnover in bone tissue with changes in alkaline phosphatase activity as a result of osteoblast activity. The aim of this study was to follow the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in children 1-15 years old in different growth and development period and of different sexes and to fortify the influence of growth and development dynamics on biohumoral status in healthy male and female children. We evaluated 117 healthy children of both sexes from 1-15 years of age and divided them into three age groups: 1-5, 6-10 and 11-15 years. We followed the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in different groups and in different sexes. Our investigation found significantly higher values of serum calcium in boys than in girls with no important changes between the age groups and significantly higher values of serum phosphorus in the youngest age group in all children and in different sexes with no important sex differences. Alkaline phosphatase activity followed the growth spurt and was the biggest in 6-10 years group in girls and in 11-15 years group in boys.

  4. Maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations and neonatal bone mineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Händel, Mina N; Moon, Rebecca J.; Titcombe, Philip

    2016-01-01

    the associations between maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations during late pregnancy and offspring bone mineralization assessed at birth with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DESIGN: In the Southampton Women's Survey mother-offspring birth cohort, maternal health, lifestyle, and diet...... were assessed prepregnancy and at 11 and 34 wk of gestation. In late pregnancy, maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations were measured. Offspring total body bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) were measured within 2 wk after birth. RESULTS: In total......, 520 and 446 mother-offspring pairs had measurements of maternal serum retinol and β-carotene, respectively. Higher maternal serum retinol in late pregnancy was associated with lower offspring total body BMC (β = -0.10 SD/SD; 95% CI: -0.19, -0.02; P = 0.020) and BA (β = -0.12 SD/SD; 95% CI: -0.20, -0...

  5. Nativity and Serum Concentrations of Antioxidants in Mexican American Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Eldeirawi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is limited research on the effect of immigration on biological markers of nutrition among children of Mexican origin in the United States. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III (1988–1994, on a national and representative sample of 1559 Mexican American children, 4–16 years of age, and assess the associations of country of birth with serum concentrations of carotenoids, vitamin A, and vitamin E. In multiple regression analyses, Mexico-born Mexican American children had significantly higher serum concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, vitamin A, and vitamin E than their counterparts who were born in the United States after adjustment for age, sex, poverty income ratio, level of education of family reference person, body mass index, total serum cholesterol, serum cotinine, total energy intake, and vitamin/mineral consumption. Our findings confirm evidence for a negative effect of immigration/acculturation on dietary quality in this population. These findings also suggest that immigrant Mexican families should be encouraged to maintain their consumption of fruits and vegetables. Prospective studies are needed to further assess the effects of immigration/acculturation on diet and other health outcomes in children of Mexican origin and immigrants.

  6. Supplementation of calves with stabilized orthosilicic acid. Effect on the Si, Ca, Mg, and P concentrations in serum and the collagen concentration in skin and cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calomme, M R; Vanden Berghe, D A

    1997-02-01

    The bioavailability of silicon in stabilized orthosilicic acid was investigated in a double blind, placebo controlled supplementation study of calves maintained on a normal diet. The total dietary Si intake was increased by 4.9% in the form of stabilized orthosilicic acid. After 23 wk of Si supplementation, the serum Si concentration increased (p = 0.0001, n = 29) by 70% compared to control animals in spite of the low Si dose administered and the Si adequate diet. The individually administered Si dose was significantly associated with the serum Si concentration (r = 0.44, p = 0.016, n = 29). The collagen concentration in dermis was significantly higher (p = 0.019, n = 4) in the Si group and a positive correlation (r = 0.72, p = 0.018, n = 9) was found between the Si concentration in serum and the collagen concentration in cartilage. The calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in serum were marginally higher for animals supplemented with Si compared to control animals. In serum, a significant linear relationship was found between the Si and the Ca concentration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019, n = 59), whereas the magnesium concentration correlated marginally with the Si concentration (r = 0.25, p = 0.068, n = 59). In summary, increasing the total dietary Si intake by 4.9% in the form of stabilized orthosilicic acid resulted in a 70% higher Si concentration in serum indicating a high bioavailability of Si in this supplement. The positive correlation between the serum Si concentration and the collagen concentration in cartilage and the serum Ca concentration, respectively, suggest the involvement of Si both in the formation of extracellular matrix components and in Ca metabolism.

  7. Near-fatal anaphylaxis caused by human serum albumin in fibrinogen and erythrocyte concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komericki, P; Grims, R H; Aberer, W; Kränke, B

    2014-02-01

    A 40-year-old man developed anaphylactic shock during surgical replacement of a prolapsed mitral valve during general anaesthesia and an attenuated reaction (Grade 2), three days later during a blood transfusion. Human serum albumin, a component of the fibrinogen concentrate used postoperatively with the erythrocyte concentrate, was identified as the trigger, confirmed by positive skin prick and intradermal tests. Any anaphylaxis during the peri-operative period should cause the clinician to perform allergy tests for identification of the culprit drug and, sometimes, culprit additive. Testing of human serum albumin, acting as hidden allergen, should be included, especially where there has been a blood transfusion. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Evaluation of the use of serum lathosterol concentration to assess whole-body cholesterol synthesis in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.W.; Palen, J.G. van der; Vries, H. de; Kempen, H.J.; Voort, H.A. van der; Zutphen, L.F. van; Beynen, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Serum lathosterol concentration in rabbits was assessed as a possible indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis. In random-bred New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits fed a control diet or a diet containing either cholesterol, simvastatin, or cholestyramine, neither serum lathosterol concentration nor

  9. First trimester maternal serum concentrations of fetal antigen 2 in normal pregnancies and those affected by trisomy 21

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, K. M.; van Lith, J. M.; Silman, R.; Mantingh, A.; Grudzinskas, J. G.

    1998-01-01

    Serum concentrations of fetal antigen 2 (FA-2), the amino-propeptide of the alpha1 chain of collagen type I, were measured in peripheral blood from women with normal (n = 234) and trisomy 21 affected (n = 14) pregnancies between 9 and 11 weeks gestation. Serum FA-2 concentrations were seen to be

  10. First trimester maternal serum concentrations of fetal antigen 2 in normal pregnancies and those affected by trisomy 21

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, KM; Van Lith, JMM; Silman, R; Mantingh, A; Grudzinskas, JG

    Serum concentrations of fetal antigen 2 (FA-2), the amino-propeptide of the al chain of collagen type I, were measured in peripheral blood from women with normal (n = 234) and trisomy 21 affected (n = 14) pregnancies between 9 and 11 weeks gestation. Serum FA-2 concentrations were seen to be stable

  11. Determination of Lactose Concentration in Milk Serum by Refractometry and Polarimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriță

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research had in view to evaluate and compare two instrumental techniques used for the determination of milk lactose. Refractometric and polarimetric measurements were carried out on milk serum obtained after precipitation of casein by two different methods: by acidification of milk to its isoelectric point (E1, and by using copper sulphate and potassium ferrocyanide (E2. The average lactose content measured by refractometry was 5.469±0.256g% for method E1 and 5.852±0.218g% for method E2. The obtained average lactose values measured by polarimetry were higher both for E1 (5.613±0.253g% and E2 (5.910±0.224g% methods, due to the interference with other optically active components. The experimental data revealed a high correlation between the results obtained by refractometry and polarimetry (r = 0.8712 when casein precipitation was performed by potentiometric titration until pH = 4.6, at 25°C with 2N acetic acid (method E1.

  12. Serum tryptase concentration and progression to end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesky, Mark D; Stringer, Stephanie J; Fenton, Anthony; Ng, Khai Ping; Yadav, Punit; Ndumbo, Miguel; McCann, Katerina; Plant, Tim; Dasgupta, Indranil; Harding, Stephen J; Drayson, Mark T; Redegeld, Frank; Ferro, Charles J; Cockwell, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Mast cell activation can lead to nonclassical activation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System. However, the relevance of this to human chronic kidney disease is unknown. We assessed the association between serum tryptase, a product of mast cell activation, and progression to end-stage renal disease or mortality in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. We stratified patients by use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor II blockers (ACEi/ARB). This was a prospective cohort study of 446 participants recruited into the Renal Impairment in Secondary Care study. Serum tryptase was measured at recruitment by sandwich immunoassay. Cox regression analysis was undertaken to determine variables associated with progression to end-stage renal disease or death. Serum tryptase concentration was independently associated with progression to end-stage renal disease but not with death. In patients treated with ACEi or ARB, there was a strong independent association between higher tryptase concentrations and progression to end-stage renal disease; when compared to the lowest tertile, tryptase concentrations in the middle and highest tertiles had hazard ratios [HR] of 5·78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1·19-28·03, P = 0·029) and 6·19 (95% CI 1·49-25·69, P = 0·012), respectively. The other independent risk factors for progression to end-stage renal disease were lower age, male gender, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher urinary albumin creatinine ratio. Elevated serum tryptase concentration is an independent prognostic factor for progression to end-stage renal disease in patients with chronic kidney disease who are receiving treatment with an ACEi or ARB. © 2016 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  13. Refractometer assessment of colostral and serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimation of the quantity of colostral IgG or serum IgG absorbed following ingestion of colostrum by calves is essential for monitoring the effectiveness of colostrum feeding practices on dairy farms. Milk total solids concentrations determination is a critical part of quality assessment of nonsaleable whole milk prior to feeding to calves. To date, on-farm methods to assess colostral IgG, serum IgG or milk total solids concentrations have been performed separately with various instruments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a single electronic, hand-held refractometer for assessing colostral and serum IgG concentrations and milk total solids in dairy cattle. Colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations were determined by the refractometer. Corresponding analysis of colostral and serum IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion (RID) while milk total solids were determined by spectrophotometry. Sensitivity and specificity of the refractometer for colostrum and serum samples were calculated as determined by RID. Sensitivity and specificity of the refractometer for milk samples was calculated as determined by spectrophotometry. Results The sensitivity of the refractometer was 1 for colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids determinations. Specificity of the refractometer was 0.66, 0.24 and 0 for colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids determinations, respectively. The refractometer underestimated colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations compared to the concentrations determined by RID or spectrophotometry. Conclusions The refractometer was an acceptable, rapid, convenient on-farm method for determining colostral IgG and milk total solids. The refractometer was not an acceptable method for determination of serum IgG concentrations as it severely underestimated the serum IgG concentrations. PMID:25125217

  14. Serum Starvation-Induced Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Kv7.5 Expression and Its Regulation by Sp1 in Canine Osteosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hyung Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The KCNQ gene family, whose members encode Kv7 channels, belongs to the voltage-gated potassium (Kv channel group. The roles of this gene family have been widely investigated in nerve and muscle cells. In the present study, we investigated several characteristics of Kv7.5, which is strongly expressed in the canine osteosarcoma cell line, CCL-183. Serum starvation upregulated Kv7.5 expression, and the Kv7 channel opener, flupirtine, attenuated cell proliferation by arresting cells in the G0/G1 phase. We also showed that Kv7.5 knockdown helps CCL-183 cells to proliferate. In an effort to find an endogenous regulator of Kv7.5, we used mithramycin A to reduce the level of the transcription factor Sp1, and it strongly inhibited the induction of Kv7.5 in CCL-183 cells. These results suggest that the activation of Kv7.5 by flupirtine may exert an anti-proliferative effect in canine osteosarcoma. Therefore, Kv7.5 is a possible molecular target for canine osteosarcoma therapy.

  15. Monitoring changes in serum 8-isoprostane concentration as a possible marker of oxidative stress in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Gradaščević Gubaljević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oxidative stress represents a pathophysiological mechanism lying behind occurrence of different acute and chronic diseases. Pregnancy, mainly due to placenta rich with mitochondria, is also being associated with the state of oxidative stress. Numerous markers have been proposed in order to test oxidative stress in pregnancy state, one of them being 8-isoprostane. The aim of this study was to analyse serum concentrations of 8-isoprostane as a possible oxidative stress marker in pregnancy.Methods: Serum concentrations of 8-isoprostane were measured in overall population of 84 woman, between 20 and 30 years of age. Tested population was divided in 2 groups: 42 pregnant woman were classifi ed as being either in the fi rst or second trimester of pregnancy. In the control group healthy nonpregnant women were included. Concentration of 8-isoprostane in serum was determined by commercial 8-isoprostane EIA test kit of Cayman Chemical Company, USA.Results: The 8-isoprostane levels were signifi cantly increased in pregnant women in relation to healthy non pregnant women (p<0.05. The 8-isoprostane levels were signifi cantly increased in second and third trimester of pregnancy (p<0.05.Conclusions: According to the obtained results, 8-isoprostane might be used as a possible marker of oxidative stress in pregnancy state, but not as a biomarker for the risk of complications development in pregnancy in analysed population.

  16. Concentrations of teicoplanin in serum and atrial appendages of patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, M G; Saginur, R; Desaulniers, D; Trottier, S; Goldstein, W; Foucault, P; Lessard, C

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of teicoplanin in sera and heart tissues of 49 patients undergoing coronary bypass were measured. Each patient received a 6- or 12-mg/kg dose of teicoplanin administered in a slow intravenous bolus injection over 3 to 5 min beginning at the time of induction of anesthesia. Mean +/- standard error of the mean concentrations in serum were, for the two doses, respectively, 58.1 +/- 1.7 and 123.3 +/- 7.4 micrograms/ml 5 min after administration and 22.2 +/- 0.7 and 56.5 +/- 2.8 micrograms/ml at the time of removal of atrial appendages. Mean +/- standard error of the mean concentrations in tissue were 70.6 +/- 1.7 and 139.8 +/- 2.2 micrograms/g, respectively, giving mean tissue/serum ratios of 3.7 +/- 0.3 and 2.8 +/- 0.2, respectively. Teicoplanin penetrates heart tissue readily and reaches levels in the serum far in excess of the MICs for most pathogens that have been found to cause infections following open heart surgery. PMID:2149493

  17. Tumour gastrin expression and serum gastrin concentrations in dogs with gastric carcinoma are poor diagnostic indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim-Wikse, T; Kolbjørnsen, O; Jörundsson, E; Benestad, S L; Bjornvad, C R; Grotmol, T; Kristensen, A T; Skancke, E

    2014-01-01

    Hypergastrinaemia is observed commonly in human patients with gastric carcinoma and is associated with atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection, both of which predispose to development of gastric tumours. Increased expression of gastrin is also described as a prognostic indicator for gastric carcinoma in man. Gastric carcinoma is rare in dogs and generally carries a grave prognosis. In this study, the expression of gastrin was investigated immunohistochemically in gastric biopsy samples from 64 dogs with gastric carcinoma. Serum gastrin concentrations were measured in 15 of these dogs and compared with those of seven healthy control dogs. Tumour tissue expressed gastrin in 8% (5/64) of the dogs with gastric carcinoma. There was no significant difference in serum gastrin concentrations between dogs with gastric carcinoma and healthy controls (P = 0.08). Expression of gastrin in gastric carcinomas is less common in dogs than in man and may therefore not be relied on as a prognostic marker in this species. Serum gastrin concentration alone is also not a useful biomarker for gastric carcinoma in dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-wide association analyses identify 18 new loci associated with serum urate concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köttgen, Anna; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Krumsiek, Jan; Hundertmark, Claudia; Pistis, Giorgio; Ruggiero, Daniela; O’Seaghdha, Conall M; Haller, Toomas; Yang, Qiong; Tanaka, Toshiko; Johnson, Andrew D; Kutalik, Zoltán; Smith, Albert V; Shi, Julia; Struchalin, Maksim; Middelberg, Rita P S; Brown, Morris J; Gaffo, Angelo L; Pirastu, Nicola; Li, Guo; Hayward, Caroline; Zemunik, Tatijana; Huffman, Jennifer; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Demirkan, Ayse; Feitosa, Mary F; Liu, Xuan; Malerba, Giovanni; Lopez, Lorna M; van der Harst, Pim; Li, Xinzhong; Kleber, Marcus E; Hicks, Andrew A; Nolte, Ilja M; Johansson, Asa; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H; Bakker, Stephan J L; Peden, John F; Dehghan, Abbas; Steri, Maristella; Tenesa, Albert; Lagou, Vasiliki; Salo, Perttu; Mangino, Massimo; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Woodward, Owen M; Okada, Yukinori; Tin, Adrienne; Müller, Christian; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Putku, Margus; Czamara, Darina; Kraft, Peter; Frogheri, Laura; Thun, Gian Andri; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti Kjartan; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; McArdle, Patrick; Shuldiner, Alan R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Helena; Schallert, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Munroe, Patricia B; Samani, Nilesh J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; D’Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Devuyst, Olivier; Navarro, Pau; Kolcic, Ivana; Hastie, Nicholas; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Esko, Tõnu; Salumets, Andres; Khaw, Kay Tee; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; Isaacs, Aaron; Kraja, Aldi; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wild, Philipp S; Scott, Rodney J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Org, Elin; Viigimaa, Margus; Bandinelli, Stefania; Metter, Jeffrey E; Lupo, Antonio; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Sorice, Rossella; Döring, Angela; Lattka, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Theis, Fabian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Study, LifeLines Cohort; Stolk, Ronald P; Kooner, Jaspal S; Zhang, Weihua; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Boehm, Bernhard O; Lucae, Susanne; Penninx, Brenda W; Smit, Johannes H; Curhan, Gary; Mudgal, Poorva; Plenge, Robert M; Portas, Laura; Persico, Ivana; Kirin, Mirna; Wilson, James F; Leach, Irene Mateo; van Gilst, Wiek H; Goel, Anuj; Ongen, Halit; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Imboden, Medea; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Cucca, Francesco; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Piras, Maria Grazia; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Ernst, Florian; Farrington, Susan M; Theodoratou, Evropi; Prokopenko, Inga; Stumvoll, Michael; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Shin, So-Youn; Spector, Tim D; Sala, Cinzia; Ridker, Paul M; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Hengstenberg, Christian; Nelson, Christopher P; Consortium, CARDIoGRAM; Consortium, DIAGRAM; Consortium, ICBP; Consortium, MAGIC; Meschia, James F; Nalls, Michael A; Sharma, Pankaj; Singleton, Andrew B; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Zeller, Tanja; Burnier, Michel; Attia, John; Laan, Maris; Klopp, Norman; Hillege, Hans L; Kloiber, Stefan; Choi, Hyon; Pirastu, Mario; Tore, Silvia; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Völzke, Henry; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Parsa, Afshin; Schmidt, Reinhold; Whitfield, John B; Fornage, Myriam; Gasparini, Paolo; Siscovick, David S; Polašek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Metspalu, Andres; Loos, Ruth J F; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Borecki, Ingrid B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Chambers, John C; März, Winfried; Pramstaller, Peter P; Snieder, Harold; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wright, Alan F; Navis, Gerjan; Watkins, Hugh; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Sanna, Serena; Schipf, Sabine; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Tönjes, Anke; Ripatti, Samuli; Soranzo, Nicole; Toniolo, Daniela; Chasman, Daniel I; Raitakari, Olli; Kao, W H Linda; Ciullo, Marina; Fox, Caroline S; Caulfield, Mark; Bochud, Murielle; Gieger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Elevated serum urate concentrations can cause gout, a prevalent and painful inflammatory arthritis. By combining data from >140,000 individuals of European ancestry within the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC), we identified and replicated 28 genome-wide significant loci in association with serum urate concentrations (18 new regions in or near TRIM46, INHBB, SFMBT1, TMEM171, VEGFA, BAZ1B, PRKAG2, STC1, HNF4G, A1CF, ATXN2, UBE2Q2, IGF1R, NFAT5, MAF, HLF, ACVR1B-ACVRL1 and B3GNT4). Associations for many of the loci were of similar magnitude in individuals of non-European ancestry. We further characterized these loci for associations with gout, transcript expression and the fractional excretion of urate. Network analyses implicate the inhibins-activins signaling pathways and glucose metabolism in systemic urate control. New candidate genes for serum urate concentration highlight the importance of metabolic control of urate production and excretion, which may have implications for the treatment and prevention of gout. PMID:23263486

  19. Effects of a fish-based diet on the serum adiponectin concentration in young, non-obese, healthy Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keiko; Morino, Katsutaro; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Motoyuki; Fuke, Tomoya; Ugi, Satoshi; Iwakawa, Hiromi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2010-06-30

    Adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing, anti-atherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, and researchers have recently reported that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) can increase the serum adiponectin concentration, suggesting that dietary factors, such as fish intake, may have an influence on the serum adiponectin concentration. In general, Japanese subjects consume twice as much fish as people in other countries. We hypothesized that incremental change in serum omega-3 PUFA levels by fish intake is an important regulator of serum adiponectin even in Japanese subjects. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship among fish consumption, serum omega-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), levels, and serum adiponectin levels. We recruited 17 healthy Japanese volunteers (seven men and 10 women) for an 8-week fish-diet intervention (omega-3 PUFA 3.0 g/day) without affecting total energy intake, and measured serum adiponectin concentration and fatty acid profiles. Fish-diet intervention significantly increased the serum adiponectin concentration in women (from 13.5+/-4.6 to 15.8+/-5.2 microg/mL, p <0.01) but not in men (from 8.7+/-2.8 to 8.7+/-2.5 microg/mL). Serum omega-3 PUFA increased more in female subjects than male subjects after the fish-diet intervention (57.3+/-86.6 vs 150.9+/-46.7 microg/mL, p=0.011), suggesting that changes in omega-3 PUFA concentration may explain the different response between sexes. A fish-based diet intervention increased the serum adiponectin concentration in young, non-obese, healthy Japanese female subjects. The increment in serum omega-3 PUFA may regulate the serum adiponectin concentration.

  20. Influence of diurnal variation and fasting on serum iron concentrations in a community-based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Leonard T; Buse, Joshua D; Baskin, Leland; Sadrzadeh, S M Hossein; Naugler, Christopher

    2017-12-01

    Serum iron is an important clinical test to help identify cases of iron deficiency or overload. Fluctuations caused by diurnal variation and diet are thought to influence test results, which may affect clinical patient management. We examined the impact of these preanalytical factors on iron concentrations in a large community-based cohort. Serum iron concentration, blood collection time, fasting duration, patient age and sex were obtained for community-based clinical testing from the Laboratory Information Service at Calgary Laboratory Services for the period of January 2011 to December 2015. A total of 276,307 individual test results were obtained. Iron levels were relatively high over a long period from 8:00 to 15:00. Mean concentrations were highest at blood collection times of 11:00 for adult men and 12:00 for adult women and children, however iron levels peaked as late as 15:00 in teenagers. With regard to fasting, iron levels required approximately 5h post-prandial time to return to a baseline, except for children and teenage females where no significant variation was seen until after 11h fasting. After 10h fasting, iron concentrations in all patient groups gradually increased to higher levels compared to earlier fasting times. Serum iron concentrations remain reasonably stable during most daytime hours for testing purposes. In adults, blood collection after 5 to 9h fasting provides a representative estimate of a patient's iron levels. For patients who have fasted overnight, i.e. ≥12h fasting, clinicians should be aware that iron concentrations may be elevated beyond otherwise usual levels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Association between Serum Unmetabolized Folic Acid Concentrations and Folic Acid from Fortified Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchetti, Cecília Zanin; Paniz, Clóvis; de Carli, Eduardo; Marchioni, Dirce M; Colli, Célia; Steluti, Josiane; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Fazili, Zia; Guerra-Shinohara, Elvira Maria

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between serum unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA) concentrations and folic acid from fortified foods and nutrients known as dietary methyl-group donors (folate, methionine, choline, betaine and vitamins B2, B6 and B12) in participants exposed to mandatory fortification of wheat and maize flours with folic acid. Cross-sectional study carried out with 144 healthy Brazilian participants, both sexes, supplement nonusers. Serum folate, UMFA, vitamin B12 and total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) were biochemically measured. Dietary intake was assessed by 2 non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HRs) and deattenuated energy-adjusted nutrient data were used for statistical analysis. Ninety eight (68.1%) participants were women. Median (interquartile range) age was 35.5 (28.0-52.0) years. Elevated serum folate concentrations (>45 nmol/L) were found in 17 (11.8%), while folate deficiency ( 1 nmol/L (90th percentile). UMFA concentrations were positively correlated with folic acid intake and negatively correlated to choline, methionine and vitamin B6 intakes. Participants in the lowest quartile of UMFA concentrations had lower dietary intake of total folate (DFEs) and folic acid, and higher dietary intake of methionine, choline and vitamin B6 than participants in the highest quartile of UMFA. Folic acid intake (OR [95% CI] = 1.02 [1.01-1.04)] and being a male (OR [95% CI] = 0.40 [0.19-0.87) were associated with increased and reduced odds for UMFA concentrations > 0.55 nmol/L (median values), respectively. UMFA concentrations were directly influenced by folic acid intake from fortified foods in a healthy convenience sample of adult Brazilians exposed to mandatory flour fortification with folic acid.

  2. The effect of diet on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Claire R.; Selting, Kim A; Ringold, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamin D (vitD) deficiency is linked to many disease states including rickets and cancer, and vitD supplementation to improve response to cancer therapy has been explored. Supplementation may be most appropriate for dogs with suboptimal vitD concentrations. In dogs, the primary source of vitD is diet (predominantly via commercial dog food). Our goal was to determine how food source and supplements affect 25(OH)D concentrations, the storage form of vitD. Serum was collected from cl...

  3. Excessive Pro-Inflammatory Serum Cytokine Concentrations in Virulent Canine Babesiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Amelia; Leisewitz, Andrew L; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Babesia rossi infection causes a severe inflammatory response in the dog, which is the result of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in cytokine concentrations were present in dogs with babesiosis and whether...... to any treatment. Cytokine concentrations were assessed using a canine-specific multiplex assay on an automated analyser. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were...... measured. Twelve of the Babesia-infected dogs died (12%) and 85 survived (88%). Babesia-infected dogs were also divided into those that presented within 48 hours from displaying clinical signs, and those that presented more than 48 hours after displaying clinical signs. Cytokine concentrations were...

  4. Serum thyroxin (T4 and cortisol concentrations in Bosnian and Herzegovinian mountain horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Rukavina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The serum concentrations of hormones are widely used to diagnose thyroid and adrenocortical diseases in animals. The objectives of the present study were, for the first time, to determine serum thyroxine (T4 and cortisol values in Bosnian and Herzegovinian mountain horses, and to investigate the influences of age and gender on T4 and cortisol levels. Blood samples were collected on the stud farm Borike from 23 apparently healthy horses of both sexes aged between two and twenty-three years. Horses were grouped in three age classes: young mature horses, middle-aged horses and old horses. Serum samples were analyzed for T4 and cortisol concentrations. The T4 values ranged from 6 to 45 nmol/L with a mean ±SD of 22.83±8.32 nmol/L. The cortisol values ranged from 149 to 190 nmol/L with a mean ±SD of 171.57±11.46 nmol/L. Values of T4 decreased with increasing age (p=0.021. Mean value of T4 in young mature horses was 27.60 nm/L, in middle-aged horses was 19.40 nm/L and in old horses was 18.33 nm/L. Values of T4 were significantly higher (p=0.031 in females (24.88 nm/L than in males (18.14 nm/L. Negative significant correlation between age and hormone concentration was observed for T4 (r = -0.431; p = 0.040. Differences between gender or age classes for cortisol values were not significant. The mean total serum T4 and cortisol values in Bosnian and Herzegovinian mountain horses were in the normal reference ranges for horses, and both age and gender significantly affected T4 levels.

  5. Effects of gender, age and menopausal status on serum apolipoprotein concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostis, Panagiotis; Stevenson, John C; Crook, David; Johnston, Desmond G; Godsland, Ian F

    2016-11-01

    To undertake a comprehensive evaluation of apolipoprotein risk markers for cardiovascular disease (CVD) according to gender, age and menopausal status. Cross-sectional analysis of independent associations of gender, age and menopause with serum apolipoproteins. Apparently healthy Caucasian premenopausal (n = 109) and postmenopausal (n = 252) women not taking oral contraceptives or hormone replacement, and Caucasian men (n = 307). Serum apolipoprotein (apo) B, A-I and A-II concentrations were measured, plus serum total cholesterol, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively), triglycerides, cholesterol in HDL subfractions and the apoB/apoA-I, LDL-C/apoB, HDL-C/apoA-I and HDL-C/apoA-II ratios. Analyses were undertaken with and without standardization for confounding characteristics and in 5-year age ranges. Overall, apoB concentrations were highest in men but in women rose with age and menopause to converge, in the age range of 50-55 years, with concentrations in men. The LDL-C/apoB ratio was generally higher in women than in men. ApoA-I concentrations were highest in postmenopausal women and lowest in men (standardized median (IQR) 144 (130, 158) vs 119 (108, 132) g/l, respectively, P effects on CVD risk, male gender, ageing in women and menopause were associated with increased apoB concentrations, and menopause and male gender were associated with a decreased cholesterol content of HDL particles. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of freshwater housing and fluid types on aquatic bird serum electrolyte concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankfurter, Greg; Ziccardi, Michael H; Massey, J Gregory

    2012-12-01

    Recent seabird mass morbidity events have highlighted the need to elucidate the effects of freshwater and hypertonic saline use for fluid therapy and housing in captive aquatic birds. Serum electrolyte concentrations of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis; n = 9), western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis; n = 6), and common murres (Uria aalge; n = 25) housed on freshwater while undergoing rehabilitation at the San Francisco Bay Oiled Wildlife Care and Education Center in Fairfield, California, were compared to reference intervals from free-ranging populations. Additionally, northern fulmars were given intermittent oral boluses of hypertonic saline. In birds housed on freshwater, there were significant decreases in serum sodium and chloride, with 44% of northern fulmars and 72% of common murres falling below the established reference interval. All of the western grebes were able to maintain serum sodium and chloride within the reference intervals. The significance of these findings reflect the behavior and natural history of the species studied. The physiologic regulation of salt by the salt glands, gastrointestinal tract, and renal systems of seabirds, along with their behavior and natural history, should be considered when working with these birds in a rehabilitation or captive setting. Salt supplementation is necessary for some species of seabirds. Monitoring of serum electrolytes should be used for individual animals or salt supplementation should be considered in holopelagic species.

  7. Effect of Food and Vitamin D Supplements on the Serum 25(OHD3 Concentration in Children during Winter Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen van der Gaag

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the contribution of food and vitamin D supplements on the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD3 concentration between October and April in a northern country (almost absent vitamin D synthesis by sunlight. Methods: Children aged 1–18 years were selected who visited the general pediatrician with a complaint whereby serum 25(OHD3 concentration was determined. The intake of vitamin D was calculated based on a dietary questionnaire. Results: 51.1% of the 174 children had a serum 25(OHD3 concentration below 50 nmol/L, 9.2% had a serum 25(OHD3 concentration below 30 nmol/L. Adolescents showed lower concentrations compared to younger children. There was a positive correlation between the total amount of vitamin D obtained from food and the serum 25(OHD3 concentration (r = 0.218, p = 0.004. The intake of milk contributed more to the serum 25(OHD3 concentration compared to the intake of artificial supplementation, butter or fish. Conclusions: In the absence of vitamin D synthesis by sunlight, vitamin D obtained from food has a significant influence on the serum 25(OHD3 concentration in children. Vitamin D supplements can be described as trivial. This means we should pay more attention to food as a natural source of vitamin D.

  8. Characterization of a phosphorus-potassium solution obtained during a protein concentrate process from sunflower flour. Application on rye-grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, C; Tejada, M; Benítez, C; González, J L

    2006-02-01

    The process that permits the ability to obtain a protein extract from defatted sunflower flour also produces a solution very rich in phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), which also contains small concentrations of humic substances. The aim of this study has been to determine the possible agricultural use of this extract. Therefore the phosphorus-potassium solution (experimental solution) was analyzed to determinate its pH and its content of nitrogen, proteins, organic carbon, humic substances potassium and phosphorous. The experimental solution was applied on rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and afterwards the results were analyzed we calculated the germination percentage and the fresh and dry weights that were obtained after each cut throughout the duration of the experiment. In addition the different pigment types (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids) were quantified. The conclusions of the study examine how this time-stable experimental solution improves the long-term effects and also the level of pigments, especially carotenoids, of the plants that have been treated.

  9. [Serum omentin-1 concentration and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Jiang, Yuexia; Tang, Siyuan

    2014-04-01

    To determine the relationship between serum omentin-1 concentration and bone mineral desity in postmenopausal women, and the adipose influence of tissue on bone mineral density (BMD). BMD values of 336 participants were measured by dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at various skeletal sites: the anteroposterior spine, femeral neck, total hip (T-hip) and total body BMD (TBMD). Body compositions including lean tissue mass (LTM) and body fat mass (FBM) were measured by DEXA. The plasma concentrations of adipocytokines (omentin-1, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin, and apelin) were measured by ELISA. The overweight and obese groups had higher T-hip, femerol neck, intertrochanter BMD than the nomal weight group. Plasma omentin-1 was negatively correlated with anteroposterior spine, femeral neck, trochanter, intertrochanter, T-hip and Ward's BMD, after adjustment for age, BMI and fat body mass, and the correlation was not significant. Multiple stepwise regression anlysis revealed that lean body mass, menopause duration and estrogen level were the most important variables affecting the BMD and each explained 12.2%-13.7%, 6.9%-13.1%, 0.9%-1.7% of the variance. Serum adiponectin was independently associated with T-hip, lumbar spine and total BMD. Plasma omentin-1 is not significantly correlated with BMD in postmenopausal women. Lean body mass, menopause duration and estrogen level are the most important variables affecting the BMD. Serum adiponectin is an independent predictor of T-hip, lumbar spine and total BMD.

  10. Serum haptoglobin concentrations in dairy cattle with lameness due to claw disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Billy I; Kauffold, Johannes; Sherman, Lisa

    2010-11-01

    In cattle, elevated blood serum concentrations of haptoglobin, an acute phase protein, have been demonstrated in association with several diseases, but not with lameness. Serum haptoglobin was measured in 60 Holstein dairy cattle diagnosed with lameness due to four claw disorders, pododermatitis septica (PS; n=41), pododermatitis circumscripta (PC; n=8), interdigital necrobacillosis (IN; n=7), papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD; n=4). Haptoglobin was measured on day 1 (0-3 days after lameness was observed but before treatment) and on days 3 and 5. A total of 10 healthy cows served as controls (haptoglobin values <1.0 mg/dL). Each of the claw disorders was associated with elevated haptoglobin on day 1 (PS, PC, IN and PDD: 65.9%, 37.5%, 71.4% and 25.0%, respectively). Trimming and antibiotic treatment led to a reduction in the number of PS and IN cows with increased haptoglobin concentrations, respectively (P<0.05), but trimming did not lead to any reduction in cows with PC. The study showed that lameness due to claw disorders can be associated with a systemic acute phase response and elevated serum haptoglobin in dairy cattle. Based on the course of haptoglobin, treatments seemed effective for all claw disorders except for PC. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Serum ADMA concentration-- an independent factor determining FMD impairment in cardiac syndrome X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberka, Maciej; Mizia-Stec, Katarzyna; Gasior, Zbigniew; Mizia, Magdalena; Janowska, Joanna; Holecki, Michał; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms of decreased endogenous vascular reactivity in individuals with cardiac syndrome X (CSX) are not fully understood. To evaluate the following serum markers: total nitric oxide (NO), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and to establish their relation to ultrasound indexes of endothelial function and structural remodeling in CSX patients. The study group consisted of 43 CSX patients (mean age: 56.3 +/- 9 years), while the control group included 21 healthy subjects (mean age: 54.86 +/- 6.9 years). The high-resolution ultrasound was performed to measure: flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD), nitroglycerine-mediated vasodilatation (NMD) and intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries. In CSX patients, significantly lower FMD (9.06 +/- 3.2%) and significantly higher IMT (0.667 +/- 0.14 mm) values were observed compared to healthy individuals (17.42 +/- 8.4%, 0.571 +/- 0.2 mm; P FMD values correlated with NO (r = 0.323; P = 0.039) and ADMA (r = -0.387; P = 0.012) serum levels; however, there were no significant correlations between NO and ADMA concentrations. Serum ADMA concentration is the only independent factor determining FMD impairment.

  12. Performance and serum cortisol concentration in Santa Inês lambs under different suckling schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to examine the effects of suckling schemes (continued, controlled, and total separation and the type of pregnancy on performance and serum cortisol concentration in lambs. A total of 29 Santa Inês ewes and 40 lambs were used, and the randomized block design was applied in a split-plot scheme with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement in the plot and time in the subplot. For controlled suckling, the diet was supplied twice daily during one hour, starting on their 10th day of life. Total and average daily intakes of concentrate dry matter of lambs that underwent total separation was higher than those of lambs under continued suckling. Lambs subjected to total separation demonstrated higher concentrate dry matter intake/weight gain ratio, lower total weight gain, lower average daily weight gain, and lower weaning weight than those subjected to continued and controlled suckling. Lambs from single pregnancy demonstrated higher weight gain and obtained higher weight at weaning. Lambs subjected to total separation have a developmental delay. However, the lower performance of lambs subject to total separation cannot be attributed to stress because there is a decrease in the serum cortisol concentration over time.

  13. High bone density in adolescents with obesity is related to fat mass and serum leptin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Albane B R; Belli, Dominique C; Puigdefabregas, Julie Wacker Bou; Rizzoli, René; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Beghetti, Maurice; McLin, Valérie A

    2014-06-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased bone mass, but the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. We aimed to explore the relation between bone mineral density and factors known to influence bone formation in obese and lean adolescents. We recruited 24 obese and 25 lean adolescents in a case-control study. Total body bone mineral density (TB-BMD) z scores and body composition were determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations. Physical activity (PA) level was quantified using accelerometer. TB-BMD z score was higher, whereas 25-OH-D and PA levels were lower in obese compared with lean subjects (TB-BMD z score 1.06 ± 0.96 vs 0.26 ± 0.91, P = 0.004; 25-OH-D 9.9 ± 6.4 vs 18.5 ± 7.4 ng mL, P BMD z score was not related to 25-OH-D or PA levels, but was positively correlated with leptin concentration and fat mass (P BMD was higher in adolescents with obesity and associated with higher serum leptin concentrations. Furthermore, adolescents with obesity have lower vitamin D serum concentrations than lean controls, probably owing to its distribution in adipose tissue.

  14. Concentration of field and skim latex by microfiltration - membrane fouling and biochemical methane potential of serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongmak, Narumol; Sridang, Porntip; Puetpaiboon, Udomphon; Grasmick, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration was used to concentrate field and skim latex suspensions and recover the smallest compounds (proteins, sugars, etc.) in permeate (serum solutions). The experiments were performed in a lab-scale microfiltration unit equipped with ceramic membranes. In continuous mode, the operations were performed at constant trans-membrane pressure (0.5 bars), constant cross-flow velocity (3 m/s) and constant temperature (28 ± 2°C). In retentate, the volumetric concentration factor was only close to 2 (about 54% of total solid content, TSC) when concentrating the field latex suspensions, and it reached 10 (close to 40% TSC) when concentrating skim latex suspensions. The quality of retentate suspensions let envisage a significant potential of industrial valorization. The membrane fouling rates appeared as an increasing function of dry rubber content suspension, and the main fouling origin (94%) was linked to a reversible accumulation of suspended compounds on the membrane surface. Permeate appeared as a clear yellow solution containing the smallest soluble organic fractions that show a high degree of biodegradability when using biochemical methane potential tests. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was then higher than 92% and the methane production yield was close to 0.29 NLCH4/gCODremoved. The association of a membrane separation step and anaerobic digestion appeared, then, as a relevant solution to recover rubber content from skim latex suspensions and energy from the anaerobic digestion of serum.

  15. Increased Serum and Urinary Oxytocin Concentrations after Nasal Administration in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Temesi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years more and more studies have revealed the effect of extraneous oxytocin on the social behavior of dogs. The distribution of administered oxytocin in different physiologically relevant compartments is important because this knowledge forms the basis for the timing of behavior tests after the administration. Most behavioral studies rely on the non-invasive intranasal application of oxytocin. The aim of this study was to determine the time course of intranasal administered oxytocin secretion into blood and urine and also establish a connection between intranasal received oxytocin and urinary cortisol in dogs. In our experiment, four dogs received three puffs, 12 IU intranasal oxytocin treatment, two dogs received three puffs intranasal placebo treatment. Blood and urine samples were collected immediately prior to the administration then regularly during 4 h. After nasal oxytocin application, the serum oxytocin concentration increased, reached a maximum 15 min after the treatment and then rapidly returned to baseline levels 45 min later. The peak urinary oxytocin concentration occurred between 45 and 60 min after administration and returned to baseline levels slowly. We found considerable differences among individuals in the secretion of oxytocin in both the serum and the urinary oxytocin concentration measurements. Our results confirm that intranasally administered oxytocin passes into the blood stream. The time course of intranasally administered oxytocin secretion is similar to the time course of intravenously administered oxytocin secretion, and the peak values are also similar in both the serum and the urinary oxytocin concentration measurements, although there are large individual differences.

  16. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d concentration, life factors and obesity in Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Ugalde-Casas, Patricia A; Serrano-González, Mónica; Cuello-García, Carlos A; Borbolla-Escoboza, José R

    2010-09-01

    Although current evidence emphasizes a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and an inverse association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration and obesity, no studies have been conducted in Mexican children. The objective was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with obesity and lifestyle factors in a sample of school-aged Mexican children. A cross-sectional study of 99 obese and 99 nonobese 6-12 year-old children, skin phototypes III-V, from six public schools was conducted during summer at latitude 25 degrees 40', in northeastern Mexico. Anthropometric measurements were determined. Serum 25-OHD was measured by immunoluminometric direct assay. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin D, sunscreen use and vitamin consumption were assessed through applied questionnaires. 62.1% of the subjects had insufficiency of 25-OHD (21-29 ng/ml) and 20.2% had deficiency (Obese subjects (BMI >or=95th percentile for age and gender) had significantly lower concentration of 25-OHD than nonobese. Predictors of 25-OHD concentration were, in order of significance: percentage of body fat, BMI, triceps skin fold, and waist circumference (WC). A significantly higher rate of 25-OHD deficiency was observed in children with inadequate milk/yoghurt consumption, but no difference was found for other foods, physical activity (PA) or screen-time. In a multivariate model, being obese was significantly associated with the risk of 25-OHD deficiency, after adjustment for PA, screen-time, skin phototype, ingestion of milk/yoghurt, fish, cheese, and carbonated beverages. A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and an inverse association between serum 25-OHD concentration and obesity was found.

  17. Serum Endostatin Concentrations Are Higher in Men with Symptoms of Intermittent Claudication

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    Jonathan Golledge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. A cleavage fragment of collagen XVIII, endostatin, is released into the circulation and has been demonstrated to have antiangiogenic effects in animal models. We hypothesized that circulating endostatin would be increased in patients with symptoms of lower limb peripheral artery disease. Design. Cross-sectional study. Participants. Community dwelling older men. Measurements. Intermittent claudication was defined using the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire (ECQ. Serum endostatin was measured by a commercial ELISA. The association of serum endostatin with intermittent claudication was examined using logistic regression adjusting for age, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Results. Serum endostatin was measured in 1114 men who completed the ECQ. 106 men had intermittent claudication, 291 had atypical pain, and 717 had no lower limb pain. Mean (±standard deviation serum endostatin concentrations (ng/mL were 145.22 ± 106.93 for men with intermittent claudication, 129.11 ± 79.80 for men with atypical pain, and 116.34 ± 66.57 for men with no lower limb pain; P<0.001. A 70 ng/mL increase in endostatin was associated with a 1.17-fold rise in the adjusted odds of having intermittent claudication (OR 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.37, and P=0.050. Conclusions. Serum endostatin is raised in older men who have symptoms of intermittent claudication. The role of endostatin in the genesis and outcome of peripheral artery disease requires further investigation.

  18. Calcium intake and serum concentration in relation to risk of cardiovascular death in NHANES III.

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    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association between calcium intake and risk of cardiovascular death remains controversial. By assessing dietary intake, use of supplements, and serum levels of calcium, we aimed to disentangle this link in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. METHODS: Mortality linkage of NHANES III to death certificate data for those aged 17 years or older (n = 20,024 was used to estimate risk of overall cardiovascular death as well as death from ischemic heart disease (IHD, acute myocardial infarction (AMI, heart failure (HF, and cerebrovascular disease (CD with multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: About 10.0% of the population died of cardiovascular disease and the majority (5.4% died of IHD. There was increased risk of overall CVD death for those in the bottom 5% of serum calcium compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.03-2.22. For women there was a statistically significant increased risk of IHD death for those with serum calcium levels in the top 5% compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.72 (95%CI: 1.13-2.61, whereas in men, low serum calcium was related to increased IHD mortality (HR: 2.32 (95% CI 1.14-3.01, Pinteraction: 0.306. No clear association with CVD death was observed for dietary or supplemental calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium as assessed by serum concentrations is involved in cardiovascular health, though differential effects by sex may exist. No clear evidence was found for an association between dietary or supplementary intake of calcium and cardiovascular death.

  19. Quantification of retinoid concentrations in human serum and brain tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ramadan; Campos, Benito; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Haefeli, Walter E; Herold-Mende, Christel; Burhenne, Jürgen

    2012-05-06

    Retinoic acid signaling is essential for central nervous system (CNS) differentiation and appears to be impaired in tumors. Thus far, there are no established methods to quantify relevant retinoids (all-trans-retinoic acid, 9-cis-retinoic acid, 13-cis retinoic acid, and retinol) in human brain tumors. We developed a single step extraction and quantification procedure for polar and apolar retinoids in normal tissue, lipid-rich brain tumor tissues, and serum. This quantification procedure is based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD) using all-trans-acitretin as an internal standard and extraction by liquid-liquid partition with ethyl acetate and borate buffer at pH 9. Recovery with this extraction procedure was higher than earlier (two-step) liquid-liquid extraction procedures based on hexane, NaOH, and HCl. The overall quantification procedure was validated according to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and fulfilled all criteria of accuracy, precision, selectivity, recovery, and stability. The overall method accuracy varied between -5.6% and +5.4% for serum and -3.8% and +6.2% for tissues, and overall precision ranged from 3.1% to 6.9% for serum and 2.1% to 8.3% for tissues (%CV batch-to-batch). The lower limit of quantification for all compounds in tumor tissue (and serum) was 3.9 ng g(-1) (ng mL(-1)). Using this assay, photodegradation of the retinoids was evaluated and endogenous polar and apolar retinoids were quantified in sera and brain tumor tissues of patients and compared with serum and tonsil tissue concentrations of controls. It may thus serve as a suitable method for the characterization of retinoid uptake and metabolism in the respective compartments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased serum concentrations of soluble ST2 are associated with pulmonary complications and mortality in polytraumatized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Thomas; Simader, Elisabeth; Hacker, Philipp; Ankersmit, Hendrik J; Heinz, Thomas; Hajdu, Stefan; Negrin, Lukas L

    2018-01-17

    We sought to evaluate the role of soluble ST2 (suppression of tumorigenicity) serum concentrations in polytraumatized patients and its potential role as biomarker for pulmonary complications. We included severely injured patients (injury severity score≥16) admitted to our level I trauma center and analyzed serum samples obtained on the day of admission and on day 2. Furthermore, patients with isolated thoracic injury and healthy probands were included and served as control groups. Serum samples were analyzed for soluble ST2 concentrations with a commercially available ELISA kit. A total of 130 patients were included in the present study. Five patients with isolated thoracic injury and eight healthy probands were further included. Serum analyses revealed significantly elevated concentrations of soluble ST2 in polytraumatized patients compared to patients suffering from isolated thoracic trauma and healthy probands. In polytraumatized patients who developed pulmonary complications (acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia) and in patients who died, significantly higher serum concentrations of soluble ST2 were found on day 2 (psoluble ST2 on day 2 were of prognostic value to predict pulmonary complications in polytraumatized patients (area under the curve=0.720, 95% confidence interval=0.623-0.816). Concomitant thoracic trauma had no further impact on serum concentrations of soluble ST2. Serum concentrations of soluble ST2 are upregulated following polytrauma. Increased concentrations were associated with worse outcome.

  1. Serum potassium levels, cardiac arrhythmias, and mortality following non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction or unstable angina: insights from MERLIN-TIMI 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravi B; Tannenbaum, Sara; Viana-Tejedor, Ana; Guo, Jianping; Im, KyungAh; Morrow, David A; Scirica, Benjamin M

    2017-02-01

    In acute coronary syndrome (ACS), potassium levels 4.0 mEq/L in ACS. Our study evaluated the association between potassium levels, cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiovascular death in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction or unstable angina. Potassium levels were measured in 6515 patients prior to randomization to receive either ranolazine or a placebo in the MERLIN-TIMI 36 trial. A seven-day continuous electrocardiographic assessment was obtained to determine the incidence of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) and ventricular pauses. The association between potassium levels and cardiovascular death was evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with multivariable adjustment. NSVT lasting for at least eight consecutive beats occurred more frequently at potassium levels 3 s, which occurred more frequently at potassium levels ⩾5 mEq/L than at potassium levels <3.5 mEq/L (5.9 vs. 2.0%, p=0.03 for trend). There was a U-shaped relationship between the potassium level at admission and both early and late risk of cardiovascular death. Compared with patients with potassium levels of 3.5 to <4 mEq/L, a potassium level <3.5 mEq/L was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death at day 14 (2.4 vs. 0.8%, HRadj 3.1, p=0.02) and at one year (6.4 vs. 3.0%, HRadj 2.2, p=0.01). The risk of cardiovascular death at one year was also significantly increased at potassium levels ⩾4.5 mEq/L and a similar trend was noted at potassium levels ⩾5 mEq/L. The lowest risk of cardiovascular death was observed in patients with admission potassium levels between 3.5 and 4.5 mEq/L. Both lower and higher levels of potassium were associated with tachyarrhythmias and bradyarrhythmias, suggesting a potential mechanistic explanation for the increased risk of cardiovascular death at the extremes of potassium homeostasis.

  2. Serum potassium levels, cardiac arrhythmias, and mortality following non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction or unstable angina: insights from MERLIN-TIMI 36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravi B; Tannenbaum, Sara; Viana-Tejedor, Ana; Guo, Jianping; Im, KyungAh; Morrow, David A; Scirica, Benjamin M

    2017-01-01

    Background In acute coronary syndrome (ACS), potassium levels 4.0 mEq/L in ACS. Our study evaluated the association between potassium levels, cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiovascular death in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction or unstable angina. Methods Potassium levels were measured in 6515 patients prior to randomization to receive either ranolazine or a placebo in the MERLIN-TIMI 36 trial. A seven-day continuous electrocardiographic assessment was obtained to determine the incidence of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) and ventricular pauses. The association between potassium levels and cardiovascular death was evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with multivariable adjustment. Results NSVT lasting for at least eight consecutive beats occurred more frequently at potassium levels 3 s, which occurred more frequently at potassium levels ⩾5 mEq/L than at potassium levels <3.5 mEq/L (5.9 vs. 2.0%, p=0.03 for trend). There was a U-shaped relationship between the potassium level at admission and both early and late risk of cardiovascular death. Compared with patients with potassium levels of 3.5 to <4 mEq/L, a potassium level <3.5 mEq/L was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death at day 14 (2.4 vs. 0.8%, HRadj 3.1, p=0.02) and at one year (6.4 vs. 3.0%, HRadj 2.2, p=0.01). The risk of cardiovascular death at one year was also significantly increased at potassium levels ⩾4.5 mEq/L and a similar trend was noted at potassium levels ⩾5 mEq/L. Conclusions The lowest risk of cardiovascular death was observed in patients with admission potassium levels between 3.5 and 4.5 mEq/L. Both lower and higher levels of potassium were associated with tachyarrhythmias and bradyarrhythmias, suggesting a potential mechanistic explanation for the increased risk of cardiovascular death at the extremes of potassium homeostasis. PMID:26714972

  3. A Low Serum Bicarbonate Concentration as a Risk Factor for Mortality in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tae Ik; Oh, Hyung Jung; Kang, Ea Wha; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Shin, Sug Kyun; Kang, Shin-Wook; Choi, Kyu Hun; Han, Dae Suk; Han, Seung Hyeok

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim Metabolic acidosis is common in patients with chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, this relationship has not yet been determined in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods This prospective observational study included a total of 441 incident patients who started PD between January 2000 and December 2005. Using time-averaged serum bicarbonate (TA-Bic) levels, we aimed to investigate whether a low serum bicarbonate concentration can predict mortality in these patients. Results Among the baseline parameters, serum bicarbonate level was positively associated with hemoglobin level and residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR), while it was negatively associated with albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, peritoneal Kt/V urea, and normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) in a multivariable linear regression analysis. During a median follow-up of 34.8 months, 149 deaths were recorded. After adjustment for age, diabetes, coronary artery disease, serum albumin, ferritin, CRP, residual GFR, peritoneal Kt/V urea, nPCR, and percentage of lean body mass, TA-Bic level was associated with a significantly decreased risk of mortality (HR per 1 mEq/L increase, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.91; p bicarbonate concentration is an independent risk factor for mortality in PD patients. This relationship between low bicarbonate levels and adverse outcome could be related to enhanced inflammation and a more rapid loss of RRF associated with metabolic acidosis. Large randomized clinical trials to correct acidosis are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:24349396

  4. Influence of endurance exercise on serum concentrations of iron and acute phase proteins in racing sled dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Christine L; Basaraba, Randall J; Bohn, Andrea A

    2011-11-01

    To determine effects of long-distance racing exercise on iron status in endurance racing sled dogs, with or without anemia. Prospective cohort study. 114 dogs that participated in the 2007 Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race (59 and 55 dogs that did or did not complete the race, respectively). Stored serum samples obtained from 85 endurance-racing sled dogs that were expected to participate in the race were used to establish study reference intervals and prerace group values for iron-related variables. Blood samples collected from 114 study dogs before (ie, baseline) and after participation in the race were used to determine PCV and serum total protein concentrations before and after racing and assess iron-related variables after racing. Mean values for PCV and serum total protein concentration were decreased after racing, compared with baseline values in the same dogs. Mean serum iron concentration was low, and mean serum ceruloplasmin and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations were high in dogs after racing, compared with prerace group values. Mean serum ferritin concentration was high in dogs that did not complete the race, compared with the prerace group value and that of dogs that finished the race; 4 of 113 (3.5%) study dogs had low ferritin concentrations (racing, suggestive of possible iron deficiency. Decreased PCV and serum total protein concentrations were consistently detected, whereas iron deficiency appeared to be uncommon, in study dogs after race participation. High serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin and CRP after racing suggested that changes indicative of iron deficiency may be masked by inflammation. Alternatively, changes in serum iron and CRP concentrations may reflect a physiologic response.

  5. Serum total cholesterol concentration and 10-year mortality in an 85-year-old population

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    Takata Y

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Yutaka Takata,1 Toshihiro Ansai,2 Inho Soh,2 Shuji Awano,2 Ikuo Nakamichi,1 Sumio Akifusa,3 Kenichi Goto,1 Akihiro Yoshida,2 Hiroki Fujii,1 Ritsuko Fujisawa,1 Kazuo Sonoki3 1Division of General Internal Medicine, 2Division of Community Oral Health Development, 3Department of Oral Health and Environment, School of Oral Health Science, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu, Japan Abstract: Little is known about the association between total cholesterol (TC and all-cause mortality in the elderly (especially the very elderly. Here we examined the association between TC and all-cause mortality in 207 very elderly (85-year-old participants. In 2003, we performed a baseline laboratory blood examination, and blood pressure (BP and body mass index (BMI measurements, and lifestyle questionnaires were completed by the participants. The participants were followed for the subsequent 10 years. As of 2013, of the 207 participants in 2003, 70 participants had survived, 120 individuals had died, and 17 were lost to follow up. The TC values were divided into high-TC (≥209 mg/dL, intermediate-TC (176–208 mg/dL, and low-TC (≤175 mg/dL categories. With the Kaplan–Meier method, we found that both the high-TC and intermediate-TC participants survived longer than the low-TC participants. The men with high TC survived longer than those with low TC, but no corresponding difference was found for the women. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model, with adjustment for gender, smoking, alcohol intake, history of stroke or heart disease, serum albumin concentration, BMI, and systolic BP, revealed that the total mortality in the low-TC group was 1.7-fold higher than that in the high-TC group. Mortality, adjusted for the same factors, decreased 0.9% with each 1 mg/dL increase in the serum TC concentration and decreased 0.8% with each 1 mg/dL increase in the serum (low-density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C concentration. Our results indicate an

  6. Analysis of serum insulin growth factor-1 concentrations in localized osteosarcoma: a children's oncology group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borinstein, Scott C; Barkauskas, Donald A; Bernstein, Mark; Goorin, Allen; Gorlick, Richard; Krailo, Mark; Schwartz, Cindy L; Wexler, Leonard H; Toretsky, Jeffrey A

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the role of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), in localized osteosarcoma, serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were measured in 224 similarly treated, newly diagnosed patients. We demonstrated that younger patients had lower concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 compared to older (P < 0.001) along with lower IGFBP-3:IGF-1 and IGFBP-2:IGF-1 ratios (P < 0.001). IGFBP-2 did not correlate with age (P = 0.16), yet IGFBP-2:IGF-1 ratios were higher in the younger population (P < 0.001). These findings show that older patients have higher concentrations of free IGF-1. None of IGF-1, IGFBP-2, nor IGFBP-3 concentrations were associated with event-free nor overall survival. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. High serum uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Cai-Feng; Feng, Pin-Ning; Yao, Zhen-Rong; Yu, Xue-Gao; Lin, Wen-Bin; Qian, Yuan-Min; Guo, Yun-Miao; Li, Lai-Sheng; Liu, Min

    2017-10-01

    Uric acid is a product of purine metabolism. Recently, uric acid has gained much attraction in cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of serum uric acid concentration in breast cancer patients. A total of 443 female patients with histopathologically diagnosed breast cancer were included. After a mean follow-up time of 56months, survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. To further evaluate the prognostic significance of uric acid concentrations, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were applied. Of the clinicopathological parameters, uric acid concentration was associated with age, body mass index, ER status and PR status. Univariate analysis identified that patients with increased uric acid concentration had a significantly inferior overall survival (HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.15-3.94, p=0.016). In multivariate analysis, we found that high uric acid concentration is an independent prognostic factor predicting death, but insufficient to predict local relapse or distant metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that high uric acid concentration is related to the poor overall survival (p=0.013). High uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer, and might serve as a potential marker for appropriate management of breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lung and serum teicoplanin concentration after aerosol and intravenous administration in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Emmanuelle; Darrouzain, François; Montharu, Jerome; Guillon, Antoine; Diot, Patrice; Paintaud, Gilles; Vecellio, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of mortality in mechanically ventilated patients. Nebulization of teicoplanin is an alternative way of administration that may provide higher lung tissue concentrations than intravenous (IV) delivery. The aim of this study was to compare the administration of teicoplanin via aerosol with the IV route by measuring the lung and the serum teicoplanin concentrations in a rat model. Eighty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and received a single dose of teicoplanin by the IV or aerosol route. After sacrifice, lung and blood samples were collected and teicoplanin concentrations were measured with fluorescence polarization. A noncompartmental approach was used. The area under the concentration curve/minimal inhibition concentration ratio (AUC/MIC), AUC, absorbed fraction, mean residence time (MRT), and mean absorption time (MAT) of teicoplanin were calculated. Mean±SD lung tissue concentrations of teicoplanin in the aerosol group were significantly higher than those in the IV group (pTeicoplanin concentrations in the lung tissue of the rat model were significantly higher by the aerosol route than by the IV route. The AUClung after nebulization was 84 times higher than delivery by the IV route, and the AUClung/MIC ratio after nebulization met the recommended target to eradicate Staphylococcus aureus. Administration of teicoplanin by the aerosol route could represent one of the new therapeutic weapons of the treatment of the VAP.

  9. Optimum potassium chloride concentration to reduce hydration capacity of clay formations; Concentracao otima de cloreto de potassio para reduzir a capacidade de hidratacao das formacoes argilosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Jose Carlos Vieira [PETROBRAS, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Centro de Recursos Humanos Norte-Nordeste. Setor de Programas de Perfuracao; Oliveira, Manoel Martins de [PETROBRAS, BA (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao

    1988-12-31

    An experimental method for ascertaining the optimal concentration of potassium chloride for reducing the hydration and dispersion capacity of clayey formations sensitive to water-based fluids is described. Under this method, filtering time for disperse systems prepared from clayey formation samples is measured. A discussion is offered on theoretical aspects of hydration, expansion, and dispersion of clayey rocks in response to the variations in stress equilibrium states produced by these phenomena when a hole (well) is opened in the rock. The state of the art of this technological branch is also described. (author) 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Smell and Taste Dysfunction Is Associated with Higher Serum Total Cholesterol Concentrations in Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhe; Huang, Shue; Cong, Hongliang; Li, Zheng; Li, Junjuan; Keller, Kathleen L; Shearer, Gregory C; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    Background: Several lipid-related hormones and peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 and leptin, are involved in the regulation of taste and smell function. However, to our knowledge, it remains unknown whether these chemosensory functions are associated with lipid profiles. Objective: We examined the cross-sectional association between taste and smell dysfunction and blood cholesterol concentrations. Methods: With the use of a questionnaire, we assessed chronic smell and taste dysfunction in 12,627 Chinese participants (10,418 men and 2209 women; mean age: 54.4 y) who did not take hypolipidemic agents. Participants were categorized into 3 groups based on the number of smell and taste dysfunctions, ranging from 0 (best) to 2 (worst). A general linear model was used to test differences in serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (TGs) across groups with different smell and taste status after adjusting for age, sex, education, occupation, smoking, drinking, obesity, and history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and head injury. Results: The prevalence of smell and taste dysfunction was 2.4% and 1.2%, respectively. Worse smell and taste dysfunction was associated with higher total cholesterol concentrations ( P -trend = 0.005). No significant differences were observed in LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and TG concentrations across groups with different numbers of chemosensory dysfunctions ( P -trend > 0.1 for all). The associations between chemosensory dysfunction and total cholesterol concentrations were more pronounced in participants aged ≤60 y and in those who were nonsmokers relative to their counterparts ( P -interaction < 0.05 for all). Conclusions: In this large cross-sectional study, chemosensory dysfunction was associated with higher serum total cholesterol concentrations among Chinese adults. Prospective studies are needed to investigate the temporal relation between these chemosensory

  11. [The effect of cigarette smoking on serum concentration of conjugated dienes in stroke patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Sławomir; Kazmierski, Radosław; Hellmann, Agnieszka; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    Exposition to tobacco smoke as a source of free radicals leads to stimulation of lipids peroxidation. Oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) increases the risk of stroke. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking on the serum concentration of conjugated dienes as markers of peroxidation of fatty acids. In the study participated 431 subsequent stroke patients (ischemic and with hemorrhagic transformation) hospitalized in Department of Neurology in Poznan in a period from February 2007 to may 2008. The control group consisted of 16 healthy, non-smoking volunteers. The concentration of conjugated dienes (CD) in patients' sera was estimated by spectrophotometric methods. Furthermore, lipid profile, glucose level, concentration of C-reactive protein and white blood cells count were analysed. We have also calculated waist- to hip ratio. Serum concentrations of conjugated dienes were increased both in smoking and non-smoking patients with ischemic stroke. We noticed negative correlation between conjugated dienes levels and tobacco smoking duration in patients with ischemic stroke (Kendall's tau = -0.154, p = 0.0474). Moreover, conjugated dienes concentration correlated positively with triacylglycerides levels in smokers with ischemic stroke (rSpearman = 0.198, p = 0.0452; Kendall's tau = 0.135, p = 0.0428). The abnormalities in concentrations of conjugated dienes in ischemic stroke patients resulted rather from disturbances of cerebral circulation, than from cigarette smoking itself. Hypertriglyceridemia in smokers with ischemic stroke causes up-regulation of lipids peroxidation. The rate of production of conjugated dienes is associated with distribution of adipose tissue reflected by waist to hip ratio.

  12. Serum substance P concentrations to predict oocyte maturation index and clinical pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Yavuz; Özkaya, Enis; Kayatas Eser, Semra; Kutlu, Tayfun; Sanverdi, Ilhan; Tunali, Gulden; Karateke, Ates

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of serum substance P (SP) concentrations on oocyte maturation and clinical pregnancy. Ninety-three women with unexplained infertility underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Antagonist protocol was started for each participant and at the day of oocyte pick up, serum samples were obtained from each participant to assess SP concentrations, and these concentrations were utilized to predict mature/total oocyte ratio and clinical pregnancy. SP concentration was a significant predictor for mature/total oocyte ratio > 0.75 and clinical pregnancy. In correlation analyses, maturation index was significantly correlated with FSH (r= -0.226, p = 0.03), estradiol (r = 0.239, p = 0.021), peak estradiol (r = 0.414, p < 0.001), and substance P (r = 0.796, p < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, number of immature (beta coefficient = -0.379, p < 0.001), mature oocyte (beta coefficient = 0.473, p < 0.001), SP concentration (beta coefficient = 0.723, p < 0.001) and maturation index (beta coefficient = -0.387, p = 0.003) were significantly associated with clinical pregnancy. SP concentrations at the day of oocyte pick up may be used to predict clinical pregnancy and may be an indirect indicator for cycle outcome in assisted reproductive technology (ART).

  13. Effects of short-term supplementation of clinoptilolite in colostrum and milk on the concentration of some serum minerals in neonatal dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohri, M; Seifi, H A; Maleki, M

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the use of both natural and synthetic zeolites in animal nutrition has increased mainly to improve their performance, health, and to protect against mycotoxin intoxication. Thirty calves were used in the present study for the determination of some physiologic effects of clinoptilolite supplementation. The animals were divided equally into three groups (control, test 1, and test 2). The three groups of calves were homogeneous for parity of dams, sex, and month of birth. For group test 1, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% of each colostrum meal was added for 48 h, and for group test 2, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% was added to each colostrum and milk meal for 14 days. Blood samples were taken from all calves 12 h after birth and at the end of the first, second, third, forth, fifth, and sixth weeks of life. Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), and potassium (K) were determined in the serum. For statistical analysis of data, a repeated measures approach using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with mixed linear models was used. Clinoptilolite supplementation had significant effect on the concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and iron. The concentrations of Fe significantly higher in test group 2 than other trial groups (p importance of dietary phosphorus in many physiologic processes, the level of phosphorus in diet of neonatal dairy calves must be considered and adapted when clinoptilolite was supplemented. With an adequate supply of good quality drinking water, cattle can tolerate large quantities of dietary sodium chloride. Thus, it seems that significant increase in serum Na concentration during short-term supplementation of clinoptilolite in neonatal calves could be well tolerated without any adverse effects.

  14. Serum Albumin Concentrations in a Multi-Ethnic Cohort of Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection from South East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James Jy; Fragaszy, Ellen; Dukes, Oliver; Cason, John; Kozlakidis, Zisis

    2015-01-01

    Human albumin is the most abundant protein in sera and a valuable biomarker in monitoring a variety of diseases. In this study we investigated the relationship between serum albumin concentrations and effects of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Serum albumin concentrations amongst 70 HIV-infected patients from diverse ethnicities were analyzed, in the absence of any other confounding comorbidities, over a period of 8 years in South East London, United Kingdom. Serum albumin data was collected, on average, every 4-6 weeks during routine visits. Serum albumin was measured prior to starting HAART, and measured at the first clinic visit after commencing HAART. These were compared to a control group of untreated individuals. Based on our analyses we conclude that serum albumin concentrations increase significantly after the initiation of therapy.

  15. Analysis of serum interleukin-27 and interleukin-35 concentrations in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin-Jie; Guo, Hui-Yue; Zhang, Da-Qi; Wang, Rong; Li, Ting; Li, Li-Min; Suo, Dong-Mei; Yang, Li

    2017-05-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a postinfectious immune-mediated peripheral neuropathy. Interleukin (IL)-27 and IL-35 have been recognized as novel members of IL-12 family. We evaluated the serum and cerebral spinal fluid (CFS) concentrations of IL-27 and IL-35 in GBS and analyze their correlations with clinical characteristics. Serum samples from 50 patients with GBS including 9 acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), 33 acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and 8 unclassified and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were collected. Thirty CSF samples from these patients and 25 patients with other noninflammatory neurological disorders (ONNDs) as disease controls were collected after lumbar puncture. Serum and CSF IL-27 and IL-35 concentrations were measured using human IL-27 or IL-35 ELISA. Serum IL-27 concentrations were elevated (p=0.002) whereas serum IL-35 concentrations were decreased (p=0.031) in patients with GBS comparing with healthy controls, particularly in patients exhibiting AMAN (p=0.012). Additionally, serum IL-35 concentrations were negatively correlated with disease severity and outcomes in patients with AMAN (r=-0.358, p=0.041; r=-0.416, p=0.016). IL-27 might be pathogenic, whereas IL-35 be protective in GBS. Additionally, serum IL-35 concentrations may be important biomarkers for the severity and outcomes of AMAN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stability of BDNF in Human Samples Stored Up to 6 Months and Correlations of Serum and EDTA-Plasma Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Maryna; Schlögl, Haiko; Sacher, Julia; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Kaiser, Jochen; Stumvoll, Michael; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2017-06-03

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important neural growth factor, has gained growing interest in neuroscience, but many influencing physiological and analytical aspects still remain unclear. In this study we assessed the impact of storage time at room temperature, repeated freeze/thaw cycles, and storage at -80 °C up to 6 months on serum and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-plasma BDNF. Furthermore, we assessed correlations of serum and plasma BDNF concentrations in two independent sets of samples. Coefficients of variations (CVs) for serum BDNF concentrations were significantly lower than CVs of plasma concentrations (n = 245, p = 0.006). Mean serum and plasma concentrations at all analyzed time points remained within the acceptable change limit of the inter-assay precision as declared by the manufacturer. Serum and plasma BDNF concentrations correlated positively in both sets of samples and at all analyzed time points of the stability assessment (r = 0.455 to rs = 0.596; p < 0.004). In summary, when considering the acceptable change limit, BDNF was stable in serum and in EDTA-plasma up to 6 months. Due to a higher reliability, we suggest favoring serum over EDTA-plasma for future experiments assessing peripheral BDNF concentrations.

  17. Stability of BDNF in Human Samples Stored Up to 6 Months and Correlations of Serum and EDTA-Plasma Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Polyakova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, an important neural growth factor, has gained growing interest in neuroscience, but many influencing physiological and analytical aspects still remain unclear. In this study we assessed the impact of storage time at room temperature, repeated freeze/thaw cycles, and storage at −80 °C up to 6 months on serum and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA-plasma BDNF. Furthermore, we assessed correlations of serum and plasma BDNF concentrations in two independent sets of samples. Coefficients of variations (CVs for serum BDNF concentrations were significantly lower than CVs of plasma concentrations (n = 245, p = 0.006. Mean serum and plasma concentrations at all analyzed time points remained within the acceptable change limit of the inter-assay precision as declared by the manufacturer. Serum and plasma BDNF concentrations correlated positively in both sets of samples and at all analyzed time points of the stability assessment (r = 0.455 to rs = 0.596; p < 0.004. In summary, when considering the acceptable change limit, BDNF was stable in serum and in EDTA-plasma up to 6 months. Due to a higher reliability, we suggest favoring serum over EDTA-plasma for future experiments assessing peripheral BDNF concentrations.

  18. Serum zinc concentrations correlate with mental and physical status of nursing home residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Markiewicz-Żukowska

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn is one of the most important trace elements in the body. Zn deficiency seems to play a role in the development of age-related diseases and impairment of quality of life. Zn status has been especially studied in free-living or hospitalised people, but data from older residents of nursing homes are scarce. This study aimed to determine the Zn status among the older individuals in correlation to their mental and physical performance.A total of 100 participants aged between 60-102 years were recruited between October 2010 and May 2012 at the nursing home in Bialystok (Poland. Zn status was evaluated by determining the concentration in serum by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Anthropometric variables and fitness score (FS were measured. Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, Self-Rated Health (SRH, independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADL were recorded.The mean serum Zn concentration was 0.83 ± 0.20 mg/L, 28% of residents had Zn deficiency. Cognitive functions were impaired (AMTS ≤ 8 in 45% of the studied persons and 48% showed depressive symptoms (GDS ≥ 1. The ability to independently perform activities of daily living (ADL = 6 was found in 61% of participants, but most of them (90% had weak body type (FS < 70, correlating with GDS, SRH and body mass index (BMI. Serum Zn concentration correlated with mental efficiency and was statistically significantly higher in older people with normal cognitive function and without depression than in patients with memory impairment and showing depressive symptoms.Nursing home residents seem at risk of marginal Zn status, which correlates with their mental status as measured by the AMTS and GDS. Their low FS is associated with mental health deterioration and obesity.

  19. The Effect of Age and Weight on Vancomycin Serum Trough Concentrations in Pediatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Theresa; Sieve, Ronald M.; Graner, Kevin K.; Banerjee, Ritu

    2013-01-01

    Background Vancomycin treatment failure has been associated with low serum vancomycin trough concentrations, prompting recommendations to increase the daily doses in adults and children. Despite more aggressive vancomycin dosing, there continues to be significant variability in vancomycin trough concentrations in pediatric patients. Methods To determine if vancomycin trough concentrations in pediatric patients differ by age and weight, we reviewed records of hospitalized patients who received vancomycin between 2008 and 2012. Patients were divided into groups that received vancomycin 40 mg/kg/day (2008 to 2009) or 60 mg/kg/day (2010 to 2012). Vancomycin trough concentrations were compared between groups and within the 60-mg/kg/day group, stratified by patient age and weight. Results After increasing the vancomycin dose from 40 mg/kg/day to 60 mg/kg/day, initial trough concentrations increased significantly in patients younger than 2 and greater than 6 years of age, but not in patients between the ages of 2 and 5 years. In the 60-mg/kg/day group, only 16.7% of patients between 2 and 5 years of age had initial trough concentrations in the therapeutic range (10 mcg/mL to 20 mcg/mL). Initial trough concentrations were therapeutic in a greater proportion of patients ages 6 years to 12 years (38.7%) and 13 years to 18 years (63.0%). Patients between the ages of 13 and 18 had the highest proportion of supratherapeutic initial vancomycin trough concentrations (14.8%). Patients weighing > 50 kg had significantly higher trough concentrations than patients ≤ 50 kg (17.1 mcg/mL vs. 9.3 mcg/mL; p 50 kg are more likely to have elevated trough concentrations. Vancomycin dosing strategies in pediatric patients should consider age and weight as well as renal function and indication. PMID:23864541

  20. Concentrations of stromal cell-derived factor-1 in serum, plasma, and synovial fluid of horses with osteochondral injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymock, David C; Brown, Murray P; Merritt, Kelly A; Trumble, Troy N

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) concentrations in serum, plasma, and synovial fluid differed among untrained, race-trained, and osteochondral-injured Thoroughbred racehorses. 22 racehorses without osteochondral injury and 37 racehorses with osteochondral injury. Horses without osteochondral injury were examined before and after 5 to 6 months of race training. Horses with osteochondral injury were undergoing arthroscopic surgery for removal of osteochondral fragments from carpal or metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joints (fetlock joints). Serum, plasma, and fetlock or carpal synovial fluid samples were obtained and analyzed for SDF-1 concentration by use of an ELISA. In horses with fetlock or carpal joint injury, mean synovial fluid SDF-1 concentrations were significantly higher, serum SDF-1 concentrations were significantly lower, and synovial fluid-to-serum SDF-1 ratios were significantly higher than in untrained and trained horses. Synovial fluid SDF-1 concentrations were not significantly different between trained and untrained horses. Plasma SDF-1 concentrations were not different among the 3 groups. Results obtained with serum, compared with synovial fluid and plasma, had better sensitivity for differentiating between osteochondral-injured horses and uninjured horses. In horses with fetlock joint osteochondral injury, serum SDF-1 concentrations were correlated with radiographic and arthroscopic inflammation scores, but not arthroscopic cartilage scores. Results suggested that serum SDF-1 concentrations were more sensitive than plasma and synovial fluid concentrations for detection of osteochondral injury in the fetlock or carpal joint of racehorses. Analysis of serum and synovial SDF-1 concentrations in horses with experimentally induced joint injury may help define the onset and progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis and aid in the evaluation of anti-inflammatory treatments.

  1. Performance and serum cortisol concentration in Santa Inês lambs under different suckling schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina Alves; Nadja Gomes Alves; Ivan Júnior Ascari; Felipe Barbosa Junqueira; Luciana França Smith Maciel; Iraides Ferreira Furusho Garcia; Renato Ribeiro de Lima

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to examine the effects of suckling schemes (continued, controlled, and total separation) and the type of pregnancy on performance and serum cortisol concentration in lambs. A total of 29 Santa Inês ewes and 40 lambs were used, and the randomized block design was applied in a split-plot scheme with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement in the plot and time in the subplot. For controlled suckling, the diet was supplied twice daily during one hour, starting on th...

  2. Serum protein concentrations from clinically healthy horses determined by agarose gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riond, Barbara; Wenger-Riggenbach, Bettina; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2009-03-01

    Serum protein electrophoresis is a useful screening test in equine laboratory medicine. The method can provide valuable information about changes in the concentrations of albumin and alpha-, beta-, and gamma-globulins and thereby help characterize dysproteinemias in equine patients. Reference values for horses using agarose gel as a support medium have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to establish reference intervals for serum protein concentrations in adult horses using agarose gel electrophoresis and to assess differences between warm-blooded and heavy draught horses. In addition, the precision of electrophoresis for determining fraction percentages and the detection limit were determined. Blood samples were obtained from 126 clinically healthy horses, including 105 Thoroughbreds and 21 heavy draught horses of both sexes and ranging from 2 to 20 years of age. The total protein concentration was determined by an automated biuret method. Serum protein electrophoresis was performed using a semi-automated agarose gel electrophoresis system. Coefficients of variation (CVs) were calculated for within-run and within-assay precision. Data from warm-blooded and draught horses were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Within-run and within-assay CVs were <5% for all protein fractions. No significant difference was found between warm-blooded and heavy draught horses and so combined reference intervals (2.5-97.5%) were calculated for total protein (51.0-72.0 g/L), albumin (29.6-38.5 g/L), alpha(1)-globulin (1.9-3.1 g/L), alpha(2)-globulin (5.3-8.7 g/L), beta(1)-globulin (2.8-7.3g/L), beta(2)-globulin (2.2-6.0 g/L), and gamma-globulin (5.8-12.7 g/L) concentrations, and albumin/globulin ratio (0.93-1.65). Using agarose gel as the supporting matrix for serum protein electrophoresis in horses resulted in excellent resolution and accurate results that facilitated standardization into 6 protein fractions.

  3. Blood serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in men from Greenlandic Inuit and European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, Christian H; Rylander, Lars; Toft, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are used in large quantities. They are persistent and found in measurable levels in human serum around the world. They have been associated with developmental, hepatic, and carcinogenic...... of seven PFCs were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were the highest of all PFCs in all three populations with a total amount of almost 90% of the PFCs. The mean levels of PFOS and PFOA were in the Greenlandic Inuits 52 and 4.8 ng m...

  4. Immunoglobulin concentration in the blood serum of foals suffering from pneumonia associated with mycoplasma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, A; Szabó, I; Vajda, G; Antal, V D; Polner, A; Totth, B; Szollár, I; Stipkovits, L

    1989-01-01

    Clinical, microbiological, haematological, and immunological investigations were carried out in mares and their foals of 2 studs. A considerable number of foals fell ill with pneumonia, the mortality rate was high. Mycoplasmas were mostly isolated from nasal swabs and from the lungs. The isolation rate of bacteria was lower. Serum IgG concentration was reduced in the diseased or dead foals compared to that of healthy animals, the data stress in importance of IgG in the development of respiratory diseases also in foals.

  5. The Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Insulin Resistance in Japanese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we aim to investigate the independent and combined associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF with glucose metabolism. Fasting blood samples of 107 men aged 40–79 years were analyzed for 25(OHD, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid profile. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR was calculated from the fasting concentrations of glucose and insulin. Visceral fat area (VFA was determined by magnetic resonance imaging and CRF by measuring maximal oxygen uptake. Median 25(OHD concentration was 36.3 nmol/L, while the prevalence of 25(OHD deficiency was 74.8%. Participants with high CRF had significantly lower HOMA-IR, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin values than participants with low CRF (p < 0.05. Higher 25(OHD concentration was strongly correlated with lower HOMA-IR and insulin values independent of VFA (p < 0.01 but significantly affected by CRF. In the high CRF group, participants with higher 25(OHD concentration had lower HOMA-IR values than participants with low 25(OHD concentration (p < 0.05. Higher 25(OHD and CRF are crucial for reducing insulin resistance regardless of abdominal fat. In addition, higher 25(OHD concentration may strengthen the effect of CRF on reducing insulin resistance in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men with high CRF.

  6. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies Six New Loci for Serum Calcium Concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. O'Seaghdha (Conall); H. Wu (Hongsheng); Q. Yang (Qiong); K. Kapur (Karen); I. Guessous (Idris); P. Zuber (Patrick); A. Köttgen (Anna); C. Stoudmann (Candice); A. Teumer (Alexander); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); M. Mangino (Massimo); A. Dehghan (Abbas); W. Zhang (Weihua); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); G. Li (Guo); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); L. Portas (Laura); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); C. Hayward (Caroline); K. Lohman (Kurt); K. Matsuda (Koichi); S. Padmanabhan (Sandosh); D. Firsov (Dmitri); R. Sorice; S. Ulivi (Shelia); A.C. Brockhaus (A. Catharina); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); A. Mahajan (Anubha); F.D.J. Ernst (Florian); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); L.J. Launer (Lenore); A. Mace (Aurelien); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); D.E. Arking (Dan); C. Tanikawa (Chizu); Y. Nakamura (Yusuke); M.J. Brown (Morris); J.-M. Gaspoz (Jean-Michel); J.-M. Theler (Jean-Marc); D.S. Siscovick (David); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); P. Vollenweider (Peter); V. Vitart (Veronique); A.F. Wright (Alan); T. Zemunik (Tatijana); M. Boban (Mladen); I. Kolcic (Ivana); P. Navarro (Pau); E.M. Brown (Edward); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); J. Ding (Jinhui); T.B. Harris (Tamara); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); A. Singleton (Andrew); S. Girotto; D. Ruggiero; P. d' Adamo (Pio); A. Robino (Antonietta); T. Meitinger (Thomas); C. Meisinger (Christa); G. Davies (Gail); J.M. Starr (John); J.C. Chambers (John); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); B. Winkelmann; J. Huang (Jian); D. Murgia (Daniela); S.H. Wild (Sarah); H. Campbell (Harry); A.D. Morris (Andrew); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); U. Vol̈ker (Uwe); M. Hannemann (Mario); R. Biffar (Reiner); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); S.-Y. Shin; P. Lescuyer (Pierre); H. Henry (Hughes); C. Schurmann (Claudia); P. Munroe (Patricia); P. Gasparini (Paolo); N. Pirastu (Nicola); M. Ciullo; C. Gieger (Christian); W. März (Winfried); L. Lind (Lars); T.D. Spector (Timothy); G.D. Smith; I. Rudan (Igor); J.F. Wilson (James); O. Polasek (Ozren); I.J. Deary (Ian); M. Pirastu (Mario); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); Y. Liu (Yongmei); B. Kestenbaum (Bryan); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); M. Nauck (Matthias); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); O. Bonny (Olivier); C. Fox (Craig); M. Bochud (Murielle)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCalcium is vital to the normal functioning of multiple organ systems and its serum concentration is tightly regulated. Apart from CASR, the genes associated with serum calcium are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 39,400 individuals from 17

  7. Determination of ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) serum protein concentrations by refractometry and the biuret method

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Elizabeth Moreira Dos Santos [UNESP; Paulillo, Antonio Carlos [UNESP; Dittrich, Rqsangela Locatelli; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux [UNESP; Bertoli, Rodolfo Silva

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of hand-held refractometer in determining serum protein concentrations in ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) as compared with the standard biuret method. The results indicated that serum protein values may be accurately determined in ring-necked pheasants with a hand-held refractometer. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2008.

  8. Serum uric acid concentrations and SLC2A9 genetic variation in Hispanic children: The Viva La Familia Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated concentrations of serum uric acid are associated with increased risk of gout and renal and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic studies in adults have consistently identified associations of solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9), polymorphisms with variation in serum uric acid. However, it...

  9. SIGNIFICANCE OF ADENOSINE DEAMINASE SERUM CONCENTRATIONS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF EXTRA-PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanovic G,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB is a growing problem worldwide. Due to the nature of the disease, the diversity of clinical pictures as well as its minor epidemiological importance, the diagnosis is difficult and often late.In addition to standard TB diagnostic techniques use of new biochemical (surrogate markers are increased. With this work we wanted to examine the usefulness of serum adenosine deaminase levels as a diagnostic parameter for EPTB.The work included 116 patients with fever of unknown origin in which tuberculosis or infectious mononucleosis was not proven and 51 person who had proven EPTB. Correlated adenosine deaminase levels between these two groups we obtained significantly higher values ​​in patients with EPTB. The calculated sensitivity was 0.56, specificity 0.89, positive predictive value 0.80 and negative predictive value 0.72. Certain reducing of the values observed during anti TB therapy. In previous studies the diagnostic importance of adenosine deaminase in the diagnosis of tuberculosis serosityes was demonstrated. The significance of serum levels in diagnosis is rarely evaluated during EPTB. Our findings are similar to the results of authors who have conducted such testing in the pediatric population.Increased concentrations of serum adenosine deaminase have shown the potential of usable screening test and can be used as an indicative EPTB parameter. To fully assess its diagnostic significance require future clinical research.

  10. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollins, A. B.; Zhdanova, I. V.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep test: at 1330 h subjects were asked to hold a positive pressure switch in each hand and to relax with eyes closed while reclining in a quiet darkened room. Latency and duration of switch release, indicators of sleep, were measured. Areas under the time-melatonin concentration curve varied in proportion to the different melatonin doses ingested, and the 0.1- and 0.3-mg doses generated peak serum melatonin levels that were within the normal range of nocturnal melatonin levels in untreated people. All melatonin doses tested significantly increased sleep duration, as well as self-reported sleepiness and fatigue, relative to placebo. Moreover, all of the doses significantly decreased sleep-onset latency, oral temperature, and the number of correct responses on the Wilkinson auditory vigilance task. These data indicate that orally administered melatonin can be a highly potent hypnotic agent; they also suggest that the physiological increase in serum melatonin levels, which occurs around 2100 h daily, may constitute a signal initiating normal sleep onset.

  11. Effects of simvastatin treatment on serum adiponectin concentrations in patients with dislipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Atefeh; Parizadeh, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Tavallaie, Shima; Mazidi, Mohsen; Afzali, Fariba; Adab, Afrouz; Ferns, Gordon; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid

    2014-08-01

    Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-derived protein with anti-inflammatory properties. Statins are a class of cholesterol-lowering drugs, widely used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the current study, we aimed to assess the effects of simvastatin on serum levels of adiponectin in patients with dyslipidemia, recruited from Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. A total of 102 patients with dyslipidemia were treated with simvastatin or placebo during a double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial. The adiponectin levels were measured before and after each treatment period. Seventy seven participants completed the study. There was a significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (approxmately 21%), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (approxmately 28%), and triglycerides (approxmately 11%), after four weeks of treatment with simvastatin (P < 0.001). No significant change in serum adiponectin concentrations was observed after treatment with simvastatin. This may be because of the relatively short duration of treatment and longer treatment duration may be necessary to investigation in future studies.

  12. Decreased serum proNGF concentration in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Min; Dong, Mei-Xue; Feng, Xia; Liu, Yang; Pan, Jun-Xi; Jia, Shi-Yu; Cao, Du; Wei, You-Dong

    2017-10-19

    Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive and age-related neurodegenerative condition, is a common neurodegenerative disorder. However, no validated biomarkers for PD have been identified to date. Accumulating evidence supports the role of proNGF-p75NTR-sortilin signaling in the neurodegeneration and pathogenesis of PD. The aim of our study was to investigate alterations in serum proNGF concentrations in PD patients and related anxiety. Seventy-seven consecutive PD patients and 39 healthy controls were enrolled, and clinical data were collected. Modified Hoehn-Yahr Staging Scale, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), and Hamilton Anxiety (HAMA) Scale scores were assessed upon admission. Serum proNGF concentration was compared between that of PD patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined to explore the relationship between proNGF concentration and UPDRS, Hoehn-Yahr, and HAMA scores. Received operating characteristic (ROC) curves and proNGF optimal cutoff point were used to distinguish PD and related anxiety. The median concentration of proNGF was significantly lower (p = 0.000) in PD patients (94.91 ng/L, range 85.92-118.06 ng/L) compared with that of healthy controls (106.67 ng/L, range 102.39-122.06 ng/L). The optimal proNGF cutoff point for distinguishing PD patients was 102.29 ng/L, and the sensitivity and specificity values were 87.0 and 100%, respectively. proNGF concentration positively correlated with UPDRS (r = 0.281, p = 0.013), Hoehn-Yahr (r = 0.260, p = 0.023), and HAMA (r = 0.276, p = 0.015) scores. Our results indicate that serum proNGF concentration may represent a biomarker for PD and its role in the pathogenesis of PD thus warrants further investigation.

  13. Increased concentrations of Serum amyloid A in dogs with sepsis caused by pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitpean, Supranee; Pettersson, Ann; Höglund, Odd V; Holst, Bodil Ström; Olsson, Ulf; Hagman, Ragnvi

    2014-11-28

    Sepsis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is crucial for survival. Pyometra is one of the most common diseases in intact female dogs. The disease often leads to sepsis (systemic inflammatory response syndrome, SIRS, caused by infection). Diagnostic markers for detecting sepsis are gaining increasing interest in veterinary medicine. Acute phase proteins (APPs) such as C-reactive protein (CRP) are useful for detecting systemic inflammation in dogs. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is another major APP in dogs that is not yet as widely used. Albumin is regarded as a negative APP and has earlier been evaluated for prediction of prognosis in septic dogs. The aim of the present study was to determine SAA, CRP and albumin concentrations in dogs with sepsis and pyometra and to evaluate whether these inflammatory markers are associated with length of postoperative hospitalization. Thirty-one surgically treated bitches with pyometra were included, whereof 23 septic (SIRS-positive) and eight non-septic (SIRS-negative). Albumin concentrations were analyzed by routine automated methods. SAA and CRP analyses were performed with previously validated commercially available assays (ELISA and immunoturbidimetric).Mean (± SE) serum concentrations of SAA were significantly higher in septic (130.8 ± 8.0 mg/L) compared to non-septic bitches (88.5 ± 12.5 mg/L). Using a cut-off value for SAA of 109.07 mg/L (n = 31 bitches), the sensitivity and specificity for detecting sepsis was 74% and 50%, respectively. Serum albumin concentrations were not significantly different in septic compared to non-septic bitches (mean ± SE, 25 ± 1 g/L and 26 ± 1 g/L, respectively). CRP concentrations were also not significantly different in septic (mean ± SE 225.6 ± 16.0 mg/L) compared to non-septic bitches (mean ± SE, 176.0 ± 27.1 mg/L). None of these inflammatory markers were associated with the outcome as measured by length of hospitalization

  14. Dietary iron concentration influences serum concentrations of manganese in rats consuming organic or inorganic sources of manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaiyong; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Pan, Shuqin; Zhang, Keying; Ding, Xuemei; Wang, Jianping; Zeng, Qiufeng; Bai, Shiping

    2016-02-28

    To determine the effects of dietary Fe concentration on Mn bioavailability in rats fed inorganic or organic Mn sources, fifty-four 22-d-old male rats were randomly assigned and fed a basal diet (2·63 mg Fe/kg) supplemented with 0 (low Fe (L-Fe)), 35 (adequate Fe (A-Fe)) or 175 (high Fe (H-Fe)) mg Fe/kg with 10 mg Mn/kg from MnSO4 or Mn-lysine chelate (MnLys). Tissues were harvested after 21 d of feeding. Serum Mn was greater (P<0·05) in MnLys rats than in MnSO4 rats, and in L-Fe rats than in A-Fe or H-Fe rats. Duodenal divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) mRNA was lower (P<0·05) in H-Fe rats than in A-Fe rats for the MnSO4 treatment; however, no significant difference was observed between them for MnLys. Liver DMT1 mRNA abundance was greater (P<0·05) in MnSO4 than in the MnLys group for H-Fe rats. The DMT1 protein in duodenum and liver and ferroportin 1 (FPN1) protein in liver was greater (P<0·05) in the MnSO4 group than in the MnLys group, and in L-Fe rats than in H-Fe rats. Duodenal FPN1 protein was greater (P<0·05) in L-Fe rats than in A-Fe rats for the MnLys treatment, but it was not different between them for the MnSO4 treatment. Results suggest that MnLys increased serum Mn concentration as compared with MnSO4 in rats irrespective of dietary Fe concentration, which was not because of the difference in DMT1 and FPN1 expression in the intestine and liver.

  15. Limitations of serum ferritin to predict liver iron concentration responses to deferasirox therapy in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John B; Elalfy, Mohsen; Taher, Ali; Aydinok, Yesim; Lee, Szu-Hee; Sutcharitchan, Pranee; El-Ali, Ali; Han, Jackie; El-Beshlawy, Amal

    2017-03-01

    In transfusion-dependent anaemias, while absolute serum ferritin levels broadly correlate with liver iron concentration (LIC), relationships between trends in these variables are unclear. These relationships are important because serum ferritin changes are often used to adjust or switch chelation regimens when liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is unavailable. This post hoc analysis of the EPIC study compared serum ferritin and LIC in 317 patients with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia before and after 1 yr of deferasirox. Serum ferritin responses (decreases) occurred in 73% of patients, 80% of whom also have decreased LIC. However, 52% of patients without a serum ferritin response did decrease LIC and by >1 mg Fe/g dw (median 3.9) in 77% of cases. Absolute serum ferritin and LIC values correlated significantly only when serum ferritin was <4000 ng/mL (r = 0.59; P < 0.0001) and not at higher levels (≥4000 ng/mL; r = 0.19). Serum ferritin response was accompanied by decreased LIC in 89% and 70% of cases when serum ferritin was <4000 or ≥4000 ng/mL, respectively. As serum ferritin non-response was associated with LIC decrease in over half of patients, use of liver MRI may be particularly useful for differentiating true from apparent non-responders to deferasirox based on serum ferritin trends alone. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Haematology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Association of increased serum heat shock protein 70 and C-reactive protein concentrations and decreased serum alpha(2)-HS glycoprotein concentration with the syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molvarec, Attila; Prohászka, Zoltán; Nagy, Bálint; Kalabay, László; Szalay, János; Füst, Georg; Karádi, István; Rigó, János

    2007-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine serum Hsp70 concentrations in HELLP syndrome. We measured also the serum concentrations of three acute phase proteins: C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha(2)-macroglobulin (AMG) and alpha(2)-HS glycoprotein (AHSG). Ten severe preeclamptic patients with HELLP syndrome, 20 severe preeclamptic patients without HELLP syndrome and 20 normotensive, healthy pregnant women were included in this case-control study. Serum concentrations of Hsp70, CRP, AMG and AHSG were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Hsp70), particle-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay (CRP) and radial immunodiffusion (AMG, AHSG). The serum Hsp70 and CRP concentrations were significantly higher, whereas the serum AHSG concentration was significantly lower in the HELLP group (H) than the severe preeclamptic (P) and control (C) groups (median (25-75 percentile); Hsp70: 2.02 ng/ml (0.76-2.23) (H) versus 0.54 ng/ml (0.47-0.79) (P), pAHSG: 588 microg/ml (492-660) (H) versus 654 microg/ml (576-768) (P), pAHSG concentration is decreased, in HELLP syndrome. The maternal systemic inflammation seems to be more pronounced in HELLP syndrome than preeclampsia without HELLP syndrome, as suggested by the alterations in serum CRP and AHSG levels. However, it requires further investigation to determine whether these changes are causes or consequences of the disease.

  17. Zinc concentrations in human milk and infant serum during the first six months of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurović, Dijana; Milisavljević, Branka; Mugoša, Boban; Lugonja, Nikoleta; Miletić, Srđan; Spasić, Snežana; Vrvić, Miroslav

    2017-05-01

    Normal supply of zinc to the newborn via milk is essential for normal development. Using ICP-OES, we analyzed changes in the level of Zn in milk and infant serum in the neonatal period (Day 1 and Day 28 post partum) and at 6 months after delivery, in the cohort of 60 mothers and exclusively breastfed babies. Zn level in the serum showed increase (significant at 6 months) during this period (mg/mL): Day 1: 0.52±0.12; Day 28: 0.59±0.19; 6 months: 0.68±0.28. The concentration of Zn in the milk showed an opposite (decreasing) trend during the follow up: Day 1: 4.70±1.74mg/L; Day 28: 2.65±1.06; 6 months: 0.46±0.36. A significant negative correlation was established between serum and milk [Zn] at day 28 (R=-0.338; p=0.008), whereas a positive correlation was found at 6 months between these parameters (R=0.306; p=0.018). There was no significant correlation between [Zn] in the milk and serum and infants' body mass, mothers' age and mass at delivery. The level of Zn in the milk at 6 months of lactation is not sufficient to meet the recommended values. This implies that in Serbian population, Zn supplementation might be needed in the later phase of lactation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Serum Bioavailable Vitamin D Concentrations and Bone Mineral Density in Women After Obesity Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella-Carretero, Jose I; Lafuente, Christian; Montes-Nieto, Rafael; Balsa, Jose; Vega-Piñero, Belen; Garcia-Moreno, Francisca; Peromingo, Roberto; Galindo, Julio; San-Millan, Jose L; Escobar-Morreale, Hector

    2016-11-01

    Low bone mass after obesity surgery may arise as a consequence of chronic malabsorption of calcium and vitamin D. However, we have not found any role of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D or of polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene in previous studies. To investigate the circulating bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D in women after bariatric procedures and its association with bone mass. The study consisted of 91 women on follow-up for 7 ± 2 years after bariatric surgery. We measured bone mineral density (BMD), serum parathormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and vitamin D binding protein (VDBP). All patients were genotyped for two variants in the coding region of VDBP (rs4588 and rs7041). Bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D was calculated in double homozygotes. We found a negative correlation between bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH (r = -0.373, P = 0.018), but not with BMD at lumbar spine (r = -0.065, P = 0.682) or hip (r = -0.029, P = 0.857). When adjusting by age, similar results were found for PTH (r = -0.441, P = 0.005), BMD at lumbar spine (r = -0.026, P = 0.874) and hip (r = -0.096, P = 0.561). After multivariate linear regression, forcing bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D into the model resulted in a weak significant association with BMD at the lumbar spine (β = - 0.247, P = 0.025). Serum bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are not associated with bone mass loss after bariatric surgery in women. The negative association with serum PTH levels suggests that vitamin D supplementation partly improves secondary hyperparathyroidism, yet other mechanisms may contribute to low bone mass after bariatric surgery.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum IL-8, CCL2, and ICAM-1 concentrations in astrocytic brain tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koper, O M; Kamińska, J; Sawicki, K; Reszeć, J; Rutkowski, R; Jadeszko, M; Mariak, Z; Dymicka-Piekarska, V; Kemona, H

    2017-10-30

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of serum and CSF concentrations of CCL2, IL-8, and sICAM-1 in patients with astrocytic tumors as compared to a group of non-tumoral patients. Chemokine concentrations were measured using the ELISA method. Regardless of the parameter tested and the patient group (brain tumor or non-tumoral patients), statistical differences (P < 0.05) were found between concentrations obtained in CSF compared to values obtained in serum for all proteins tested. CSF IL-8 concentrations were significantly elevated in CNS tumor patients as compared to non-tumoral individuals (P = 0.000); serum CCL2 and sICAM-1 concentrations were significantly decreased in CNS tumors in comparison with the comparative group (P = 0.002 and P = 0.026, respectively). Among proteins tested in the serum, a higher area under the ROC curve (AUC) revealed CCL2 compared to sICAM-1 in differentiating subjects with CNS brain tumors from non-tumoral subjects. AUC for CSF IL-8 was higher than for its index (CSF IL-8/serum IL-8). For individual biomarkers (IL-8 and CCL2, sICAM-1), measured in CNS brain tumor patients, the appropriate material, respectively CSF or serum, should be chosen and quantitatively tested. Increased cerebrospinal fluid IL-8 with decreased serum CCL2 create a pattern of biomarkers, which may be helpful in the management of CNS astrocytic brain tumors.

  20. Neural tube defects and maternal serum zinc and copper concentrations in mid-pregnancy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, A J; Dreosti, I E; Ryan, P; Robertson, E F

    1994-10-17

    To assess the relationship between mid-pregnancy maternal serum zinc and copper concentrations and neural tube defects. A prospective case-control study during 1978-1988 within a statewide hospital-based neural tube defect screening program measuring maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels at mid-pregnancy. Cases were 69 women with fetuses with confirmed neural tube defects. Controls were 592 women with fetuses without neural tube defects who were individually matched to cases for hospital, calendar date of screening, age and parity; there was a variable control-to-case ratio. For both unmatched and adjusted matched analyses, mean maternal serum zinc concentration was higher in cases than controls (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). There were no case-control differences for serum copper concentrations. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed a (statistically non-significant) 50% increase in risk of neural tube defects in women whose serum zinc concentration was more than two standard deviations above the population mean. Within the normal range of maternal serum zinc and copper concentrations there is no variation in risk of neural tube defects. However, women with very high serum zinc levels may have an increased risk of neural tube defects. This could reflect deficient maternal-to-fetal transfer of zinc in some of those individuals. Any such phenomenon would be manifest in observational, but not experimental, studies.

  1. Association of ADIPOQ gene variants with body weight, type 2 diabetes and serum adiponectin concentrations: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siitonen, Niina; Pulkkinen, Leena; Lindström, Jaana; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Eriksson, Johan G; Venojärvi, Mika; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti

    2011-01-01

    ...) and related phenotypes in several populations. Our aim was to study the association of the ADIPOQ variations with body weight, serum adiponectin concentrations and conversion to T2DM in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance...

  2. Effects of immune challenge on concentrations of serum insulin-like growth factor-I and growth performance in pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Hevener, W; Routh, P A; Almond, G W

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the long-term effects of repeated endotoxin treatment or immunization against human serum albumin on concentrations of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and other indicators of growth performance in growing pigs. Thirty gilts (38.5 +/- 0.9 kg) were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups (n = 6 animals/group): 1) lipopolysaccharide injections, 2) lipopolysaccharide pair-fed, 3) human serum albumin immunization, 4) human serum albumin pair-fed, and...

  3. Low Serum Vitamin B-12 Concentrations Are Prevalent in a Cohort of Pregnant Canadian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Carly E; Masih, Shannon P; Plumptre, Lesley; Schroder, Theresa H; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Ly, Anna; Lausman, Andrea Y; Berger, Howard; Croxford, Ruth; Lamers, Yvonne; Kim, Young-In; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2016-05-01

    Among Canadian women of reproductive age, 5% and 20% have serum vitamin B-12 concentrations indicative of deficiency (infant) study investigated 1) vitamin B-12 status in a cohort of Canadian pregnant women and their newborns, 2) the association of maternal dietary vitamin B-12 intake with maternal and cord blood concentrations of vitamin B-12 and its biomarkers, and 3) the association of fetal genetic polymorphisms with cord blood concentrations of vitamin B-12 and its biomarkers. In pregnant Canadian women (n = 368; mean ± SD age: 32 ± 5 y), vitamin B-12 intakes were assessed in early (0-16 wk) and mid- to late (23-37 wk) pregnancy. Serum vitamin B-12 and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) in maternal blood at 12-16 wk of pregnancy and at delivery (28-42 wk) and in cord blood were measured and compared by using regression analyses. The associations of 28 fetal genetic variants in vitamin B-12 metabolism and cord blood vitamin B-12, tHcy, and MMA concentrations were assessed by using regression analysis, with adjustment for multiple testing. A total of 17% and 38% of women had deficient and 35% and 43% had marginal serum vitamin B-12 concentrations at 12-16 wk of pregnancy and at delivery, respectively. Only 1.9-5.3% had elevated MMA (>271 nmol/L), and no women had elevated tHcy (>13 μmol/L). Maternal dietary vitamin B-12 intake during pregnancy was either weakly associated or not associated with maternal and cord blood vitamin B-12 (r(2) = 0.17-0.24, P pregnant women with the use of traditional cutoffs, despite supplement use. Given the growing interest among women to adhere to a vegetarian diet that may be lower in vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-12's importance in pregnancy, the functional ramifications of these observations need to be elucidated. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02244684. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Serum Magnesium Concentrations in the Canadian Population and Associations with Diabetes, Glycemic Regulation, and Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinato, Jesse; Wang, Kuan Chiao; Hayward, Stephen

    2017-03-17

    Total serum magnesium (Mg) concentration (SMC) is commonly used to assess Mg status. This study reports current SMCs of Canadians and their associations with demographic factors, diabetes, and measures of glycemic control and insulin resistance using results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012-2013). Associations were examined in adults aged 20-79 years using linear mixed models. Mean SMCs and percentile distributions for 11 sex-age groups between 3 and 79 years (n = 5561) are reported. SMCs were normally distributed and differences (p insulin concentrations, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were negatively associated with SMC. This is the first study to report SMCs in a nationally representative sample of the Canadian population. A substantial proportion of Canadians are hypomagnesaemic in relation to a population-based reference interval, and SMC was negatively associated with diabetes and indices of glycemic control and insulin resistance.

  5. What do changes in concentrations of serum surfactant proteins A and D in OSA mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shao; Li, Nanfang; Heizhati, Mulalibieke; Yao, Xiaoguang; Abdireim, Arikin; Wang, Yingchun; Abulikemu, Zufeiya; Zhang, Delian; Chang, Guijuan; Kong, Jianqiong; Zhou, Ling; Hong, Jing; Ying, Ting; Zhang, Yongping

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that surfactant proteins are affected by oxygen concentration and mechanic stretches, although the alteration of serum surfactant proteins in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether serum concentrations of surfactant proteins A and D are altered and related to hypopnea index (HI) in OSA. This is a cross-sectional study. Consecutive 140 males, suspicious of OSA, were studied. OSA was determined by PSG and polysomnographic data examined. Subjects with HI ≥ 10.1/h were classified as higher HI group and those with HI OSA was diagnosed in 110 patients (78.5%). Mild, moderate, and severe OSA constitutes 26.4, 27.8, and 24.3%, respectively. Mean age was 44.6 ± 7.65 years. Subjects with higher HI had lower SP-A (139.54. ± 32.94 vs 158.2 ± 38.9 ng/L, p = 0.005) and SP-D (16.54 ± 3.67 vs 18.10 ± 3.48 ng/L, p = 0.014) compared to those with lower HI. Nocturnal HI was strongly correlated with serum levels of SP-A (r = 0.343, p = 0.012) and SP-D (r = 0.504, p OSA, possibly reflecting severity of hypoxia in OSA.

  6. Evaluation of serum concentrations of the selected cytokines in patients with localized scleroderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Budzyńska-Włodarczyk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Localized scleroderma is an autoimmune disease primarily affecting the skin. The cause of disease remains unexplained although environmental factors are implicated, which are likely to be responsible for activation of the endothelium and subsequent inflammation leading to excessive synthesis of collagen and extracellular matrix components. Aim: To determine concentrations of interleukin (IL-27, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, IL-6, and sIL-6R in patients with localized scleroderma compared to controls and to assess the relations between their levels and laboratory markers. Material and methods: The study encompassed 17 females with localized scleroderma (aged 25–67. The control group consisted of 30 age-matched healthy women. The blood was sampled from the basilic vein. Serum levels of cytokines were determined using ELISA. Results : The TGF-β2 levels were found to be significantly lower in patients with localized scleroderma compared to controls. Concentrations of TGF-β1 were decreased in scleroderma patients when compared to controls but without statistical significance. There were no significant differences in serum IL-6, sIL-6R and IL-27 levels between patients and the control group; however, we found a significant positive correlation between the level of sIL-6 and ESR among subjects with localized scleroderma. Conclusions : The findings of decreased serum levels of TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 in patients with localized scleroderma demonstrate a possible association of these cytokines with pathogenesis of the disease. The results suggest also that sIL-6R is likely to be involved in inflammation in patients with localized scleroderma.

  7. Improvement of Predictivity of Teicoplanin Serum Trough Concentrations at Steady State Calculated by Vancomycin Pharmacokinetic Parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ryo; Otomo, Shinya; Shiba, Yusuke; Ebinuma, Keiichi; Sudoh, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

     According to a recent study and meta-analysis, trough levels of >10 μg/mL teicoplanin (TEIC) may be acceptable for the treatment of uncomplicated infection, but no method of TEIC personalized medicine has been established. Vancomycin (VCM) and TEIC are glycopeptide antibiotic agents effective against methicillin-resistance Staphyloccocus aureus. This study aimed to establish TEIC personalized medicine at a steady state calculated by VCM pharmacokinetic parameters. Bayesian forecasting and population mean methods were employed to estimate individual total VCM clearance (CL) using existing population pharmacokinetics (PPK) parameter, and the differences between the CL calculated by these two methods were defined as ΔCL. Serum drug concentration data for patients treated with TEIC were collected at a steady state concentration (>96 h post infusion). There was a significant relationship between the prediction error of TEIC trough level and ΔCL. The relation between ΔCL and TEIC trough concentration at steady state was used to develop the following equation to determine the maintenance dose: TEIC (μg/mL)=1.1119X-6.124ΔCL+3.9164 (X is defined as TEIC trough concentration calculated from the PPK parameter). The results of this study indicated that it is possible to improve the prediction error of TEIC trough concentration at a steady state for patients who have received VCM therapy.

  8. Greater cognitive decline with aging among elders with high serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-A; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive decline is very common in elders, age-related cognitive decline substantially differs among elders and the determinants of the differences in age-related cognitive decline are unclear. We investigated our hypothesis that the association between age and cognition was stronger in those with higher serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, common persistent and strongly lipophilic neurotoxic chemicals. Participants were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Six OC pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodipenyldichloroethylene (DDE), β-hexachlorocyclohexane, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide) were evaluated. "Lower cognitive function" was defined as having a low Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) score (DDT and DDE showed no interaction, with lower DSST scores for higher age irrespective of serum concentrations of DDT or DDE. Even though DSST score measures only one aspect of cognition, several OC pesticides modified aging-related prevalence of low cognitive score, a finding which should be evaluated in prospective studies.

  9. Serum cortisol concentration in horses with heaves treated with fluticasone proprionate over a 1 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Trohadio; Leclere, Mathilde; Jean, Daniel; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of long-term administration of inhaled fluticasone proprionate on cortisol concentrations in heaves-affected horses. Eleven horses with heaves were treated with fluticasone at least once daily at dosages required to improve lung function or with antigen avoidance alone for 1 year. Morning serum cortisol was measured before and after 10, 30, 110, 190, 230, 280, and 320 days of treatment. Cortisol was also measured in the afternoon of day 330. Cortisol was significantly lower in the Fluticasone group on days 30, 110, and 190 when compared with the Antigen avoidance group. Cortisol measured on day 330 was also significantly lower in the Fluticasone group. Results indicate that inhaled fluticasone, when administered at therapeutic dosages, can significantly suppress serum cortisol concentrations for 8-24 h. The clinical significance of this finding remains to be ascertained, as no clinical signs were associated with this cortisol suppression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between Urinary Triclosan and Paraben Concentrations and Serum Thyroid Measures in NHANES 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppe, Erika S.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Colacino, Justin A.; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Triclosan and parabens are broad spectrum antimicrobials used in a range of consumer products. In vitro and animal studies have suggested the potential for these compounds to disrupt thyroid function, though studies in humans have been limited. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship of urinary concentrations of triclosan and parabens with serum thyroid measures in a large, representative sample of the US population. We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional analysis of data on urinary biomarkers of triclosan and paraben exposure and serum thyroid measures obtained from 1,831 subjects (ages ≥12 years) as part of the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We found evidence of some inverse associations between parabens and circulating thyroid hormone levels in adults, with the strongest and most consistent associations among females. We also observed a positive association between triclosan and total triiodothyonine (T3) concentrations in adolescents. These results, in accordance with the in vitro and animal literature, suggest that paraben, and potentially triclosan, exposures may be associated with altered thyroid hormone levels in humans. Further research is needed for confirmation and to determine the potential clinical significance of these findings. PMID:23340023

  11. Effect of cocoa and theobromine consumption on serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufingerl, Nicole; Zebregs, Yvonne E M P; Schuring, Ewoud A H; Trautwein, Elke A

    2013-06-01

    Evidence from clinical studies has suggested that cocoa may increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations. However, it is unclear whether this effect is attributable to flavonoids or theobromine, both of which are major cocoa components. We investigated whether pure theobromine increases serum HDL cholesterol and whether there is an interaction effect between theobromine and cocoa. The study had a 2-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, full factorial parallel design. After a 2-wk run-in period, 152 healthy men and women (aged 40-70 y) were randomly allocated to consume one 200-mL drink/d for 4 wk that contained 1) cocoa, which naturally provided 150 mg theobromine and 325 mg flavonoids [cocoa intervention (CC)], 2) 850 mg pure theobromine [theobromine intervention (TB)], 3) cocoa and added theobromine, which provided 1000 mg theobromine and 325 mg flavonoids [theobromine and cocoa intervention (TB+CC)], or 4) neither cocoa nor theobromine (placebo). Blood lipids and apolipoproteins were measured at the start and end of interventions. In a 2-factor analysis, there was a significant main effect of the TB (P Theobromine independently increased serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 0.16 mmol/L. The lack of significant cocoa and interaction effects suggested that theobromine may be the main ingredient responsible for the HDL cholesterol-raising effect. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01481389.

  12. Comparison of Serum Bisphenol A Concentrations in Mice Exposed to Bisphenol A through the Diet versus Oral Bolus Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely produced endocrine-disrupting chemical. Diet is a primary route of exposure, but internal exposure (serum concentrations) in animals and humans has been measured only after single oral bolus administration. Objective: We compared serum concentrations of BPA over a 24-hr period after oral bolus administration or ad libitum feeding in mice and assessed for buildup with dietary exposure. Methods: Adult female mice were administered [dimethyl-d 6]-BPA (BP...

  13. Serum C-reactive protein concentration in preeclamptic women: Effect on pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmin Sultana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder of unknown etiology characterized by development of hyperten­sion to the extent of 140/90 mm of Hg or more with proteinuria after the 20th gestational week in a previously normoten­sive and non protein uric women. According to the National High blood presure Working group (NHBPEP and Ameri­can college of obstetricans and Gynecologiests (ACOG hypertension in pregnancy is defined as a diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher after 20 weeks of gestation in a woman with previously normal blood pressure (NHBPEP, 2000; ACOG, 2002. If the disease is allowed to progress to the HELLP syndrome or eclampsia, maternal morbidity and mortality increases. The majority of perinatal losses are related to placental insufficiency, which causes intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity associated with preterm delivery, or abruptio placentae. Objectives: This study tried to explore the effect of serum C reactive protein concentration in preeclamptic women and its effect on pregnancy outcome.Methods: This case control study included 60 third trimester pregnant women (30 normotensive and 30 preeclamptic who attended Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, BIRDEM and DMCH, during July 2009 and June 2010. Estimation of serum C reactive protein (CRP concentrations was done by liquid phase immunoprecipitation assay and turbulometry at DMC.Results: Mean (±SD age showed no significant difference between groups; however, BMI, SBP, DBP and CRP were significantly (P<0.001 high in case group. Gravidity and ANC showed no significant variation between groups. CRP concentration was significantly high case group. Gestational age was significantly low in case group resulting in higher preterm delivery. No significant variation was observed regarding fetal outcome; however, birth weight was significantly low and neonatal complication was also significantly high in case group.Conclusion: CRP concentration was high in

  14. Cathepsin D serum and urine concentration in superficial and invasive transitional bladder cancer as determined by surface plasmon resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodkiewicz, Ewa; Guszcz, Tomasz; Roszkowska-Jakimiec, Wieslawa; Kozłowski, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Determination of cathepsin D (Cat D) concentration in serum and urine may be useful in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. The present study included 54 healthy patients and 68 patients with bladder cancer, confirmed by transurethral resection or cystectomy. Cat D concentration was determined using a surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensor. Cat D concentration in the serum of bladder cancer patients was within the range of 1.3-5.59 ng/ml, while for healthy donors it was within the range of 0.28-0.52 ng/ml. In urine, the Cat D concentration of bladder cancer patients was within the range of 1.35-7.14 ng/ml, while for healthy donors it was within the range of 0.32-0.68 ng/ml. Cat D concentration may represent an efficient tumor marker, as its concentration in the serum and urine of transitional cell carcinoma patients is extremely high when compared with healthy subjects.

  15. Cats with inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal small cell lymphoma have low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, S; Schwartz, A M; Titmarsh, H; Reed, N; Tasker, S; Boland, L; Berry, J; Gunn-Moore, D; Mellanby, R J

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and intestinal small cell lymphoma (ISCL) are common diseases in cats. The prevalence of alterations in the serum concentrations of fat soluble vitamins, such as vitamin D, in cats with IBD and ISCL is unknown. The objective of this study was to measure serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations in cats with IBD or ISCL. Serum 25(OH)D also was measured in healthy cats, and in hospitalized ill cats with nongastrointestinal diseases. Eighty-four cats were included in the study: 23 in the healthy group, 41 in the hospitalized ill group, and 20 in the IBD/ISCL group. Retrospective study. Serum samples for vitamin D analysis were frozen at -20°C until serum 25(OH)D was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Although there was overlap in serum 25(OH)D concentrations among the 3 groups, serum 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly lower in the cats with IBD or ISCL compared to healthy cats (P cats (P = .014). In the IBD/ISCL group, there was a significant moderate positive correlation between serum albumin and 25(OH)D concentrations (r = 0.58, P = .018). The median serum concentration of 25(OH)D was significantly lower in cats with IBD/ISCL than in healthy cats and in hospitalized ill cats. Additional studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of hypovitaminosis D in cats with gastrointestinal diseases, to define the best management strategy to treat this complication, and to investigate its potential prognostic implications. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Effect of Non Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Serum Visfatin Concentration in Periodontal Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Raghavendra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visfatin is a pleiotropic mediator which acts as growth factor, cytokine, enzyme involved in energy including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism and has been recently demonstrated to exert several pro-inflammatory functions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Visfatin concentration in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF and serum in patients with chronic periodontitis, and to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the GCF and serum visfatin concentration. 30 subjects (age range: 25 to 52 years were selected and divided into two groups based on the gingival index, probing depth, periodontal attachment level, and radiologic parameters (bone loss: group 1 (15 subjects with healthy periodontium, group 2 (15 subjects with chronic periodontitis, while, Group 2 patients after 8 weeks of the treatment (scaling and root planning, SRP constituted group 3. GCF samples (by microcapillary pipettes and serum samples (by venipuncture were collected to estimate the levels of Visfatin using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit. The mean Visfatin concentration in GCF and serum was observed to be the highest in group 2 and lowest in group 1. While concentration in group 3 was similar to group 1. The concentration of Visfatin in GCF and serum decreased after SRP. The Visfatin concentration in GCF and serum found to be highest in chronic periodontitis group and decreases after treatment. Hence Visfatin values can be considered as an “inflammatory marker” can be explored in future as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of periodontal disease.

  17. Decreased Serum Concentration of Total IgG Is Related to Tumor Progression in Gastric Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hiroaki; Miyatani, Kozo; Kono, Yusuke; Murakami, Yuki; Kuroda, Hirohiko; Matsunaga, Tomoyuki; Fukumoto, Yoji; Takano, Shuichi; Osaki, Tomohiro; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki

    2017-06-01

    There is accumulating evidence that shows cell-mediated immunity regulated by T cells is impaired in cancer patients. Unfortunately, the mechanisms by which B cells participate in tumor immunity are only partially understood. The serum concentration of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was measured by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) in patients with gastric cancer. Immunohistochemistry was also performed using the anti- cluster of differentiation (CD)134 antibody to evaluate the number of plasma cells in the tumor tissue. The total serum IgG concentration was significantly lower in patients with lymph node metastasis compared with patients without metastasis. The serum concentration of total IgG at stage III/IV was significantly lower compared with tumors classified as stage I/II. A decreased serum concentration of total IgG and IgG1 was significantly related to a poor prognosis for gastric cancer patients. Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that the serum concentration of IgG and lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic indicators for poorer survival. The number of plasma cells was significantly lower in gastric cancer tissue compared with non-cancerous gastric mucosa. A decreased serum concentration of IgG was closely related to poor prognosis, indicating the possibility that impaired antibody-mediated immunity is associated with tumor progression in patients with gastric cancer.

  18. Pivotal Role of Mediterranean Dietary Regimen in the Increase of Serum Magnesium Concentration in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

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    Nimah Bahreini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies confirmed cardioprotective role of intravenous magnesium for the prevention of cardiac events, but effect of dietary intake of this mineral via recommended dietary regimens on control and inhibition of coronary artery disease (CAD risk factors has been questioned. The aim of the present study was to determine effect of Mediterranean dietary approach on serum magnesium concentration among Iranian patients with CAD. Method. Baseline characteristics and clinical data of 102 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of CAD and candidates for isolated coronary artery bypass surgery were entered into the study. Laboratory parameters especially serum magnesium concentration were measured after 12–14 h of overnight fasting and before operation. Nutritional status was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and the diet score was calculated on the basis of Mediterranean diet quality index (Med-DQI. Results. No significant differences were found in the concentrations of albumin, last fasting blood sugar, last creatinine, and lipid profiles between the groups with Mediterranean dietary score < 5 and the group with higher dietary score; however, serum magnesium concentration in the first group was higher than that in the group with higher dietary score. Linear multivariate regression analysis showed that the lower Mediterranean dietary score was a predictor for serum magnesium concentration after adjusting for confounders. Conclusion. Taking Mediterranean dietary regimen can be associated with increased level of serum magnesium concentration, and thus this regimen can be cardioprotective because of its effects on serum magnesium.

  19. The serum uric acid concentration is not causally linked to diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Aila J; Sandholm, Niina; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Dahlström, Emma; Groop, Per-Henrik

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between uric acid concentration and progression of renal disease. Here we studied causality between the serum uric acid concentration and progression of diabetic nephropathy in 3895 individuals with type 1 diabetes in the FinnDiane Study. The renal status was assessed with the urinary albumin excretion rate and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and at the end of the follow-up. Based on previous genomewide association studies on serum uric acid concentration, 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with good imputation quality were selected for the SNP score. This score was used to assess the causality between serum uric acid and renal complications using a Mendelian randomization approach. At baseline, the serum uric acid concentration was higher with worsening renal status. In multivariable Cox regression analyses, baseline serum uric acid concentration was not independently associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy over a mean follow-up of 7 years. However, over the same period, baseline serum uric acid was independently associated with the decline in eGFR. In the cross-sectional logistic regression analyses, the SNP score was associated with the serum uric acid concentration. Nevertheless, the Mendelian randomization showed no causality between uric acid and diabetic nephropathy, eGFR categories, or eGFR as a continuous variable. Thus, our results suggest that the serum uric acid concentration is not causally related to diabetic nephropathy but is a downstream marker of kidney damage. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of bleaching permeate from microfiltered skim milk on 80% serum protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rachel E; Adams, Michael C; Drake, Maryanne; Barbano, David M

    2013-03-01

    Whey proteins that have been removed before the cheese-making process are referred to as "native" whey proteins or milk serum proteins. Because serum proteins isolated directly from milk are not exposed to the cheese-making process, they are free from functional or sensory effects arising from this process. Whey proteins used in food and beverage applications are largely derived from annatto-colored Cheddar cheese. Some of the annatto is left in the whey and this color is converted to a colorless compound by bleaching. The effect of bleaching serum proteins on flavor and functionality of spray-dried protein provides a platform to investigate the effect of bleaching free from the confounding effects of cheese manufacture. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the sensory and functional properties of 80% milk serum protein concentrate (SPC80) produced from bleached and unbleached microfiltration (MF) permeate made from skim milk with and without added annatto color. Colored and uncolored MF permeates were bleached with benzoyl peroxide (BP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP), ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried. The SPC80 from unbleached colored and uncolored MF permeates were manufactured as controls. All treatments were manufactured in triplicate. All SPC80 were evaluated by sensory testing, instrumental analyses, functionality, color, and proximate analysis. The HP-bleached SPC80 was higher in lipid oxidation compounds than BP-bleached or unbleached SPC80, specifically hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, and 2,3-octadienone. The HP treatments were higher in aroma intensity and cardboard and fatty flavors compared with the unbleached and BP-bleached SPC80. The SPC80 bleached with BP had lower concentrations of norbixin compared with SPC80 bleached with HP. Functionality testing demonstrated that HP treatments had more soluble protein after 10min of heating at 90°C and pH 4.6 and pH 7 compared with the no bleach and BP treatments, regardless

  1. Basic study on measurement of serum free testosterone concentration using DPC free testosterone RIA kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togashi, Kazuyoshi; Umeda, Seiji; Ochiai, Takeshi; Toriumi, Kazuhiro; Sudo, Yoshimasa; Kihira, Kouji

    1987-07-01

    A commercial 'analogue' radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit, a DPC kit, is capable of directly measuring plasma free testosterone (FT) in the evaluation of gonadal activity and androgenicity. Basic study for this kit yielded the following findings. 1) An incubation of four hours was enough to measure FT. 2) Reproducibility of the assay encouraged the use of this kit for the clinical purpose. 3) Binding to albumin, commonly observed in the ''analogue tracer'' assay, was not encountered. 4) Plasma FT concentrations were significantly increased in all three samples treated with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, compared with the other serum and heparin-treated samples. 5) There was a significantly positive correlation between FT concentrations and total testosterone (TT)/sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). 6) Plasma FT concentrations lay within the normal range in patients with Graves' disease who had normal gonadal activity and high levels of TT and SHBG. This seemed to reflext gonadal activity without any effect of SHBG. 7) For pregnant women, plasma FT concentrations were slightly higher in the third trimester, although the levels in the second trimester were similar to those in the nonpregnant state. (Namekawa, K.).

  2. Predictors of Risperidone and 9-Hydroxyrisperidone Serum Concentration in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Del D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Little is known about risperidone metabolism in a clinical sample, where polypharmacy is common. Such knowledge is important since several of its side effects are dose dependent. Methods Medically healthy patients aged 7 to 17 years old treated with risperidone for at least 6 months were enrolled. Trough serum risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone concentrations were measured. Results One hundred seven participants (92% males) were recruited, representing a heterogenous clinical group with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, disruptive behavior disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, tic disorders, or psychotic disorders. Risperidone had been used at a mean dose of 0.03 mg/kg, for a mean 2.5 years, predominantly to treat irritability and aggression. Cytochrome CYP2D6 inhibitors were divided into prominent (fluoxetine, bupropion, and lamotrigine), intermediate (sertraline), and weak inhibition groups (citalopram or escitalopram). The concentrations of risperidone and its metabolite were strongly associated with the dose of risperidone and time since the last dose and, to a lesser extent, with male sex. In addition, risperidone concentration increased with pubertal stage (p risperidone concentration (p risperidone depends on the stage of sexual development, whereas that of 9-hydroxyrisperidone varies with body fat. Moreover, CYP2D6 inhibitors more strongly affect risperidone metabolism than that of its metabolite. The clinical implications of these findings, in relation to efficacy and tolerability, deserve further investigation. PMID:21486167

  3. Serum amyloid A (SAA) concentration after training sessions in Arabian race and endurance horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Serum amyloid A (SAA) is the major acute phase protein in horses. Its concentration increases in various pathologies but also in response to prolonged, strenuous effort. The purpose of this study was to establish whether routine race and endurance training produces changes in the SAA level in Arabian horses. Additionally, the differences between SAA response in experienced endurance horses and endurance horses that were beginning their career were investigated. Results There were no changes in SAA concentrations after race training and endurance training in experienced horses. In horses that were beginning their endurance training, exercise produced an increase in SAA level as compared with rest level. Conclusion In Arabians, the SAA concentration seems to be a good indicator of endurance training but is useless in race training. The routine training of experienced horses, which were prepared for long distance rides, did not promote any changes in the SAA level. In contrast, a significant increase in the SAA concentration was observed in horses that were beginning their endurance training and were only prepared for moderate distance rides and underwent the same effort. Further research is needed to elucidate whether this difference reflects too heavy training or adaptation to an increasing workload. Additionally, the adaptation to long distance rides in Arabians may include a reduced acute phase response. PMID:23634727

  4. Influence of racing on the serum concentrations of acute-phase proteins and bone metabolism biomarkers in racing greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, M; Al-Sobayil, F; Buczinski, S

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of racing on the serum concentrations of the acute-phase proteins (APPs) C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in 32 endurance-racing greyhounds. The study also aimed to investigate the effect of a 7 km race on the bone biomarkers osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) and pyridinoline cross-links (PYD). Total white blood cell (WBC) count, and the serum concentrations of cortisol, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), vitamin D and testosterone were also determined. Blood samples were collected 24 h prior to (T0) and within 2 h of completion of the race (T1). Compared to baseline values, WBC count did not change significantly (P = 0.2300), serum cortisol, Hp and SAA increased, while TNF-α and CRP decreased (P race serum concentrations of OC and PYD (P = 0.9500 and P = 0.2600, respectively), but serum b-ALP increased significantly (P = 0.0004). Serum concentrations of vitamin D and testosterone increased after racing (P = 0.0100 and P race stimulated an acute-phase response, demonstrated by significant increases in the serum concentrations Hp and SAA in racing greyhounds. Increased serum b-ALP post-race probably indicates a change in bone metabolism and deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Normocalcemia and persistent elevated serum concentrations of 1-84 parathyroid hormone after operation for sporadic parathyroid adenoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Henrik; ØStergaard Kristensen, Lars

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum concentrations of 1-84 parathyroid hormone (PTH) after operation for sporadic parathyroid adenoma have been reported in previous studies, years after operation for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). The cause and significance of this finding have not been elucidated. Primary...... hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed in 195 patients from January 1987 to December 1998. Operation for pHPT was performed in 124 patients. To evaluate long-term effects of elevated serum 1-84 PTH, biochemical variables and pre- and postoperative diseases were investigated from hospital case records. Of the 124 patients...... operated on, 103 had a solitary adenoma. Among these patients, 60 had normal serum concentrations of 1-84 PTH and calcium postoperatively, 38 patients had follow-up for more than 12 months (range 12-207 months-group A). Persistent elevated serum concentrations of 1-84 PTH and normocalcemia were found in 23...

  6. Serum concentration of soluble adhesive molecules in patients with different forms of coronary artery disease

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    Damnjanović Goran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Vascular cell adhesion molecules-1 (VCAM-1 and intercellular cell adhesive molecules-1 (ICAM- 1 play an important role in developing and progression of coronary atherosclerosis. The aim of the paper was to compare concentrations of soluble forms of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in patients with different clinical presentations of coronary artery disease (CAD and patients without CAD. Methods. Blood samples were taken from 25 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI, 25 patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP, 25 with stable angina pectoris (SAP and from 15 control patients without CAD, and concentrations of solubile adhesive molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1 were determined. Results. Obesity was more prominent in the NAP than in the SAP and the control patients (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in gender distribution, age, duration of the CAD and body mass index between the groups. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2 were more frequent in the CAD patients than in the controls (p < 0.01. Family history of the CAD was more frequent in the AMI and the UAP group than in the controls (p < 0.05. Serum concentrations of VCAM-1 was similar in the patients with AMI (955.9 ± 117.8 ng/mL, UAP (952.4 ± 139.1 ng/mL and SAP (931 ± 169.8 ng/mL, and significantly higher in these groups compared with the controls (823.4 ± 97.6; p < 0.05, p < 0.05 and p < 0.1 respectively. Serum concentration of ICAM-1 was similar in the patients with AMI (699.2±125.6 ng/mL, UAP (727.6±171.8 ng/mL and SAP (697.5±165.6 ng/mL, and significantly higher in these groups compared with the controls (583.4 ± 86.6; p < 0.1, p < 0.05 and p < 0.1 respectively. Conclusion. Increased concentrations of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, as markers of inflammation, showed the importance of inflammatory processes in development of atherosclerosis and clinical expression of CAD. Measurement of soluble ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 concentrations is a useful indicator of atherosclerosis

  7. Urgent percutaneous coronary intervention leads to a decrease in serum concentrations of soluble CD40 ligand

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    Ratković Nenad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Inflammation as a consequence of vascular injury after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is a pathological substrate of restenosis and of its complications. The aim of the study was to examine perprocedural inflammatory response expressed by soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L and C-reactive protein (CRP in patients treated with PCI and dual antiplatelet therapy. Methods. The experimental group included 52 patients (80.8% men, age 60 ± 9 years with angina pectoris treated by PCI (22 urgent PCI with stent implantation, and dual antiplatelet therapy (tienopiridins and aspirin, according to the current recommendations for the execution of the intervention. The control group consisted of 8 patients (70.5% men, age 59 ± 7 years with angina pectoris, who had undergone coronarography taking aspirin 3 days prior to it. In all the patients 24 hours before and after the PCI concentrations of CRP and sCD40L in the blood were determined. Results. In the experimental group, the concentration of sCD40L was lower as compared to the control (p < 0.02. In 34 (65% patients postprocedural decrease in sCD40L was recorded, in 18 (34.6% of them increase, while in 50 (96% patients there was a rise in CRP. The patients with postprocedural fall in sCD40L hod greater preprocedural concentration of sCD40L (p < 0.001, and less postprocedural concentration of sCD40L (p < 0.001, compared to the group with an increase in sCD40L after the PCI, while CRP levels tients treated with emergency PCI compared to elective patietns had a postprocedural decrease in sCD40L (p = 0.02. Increase in the level of CRP was higher in the group with emergency PCI in relation to elective PCI (p < 0.01. Conclusion. Emergency PCI procedures in the treatment of patients with unstable angina pectoris lead to a postprocedural fall in the serum concentration of sCD40L. Dual antiplate therapy with tienopiridins and aspirin inhibits the release of sCD40L. Regardless a clinical presentation

  8. Low serum bilirubin concentration is a novel risk factor for the development of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hiroshi; Fukui, Michiaki; Tanaka, Muhei; Matsumoto, Shinobu; Kobayashi, Kanae; Iwase, Hiroya; Tomiyasu, Kiichiro; Nakano, Koji; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto

    2014-03-01

    Bilirubin has been recognized as an important endogeneous antioxidant. Previous studies reported that bilirubin could prevent atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate if serum bilirubin concentration could be a predictor for the development of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. We measured serum bilirubin in 320 consecutive patients with normoalbuminuria. We performed follow-up study to assess the development of albuminuria, mean interval of which was 3.2±0.9years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the relationship between serum bilirubin concentration and the development of albuminuria. During follow-up duration, 43 patients have developed albuminuria. In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for comprehensive risk factors, the risk of developing albuminuria was higher in the lowest quartile of serum bilirubin concentrations than that in the highest quartile of serum bilirubin concentrations (Hazard ratio, 5.76; 95% CI, 1.65 to 24.93). Low serum bilirubin concentration could be a novel risk factor for the development of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Machine-Learned Data Structures of Lipid Marker Serum Concentrations in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Differ from Those in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Thrun, Michael; Lerch, Florian; Brunkhorst, Robert; Schiffmann, Susanne; Thomas, Dominique; Tegder, Irmgard; Geisslinger, Gerd; Ultsch, Alfred

    2017-06-07

    Lipid metabolism has been suggested to be a major pathophysiological mechanism of multiple sclerosis (MS). With the increasing knowledge about lipid signaling, acquired data become increasingly complex making bioinformatics necessary in lipid research. We used unsupervised machine-learning to analyze lipid marker serum concentrations, pursuing the hypothesis that for the most relevant markers the emerging data structures will coincide with the diagnosis of MS. Machine learning was implemented as emergent self-organizing feature maps (ESOM) combined with the U*-matrix visualization technique. The data space consisted of serum concentrations of three main classes of lipid markers comprising eicosanoids ( d = 11 markers), ceramides ( d = 10), and lyosophosphatidic acids ( d = 6). They were analyzed in cohorts of MS patients ( n = 102) and healthy subjects ( n = 301). Clear data structures in the high-dimensional data space were observed in eicosanoid and ceramides serum concentrations whereas no clear structure could be found in lysophosphatidic acid concentrations. With ceramide concentrations, the structures that had emerged from unsupervised machine-learning almost completely overlapped with the known grouping of MS patients versus healthy subjects. This was only partly provided by eicosanoid serum concentrations. Thus, unsupervised machine-learning identified distinct data structures of bioactive lipid serum concentrations. These structures could be superimposed with the known grouping of MS patients versus healthy subjects, which was almost completely possible with ceramides. Therefore, based on the present analysis, ceramides are first-line candidates for further exploration as drug-gable targets or biomarkers in MS.

  10. Comparison of macular pigment and serum lutein concentration changes between free lutein and lutein esters supplements in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizako, Hiroko; Hara, Katunori; Takai, Yasuyuki; Kaidzu, Sachiko; Obana, Akira; Ohira, Akihiro

    2016-09-01

    To compare changes in macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and serum lutein concentration between free lutein and lutein esters supplements in healthy Japanese individuals. Twenty healthy subjects (age range, 22-47 years) were recruited into this prospective, randomized, doubled-blind comparative study. Individuals were evenly divided into two groups: free lutein group, supplementation with 10 mg of free lutein; or lutein esters group, supplementation with 20 mg of lutein esters equivalent to 10 mg of free lutein. Each participant took either type of oral lutein daily for 3 months. The serum lutein concentrations and MPOD levels were measured at baseline and 3 and 6 months after the start of supplementation. There were no significant differences in the serum lutein concentrations and MPOD levels at baseline between the groups. The increased serum lutein concentration and MPOD levels at 3 months were respectively, 89% and 38% in the free lutein group and 97% and 17% in the lutein esters group. The serum lutein concentrations in both groups and MPOD levels in the free lutein group increased significantly (p lutein concentrations and MPOD levels were seen between the groups. Three months after supplementation ended, the serum lutein concentration decreased; the MPOD remained elevated in both groups. The serum lutein concentrations and MPOD levels increased significantly with either free lutein or lutein esters, and no significant differences were found between the two. Both were considered useful as lutein supplements. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. High Serum IgG4 Concentrations in Patients with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

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    Anna Popławska-Kita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Since recent reports suggest that Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT may be associated with IgG4-related disease, we aimed to find out whether the measurement of serum IgG4 allows for the identification of distinct types of HT, with different clinical, sonographic, and serologic characteristics. Methods. The group studied consisted of 53 patients with HT and 28 healthy individuals who underwent thyroid ultrasonography and body composition analysis. Serum concentrations of IgG4, TSH, anti-peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb, anti-TSH receptor antibodies, TNF-α, TGF-β1, Fas Ligand, TRAIL, and chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL11, and CXCL10 were measured by ELISA or radioimmunoassay. Results. The group with IgG4 level >135 IU/ml accounted for 32.5% of the patients. The signs of fibrosis were present in 27.0% of the high-IgG4 patients and in 9.1% of the normal-IgG4 group. The patients with elevated IgG4 required higher doses of L-thyroxine and had significantly lower level of TPOAb (P=0.02 than the non-IgG4-HT individuals and higher TNF-α level in comparison with the controls (P=0.01. Conclusions. Our results suggest that the measurement of serum IgG4 allows for an identification of patients with more rapid progression of HT, requiring higher doses of L-thyroxine. Low TPOAb level and the absence of coexisting autoimmune diseases may suggest distinct pathomechanism of this type of thyroiditis.

  12. Reliability of serum metabolite concentrations over a 4-month period using a targeted metabolomic approach.

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    Anna Floegel

    Full Text Available Metabolomics is a promising tool for discovery of novel biomarkers of chronic disease risk in prospective epidemiologic studies. We investigated the between- and within-person variation of the concentrations of 163 serum metabolites over a period of 4 months to evaluate the metabolite reliability expressed by the intraclass-correlation coefficient (ICC: the ratio of between-person variance and total variance. The analyses were performed with the BIOCRATES AbsoluteIDQ™ targeted metabolomics technology, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and hexose in 100 healthy individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Potsdam study who had provided two fasting blood samples 4 months apart. Overall, serum reliability of metabolites over a 4-month period was good. The median ICC of the 163 metabolites was 0.57. The highest ICC was observed for hydroxysphingomyelin C14:1 (ICC = 0.85 and the lowest was found for acylcarnitine C3:1 (ICC = 0. Reliability was high for hexose (ICC = 0.76, sphingolipids (median ICC = 0.66; range: 0.24-0.85, amino acids (median ICC = 0.58; range: 0.41-0.72 and glycerophospholipids (median ICC = 0.58; range: 0.03-0.81. Among acylcarnitines, reliability of short and medium chain saturated compounds was good to excellent (ICC range: 0.50-0.81. Serum reliability was lower for most hydroxyacylcarnitines and monounsaturated acylcarnitines (ICC range: 0.11-0.45 and 0.00-0.63, respectively. For most of the metabolites a single measurement may be sufficient for risk assessment in epidemiologic studies with healthy subjects.

  13. The Dose-Response Association between Nitrogen Dioxide Exposure and Serum Interleukin-6 Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Jennifer L; Bowatte, Gayan; Lodge, Caroline J; Knibbs, Luke D; Gurrin, Lyle C; Kandane-Rathnayake, Rangi; Johns, David P; Lowe, Adrian J; Burgess, John A; Thompson, Bruce R; Thomas, Paul S; Wood-Baker, Richard; Morrison, Stephen; Giles, Graham G; Marks, Guy; Markos, James; Tang, Mimi L K; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Matheson, Melanie C; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2017-05-08

    Systemic inflammation is an integral part of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and air pollution is associated with cardiorespiratory mortality, yet the interrelationships are not fully defined. We examined associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) exposure (as a marker of traffic-related air pollution) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and investigated effect modification and mediation by post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction (post-BD-AO) and cardiovascular risk. Data from middle-aged participants in the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS, n = 1389) were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression, using serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as the outcome. Mean annual NO₂ exposure was estimated at residential addresses using a validated satellite-based land-use regression model. Post-BD-AO was defined by post-BD forced expiratory ratio (FEV₁/FVC) < lower limit of normal, and cardiovascular risk by a history of either cerebrovascular or ischaemic heart disease. We found a positive association with increasing serum IL-6 concentration (geometric mean 1.20 (95% CI: 1.1 to 1.3, p = 0.001) per quartile increase in NO₂). This was predominantly a direct relationship, with little evidence for either effect modification or mediation via post-BD-AO, or for the small subgroup who reported cardiovascular events. However, there was some evidence consistent with serum IL-6 being on the causal pathway between NO₂ and cardiovascular risk. These findings raise the possibility that the interplay between air pollution and systemic inflammation may differ between post-BD airflow obstruction and cardiovascular diseases.

  14. The Dose–Response Association between Nitrogen Dioxide Exposure and Serum Interleukin-6 Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Jennifer L.; Bowatte, Gayan; Lodge, Caroline J.; Knibbs, Luke D.; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Kandane-Rathnayake, Rangi; Johns, David P.; Lowe, Adrian J.; Burgess, John A.; Thompson, Bruce R.; Thomas, Paul S.; Wood-Baker, Richard; Morrison, Stephen; Giles, Graham G.; Marks, Guy; Markos, James; Tang, Mimi L. K.; Abramson, Michael J.; Walters, E. Haydn; Matheson, Melanie C.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.

    2017-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is an integral part of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and air pollution is associated with cardiorespiratory mortality, yet the interrelationships are not fully defined. We examined associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure (as a marker of traffic-related air pollution) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and investigated effect modification and mediation by post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction (post-BD-AO) and cardiovascular risk. Data from middle-aged participants in the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS, n = 1389) were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression, using serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as the outcome. Mean annual NO2 exposure was estimated at residential addresses using a validated satellite-based land-use regression model. Post-BD-AO was defined by post-BD forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC) < lower limit of normal, and cardiovascular risk by a history of either cerebrovascular or ischaemic heart disease. We found a positive association with increasing serum IL-6 concentration (geometric mean 1.20 (95% CI: 1.1 to 1.3, p = 0.001) per quartile increase in NO2). This was predominantly a direct relationship, with little evidence for either effect modificati