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Sample records for serum nagalase activity

  1. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo Jv; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-08-01

    α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort of patients with histologically diverse, advanced neoplasms, generally considered as "incurable" diseases. In most cases, GcMAF therapy was initiated at late stages of tumor progression. As this is an open-label, non-controlled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when establishing cause-effect relationships between the administration GcMAF and disease outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was generally robust and some trends emerged. All patients (n = 20) presented with elevated serum nagalase activity, well above normal values. All patients but one showed a significant decrease of serum nagalase activity upon weekly GcMAF injections. Decreased nagalase activity was associated with improved clinical conditions and no adverse side effects were reported. The observations reported here confirm and extend previous results and pave the way to further studies aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF-based anticancer immunotherapy.

  2. Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer with Gc Protein-Derived Macrophage-Activating Factor, GcMAF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2008-07-01

    Serum Gc protein (known as vitamin D(3)-binding protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage-activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of prostate cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein was deglycosylated by serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Therefore, macrophages of prostate cancer patients having deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be activated, leading to immunosuppression. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent MAF (termed GcMAF) ever discovered, which produces no adverse effect in humans. Macrophages activated by GcMAF develop a considerable variation of receptors that recognize the abnormality in malignant cell surface and are highly tumoricidal. Sixteen nonanemic prostate cancer patients received weekly administration of 100 ng of GcMAF. As the MAF precursor activity increased, their serum Nagalase activity decreased. Because serum Nagalase activity is proportional to tumor burden, the entire time course analysis for GcMAF therapy was monitored by measuring the serum Nagalase activity. After 14 to 25 weekly administrations of GcMAF (100 ng/week), all 16 patients had very low serum Nagalase levels equivalent to those of healthy control values, indicating that these patients are tumor-free. No recurrence occurred for 7 years.

  3. Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer with Gc Protein-Derived Macrophage-Activating Factor, GcMAF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    Serum Gc protein (known as vitamin D3-binding protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage-activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of prostate cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein was deglycosylated by serum α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Therefore, macrophages of prostate cancer patients having deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be activated, leading to immunosuppression. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized β-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent MAF (termed GcMAF) ever discovered, which produces no adverse effect in humans. Macrophages activated by GcMAF develop a considerable variation of receptors that recognize the abnormality in malignant cell surface and are highly tumoricidal. Sixteen nonanemic prostate cancer patients received weekly administration of 100 ng of GcMAF. As the MAF precursor activity increased, their serum Nagalase activity decreased. Because serum Nagalase activity is proportional to tumor burden, the entire time course analysis for GcMAF therapy was monitored by measuring the serum Nagalase activity. After 14 to 25 weekly administrations of GcMAF (100 ng/week), all 16 patients had very low serum Nagalase levels equivalent to those of healthy control values, indicating that these patients are tumor-free. No recurrence occurred for 7 years. PMID:18633461

  4. Immunotherapy of metastatic colorectal cancer with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor, GcMAF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Nakazato, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Koga, Yoshihiko

    2008-07-01

    Serum vitamin D binding protein (Gc protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage-activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of colorectal cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein is deglycosylated by serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be converted to MAF, leading to immunosuppression. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) ever discovered, but it produces no side effect in humans. Macrophages treated with GcMAF (100 microg/ml) develop an enormous variation of receptors and are highly tumoricidal to a variety of cancers indiscriminately. Administration of 100 nanogram (ng)/ human maximally activates systemic macrophages that can kill cancerous cells. Since the half-life of the activated macrophages is approximately 6 days, 100 ng GcMAF was administered weekly to eight nonanemic colorectal cancer patients who had previously received tumor-resection but still carried significant amounts of metastatic tumor cells. As GcMAF therapy progressed, the MAF precursor activities of all patients increased and conversely their serum Nagalase activities decreased. Since serum Nagalase is proportional to tumor burden, serum Nagalase activity was used as a prognostic index for time course analysis of GcMAF therapy. After 32-50 weekly administrations of 100 ng GcMAF, all colorectal cancer patients exhibited healthy control levels of the serum Nagalase activity, indicating eradication of metastatic tumor cells. During 7 years after the completion of GcMAF therapy, their serum Nagalase activity did not increase, indicating no recurrence of cancer, which was also supported by the annual CT scans of these patients.

  5. Immunotherapy of metastatic breast cancer patients with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Ushijima, Naofumi

    2008-01-15

    Serum vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of breast cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein was deglycosylated by serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Patient serum Nagalase activity is proportional to tumor burden. The deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be converted to MAF, resulting in no macrophage activation and immunosuppression. Stepwise incubation of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated probably the most potent macrophage activating factor (termed GcMAF) ever discovered, which produces no adverse effect in humans. Macrophages treated in vitro with GcMAF (100 pg/ml) are highly tumoricidal to mammary adenocarcinomas. Efficacy of GcMAF for treatment of metastatic breast cancer was investigated with 16 nonanemic patients who received weekly administration of GcMAF (100 ng). As GcMAF therapy progresses, the MAF precursor activity of patient Gc protein increased with a concomitant decrease in serum Nagalase. Because of proportionality of serum Nagalase activity to tumor burden, the time course progress of GcMAF therapy was assessed by serum Nagalase activity as a prognostic index. These patients had the initial Nagalase activities ranging from 2.32 to 6.28 nmole/min/mg protein. After about 16-22 administrations (approximately 3.5-5 months) of GcMAF, these patients had insignificantly low serum enzyme levels equivalent to healthy control enzyme levels, ranging from 0.38 to 0.63 nmole/min/mg protein, indicating eradication of the tumors. This therapeutic procedure resulted in no recurrence for more than 4 years.

  6. Immunotherapy of HIV-infected patients with Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Ushijima, Naofumi; Koga, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Serum Gc protein (known as vitamin D3-binding protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of HIV-infected patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein is deglycosylated by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from HIV-infected cells. Therefore, macrophages of HIV-infected patients having deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be activated, leading to immunosuppression. Since Nagalase is the intrinsic component of the envelope protein gp120, serum Nagalase activity is the sum of enzyme activities carried by both HIV virions and envelope proteins. These Nagalase carriers were already complexed with anti-HIV immunoglobulin G (IgG) but retained Nagalase activity that is required for infectivity. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent macrophage activating factor (termed GcMAF), which produces no side effects in humans. Macrophages activated by administration of 100 ng GcMAF develop a large amount of Fc-receptors as well as an enormous variation of receptors that recognize IgG-bound and unbound HIV virions. Since latently HIV-infected cells are unstable and constantly release HIV virions, the activated macrophages rapidly intercept the released HIV virions to prevent reinfection resulting in exhaustion of infected cells. After less than 18 weekly administrations of 100 ng GcMAF for nonanemic patients, they exhibited low serum Nagalase activities equivalent to healthy controls, indicating eradication of HIV-infection, which was also confirmed by no infectious center formation by provirus inducing agent-treated patient PBMCs. No recurrence occurred and their healthy CD + cell counts were maintained for 7 years.

  7. Antitumor effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Y; Naraparaju, V R; Yamamoto, N

    1999-01-01

    Cancerous cells secrete alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) into the blood stream, resulting in deglycosylation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein (known as Gc protein), which is a precursor for macrophage activating factor (MAF). Incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates the most potent macrophage activating factor (designated GcMAF). Administration of GcMAF to cancer-bearing hosts can bypass the inactivated MAF precursor and act directly on macrophages for efficient activation. Therapeutic effects of GcMAF on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice were assessed by survival time and serum NaGalase activity, because serum NaGalase activity was proportional to tumor burden. A single administration of GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) to eight mice on the same day after transplantation of the tumor (5 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 21 +/- 3 days for seven mice, with one mouse surviving more than 60 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 13 +/- 2 days. Six of the eight mice that received two GcMAF administrations, at Day 0 and Day 4 after transplantation, survived up to 31 +/- 4 days whereas, the remaining two mice survived for more than 60 days. Further, six of the eight mice that received three GcMAF administrations with 4-day intervals showed an extended survival of at least 60 days, and serum NaGalase levels were as low as those of control mice throughout the survival period. The cure with subthreshold GcMAF-treatments (administered once or twice) of tumor-bearing mice appeared to be a consequence of sustained macrophage activation by inflammation resulting from the macrophage-mediated tumoricidal process. Therefore, a protracted macrophage activation induced by a few administrations of minute amounts of GcMAF eradicated the murine ascites tumor.

  8. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Gabriele; Giordano, Alessia; Pezzia, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs.......Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs....

  9. Immunotherapy of BALB/c mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R

    1997-06-01

    Vitamin D3-binding protein (DBP; human DBP is known as Gc protein) is the precursor of macrophage activating factor (MAF). Treatment of mouse DBP with immobilized beta-galactosidase or treatment of human Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated a remarkably potent MAF, termed DBPMAF or GcMAF, respectively. The domain of Gc protein responsible for macrophage activation was cloned and enzymatically converted to the cloned MAF, designated CdMAF. In Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice, tumor-specific serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) activity increased linearly with time as the transplanted tumor cells grew in the peritoneal cavity. Therapeutic effects of DBPMAF, GcMAF, and CdMAF on mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor were assessed by survival time, the total tumor cell count in the peritoneal cavity, and serum NaGalase activity. Mice that received a single administration of DBPMAF or GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) on the same day after transplantation of tumor (1 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 35 +/- 4 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 16 +/- 2 days. When mice received the second DBPMAF or GcMAF administration at day 4, they survived more than 50 days. Mice that received two DBPMAF administrations, at days 4 and 8 after transplantation of 1 x 10(5) tumor cells, survived up to 32 +/- 4 days. At day 4 posttransplantation, the total tumor cell count in the peritoneal cavity was approximately 5 x 10(5) cells. Mice that received two DBPMAF administrations, at days 0 and 4 after transplantation of 5 x 10(5) tumor cells, also survived up to 32 +/- 4 days, while control mice that received the 5 x 10(5) ascites tumor cells only survived for 14 +/- 2 days. Four DBPMAF, GcMAF, or CdMAF administrations to mice transplanted with 5 x 10(5) Ehrlich ascites tumor cells with 4-day intervals showed an extended survival of at least 90 days and an insignificantly low serum NaGalase level between days 30 and 90.

  10. Serum adenosine deaminase activity in cutaneous anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnetcioglu, Mahmut; Karadas, Sevdegul; Aslan, Mehmet; Ceylan, Mehmet Resat; Demir, Halit; Oncu, Mehmet Resit; Karahocagil, Mustafa Kasım; Sunnetcioglu, Aysel; Aypak, Cenk

    2014-07-06

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity has been discovered in several inflammatory conditions; however, there are no data associated with cutaneous anthrax. The aim of this study was to investigate serum ADA activity in patients with cutaneous anthrax. Sixteen patients with cutaneous anthrax and 17 healthy controls were enrolled. We measured ADA activity; peripheral blood leukocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts; erythrocyte sedimentation rate; and C reactive protein levels. Serum ADA activity was significantly higher in patients with cutaneous anthrax than in the controls (panthrax.

  11. Low serum alkaline phosphatase activity in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, W A; Bhatt, H; Combes, B

    1986-01-01

    Low values for serum alkaline phosphatase activity were observed early in the course of two patients with Wilson's disease presenting with the combination of severe liver disease and Coombs' negative acute hemolytic anemia. A review of other cases of Wilson's disease revealed that 11 of 12 patients presenting with hemolytic anemia had values for serum alkaline phosphatase less than their respective sex- and age-adjusted mean values; in eight, serum alkaline phosphatase activity was less than the lower value for the normal range of the test. Low values for serum alkaline phosphatase were much less common in Wilson's disease patients with more chronic forms of presentation. Copper added in high concentration to serum in vitro did not have an important effect on serum alkaline phosphatase activity. The mechanism responsible for the decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase activity in patients is uncertain.

  12. SERUM PARAOXONASE ACTIVITY AND ITS RELATION TO SERUM LIPIDS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

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    Rakhi S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human serum paraoxonase1 (PON1 is a calcium dependent es terase enzyme that hydrolyses lipid peroxides accumulating on low density lipoproteins. In the serum, PON1 enzyme is almost exclusively located on the high density lipoprotein (HDL. It hydrolyses oxidised lipids in low density lipoprotein (LDL and could therefore retard the development of atherosclerosis. As PON1 activity has a role in preventing atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease is common in Kerala, this study was conducted to assess the activity of the enzyme and its corelation to serum lipids. MATERIALS AND METHODS : In this case - control study, one hundred patients with coronary artery disease and one hundred healthy controls were included. Serum paraoxonase activity was meausured using phenyl acetate as substrate and lipid profile was done in a uto analyzer . RESULTS : The mean PON 1 activity {(70.21  27.62 in cases against (135.86  33.48 in controls (p value .000} was significantly low in CAD group compared to the control group. The CHD group had a significantly lower mean total cholesterol level (202.82  57.77 against 219.45  46.08 and lower mean HDL level (40.88  10.08 against 56.79  17.24. Correlation of the activity of PON1 with other variables for the combined group ( C ases and controls taken together showed that age is negatively correlated an d HDL is positively correlated with PON 1 activity. CONCLUSIONS : The activity of serum paraoxonase enzyme (PON1 is low in patients with coronary artery disease compared to healthy controls. Thus low serum PON1 enzyme activity is a risk factor for CAD. The activity of the serum PON1 enzyme increases with increase in HDL level and decreases with increase in age for the combined group.

  13. Antibacterial activities of serum from the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis

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    Mark Merchant

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis are able to feed on large prey items by injecting a dose of toxic bacteria with their bite that, over time, kills the prey by systemic infection. Dragons also suffer bites from other members of their own species during territorial disputes and feeding frenzies. However, they do not suffer the same fate as their prey, suggesting that they have developed a strong immunity to bacterial infections. This study was undertaken to determine the antibacterial activities of serum from the Komodo dragon. Bacterial cultures were treated with different volumes serum from Varanus komodoensis and the growth was monitored by optical density at 430 nm. In addition, the serum was treated with protease, chelators of divalent metal ions, or with mild heat to determine the mechanism of antibacterial activities. Treatment of bacterial cultures with serum from Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis resulted in a volume-dependent decrease in bacterial growth. Cultures of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella oxytoca exhibited moderate-strong growth inhibition by V. komodoensis serum, while cultures of Streptococcus epidermitis, Salmonella typhimurium, Providencia stuartii, and Shigella flexneri were nearly completely obliterated for 24 h by only 10% (v/v serum. The antibacterial activity of V. komodensis serum occurred very rapidly, as 18% of E. coli growth was inhibited by a five min exposure to serum. Furthermore, 10- and 20-min incubations of E. coli with serum from V. komodoensis resulted in 43 and 68% inhibition of bacterial growth, respectively. The bactericidal capacity of the serum against E. coli was 2,075,000 bacteria/μL serum, and was inhibited by mild heat treatment, pronase, EDTA, and phosphate, indicating that the anti-bacterial action is most probably due to the presence of a potent serum complement protein system.

  14. Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity in human serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Michio; Watanabe,Akiharu; Higashi, Toshiro; Tsuji, Takao

    1988-01-01

    Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity was detected in human serum. Serum was preincubated with 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate and trypsin to activate the enzyme prior to assay. Type IV collagen, purified from human placentas and radiolabeled with [1-14C] acetic anhydride, was used as the substrate. The enzyme activity was measured at pH 7.5 and inhibited by treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or heat. The assay of type IV collagen-degrading enzyme in human serum might be useful...

  15. Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity in human serum.

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    Hashimoto,Noriaki

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity was detected in human serum. Serum was preincubated with 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate and trypsin to activate the enzyme prior to assay. Type IV collagen, purified from human placentas and radiolabeled with [1-14C] acetic anhydride, was used as the substrate. The enzyme activity was measured at pH 7.5 and inhibited by treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or heat. The assay of type IV collagen-degrading enzyme in human serum might be useful for estimating the degradation of type IV collagen.

  16. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis.

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    Chaojun Qi

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN.For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity-2000 (SLEDAI-2K scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry.Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages.Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest that it might play an

  17. Prognostic value of serum angiogenic activity in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Francisco-Jesus; Quesada, Ana-Rodriguez; Sevilla, Isabel; Baca, Juan-Javier; Medina, Miguel-Angel; Amores, Jose; Diaz, Juan Miguel; Rius-Diaz, Francisca; Marques, Eduardo; Alba, Emilio

    2007-01-01

    Angiogenesis, resulting from an imbalance between angiogenic activator factors and inhibitors, is required for tumour growth and metastasis. The determination of the circulating concentration of all angiogenic factors (activators and inhibitors) is not feasible at present. We have evaluated diagnostic and prognostic values of the measurement of serum angiogenic activity in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients. Serum proliferative activity (PA) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro, and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were determined by ELISA in 53 patients with primary CRC, 16 subjects with non-neoplastic gastrointestinal disease (SC) and 34 healthy individuals. Data were compared with clinical outcome of the patients. Although serum from CRC patients significantly increased the PA of HUVEC, compared to culture control (HUVEC in medium + 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS); P < 0.001); our results indicate that serum PA in CRC patients was similar to that of SC or healthy individuals. There was no correlation between serum PA and circulating VEGF concentrations. Surgery produced a decrease of PA at 8 hrs after tumour resection in CRC patients compared to pre-surgery values (186 +/- 47 versus 213 +/- 41, P < 0.001). However, an increase in serum VEGF values was observed after surgery (280 [176-450] versus 251 [160-357] pg/ml, P = 0.004). Patients with lower PA values after surgery showed a worse outcome that those with higher PA values. Therefore, this study does not support a diagnostic value for serum angiogenic activity measured by proliferative activity on HUVEC but suggests it could have a prognostic value in CRC patients.

  18. Serum paraoxonase activity and protein thiols in patients with hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mungli Prakash; Jeevan K Shetty; Sudeshna Tripathy; Pannuri Vikram; Manish Verma

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In the present study we evaluated the paraoxonase activity and protein thiols level in south Indian population with newly diagnosed hyperlipidemia. Methods: The study was conducted on 55 newly diagnosed hyperlipidemic pa-tients and 57 healthy controls. Serum paraoxonase activity and protein thiols were estimated by spectrophotometeric method and lipid profile by enzymatic kinetic assay method. Results: Serum paraoxonase activity, protein thiols and high density lipoprotein levels were low and total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprutein levels were high in patients with hyperlipidemia compared to healthy controls ( P < 0.01 ). Serum paranxonase activity correlated positively with protein thiols and high density lipoprotein (P<0.01). Conclusion: Decreased paraoxonase activity and protein thiols were found in patients with hyperlipi-demia. This may indicate the susceptibility of this population to accelerated atherogenesis and protein oxidation.

  19. Lower Serum Paraoxonase-1 Activity Is Related to Higher Serum Amyloid A Levels in Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul Jan Willem Herman; Bijzet, Johan; Hazenberg, Bouke Pier; Dullaart, Robin Pieter Frank

    Background and Aims. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) contain the anti-oxidative enzyme, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), which is important for atheroprotection. The acute phase reactant, serum amyloid A (SAA), an HDL-associated apolipoprotein, may impair PON-1 activity, whereas SAA and PON-1 are reciprocally

  20. Lower Serum Paraoxonase-1 Activity Is Related to Higher Serum Amyloid A Levels in Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul Jan Willem Herman; Bijzet, Johan; Hazenberg, Bouke Pier; Dullaart, Robin Pieter Frank

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) contain the anti-oxidative enzyme, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), which is important for atheroprotection. The acute phase reactant, serum amyloid A (SAA), an HDL-associated apolipoprotein, may impair PON-1 activity, whereas SAA and PON-1 are reciprocally

  1. Eating a healthy lunch improves serum alanine aminotransferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Masako; Yagi, Kaori; Yazumi, Kayoko; Komine, Airi; Shirouchi, Bungo; Sato, Masao

    2013-09-14

    Nutritional guidance and diet control play important roles in the treatment of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver. However, in Japan, nutritional guidance is difficult to provide in practice. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of providing the 'once-a-day' intervention of a healthy lunch on various metabolic parameters. For a 1-month preparatory period, 10 subjects generally consumed the lunches that were provided by the worksite cafeteria. This was followed by a 1-week washout period, after which, the subjects consumed healthy, low-calorie, well-balanced lunches for a 1-month test period. After the preparatory and test periods, blood samples were obtained from all subjects. The serum levels of indices relevant to metabolic syndrome and fatty liver were measured. Serum alanine aminotransferase activity significantly decreased by 20.3% after the healthy intervention. However, the indices of metabolic syndrome did not significantly change. Analysis of the relationship between serum alanine aminotransferase activity and nutrient content indicated that the improvement of serum alanine aminotransferase status was due to the higher vegetable content and lower animal-source protein of the meals provided. In summary, the 'once-a-day' intervention of providing a healthy lunch improved serum alanine aminotransferase status. A diet high in vegetables and low in animal-based protein is important in maintaining a healthy condition.

  2. Automated conductimetric assay of human serum cholinesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, P; Wallach, J M

    1989-01-01

    Serum cholinesterase activity was determined by conductimetry using samples in the microliter range. Butyrylcholine iodide was demonstrated to be a convenient substrate for the conductimetric assay. Validation of the microassay was made by using either purified enzyme or control serum. In the range of 0-60 U/l, a linear relationship was demonstrated. Correlation with a reference spectrophotometric method was obtained with a slope of 1.18. An explanation of this value is proposed, as different hydrolysis rates were obtained with human sera, depending on the substrate used (butyrylthio- or butyryl-choline ester).

  3. Serum enzymes activities in Plasmodium falciparum infection in Southern Pakistan

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    Koay Yen Chin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH,aspartate aminotranferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase(ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were assessed todetermine the liver functions of patients infected withPlasmodium falciparum. The enzyme activities were assessedin 60 malarial patients and a control group of 44 people.Materials and Methods: The data for the study was collectedfrom the survey conducted from Liaquat University of medicaland health sciences Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakaistan. Sample of60 patients aged between 20 and 50 years were collected. Acontrol group of 44 healthy individual adults was also assessedfor comparative purposes. All the malaria patients who visitedthe OPD during the study period enrolled in the study.Results: The LDH activity in male patients was found to be674.89 ± 33.354 IU/L. This is above the control LDH activity of296.59 ± 14.476 IU/L. Similarly, in female patients, the serumLDH activity of 580.25 ± 24.507 IU/L is over twice the controlfemale serum LDH activity of 302.18 ± 18.082 IU/L. Furtherone-way anova test was performed to find any significance ininfected and control male and female.Conclusion: Hepatic dysfunction was found to be associated toP. falciparum malaria infection.

  4. Silica Exposure and Serum Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Activity

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    YK Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Silicosis is known in industrial workers for centuries. Till recently, the mainstay of its diagnosis and progress was clinical examination of the respiratory system, pulmonary function test and chest radiography. Several biomarkers such as serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE activity have been examined to determine the extent of silicosis. Objective: To elucidate the effect of age, gender, duration of exposure to silica dust, smoking habit, and pulmonary function status on the serum ACE activity among quartz stone workers without disease.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 134 (111 men and 14 women workers of quartz stone crushing units were studied. Standard diagnostic criteria were used for diagnosing silicosis and tuberculosis. Pulmonary functions of the participants were also assessed.Results: The mean±SD age for participants was 26.1±6.3 years (26.6±6.3 for men and 21.9±4.3 for women. The mean±SD duration of exposure was 1.1±1.9 years. In the present study, only one case of silicosis and eight cases of tuberculosis were found. The mean±SD serum ACE levels for those with and without respiratory disease were 68.44±11.61, and 66.9±14.4 IU/L, respectively (p>0.05.Conclusion: We could not observe any association between serum ACE activity and age, gender, duration of exposure, smoking habits and pulmonary function status. However, elevated levels of serum ACE was found in a solitary case of silicosis.

  5. Normal serum alanine aminotransferase activity in uncomplicated obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gianluca Iacobellis; Antonio Moschetta; Maria Cristina Ribaudo; Alessandra Zappaterreno; Concetta Valeria Iannucci; Frida Leonetti

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT)activity in a well-characterized group of uncomplicated obese subjects and its correlation with insulin resistance,plasma adiponectin, and leptin concentrations.METHODS: One hundred and five uncomplicatedobese subjects (87 women, 18 men, age 34.3±9.6 years,BMI 39.9±8.3 kg/m2)were studied. Serum ALT activity was evaluated. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (M index) and fasting insulin. Plasma leptin and adiponectin levels were also measured.RESULTS: Serum ALT concentration in the whole group of uncomplicated obese subjects was 17.73±6.33 U/L with none of the subjects presenting ALT levels greater than 43 U/L and only 9 (11%) women and 3 (19%) men showed ALT levels >19 and >30 U/L for women and men,respectively. No significant difference was detected in serum ALT levels between severe obese subjects (BMI >40 kg/m2) and those with BMI <40 kg/m2 (18.63±6.25 vs 17.26±6.02 U/L). ALT was significantly correlated with fasting insulin (r = 0.485, P = 0.02) and triglycerides (r= 0.358, P= 0.03).CONCLUSION: Serum ALT activity is practically normal in uncomplicated obese subjects, independently of their obesity degree. These findings suggest the role of obesityrelated comorbidities and not of BMI as main risk factors for elevated ALT levels in obese subjects.

  6. Serum fucosyl transferase activity and serum fucose levels as diagnostic tools in malignancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen,Umi

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycoproteins play a significant role in neoplastic transformations. Both the levels of fucose and the activity of fucosyl transferase, which mediates the assembly of the oligosaccharide moieties of the glycoprotein chains, have been found to be elevated in neoplastic conditions. Since these elevations are common features of a variety of neoplastic cells, these two have been designated as non-specific markers of malignancy. In the present study, the fucose level and fucosyl transferase activity were determined in the sera of cancer patients and an attempt was made to establish a relationship between the two. It was found that both the fucose levels and fucosyl transferase activities showed considerable elevation in the five cancer groups studied, establishing them as useful diagnostic parameters. However, it was also observed that the rate of increased fucosyl transferase activity was not fully reflected in the resulting serum fucose levels in a few cases.

  7. Serum melatonin in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: correlation with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awady, Hanaa Mahmoud; El-Wakkad, Amany Salah El-Dien; Saleh, Maysa Tawheed; Muhammad, Saadia Ibraheem; Ghaniema, Eiman Mahmoud

    2007-05-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the abnormalities in early morning serum melatonin among patients with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) and to outline its relation to disease activity and severity. Twenty one patients with JRA and twenty healthy age and sex matched controls were enrolled in the study. Fifteen patients had polyarticular JRA, 3 had oligoarticular and 3 had systemic onset JRA. Evaluation was carried out clinically, functionally and radiologically by using disease activity score, Juvenile Arthritis Functional Assessment Report for Children (JAFAR-C score) and modified Larsen score, respectively. Laboratory investigations included Complete Blood Picture (CBC), The Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), classic IgM Rheumatoid Factor (RF), Anti-nuclear Antibodies (ANA) and melatonin estimation in serum. The serum levels of melatonin were significantly increased in JRA patients (mean +/- SD = 13.9 +/- 8 pg mL(-1)) as compared to healthy controls (mean +/- SD = 8.1 +/- 2.7 pg mL(-1), p 0.05). Hence the study conclude that the elevated melatonin levels among JRA patients with active synovitis and its close relation to disease activity rather than disease severity suggests that melatonin might play a promoting role in rheumatoid arthritis. Hence, inhibition of its synthesis and/or action by specific antagonists may be of therapeutic value.

  8. Serum Albumin Binding and Esterase Activity: Mechanistic Interactions with Organophosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Goncharov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The albumin molecule, in contrast to many other plasma proteins, is not covered with a carbohydrate moiety and can bind and transport various molecules of endogenous and exogenous origin. The enzymatic activity of albumin, the existence of which many scientists perceive skeptically, is much less studied. In toxicology, understanding the mechanistic interactions of organophosphates with albumin is a special problem, and its solution could help in the development of new types of antidotes. In the present work, the history of the issue is briefly examined, then our in silico data on the interaction of human serum albumin with soman, as well as comparative in silico data of human and bovine serum albumin activities in relation to paraoxon, are presented. Information is given on the substrate specificity of albumin and we consider the possibility of its affiliation to certain classes in the nomenclature of enzymes.

  9. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity status in patients with liver disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedage Vivekananda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 is an esterase, exclusively synthesized by liver. The present study has two objectives: to determine the PON1 activity status in various disorders associated with hepatocellular damage and to correlate the changes of PON1 activity with the standard liver function and fasting lipid profile tests in these disorders. Patients and Methods: The study groups consisted of 95 patients with liver diseases including acute viral hepatitis (14, cirrhosis with portal hypertension (33, leptospirosis (14, sepsis and multi organ failure (15, left ventricular failure (9, and falciparum malaria (10; and 53 healthy controls. Serum PON1 activity was measured manually using spectrophotometer. Liver function test parameters and fasting lipid profile were performed in clinical chemistry auto analyzer (Hitachi 912. Results: The serum PON1 activity in patients with acute viral hepatitis and sepsis decreased significantly ( P < 0.001 and moderately in falciparum malaria ( P < 0.05. However, in patients with cirrhosis, leptospirosis and left ventricular patients, its activity did not change significantly. On applying Pearson correlation, serum PON1 activity correlated positively with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C in patients with sepsis (r=0.633, P < 0.05, left ventricular failure patients (r=0.814, P < 0.05 and negatively with acute viral hepatitis patients (r=- 0.528, P < 0.05. Conclusion: PON1 activity has decreased significantly in acute viral hepatitis, sepsis with multi organ failure and falciparum malaria patients. Determination of PON1 activity may serve as a useful additional test in assessing these conditions.

  10. Smoking Discriminately Changes the Serum Active and Non-Active Forms of Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekoohi, Niloofar; Javanbakht, Mohammad Hassan; Sohrabi, Marjan; Zarei, Mahnaz; Mohammadi, Hamed; Djalali, Mahmoud

    2017-06-01

    Smoking may modify the appetite, and consequently affect nutrient intake and serum micronutrients. The effect of smoking on vitamin B12 status has been considered in several studies. The research proposed that organic nitrites, nitro oxide, cyanides, and isocyanides of cigarette smoke interfere with vitamin B12 metabolism, and convert it to inactive forms. This research was carried out to determine the serum level of active and inactive forms of vitamin B12 in male smokers in comparison with male nonsmokers. This is a case-control study, in which the participants were 85 male smokers and 85 male nonsmokers. The serum levels of total and active form of vitamin B12 were measured. Dietary intake was recorded by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and one-day 24-hour dietary recall method. Independent two sample T test was used to compare quantitative variables between the case and control groups. The serum level of total vitamin B12 was not significantly different between two groups, but serum level of active form of vitamin B12 in the smoking group was significantly lower than non-smoking group (Pvitamin B12 in smokers in the Iranian community. The results of this study identified that serum level of total vitamin B12 might be not different between smoking and non-smoking people, but the function of this vitamin is disturbed in the body of smokers through the reduction of serum level of active form of vitamin B12.

  11. Serum inflammatory mediators as markers of human Lyme disease activity.

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    Mark J Soloski

    Full Text Available Chemokines and cytokines are key signaling molecules that orchestrate the trafficking of immune cells, direct them to sites of tissue injury and inflammation and modulate their states of activation and effector cell function. We have measured, using a multiplex-based approach, the levels of 58 immune mediators and 7 acute phase markers in sera derived from of a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute Lyme disease and matched controls. This analysis identified a cytokine signature associated with the early stages of infection and allowed us to identify two subsets (mediator-high and mediator-low of acute Lyme patients with distinct cytokine signatures that also differed significantly (p<0.0005 in symptom presentation. In particular, the T cell chemokines CXCL9 (MIG, CXCL10 (IP-10 and CCL19 (MIP3B were coordinately increased in the mediator-high group and levels of these chemokines could be associated with seroconversion status and elevated liver function tests (p = 0.027 and p = 0.021 respectively. There was also upregulation of acute phase proteins including CRP and serum amyloid A. Consistent with the role of CXCL9/CXCL10 in attracting immune cells to the site of infection, CXCR3+ CD4 T cells are reduced in the blood of early acute Lyme disease (p = 0.01 and the decrease correlates with chemokine levels (p = 0.0375. The levels of CXCL9/10 did not relate to the size or number of skin lesions but elevated levels of serum CXCL9/CXCL10 were associated with elevated liver enzymes levels. Collectively these results indicate that the levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations.

  12. Serum inflammatory mediators as markers of human Lyme disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloski, Mark J; Crowder, Lauren A; Lahey, Lauren J; Wagner, Catriona A; Robinson, William H; Aucott, John N

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines and cytokines are key signaling molecules that orchestrate the trafficking of immune cells, direct them to sites of tissue injury and inflammation and modulate their states of activation and effector cell function. We have measured, using a multiplex-based approach, the levels of 58 immune mediators and 7 acute phase markers in sera derived from of a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute Lyme disease and matched controls. This analysis identified a cytokine signature associated with the early stages of infection and allowed us to identify two subsets (mediator-high and mediator-low) of acute Lyme patients with distinct cytokine signatures that also differed significantly (p<0.0005) in symptom presentation. In particular, the T cell chemokines CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10) and CCL19 (MIP3B) were coordinately increased in the mediator-high group and levels of these chemokines could be associated with seroconversion status and elevated liver function tests (p = 0.027 and p = 0.021 respectively). There was also upregulation of acute phase proteins including CRP and serum amyloid A. Consistent with the role of CXCL9/CXCL10 in attracting immune cells to the site of infection, CXCR3+ CD4 T cells are reduced in the blood of early acute Lyme disease (p = 0.01) and the decrease correlates with chemokine levels (p = 0.0375). The levels of CXCL9/10 did not relate to the size or number of skin lesions but elevated levels of serum CXCL9/CXCL10 were associated with elevated liver enzymes levels. Collectively these results indicate that the levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations.

  13. Serum Inflammatory Mediators as Markers of Human Lyme Disease Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloski, Mark J.; Crowder, Lauren A.; Lahey, Lauren J.; Wagner, Catriona A.

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines and cytokines are key signaling molecules that orchestrate the trafficking of immune cells, direct them to sites of tissue injury and inflammation and modulate their states of activation and effector cell function. We have measured, using a multiplex-based approach, the levels of 58 immune mediators and 7 acute phase markers in sera derived from of a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute Lyme disease and matched controls. This analysis identified a cytokine signature associated with the early stages of infection and allowed us to identify two subsets (mediator-high and mediator-low) of acute Lyme patients with distinct cytokine signatures that also differed significantly (pLyme disease (p = 0.01) and the decrease correlates with chemokine levels (p = 0.0375). The levels of CXCL9/10 did not relate to the size or number of skin lesions but elevated levels of serum CXCL9/CXCL10 were associated with elevated liver enzymes levels. Collectively these results indicate that the levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations. PMID:24740099

  14. Serum arylesterase and paraoxonase activity in patients with chronic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suleyman Sirri Kilic; Suleyman Aydin; Nermin Kilic; Fazilet Erman; Suna Aydin; (I)lhami Celik

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between serum paraoxonase (PON1), AST, ALT, GGT, and arylesterase (AE) activity alterations and the degree of liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis.METHODS: We studied 34 chronic hepatitis patients and 32 control subjects, aged between 35 and 65 years,in the Department of Infection and Clinical Microbiology at the Firat University School of Medicine. Blood samples were collected from subjects between 8:00 and 10:00 a.m. following a 12-h fast. Baseline and salt-stimulated PON1 activities were measured by the hydrolysis of paraoxon. Phenyl acetate was used as the substrate and formed phenol was measured spectrophotometrically at 270 nm after the addition of a 10-fold diluted serum sample in AE activity measurements.RESULTS: The results of this investigation revealed that the levels of AE activity decreased from 132±52 to 94±36 (29%), baseline PON1 activity from 452±112 to 164±67 (64%), salt-stimulated PON1 activity from 746±394 to 294±220 (61%), HDL from 58.4±5.1 to 47.2±5.6(20%), triglyceride from 133±51.2 to 86±34.0 (35%),while a slight increase in the level of LDL (from 163±54.1 to 177.3±56.0; 9%) and significant increases in the levels of AST (from 29±9.3 to 98±44), ALP (from 57.2±13.1 to 91±38.1), ALT (from 27.9±3.32 to 89±19.1), GGT (from 24.3±2.10 to 94±48.2), total bilirubin (from 0.74±0.02 to 1.36±0.06; 84%) and direct bilirubin (from 0.18±0.01 to 0.42±0.04; 133%) were detected.However, the levels of albumin, total protein, cholesterol,and uric acid were almost the same in chronic hepatitis and the control subjects.CONCLUSION: Low PON1 and AE activity may contribute to the increased liver dysfunction in chronic hepatitis patients by reducing the ability of HDL to retard LDL oxidation and might be clinically useful for monitoring the disease of chronic hepatitis.

  15. Serum YKL-40 concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: relation to disease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J S; Stoltenberg, M; Hansen, M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: YKL-40, also called human cartilage glycoprotein-39, is secreted by chondrocytes, synovial cells, macrophages and neutrophils. Studies have shown that YKL-40 is an autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated whether serum YKL-40 was related to disease activity in patients...... with RA. METHODS: Serum YKL-40 was determined by radioimmunoassay in 156 patients with RA during a 1 yr longitudinal study. RESULTS: Serum YKL-40 was increased in 54% of the patients with clinically active disease. Patients with clinically active disease initially who became inactive after 12 months had...... a significant decrease in serum YKL-40 (-30%, P patients who changed from inactive to active disease had an increase in serum YKL-40. Patients who remained active had unchanged serum YKL-40 during the study. Serum YKL-40 decreased rapidly (-24% after 7 days, P

  16. Evaluation of Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity in a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M.T. Trindade

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lactate dehydrogenase is a citosolic enzyme involved in reversible transformation of pyruvate to lactate. It participates in anaerobic glycolysis of skeletal muscle and red blood cells, in liver gluconeogenesis and in aerobic metabolism of heart muscle. The determination of its activity helps in the diagnosis of various diseases, because it is increased in serum of patients suffering from myocardial infarction, acute hepatitis, muscular dystrophy and cancer. This paper presents a learning object, mediated by computer, which contains the simulation of the laboratory determination serum lactate dehydrogenase activity measured by the spectrophotometric method, based in the decrease of absorbance at 340 nm. Materials and Methods: Initially, pictures and videos were obtained recording the procedure of the methodology. The most representative images were selected, edited and inserted into an animation developed with the aid of the tool Adobe ® Flash ® CS3. The validation of the object was performed by the students of Biochemistry I (Pharmacy-UFRGS from the second semester of 2009 and both of 2010. Results and Discussion: The analysis of students' answers revealed that 80% attributed the excellence of the navigation program, the display format and to aid in learning. Conclusion: Therefore, this software can be considered an adequate teaching resource as well as an innovative support in the construction of theoretical and practical knowledge of Biochemistry. Available at: http://www6.ufrgs.br/gcoeb/LDH

  17. Serum cryoglobulins and disease activity in systematic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Karimifar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the prevalence of cryoglobulins in Iranian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and evaluate the correlation of cryoglobulins with disease activity in these patients. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we investigated 80 consecutive women who fulfilled the 1982 revised criteria of the American College of Rheumatology for the classification of SLE. All the patients had undergone a medical interview and general physical examination by a rheumatologist for clinical and serologic characteristics of SLE. For the determination of cryoglobulins, sera were collected by a standard protocol at 37°C, and after incubation at 4°C for seven days, the level of cryoglobulins was estimated for each patient. Results: Cryoglobulins were detected in the sera of 39 (48.8% patients. All of these patients had cryocrit over 5%. Disease was active in 30 patients [SLEDAI ≥6 (DAI: disease activity index] and inactive in 50 (SLEDAI <6. There was no significant difference between active and inactive patients for the presence of serum cryoglobulins (r = 0.086, P = 0.56. A significant positive correlation was observed between antinuclear antibody (ANA, anti-dsDNA (dsDNA: Double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, CH50 (CH50: total hemolytic complement assay, and C-reactive protein (CRP (r = 0.21, P = 0.004, r = 0.65, P = 0.001, r = 0.45, P = 0.023, r = 0.38, P = 0.036, respectively. Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection was not detected in any of the SLE patients. Conclusion: Although the presence of cryoglobulins in the SLE patients correlated with positive anti-ds DNA and low CH50, it could not be predict activity of the disease.

  18. A novel anti-inflammatory activity of lysozyme: modulation of serum complement activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Ogundele

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysozyme is an ubiquitous enzyme found in most biological secretions and leukocytes. This study was aimed at investigating its interaction with other inflammatory mediators on mucosa surfaces, particularly the complement system. Lysozyme has been shown in our present study, to inhibit the haemolytic activity of serum complement in a dose-dependent fashion, when tested within the levels present in normal and inflamed breast-milk samples, and other mucosal secretions. This represents a new antiinflammatory action of lysozym e in relation to the serum complement, and the exact mode of the interaction need further studies.

  19. Serum thymidine kinase activity as a useful marker for bovine leukosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Leo; Ohbayashi, Tetsu; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2009-11-01

    Serum thymidine kinase (TK) activity has recently been evaluated as a serum marker for human and canine hematopoietic neoplasms. The purpose of the current study was to establish the significance of serum TK activity in the diagnosis of bovine leukosis. The discrimination value for TK activity was set at 5.4 U/l based on the receiver operating characteristic curve. In the group of clinically healthy cows, only 2 out of 83 cows (2.4%) had serum TK activity above the discrimination value. In contrast, 19 out of 20 cows (95.0%) with bovine leukosis showed serum TK activity above the discrimination value, although only 7 of 79 (8.9%) cows diagnosed with diseases other than bovine leukosis showed elevated serum TK activity. Thymidine kinase activities of all Bovine leukemia virus-positive cows with or without lymphocytosis were below the discrimination value. Sensitivity and specificity of measuring serum TK activity as a diagnostic tool for bovine leukosis was 95.0% and 95.9%, respectively. Results indicate that serum TK activity may be a marker for bovine leukosis.

  20. Serum YKL-40, a potential new marker of disease activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Ida; Johansen, J S; Price, P A

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: YKL-40 is secreted by macrophages and neutrophils and is a growth factor for vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Elevated serum concentrations of YKL-40 are found in patients with diseases characterized by inflammation or ongoing fibrosis. The aim of this study was to seek...... association between serum YKL-40 in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD) and clinical disease activity. METHODS: One-hundred-and-sixty-four patients with UC and 173 patients with CD were studied. The Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) and the Harvey-Bradshaw (H-B) score...... were used to assess disease activity. Serum YKL-40 (determined by ELISA) was related to C-reactive protein (CRP) and disease activity. RESULTS: In patients with UC, the median serum YKL-40 rose with increasing disease activity, and patients with severe active disease had higher serum YKL-40 (median 59...

  1. Serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hypothyroidism is defined by the finding of elevated serum. TSH concentrations ... Access this article online. Quick Response ... in thyroid disorders condition is higher in women than men and increases with ..... thyroid diseases and pregnancy.

  2. Platelet antibodies, activated platelets and serum leptin in childhood immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrawy, Hosny; Elsayh, Khalid I; Zahran, Asmaa M; El-Ghazali, Mohamad Hamdy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of platelet-associated antibodies (PAIgG and PAIgM), activated platelets and serum leptin in children with acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The study included 40 patients with ITP and 40 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. PAIgG, PAIgM and activated platelet levels were estimated by flow cytometry, and serum leptin levels were estimated by ELISA. Activated platelets and serum leptin were significantly higher in the ITP patients than in the controls. The percentage and mean fluorescence intensity of PAIgG and PAIgM staining were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls. Serum leptin and activated platelet levels in patients with thrombocytopenia of brief duration were significantly lower than those in patients with thrombocytopenia of prolonged duration. The levels of activated platelets, serum leptin and PAIgG were positively correlated, and the levels of serum leptin, activated platelets and platelet counts were negatively correlated. The increased levels of activated platelets, serum leptin and platelet-associated antibodies in children with acute ITP suggest that these factors could play a role in ITP pathogenesis. Additionally, activated platelets and serum leptin could have prognostic significance in paediatric acute ITP. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Determination of alternative pathway of complement activity in mouse serum using rabbit erythrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, H. van; Rademaker, P.M.; Willers, J.M.N

    1980-01-01

    Rabbit, mouse and sheep erythrocytes expressing different concentrations of membrane sialic acid were used to study possible modes of activation of the alternative complement (C) pathway in mouse, human and guinea pig serum. Mouse erythrocytes activated only human serum, whereas rabbit erythrocytes

  4. Intermittent Photoperiod Schedule does not Influence Brain and Serum Melatonin and Selected Serum Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosleh N

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of the intermittent light program on serum and brain melatonin concentrations, antioxidant enzyme activities, and homocysteine concentration in broiler chickens. A total of 60 one-day-old broiler chickens (Cobb 500 were distributed in three light-proof controlled rooms (20 chicks per room. All birds were reared in continuous light until 3 days of age. Then, chicks were treated as follows: 1 intermittent lighting program (1L: 3D cycles, 2 continuous lighting program (24L, and 3 nonintermittent restricted lighting program (8L: 16D. At day 42 of age, sera and brains were collected from all chicks of each group (at the end of the dark phase for groups 1 and 3. Serum and brain melatonin concentrations were not affected by the different photoperiod schedules. Serum glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activity as well as homocysteine concentration were also similar between different treatment groups. In conclusion, intermittent lighting program during the rearing period does not affect serum and brain melatonin levels as well as antioxidant status at the end of the dark phase in broilers.

  5. Changes in serum angiotensin I converting enzyme activity due to carbon disulfide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipovic, N.; Bilalbegovic, Z.; Sefic, M.; Djuric, D.

    1984-05-01

    The activity of serum angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) was determined in 50 workers from a viscose factory in Banja Luka, Yugoslavia, and in 50 control subjects. Activity of serum ACE was significantly lower in workers exposed to carbon disulfide than in the control group. No correlation was found between a decrease of serum ACE in exposed workers and duration of exposure. These findings indicate that the serum ACE may be influenced by carbon disulfide, but the mechanism of these changes remains to be elucidated in this case.

  6. Changes in serum angiotensin I converting enzyme activity due to carbon disulfide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, N; Bilalbegović, Z; Sefić, M; Djurić, D

    1984-01-01

    The activity of serum angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) was determined in 50 workers from a viscose factory in Banja Luka, Yugoslavia, and in 50 control subjects. Activity of serum ACE was significantly lower in workers exposed to carbon disulfide than in the control group. No correlation was found between a decrease of serum ACE in exposed workers and duration of exposure. These findings indicate that the serum ACE may be influenced by carbon disulfide, but the mechanism of these changes remains to be elucidated in this case.

  7. Serum interleukin-18 levels are associated with physical activity in Japanese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Oda

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the link between serum interleukin-18 (IL-18 levels and physical activity in Japanese men. METHODS: A total of 81 men (45.7±17.6 years old was enrolled in this cross-sectional investigation study. We assessed anthropometric and body composition parameters. Serum IL-18 levels, physical activity by uniaxial accelerometers, peak oxygen uptake and metabolic risk parameters were also evaluated. RESULTS: Serum IL-18 levels were 179.4±84.7 pg/mL. Physical activity evaluated by Σ[metabolic equivalents × h per week (METs⋅h/w]was significantly and negatively correlated with serum IL-18 levels (r = -0.252, p = 0.0235. These associations remained even after adjusting for age, peak oxygen uptake and other confounding factors. CONCLUSION: Serum IL-18 levels were closely associated with physical activity independent of peak oxygen uptake in Japanese men.

  8. Serum paraoxonase activity and lipid hydroperoxide levels in adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... different substrates.16 First, the rate of hydrolysis of paraoxon was ... when p value was less than 0.05. ... parameters, and serum LOOH levels, paraoxonase .... inhibition of cell growth. ... Hambrecht R, Wolf A, Gielen S, et al.

  9. Serum markers associated with disease activity in giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Kornelis S. M.; Abdulahad, Wayel H.; Rutgers, Abraham; Horst, Gerda; Bijzet, Johan; Arends, Suzanne; Roffel, Mirjam P.; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Brouwer, Elisabeth

    Objective. To compare multiple serum markers for their ability to detect active disease in patients with GCA and in those with PMR. Methods. Twenty-six markers related to immune cells that may be involved in GCA and PMR were determined by ELISA and multiplex assay in the serum of 24 newly diagnosed,

  10. Serum markers associated with disease activity in giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Kornelis S. M.; Abdulahad, Wayel H.; Rutgers, Abraham; Horst, Gerda; Bijzet, Johan; Arends, Suzanne; Roffel, Mirjam P.; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Brouwer, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare multiple serum markers for their ability to detect active disease in patients with GCA and in those with PMR. Methods. Twenty-six markers related to immune cells that may be involved in GCA and PMR were determined by ELISA and multiplex assay in the serum of 24 newly diagnosed,

  11. Serum markers associated with disease activity in giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Kornelis S. M.; Abdulahad, Wayel H.; Rutgers, Abraham; Horst, Gerda; Bijzet, Johan; Arends, Suzanne; Roffel, Mirjam P.; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Brouwer, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare multiple serum markers for their ability to detect active disease in patients with GCA and in those with PMR. Methods. Twenty-six markers related to immune cells that may be involved in GCA and PMR were determined by ELISA and multiplex assay in the serum of 24 newly diagnosed,

  12. Judging disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis by serum free kappa and lambda light chain levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yun; Li, Su-Liang; Xie, Ming; Jiang, Ping; Liu, Kai-Ge; Li, Ya-Jun

    2013-10-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the levels of serum free kappa (κ) and lambda (λ) light chains in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as exploring the association between serum free κ and λ light chains and activity of RA. For this purpose, healthy individuals and patients with active RA and RA in remission were enrolled, and their serum levels of free κ and λ light chains were measured using rate nephelometry. The diagnostic accuracy of serum free κ and λ light chains was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves and 95% confidence intervals for areas under the curve (AUC). The results obtained indicated that the levels of serum free κ and λ light chains in patients with active RA were significantly higher than those of patients in remission and of healthy controls (p light chain and 0.781 for free λ light chain. When the optimal cut-off point for serum κ light chain was 8.02 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 82.5% and 82.5%, respectively, and when the optimal cut-off point for serum λ light chain was 3.57 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 82.5%, respectively. It was thus found that serum levels of free κ and λ light chains were positively correlated with disease activity in RA, the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), and values for C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), platelet count (PLT), rheumatoid factor (RF), and anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) (p light chains in patients with active RA are closely correlated with disease activity parameters including DAS28, CRP, ESR, PLT, RF, and ACPA. Thus, the above-mentioned levels of serum free κ and λ light chains may be used as important indicators of activity of RA.

  13. Effects of breed and zeranol implantation on serum insulin, somatomedin-like activity and fibroblast proliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, P J; Olsen, R F; Martin, R J

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-eight Suffolk-sired (Sx) and 28 Finnsheep-sired (Fx) lambs were implanted with either 0 or 12 mg zeranol. Zeranol significantly increased average daily gain over that of controls. Serum taken at biweekly intervals for 6 weeks was assayed for insulin, somatomedin-like activity (Sm) and fibroblast proliferative activity (FPA). Insulin appeared to increase with time, but there were no consistent time changes for FPA or Sm. Serum insulin concentration was higher (P less than .05) in implanted lambs than in controls (33.4 vs 25.6 microU/ml). Unlike insulin, serum Sm and FPA were not affected by zeranol implantation, and, thus, these serum factors appeared not to be involved in zeranol-stimulated growth. Sm was higher in the faster growing Sx lambs than in the slower growing Fx lambs. Thus, serum Sm activity may be involved in normal regulation of growth.

  14. THE EFFECT OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON SERUM IGG RESPONSES TO AEROBIC ACTIVITY IN COLLEGE STUDENT ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Jamshidi Far

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Sleep is a restorative process for the immune system. There are many situations in which sleep is disturbed prior to an athletic event. However, the effect of sleep deprivation on immune indices in response to exercise remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum IgG responses to aerobic activity. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 10 male physical education students were voluntarily participated. Study was performed in two separate occasions; control and experimental within two weeks. In the control occasion, normal sleep and aerobic activity and in the experimental occasion, sleep deprivation and aerobic activity was applied. Aerobic activity was performed on bicycle ergometer for 30 minutes at intensity of 70 to 75 percent of maximum heart rate. Changes in serum IgG concentrations in pre-test, before and after aerobic activity in both occasions were analyzed by the two repeated measures ANOVA and dependent T-test using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that sleep deprivation not significantly effect on Serum IgG response to aerobic activity (p=0.130. Also, aerobic activity not significantly effect on Serum IgG concentration (p=0.357. But sleep deprivation caused a significantly increase in serum IgG concentration (p=0.035. Conclusion: No significant effect of sleep deprivation on serum IgG concentrations response to aerobic activity.

  15. Clinical value of serum amylase, serum trypsinogen-2, IL-10 and platelet activating factor detection in diagnosis of post-ERCP pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Wang; Xue-Song Li; Peng-Peng Cai

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical value of serum amylase, serum trypsinogen-2, IL-10 and platelet activating factor detection in the diagnosis of post-ERCP pancreatitis.Methods:A total of 256 patients with ERCP were selected in our hospital of the digestive department of internal medicine from January 2015 to December 2015. According to different symptoms, signs, serum amylase and pancreatic CT examination results after ERCP, the subjects were divided into three groups: control group, hyperlipidemia group and PEP group. Serum trypsinogen-2, IL-10, platelet activating factor were detected.Results:There were statistically significant differences in serum trypsinogen-2, IL-10, platelet activating factor among control group, hyperlipidemia group and PEP group patients with serum amylase (Fgroup = 269.578, 139.492, 145.637, 126.891, allP = 0.000), and the value of PEP group was the highest. There were statistically significant differences in serum trypsinogen-2, IL-10, platelet activating factor at different time point (Ftime = 602.506, 494.375, 462.512, 239.564, allP = 0.000), the serum amylase level in the patients with hyperlipidemia group reached the highest value after 4 h, but the 24 h was lower than the normal level after operation, the serum amylase in PEP group increased rapidly after 4 h, and the 24 h was still increased after operation; The serum trypsinogen-2, IL-10, platelet activating factor were all highest 4 h after the operation in the hyperlipidemia group and PEP group, and the 24 h after the operation were all decreased. In PEP group, serum amylase, serum trypsinogen-2, IL-10, platelet activating factor 4 h after the operation and 24 h after the operation were significantly higher than those before operation (Finteractive = 28.492, 22.614, 16.573, 7.819, allP = 0.000). In PEP group, the serum amylase had positive correlations with serum trypsinogen-2, IL-10, platelet activating factor (r=0.591, 0.662, 0.681, allP<0.05).Conclusions: Serum amylase

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Ceftriaxone Compared with Cefotaxime in the Presence of Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapan K Nath

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of serum albumin on the antimicrobial activity of ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and a 1:1 ratio of cefotaxime and its desacetyl metabolite against nonpseudomonal Gram-negative bacilli was determined. Antimicrobial activity of drugs was evaluated by measuring minimum inhibitory (mic and bactericidal (mbc concentrations in broth with and without human serum albumin. The analysis of logarithmically transformed mean mics and mbcs showed that there was a highly significant interaction between drug and serum albumin (P<0.0001. The inhibitory and bactericidal activities were greatest for cefotaxime followed by cefotaxime/desacetylcefotaxime and ceftriaxone (P<0.01. Time-kill kinetics demonstrated that ceftriaxone was less bactericidal than cefotaxime in broth with albumin. On the basis of these results it was concluded that the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ceftriaxone compared with that of cefotaxime was significantly diminished in the presence of serum albumin.

  17. Serum bactericidal activity as indicator of innate immunity in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Biller-Takahashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of teleost fish has mechanisms responsible for the defense against bacteria through protective proteins in several tissues. The protein action can be evaluated by serum bactericidal activity and this is an important tool to analyze the immune system. Pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, is one of the most important fish in national aquaculture. However there is a lack of studies on its immune responses. In order to standardize and assess the accuracy of the serum bactericidal activity assay, fish were briefly challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and sampled one week after the challenge. The bacterial infection increased the concentration of protective proteins, resulting in a decrease of colony-forming unit values expressed as well as an enhanced serum bactericidal activity. The protocol showed a reliable assay, appropriate to determine the serum bactericidal activity of pacu in the present experimental conditions.

  18. Relationship between changed alveolar-capillary permeability and angiotensin converting enzyme activity in serum in sarcoidosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, A; Blaschke, E

    1986-01-01

    The effect of altered alveolar-capillary permeability on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in serum (SACE) was studied in 45 patients with sarcoidosis and 21 healthy controls. In sarcoidosis increased albumin concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (L albumin) and increased ratios of L albumin to albumin in serum (S albumin) indicated an increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary membrane. ACE activity in the lavage fluid (LACE) was correlated with the number of al...

  19. [Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity in children with chronic hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebensztejn, Dariusz Marek; Skiba, Elzbieta; Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria Elzbieta; Kaczmarski, Maciej

    2005-03-01

    THE AIM OF THE STUDY was evaluation of serum activity of chosen enzymes (ALT, AST, GGT and ALP) in assessment of fibrosis degree in children with chronic hepatitis B. We determined serum activity of liver enzymes in 47 children aged 4-16 with biopsy-verified chronic hepatitis B, prior to interferon alpha treatment. Fibrosis stage was assessed in a blinded fashion according to Batts and Ludwig. We defined advanced fibrosis as a score =3. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was used to calculate the power of the assays to detect advanced liver fibrosis (AccuROC, Canada). Serum GGT activity of 19 IU/I had a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 90% (AUC=0.7324, p=0.0391) to predict advanced fibrosis. All other enzymes did not allow a useful prediction. GGT is suitable serum marker to predict advanced liver fibrosis in children with chronic hepatitis B.

  20. Characterization of Serum Phospholipase A2 Activity in Three Diverse Species of West African Crocodiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Merchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretory phospholipase A2, an enzyme that exhibits substantial immunological activity, was measured in the serum of three species of diverse West African crocodiles. Incubation of different volumes of crocodile serum with bacteria labeled with a fluorescent fatty acid in the sn-2 position of membrane lipids resulted in a volume-dependent liberation of fluorescent probe. Serum from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus exhibited slightly higher activity than that of the slender-snouted crocodile (Mecistops cataphractus and the African dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis. Product formation was inhibited by BPB, a specific PLA2 inhibitor, confirming that the activity was a direct result of the presence of serum PLA2. Kinetic analysis showed that C. niloticus serum produced product more rapidly than M. cataphractus or O. tetraspis. Serum from all three species exhibited temperature-dependent PLA2 activities but with slightly different thermal profiles. All three crocodilian species showed high levels of activity against eight different species of bacteria.

  1. Tear Film and Serum Prolidase Activity and Oxidative Stress in Patients With Keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göncü, Tuğba; Akal, Ali; Adıbelli, Fatih Mehmet; Çakmak, Sevim; Sezen, Hatice; Yılmaz, Ömer Faruk

    2015-09-01

    To determine and compare the serum and tear film prolidase activity (PA) between patients with keratoconus and healthy subjects. Also, we aimed to evaluate the serum oxidative stress level and the correlation with serum PA in patients with keratoconus. This prospective, comparative clinical study included 31 patients with keratoconus and 33 age-matched and sex-matched control subjects. All participants underwent a detailed ophthalmologic examination. Serum and tear samples were obtained from all participants. Tears and serum PA and serum oxidative stress markers were measured. No significant differences in demographic characteristics were detected between groups (P > 0.05). The serum PA was significantly lower in the keratoconus group than in the control group (895.6 ± 198.7 vs. 1145.9 ± 285.4 U/L, P keratoconus group than in the control group; however, this difference was not significant (3075.4 ± 672.2 vs. 3225.8 ± 903.2 U·L⁻¹·g⁻¹ protein, P = 0.45). Oxidative stress markers, such as total oxidant status and oxidative stress index, were found to be significantly higher in the keratoconus group (P keratoconus than in the controls. Additionally, serum oxidative stress markers were found to be higher than those of the controls. Thus, prolidase and systemic oxidative stress may have a role in the pathogenesis of keratoconus.

  2. Serum paraoxonase activity, total thiols levels, and oxidative status in patients with acute brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Ramazan; Aslan, Mehmet; Kucukoglu, Mehmet Emin; Cıkman, Aytekin; Yakan, Umit; Sunnetcioglu, Mahmut; Selek, Sahbettin

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity may decrease during the course of infection and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate serum PON1 activity, oxidative status, and thiols levels in patients with acute brucellosis. In addition, we investigated the PON1 phenotype in patients with acute brucellosis. Thirty patients with acute brucellosis and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, thiols levels, lipid hydroperoxide levels, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined. Serum basal and salt-stimulated paraoxonase-arylesterase activities, TAC levels and thiols levels were significantly lower in patients with acute brucellosis than controls (for all, p brucellosis. These results indicate that lower PON1 activity is associated with oxidant-antioxidant imbalance.

  3. SPE-HPLC purification of endocrine disrupting compounds from human serum for assessment of xenoestrogenic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, P.S.; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of xenoestrogenic activity in human serum samples requires the removal of endogenous sex hormones to assure that the activity measured originates from xenobiotic compounds only. Serum samples representing high, medium and lower accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were...... extracted using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NP-HPLC) for separation of POPs from endogenous hormones. The recovery of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in spiked serum samples was up to 86 %, making the extraction method suitable...... measured by ERE-CALUX was validated and considered to be a valuable tool to assess the combined ER effect of lipophilic serum POPs where additive/synergistic and agonistic/antagonistic effects are integrated giving an overall estimate of exposure and bioactivity....

  4. Serum cysteine proteases and their inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis: relation to disease activity and radiographic progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kos, Janko; Krašovec, Marta; Troelsen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the serum levels of cysteine proteases cathepsins B and H and their inhibitors stefin A, stefin B, and cystatin C, as well as traditional inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to correlate these markers with scores...... of disease activity and radiographic progression. Seventy-two patients with rheumatoid arthritis were included from two previously described cohorts of patients with chronic polyarthritis. At inclusion, disease activity was assessed by a 28-joint count, patient global assessment, and serum C-reactive protein....... Erosive status of hands and wrists was expressed by the Larsen score and recorded at inclusion and after 1 year. Serum levels of cathepsin B, cathepsin H, stefin A, stefin B, and cystatin C were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neither cathepsin B nor cathepsin H serum levels were...

  5. Relationship of serum somatomedin-like activity and fibroblast proliferative activity with age and growth in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, R F; Wangsness, P J; Patton, W H; Martin, R J

    1980-03-01

    An assay for fibroblast proliferative activity (FPA) using human lung fibroblasts, WI-38, was described. The assay was responsive to varying rat serum levels and was not influenced by direct growth hormone (GH) addition. The relationship of serum growth factors to age and body weight was examined in the rat. In study 1, serum was obtained from lean Zucker rats at 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 30 wk of age. Six samples were taken at each age and serum samples were analyzed for somatomedin-like activity (Sm) and fibroblast proliferative activity (FPA). Serum Sm was not different at any of the sampling ages. FPA was low at 3 wk, but was higher and constant from 5 wk to 30 wk. In study 2, 73 lean Zucker rats (7 wk of age) were maintained on laboratory chow and water ad libitum for 4 wk, and then serum was obtained by decapitation. The rats were ranked according to each of four different criteria: average daily gain (ADG) for the duration of the study, ADG for the fourth week, total body protein and total body fat. Serum Sm, FPA and insulin concentrations on the top 10 and bottom 10 rats of each ranking were compared. Neither FPA nor insulin was significantly different for any ranking. Serum Sm was significantly higher in the top 10 rats ranked by ADG for the duration of the study. Sm was not significantly different in rats ranked by body weight, total body protein or total body fat. The data suggest that serum somatomedin-like activity (Sm) may be important in the earlier stages of growth in rats.

  6. Increased serum YKL-40 in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis--a potential marker of disease activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Julia S; Milman, Nils; Hansen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    YKL-40, a growth factor for fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells, is secreted by macrophages and neutrophils. Elevated serum YKL-40 is found in patients with diseases characterized by inflammation, tissue remodelling and ongoing fibrosis. The aim was to evaluate whether macrophages and gian...... cells in the granulomatous sarcoid lesions of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis produce YKL-40 and to determine whether serum YKL-40 in these patients were associated with disease activity....

  7. [Cancer procoagulant and cathepsin D activity in blood serum in patients with bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Darewicz, Barbara; Kudelski, Jacek; Chlabicz, Marcin; Domel, Tomasz; Chabielska, Ewa; Skrzydlewski, Zdzisław

    2005-06-01

    The increasing morbidity and mortality rates of bladder cancer forced the scientists to search for new unfailing diagnostic and therapeutic methods that will improve treatment effects. There are biochemical cancer markers as cancer procoagulant (CP) and cathepsin D which may be used to this end. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of the cancer procoagulant and cathepsin D in the blood serum in patients with superficial bladder cancer. The venous blood samples were from 15 patients with microscopically proved superficial bladder carcinoma (i.e. study group) and 15 normal volunteers as a control group. The serum blood CP activity was determined by the Gordon-Benson's coagulation method and expressed by the clotting time in seconds (s) while the cathepsin D activity was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau's method and expressed by a quantity of released tyrosine in nmol/ml per 4 hours. The CP activity in serum of patients with superficial bladder cancer was increased in statistically way as compared to the non-cancer controls (p<0.0001). The cathepsin D activity in blood serum of the study group was also enhanced as compared to the control group and the said values differed statistically (p<0.0351). It appears to be justifiable to apply the determination of the CP and cathepsin D activity in blood serum for the diagnostics of superficial bladder cancer.

  8. Serum B-cell activating factor in myeloperoxiase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Gang; Chen, Min; Su, Yun; Xu, Li-Xia; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Li, Kang-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the serum B-cell activating factor belonging to tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) levels in patients with myeloperoxidase (MPO)-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) were measured, and their clinical significance was further analyzed. One hundred twenty-one patients with MPO-AAV were enrolled in this study. Eighty-three patients had active vasculitis and 38 were in remission. Fifty-five healthy individuals were used as healthy controls. The levels of serum BAFF were assessed using commercial available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The correlations between serum BAFF and Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and MPO-ANCA were further evaluated. The levels of serum BAFF of patients with MPO-AAV in both active (6.06±5.02 ng/mL) and remission phases (3.60±3.83 ng/mL) were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (0.87±0.31 ng/mL) (Pvasculitis were significantly higher than those in remission (PVasculitis Activity Score (r=0.320, Pvasculitis were 1.58 and 4.20 ng/mL, respectively. The levels of serum BAFF were elevated in patients with MPO-AAV and associated with disease activity, but they were not related with the levels of MPO-ANCA.

  9. Identification and characterization of serum complement activity in the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Mark; McFatter, Justin; Mead, Stephanie; McAdon, Charles; Wasilewski, Joe

    2010-02-15

    Incubation of unsensitized sheep red blood cells with serum from the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) resulted in a concentration-dependent hemolysis. The hemolytic activity was heat-sensitive, and inhibited by EDTA in a concentration-dependent manner. The EDTA-inhibited SRBC hemolysis could be restored by the addition of excess Ca2+ or Mg2+, but not Ba2+ or Cu2+, revealing the specificity of this activity for these two divalent cations. The hemolytic activity of crocodile serum was titer-dependent, with 329 microL producing 50% of maximal SRBC hemolysis. The complement activity was also temperature-dependent, with decreased activity at lower temperatures (5-15 degrees C) and maximal activity occurred at 30-40 degrees C. The hemolysis occurred relatively slowly, with near zero activity after 10 min, 40% of activity observed within 15 min of exposure to SRBCs, and maximal activity at 30 min.

  10. Cyclophosphamide-induced changes of serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and pulmonary microvessels ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiatowicz, B; Terlikowski, S; Sulik, M; Famulski, W; Giedrojć, J; Jakubowski, A; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Pasztaleniec, L; Baltaziak, M; Jabłońska, E

    1997-01-01

    The effect of cyclophosphamide (CP) on the ultrastructure of the lung tissue and the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in serum was evaluated in rats. The animals were given cyclophosphamide (CP) in a single intraperitoneal dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. ACE activity was evaluated in the blood serum collected from the left ventricle of the heart using the spectrophometric method. In all time subgroups, the CP-receiving animals showed a decrease in ACE activity. Ultrastructural examinations of CP-treated animals revealed increased adhesion of neutrophiles and monocytes to the damage endothelium of the alveolar septa vessels and focally accumulation of the platelets.

  11. An Evaluation of the Correlation between Hepcidin Serum Levels and Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Betül Paköz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. While there are many well-defined serological markers for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, there is limited evidence that they positively affect clinical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between hepcidin serum levels and disease activity in IBD. Materials and Methods. Eighty-five consecutive IBD patients were enrolled in the study. Hepcidin serum levels were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and were compared with disease activity as well as the interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Results. The mean hepcidin serum levels in Crohn’s disease (CD patients in remission and in the active phase were 3837±1436 and 3752±1274 pg/mL, respectively P=0.613. The mean hepcidin serum levels in ulcerative colitis (UC patients in remission and in the active phase were 4285±8623 and 3727±1176 pg/mL, respectively P=0.241. Correlation analysis between inflammatory markers and hepcidin serum levels indicated that there was no correlation between hepcidin levels and IL-6 P=0.582 or CRP P=0.783. Conclusion. As an acute-phase protein, hepcidin seems to have a lower efficacy than other parameters in the detection of activation in IBD.

  12. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity in patients with iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedikbasi, Asuman; Akalin, Nilgul; Gunaldi, Meral; Yilmaz, Deniz; Mert, Meral; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Soylu, Aliye; Karakaya, Pinar; Kumbasar, Abdulbaki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In this study we aimed to detect paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) activity in iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and to compare it with healthy controls by observing the change after iron therapy. Material and methods In this study, 50 adult patients with IDA and 40 healthy subjects were enrolled. All patients were analyzed at the beginning and after treatment according to laboratory assessments. Results Mean paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in the iron deficiency anemia group were significantly lower than mean activities of the control group (102.4 ±19.2 U/l and 163.3 ±13.68 U/l, respectively and 157.3 ±26.4 U/l and 256.1 ±24.6 U/l, respectively; p = 0.0001 for both). Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities significantly increased after treatment for IDA (143.2 ±13.9 and 197.6 ±27.9 U/l, respectively, p = 0.0001). Mean activities after treatment with iron were significantly lower than mean activities in the control group (p = 0.002; p = 0.0001 respectively). Conclusions Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in patients with IDA significantly increased after treatment with iron therapy. In adults IDA may also be one of the factors associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:27478448

  13. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan

    2015-11-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ındex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS.

  14. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity status in patients with liver disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kedage Vivekananda; Muttigi Manjunatha; Shetty Mahesh; Suvarna Renuka; Rao Soumya; Joshi Chitralekha; Prakash Mungli

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an esterase, exclusively synthesized by liver. The present study has two objectives: to determine the PON1 activity status in various disorders associated with hepatocellular damage and to correlate the changes of PON1 activity with the standard liver function and fasting lipid profile tests in these disorders. Patients and Methods: The study groups consisted of 95 patients with liver diseases including acute viral hepatitis (14), cirrhosis with port...

  15. POTENT INVITRO ANTI-HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-1 ACTIVITY OF MODIFIED HUMAN SERUM ALBUMINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, RW; MOLEMA, G; PAUWELS, R; SCHOLS, D; DECLERCQ, E; MEIJER, DKF

    1991-01-01

    A series of neoglycoproteins was synthesized by coupling of thiophosgene-activated p-aminophenyl derivatives [Biol. Cell. 47:95-110 (1983); J. Histochem. Cytochem. 32:1091-1094 (1984)] of various sugars to human serum albumin. The compounds were evaluated for their in vitro activity against human im

  16. A correlation of pregnancy term, disease activity, serum female hormones, and cytokines in uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, C-C; Reed, G F; Kim, Y.; Agrón, E; Buggage, R R

    2004-01-01

    Background/aims: Pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated with the activity of autoimmune diseases including uveitis. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, hormones are reported to alter inflammatory cytokines and influence disease activity. The authors studied ocular inflammation, female hormones, and serum cytokine levels during and after pregnancy.

  17. IL-18 Serum Level in Adult Onset Still’s Disease: A Marker of Disease Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Colafrancesco

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions. Higher levels of IL-18 are detected in active AODS patients and correlate with disease activity and inflammatory laboratory features. ROC-AUC analysis of the serum concentration of IL-18 suggests that it can be considered a diagnostic marker of AOSD. This paper supports the targeting of this cytokine as a possible therapeutic option in AOSD.

  18. Serum boron concentration in rheumatoid arthritis: correlation with disease activity, functional class, and rheumatoid factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhil Muhsin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a common chronic inflammatory arthropathy of unknown etiology. Trace elements have a great role in a number of biological processes. The aim of this study was to assess the serum element boron in a sample of Iraqi patients with RA and to evaluate its relationship if present with disease activity, functional class of the disease, and rheumatoid factor (RF. Methods: A cross sectional study enrolled 107 RA patients and 214 controls matched in age and sex. The American College of Rheumatology 1987 revised criteria was used for diagnosis of RA. Disease Activity Score index of 28 joints (DAS28, functional class of RA patients, RF, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR were measured in patients’ group; serum boron levels were measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer in both patients and controls groups. Results: RA patients had significantly lower serum boron level than controls (P 0.05. Also, RF titer was a significant predictor of low serum boron level (P = 0.023, OR = –0.07, 95%CI –0.13-(–0.01. Conclusions: There was a significant low serum boron level in RA patients. RF titer was significant predictor of low serum boron level. This may suggest that boron element may play a role in pathophysiology of RA and its severity. Supplementation with boron element and diets rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts, and pulses may be useful. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(1: 9-15

  19. Proteolytic activity of IgGs from blood serum of wistar rats at experimental rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Ya. Kit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the proteolytic activity of IgGs purified from blood serum of Wistar rats at experimental rheumatoid arthritis (ERA induced by an injection of bovine collagen of type II. Twenty rats were immunized with a preparation of bovine collagen II (Sigma-Aldrich, USA in the presence of complete Freund’s adjuvant. ERA development was determined by inflammation in limbs of treated animals. IgG preparations were isolated from blood serum of immunized and non-immunized animals by precipitation of antibodies with 33% ammonium sulfate followed by chromatography on the Protein G-Sepharose column. Human histone H1, bovine collagen II, calf thymus histones, myelin basic protein (MBP, bovine serum albumin (BSA, and bovine casein were used as substrates of the proteolytic activity of IgGs. It was found that IgG preparations from blood serum of rats with ERA were capable of cleaving histone H1 and MBP, however, they were catalytically inactive towards collagen II, casein, BSA, and core histones. IgGs from blood serum of non-immunized rats were proteolytically inactive towards all used protein substrates. Thus, we demonstrated that immunization of rats with bovine collagen II induced IgG-antibodies possessing the proteolytic activity towards histone H1 and MBP. This activity might be associated with the development of inflammatory processes in the immunized rats.

  20. Serum B cell-activating factor (BAFF) level in connective tissue disease associated interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Tsutomu; Samukawa, Takuya; Kumamoto, Tomohiro; Hatanaka, Kazuhito; Tsukuya, Go; Yamamoto, Masuki; Machida, Kentaro; Watanabe, Masaki; Mizuno, Keiko; Higashimoto, Ikkou; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2015-09-30

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are common in patients with connective tissue diseases (CTDs). Although the diagnosis of an underlying CTD in ILD (CTD-ILD) affects both prognosis and treatment, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish CTD-ILD from chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia (CFIP). B cell-activating factor belonging to the tumour necrosis factor family (BAFF) plays a crucial role in B cell development, survival, and antibody production. We examined serum levels of BAFF, surfactant protein D (SP-D), and Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) in 33 patients with CTD-ILD, 16 patients with undifferentiated CTD-ILD, 19 patients with CFIP, and 26 healthy volunteers. And we analysed the relationship between serum BAFF levels and pulmonary function, as well as the expression of BAFF in the lung tissue of patients with CTD-ILD. Serum levels of BAFF were significantly higher in CTD-ILD patients compared to healthy subjects and CFIP patients. However, there were no significant differences in serum levels of SP-D and KL-6. Furthermore, serum BAFF levels in CTD-ILD patients were inversely correlated with pulmonary function. BAFF was strongly expressed in the lungs of CTD-ILD patients, but weakly in normal lungs. This is the first study to demonstrate that serum BAFF levels were significantly higher in CTD-ILD patients compared to healthy subjects and CFIP patients. Furthermore, serum BAFF levels were correlated with pulmonary function. We consider that serum BAFF levels in patients with CTD-ILD reflect the presence of ILDs disease activity and severity. These finding suggest that BAFF may be a useful marker for distinguishing CTD-ILD from CFIP.

  1. Human Serum-Specific Activation of Alternative Sigma Factors, the Stress Responders in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang-Siegel, Gaoyan; Bumgarner, Roger; Ruiz, Teresa; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Chen, Weizhen; Chen, Casey

    2016-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a known pathogen causing periodontal disease and infective endocarditis, is a survivor in the periodontal pocket and blood stream; both environments contain serum as a nutrient source. To screen for unknown virulence factors associated with this microorganism, A. actinomycetemcomitans was grown in serum-based media to simulate its in vivo environment. Different strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans showed distinct growth phenotypes only in the presence of human serum, and they were grouped into high- and low-responder groups. High-responders comprised mainly serotype c strains, and showed an unusual growth phenomenon, featuring a second, rapid increase in turbidity after 9-h incubation that reached a final optical density 2- to 7-fold higher than low-responders. Upon further investigation, the second increase in turbidity was not caused by cell multiplication, but by cell death. Whole transcriptomic analysis via RNA-seq identified 35 genes that were up-regulated by human serum, but not horse serum, in high-responders but not in low-responders, including prominently an alternative sigma factor rpoE (σE). A lacZ reporter construct driven by the 132-bp rpoE promoter sequence of A. actinomycetemcomitans responded dramatically to human serum within 90 min of incubation only when the construct was carried by a high responder strain. The rpoE promoter is 100% identical among high- and low-responder strains. Proteomic investigation showed potential interactions between human serum protein, e.g. apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The data clearly indicated a different activation process for rpoE in high- versus low-responder strains. This differential human serum-specific activation of rpoE, a putative extra-cytoplasmic stress responder and global regulator, suggests distinct in vivo adaptations among different strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:27490177

  2. Evaluation of Serum Superoxide Dismutase Activity, Malondialdehyde, and Zinc and Copper Levels in Patients With Keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Raşit; Bayraktar, Aslhan Cavunt; Bayraktar, Serdar; Kurt, Ali; Kavutçu, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) as a lipid peroxidation marker, and some trace elements such as zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) levels in patients with keratoconus. A total of 58 patients with keratoconus and 53 control subjects with similar age and sex were evaluated in this study. The modified Krumeich keratoconus classification was used to divide the patients into 4 stages. Serum SOD activity, MDA, and zinc and copper levels were compared between the patient and control groups. The median serum SOD activity, MDA, and Zn and Cu levels were 27.2 (42.4-13.7) U/mL, 10.2 (11.9-8.5) nmol/mL, 87.9 (104.6-76.5) μmol/L, and 103.2 (117.9-90.3) μmol/L in the keratoconus group and 26.2 (32.5-14.4) U/mL, 8.8 (11.4-7.1) nmol/mL, 100.5 (121.1-81.8) μmol/L, and 98.4 (120.3-83.4) μmol/L in the control group, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the MDA and Zn levels of the keratoconus group and control subjects but not between the respective SOD activities or Cu levels (P = 0.016, P = 0.031, P = 0.440, and P = 0.376, respectively). We found no significant difference between the keratoconus group stages for serum SOD activity, serum MDA, and Zn and Cu levels (P > 0.05), and there was also no significant correlation between the keratoconus group stages and serum SOD activity, serum MDA, and Zn and Cu levels (P > 0.05). There is imbalance in the systemic oxidant/antioxidant status where Zn deficiency also plays a role in patients with keratoconus.

  3. Serum YKL-40, a potential new marker of disease activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Ida; Johansen, J S; Price, P A;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: YKL-40 is secreted by macrophages and neutrophils and is a growth factor for vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Elevated serum concentrations of YKL-40 are found in patients with diseases characterized by inflammation or ongoing fibrosis. The aim of this study was to seek...... association between serum YKL-40 in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD) and clinical disease activity. METHODS: One-hundred-and-sixty-four patients with UC and 173 patients with CD were studied. The Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) and the Harvey-Bradshaw (H-B) score...

  4. Serum Xenohormone activity and DNA integrity of Europeans and Inuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

      Background. The toxicological assessment of the lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including PCBs, pesticides and dioxins, is complicated since individuals are exposed to a complex mixture of contaminants. Therefore we developed ex vivo cell systems to determine the actual...... integrated level of  xenobiotic activity in the human serum fraction containing the POPs. Sperm DNA integrity is essential for the accurate transmission of genetic information and sperm DNA damage can cause decreased male fertility.    The AIM was to determine the integrated serum xenobiotic activity of POPs...

  5. [Method of determining tissue renin activity using heterologous serum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbetsova, V Ts; Kiprov, D

    1979-01-01

    The authors described a method for determination of tissue renin activity with heterologous substrate. The preparation of the substrate was performed at several stages: salting with amonium sulfate; dialisis of the precipitate till complete separation of amonium sulfate molecules; distruction of angiotensinases by interchangeble souring and alcalization of the medium; lyophylization of the pure substrate. The obtained renin-substrate was preserved in ampules and its usage had a series of advantages--duration, economic, a possibility for standartization of the determination, etc., which were described in details in the article. The described in details also the quantitative determination of the renin activity in the tissues (renal and cerebral) with the help of the obtained substrate as the moments, modiied by the authors, were indicated.

  6. Serum microRNAs as biomarkers of human lymphocyte activation in health and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola ede Candia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Induction of the adaptive immune system is evaluated mostly by assessment of serum antibody titers and T lymphocyte responses in peripheral blood, although T and B cell activation occurs in lymphoid tissues. In recent years, the release of microRNAs (miRNAs in the extra-cellular environment has been exploited to assess cell functions at distance via measurement of serum miRNAs. Also activated lymphocytes release a large amount of nano-sized vesicles (exosomes, containing miRNA, but there are still few data on whether this phenomenon is reflected in modulation of serum miRNAs. Interestingly, miRNA signatures of CD4+ T cell-derived exosomes are substantially different from intracellular miRNA signatures of the same cells. We have recently identified serum circulating miR-150 as a sensor of general lymphocyte activation and we strongly believe that the identification of miRNAs differentially released by specific CD4+ effector T cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg may work as serum biomarkers of their elicitation in lymphoid tissues but also in damaged tissues, thus providing pivotal information about the nature of immune responses occurring in health and disease.

  7. In vitro evaluation of synergistic activity between ciprofloxacin and broad snouted caiman serum against Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroski, P A; Russi, N B; Ortega, H H; Formentini, E A

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro synergistic activity between ciprofloxacin and serum of broad snouted caiman on Escherichia coli was studied. The estimated MIC value of ciprofloxacin was 0.0188 µg/ml, and two assays of kill curve during 5 hours were performed: the first one in a standard culture medium and the second one in the presence of caiman serum. Different concentrations of ciprofloxacin were tested. Ciprofloxacin showed higher values of bacterial elimination rate in the presence of caiman serum in all concentrations tested. The combined activity of sub-inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin and the humoral immune factors present in caiman serum determined an increase in the bacterial elimination observed in this assay. We suggest that the antibacterial activity of complement and natural antibodies present in caiman serum, which can bind to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and acting through the classical complement pathway, can inhibit bacterial growth of Escherichia coli by lysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Physical Activity on Serum Homocysteine Levels in Obese and Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Soori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Recently, homocysteine has been noticed as the major pathogenesis factor of the cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of physical activities on the serum homocysteine levels, as well as other cardiovascular risk factors in either obese or overweight women. Materials & Methods: In the controlled pretest-posttest semi-experimental study, 18 women referred to the Alzahra sport complexes in districts 3 and 4 of Tehran were studied in 2015. The subjects were selected via random sampling method and randomly divided into two groups; physical activity and control groups. And the intervention program was conducted in the former, while the latter received no intervention. The exercise protocol consisted of 10-week (5 sessions a week stretching exercises and aerobic activities (60 to 75% of the maximum heart beat. The serum homocystein level and lipids were measured both at the start and 48 hours after the exercises. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using paired T and independent T tests. Findings: After the exercises, the mean serum homocysteine level in physical activity group significantly decreased than control group (p=0.001. Nevertheless, the difference between the lipid levels of physical activity and control groups was not significant (p>0.05. Conclusion: Reducing the serum homocysteine concentration, 10-week physical activity might also reduce the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in either obese or overweight women.

  9. Serum lipoproteins attenuate macrophage activation and Toll-Like Receptor stimulation by bacterial lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Richard W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis was previously shown to express a lipoprotein, the macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip, exposed at the bacterial surface, and able to stimulate human primary monocytes/macrophages through Toll Like Receptor (TLR2/TLR1/TLR6, and CD14. In PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells the proinflammatory activity of Mip was significantly higher in the absence than in the presence of serum. The present study aims to investigate the ability of different serum factors to attenuate Mip proinflammatory activity in PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells and in primary human differentiated macrophages. The study was also extend to another lipoprotein, the Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein (OspA. The proinflammatory activity was studied through Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α and Interleukin (IL-8 release. Finally, TLR1/2 human embryonic kidney-293 (HEK-293 transfected cells were used to test the ability of the serum factors to inhibit Mip and OspA proinflammatory activity. Results In the absence of any serum and in the presence of 10% delipidated FBS, production of Mip-induced TNF-α and IL-8 in PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells were similar whereas they were significantly decreased in the presence of 10% FBS suggesting an inhibiting role of lipids present in FBS. In the presence of 10% human serum, the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-8 were 2 to 5 times lower than in the presence of 10% FBS suggesting the presence of more potent inhibitor(s in human serum than in FBS. Similar results were obtained in primary human differentiated macrophages. Different lipid components of human serum were then tested (total lipoproteins, HDL, LDL, VLDL, triglyceride emulsion, apolipoprotein (apoA-I, B, E2, and E3. The most efficient inhibitors were LDL, VLDL, and apoB that reduced the mean concentration of TNF-α release in Mip-induced macrophages to 24, 20, and 2%, respectively (p Conclusions These results demonstrated the ability of

  10. [Modifying effect of the blood serum from patients with soft-tissue sarcomas on interleukin-2 production and activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goretskiĭ, B A; Berezhnaia, N M; Palivets, A Iu; Konovalenko, V F

    1989-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by lymphocytes of a peripheral blood (LPB) in patients with soft tissue sarcomas is considerably lower in comparison with that in donors. Autological serum had either suppressive or stimulative effect on LPB IL-2 production in the observed patients. The investigated serum affected LPB of donors in the same way. Serum of patients with soft tissue sarcomas had the same dual effect on the ability of the active drug IL-2 to proliferate human T-lymphoblasts. Moreover serum-inhibitors of production acted as IL-2 activity stimulators, while serum-stimulators of IL-2 production inhibited the mediator effects.

  11. Serum cytokine and periodontal profiles in relation to disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Murasawa, Akira; Komatsu, Yasutaka; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Ishida, Kohei; Abe, Asami; Yamamoto, Kouji; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2010-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis are common chronic inflammatory conditions and share many pathologic features. A similar profile of cytokines is involved in the pathogenesis of the two diseases. The relationship between the disease activity of RA and the periodontal condition remains unclear. This study examines whether the disease activity of RA affects serum cytokine and periodontal profiles. The study subjects consisted of 84 Japanese adults with RA and 22 race-matched control individuals. After periodontal and rheumatologic examination, the disease activity of RA was determined with the Disease Activity Score including 28 joints using C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP). Serum levels of cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-12, IL-12 p40, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High-sensitive CRP was also measured with a latex particle-enhanced nephelometric method. Of 84 patients with RA, 28 and 56 patients exhibited low and moderate to high disease activity, respectively. Serum levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and CRP were significantly different between the two groups (P <0.05). Additionally, a significant correlation was observed between DAS28-CRP and percentage of sites with bleeding on probing (BOP) (P = 0.008) and between serum TNF-alpha levels and percentage of sites with BOP (P = 0.01) in 56 patients with RA with moderate to high activity. These results suggest that the disease activity of RA correlated with serum levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and CRP, and it might influence BOP in the patients with moderate to high disease activity.

  12. Serum Adenosine deaminase activity and C-reactive protein levels in unstable angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Surekha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In unstable angina (USA patients, immunological responses contributing to inflammation play a vital role in plaque rupture and thrombosis causing stroke. In the present study an attempt is made to estimate the levels of adenosine deaminase activity, an immunoenzyme marker and C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation in USA patients. 45 patients presenting USA and 50 age and sex matched healthy controls were included in the study. Serum ADA activity was measured spectrophotometrically at 630nm and serum C-reactive protein was detected using Avitex CRP kit, which is a rapid latex agglutination test. The Mean ADA levels were 41.15 ± 11.04 in patients and 20.71±5.63 in controls and 66.6% of patients and none of the controls were positive to CRP. The present study observed the importance of ADA as a serum marker in addition to CRP for assessing the immune response in USA patients.

  13. Detecting endotoxin activity in bovine serum using an automated testing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Shimamori, Toshio; Sato, Ayano; Tsukano, Kenji; Tsuchiya, Masakazu; Lakritz, Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the ability of the commercially available portable test system (PTS(TM)) to detect endotoxin activity in bovine serum, with that of the traditional LAL-kinetic turbidimetric (KT) and chromogenic (KC) assays. Prior to testing, serum samples, which were obtained from endotoxin-challenged cattle, were diluted 1:20 in endotoxin-free water and heated to 80°C for 10 min. The performance of the PTS(TM) was not significantly different from that of the traditional LAL-based assays. The results using PTS(TM) correlated with those using KT (r(2)=0.963, PPTS(TM) could be applied as a simplified system to assess endotoxin activity in bovine serum.

  14. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON SERUM TNF-α ACTIVITY IN ALLERGIC BRONCHIAL ASTHMA PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Tiejun; ZHANG Ji

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the therapeutic effect of acupuncture and its effect on serum tumor necrosis factor apha (TNF-α) level was observed in 25 cases of allergic bronchial asthma patients. Acupoints used were Dazhui (GV 14),Feishu (BL 13), Dingchuan (EX-B 1), Pishu (BL 20), Tanzhong (CV 17), Shenshu (BL 23) and Fengchi (GB 20),supplemented with other acupoints according to syndrome differentiation. After 15 sessions of treatment, results showed that the total effective rate was 96 %. Before treatment, serum TNF-α activity was significantly higher than that of healthy subjects (25 cases, P < 0.01 ). After treatment, TNF-α level reduced considerably in comparison with that of pre-treatment (P< 0.05). These findings indicate that acupuncture can significantly improve allergic asthma patients' clinical symptoms and lower serum TNF-α activity.

  15. Evaluation of serum antioxidant activity in patients with liver pathology by the chemiluminescent method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Sazhina, N N

    2014-12-01

    Total antioxidant activity of the serum in patients with liver pathology was assessed by two chemiluminescent methods based on different models of free radical oxidation: Hb-H2O2-luminol and ABAP-luminol. Comparative analysis showed a significant, but not high correlation of the results (r=0.798), which can be explained by different mechanisms of induction of free radicals and effects of various serum components (proteins and bilirubin) on the initiation process. The influence of aphysiological concentration of analyzed values manifested in the Hb-H2O2 model. Disagreement between the results of measurements was more pronounced in patients with abnormally high serum bilirubin content. The results suggested that ABAP-luminol chemiluminescent model is more preferable for evaluation of antioxidant activity in clinical practice.

  16. Lead exposure is associated with decreased serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan-Fen; Pan, Mei-Hung; Chung, Meng-Chu; Ho, Chi-Kung; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2006-08-01

    Lead exposure causes cardiac and vascular damage in experimental animals. However, there is considerable debate regarding the causal relationship between lead exposure and cardiovascular dysfunction in humans. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme, is capable of hydrolyzing oxidized lipids and thus protects against atherosclerosis. Previous studies have shown that lead and several other metal ions are able to inhibit PON1 activity in vitro. To investigate whether lead exposure has influence on serum PON1 activity, we conducted a cross-sectional study of workers from a lead battery manufactory and lead recycling plant. Blood samples were analyzed for whole-blood lead levels, serum PON1 activity, and three common PON1 polymorphisms (Q192R, L55M, -108C/T). The mean blood lead level (+/-SD) of this cohort was 27.1+/-15 microg/dL. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that blood lead levels were significantly associated with decreased serum PON1 activity (p<0.001) in lead workers. This negative correlation was more evident for workers who carry the R192 allele, which has been suggested to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Taken together, our results suggest that the decrease in serum PON1 activity due to lead exposure may render individuals more susceptible to atherosclerosis, particularly subjects who are homozygous for the R192 allele.

  17. [Serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy children during growth and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Ljiljana; Savić, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Many changes happen during growth and development in an organism as a result of important hormon changes, especially biohumoral ones. These changes make a problem when interpreting biochemical results in pediatric population. The most important changes are intensive calcium and phosphorus metabolic turnover in bone tissue with changes in alkaline phosphatase activity as a result of osteoblast activity. The aim of this study was to follow the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in children 1-15 years old in different growth and development period and of different sexes and to fortify the influence of growth and development dynamics on biohumoral status in healthy male and female children. We evaluated 117 healthy children of both sexes from 1-15 years of age and divided them into three age groups: 1-5, 6-10 and 11-15 years. We followed the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in different groups and in different sexes. Our investigation found significantly higher values of serum calcium in boys than in girls with no important changes between the age groups and significantly higher values of serum phosphorus in the youngest age group in all children and in different sexes with no important sex differences. Alkaline phosphatase activity followed the growth spurt and was the biggest in 6-10 years group in girls and in 11-15 years group in boys.

  18. Serum protease activity in chronic kidney disease patients: The GANI_MED renal cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Carmen; Teumer, Alexander; Endlich, Karlhans; Endlich, Nicole; Rettig, Rainer; Stracke, Sylvia; Fiene, Beate; Aymanns, Simone; Felix, Stephan B; Hannemann, Anke; Lendeckel, Uwe

    2017-03-01

    Serum or plasma proteases have been associated with various diseases including cancer, inflammation, or reno-cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate whether the enzymatic activities of serum proteases are associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our study population comprised 268 participants of the "Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine" (GANI_MED) cohort. Enzymatic activity of aminopeptidase A, aminopeptidase B, alanyl (membrane) aminopeptidase, insulin-regulated aminopeptidase, puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase, leucine aminopeptidase 3, prolyl-endopeptidase (PEP), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), angiotensin I-converting enzyme, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) proteases was measured in serum. Linear regression of the respective protease was performed on kidney function adjusted for age and sex. Kidney function was modeled either by the continuous Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD)-based eGFR or dichotomized by eGFR serum protease activities showed no associations with age or sex. Our data indicate that ACE2 and DPP4 enzymatic activity are associated with the eGFR in patients with CKD. This finding distinguishes ACE2 and DPP4 from other serum peptidases analyzed and clearly indicates that further analyses are warranted to identify the precise role of these serum ectopeptidases in the pathogenesis of CKD and to fully elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms. Impact statement • Renal and cardiac diseases are very common and often occur concomitantly, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Understanding of molecular mechanisms linking both diseases is limited, available fragmentary data point to a role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and, in particular, Ras-related peptidases. • Here, a comprehensive analysis of serum peptidase activities in patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is

  19. Human serum activates CIDEB-mediated lipid droplet enlargement in hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singaravelu, Ragunath [Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Lyn, Rodney K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Srinivasan, Prashanth [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Delcorde, Julie [Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Steenbergen, Rineke H.; Tyrrell, D. Lorne [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta (Canada); Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Katz Centre for Pharmacy and Health Research, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2S2 (Canada); Pezacki, John P., E-mail: John.Pezacki@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Human serum induced differentiation of hepatoma cells increases cellular lipid droplet (LD) size. •The observed increase in LD size correlates with increased PGC-1α and CIDEB expression. •Induction of CIDEB expression correlates with rescue of VLDL secretion and loss of ADRP. •siRNA knockdown of CIDEB impairs the human serum mediated increase in LD size. •This system represents a cost-efficient model to study CIDEB’s role in lipid biology. -- Abstract: Human hepatocytes constitutively express the lipid droplet (LD) associated protein cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector B (CIDEB). CIDEB mediates LD fusion, as well as very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) maturation. However, there are limited cell culture models readily available to study CIDEB’s role in these biological processes, as hepatoma cell lines express negligible levels of CIDEB. Recent work has highlighted the ability of human serum to differentiate hepatoma cells. Herein, we demonstrate that culturing Huh7.5 cells in media supplemented with human serum activates CIDEB expression. This activation occurs through the induced expression of PGC-1α, a positive transcriptional regulator of CIDEB. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy revealed a correlation between CIDEB levels and LD size in human serum treated Huh7.5 cells. Human serum treatment also resulted in a rapid decrease in the levels of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP). Furthermore, individual overexpression of CIDEB was sufficient to down-regulate ADRP protein levels. siRNA knockdown of CIDEB revealed that the human serum mediated increase in LD size was CIDEB-dependent. Overall, our work highlights CIDEB’s role in LD fusion, and presents a new model system to study the PGC-1α/CIDEB pathway’s role in LD dynamics and the VLDL pathway.

  20. Serum prolidase enzyme activity in obese subjects and its relationship with oxidative stress markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Mehmet; Duzenli, Ufuk; Esen, Ramazan; Soyoral, Yasemin Usul

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between increased serum enzyme activity of prolidase and increased rate of collagen turnover in the arterial wall has been asserted in previous studies. Collagen reflects much of the strength to the connective tissue involved in the arterial wall. Atherosclerosis is very common vessel disease and oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the etiopathogenesis. Our objective was to examine the serum enzyme activity of prolidase and its possible relationships with oxidative stress parameters in obese subjects. Our present study was conducted 27 obese subjects and 26 age-matched healthy control subjects. The serum enzyme activity of prolidase in all study population was evaluated spectrophotometrically. Oxidative stress levels in obese subjects were analyzed with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) as well as oxidative stress index (OSI). Obese subjects have higher serum TOS and OSI indicators as well as prolidase activity than those in control subjects (for all; p<0.001). Moreover, obese subjects have lower levels of TAC than in those in healthy subjects (p<0.001). In the Pearson's correlation analysis, enzyme activity of prolidase was positively related with TOS (p<0.001, r=0.529) and OSI (p<0.001, r=0.519) as well as BMI (p<0.001, r=0.692) and inversely related with TAC (p<0.05, r=-0.405) in obese subjects. Increased serum prolidase activity and decreased antioxidant levels are likely to be a results of increased of oxidative stress levels in obese subjects. The significantly correlation between increased oxidative stress and increased prolidase activity may play a pivotal role in etiopathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in obese subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biparametric multicommutated flow analysis system for determination of human serum phosphoesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymecki, Łukasz; Strzelak, Kamil; Koncki, Robert

    2013-10-03

    A multicommutated flow analysis (MCFA) system constructed of microsolenoid valves and pumps offering simultaneous determination of activity of acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in human serum samples has been developed. The MCFA system is based on optoelectronic flow-through detector made of two light emitting diodes and operating according to paired emitter detector diode (PEDD) principle. This photometric PEDD device has been dedicated for detection of p-nitrophenol (NP) generated in the course of enzymatic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate and optimized for the determination of NP in human serum samples. The developed PEDD-based MCFA system allows independent optimization of conditions for reaction and detection steps of photometric ACP and ALP bioassays. Moreover, it allows elimination of photometric interferences from serum matrix components according to two-points kinetic mode of measurement. The single measurement cycle takes 12 min, consists of four measurements (two for each phosphoesterase) and enables determination of serum ACP and ALP activities at physiological and pathological levels. The real analytical utility of the developed MCFA system has been confirmed by analysis of control sera as well as real human serum samples from healthy persons and oncological patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases.

  3. Characterization of serum complement activity of saltwater (Crocodylus porosus) and freshwater (Crocodylus johnstoni) crocodiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Mark; Britton, Adam

    2006-04-01

    We employed a spectroscopic assay, based on the hemolysis of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), to assess the innate immune function of saltwater and freshwater crocodiles in vitro. Incubation of serum from freshwater and saltwater crocodiles with SRBCs resulted in concentration-dependent increases in SRBC hemolysis. The hemolytic activity occurred rapidly, with detectable activity within 2 min and maximum activity at 20 min. These activities, in both crocodilian species, were heat sensitive, unaffected by 20 mM methylamine, and completely inhibited by low concentrations of EDTA, suggesting that the alternative serum complement cascade is responsible for the observed effects. The hemolytic activities of the sera were inhibited by other chelators of divalent metal ions, such as phosphate and citrate. The inhibition of SRBC hemolysis by EDTA could be completely restored by the addition of 10 mM Ca2+ or Mg2+, but not Ba2+, Cu2+ or Fe2+, indicating specificity for these metal ions. The serum complement activities of both crocodilians were temperature-dependent, with peak activities occurring at 25-30 degrees C and reduced activities below 25 degrees C and above 35 degrees C.

  4. Study on the relationship between serum interleukins, platelet activation indexes and cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study and investigate the relationship between serum interleukins, platelet activation indexes and cerebral infarction.Methods:58 patients with cerebral infarction in our hospital from March 2013 to September 2014 were selected as observation group; meanwhile, 58 healthy persons at the same period were selected as control group, then the serum interleukins and platelet activation indexes of two groups were detected and compared, then the detection results of observation group with different stages and severity of cerebral infarction were compared too, and the relationship between those blood detection indexes and cerebral infarction were analyzed by the Logistic analysis.Results:The serum interleukins and platelet activation indexes of observation group were obviously higher than those of control group, and the detection levels of observation group with cerebral infarction at early and severe stage were obviously higher than those of patients at other stages and light, moderate, and those blood indexes all had close relationship to the cerebral infarction by the Logistic analysis,P<0.05. Conclusion:The serum interleukins and platelet activation indexes all have close relationship to cerebral infarction, and they can be as the important monitoring indexes of the disease.

  5. Serum 5'nucleotidase activity in rats: a method for automated analysis and criteria for interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carakostas, Michael C.; Power, Richard J.; Banerjee, Asit K.

    1990-01-01

    A manual kit for determining serum 5'nucleotidase (5'NT, EC 3.1.3.5) activity was adapted for use with rat samples on a large discrete clinical chemistry analyzer. The precision of the method was good (within-run C.V. = 2.14%; between-run C.V. = 5.5%). A comparison of the new automated method with a manual and semi-automated method gave regression statistics of y = 1.18X -3.66 (Sy. x = 4.54), and y = 0.733X + 1.97 (Sy. x = 1.69), respectively. Temperature conversion factors provided by the kit manufacturer for human samples were determined to be inaccurate for converting results from rat samples. Analysis of components contributing to normal variation in rat serum 5'NT activity showed age and sex to be major factors. Increased serum 5'NT activity was observed in female rats when compared to male rats beginning at about 5 to 6 weeks of age. An analysis of variance of serum 5'NT, alkaline phosphatase, and GGT activities observed over a 9-week period in normal rats suggests several advantages for 5'NT as a predictor of biliary lesions in rats.

  6. Liver and extrahepatic contributions to postheparin serum lipase activity of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Jansen (Hans); W.C. Hülsmann (William)

    1974-01-01

    textabstractThe influence of the amount of heparin injected on the contributions of liver and of extrahepatic tissues to the lipase activity of postheparin serum of the rat was studied. It was found that when high doses of heparin (20 I.U./100 g bodyweight) were injected, the liver contributes for 6

  7. Serum matrix metalloproteinase 3 in early rheumatoid arthritis is correlated with disease activity and radiological progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthumus, MD; Limburg, PC; Westra, J; van Leeuwen, MA; van Rijswijk, MH

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the clinical significance of serial measurements of serum matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) levels in relation to markers of disease activity and radiological progression in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. In a 3 year prospective study of 33 patients with early RA (s

  8. Serum Amyloid A Induces Inflammation, Proliferation and Cell Death in Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören V Siegmund

    Full Text Available Serum amyloid A (SAA is an evolutionary highly conserved acute phase protein that is predominantly secreted by hepatocytes. However, its role in liver injury and fibrogenesis has not been elucidated so far. In this study, we determined the effects of SAA on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, the main fibrogenic cell type of the liver. Serum amyloid A potently activated IκB kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, Erk and Akt and enhanced NF-κB-dependent luciferase activity in primary human and rat HSCs. Serum amyloid A induced the transcription of MCP-1, RANTES and MMP9 in an NF-κB- and JNK-dependent manner. Blockade of NF-κB revealed cytotoxic effects of SAA in primary HSCs with signs of apoptosis such as caspase 3 and PARP cleavage and Annexin V staining. Serum amyloid A induced HSC proliferation, which depended on JNK, Erk and Akt activity. In primary hepatocytes, SAA also activated MAP kinases, but did not induce relevant cell death after NF-κB inhibition. In two models of hepatic fibrogenesis, CCl4 treatment and bile duct ligation, hepatic mRNA levels of SAA1 and SAA3 were strongly increased. In conclusion, SAA may modulate fibrogenic responses in the liver in a positive and negative fashion by inducing inflammation, proliferation and cell death in HSCs.

  9. Liver and extrahepatic contributions to postheparin serum lipase activity of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Jansen (Hans); W.C. Hülsmann (William)

    1974-01-01

    textabstractThe influence of the amount of heparin injected on the contributions of liver and of extrahepatic tissues to the lipase activity of postheparin serum of the rat was studied. It was found that when high doses of heparin (20 I.U./100 g bodyweight) were injected, the liver contributes for

  10. Decreased levels of serum platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase in patients with rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vergne

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available PAF is a potent inflammatory compound known to stimulate the release of various cytokines involved in rheumatic diseases. Elevated blood PAF levels are reported in these patients. We report that serum PAF acetylhydrolase activity (AHA levels are decreased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis as compared to healthy controls. Serum and synovial fluid AHA levels were correlated in these patients. The present study suggests the potential role of AHA in controling systemic and/or local PAF levels in patients with rheumatic diseases.

  11. VARIATIONS IN THE COMPLEMENT ACTIVITY AND FIXABILITY OF GUINEA PIG SERUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1911-01-01

    The following conclusions may be drawn from the foregoing series of experiments. The complementary activity varies within a definite limit in different specimens of guinea pig serum. With sera which stood in contact with the clot for twenty hours, the strongest and weakest were in the ratio of 0.015 cubic centimeter to 0.04 cubic centimeter. The former was 2.66 times stronger than the latter. The variation observed with the same series of sera after forty-six hours was still more striking. The strongest was 0.013 cubic centimeter, and the weakest, 0.06 cubic centimeter, that is, the former was 4.6 times stronger than the latter. These findings agree with those made by Massol and Grysez. The variations were not so marked with the majority of sera. It is noteworthy that a large number of the sera gained in the complementary activity when remaining in contact with the clot for forty-six hours, while some sera became weakened during the same length of time. The amount of serum fixed by given constant quantities of syphilitic serum and antigen varies much more markedly than the variations in their complementary activity. One serum failed altogether to be fixed. On the other hand, one sample of serum was so easily fixable that 0.24 cubic centimeter (corresponding to 9.6 complement units of this specimen) disappeared, while the average quantity fixed was only 0.098 cubic centimeter (corresponding to 4.64 complement units). The normal standard of fixability was shown in about 50 per cent. of the specimens examined. If the zone of normal fixability is enlarged in both directions by one unit, the percentage of normal fixability would become 65.8. There is no definite relationship between the complementary activity and the fixability of a given specimen of guinea pig serum. The facts derived from our present experiments, especially in regard to the exceptions in the fixative quality of this serum, demand the utmost precaution from those intending to employ it for diagnostic

  12. Serum hepatic enzyme activity in relation to semen quality and serum reproductive hormone levels among Estonian fertile Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehala-Aleksejev, K; Punab, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations of basic semen parameters and reproductive hormones with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). In addition, to examine possible interaction between adiposity, alcohol consumption, and liver tests in relation to male reproductive health, standard semen analysis was performed and serum levels of reproductive hormones and liver tests were measured in 245 male partners of pregnant women at a University Hospital Andrology Centres in Estonia. Quartile analysis revealed that after adjustment for covariates GGT was negatively related to sperm concentration and total sperm count. These significant changes appeared from a GGT >35.5 U/L. Next to these changes ALT was not related to sperm parameters. Both enzymes, GGT and ALT, were not related to reproductive hormones. Alcohol consumption was positively related to GGT and in cases with elevated GGT alcohol use was negatively related to sperm concentration and total sperm count. Alcohol consumption was positively related to body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Our findings also confirm results of previous studies that BMI and WC are associated positively with ALT and GGT. According to the study, increased GGT activity might represent a possible connection between adiposity, alcohol consumption, and semen quality.

  13. Chronic Cadmium Exposure Lead to Inhibition of Serum and Hepatic Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Samuel; Andrade-García, Alejandra; Herrera Camacho, Irma; León-Chavez, Bertha Alicia; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia; Flores, Gonzalo; Brambila, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the serum and liver from rats administered with cadmium (Cd) in drinking water was studied. After metal administration, Cd showed a time-dependent accumulation in the liver, meanwhile metallothionein had a maximum increase at 1 month, remaining in this level until the end of the study. On the other hand, serum and liver ALP activity was decreased after 3 months exposure. To determine if Cd produced an inhibition on enzyme, apo-ALP prepared from both nonexposed and exposed rats was reactivated with Zn, showing 60% more activity as compared with the enzyme isolated from nonexposed rats. In vitro assays showed that Cd-ALP was partially reactivated with Zn; however, in the presence of cadmium, Zn-ALP was completely inhibited. Kinetic studies indicate a noncompetitive inhibition by Cd; these results suggest that Cd can substitute Zn, and/or Cd can interact with nucleophilic ligands essential for the enzymatic activity.

  14. Serum Malondialdehyde Concentration and Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in a Longitudinal Study of Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, María; Muriach, María; Romero, Francisco J.; Villar, Vincent M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The main goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of oxidative damage and to quantify its level in gestational diabetes. Methods Thirty-six healthy women and thirty-six women with gestational diabetes were studied in the three trimesters of pregnancy regarding their levels of oxidative stress markers. These women were diagnosed with diabetes in the second trimester of pregnancy. Blood glucose levels after 100g glucose tolerance test were higher than 190, 165 or 145 mg/dl, 1, 2 or 3 hours after glucose intake. Results The group of women with gestational diabetes had higher serum malondialdehyde levels, with significant differences between groups in the first and second trimester. The mean values of serum glutathione peroxidase activity in the diabetic women were significantly lower in the first trimester. In the group of women with gestational diabetes there was a negative linear correlation between serum malondialdehyde concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in the second and third trimester. Conclusions In this observational and longitudinal study in pregnant women, the alterations attributable to oxidative stress were present before the biochemical detection of the HbA1c increase. Usual recommendations once GD is detected (adequate metabolic control, as well as any other normally proposed to these patients) lowered the concentration of malondialdehyde at the end of pregnancy to the same levels of the healthy controls. Serum glutathione peroxidase activity in women with gestational diabetes increased during the gestational period. PMID:27228087

  15. Transaminases activity in the sand lizard’s serum under influence of industrial pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Klymenko

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the environmental pollution on the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the blood serum of the sand lizard has been studied. Aminotransferases (ALT and AST are similar by the mechanism of action. These enzymes take part in the amino acids metabolism. The increase of the transaminases activities under conditions of the pollution is found. It may be a proof of a damage of relevant organs: namely, the liver.

  16. Transaminases activity in the sand lizard’s serum under influence of industrial pollution

    OpenAIRE

    O. Y. Klymenko; V. Y. Gasso

    2009-01-01

    Influence of the environmental pollution on the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the blood serum of the sand lizard has been studied. Aminotransferases (ALT and AST) are similar by the mechanism of action. These enzymes take part in the amino acids metabolism. The increase of the transaminases activities under conditions of the pollution is found. It may be a proof of a damage of relevant organs: namely, the liver.

  17. Relationship between serum leptin level and disease activity in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budulgan, Mahmut; Dilek, Banu; Dağ, Şevin Buluttekin; Batmaz, Ibrahim; Yıldız, İsmail; Sarıyıldız, Mustafa Akif; Çevik, Remzi; Nas, Kemal

    2014-03-01

    To determine the relationship between serum leptin levels and disease activity in systemic sclerosis (SSc). A total of 60 subjects (30 controls and 30 patients) were included. The inflammatory markers and leptin levels were evaluated and body mass index (BMI) was measured for both groups. The assessment of the skin involvement was performed based on the modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS). Disease activity was evaluated according to the Valentini scleroderma disease activity index. There was a significant difference between the patient and control groups in terms of BMI (p 0.05). Valentini scores and mRSS were determined to be significantly higher in active patients (n = 14) than in inactive patients (n = 16) (p 0.05). However, leptin levels were significantly lower in active patients than in inactive patients (p < 0.05). We found a significant positive correlation between serum leptin and BMI (p < 0.05), and leptin and serum C3 levels (p < 0.05); no relationship was detected between leptin and other parameters. Leptin can be used as an activity marker in SSc. Further studies, including larger series, should be carried out to clarify this relationship.

  18. Detection of gelatinase B activity in serum of gastric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vesna V Dragutinovi(c); Neboj(s)a S Radovanovi(c); Lidija T Izrael-(Z)ivkovi(c); Miroslav M Vrvi(c)

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the proteolytic activity and expression of gelatinase B in serum of gastric cancer patients and their correlation with the stage of the tumor.METHODS: Sera from 23 patients who underwent surgery for primary gastric cancer as the experimental group and from 11 as the control group were used to determine the proteolytic activity and its inhibition by EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline. Gelatinase B activity was detected by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and SDS-PAGE zymography.RESULTS: Proteolytic enzyme activity was increased in gastric cancer patients when compared to the control group (P<0.05). The proteinases were determined to be metalloproteinases upon inhibition test with specific metalloproteinase inhibitors 1,10-phenanthroline (P<0.05) and EDTA (P<0.01). SDS-PAGE and SDS-PAGE zymography revealed gelatinase B (proMMP-9) activity and its molecular mass of 92 ku.CONCLUSION: Proteinase activity is overexpressed in serum of gastric cancer patients. Gelatinase B in serum plays an important role in the progression of gastric cancer. ProMMP-9 can be used as a marker for invasiveness of gastric cancer.

  19. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Boshtam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1. Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA. PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health.

  20. Serum hepatic enzyme activity in relation to semen quality and serum reproductive hormone levels among Estonian fertile Men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ehala‐Aleksejev, K; Punab, M

    2016-01-01

    ...‐glutamyl transferase (GGT). In addition, to examine possible interaction between adiposity, alcohol consumption, and liver tests in relation to male reproductive health, standard semen analysis was performed and serum levels...

  1. Continuous recording of long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity using fluorescently labeled bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Erland J.F.; Nystrøm, Birthe T.

    2001-01-01

    acyl-Coenzyme A, synthetase, activity assay, fluorescence recording, fatty acid probe, serum albumin, hydroxycoumarin, detergent, micelles, Pseudomonas fragi, rat liver microsomes......acyl-Coenzyme A, synthetase, activity assay, fluorescence recording, fatty acid probe, serum albumin, hydroxycoumarin, detergent, micelles, Pseudomonas fragi, rat liver microsomes...

  2. A NEW METHOD TO ASSESS FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF SERUM COMPLEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Cheremnykh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Complement system is an important component of innate immunity, providing primary protection against pathogens invading the body. In addition, it was shown that the complement system is associated with many diseases, not only autoimmune and infectious, but also mental disorders. In this regard, it is necessary to develop affordable and fast method of measuring activity of the complement system in real-time mode. We present a new semi-automated method for assessment of serum complement activity. The assay is based on cytolytic action of complement system upon the ciliate organism Tetrahymena pyriformis. This method consists in repeated counting of live Tetrahymena motile cells by means of specially developed Biolat device, which consists of two video cameras, light sources, and movable round plate. The plate has two rows of holes. The device also includes microprocessor control unit based on AutoCiliata software, intended for control of operation module and counting the surviving cell. The calculations are based on fixation of two sequential video-frames, with subsequent software image processing. Cell death events were observed upon incubation in triethanolamine (TEA buffer containing 5% of blood serum. We have also compared complement activity in different buffers, i.e., standard medium for culturing of ciliates, Veronal-Medinalum buffer, and the TEA buffer. TEA buffer was found superior to the Veronal buffer when applied in the test system. The time of cell death in the TEA-buffered medium containing 5% serum was < 15 minutes for all the sera studied. The parameters denoting serum complement activity were as follows: a half-life time for the moving cells (TLD50, and a similar value for 100% cell inactivation (1/TLD50, functional activity of the complement system, ACS. The sensitivity of this assay was calculated from dependencies between TLD50 and ACS, and actual serum concentrations. We have suggested an opportunity for evaluation of an

  3. Relationship of serum somatomedin-like activity and fibroblast proliferative activity with age and body weight gain in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, R F; Wangsness, P J; Patton, W H; Martin, R J

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between serum growth factors and body weight gain was examined in five Dorset lambs. The lambs were weighed and bled by jugular puncture at 2-week intervals between 2 and 18 weeks of age. Somatomedin-like activity (Sm) declined from initially high concentrations at 2 weeks to fairly constant concentrations between 6 and 18 weeks. Relative weight gain--i.e., gain expressed as a percentage of body weight--declined in a manner similar to that of Sm. Mean relative weight gain and mean Sm for the eight 2-week intervals were significantly related (r = .84). Absolute body weight gain--i.e., gain expressed in kilograms--remained fairly constant throughout the study and was not significantly correlated to Sm (r = .15). Serum fibroblast proliferative activity (FPA) was measured as a possible indicator of collective activities of serum growth factors. FPA initially followed a pattern similar to that of Sm, decreasing between 2 and 6 weeks and plateauing until 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, FPA increased to concentrations similar to those observed at 2 weeks. The increase in FPA after 12 weeks was apparently due to an increase in a non-Sm growth factor and had no obvious relationship to body weight changes. Results of the in vitro cell assay system might have been more meaningful if cell type(s) other than WI-38 fibroblasts (e.g., myogenic cells) had been used for estimating collective activities of serum mitogenic factors. The data suggest that serum Sm-like activity may be important in the regulation of growth in sheep.

  4. Low Serum Lysosomal Acid Lipase Activity Correlates with Advanced Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Shteyer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver has become the most common liver disorder and is recognized as a major health burden in the Western world. The causes for disease progression are not fully elucidated but lysosomal impairment is suggested. Here we evaluate a possible role for lysosomal acid lipase (LAL activity in liver disease. To study LAL levels in patients with microvesicular, idiopathic cirrhosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Medical records of patients with microvesicular steatosis, cryptogenic cirrhosis and NAFLD, diagnosed on the basis of liver biopsies, were included in the study. Measured serum LAL activity was correlated to clinical, laboratory, imaging and pathological data. No patient exhibited LAL activity compatible with genetic LAL deficiency. However, serum LAL activity inversely predicted liver disease severity. A LAL level of 0.5 was the most sensitive for detecting both histologic and noninvasive markers for disease severity, including lower white blood cell count and calcium, and elevated γ-glutamyltransferase, creatinine, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, uric acid and coagulation function. Serum LAL activity <0.5 indicates severe liver injury in patients with fatty liver and cirrhosis. Further studies should define the direct role of LAL in liver disease severity and consider the possibility of replacement therapy.

  5. Effect of psoriasis activity and topical treatment on serum lipocalin-2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, A; Świderska, M; Myśliwiec, H; Flisiak, I

    2017-03-01

    Psoriasis has been considered as systemic disorder. Lipocalin-2 might be a link between psoriasis and its comorbidities. Aim of the study was to investigate the associations between serum lipocalin-2 levels and the disease activity, markers of inflammation or metabolic disturbances and changes after topical treatment in psoriatic patients. Thirty-seven individuals with active plaque-type psoriasis and 15 healthy controls were recruited. Blood samples were collected before and after 14 days of therapy. Serum lipocalin-2 concentrations were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results were correlated with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), body mass index (BMI), inflammatory and biochemical markers, lipid profile and with effectiveness of topical treatment. Lipocalin-2 serum levels were significantly increased in psoriatic patients in comparison to the controls (p = 0.023). No significant correlations with indicators of inflammation, nor BMI or PASI were noted. A statistical association between lipocalin-2 and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol was shown. After topical treatment serum lipocalin-2 level did not significantly change (p = 0.9), still remaining higher than in the controls, despite clinical improvement. Lipocalin-2 might be a marker of psoriasis and convey cardiovascular or metabolic risk in psoriatic patients, but may not be a reliable indicator of inflammation, severity of psoriasis nor efficacy of antipsoriatic treatment.

  6. A simplified method for detecting macroamylasemia by measuring serum amylase activity at different reaction temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, T; Kuratsune, H; Kurahori, T

    1983-06-01

    Amylase activity in serum and urine, and isoamylase, were measured in 300 patients with abdominal pain to detect cases of macroamylasemia. Of these patients, 9 had hyperamylasemia and 2 were diagnosed as cases of macroamylasemia on the basis of their amylase/creatinine clearance ratio, the gel filtration pattern of their amylase on a dextran column, and results of immunological analysis. Amylase activity in macroamylasemia is reported to show an anomalous response to increase in reaction-temperature. In this report, measurements of the temperature-activity relationships of serum amylase confirmed that the ratio of serum amylase activity at 50 degrees C to that at 25 degrees C (AMY-50 degrees C/AMY-25 degrees C ratio) in patients with macroamylasemia was higher than that in normal subjects or patients with pancreatitis. Moreover, when macromolecular amylase in the sera of patients with macroamylasemia was separated from amylase of normal molecular weight by dextran gel chromatography, it showed a significantly higher AMY-50 degrees C/AMY-25 degrees C ratio than the latter. Measurement of this AMY-50 degrees C/AMY-25 degrees C ratio seems to be a convenient and useful method for differential diagnosis of hyperamylasemia.

  7. NRF2 activation is involved in ozonated human serum upregulation of HO-1 in endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecorelli, Alessandra [Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena (Italy); Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, University Hospital, AOUS, Siena (Italy); Bocci, Velio [Department of Physiology, University of Siena (Italy); Acquaviva, Alessandra [Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena (Italy); Belmonte, Giuseppe [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Gardi, Concetta [Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena (Italy); Virgili, Fabio [INRAN, Rome (Italy); Ciccoli, Lucia [Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena (Italy); Valacchi, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.valacchi@unife.it [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara (Italy); Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    During the last decade, it has been shown that the activation of NRF2 and the binding to electrophile-responsive element (EpREs), stimulates the expression of a great number of genes responsible for the synthesis of phase I and phase II proteins, including antioxidants enzymes and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This critical cell response occurs in cardiovascular, degenerative and chronic infective diseases aggravated by a chronic oxidative stress. In our previous reports we have shown that ozonated plasma is able to up-regulate HO-1 expression in endothelial cells. In the present work we investigated a candidate mechanism involved in this process. After treatment with increasing doses of ozonated serum (20, 40 and 80 μg/mL O{sub 3} per mL of serum), a clear dose dependent activation of NRF2 and the subsequent induction of HO-1 and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1) was observed. This effect was also present when cells were treated with serum and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or serum and 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE). Moreover, the treatment with ozonated serum was associated with a dose-dependent activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) and p38 MAP kinases (p38), not directly involved in NRF2 activation. These data, provide a new insight on the mechanism responsible for the induction of HO-1 expression by ozonated serum in the endothelium, and have a practical importance as an expedient approach to the treatment of patients with both effective orthodox drugs and ozonated autohemotherapy, targeted to the restoration of redox homeostasis. - Highlights: ► Endothelial HO1 is upregulated by ozonated plasma ► This activation is induced by NRF2 and it is ERK independent. ► 4HNE and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} are the main molecules involved in this process. ► Ozonated plasma induced a hormetic effect ► Combination of orthodox medicine and ozonated plasma can be a useful treatment.

  8. Identification of a novel virulence determinant with serum opacification activity in Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, Christoph G; Kaim, Ute; Fulde, Marcus; Ramachandran, Girish; Goethe, Ralph; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

    2006-11-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is a porcine and human pathogen with adhesive and invasive properties. In other streptococci, large surface-associated proteins (>100 kDa) of the MSCRAMM family (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) are key players in interactions with host tissue. In this study, we identified a novel opacity factor of S. suis (OFS) with structural homology to members of the MSCRAMM family. The N-terminal region of OFS is homologous to the respective regions of fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBA) of Streptococcus dysgalactiae and the serum opacity factor (SOF) of Streptococcus pyogenes. Similar to these two proteins, the N-terminal domain of OFS opacified horse serum. Serum opacification activity was detectable in sodium dodecyl sulfate extracts of wild-type S. suis but not in extracts of isogenic ofs knockout mutants. Heterologous expression of OFS in Lactococcus lactis demonstrated that a high level of expression of OFS is sufficient to provide surface-associated serum opacification activity. Furthermore, serum opacification could be inhibited by an antiserum against recombinant OFS. The C-terminal repetitive sequence elements of OFS differed significantly from the respective repeat regions of FnBA and SOF as well as from the consensus sequence of the fibronectin-binding repeats of MSCRAMMs. Accordingly, fibronectin binding was not detectable in recombinant OFS. To investigate the putative function of OFS in the pathogenesis of invasive S. suis diseases, piglets were experimentally infected with an isogenic mutant strain in which the ofs gene had been knocked out by an in-frame deletion. The mutant was severely attenuated in virulence but not in colonization, demonstrating that OFS represents a novel virulence determinant of S. suis.

  9. AhR transcriptional activity in serum of Inuits across Greenlandic districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonefeld-Jorgensen Eva C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human exposure to lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/PCDFs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine pesticide is ubiquitous. The individual is exposed to a complex mixture of POPs being life-long beginning during critical developmental windows. Exposure to POPs elicits a number of species- and tissue-specific toxic responses, many of which involve the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. The aim of this study was to compare the actual level of integrated AhR transcriptional activity in the lipophilic serum fraction containing the actual POP mixture among Inuits from different districts in Greenland, and to evaluate whether the AhR transactivity is correlated to the bio-accumulated POPs and/or lifestyle factors. Methods The study included 357 serum samples from the Greenlandic districts: Nuuk and Sisimiut (South West Coast, Qaanaaq (North Coast and Tasiilaq (East Coast. The bio-accumulated serum POPs were extracted by ethanol: hexane and clean-up on Florisil columns. Effects of the serum extract on the AhR transactivity was determined using the Hepa 1.12cR mouse hepatoma cell line carrying an AhR-luciferase reporter gene, and the data was evaluated for possible association to the serum levels of 14 PCB congeners, 10 organochlorine pesticide residues and/or lifestyle factors. Results In total 85% of the Inuit samples elicited agonistic AhR transactivity in a district dependent pattern. The median level of the AhR-TCDD equivalent (AhR-TEQ of the separate genders was similar in the different districts. For the combined data the order of the median AhR-TEQ was Tasiilaq > Nuuk ≥ Sisimiut > Qaanaaq possibly being related to the different composition of POPs. In overall, the AhR transactivity was inversely correlated to the levels of sum POPs, age and/or intake of marine food. Conclusion i We observed that the proportion of dioxin like (DL compounds in the

  10. Impact of polychlorinated biphenyls contamination on estrogenic activity in human male serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plísková, Martina; Vondrácek, Jan; Canton, Rocio Fernandez; Nera, Jirí; Kocan, Anton; Petrík, Ján; Trnovec, Tomás; Sanderson, Thomas; van den Berg, Martin; Machala, Miroslav

    2005-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to cause numerous adverse health effects, but their impact on estrogen signaling is still not fully understood. In the present study, we used the ER-CALUX bioassay to determine estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities of the prevalent PCB congeners and PCB mixtures isolated from human male serum. The samples were collected from residents of an area with an extensive environmental contamination from a former PCB production site as well as from a neighboring background region in eastern Slovakia. We found that the lower-chlorinated PCBs were estrogenic, whereas the prevalent higher-chlorinated PCB congeners 138, 153, 170, 180, 187, 194, 199, and 203, as well as major PCB metabolites, behaved as antiestrogens. Coplanar PCBs had no direct effect on estrogen receptor (ER) activation in this in vitro model. In human male serum samples, high levels of PCBs were associated with a decreased ER-mediated activity and an increased dioxin-like activity, as determined by the DR-CALUX assay. 17beta-Estradiol (E2) was responsible for a major part of estrogenic activity identified in total serum extracts. Significant negative correlations were found between dioxin-like activity, as well as mRNA levels of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 in lymphocytes, and total estrogenic activity. For sample fractions containing only persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the increased frequency of antiestrogenic samples was associated with a higher sum of PCBs. This suggests that the prevalent non-dioxin-like PCBs were responsible for the weak antiestrogenic activity of some POPs fractions. Our data also suggest that it might be important to pay attention to direct effects of PCBs on steroid hormone levels in heavily exposed subjects.

  11. Relationship between elevated serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activity and slow coronary flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Nihat; Ozlü, Mehmet F; Basar, Nurcan

    2009-01-01

    . The results were compared with those of a control group consisting of 86 age- and sex-matched patients who had normal coronary arteries and normal coronary flow. RESULTS: The three groups were similar with respect to body mass index, presence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, lipid profiles, and fasting...... was found as the only independent predictor of the mean TFC (beta=0.309; pphysiopathologic role of serum GGT activity in SCF....

  12. Impact of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination on Estrogenic Activity in Human Male Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Plíšková, Martina; Vondráček, Jan; Canton, Rocio Fernandez; Nera, Jiřií; Kočan, Anton; Petrík, Ján; Trnovec, Tomáš; Sanderson, Thomas; van den Berg, Martin; Machala, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to cause numerous adverse health effects, but their impact on estrogen signaling is still not fully understood. In the present study, we used the ER-CALUX bioassay to determine estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities of the prevalent PCB congeners and PCB mixtures isolated from human male serum. The samples were collected from residents of an area with an extensive environmental contamination from a former PCB production site as well as from a neighbo...

  13. Estrous sheep serum enables in vitro capacitation of ram spermatozoa while preventing caspase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Olmo, E; García-Álvarez, O; Maroto-Morales, A; Ramón, M; Jiménez-Rabadán, P; Iniesta-Cuerda, M; Anel-Lopez, L; Martinez-Pastor, F; Soler, A J; Garde, J J; Fernández-Santos, M R

    2016-01-15

    Estrous sheep serum (ESS) is considered the most efficient agent for in vitro capacitation of ram spermatozoa. We have explored the relationship between caspase activation and capacitation in ram. Semen samples from 17 rams were cryopreserved. In vivo fertility was evaluated after intrauterine artificial insemination. Samples were submitted to four treatments: control, ESS (10%), caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK), and estrous ewe serum plus caspase inhibitor (I + E). Sperm samples were incubated for 30 minutes at 38.5 °C and 5% CO2 and analyzed with flow cytometry for mitochondrial membrane potential (MitoTracker deep red), sperm viability and apoptosis-like changes (YO-PRO-1/propidium iodide), acrosomal status (peanut agglutinin-fluorescein isothiocyanate), membrane fluidity (merocyanine 540), and caspase activity (Vybrant FAM kits for polycaspases, caspase-8, and caspases 3-7). Estrous sheep serum induced changes compatible with capacitation, doubling the proportion of viable spermatozoa with increased merocyanine 540 and increasing YO-PRO-1(+) and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa (P ram spermatozoa by using ESS suggests a downregulation in apoptotic pathways. However, males with the lowest fertility showed parameters similar to high-fertility males, suggesting that other factors were involved apart from capacitation and/or caspase activation.

  14. Serum enzyme activities following long-distance running: comparison between Ethiopian and white athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, A; Nemet, D; Shenkman, L

    1995-11-01

    Ethiopian runners are famous for their achievements in long-distance running. The recent immigration of Ethiopians to Israel provided an opportunity to compare some physiological variables between elite Ethiopian and white Israeli runners. Six Ethiopian and five white Israeli runners, aged 20 to 40 years, were studied before and after an 11 km race. Venous blood was sampled from each runner prior to the race, and 1 h, 48 h, and 5 days following the race. The activities of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured, and levels of serum electrolytes, urea, creatinine, phosphorus, albumin, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase were also determined. CK activity rose 2.6-fold with a peak 5 days after the race. LDH and AST levels rose as well (1.4-1.3-fold, respectively). Significant elevations also occurred in serum phosphorus, uric acid, and creatinine concentrations 1 h after the race. In contrast to previous studies in which higher enzyme activities were reported in blacks, we did not detect any difference in serum enzyme values between black and white runners.

  15. [Cancer procoagulant activity in serum and neoplastic tissue in cases of cervical and uterine carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Jóźwik, Maciej; Jóźwik, Marcin; Zalewska, Beata; Panek, Grzegorz; Sulkowski, Stanisław; Skrzydlewski, Zdzisław

    2004-09-01

    Cancer procoagulant (CP) is a sulfhydryl proteinase thought to be synthesized mainly by neoplastic cells. Consequently, increased CP activity in blood serum was interpreted as being associated with the presence of a proliferative process in the host's body. To date, CP activity has not been systematically studied in cases of genital carcinoma. The present study is aimed at evaluation of CP activity in women with genital carcinoma. A case-controlled study backed up by histopathological examination. Peripheral blood was sampled preoperatively in a sterile manner from an antecubital vein, from 16 women with cervical carcinoma and 15 women with uterine carcinoma. Blood for the reference group of 12 healthy women was obtained in an identical manner after an overnight fast. The CP activity in serum was determined using the coagulative method according to Gordon and Benson, and was expressed as coagulation time in seconds (s). The CP activity in 10% tissue homogenates (in saline) of genital cancer was determined by the chromogenic method according to Colucci et al. The mean CP activity in serum of women with cervical carcinoma (78.28 +/- 15.25 s) and of women with uterine carcinoma (79.63 +/- 12.02 s) was significantly different (P < 0.0001) from the respective values found in healthy women (281.33 +/- 43.19 s). The CP activity in neoplastic tissue was 28.50 +/- 6.40 nmol pNa/mL for cervical carcinoma, and 28.31 +/- 3.92 nmol pNa/mL for uterine carcinoma, both values being significantly higher (P < 0.0009) than the activity found in the normal tissues. There was no established relationship between neoplastic CP activity and FIGO staging of the disease. This is the first study to demonstrate the concomitant presence of CP activity in serum and neoplastic tissue of women with genital carcinoma. These patients have decreased coagulation time and thus are likely to develop coagulation disturbances in the course of their cancer. There may be a role for CP as a tumor marker of

  16. Decreased serum DNase1-activity in patients with autoimmune liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatselis, Nikolaos K; Vakrakou, Aigli G; Zachou, Kalliopi; Androutsakos, Theodoros; Azariadis, Kalliopi; Hatzis, Gregorios; Manoussakis, Menelaos N; Dalekos, George N

    2017-03-01

    Deoxyribonuclease1 (DNase1) is involved in chromatin degradation of apoptotic cells. Its deficiency results in accumulation of self-DNA, which in turn may induce inflammation and autoimmunity. We assessed for the first time serum DNase1-activity in a large consecutive cohort of treatment-naïve patients with autoimmune liver diseases (ALD). DNase1-activity was determined by single radial enzyme-diffusion (SRED) at diagnosis of 224 patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), 249 with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and 36 with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Sera from 146 patients with chronic hepatitis B or C, 140 with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) and 114 healthy individuals served as disease and healthy controls. Available serum samples during remission from 50 AIH and 39 PBC patients were also investigated by paired analyzes. DNase1-activity was significantly lower in AIH, PBC and PSC compared to viral hepatitis (p 1400 mg/dl; p < 0.05); in PBC, with AST (p < 0.01), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p < 0.03) and anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) (p = 0.008). In PSC, DNase1-activity was inversely associated with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (p < 0.05). In AIH, complete responders were characterized by increased baseline DNase1-activity compared to partial responders, relapsers and non-responders (p < 0.02), whereas it was significantly increased after achievement of remission (p < 0.001). Serum DNase1-activity is significantly decreased in ALD patients, indicating its potential implication in their pathogenesis. Furthermore, DNase1-activity could be used as a new surrogate biomarker for predicting response to AIH treatment.

  17. ANTICOMPLEMENTARY ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SERUM OF LUNG CANCER PATIENTS AND ITS POSSIBLE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Huirong; Liang Feng; Zhang Weifang; Zheng Zhenqun

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To identify whether the level of anticomplementary activity in serum is different between lung cancer patients and normal subjects. Method: With a sensitive immune haemolytic assay, the anticomplementary activity in the sera of 50 normal subjects and 61lung cancer patients were demonstrated. Results: It was found that all samples contained complement-inhibition activity, although some were of low degree. Increased anticomplementary activity was found to be associated significantly with lung cancer. With the progression of cancer the anticomplementary activity in sera increased in different lung cancer patients. Conclusion: Such a higher anticomplementary activity in sera of lung cancer patients might be one of the immunosuppressive contents induced by the tumor cells.

  18. STUDY OF SERUM HAPTOGLOBIN LEVEL AND ITS RELATION TO ERYTHROPOIETIC ACTIVITY IN BETA THALASSEMIA CHILDREN .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seham Ragab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background  :Serum haptoglobin (Hp is a reliable marker for hemolysis regardless the inflammatory state.  Objective: We investigated the possible relation between Hp depletion and hemolysis severity, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and iron load in β-thalassemia children. Methods: Twenty  two β-thalassemia major (TM ,20 β-thalassemia  intermedia (TI children with 20 age and sex matched healthy controls were involved. Pre-transfusion hemoglobin level was considered . Serum ferritin , Hp  and transferrin receptor  levels (sTfR  (by ELISA , alanine aminotransferase (ALT and  aspartate aminotransferase (AST  (by colorimetric method were assayed. Markers of hepatitis C virus  (HCV  were done by PCR. Results:  The mean Hp levels among the studied groups were as follows; 8.02 ± 0.93 (mg/dl , 8.6 ±0.72 (mg/dl  and 122  ± 18.5(mg/dl   for TM ,TI and the controls respectively . Both patient groups had significantly lower Hp level compared to the controls (P<0.0001  with significant lower level in TM compared to TI  children ( P= 0.034  .Significant inverse correlations were  found between serum Hp and sTfR levels in thalassemia children combined and in each group (TM and TI as well as among HCV infected children. STfR   was the only significant independent predictor for  serum Hp level (t= -5.585 , P<0.0001 . Among  HCV infected patients , no significant correlation was found between serum Hp and serum transaminases  .Conclusion:  Serum Hp depletion in thalassemia had significant relation to disease severity and correlated   well with their erythropoietic activity, as assessed by the measurement of  sTfR without significant relation  HCV infection . Large sample  multicenter studies are  recommended.

  19. The Serum Complement System: A Simplified Laboratory Exercise to Measure the Activity of an Important Component of the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Jordan E.; Radziwon, Kimberly A.; Maniero, Gregory D.

    2008-01-01

    The immune system is a vital physiological component that affords animals protection from disease and is composed of innate and adaptive mechanisms that rely on cellular and dissolved components. The serum complement system is a series of dissolved proteins that protect against a variety of pathogens. The activity of complement in serum can be…

  20. The Serum Complement System: A Simplified Laboratory Exercise to Measure the Activity of an Important Component of the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Jordan E.; Radziwon, Kimberly A.; Maniero, Gregory D.

    2008-01-01

    The immune system is a vital physiological component that affords animals protection from disease and is composed of innate and adaptive mechanisms that rely on cellular and dissolved components. The serum complement system is a series of dissolved proteins that protect against a variety of pathogens. The activity of complement in serum can be…

  1. Serum prolidase activity, oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzyme levels in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirinççi, Necip; Kaba, Mehmet; Geçit, İlhan; Güneş, Mustafa; Yüksel, Mehmet Bilgehan; Tanık, Serhat; Arslan, Ayşe; Demir, Halit

    2016-02-01

    Prolidase is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family. It plays a vital role in collagen turnover, matrix remodeling, and cell growth. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including cancers. Oxidative stress can cause tumor angiogenesis and may be carcinogenic. However, the relationship between antioxidant capacity and various cancers has been researched in several clinical trials. In our study, we aimed to identify serum prolidase activity, oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzyme levels in patients with renal tumors and to evaluate their relationships with each other. A total of 37 male patients with renal cell cancer and with a mean age of 56.28 ± 3.1 were included in the study. The control group comprising 36 male patients (mean age 56.31 ± 2.9) was randomly selected among the volunteers. Serum samples for measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and prolidase levels were kept at -20°C until they were used. Serum prolidase activity and MDA levels were significantly higher in renal cancer patients than in controls (all, p levels were significantly lower (p antioxidant levels in renal cancer. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Deciphering systemic lupus erythematosus-associated serum biomarkers reflecting apoptosis and disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfani, P; Sturfelt, G; Gullstrand, B; Carlsson, A; Kassandra, M; Borrebaeck, C A K; Bengtsson, A A; Wingren, C

    2017-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a severe chronic inflammatory autoimmune connective tissue disease. Despite major efforts, SLE remains a poorly understood disease with unpredictable course, unknown etiology and complex pathogenesis. Apoptosis combined with deficiency in clearing apoptotic cells is an important etiopathogenic event in SLE, which could contribute to the increased load of potential autoantigen(s); however, the lack of disease-specific protein signatures deciphering SLE and the underlying biological processes is striking and represents a key limitation. In this retrospective pilot study, we explored the immune system as a specific sensor for disease, in order to advance our understanding of SLE. To this end, we determined multiplexed serum protein expression profiles of crude SLE serum samples, using antibody microarrays. The aim was to identify differential immunoprofiles, or snapshots of the immune response modulated by the disease, reflecting apoptosis, a key process in the etiology of SLE and disease activity. The results showed that multiplexed panels of SLE-associated serum biomarkers could be decoded, in particular reflecting disease activity, but potentially the apoptosis process as well. While the former biomarkers could display a potential future use for prognosis, the latter biomarkers might help shed further light on the apoptosis process taking place in SLE.

  3. Relationship between elevated serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activity and slow coronary flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Nihat; Ozlü, Mehmet F; Basar, Nurcan;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the relationship between coronary blood flow and serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity in patients with slow coronary flow (SCF). STUDY DESIGN: The study included 90 patients (47 men, 43 women; mean age 50.8+/-9.4 years) with SCF and 88 patients (45 men, 43 women......; mean age 51.4+/-8.8 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD), whose diagnoses were made by coronary angiography. Patients with CAD had normal coronary flow. Coronary flow was quantified using the corrected TIMI frame count (TFC) method and serum levels of gamma-glutamyltransferase were measured....... The results were compared with those of a control group consisting of 86 age- and sex-matched patients who had normal coronary arteries and normal coronary flow. RESULTS: The three groups were similar with respect to body mass index, presence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, lipid profiles, and fasting...

  4. AhR transcription serum activity of Inuit´s across Greenlandic districts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Deutch, Bente; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Human exposure to lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including Human exposure to lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticide is ubiquitous...... food. Conclusions: i) We observed that the proportion of dioxin like (DL) compounds in the POP i) We observed that the proportion of dioxin like (DL) compounds in the POP mixture was the dominating factor affecting the level of serum AhR transcriptional activity even at very high level of non DL......-PCBs; ii) The inverse association between the integrated serum AhR transactivity and sum of POPs might be explained by the higher level of compounds antagonizing the AhR function probably due to selective POP bioaccumulation in the food chain....

  5. Extra-Articular Symptoms in Constellation with Selected Serum Cytokines and Disease Activity in Spondyloarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Przepiera-Będzak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In this study, we assessed the extra-articular symptoms in constellation with selected serum cytokines and disease activity in spondyloarthritis (SpA. Patients and Methods. We studied 287 SpA patients: 131 had AS, 110 had PsA, and 46 had SAPHO. We assessed extra-articular symptoms in all cases. In 191 SpA patients, we measured serum interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-18 (IL-18, interleukin-23 (IL-23, endothelin-1 (ET-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and epidermal growth factor (EGF. Results. Patients with acute anterior uveitis (AAU had higher VAS (P=0.0008, BADSDAI (P=0.0001, ASDAS-ESR (P=0.04, CRP (P=0.006, IL-6 (P=0.02, and IL-18 (P=0.03 levels. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD had higher VAS (P=0.03, CRP (P=0.0009, and IL-6 (P=0.0003 levels. Patients with skin psoriasis had lower VAS (P=0.001 and BASDAI (P=0.00007 levels. Patients with psoriatic onycholysis had lower VAS (P=0.006, BASDAI (P=0.00001, and CRP (P=0.02 and higher IL-23 (P=0.04 levels. Patients with PPP had lower BASDAI (P=0.04 and higher ET-1 (P=0.001 levels. Conclusions. SpA patients with increased serum IL-18 and decreased serum ET-1 had an increased risk of extra-articular symptoms. In SpA patients, increased disease activity was associated with an increased risk of AAU and IBD and a decreased risk of skin psoriasis, psoriatic onycholysis, and PPP.

  6. Serum activities of liver enzymes in workers exposed to sub-TLV levels of dimethylformamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjiang He

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate serum activities of liver enzymes in workers exposed to sub-TLV levels of dimethylformamide (DMF. Material and Methods: Seventy-two workers and 72 healthy controls participated in the study. All subjects underwent complete physical examinations and abdominal ultrasound examination. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and c-glutamyl transpeptidase (c-GT were determined by an auto-chemistry analyzer. The data of airborne concentrations of DMF was obtained from the local Center of Disease Control and Prevention. The level of urine N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoylcysteine (AMCC was measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: Time weighted average (TWA concentration of the DMF in workplace was 18.6 (range: 9.8–36.2 mg/m3. The concentration of the AMCC in workers’ urine was 28.32 (range: 1.8–58.6 mg/l and 9 workers’ AMCC exceeded the biological exposure index (40 mg/l. Thirty-one workers reported gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, anorexia and 10 workers reported headache, dizziness and/or palpitation in the exposed group. Serum analysis revealed that both the mean of serum activities of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and c-GT and the percentage of workers with abnormal liver function were significantly higher in the exposed group as compared to the controls. Conclusions: Dimethylformamide can cause liver damage even if air concentration is in the sub-threshold limit value (sub-TLV level. The protection of skin contact against the exposure to the DMF might be a critical issue as far as the occupational health is concerned.

  7. Active fragments of the antihemorrhagic protein HSF from serum of habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Narumi; Deshimaru, Masanobu; Terada, Shigeyuki

    2007-04-01

    Certain snakes have antihemorrhagic proteins in their sera. Habu serum factor (HSF), an antihemorrhagic protein isolated from the serum of the Japanese habu snake (Trimeresurus flavoviridis) is composed of two cystatin-like domains (D1 and D2) and a His-rich domain, and it inhibits several snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The activity of HSF can be abolished by trinitrophenylation of Lys residues with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid. Upon complex formation of HSF with SVMP, however, the loss of its inhibitory activity by the chemical modification was suppressed, and Lys(15), Lys(41), and Lys(103) residues in HSF were not trinitrophenylated. In order to identify the domain that is critical to the inhibitory activity on SVMPs, native HSF was digested with papain followed by cleavage with cyanogen bromide, yielding a low-molecular mass fragment that was composed of two peptide chains (residues 5-89 and 312-317) linked by a disulfide bond. This fragment inhibited several SVMPs and showed significant antihemorrhagic activity. This indicates that the N-terminal half of D1 is indispensable for the antihemorrhagic activity of HSF. Furthermore, a three-dimensional model of two cystatin-like domains constructed by the homology modeling has indicated that three Lys residues (15, 41, and 103) are exposed to the same surface of HSF molecule.

  8. Aging-Related Correlation between Serum Sirtuin 1 Activities and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women, but not in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Sirtuin (SIRT) is a main regulator of metabolism and lifespan, and its importance has been implicated in the prevention against aging-related diseases. The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of serum SIRT1 activity according to age and sex, and to investigate how serum SIRT1 activity is correlated with other metabolic parameters in Korean adults. The Biobank of Jeju National University Hospital, a member of the Korea Biobank Network, provided serum samples from 250 healthy adults. Aging- and metabolism-related factors were analyzed in serum, and the data were compared by the stratification of age and sex. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) decreased with age and was significantly lower in men in their fifties and older and in women in their forties and older compared with twenties in men and women, respectively. SIRT1 activities were altered by age and sex. Especially, women in their thirties showed the highest SIRT1 activities. Correlation analysis displayed that SIRT1 activity is positively correlated with serum triglyceride (TG) in men, and with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and serum TG in women. And, SIRT1 activity was negatively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio in women (r = −0.183, p = 0.039). Positive correlation was observed between SIRT1 activity and BMR in women (r = 0.222, p = 0.027), but not in men. Taken together, these findings suggest the possibility that serum SIRT1 activities may be utilized as a biomarker of aging. In addition, positive correlation between SIRT1 activity and BMR in women suggests that serum SIRT1 activity may reflect energy expenditure well in human. PMID:28168178

  9. The serum of rabbitfish (Siganus oramin) has antimicrobial activity to some pathogenic organisms and a novel serum L-amino acid oxidase is isolated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fanghua; Li, Ruijun; Xie, Mingquan; Li, Anxing

    2011-01-01

    The serum of rabbitfish (Siganus oramin) has been confirmed previously to have killing effect to Cryptocaryon irritans, an important marine ciliate protozoan that causes a disease referred to as "marine white spot disease". Herein, we find the serum of the rabbitfish also shows antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and has killing effect on two other parasites: Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Results of scanning electron microscopy indicated that after treating with rabbitfish serum, the surface of the Staphylococcus aureus was wrinkled and pores were formed on the surface of Escherichia coli. Serum of the rabbitfish possesses a strong killing effect to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in vitro, causing a similar effect as to C. irritans. The serum of rabbitfish also showed strong killing effect to T. b. brucei in vitro, with the minimus trypanocidal titre (MTT) only to be 1.5% in 1 h. Results of laser confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that rabbitfish serum could also induce cell rupture of T. b. brucei. A novel antimicrobial protein (SR-LAAO) was isolated from the serum of rabbitfish by using ultrafiltration, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE). Results of gel overlay assay showed that the protein could act alone to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and E. coli. Results of western blot and automated Edman degradation showed that it was the same as the antiparasitic protein (APP) reported before to have killing effect on C. irritans. Full length cDNA sequence of the SR-LAAO was cloned. BLAST research suggested that the cDNA of SR-LAAO has a close similarity with a number of L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs) and possesses two conserved motifs that exist in LAAOs. Combined, these results demonstrate that this protein which has antimicrobial activity to some pathogenic organisms was a novel LAAO found in the serum of

  10. Dioxin-like activities in serum across European and Inuit populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvyezday Valentyna

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine pesticides can cause a series of adverse effects on e.g. reproduction in animals and humans, many of which involve the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. The aim of the present study was to compare the integrated serum level of AhR mediated activity among European and Inuit populations, and evaluate whether the activity was associated to the selected POP markers, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153 and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl-ethylene (p,p'-DDE. Methods The study included 338 males from Greenland (Inuit's, Sweden, Warsaw (Poland and Kharkiv (Ukraine. The AhR transactivity of serum extracts alone (AhRag and competitive AhR activity (AhRcomp upon co-exposure with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD were determined in the lipophilic serum fraction containing the POPs using the AhR mediated luciferase reporter Hepa1.12cR cell assay. Results The European groups showed higher median level of AhR-TEQ (TCDD toxic equivalents compared to the Inuit's, whereas higher incidence of Inuits sample further induced AhRcomp activity. Neither AhRag nor AhR-TEQ were correlated to CB-153 or p,p'-DDE for any of the study groups. Multiple regressions showed a significant heterogeneity of association between the CB-153 and the AhRcomp across the study groups, and accordingly a negative association between AhRcomp and CB-153 was found for the Kharkiv group. Conclusion No consistent correlation between AhR activities and two POP markers was found. Although the difference of AhRag between European and Inuit men could not be explained by CB-153 or p,p'-DDE levels alone, we believe that the variation of AhR serum activity reflects different pattern of POP exposure, genetics and/or life style factors.

  11. Catalytically active bovine serum amine oxidase bound to fluorescent and magnetically drivable nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidollari E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Giulietta Sinigaglia1, Massimiliano Magro1, Giovanni Miotto1, Sara Cardillo1, Enzo Agostinelli2,3, Radek Zboril4, Eris Bidollari2,3, Fabio Vianello11Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; 2Istituto Pasteur-Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Department of Biochemical Sciences "A. Rossi Fanelli", SAPIENZA University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 3CNR, Institute Biology and Molecular Pathology, Rome, Italy; 4Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech RepublicAbstract: Novel superparamagnetic surface-active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs characterized by a diameter of 10 ± 2 nm were modified with bovine serum amine oxidase, which used rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC adduct as a fluorescent spacer-arm. A fluorescent and magnetically drivable adduct comprised of bovine serum copper-containing amine oxidase (SAMN–RITC–BSAO that immobilized on the surface of specifically functionalized magnetic nanoparticles was developed. The multifunctional nanomaterial was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and activity measurements. The results of this study demonstrated that bare magnetic nanoparticles form stable colloidal suspensions in aqueous solutions. The maximum binding capacity of bovine serum amine oxidase was approximately 6.4 mg g-1 nanoparticles. The immobilization procedure reduced the catalytic activity of the native enzyme to 30% ± 10% and the Michaelis constant was increased by a factor of 2. We suggest that the SAMN–RITC–BSAO complex, characterized by a specific activity of 0.81 IU g-1, could be used in the presence of polyamines to create a fluorescent magnetically drivable H2O2 and aldehydes-producing system. Selective tumor cell destruction is suggested as a potential future application of this system.Keywords: amine oxidase, hydrogen peroxide production, superparamagnetic

  12. Serum and blister fluid pharmacokinetics and bactericidal activities of ampicillin-sulbactam, cefotetan, cefoxitin, ceftizoxime, and ticarcillin-clavulanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaresko, G S; Barriere, S L; Johnson, B L

    1992-01-01

    Ampicillin-sulbactam, ticarcillin-clavulanate, cefoxitin, cefotetan, and ceftizoxime are promoted for the treatment of mixed aerobic-anaerobic bacterial infections. Their activities have been compared in vitro but not in vivo. In order to assess the in vivo activities of these agents in serum and interstitial fluid, we administered single, intravenous doses of these antimicrobial agents to healthy subjects. Concentrations of the antimicrobial agents in serum and suction-induced blister fluid and bactericidal activity were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography and the standard methodology of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, respectively. The organisms used for bactericidal activity tests were one isolate each of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Bacteroides fragilis. Pharmacokinetic parameters in serum and blister fluid were similar to those derived in other investigations. Of note were the high and prolonged concentrations of ticarcillin and cefotetan in blister fluid, despite high-level serum protein binding. The bactericidal activities in serum and blister fluid reflected the relative in vitro activities and kinetic dispositions of the various antimicrobial agents except for the bactericidal activity of cefotetan, which was substantially lower in blister fluid than serum, despite a blister fluid:serum area under the concentration-time curve ratio of 1.5. Similarly, the activity of ticarcillin-clavulanate in blister fluid was also substantially less than would have been predicted by the blister fluid:serum ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve of 1.1, possibly because of the low concentrations of clavulanate in blister fluid. The rankings of the in vivo bactericidal activities of the five drugs were as follows: for S. aureus, ampicillin-sulbactam > ticarcillin-clavulanate > ceftizoxime > cefoxitin > cefotetan; for K. pneumoniae, ceftizoxime > cefotetan > ampicillin-sulbactam = ticarcillin

  13. Serum des-R prothrombin activation peptide fragment 2: a novel prognostic marker for disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soie; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Yeon, Eun Hee; Shin, Yong Sung; Kim, Chul Woo

    2013-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is diagnosed based on the combination of predisposing underlying conditions and laboratory tests for plasma coagulation markers. Because the collection of blood plasma samples is a fastidious procedure, the serum sample method may be preferred for measurement of coagulation markers when feasible. The novel serum marker des-R prothrombin activation peptide fragment 2 (des-R F2) was measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 181 patients suspected of having DIC. Thrombin generation potential was estimated with a calibrated automated thrombogram. Serum des-R F2 was generated with an in vitro clotting process within a serum separation tube after blood collection. Carboxypeptidase inhibitor inhibited the formation of des-R F2 during in vitro clotting. Low levels of prothrombin and thrombin generation potential resulted in low serum des-R F2 levels. Serum des-R F2 was significantly decreased in overt DIC. Levels of des-R F2 correlated with DIC severity and other coagulation markers. Of note, the decrease in serum des-R F2 levels was a significant marker for predicting mortality. The serum marker, des-R F2, can be used for the investigation of DIC severity and prognosis. It should be considered a useful marker, especially when only serum samples are available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modification of serum, pancreatic, and microbial lipase activities by phorbol diesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z C; Cabot, M C

    1987-01-01

    The influence of phorbol diesters on the in vitro hydrolysis of diacylglycerols was examined using enzymes from rat serum, porcine pancreas, and Rhizopus delemar. Two main phenomena were observed: 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), when added to the enzyme assay system, stimulated 2- to 3-fold the hydrolysis of [9,10-3H]dioleoylglycerol by serum lipase. The hydrolysis of dioleoylglycerol by either pancreatic or R. delemar lipase was, on the other hand, inhibited by TPA. A 50% inhibition of the pancreatic and R. delemar enzymes was attained with 10 and 2.0 microM TPA, respectively. The pattern of enzyme stimulation (rat serum), with regard to increasing TPA concentrations, was hyperbolic. Stimulation was not influenced by Triton X-100, but it was highly dependent on the structure of the phorbol ester: TPA greater than phorbol didecanoate greater than tetradecanoylphorbol. Phorbol dibutyrate, phorbol acetate, myristic acid, and mezerein were without influence. Lipase activity was inhibited most strongly by TPA and the nonpromoter 4-O-methyl-TPA; the weaker promoter, phorbol dibutyrate, was relatively inactive. The inhibition of R. delemar lipase by TPA was reversible. Collectively, these data show that phorbol diesters can interact with enzymes other than protein kinase C. It is believed, by virtue of their structural similarity to diacylglycerols, that phorbol diesters may serve directly as intracellular regulators of lipid metabolism. In such a manner phorbol esters could sustain or attenuate the second messenger signal by modifying diacylglycerol metabolism, a manifestation of the pleiotropic action.

  15. Evaluation of serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin in premenopausal rheumatoid arthritis patients: its correlation with disease activity and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba A Esaily

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Serum level of ucOC (which is a mirror of vitamin K deficiency was found to be higher in premenopausal RA patients than controls and correlated positively with disease activity and inversely with BMD measurement.

  16. Adenosine deaminase activity in serum, erythrocytes and lymphocytes of rats infected with Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonin, Alexandre A; Pimentel, Victor C; da Silva, Aleksandro S; de Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Souza, Viviane C G; Wolkmer, Patrícia; Rezer, João F P; Badke, Manoel R T; Leal, Daniela B R; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Monteiro, Silvia G; Lopes, Sonia T A

    2012-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a systemic disease of humans and domestic animals, mainly dogs, cattle and swine. The course of human leptospirosis varies from mild to severe fatal forms and the most severe form of human leptospirosis is principally caused by Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae (L. icterohaemorrhagiae). The enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) plays an important role in the production and differentiation of blood cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of ADA in serum, erythrocytes and lymphocytes of rats infected with L. icterohaemorrhagiae, as compared with non-infected rats. Twenty-four adult rats, divided into two uniform groups (A and B) were used for the enzymatic assays. The animals in Group B were inoculated intraperitoneally with 2×10(8) leptospires/rat, and the rodents in Group A (control) were not-inoculated. Blood collection was performed on days 5 and 15 post-infection (PI) and the blood used to assess the ADA activity. The infection by L.icterohaemorrhagiae altered erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit, causing a decrease in all these parameters on day 15 PI. Lymphocytes decreased significantly on day 15 PI, and ADA activity in serum was inhibited in infected rats on days 5 and 15 PI and its activity in erythrocytes were increased on day 5 PI. On day 5 PI, we found an increase in ADA activity in erythrocytes of infected rats. No correlation was observed between hematocrit and erythrocyte ADA activity on days 5 and 15 PI. The ADA activity was inhibited in rats infected on day 15 PI. A positive correlation (r(2)=60) was also observed between the number of lymphocytes and ADA activity in lymphocytes on day 15 PI (Perythrocytes in experimental infection by L.icterohaemorrhagiae in rats, concomitantly with hematological parameters.

  17. Hydrogen sulfide reduces serum triglyceride by activating liver autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Zhang, Song; Yu, Chengyuan; Pan, Zhenwei; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yun, Fengxiang; Zhao, Hongwei; Yan, Sen; Yuan, Yue; Wang, Dingyu; Ding, Xue; Liu, Guangzhong; Li, Wenpeng; Zhao, Xuezhu; Liu, Zhaorui; Li, Yue

    2015-12-01

    Autophagy plays an important role in liver triglyceride (TG) metabolism. Inhibition of autophagy could reduce the clearance of TG in the liver. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a potent stimulator of autophagic flux. Recent studies showed H2S is protective against hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) and noalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), while the mechanism remains to be explored. Here, we tested the hypothesis that H2S reduces serum TG level and ameliorates NAFLD by stimulating liver autophagic flux by the AMPK-mTOR pathway. The level of serum H2S in patients with HTG was lower than that of control subjects. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, H2S donor) markedly reduced serum TG levels of male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), which was abolished by coadministration of chloroquine (CQ), an inhibitor of autophagic flux. In HFD mice, administration of NaSH increased the LC3BII-to-LC3BI ratio and decreased the p62 protein level. Meanwhile, NaSH increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and thus reduced the phosphorylation of mTOR in a Western blot study. In cultured LO2 cells, high-fat treatment reduced the ratio of LC3BII to LC3BI and the phosphorylation of AMPK, which were reversed by the coadministration of NaSH. Knockdown of AMPK by siRNA in LO2 cells blocked the autophagic enhancing effects of NaSH. The same qualitative effect was observed in AMPKα2(-/-) mice. These results for the first time demonstrated that H2S could reduce serum TG level and ameliorate NAFLD by activating liver autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR pathway.

  18. The role of serum cholinesterase activity and S100B protein in the evaluation of organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardan, T; Baydin, A; Acar, E; Ulger, F; Aygun, D; Duzgun, A; Nar, R

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of serum cholinesterase (SChE) activity and S100B protein in the evaluation of patients with acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning. Patients with acute OP poisoning admitted to the emergency department were included in this cross-sectional study. Twenty healthy volunteers served as controls. The SChE activity and serum S100B were determined on admission. Patients were divided into two groups (low severity and high severity). Thirty-six patients diagnosed with acute OP poisoning were enrolled. Serum S100B concentrations were higher in patients than in the control group (p poisoning.

  19. Formulation of antiacne serum based on lime peel essential oil and in vitro antibacterial activity test against Propionibacterium acnes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Noor; Fatimah, Ifat; Chabib, Lutfi; Fajarwati, Febi Indah

    2017-03-01

    Propionibacterium acnes are a normal bacterium in human skin but it can become primary pathogens that can cause inflammation on the skin. Research about new antibacterial compounds is important because resistance of bacteria acne to antibiotics. Some of Essential oils have antibacterial properties. Lime peel essential oil and patchouli essential oil have some terpenoids that act as antibacterial compounds such as Linalool and Seychellene. The purpose of this research was to formulate anti acne serum based on lime peel essential oil and patchouli oil and to determine the zone of inhibition against of Propionibacterium acnes. This study made 21 variations of formulation of anti acne serum, consisted of lime peel essential oil, patchouli oil and olive oil. Anti acne serum was evaluated i.e. in vitro antibacterial activity test against Propionibacterium acnes for 5 days, organoleptic, stability test, pH test, viscosity test and GC-MS analysis. Nine serum formulations had been selected, which based on their most favorite order. Those favorite serums had antibacterial inhibitory against Propionibacterium acnes between 20.80 - 26.12 mm, whereas control positive only 12.47 mm and control negative 5.78 mm. The most favorite serum with the best antibacterial activity was serum formula A. The composition of serum A consist of lime peel essential oil: patchouli oil: olive oil (11:1:18).

  20. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Activity in the Serum, Lung, Liver and Kidney in Streptozotocin -Induced Diabetic Rats and Diabetic Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Üstündağ, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the relationship between the alterations of the levels of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and diabetic nephropathy, ACE activity in the lung, liver, kid-ney and serum were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The levels of serum ACE activity unchanged 3 days post STZ treatment but it was significantly an increase 12 and 30 days post STZ treatment in diabetic rats (p

  1. Serum Vitamin D Level and Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity: Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin; Liu, Jian; Davies, Michael L.; Chen, Weiqian

    2016-01-01

    Background The evidence from epidemiological studies concerning the relationship between serum vitamin D concentrations and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is inconsistent. This meta-analysis is aimed at determining the magnitude of the correlation between this common autoimmune disease and vitamin D, an important nutrient known to dampen adaptive immune responses. Methods Through multiple search strategies, relevant literature was identified and evaluated for quality before May 16 2015. Data extracted from eligible studies was synthesized to calculate pooled correlation coefficient (r), mean difference (MD) and odds ratio (OR). The Venice criteria were applied to assess the credibility of the evidence for each statistically significant association. Results A total of 24 reports involving 3489 patients were selected for analysis. RA patients had lower vitamin D levels than healthy controls (MD:-16.52 nmol/L, 95% confidence intervals [CI]:-18.85 to -14.19 nmol/L). There existed a negative relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level and disease activity index, e.g. 25OHD vs. Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28): r = -0.13, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.09; 25OHD vs. C-reactive protein: r = -0.12, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.00. Additionally, latitude-stratified subgroup analysis yielded a relatively stronger negative correlation between 25OHD and DAS28 in low-latitude areas. This inverse relationship also appeared more significant in developing countries than in developed countries. No publication bias was detected. Conclusion RA patients had lower vitamin D values than healthy controls. There was a negative association between serum vitamin D and RA disease activity. However, more strictly controlled studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:26751969

  2. Serum cholesterol concentration associated with aspirin esterase activity in older people: preliminary data

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    Kazuhiko Kotani, Russell Caccavello, Ricardo Hermo, Toshiyuki Yamada, Nobuyuki Taniguchi, Alejandro Gugliucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Metabolism of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, commonly used in older people for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, is important to the effectiveness of this drug. Whereas part of aspirin hydrolysis occurs in blood, there is a paucity of information in regards to circulating aspirin esterase activity in various physiological and pathological conditions. High aspirin esterase activity, corresponding to faster aspirin hydrolysis (thus aspirin non-responsiveness, may occur in cardiovascular disease-prone states. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cardio-metabolic variables such as cholesterol on serum aspirin esterase activity in older people who participated in an intervention study on physical activity. METHODS: A total of 18 non-medicated subjects (7 men/11 women, mean age 67.8 years, body mass index = 23.4 ± 3.3 kg/m2, who completed a 3-month interventional program for a mild-to-moderate increase in physical activity, were analyzed. The body mass index, plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol and aspirin esterase activity were measured in the pre- and post-interventional phases of the study. RESULTS: During the interventional period, the changes in aspirin esterase activity correlated significantly and positively with those of total cholesterol concentrations (r = 0.542, P = 0.020; β = 0.609, P = 0.035 in a multiple linear regression analysis after adjusting for all the measured variables. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that cholesterol metabolism alterations may be associated with aspirin metabolism in older people.

  3. Interaction of Surface-active Fluorescence Probes with Bovine Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Kuan XU; Xing Hai SHEN; Na LI; Hong Cheng GAO

    2005-01-01

    The binding between three surface-active substituted 3H-indole fluorescence probes and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution was studied using fluorescence quenching. The binding constants of 3H-indole molecules with BSA were obtained. According to the Forster resonance energy transfer theory, the distances between 3H-indole molecules and tryptophan of BSA were calculated. The results show that the oligoethyloxyethylene chain of 3H-indole molecules is longer, the binding between them is stronger, the energy transfer efficiency is higher,and the distance between tryptophan and 3H-indole is nearer.

  4. [Bactericidal activity of serum and chemotherapy in sensitive and resistant exciter (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, H; Metz, H; Preac-Mursic, V

    1975-11-21

    Comparing examinations with Ampicillin sensitive and resistant bacteria-strains show that the bactericidal activity of serum is dependent on the bacteria-strains, on the Ampicillin sensitivity of the particular exciter and on the number of bacteria/ml (germ count). Bactericide effect could always be obtained with sensitive strains as a result of additional chemotherapy. With several resistant strains a bactericide effect could not be obtained in this case the continuous optimal Ampicillin addition was the decisive factor. Because of the extremely complicated process of the bactericide one should not make general conclusions from the individual experimental results.

  5. Antioxidant activity of bovine serum albumin binding amino acid Schiff-bases metal complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Glutamic acid-salicylaldehyde Schiff-base metal complexes are bound into bovine serum albumin (BSA), which afforded BSA binding Schiff-base metal complexes (BSA-SalGluM, M=Cu, Co, Ni, Zn). The BSA binding metal complexes were characterized by UV-vis spectra and Native PAGE. It showed that the protein structures of BSA kept after coordinating amino acid Schiff-bases metal complexes. The effect of the antioxidant activity was investigated. The results indicate that the antioxidant capacity of BSA increased more than 10 times after binding Schiff-base metal complexes.

  6. Effects of the Drug(BSZGC)--containing Serum on Proliferation of Rat's Osteoclasts and TRACP Activity in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jingli; Zhao Yonghua; Wu Weikang

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To observe effects of the drug-containing serum of Bu Shen Zhuang Gu Capsule(BSZGC 补肾壮骨胶囊 Capsule for Tonilying the Kidney to Strengthen the Bones)on proliferation of the rat's osteoclasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP)activity in vitro SO as to delve into the mechanisms of its preventive and therapeutic actions on osteoporosis.Methods:Forty female Sprague.Dawley rats aged three months were randomly divided into high dosage BSZGC group,medium dosage BSZGC group,low dosage BSZGC group,and the control group.BSZGC was orally administered into the rats of high,medium,and low dosage groups at difierent dosages for 12 days.and isometric normal saline was orally administered to the rats of the Control group.The drug-containing serum and control serum were prepared.Osteoclasts isolated mechanically from the femur and tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats aged one week were cultured wim medium added with different drug-containing sera and control serum.The growth of osteoclasts was observed under an inverted phase-contrast microscope,and optic density(OD)value of osteoclasts was determined by MTT colorimetric assay.TRACP activity was measured by the diazol method.Results:OD value of osteoclasts in the high dosage drug-containing serum group,medium dosage drug-containing serum group,and low dosage drug-containing serum group was significantly lower than that in the control serum group(P<0.05)with a dose-effect correlation.TRACP activity in high dosage drug-containing serum group,medium dosage drug-containing serum group,low dosage drug-containing serum group was significantly lower than that of the control serum group(P<0.01),and no significant differences in TRACP activity were not found among the difierent dosages drug-containing serum groups.Conclusions:BSZGC can inhibit the proliferation of the osteoclasts and reduce TRACP activity,which may be one of the mechanisms of its preventive and therapeutic actions on osteoporosis.

  7. Intracellular modulation, extracellular disposal and serum increase of MiR-150 mark lymphocyte activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola de Candia

    Full Text Available Activated lymphocytes release nano-sized vesicles (exosomes containing microRNAs that can be monitored in the bloodstream. We asked whether elicitation of immune responses is followed by release of lymphocyte-specific microRNAs. We found that, upon activation in vitro, human and mouse lymphocytes down-modulate intracellular miR-150 and accumulate it in exosomes. In vivo, miR-150 levels increased significantly in serum of humans immunized with flu vaccines and in mice immunized with ovalbumin, and this increase correlated with elevation of antibody titers. Immunization of immune-deficient mice, lacking MHCII, resulted neither in antibody production nor in elevation of circulating miR-150. This study provides proof of concept that serum microRNAs can be detected, with minimally invasive procedure, as biomarkers of vaccination and more in general of adaptive immune responses. Furthermore, the prompt reduction of intracellular level of miR-150, a key regulator of mRNAs critical for lymphocyte differentiation and functions, linked to its release in the external milieu suggests that the selective extracellular disposal of microRNAs can be a rapid way to regulate gene expression during lymphocyte activation.

  8. Blood and colostrum/milk serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activity as a predictor of passive transfer status in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden, M; Altunok, V; Birdane, F M; Aslan, V; Nizamlioglu, M

    2003-04-01

    The importance of blood and colostrum/milk serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT) enzyme activity was evaluated to assess passive transfer status in healthy lambs. Thirty Akkaraman sheep (3-6 years old) were used which had normal pregnancy period and the same conditions, and the age of the lambs ranged between 0 and 15 days. Blood and colostrum/milk samples were collected from sheep and lambs after birth, before suckling (0) and after on 1st, 3rd, 7th and 15th days. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration was determined by the use of Single Radial Immunodiffusion method. Serum gamma-GT activity was measured, using a commercially available kit in blood and colostrum/milk samples. Correlations were carried out between immunoglobulin and gamma-GT levels. Regression models (simple and multiple) were calculated with significant data. Linear correlation was determined between colostrum/milk gamma-GT activity and IgG concentrations and between serum gamma-GT activity and IgG concentrations in lambs on the 0 day. (r: 0.607, P: 0.001), 1st (r: 0.768, P: 0.001) and the 3rd (r: 0.603, P: 0.001) days and on the 1st (r: 0.637, P: 0.001) and 3rd (r: 0.478, P: 0.012) days in the experiment, respectively. Multivariate regression models were developed to estimate sample IgG concentration. Serum and colostrum/milk IgG concentration could be predicted using the formula: lamb serum IgG = 825 + 0.688 (lamb gamma-GT) + 52 (days); colostrum/milk IgG = 832 + 0.505 (colostrum/milk gamma-GT) - 167 (days). The regression models were moderately accurate in predicting serum IgG concentration (R2 = 0.51) and colostrum/milk IgG concentration (R2 = 0.55). Test sensitivity and positive predictive values for serum gamma-GT enzyme activity were found to be 96 and 100% and for colostrum/milk gamma-GT enzyme activity were found to be 100 and 68% to prediction IgG concentration. Serum and colostrum/milk gamma-GT activity can be used to assess passive transfer status of lambs. Along with this

  9. The Effects of Physical Activity on Serum Visfatin Level: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghanbarzadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher concentration of plasma visfatin in obese and diabetic subjects compared with their healthy counterparts shows visfatin relationship to obesity and overweight. This article reviewed the studies on contradictory and different notions regarding the role of physical activity in visfatin response following aerobic and resistance exercises. Recent reports on the impact of physical activity and exercise on visfatin concentration is contradictory. Some studies have identified that exercise can reduce visfatin concentration depending on the duration of physical activity and calorie expenditure, while others have not reported any changes in visfatin concentration. The present review indicated that a balanced diet, low in fat, and physical exercise (aerobic and aerobic-resistance exercises can reduce blood visfatin levels depending on the severity and duration, while resistance training alone exerts no significant effects on serum visfatin level.

  10. Replacement of dietary saturated fat with trans fat reduces serum paraoxonase activity in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Nicole M; Schouten, Evert G; Scheek, Leo M; van Tol, Arie; Katan, Martijn B

    2002-12-01

    A high intake of saturated fat and of trans isomers of unsaturated fat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently, we found that replacement of saturated fat by trans fat in a dietary controlled study with 32 men and women decreased serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and impaired endothelial function, suggesting that trans fats have stronger adverse effects than saturated fats. To investigate this further, we measured the activity of serum paraoxonase (PON1) in serum samples of the same volunteers after consumption of both diets. PON1 protects lipoproteins from oxidative damage, and higher PON1 activity appears to be related to lower cardiovascular disease risk. PON1 activity (mean +/- SD) was 195.9 +/- 108.9 U/L after 4 weeks of consuming a diet with 22.9% of energy (en%) from saturated fat and 184.5 +/- 99.3 U/L when 9.3 en% from saturated fat was replaced by trans fat (P =.006). Thus, replacement of dietary saturated fat by trans fat not only decreased serum HDL-cholesterol and impaired endothelial function, but also decreased the activity of serum paraoxonase. Whether the changes in serum paraoxonase activity caused the changes in endothelial function needs to be further investigated.

  11. The mechanisms of complement activation in normal bovine serum and normal horse serum against Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 strains with different outer membrane proteins content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miętka, K; Brzostek, K; Guz-Regner, K; Bugla-Płoskońska, G

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a common zoonotic pathogen and facultative intracellular bacterium which can survive within blood cells. Cattle and horses are considered a reservoir of Y. enterocolitica which often causes several serious syndromes associated with yersiniosis such as abortions, premature births or infertility. The aim of our investigation was to determine the vitality of Y. enterocolitica O:9 strains (Ye9) in bovine and horse sera (NBS and NHrS) and explain the role of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in serum resistance of these bacteria. Our previous studies demonstrated moderate human serum (NHS) resistance of the wild type Ye9 strain, whereas mutants lacking YadA, Ail or OmpC remained sensitive to the bactericidal activity of NHS. The present study showed that the wild type of Ye9 strain was resistant to the bactericidal activity of both NHrS and NBS, while Ye9 mutants lacking the YadA, Ail and OmpC proteins were sensitive to NHrS and NBS as well as to NHS. The mechanisms of complement activation against Ye9 strains lacking Ail and YadA were distinguished, i.e. activation of the classical/lectin pathways decisive in the bactericidal mechanism of complement activation of NBS, parallel activation of the classical/lectin and alternative pathways of NHrS. In this research the mechanism of independent activation of the classical/lectin or the alternative pathway of NBS and NHrS against Ye9 lacking OmpC porin was also established. The results indicate that serum resistance of Ye9 is multifactorial, in which extracellular structures, i.e. outer membrane proteins (OMPs) such as Ail, OmpC or YadA, play the main role.

  12. [Lipase activity in the calf serum under different types of feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surynek, J

    1975-05-01

    The development of lipase activity in serum (S-lipase activity) was studied in two groups of the calves of the Bohemian Red-Pied breed in the post-natal period up to the age of nine weeks from birth. From the eighth day of age, the two groups differed from each other in their lactic nutrition. Group A calves were given whole milk (obtained at primary production) and group B calves were fed the Laktosan mixture instead of milk. The different type of nutrition did not influence the character of the development of S-lipase activity with increasing age. A difference was found between the two groups as to the level of the activity of the enzyme under study. In the whole-milk group the average S-lipase activity values were higher than in the group fed Laktosan in a larger part of the test period. Some differences were statistically significant. It is assumed that lipase activity in blood is a reflection of the external secretion of pancreas changing according to the structure of food taken in. The activity of S-lipase was determined by the method according to Cherry and Crandall (Seligson, 1964); the average minimum value was 0.025 +/- 0.0017 u. in group A and 0.017 +/- 0.0081 u. in group B, and the average maximum value was 0.370 +/- 0.100 u. and 0.286 +/- 0.0766 u., respectively.

  13. Improved activity of immobilized horseradish peroxidase on gold nanoparticles in the presence of bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Yuyang; Li, Jun; Huang, Zhenzhen; He, Ke; Zhuang, Jiaqi; Yang, Wensheng, E-mail: wsyang@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin University, State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry (China)

    2013-11-15

    The using of macromolecular additives is known to be a simple and effective way to improve the activity of immobilized enzymes on solid support, yet the mechanism has not been well understood. Taking horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as an example, only 30 % of its catalytic activity was kept after being immobilized on the surface of 25-nm Au nanoparticles, mainly attributed to the conformational change of the heme-containing active site. The catalytic activity of HRP was significantly improved to 80 % when a certain amount of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was added at the initial stage of the immobilization. Systematic spectral investigation indicated that the addition of BSA inhibited the tertiary structure change around the active site, which was a prerequisite for improved activity of the immobilized HRP. Steady-state kinetic analyses revealed that the introduction of BSA could effectively improve the turnover rate of substrate to product in spite of slight reduced affinity to substrates, which also contributed to the improved catalytic activity.

  14. Improved activity of immobilized horseradish peroxidase on gold nanoparticles in the presence of bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yuyang; Li, Jun; Huang, Zhenzhen; He, Ke; Zhuang, Jiaqi; Yang, Wensheng

    2013-11-01

    The using of macromolecular additives is known to be a simple and effective way to improve the activity of immobilized enzymes on solid support, yet the mechanism has not been well understood. Taking horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as an example, only 30 % of its catalytic activity was kept after being immobilized on the surface of 25-nm Au nanoparticles, mainly attributed to the conformational change of the heme-containing active site. The catalytic activity of HRP was significantly improved to 80 % when a certain amount of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was added at the initial stage of the immobilization. Systematic spectral investigation indicated that the addition of BSA inhibited the tertiary structure change around the active site, which was a prerequisite for improved activity of the immobilized HRP. Steady-state kinetic analyses revealed that the introduction of BSA could effectively improve the turnover rate of substrate to product in spite of slight reduced affinity to substrates, which also contributed to the improved catalytic activity.

  15. Neomycin-phenolic conjugates: polycationic amphiphiles with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, low hemolytic activity and weak serum protein binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Brandon; Zhanel, George G; Schweizer, Frank

    2012-02-15

    Here we present a proof-of-concept study, combining two known antimicrobial agents into a hybrid structure in order to develop an emergent cationic detergent-like interaction with the bacterial membrane. Six amphiphilic conjugates were prepared by copper (I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between a neomycin B-derived azide and three alkyne-modified phenolic disinfectants. Three conjugates displayed good activity against a variety of clinically relevant Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, including MRSA, without the high level of hemolysis or strong binding to serum proteins commonly observed with other cationic antimicrobial peptides and detergents.

  16. Role of Serum Iron in the Activation of Lipid Peroxidation in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Orlov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four critically ill patients due to generalized purulent peritonitis, pancreatonecrosis, thermal skin injuries, and severe poisoning by acetic acid were examined. The general regularities of the effect of high serum iron concentrations on the health status of patients, on the activity of antioxidative enzymes, and on the initiation of lipid peroxidation (LPO processes, as supported by the values of Fe2+-induced chemiluminescence, were revealed. In critically ill patients, iron metabolism occurs with the overload of a transport protein, such as transferrin, which is caused by intravascular hemolysis and hemoglobin metabolism to ionized iron. The overload of proteins responsible for iron transport leads to the tissue accumulation of free (ferrous and ferric iron that is actively involved in the processes of LPO initiation with excess synthesis of cytotoxic radicals, which in turn accounts for the severity of endotoxicosis.

  17. Influence of physical and emotional activity on the metabolic profile of blood serum of race horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Bayeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article data are presented on dynamics of the level of indicators of metabolic profile of blood serum of race horses of the Ukrainian riding breed in the conditions of physical and emotional loading. Clinically healthy race horses were the object of  research. Blood was taken from the jugular vein to obtain serum and for further biochemical research. For the research 12 race horses from a training group were chosen. From time to time the animals took part in competitions; they were not specially used in races and were mostly used for the training of junior riders and sportsmen of different levels. Blood was taken in conditions of relative rest after ordinary training and after emotional stress during the entertainment performances when a large number of people were present and loud music was played. In the blood serum the following biochemical indicators were defined: whole protein, urea, creatinine, uric acid, total bilirubin and its fractions, glucose, cholestererol, triacylglycerol, calcium, ferrum, lactate, pyruvate, activity of the AlAT, SGOT, GGTP, LDH, an alkaline phosphatase – which makes it possible to determine reasonably accurately the adaptation potential of a horse under various types of loading. We established that during training and psychoemotional loading of racing horses of the training group of the Ukrainian riding breed, multidirectional changes in the level of biochemical indicators of blood serum occurred, which is evidence of stress in the metabolic processes in the animals’ organisms. Concentration of a biomarker of an oxidative stress, uric acid, increased after physical loading by 8.6%, and after emotional loading by 55.1%, which demonstrates that emotional stress had the more negative effect, indicating insufficient adaptation by the horses before demonstration performances. After physical loading, reaction of transamination in the horses’ liver cells intensified, and after emotional loading its intensity

  18. Effect of smoking on activity of N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase in serum and urine of renal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Radziejewska, Iwona; Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Lewszuk, Anna; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Knaś, Malgorzata; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Darewicz, Barbara

    2009-10-01

    To compare N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase (HEX) activity in the serum and urine of smokers as well as non-smokers with renal cancer, and healthy people. To assess hexosaminidase activity the level of p-nitrophenol released from p-nitrophenol derivatives was measured. The activity of enzyme was significantly higher in cancer group, with the highest activity in non-smokers. Cigarette smoking can inhibit, by the influence on HEX activity, catabolism of oligosaccharide chains in cancer tissues.

  19. Concomitant Prevalence of Low Serum Diamine Oxidase Activity and Carbohydrate Malabsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Enko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the concomitant prevalence rates for lactose malabsorption (LM, fructose malabsorption (FM, and histamine intolerance (HI in patients with so far unexplained gastrointestinal (GI symptoms. A total of 439 outpatients, who presented unclear abdominal discomfort, underwent lactose (50 g and fructose (25 g hydrogen (H2 breath tests. Additionally, serum diamine oxidase (DAO measurements were performed. Individuals with low serum DAO activity (<10 U/mL, GI symptoms, and response to histamine-free diet were diagnosed with HI. Of all 439 patients, 341 (77.7% were found with 7 various GI conditions. In total, 94 (21.4%, 31 (7.1%, and 100 (22.8% individuals presented LM, FM, or HI only, whereas 116 (26.4% patients showed an overlap of GI entities investigated here. Interestingly, 89 out of 241 (36.9% individuals with carbohydrate malabsorption were also diagnosed with HI (LM + HI: 52 [11.8%], FM + HI: 23 [5.2%], and LM + FM + HI 14 [3.2%] individuals. In conclusion different combinations of LM, FM, and HI are present in individuals with unclear abdominal discomfort/pain. In clinical practice we suggest testing for LM, FM, and additional HI in the diagnostic work-up of these patients. Depending on these various diagnoses possible, patients should get an individualized dietary advice.

  20. ADENOSINE DEAMINASE ACTIVITY AND SERUM C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AS PROGNOSTIC MARKERS OF CHAGAS DISEASE SEVERITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRAVO-TOBAR, Iván Darío; NELLO-PÉREZ, Carlota; FERNÁNDEZ, Alí; MOGOLLÓN, Nora; PÉREZ, Mary Carmen; VERDE, Juan; CONCEPCIÓN, Juan Luis; RODRIGUEZ-BONFANTE, Claudina; BONFANTE-CABARCAS, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chagas disease is a public health problem worldwide. The availability of diagnostic tools to predict the development of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy is crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality. Here we analyze the prognostic value of adenosine deaminase serum activity (ADA) and C-reactive protein serum levels (CRP) in chagasic individuals. One hundred and ten individuals, 28 healthy and 82 chagasic patients were divided according to disease severity in phase I (n = 35), II (n = 29), and III (n = 18). A complete medical history, 12-lead electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and M-mode echocardiogram were performed on each individual. Diagnosis of Chagas disease was confirmed by ELISA and MABA using recombinant antigens; ADA was determined spectrophotometrically and CRP by ELISA. The results have shown that CRP and ADA increased linearly in relation to disease phase, CRP being significantly higher in phase III and ADA at all phases. Also, CRP and ADA were positively correlated with echocardiographic parameters of cardiac remodeling and with electrocardiographic abnormalities, and negatively with ejection fraction. CRP and ADA were higher in patients with cardiothoracic index ≥ 50%, while ADA was higher in patients with ventricular repolarization disturbances. Finally, CRP was positively correlated with ADA. In conclusion, ADA and CRP are prognostic markers of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in Chagas disease. PMID:26603224

  1. ADENOSINE DEAMINASE ACTIVITY AND SERUM C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AS PROGNOSTIC MARKERS OF CHAGAS DISEASE SEVERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Darío BRAVO-TOBAR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Chagas disease is a public health problem worldwide. The availability of diagnostic tools to predict the development of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy is crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality. Here we analyze the prognostic value of adenosine deaminase serum activity (ADA and C-reactive protein serum levels (CRP in chagasic individuals. One hundred and ten individuals, 28 healthy and 82 chagasic patients were divided according to disease severity in phase I (n = 35, II (n = 29, and III (n = 18. A complete medical history, 12-lead electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and M-mode echocardiogram were performed on each individual. Diagnosis of Chagas disease was confirmed by ELISA and MABA using recombinant antigens; ADA was determined spectrophotometrically and CRP by ELISA. The results have shown that CRP and ADA increased linearly in relation to disease phase, CRP being significantly higher in phase III and ADA at all phases. Also, CRP and ADA were positively correlated with echocardiographic parameters of cardiac remodeling and with electrocardiographic abnormalities, and negatively with ejection fraction. CRP and ADA were higher in patients with cardiothoracic index ≥ 50%, while ADA was higher in patients with ventricular repolarization disturbances. Finally, CRP was positively correlated with ADA. In conclusion, ADA and CRP are prognostic markers of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in Chagas disease.

  2. The effect of cold on serum thyroid hormones and hepatic 5 prime mono-deiodinase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesslink, R.L. Jr.; Quesada, M.; D' Alesandro, M.; Homer, L.D.; Reed, J.L.; Christopherson, R.; Young, B.A. (Naval Medical Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States) Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1991-03-11

    Cold exposed swine have an increases serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) and increased T{sub 3} production rate. It is thought that hepatic thyroxine (T{sub 4}) deiodination (5DI) contributes to circulating T{sub 3} concentrations. The authors investigated the effects of cold exposure (14 days) on energy intake, serum free T{sub 3} (FT{sub 3}) and free T{sub 4} (FT{sub 4}) levels; and 5DI in 5-month boars. Hepatic 5DI activity was determined by measuring the {sup 125}I generated from trace amounts of {sup 125}I T{sub 4}. FT{sub 3} and FT{sub 4} were assayed by RIA. Swine were housed in either 20C (control; n = 5) or 4C (cold; n = 7) chambers and given food ad libitum. Cold exposure increased energy intake by 42%. The increase (93%) in hepatic 5DI V{sub max} after cold exposure parallels the increase in whole animal T{sub 3} production and may account for FT{sub 3} values found after cold exposure.

  3. Serum and Plasma Cholinesterase Activity in the Cape Griffon Vulture (Gyps coprotheres).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Vinny; Wolter, Kerri

    2016-04-28

    Vulture (Accipitridae) poisonings are a concern in South Africa, with hundreds of birds dying annually. Although some of these poisonings are accidental, there has been an increase in the number of intentional baiting of poached rhinoceros (Rhinocerotidae) and elephant (Elephantidae) carcasses to kill vultures that alert officials to poaching sites by circling overhead. The primary chemicals implicated are the organophosphorous and carbamate compounds. Although most poisoning events can be identified by dead vultures surrounding the scavenged carcass, weak birds are occasionally found and brought to rehabilitation centers for treatment. The treating veterinarian needs to make an informed decision on the cause of illness or poisoning prior to treatment. We established the reference interval for serum and plasma cholinesterase activity in the Cape Griffon Vulture ( Gyps coprotheres ) as 591.58-1,528.26 U/L, providing a clinical assay for determining potential exposure to cholinesterase-depressing pesticides. Both manual and automated samplers were used with the butyrylthiocholine method. Species reference intervals for both serum and plasma cholinesterase showed good correlation and manual and automated measurements yielded similar results.

  4. Electroanalysis of pM-levels of urokinase plasminogen activator in serum by phosphorothioated RNA aptamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarczewska, Marta; Kékedy-Nagy, László; Nielsen, Jesper S; Campos, Rui; Kjems, Jørgen; Malinowska, Elżbieta; Ferapontova, Elena E

    2015-06-01

    Protein biomarkers of cancer allow a dramatic improvement in cancer diagnostics as compared to the traditional histological characterisation of tumours by enabling a non-invasive analysis of cancer development and treatment. Here, an electrochemical label-free assay for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), a universal biomarker of several cancers, has been developed based on the recently selected uPA-specific fluorinated RNA aptamer, tethered to a gold electrode via a phosphorothioated dA tag, and soluble redox indicators. The binding properties of the uPA-aptamer couple and interference from the non-specific adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were modulated by the electrode surface charge. A nM uPA electroanalysis at positively charged surfaces, complicated by the competitive adsorption of BSA, was tuned to the pM uPA analysis at negative surface charges of the electrode, being improved in the presence of negatively charged BSA. The aptamer affinity for uPA displayed via the binding/dissociation constant relationship correspondingly increased, ca. three orders of magnitude, from 0.441 to 367. Under optimal conditions, the aptasensor allowed 10(-12)-10(-9) M uPA analysis, also in serum, being practically useful for clinical applications. The proposed strategy for optimization of the electrochemical protein sensing is of particular importance for the assessment and optimization of in vivo protein ligand binding by surface-tethered aptamers.

  5. Platelet aggregation and serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in pregnancy associated with diabetes, hypertension and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Claudio A M; Leal, Daniela B R; Adefegha, Stephen A; Morsch, Vera M; da Silva, José E P; Rezer, João F P; Schrekker, Clarissa M L; Abdalla, Faida H; Schetinger, Maria R C

    2016-07-01

    Platelet aggregation and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity were evaluated in pregnant women living with some disease conditions including hypertension, diabetes mellitus and human immunodeficiency virus infection. The subject population is consisted of 15 non-pregnant healthy women [control group (CG)], 15 women with normal pregnancy (NP), 7 women with hypertensive pregnancy (HP), 10 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 12 women with human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnancy (HIP) groups. The aggregation of platelets was checked using an optical aggregometer, and serum ADA activity was determined using the colorimetric method. After the addition of 5 µM of agonist adenosine diphosphate, the percentage of platelet aggregation was significantly (p < 0·05) increased in NP, HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with the CG, while the addition of 10 µM of the same agonist caused significant (p < 0·05) elevations in HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with CG. Furthermore, ADA activity was significantly (p < 0·05) enhanced in NP, HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with CG. In this study, the increased platelet aggregation and ADA activity in pregnancy and pregnancy-associated diseases suggest that platelet aggregation and ADA activity could serve as peripheral markers for the development of effective therapy in the maintenance of homeostasis and some inflammatory process in these pathophysiological conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Adenosine deaminase activity in serum and lymphocytes of rats infected with Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Verônica S P; Pimentel, Victor C; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Thomé, Gustavo R; Wolkmer, Patrícia; Castro, Jorge L C; Costa, Márcio M; da Silva, Cássia B; Oliveira, Daniele C; Alves, Sydney H; Schetinger, Maria R C; Lopes, Sonia T A; Mazzanti, Cinthia M

    2012-07-01

    Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection of subcutaneous or chronic evolution, inflammatory lesions characterized by their pyogranulomatous aspect, caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a "key" enzyme in the purine metabolism, promoting the deamination of adenosine, an important anti-inflammatory molecule. The increase in ADA activity has been demonstrated in several inflammatory conditions; however, there are no data in the literature associated with this fungal infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the activity of serum ADA (S-ADA) and lymphocytes (L-ADA) of rats infected with S. schenckii. We used seventy-eight rats divided into two groups. In the first experiment, rats were infected subcutaneously and in the second experiment, infected intraperitoneally. Blood samples for hematologic evaluation and activities of S-ADA and L-ADA were performed at days 15, 30, and 40 post-infection (PI) to assess disease progression. In the second experiment, it was observed an acute decrease in activity of S-ADA and L-ADA (P schenckii alters the activities of S-ADA in experimentally infected rats, demonstrating the involvement of this enzyme in the pathogenesis of sporotrichosis.

  7. Pollutant-induced modulation in conformation and β-lactamase activity of human serum albumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejaz Ahmad

    Full Text Available Structural changes in human serum albumin (HSA induced by the pollutants 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol and 8-quinolinol were analyzed by circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. The alteration in protein conformational stability was determined by helical content induction (from 55 to 75% upon protein-pollutant interactions. Domain plasticity is responsible for the temperature-mediated unfolding of HSA. These findings were compared to HSA-hydrolase activity. We found that though HSA is a monomeric protein, it shows heterotropic allostericity for β-lactamase activity in the presence of pollutants, which act as K- and V-type non-essential activators. Pollutants cause conformational changes and catalytic modifications of the protein (increase in β-lactamase activity from 100 to 200%. HSA-pollutant interactions mediate other protein-ligand interactions, such as HSA-nitrocefin. Therefore, this protein can exist in different conformations with different catalytic properties depending on activator binding. This is the first report to demonstrate the catalytic allostericity of HSA through a mechanistic approach. We also show a correlation with non-microbial drug resistance as HSA is capable of self-hydrolysis of β-lactam drugs, which is further potentiated by pollutants due to conformational changes in HSA.

  8. Impact of antibacterial drugs on human serum paraoxonase-1 (hPON1) activity:an in vitro study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hakan Syt; Elif Duygu Kaya; kr Beydemir

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the in vitro effects of the antibacterial drugs, meropenem trihydrate, piperacillin sodium, and cefoperazone sodium, on the activity of human serum paraoxonase Methods: hPON1 was purified from human serum using simple chromatographic methods, including DEAE-Sephadex anion exchange and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography. Results:The three antibacterial drugs decreased in vitro hPON1 activity. Inhibition mechanisms meropenem trihydrate was noncompetitive while piperacillin sodium and cefoperazone sodium were competitive. Conclusions:Our results showed that antibacterial drugs significantly inhibit hPON1 activity, both in vitro, with rank order meropenem trihydrate piperacillin sodium cefoperazone sodium in vitro.

  9. Effect of 50% human serum on the killing activity of micafungin against eight Candida species using time-kill methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földi, Richárd; Szilágyi, Judit; Kardos, Gábor; Berényi, Réka; Kovács, Renátó; Majoros, László

    2012-08-01

    Micafungin activity was determined against 24 wild-type clinical isolates and 5 American Type Culture Collection strains belonging to 8 Candida species in RPMI-1640 with and without 50% serum using broth microdilution and time-kill methodology. MIC values increased from 4- to 128-folds in 50% serum for all Candida species. Micafungin was not fungicidal against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and against 2 of 3 C. metapsilosis at ≥0.25, 1, and 1 μg/mL, respectively, after 48 h with 50% serum, showing good fungistatic activity. Fungicidal activity at ≥2, 4, and 32 μg/mL was noticed against C. glabrata, C. inconspicua, and C. krusei isolates, respectively. Micafungin at 8-32 μg/mL showed fungistatic activity against C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis. Serum decreased the in vitro activity of micafungin. With serum binding of echinocandins taken into account, safely fungistatic or fungicidal concentrations seem to require elevated doses against some Candida species, including C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. krusei.

  10. The effect of pyridoxal-5-phosphate on serum alanine aminotransferase activity in dogs suffering from canine babesiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Myburgh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of serum aminotransferase (ALT activity in dogs relies on the endogenous pro-enzyme pyridoxal 5-phosphate (P5P. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the exclusion of P5P from the analytical method causes an underestimation of serum ALT activity in dogs suffering from babesiosis and in those manifesting evidence of hepatocellular damage, and to determine if anorexia causes sufficient P5P depletion to affect in vitro serum ALT activity. One-hundred-and-twenty healthy control dogs and 105 Babesia-infected dogs were included in the study. Two methods for ALT measurement were used: Method 1 included P5P, and Method 2 excluded P5P from the reaction mixture. Higher serum ALT activity was measured with Method 1 in the Babesia-infected dogs (P < 0.001, as well as in 14 dogs with suspected hepatocellular damage (P = 0.03. Duration of anorexia had no effect, irrespective of the method used. Although inclusion of P5P to the reaction mixture consistently resulted in higher measured serum ALT activity, the differences were too small to have led to incorrect diagnoses in the Babesia-infected dogs suspected of liver disease.

  11. The interaction between physical activity and fasting on the serum lipid profile during Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghdoost, A A; Poorranjbar, M

    2009-09-01

    The serum lipid profiles in Muslims change during the fasting month of Ramadan, but it is not clear whether this change is due to changes in their physical activities. In this study, we compared the patterns of the lipid profile changes in those who engaged in regular physical activity with those who did not. In a randomised trial, we assigned 93 students who took a physical education course into two groups--those who had regular physical activity after Ramadan and those who had physical activity during Ramadan. Venous blood (5 ml) was taken just before, at the end, and 40 days after Ramadan, and the fasting glucose sugar and lipid profile were measured. Fasting with physical activity decreased body weight by 1.2 kg (p-value is 0.03). Fasting blood sugar also decreased by 7 mg/dL during Ramadan, but this drop was observed in both groups. Triglyceride decreased in both groups during Ramadan, but cholesterol levels dropped considerably during and after Ramadan for those who concurrently engaged in physical activity and fasted (-12.24 and -8.4 mg/dL, respectively). The patterns of changes in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL/LDL values were more or less comparable in both groups (p is greater than 0.5). Usually, people are less physically active during Ramadan, but our findings show that physical activity alone cannot explain the variations in the lipid profile. Other factors, such as changes in the diet and sleeping hours, may have more important roles.

  12. Increased serum ß2-microglobulin is associated with clinical and immunological markers of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, M-L F; Hummelshøj, L; Lundsgaard, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between serum levels of ß2-microglobulin (ß2MG), which some studies suggest reflect disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and various clinical and immunological markers of disease activity in SLE. Twenty-six SLE patients...

  13. Serum inflammatory mediators correlate with disease activity in electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Munckhof, Bart; de Vries, Evelien E; Braun, Kees P J; Boss, H Myrthe; Willemsen, Michèl A; van Royen-Kerkhof, Annet; de Jager, Wilco; Jansen, Floor E

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to study serum cytokine levels in 11 electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) patients and 20 healthy control children. Patients showed significantly higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-10, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)8/IL-8 than controls, while macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and CCL3 were significantly lower. Follow-up analyses in five patients revealed a significant decrease of IL-6 levels after immunomodulating treatment. IL-6 changes were accompanied by clear improvement of electroencephalography (EEG) patterns and neuropsychological evaluation. We hypothesize that IL-6 correlates with disease activity and immunomodulating treatment efficacy.

  14. Serum YKL-40 Levels and Chitotriosidase Activity in Patients with Beta-Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Musumeci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. YKL-40 association with human disease has been the object of many years of investigation. β-thalassemia patients are affected by hepatic siderosis, which determines a fibrotic process and tissue remodelling. Chitotriosidase has been found to be increased in thalassemic patients returning to normal in patients submitted to bone marrow transplantation. YKL-40 is associated with macrophage activation in liver and in other tissues. The aim of the study was to analyse the level of serum YKL-40 and plasma chitotriosidase activity of patients with beta-thalassemia to assess whether their expression correlates with liver disease and degree of liver siderosis. Methods. Expression of YKL-40 and chitotriosidase as a marker of inflammation in 69 thalassemic patients were evaluated. We sought to investigate whether these two chitinases could be considered as a significant biomarker to evaluate therapy effectiveness. Results. Surprisingly we found normal value of YKL-40. We, also, analysed chitotriosidase activity in the same patients that was slightly increased as a consequence of macrophage activation. Conclusions. These data would suggest a good treatment for these patients.

  15. Elevated serum level of IL-27 and VEGF in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and associate with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tian-Tian; Lu, Jing; Qi, Chen-Yue; Yuan, Lin; Li, Xiao-Lin; Xia, Li-Ping; Shen, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-27 is an IL-12 family cytokine and exerts a critical role in immune regulation in the context of infection, autoimmunity, and angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible pathophysiological role of IL-27 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). One hundred and forty AS patients and 90 healthy controls were included in the current study. The levels of IL-27 and VEGF in serum and synovial fluid (SF) samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 were measured by standard laboratory techniques. Disease activity in AS was scored with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Hip involvement, peripheral arthritis, and eye involvement were also recorded. The serum levels of IL-27 were remarkably higher in AS patients than healthy groups and significantly correlated with serum levels of VEGF. Furthermore, the serum levels of IL-27 were correlated with BASDAI independent of other markers of inflammation. Elevated serum levels of IL-27 and VEGF were detected in AS patients with peripheral arthritis and HLA-B27 positive. The SF levels of IL-27 and VEGF were significantly higher than serum levels in AS patients with peripheral arthritis. By contrast, levels of IL-27 and VEGF were not increased in AS patients with hip involvement and eye involvement. IL-27 may regulate the immunological or inflammatory process of AS.

  16. Kinesiology Tape does not Affect Serum Creatine Kinase Level and Quadriceps Activity during Recovery from Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Aminaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS causes muscle damage and edema that can hinder performance and increase risks for secondary injuries. Kinesiology Tape (KT may be an effective modality for aiding in recovery, however, no study has investigated the effects of KT on the physiological biomarkers such as serum creatine kinase (CK level, concurrently with measures of performance and function, during recovery from DOMS. Objective: Investigate the effects of KT on serum CK level, electromyographic (EMG activity of the quadriceps muscles, and performances of countermovement jump (CMJ and triple single-leg hop for distance (HopD during recovery from DOMS. Method: Fifty-eight healthy college-age participants were randomly assigned to KT (n=15, placebo (n=19, and control (n=24 groups. Serum CK level and quadriceps EMG activity and performance during CMJ and HopD were collected at baseline, immediately after repetitive eccentric quadriceps exercise, 48 hours, and 72 hours post-exercise. The EMG recording of rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis during the CMJ and HopD were normalized to the baseline maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Results: A significant main effect of time on the serum CK level, EMG activity, and performance (p0.05. Conclusion: Taping interventions did not improve the serum CK level or muscle activity and performance during recovery from DOMS. Kinesiology tape may not be the first choice of method for enhancing recovery from DOMS in otherwise healthy individuals.

  17. Serum tau protein as a marker of disease activity in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O111-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Mondo; Shimizu, Masaki; Inoue, Natsumi; Ikeno, Iku; Nakagawa, Hiroyasu; Yokoi, Ayano; Niida, Yo; Konishi, Michio; Kaneda, Hisashi; Igarashi, Noboru; Yamahana, Junya; Taneichi, Hiromichi; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Ito, Mika; Saito, Shigeru; Furuichi, Kengo; Wada, Takashi; Nakagawa, Masaru; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Yachie, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Tau protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum are elevated in patients with various central nervous system diseases. We investigated whether serum tau protein levels are useful for predicting and assessing disease activity of acute encephalopathy (AE) in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O111-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS; EHEC encephalopathy). Serum samples were obtained from 14 patients with EHEC O111/HUS, 20 patients with non-EHEC-related AE, and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. CSF samples were obtained from 2 patients with EHEC encephalopathy and 20 patients with non-EHEC-related AE. Tau protein levels and levels of several proinflammatory cytokines were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results were compared with the clinical features of EHEC encephalopathy, including magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings. Serum tau levels in patients with EHEC encephalopathy were significantly elevated compared with those in patients with EHEC O111/HUS without encephalopathy, patients with non-EHEC-related AE, and healthy controls. The ratio of CSF tau levels to serum tau levels was >1.0 in all patients with non-EHEC-related AE but encephalopathy. Serum tau protein levels increased rapidly and markedly in patients with severe EHEC 0111/HUS and encephalopathy when HUS occurred, but were not elevated in mild patients, even in the HUS phase. Furthermore, changes in serum tau protein levels in patients with EHEC encephalopathy were consistent with abnormalities on brain MRI and were positively correlated with proinflammatory cytokine levels. Our results indicate that serum tau protein might be useful to predict and assess disease activity of EHEC encephalopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Serum antioxidant enzymes activities and oxidative stress levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke: influence on neurological status and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanlioglu, Aysel; Aslan, Mehmet; Ozkol, Halil; Çilingir, Vedat; Nuri Aydın, Mehmet; Karadas, Sevdegül

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress is well believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of acute ischemic stroke. Reports on antioxidant enzyme activities in patients with stroke are conflicting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate serum antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative stress levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke within 1st, 5th, and 21st day after stroke onset and also the relationship between these results and the clinical status of patients. The current study comprised 45 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 30 healthy controls. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase activities were measured spectrophotometrically. Serum MDA levels were significantly higher in acute ischemic stroke patients within 24 h after stroke onset than controls (p levels did not change (p > 0.05). Serum SOD activity was significantly lower in 21st day compared to SOD activity of controls (p levels, GSH-Px, and CAT activities did not change significantly. Our study demonstrated that acute ischemic stroke patients have increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant enzymes activities. These findings indicated that an imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant status might play a role in the pathogenesis of acute ischemic stroke.

  19. Activity of alpha-fucosidase and beta-glucuronidase in serum and urine of patients administered parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczkowska, Katarzyna; Szajda, Slawomir Dariusz; Raczkowski, Krzysztof; Zasadowska, Wioletta; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Kepka, Alina; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Knaś, Malgorzata; Snarska, Jadwiga; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Ladny, Jerzy Robert

    2013-01-01

    In hospital patients suffering from adverse clinical and biochemical symptoms of malnutrition, it is often necessary to employ parenteral nutrition to avoid the body's tissue becoming broken down by being metabolised. Thus, the patient's welfare and survival can be supported throughout any periods of medical crisis. Two of the enzymes responsible for metabolising glycoconjugates are alpha-fucosidase (FUC) and beta-glucuronidase (GLU), present in lysosomes. They release fucose or glucuronic acid from the non-reducing end of oligosaccharide chains. To determine the effect of parenteral nutrition administered to ill patients, on glycoconjugate metabolism, by measuring serum and urinary activities of FUC and GLU. Material and methods. Blood samples and the daily urine collection were taken from 23 patients' who had been undergoing parenteral nutrition for either 5 or 10 days, as well as from a baseline sample. Enzyme activities in serum and urine were determined by the method of Zwierz et al. Serum FUC activities were significantly lower after 10 days compared to 5, (p< 0.0172), whereas GLU activities were significantly lower after both 5 and 10 days, (p< 0.0007 and p< 0.0208 respectively), compared to levels before starting parenteral nutrition. GLU activities were however higher after 10 days than those after 5 days, (p< 0.0023). In urine, FUC activities were significantly decreased after 10 days compared to 5 days after starting parenteral nutrition, (p< 0.0245). Urine GLU activities were unaffected by parenteral nutrition nor was any effect seen on FUC or GLU activities when calculated per 1mg creatinine. Serum FUC and GLU activities can be used for assessing the effect of parenteral nutrition on glycoconjugate metabolism. The significant decreases of serum GLU activity observed after 5 and 10 days, may serve to indicate that the components of parental nutrition are appropriate and that the body has become suitably adapted to this form of nutrition.

  20. Antigen-specific helper activity in serum of mice primed with sheep red cells I. Definition of the test system and comparison with other systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, H. van; Rademaker, P.M.; Slotboom, A.; Willers, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    An adoptive transfer system is described to measure serum helper activity in the primary antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Mice injected with a high dose of cyclophosphamide and reconstituted with rabbit anti-thymocyte serum-treated spleen cells were used as recipients. Serum obtain

  1. Comparison of Antibodies with Amylase Activity from Cerebrospinal Fluid and Serum of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilii B Doronin

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that IgGs from serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of MS patients are active in hydrolysis of DNA and myelin basic protein. According to literature data, anti-DNA and anti-MBP abzymes may promote important neuropathologic mechanisms in this chronic inflammatory disorder and in MS pathogenesis development. At the same time, the involvement of antibodies with amylase activity in the pathogenesis of any autoimmune disease has not yet been identified. Electrophoretically and immunologically homogeneous IgGs were obtained by a sequential affinity chromatography of the CSF proteins on protein G-Sepharose and FPLC gel filtration. We are able to present the first unpredictable evidence showing that IgGs from CSF possess amylase activity and efficiently hydrolyze maltoheptaose; their average specific Ab activity is ~30-fold higher than that of antibodies from sera of the same MS patients. Specific average RA (SAA for IgGs from healthy volunteers was approximately ~1000 lower than that for MS patients. In addition, it was shown that a relative SAA of total proteins of CSF (including Abs ~15-fold lower than that for purified IgGs, while the relative SAA of the total sera protein is higher than that of sera IgGs by a factor of 1033. This result speaks in favor of the fact that amylolytic activity of CSF proteins is mainly caused by the activity of amylase abzymes. One cannot exclude, that amylase abzymes of CSF can play a, as yet unknown, role in the pathogenesis of MS. Some possible reasons of these findings are discussed.

  2. Drosophila pico and its mammalian ortholog lamellipodin activate serum response factor and promote cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyulcheva, Ekaterina; Taylor, Eleanor; Michael, Magdalene; Vehlow, Anne; Tan, Shengjiang; Fletcher, Adam; Krause, Matthias; Bennett, Daimark

    2008-11-01

    MIG-10/RIAM/lamellipodin (MRL) proteins link activated Ras-GTPases with actin regulatory Ena/VASP proteins to induce local changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and cell motility. MRL proteins alter monomeric (G):filamentous (F) actin ratios, but the impact of these changes had not been fully appreciated. We report here that the Drosophila MRL ortholog, pico, is required for tissue and organismal growth. Reduction in pico levels resulted in reduced cell division rates, growth retardation, increased G:F actin ratios and lethality. Conversely, pico overexpression reduced G:F actin ratios and promoted tissue overgrowth in an epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR)-dependent manner. Consistently, in HeLa cells, lamellipodin was required for EGF-induced proliferation. We show that pico and lamellipodin share the ability to activate serum response factor (SRF), a transcription factor that responds to reduced G:F-actin ratios via its co-factor Mal. Genetics data indicate that mal/SRF levels are important for pico-mediated tissue growth. We propose that MRL proteins link EGFR activation to mitogenic SRF signaling via changes in actin dynamics.

  3. Drosophila Pico and Its Mammalian Ortholog Lamellipodin Activate Serum Response Factor and Promote Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyulcheva, Ekaterina; Taylor, Eleanor; Michael, Magdalene; Vehlow, Anne; Tan, Shengjiang; Fletcher, Adam; Krause, Matthias; Bennett, Daimark

    2008-01-01

    Summary MIG-10/RIAM/lamellipodin (MRL) proteins link activated Ras-GTPases with actin regulatory Ena/VASP proteins to induce local changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and cell motility. MRL proteins alter monomeric (G):filamentous (F) actin ratios, but the impact of these changes had not been fully appreciated. We report here that the Drosophila MRL ortholog, pico, is required for tissue and organismal growth. Reduction in pico levels resulted in reduced cell division rates, growth retardation, increased G:F actin ratios and lethality. Conversely, pico overexpression reduced G:F actin ratios and promoted tissue overgrowth in an epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR)-dependent manner. Consistently, in HeLa cells, lamellipodin was required for EGF-induced proliferation. We show that pico and lamellipodin share the ability to activate serum response factor (SRF), a transcription factor that responds to reduced G:F-actin ratios via its co-factor Mal. Genetics data indicate that mal/SRF levels are important for pico-mediated tissue growth. We propose that MRL proteins link EGFR activation to mitogenic SRF signaling via changes in actin dynamics. PMID:19000833

  4. A Rapid and Sensitive Method to Measure the Functional Activity of Shiga Toxins in Human Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Arfilli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxins (Stx have a definite role in the development of hemolytic uremic syndrome in children with hemorrhagic colitis caused by pathogenic Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC strains. The dramatic effects of these toxins on the microvasculature of different organs, particularly of the kidney, are well known, whereas there is no consensus on the mechanism by which Stx reach the endothelia of target organs and/or indirectly injure these body sites. We hereby describe a quick (4 h, radioactive, Raji cell-based method designed for the detection of Stx in human sera. The assay monitors the translation impairment induced by these powerful inhibitors of protein synthesis, which are identified properly by neutralizing their activity with specific monoclonal antibodies. By this method, we detected for the first time the functional activity of Stx in sera of STEC-infected patients during hemorrhagic colitis. Recent research has pointed to a dynamic process of Stx-induced renal intoxication in which concurrent and interactive steps are involved. Our rapid and specific method could be useful for studying the kinetics of Stx during the natural course of STEC infection and the interplay between Stx activity in serum and Stx presence in different blood fractions (neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, leukocyte-platelet aggregates, microvesicles, lipoproteins.

  5. A Rapid and Sensitive Method to Measure the Functional Activity of Shiga Toxins in Human Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfilli, Valentina; Carnicelli, Domenica; Ardissino, Gianluigi; Torresani, Erminio; Scavia, Gaia; Brigotti, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxins (Stx) have a definite role in the development of hemolytic uremic syndrome in children with hemorrhagic colitis caused by pathogenic Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains. The dramatic effects of these toxins on the microvasculature of different organs, particularly of the kidney, are well known, whereas there is no consensus on the mechanism by which Stx reach the endothelia of target organs and/or indirectly injure these body sites. We hereby describe a quick (4 h), radioactive, Raji cell-based method designed for the detection of Stx in human sera. The assay monitors the translation impairment induced by these powerful inhibitors of protein synthesis, which are identified properly by neutralizing their activity with specific monoclonal antibodies. By this method, we detected for the first time the functional activity of Stx in sera of STEC-infected patients during hemorrhagic colitis. Recent research has pointed to a dynamic process of Stx-induced renal intoxication in which concurrent and interactive steps are involved. Our rapid and specific method could be useful for studying the kinetics of Stx during the natural course of STEC infection and the interplay between Stx activity in serum and Stx presence in different blood fractions (neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, leukocyte-platelet aggregates, microvesicles, lipoproteins). PMID:26556372

  6. The effect of the binge drinking session on the activity of salivary, serum and urinary beta-hexosaminidase: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szajda, Slawomir Dariusz; Jankowska, Anna; Kepka, Alina; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Szulc, Agata; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    Our report is the first to show that an acute ingestion (6 h) of a relatively large, yet tolerable dose of alcohol (120-160 g), significantly increases activity of total serum beta-hexosaminidase (total beta-HEX), beta-HEX A and beta-HEX B isoenzymes, as well as salivary total beta-HEX and urinary beta-HEX A, in eight infrequent binge drinkers. An increase in the activity of serum and urinary total HEX is mainly due to its secretory isoenzyme beta-HEX A.

  7. CORRELATION BETWEEN SERUM PARAOXONASE ACTIVITY AND HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN LEVELS IN TYPE2 DIABETES PREDISPOSING TO ATEROSCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK.Deepthi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human serum paraoxonase is physically associated with HDL and has been implicated in the detoxification of organophosphates and possibly in the prevention of LDL lipid peroxidation and therefore retards atherosclerosis. HDL levels are inversely related to the risk of developing atherosclerosis. We investigated the serum activity and concentration of paraoxonase and HDL levels in 104 subjects (42 diabetic patients without complications, 42 controls, 20 diabetic patients with complications.. Paraoxonase activity was found to be lower in diabetic patients than in controls. Similarly there was reduction in HDL levels in cases suggesting a positive correlation between HDL and paraoxonase levels.

  8. Relationship between serum HBV RNA levels and intrahepatic viral as well as histologic activity markers in entecavir-treated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, Yiqi; Li, Guojun; Shen, Chuan; Meng, Zhefeng; Zheng, Jianming; Jia, Yanhong; Chen, Shaolong; Zhang, Xiao; Zhu, MengQi; Zheng, Jiangjiang; Song, Zhangzhang; Wu, Jing; Shao, Lingyun; Qian, Peiyu; Mao, Xiaona; Wang, Xuanyi; Huang, Yuxian; Zhao, Caiyan; Zhang, Jiming; Qiu, Chao; Zhang, Wenhong

    2017-09-01

    In diagnostics, serum hepatitis B virus (HBV)-RNA levels are valuable when the HBV-DNA load in circulation is effectively suppressed by nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) therapy. This study aimed to determine the intrahepatic viral replication activity reflected in serum HBV-RNA and whether HBV-RNA contributes to liver histological changes in NUC-treated patients. A cross-sectional set of serum and liver biopsy samples was obtained from entecavir-treated patients with undetectable levels of serum HBV-DNA. The correlations between HBV-RNA concentration in serum and levels of peripheral and intrahepatic viral replicative forms and histological scores were analyzed. Quasispecies of serum HBV-RNA and intrahepatic viral replicative forms were examined by deep sequencing. HBV-RNA-positive hepatocytes were visualized by in situ hybridization. Serum HBV-RNA was detected in 35 of 47 patients (74.47%, 2.33-4.80 log10 copies/mL). These levels correlated not only with the intrahepatic HBV-RNA level and the ratio of intrahepatic HBV-RNA to covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), but also with the histological scores for grading and staging. From the view of quasispecies, serum HBV-RNA was more genetically homogenous with contemporaneously sampled intrahepatic HBV-RNA relative to cccDNA pool and dynamically changed over time in consecutive samples. In situ histology study revealed that HBV-RNA-positive hepatocytes were clustered in foci, sporadically distributed across the lobules, and co-localized with hepatitis B surface antigen. Serum HBV-RNA levels reflect intrahepatic viral transcriptional activity and are associated with liver histopathology in patients receiving NUC therapy. Our study sheds light on the nature of HBV-RNA in the pathogenesis of chronic HBV infection and has implications for the management of chronic hepatitis B during NUC therapy. Serum HBV-RNA levels are indicative of the intrahepatic transcriptional activity of covalently closed circular DNA and are

  9. Investigation on the binding activities of citalopram with human and bovine serum albumins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jingjing; Liu, Yan, E-mail: liuyan@fjirsm.ac.cn; Chen, Mingmao; Huang, Huayin; Song, Ling, E-mail: songling@fjirsm.ac.cn

    2014-02-15

    The binding interactions of citalopram (CIT), an efficient antidepressant, with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated by a series of spectroscopic methods including fluorescence, UV–vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR). The fluorescence quenching and UV–vis absorption studies reveal that CIT could form complexes with both HSA and BSA. The CIT–BSA complex exhibits higher binding affinity than CIT–HSA complex. The thermodynamic study further suggests that the interactions between CIT and SAs are mainly driven by hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds. The {sup 1}H NMR analysis indicates that the participation of different functional groups of CIT is unequal in the complexation of CIT–HSA and CIT–BSA. Site marker competitive experiments show that the interactions between CIT and SAs primarily locate at sub-domain II A (site I). The effects of CIT on the conformation of SAs are further analyzed via synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence and CD spectra techniques. The results prove that the presence of CIT decreases the α-helical content of both SAs and induces the slight unfolding of the polypeptides of protein. Additionally, the conformational change of BSA induced by CIT is larger than that of HSA. -- Highlights: • The difference of binding activity between CIT–BSA and CIT–HSA is first reported. • Use spectroscopic, thermodynamic, and NMR methods. • CIT exhibits higher binding affinity to BSA than to HSA. • The binding forces between CIT and SA have been investigated. • The complexation of CIT–SA induces the conformational change of SA.

  10. The relationship between metabolic presbycusis and serum paraoxonase/arylesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleş, Erol; Kapusuz, Zeliha; Gürsu, Mehmet Ferit; Karlıdag, Turgut; Kaygusuz, Irfan; Bulmuş, Funda Gülcü; Yalcın, Sinasi

    2014-01-01

    To determine the presence of a relationship between metabolic presbycusis and serum paraoxonase/arylesterase activity. A total of 30 patients who had been admitted to the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) Clinic of Fırat University Medical Faculty and diagnosed as metabolic presbycusis were included in the study. The control group was composed of 30 healthy volunteers. Pure tone audiometry and impedencemeter were performed on all subjects included in the study at the audiometry laboratory of the ENT clinic. The presence of a regular hearing curve, a symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss more than 25 dB with preserved speech discrimination were accepted as criteria for metabolic presbycusis. Blood samples were drawn from the patients prior to the hearing tests. The sera were separated for measurements of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, human serum paraoxonase and arylesterase levels, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between the patient and the control groups in terms of age and gender. Paraoxonase, arylesterase and paraoxonase/arylesterase, high-density lipoprotein levels were found to decrease in the study group and the difference was found to be statistically significant compared to the control group (P presbycusis. Furthermore, the results of this study make us think that there could be a relationship between metabolic presbycusis and cardiovascular diseases. In this case, metabolic presbycusis may be a determining parameter in the early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. We consider that this study may be the pioneer for further studies conducted with larger patient numbers.

  11. Characterization and antioxidant activity of bovine serum albumin and sulforaphane complex in different solvent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xueyan; Zhou, Rui; Jing, Hao, E-mail: h200521@cau.edu.cn

    2014-02-15

    Modes and influencing factors of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sulforaphane (SFN) interaction will help us understand the interaction mechanisms and functional changes of bioactive small molecule and biomacromolecule. This study investigated interaction mechanisms of BSA and SFN and associated antioxidant activity in three solvent systems of deionized water (dH{sub 2}O), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol (EtOH), using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), fluorescence spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The results revealed that SFN had ability to quench BSA's fluorescence in static modes, and to interact with BSA at both tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp) residues, while the Trp residues were highly sensitive, which was demonstrated by fluorescence at 340 nm. Hydrophobic forces, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions were all involved in BSA and SFN interaction, which were not significantly changed by three solvents. The binding constant values and binding site numbers were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. The values of free energy change were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH, which indicated that the binding forces were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. There was no significant difference in antioxidant activity between SFN and BSA–SFN. Moreover, three solvents had not significant influence on antioxidant activity of SFN and BSA–SFN. -- Highlights: • We report interaction mechanisms of BSA and sulforaphane in three solvent systems. • We report antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane complex in three solvent systems. • Decreasing the solvent polarity will decrease the binding of BSA and sulforaphane. • Three solvents had not influence on antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane.

  12. Pneumococcal intracellular killing is abolished by polysaccharide despite serum complement activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Schweinle, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Normal human serum absorbed at 0 degrees C with pneumococcal serotype 1, 12, or 25 lost the ability to support polymorphonuclear leukocyte intracellular killing of some pneumococcal serotypes even if immunoglobulin was provided. The absorbed serum contained no organisms but had residual polysaccharide when measured by counterimmunoelectrophoresis against type-specific antisera. The influence of pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPS) on serum support of intracellular polymorphonuclear leukocyte kil...

  13. Effects of Oxidized Tallow on the Rabbit Serum Lipids and Antioxidant Activity of the In-vitro Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam; Rahman, Waheed Ur

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the effects of thermally oxidized tallow on the serum lipids profile and radical scavenging activity (RSA) of the lipids extracted from the different tissues of the rabbits. Tallow was thermally oxidized at 130℃ for 9, 18, 27, 36 and 45 h respectively. Thermally oxidized tallow was fed to the local strain of Himalayan rabbits for one week. Results show that oxidation increases the formation of hydroperoxides and decrease the level of radical scavenging activity of the tallow. The rabbit serum lipids profile showed a dose dependent increase in triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. However, no statistically significant increase was observed in the HDL-cholesterol with an increase of oxidation time. Serum glucose and rabbits body weight decrease significantly (p tallow is harmful and therefore an alternative way of cooking should be used.

  14. Activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum and synovial fluid in patients with chronic Lyme and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancewicz, Slawomir; Popko, Janusz; Rutkowski, Ryszard; Knaś, Malgorzata; Grygorczuk, Sambor; Guszczyn, Tomasz; Bruczko, Marta; Szajda, Slawomir; Zajkowska, Joanna; Kondrusik, Maciej; Sierakowski, Stanislaw; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Lysosomal exoglycosidases participate in the destruction of the articular cartilage by cleaving glycoside bonds in glycoproteins and proteoglycans. The aim of the study was to determine the activity of exoglycosidases: hexosaminidase, beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, alpha-mannosidase and alpha-fucosidase in serum and synovial fluid of patients with Lyme and rheumatoid arthritis. The study group consisted of 10 patients with chronic Lyme arthritis (age 18 - 74 y), 13 with rheumatoid arthritis (age 32 - 70 y) and 10 with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (age 8 - 17 y). The control group consisted of 9 healthy volunteers (age 24 - 62 y). The activity of the exoglycosidases was determined with the p-nitrophenyl derivatives of sugars as substrates. A significant increase of the activity of all the exoglycosidases in serum and in synovial fluid of the patients with different forms of arthritis was found. The ratio of synovial fluid/serum activity of exoglycosidases was above 2.0 in LA but not in JIA and RA patients. As the main source of exoglycosidases in the joint is the synovial membrane, this result supports the appropriateness of therapeutic synovectomy in chronic Lyme arthritis with knee effusion. The serum activity of hexosaminidase may be used in monitoring the course of Lyme arthritis and the efficiency of treatment.

  15. Interaction and sonodynamic damage activity of acridine red (AD-R) to bovine serum albumin (BSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dandan; Xie, Jinhui; Wu, Qiong; Fan, Ping; Wang, Jun, E-mail: wangjun888tg@126.com

    2015-04-15

    The sonodynamic therapy (SDT) has become an attractive antitumor treatment method in recent years, but the selection of sonosensitizer, mechanism of damage biomolecule and kind of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during sonodynamic process have not been investigated in detail. In this paper, the acridine red (AD-R), as a sonosensitizer, combining with ultrasonic irradiation to damage bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated. At first, the interaction of AD-R to BSA molecules in aqueous solution was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. As judged from the experimental results, the quenching mechanism of BSA fluorescence belongs to a static process. Synchronous fluorescence spectra demonstrate that the binding and damage sites to BSA molecules are mainly on the tryptophan residues. The generation and kind of generated ROS were also estimated by the method of oxidation and extraction photometry. This paper may offer some valuable references for the study of the sonodynamic activity and application of AD-R in SDT for tumor treatment. - Highlights: ●Acridine red (AD-R) is used to study interaction with BSA. ●Spectroscopy is used to study sonodynamic damage activity of AD-R to BSA. ●Generation of ROS caused by AD-R under ultrasonic irradiation was determined.

  16. Measurement of serum paraoxonase-1 activity in the evaluation of liver function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jordi Camps; Judit Marsillach; Jorge Joven

    2009-01-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an esterase and lactonase synthesized by the liver and found in the circulation associated with high-density lipoproteins. The physiological function of PON1 seems to be to degrade specific oxidized cholesteryl esters and oxidized phospholipids in lipoproteins and cell membranes. PON1 is, therefore, an antioxidant enzyme. Alterations in circulating PON1 levels have been reported in a variety of diseases involving oxidative stress including chronic liver diseases. Measurement of serum PON1 activity has been proposed as a potential test for the evaluation of liver function. However, this measurement is still restricted to research and has not been extensively applied in routine clinical chemistry laboratories. The reason for this restriction is due to the problem that the substrate commonly used for PON1 measurement,paraoxon, is toxic and unstable. The recent development of new assays with non-toxic substrates makes this proposal closer to a practical development. The present editorial summarizes PON1 biochemistry and function,its involvement with chronic liver impairment, and some aspects related to the measurement of PON1 activity in circulation.

  17. The influence of starvation and water deprivation upon certain serum enzyme activity in chicks in the first week after hatching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovska-Gosic Bozidarka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade the determination of enzyme activity in blood serum, organs and tissues gained an innocuous meaning in the veterinary medicine, especially in the early stages of diagnosis of different metabolism abnormalities. However, the experience gained from the human medicine, without a detail analyses could not be applied on domestic animals and poultry, because of the fact that the enzyme activity in the cells of different animal tissues and organs differs from those of the humans. This explains the different diagnostic meaning of the enzyme activity in animals and humans. Up to date, an extensive research of the enzyme status is done, in order to gain information for their importance in the biochemical processes in the organism, disturbances in the cell membrane transport, disease diagnosis and nutritional disorders.The influence of different stress factors and conditions upon enzyme activity both in serum and tissues is still one of the major topics in many researches. In the first week after hatch important physiological changes occur in chick organism. In the same time, in the first 24-48 hours, they are exposed to the influence of different stressors such as transportation to the hatchery along with feed and water deprivation, what gives the assumption that changes do occur in the serum enzyme activity in the first days after hatch. As literature data on the influence of food and water deprivation upon serum enzyme activity are poor and often very contradictory, this paper will try to contribute to the extensive research on the topic and clear some misunderstandings. For that purpose serum activities of the following enzymes were analysed: alanine aminotransferase, aspartat aminotarnsferase, gamma glutamile transferase, actate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase.

  18. The investigation for the relationship among serum leptin, erythrocyte membrane Ca2+-ATPase activity and hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunfang Li; Wenli Gou; Xuelian Chen; Shuping Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of Leptin and the activity of erythrocyte membrane Ca2+-ATPase (EMCA) in the development of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy. Methods: Radioimmunoassay was used to test the level of serum Leptin,and the activity of EMCA was determined chemically in 38 pregnant women with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy and 36 normotensive pregnant women. Results: The level of serum Leptin in hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy(gestational hypertension: 13.76 ± 3.46 ng/ml; preeclampsia:15.76 ± 5.47 ng/ml; eclampsia: 18.32 ± 6.38 ng/ml)was significantly higher than that in normotensive pregnant women (11.33 ± 2.93 ng/ml), respectively. The average EMCA activity of patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy (gestational hypertension: 1.65 ± 0.24 μmol· pi/mg·h; preeclampsia: 1.37 ± 0.19 μmol·pi/mg·h; eclampsia:1.12 ± 0.14 μ mol·pi/mg·h) was significantly lower than that of normotensive pregnant women(1.83 ±0.38 μ mol·pi/mg·h),respectively. There was a negative correlation between the level of serum Leptin and the activity of RMCA in hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy (r = -0.63). Conclusion: Inhibition of EMCA activity of erythrocyte in hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy may increase cytoplasmic free calcium, which contributes to the development of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy. The negative correlation between the level of serum Leptin and the activity of EMCA, also suggested that serum Leptin and the activity of EMCA may play a role in the development of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy.

  19. Serum hexosaminidase and ß-glucuronidase activities in infants: effects of age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabe P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of age and sex on the serum activity of hexosaminidase (HEX and ß-glucuronidase (BGLU in 275 normal term infants aged 12 h to 12 months. Up to six weeks of life, HEX was significantly higher in boys (P<=0.023. During the age period of 1-26 weeks, BGLU was also higher in boys, but differences were significant only at 2-6 and 7-15 weeks (P<=0.016. The developmental pattern of HEX and BGLU was sex dependent. HEX activity increased in both sexes from 4-7 days of life, reaching a maximum of 1.4-fold the birth value at 2-6 weeks of age in boys (P<0.001 and a maximum of 1.6-fold at 7-15 weeks in girls (P<0.001. HEX activity gradually decreased thereafter, reaching significantly lower levels at 27-53 weeks than during the first three days of life in boys (P = 0.002 and the same level of this age interval in girls. BGLU increased in both sexes from 4-7 days of age, showing a maximum increase at 7-15 weeks (3.3-fold in boys and 2.9-fold in girls, both P<0.001. Then BGLU decreased in boys to a value similar to that observed at 4-7 days of age. In girls, BGLU remained elevated until the end of the first year of life. These results indicate a variation of HEX and BGLU activities during the first year of life and a sex influence on their developmental pattern. This observation should be considered in the diagnosis of GM2 gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis type VII.

  20. Serum thymic factor, FTS, attenuates cisplatin nephrotoxicity by suppressing cisplatin-induced ERK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, Yuka; Kawai, Yoshiko; Iwamoto, Noriaki; Matsunaga, Yoshiko; Aiga, Hiromi; Awaya, Akira; Gemba, Munekazu

    2005-11-01

    Serum thymic factor (FTS), a thymic peptide hormone, has been reported to attenuate the bleomycin-induced pulmonary injury and also experimental pancreatitis and diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of FTS on cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (cisplatin)-induced nephrotoxicity. We have already demonstrated that cephaloridine, a nephrotoxic antibiotic, leads to extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation in the rat kidney, which probably contributes to cephaloridine-induced renal dysfunction. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cisplatin on ERK activation in the rat kidney and also the effect of FTS on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. In vitro treatment of LLC-PK1 cells with FTS significantly ameliorated cisplatin-induced cell injury. Treatment of rats with intravenous cisplatin for 3 days markedly induced renal dysfunction and increased platinum contents in the kidney cortex. An increase in pERK was detected in the nuclear fraction prepared from the rat kidney cortex from days 1 to 3 after injection of cisplatin. FTS suppressed cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction and ERK activation in the kidney. FTS did not influence any Pt contents in the kidney after cisplatin administration. FTS has been shown to enhance the in vivo expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 in the kidney cortex. The beneficial role of FTS against cisplatin nephrotoxicity may be mediated in part by HSP70, as suggested by its up-regulation in the kidney cortex treated with FTS alone. Our results suggest that FTS participates in protection from cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by suppressing ERK activation caused by cisplatin.

  1. Influence of Bovine Serum Albumin on the Antibacterial Activity of Endodontic Irrigants against Enterococcus Faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedmat, Sedigheh; Aligholi, Marziyeh; Sadeghi, Samaneh

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been demonstrated that organic content of the root canals can influence the antimicrobial capability of chemical irrigants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bovine serum albumin (BSA), as an organic material, on the antimicrobial activity of several intracanal irrigants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bactericidal activity of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) 17%, citric acid 10%, Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 5.25%, Chlorhexidine 0.2% (CHX), Smear Clear and Cetrimide 0.5% were tested by means of dilution-neutralization method. Contact times were 10 and 30 seconds, 5, 10, 30, 60 minutes and 24 hours. First 950 λ of the medicament was mixed with 50 λ of the bacterial suspension in an Eppendorf test tube. The suspensions were thoroughly mixed. Sterile water served as negative controls. After each contact time, 100 λ of samples was transferred to the Eppendorf test tubes which contained neutralizers. After 5 minutes, 50 λ of serial dilutions were cultured on brain heart infusion agar and incubated in aerobic conditions. Then colonies were counted and reported as cfu/mL. In half of the samples, medicaments were suspended in BSA 0.5% 30 minutes before examination to assess its possible inhibitory effect on the antibacterial activity. RESULTS: NaOCl 5.25%, Cetrimide 0.5% and Smear Clear showed bactericidal activity within seconds after the incubation. BSA had no inhibitory effect on bactericidal activity of these three medicaments. CHX took 5 and10 minutes to kill all bacterial cells in the absence and presence of BSA, respectively. Citric acid and EDTA showed the least antibacterial activity. CONCLUSION: In this study, NaOCl 5.25%, Cetrimide 0.5% and Smear Clear were significantly more effective against E. faecalis than EDTA 17% and citric acid 10% in the presence and absence of BSA. Also, in the presence of BSA, bactericidal activity of CHX 0.2% against E. faecalis was significantly more than EDTA after 10 and 30 minutes of

  2. Serum HMGB1 Serves as a Novel Laboratory Indicator Reflecting Disease Activity and Treatment Response in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ye; Huang, Yishu; Sun, Mengchen; Zhu, Yingzi; Zheng, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a late inflammatory factor participating in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In the current study, we analyzed the association between serum levels of HMGB1 and clinical features of AS patients before and during treatment. Methods. Serum HMGB1 was detected in 147 AS patients and 61 healthy controls using ELISA. We evaluated the association between HMGB1 and extra-articular manifestations as well as disease severity indices. Among these AS patients, 41 patients received close follow-up at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. This group comprised 25 patients treated with anti-TNF-α biologics and 16 patients receiving oral NSAIDs plus sulfasalazine. Results. The serum HMGB1 of AS patients was significantly higher than in healthy controls and positively correlated with BASDAI, BASFI, ASDAS-ESR, ASDAS-CRP, ESR, and CRP, but not with HLA-B27, anterior uveitis, and recurrent diarrhea. There was no significant difference between patients with radiographic damage of hip joints and those without. We observed that serum HMGB1 paralleled disease activity after treatment. Conclusion. Serum level of HMGB1 is higher in AS patients, and to some extent, HMGB1 can reflect the activity of AS and be used as a laboratory indicator to reflect the therapeutic response.

  3. Serum HMGB1 Serves as a Novel Laboratory Indicator Reflecting Disease Activity and Treatment Response in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenqiong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 is a late inflammatory factor participating in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In the current study, we analyzed the association between serum levels of HMGB1 and clinical features of AS patients before and during treatment. Methods. Serum HMGB1 was detected in 147 AS patients and 61 healthy controls using ELISA. We evaluated the association between HMGB1 and extra-articular manifestations as well as disease severity indices. Among these AS patients, 41 patients received close follow-up at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. This group comprised 25 patients treated with anti-TNF-α biologics and 16 patients receiving oral NSAIDs plus sulfasalazine. Results. The serum HMGB1 of AS patients was significantly higher than in healthy controls and positively correlated with BASDAI, BASFI, ASDAS-ESR, ASDAS-CRP, ESR, and CRP, but not with HLA-B27, anterior uveitis, and recurrent diarrhea. There was no significant difference between patients with radiographic damage of hip joints and those without. We observed that serum HMGB1 paralleled disease activity after treatment. Conclusion. Serum level of HMGB1 is higher in AS patients, and to some extent, HMGB1 can reflect the activity of AS and be used as a laboratory indicator to reflect the therapeutic response.

  4. Serum amylase activity and renal amylase activity clearance in patients with severely impaired renal function and in patients treated with renal allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Brock, A; Kornerup, H J

    1976-03-01

    Serum amylase activity was measured in 29 nondialysed patients with severe renal failure, in 24 uraemic patients treated with chronic haemodialysis, and in 29 patients treated with renal allotransplantation. Simultaneous measurement of renal amylase activity clearance (CAm) and creatinine clearance (CCr) was performed in 25 patients with severe renal failure and in 19 transplanted patients. Serum amylase activity was elevated in all three groups. CAm was significantly correlated to CCr both in the group with severe renal failure and in the transplanted group. Unlike in the group of transplanted patients, the ratio CAm/CCr was significantly increased in patients with severe impaired renal function. It is concluded that the elevation of serum amylase activity in patients with impaired renal function is primarily due to decreased glomerular filtration rate. The value of CAm/CCr for diagnosing acute pancreatitis is doubtful in patients with severe renal disease.

  5. Serum soluble Talin-1 levels are elevated in patients with multiple sclerosis, reflecting its disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Mayumi; Mori, Masahiro; Liu, Jia; Uzawa, Akiyuki; Uchida, Tomohiko; Masuda, Hiroki; Ohtani, Ryohei; Sugimoto, Kazuo; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2017-04-15

    Previously, we identified anti-Talin-1 antibodies in the serum of MS. In this case, we measured the serum soluble Talin-1 (sTalin-1) levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The serum sTalin-1 levels were significantly higher in 40 patients with MS than in 43 normal controls and in the acute phase of disease than in the remission phase. Interestingly, serum sTalin-1 levels were associated with a sustained increase in disability after MS attack but not with serum anti-Talin-1 antibody levels. sTalin-1 may be a biomarker for the acute phase of MS and may be used for the short-term prognosis of MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Species differences in avian serum B esterases revealed by chromatofocusing and possible relationships of esterase activity to pesticide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, H M; Mackness, M I; Walker, C H; Hardy, A R

    1991-04-15

    Serum cholinesterase (BChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) activities were investigated in ten species of birds. Multiple forms of serum BChE and CbE were also separated by chromatofocusing. Higher CbE activity and a wider range of CbE and BChE forms were present in the sera of omnivorous/herbivorous birds than carnivores. Omnivores/herbivores studied were the starling, house sparrow, tree sparrow, pigeon, partridge and magpie. Serum CbE activities of these species ranged from 0.46 to 2.93 mumol/min/mL with 2-6 forms separated by chromatofocusing. 0-6 forms of BChE were separated by the same method. The serum CbE activities of the little owl, tawny owl, barn owl and razorbill ranged from 0.19 to 0.58 mumoles/min/mL with 0-2 forms separated by chromatofocusing. No ChE forms were present within the pH gradient. These results may be significant in contributing to the understanding of the selective toxicity of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides.

  7. Relation between serum xenobiotic induced receptor activities and sperm DNA damage and sperm apoptotic markers in European and Inuit populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Stronati, Alessanda; Bizzaro, Davide;

    2007-01-01

    -mediated luciferase reporter gene expression. Sperm DNA damage was measured using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-driven dUTP nick labeling assay (TUNEL) and pro- (Fas) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-xL) markers were determined by immune methods. Different features of xenobiotic-induced receptor activity in serum...

  8. [Activity of cathepsin D in the blood serum and urine of patients with cancer of the stomach, pancreas and liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Snarska, Jadwiga; Roszkowska-Jakimiec, Wiesława; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Siedlecka, Katarzyna; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Krupkowska, Agnieszka

    2006-12-01

    Cathepsin D is a protease involved in invasion of the cancer and metastasis formation. The purpose of the study was to evaluate a prognostic value of cathepsin D activity in blood serum and urine of patients with cancer of the stomach, pancreas and liver. The study was carried out on the samples of blood serum and urine obtained from patients with cancer of the stomach, pancreas and liver treated surgically at the First Department of General Surgery and Endocrinology of the Medical University of Białystok. The control group consisted of healthy individuals. Activity of cathepsin D was determined in serum and urine by the Folin-Ciocaltau method with the cupric modification and was expressed in nmol Tyr/ml/6h. Specific activity of cathepsin D was determined in the urine, and was expressed in nmol Tyr/mg of protein/6h. Protein concentration in serum was assessed with Lowry et al. method and results were expressed in mg/ml. A significant increase in activity of cathepsin D in serum (p = 0.0169) and urine (p = 0.0008) and an enhanced specific activity in the urine (p = 0.0085) was found in patients with cancer of the pancreas as compared with the controls. A significantly increased activity of cathepsin was revealed in serum (p = 0.0233) of patients with cancer of the stomach. No significant differences of cathepsin D activity were found in urine of the patients with cancer of the stomach when compared to the controls. Additionally, an upward tendency (almost two-fold increase) of cathepsin D activity was shown in blood serum and an increase in the activity and in specific activity was observed in urine of both patients with cancer of the liver in comparison with the healthy individuals. There were no significant differences in the activity of cathepsin D in serum of the patients with cancer of the pancreas and stomach (p = 0.4156). A statistically significantly higher activity (p = 0.0004) and specific (0.0048) cathepsin D activity was demonstrated in urine of the

  9. Programmed cell death 5 correlates with disease activity and interleukin-17 in serum and synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-feng; GUAN Zhen-peng; ZHANG Shao-long; PEI Zheng; CHEN Ying-yu; PAN Huan

    2013-01-01

    Background Programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) is a novel apoptotic regulatory gene that promotes apoptosis in various tumor cells.Studies have shown that PDCD5 accelerates the apoptosis of synoviocytes in vitro,implying a potential role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis.This study examined the expression of PDCD5 in serum and synovial fluid of RA patients,its effect on the expression of inflammatory cytokine,interleukin-17 (IL-17),and the assessment of disease activity in RA.Methods PDCD5 and IL-17 levels in serum and synovial fluid from 18 patients with RA and 22 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Concentrations of serum PDCD5 in 40 healthy people were also detected as controls.As disease activity indices,C-reactive protein (CRP),erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR),rheumatoid factor (RF),and X-ray grading scale were also evaluated.Results Serum and synovial fluid PDCD5 levels in RA patients were significantly higher than those in OA and healthy controls.Serum PDCD5 level was inversely correlated to CRP and ESR,and was significantly higher in the RF negative group than in the positive group.PDCD5 level was also negatively correlated with IL-17 levels both in serum and synovial fluid of RA patients.However,differences in synovial fluid PDCD5 level from RA patients at different Larsen stages were not detectable.Conclusions PDCD5 affects RA pathogenesis.Insufficient apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes and inflammatory cells in RA could increase the expression of PDCD5 protein.As PDCD5 levels correlated negatively with disease activity indices and IL-17 level,PDCD5 could become a target in the diagnosis and treatment of RA.

  10. Effects of chronic renal failure rat serum on histone acetyltransferase p300 and activation of activating transcription factor 4 of arterial smooth muscle cells cultured in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀全

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the rat serum with chronic renal failure(CRF)on ubiquitin-proteasome pathway,histone acetyltransferase p300 and activation of activating transcription factor 4(ATF4)of rat arterial vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs)cultured in vitro,and explore the possible mechanism.Methods Objective To establish the rat model of

  11. Serum γ-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase activity in Iranian healthy blood donor men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Khedmat; Nasrin Zarei; Farahnaz Fallahian; Hassan Abolghasemi; Bashir Hajibeigi; Zohre Attarchi; Farshid Alaeddini; Mohammad Taghi Holisaz; Masoumeh Pourali; Shahin Sharifi

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, and to assess their correlation with demographic and clinical findings in healthy blood donors.METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in 934 male blood donors, aged 18 to 68 years, who consecutively attended Tehran blood transfusion service in 2006. All participants were seronegative for HBV or HCV infections, non alcohol users, and all underwent a standard interview and anthropometric tests. Clinical and biochemical parameters including AST, ALT, and GGT activities were determined. Patients taking drugs known to cause hepatic fat deposition were excluded. For AST, ALT, and GGT variables, we used 33.33 and 66.66 percentiles, so that each of them was divided into three tertiles.RESULTS: Mean AST, ALT, and GGT activities were 25.26 ± 12.58 U/L (normal range 5-35 U/L), 33.13 ± 22.98 (normal range 5-35 U/L), and 25.11 ± 18.32 (normal range 6-37 U/L), respectively. By univariate analyses, there were significant associations between increasing AST, ALT, or GGT tertiles and age, body weight, body mass index, and waist and hip circumferences (P < 0.05). By multiple linear regression analyses, ALT was found to be positively correlated with dyslipidemia (B = 6.988, P = 0.038), whereas ALT and AST were negatively correlated with age. AST, ALT, and GGT levels had positive correlation with family history of liver disease (B = 15.763, P < 0.001), (B = 32.345, P < 0.001), (B =24.415, P < 0.001), respectively.CONCLUSION: Although we did not determine the cutoffs of the upper normal limits for AST, ALT, and GGT levels, we would suggest screening asymptomatic patients with dyslipidemia and also subjects with a family history of liver disease.

  12. Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity and Lipids Ratios in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Mohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrine disorder associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ef-fects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum paraoxonase 1 activity and lipids ratios in polycystic ovary syndrome.Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 64 PCOS pa-tients with 20-35 years old. Thirty two of the subjects had taken 4 g/day omega -3 fatty acids and 32 patients were given placebo for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measure-ments and dietary intakes were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL-C were measured using the enzymatic methods. LDL-C con-centration was calculated by the Friedewald formula and arylesterase activity of serum PON1 was measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.Results: Omega-3 fatty acids significantly decreased TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios (P = 0.009 for both and significantly increased serum PON1 activity (P = 0.048 compared with placebo. Changes in TG/HDL-C ratio were not statistically significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study in comparison to placebo group. Reduction in TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios and increase in serum PON1 activity were also significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study compared with baseline values (P <0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.004, and P = 0.001, respectively.Conclusion: Omega-3 fatty acids may decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease through the improvement in paraxonase-1 activity and reduction in some lipids ratio in PCOS women.

  13. Peroxidase-coupled method for kinetic colorimetry of total creatine kinase activity in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, M C; Artiss, J D; Zak, B

    1985-10-01

    We describe a peroxidase-coupled method involving a colorimetric indicator reaction for determining the total activity of creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2) in serum. The kinetically favorable reverse reaction is exploited to generate adenosine 5'-triphosphate, which is used in the glycerol kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of glycerol. The glycerol 3-phosphate so generated is oxidized in the presence of alpha-glycerophosphate oxidase to produce hydrogen peroxide, which is reduced in the presence of peroxidase with the simultaneous oxidation and coupling of 4-aminoantipyrene and 2-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorobenzenesulfonate to produce an intensely colored red chromogen. Results of the proposed method (y) correlate well with those of the Boehringer-Mannheim "CK-NAC UV" method as applied to the Hitachi 705 chemistry analyzer (y = 1.025 chi - 18.1, r = 0.9985, n = 100, range = 19-4531 U/L). The sensitivity of the method, based on molar absorptivities, is nearly fourfold that of procedures involving the reduction of NADP+.

  14. Serum bactericidal activity from intravenous ciprofloxacin and azlocillin given alone and in combination to healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, P L; Barriere, S L; Hindler, J A; Frost, R W

    1990-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin plus azlocillin have been shown to exhibit in vitro synergy versus a variety of organisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study examined this interaction in vivo, testing serum bactericidal activity (SBA) in six healthy male subjects after intravenous administration of ciprofloxacin 4 mg/kg (C), azlocillin 60 mg/kg (A), and the two simultaneously (C/A). Eight different organisms were tested: four isolates of P. aeruginosa with varying susceptibilities to C and A, and one isolate each of Escherichia coli (EC), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) Serratia marcescens (SM), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP), all of which were susceptible to both drugs. Blood samples were collected at the end of 30-min infusions and at 4 and 8 hr. Reciprocal titers were plotted versus time and area under the bactericidal titer curve (AUBC) calculated to assess antibacterial interactions. Results indicated that P. aeruginosa-1 (PA-1), EC, and KP were synergistically killed by C/A. AUBC for PA-1 were C = 36, A = 11, C/A = 144, p less than 0.05. AUBC for EC were C = 1059, A = 180, C/A = 1504, p = 0.05. AUBC for KP were C = 327, A = 97, C/A = 584, p = 005. Additive effects were demonstrated versus all of the other organisms except Serratia marcescens, where an indifferent effect was observed. Ciprofloxacin plus azlocillin may be a useful combination of the treatment of selected Gram-negative bacillary infections.

  15. [Regularities of formation of chlorophyll-human serum albumin functionally active complexes in the aqueous medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semichaevskiĭ, V D

    1975-01-01

    In the system with constant content of the chlorophyll a and increasing amounts of human serum albumin, dependence of pigment incorporation into the complex upon interaction of its aqueous associates with protein solutions was studied by applying the gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and by measuring light scattering and rate of sensitized photoreduction of the methyl red by ascorbic-acid. The curves were obtained after extraction of the chlorophyll by acetone from dry pigment-protein films formed after desiccation of the aqueous systems. Sigmoid character of the above dependences, their linearization in Hill's coordinates and the value of cooperativity coefficient close to 2 testifies in favour of the cooperative character of the complex formation, two pigment molecules reacting with a single protein molecule. Measurement of adsorption isotherms and their treatment with use of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller theory of polymolecular adsorption make it possible to evaluate the maximum molar ratio of the pigment to the protein in the complex (close to 2). The pigment-pigment interaction suggests that the chlorophyll molecules adsorbed on the protein are in the state of loosely packed dimers. Deaggregation of aqueus pigment associates by the protein in the course of complex formation results in a considerable increase of the protosensitizing chlorophyll activity.

  16. Estrogen receptor β regulates endometriotic cell survival through serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Diana; Dyson, Matthew T; Yin, Ping; Navarro, Antonia; Coon, John S; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Bulun, Serdar E

    2016-05-01

    To determine the expression and biological roles of serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK1) in tissues and cells from patients with endometriosis and from healthy control subjects. Case-control. University research setting. Premenopausal women. Endometriotic tissues were obtained from women with ovarian endometriosis, and normal endometrial tissues were obtained from women undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions. Expression levels of SGK1, the role of SGK1 in endometriosis pathology, and regulation of SGK1 by estrogen receptor (ER) β. Transcript and protein levels of SGK1 were significantly higher in endometriotic tissues and cells compared with normal endometrium. SGK1 mRNA and protein levels were stimulated by E2, by the ERβ-selective agonist diarylpropionitrile, and by prostaglandin E2. SGK1 was transcriptionally regulated by ERβ based on small interfering RNA knockdown and chromatin immunoprecipitation of ERβ followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. SGK1 knockdown led to increased cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and SGK1 activation was correlated with the phosphorylation of FOXO3a, a proapoptotic factor. ERβ leads to SGK1 overexpression in endometriosis, which contributes to the survival of endometriotic lesions through inhibition of apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on the NO Concentration and NOS Activity in the Serum and Tissues of Ducklings with Selenium Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Rui; KANG Shi-liang; XU Shi-wen; WANG Wei; LIN Hong-jin

    2003-01-01

    One-day-old healthy ducklings (n=100) were divided into control group and experimental group randomly, and selenium poisoning of ducklings was artificially caused by feeding ration containing 8 lng kg-1 Se every day. The dynamic changes of No content and NOS activity in the serum and tissues were determined by means of the method of nitric acid reductase. Results showed that the NO content and NOS activity in serum and tissues in experimental group increased significantly (P<0.05) and they were time-dependent.It was suggested that the high level of selenium in bodies could increase the NOS activity and NO content as it destroyed the metabolism of material and energy as well as structure and function of tissues and cells. These changes of NO content and NOS activity might be involved in the metabolism of selenium poisoning.

  18. Meningococcal surface fibril (Msf) binds to activated vitronectin and inhibits the terminal complement pathway to increase serum resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Natalie J; Hill, Darryl J; Borodina, Elena; Sessions, Richard B; Devos, Nathalie I; Feron, Christiane M; Poolman, Jan T; Virji, Mumtaz

    2011-12-01

    Complement evasion is an important survival strategy of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) during colonization and infection. Previously, we have shown that Nm Opc binds to serum vitronectin to inhibit complement-mediated killing. In this study, we demonstrate meningococcal interactions with vitronectin via a novel adhesin, Msf (meningococcal surface fibril, previously NhhA or Hsf). As with Opc, Msf binds preferentially to activated vitronectin (aVn), engaging at its N-terminal region but the C-terminal heparin binding domain may also participate. However, unlike Opc, the latter binding is not heparin-mediated. By binding to aVn, Msf or Opc can impart serum resistance, which is further increased in coexpressers, a phenomenon dependent on serum aVn concentrations. The survival fitness of aVn-binding derivatives was evident from mixed population studies, in which msf/opc mutants were preferentially depleted. In addition, using vitronectin peptides to block Msf-aVn interactions, aVn-induced inhibition of lytic C5b-9 formation and of serum killing could be reversed. As Msf-encoding gene is ubiquitous in the meningococcal strains examined and is expressed in vivo, serum resistance via Msf may be of significance to meningococcal pathogenesis. The data imply that vitronectin binding may be an important strategy for the in vivo survival of Nm for which the bacterium has evolved redundant mechanisms.

  19. Serum bilirubin value predicts hospital admission in carbon monoxide-poisoned patients. Active player or simple bystander?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cervellin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although carbon monoxide poisoning is a major medical emergency, the armamentarium of recognized prognostic biomarkers displays unsatisfactory diagnostic performance for predicting cumulative endpoints. METHODS: We performed a retrospective and observational study to identify all patients admitted for carbon monoxide poisoning during a 2-year period. Complete demographical and clinical information, along with the laboratory data regarding arterial carboxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin, blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, was retrieved. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 38 poisoned patients (23 females and 15 males; mean age 39±21 years. Compared with discharged subjects, hospitalized patients displayed significantly higher values for blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, whereas arterial carboxyhemoglobin and hemoglobin did not differ. In a univariate analysis, hospitalization was significantly associated with blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, but not with age, sex, hemoglobin or carboxyhemoglobin. The diagnostic performance obtained after combining the blood lactate and total serum bilirubin results (area under the curve, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81-0.99; p<0.001 was better than that obtained for either parameter alone. CONCLUSION: Although it remains unclear whether total serum bilirubin acts as an active player or a bystander, we conclude that the systematic assessment of bilirubin may, alongside lactate levels, provide useful information for clinical decision making regarding carbon monoxide poisoning.

  20. The Correlation of Serum IL-12B Expression With Disease Activity in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Won; Chung, Sook Hee; Moon, Chang Mo; Che, Xiumei; Kim, Seung Won; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Genetic variants in IL12B, encoding the p40 subunit common in interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interleukin-23, were identified as the susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aimed to identify the correlation of serum IL-12B expression with disease activity in patients with IBD and evaluate the possibility of IL-12B as a biomarker for assessing inflammatory status in IBD. A total of 102 patients with IBD, including 38, 32, and 32 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and intestinal Behçet's disease (intestinal BD), respectively, were included. The clinical and laboratory data from the patients were collected at the time of serum IL-12B measurement. Serum IL-12B levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median IL-12B levels in patients with CD, UC, and intestinal BD were significantly higher than those in controls (1.87, 2.74, and 2.73 pg/mL, respectively, vs. 1.42 pg/mL, all P <0.05). IL-12B concentrations were associated with disease activity in patients with UC and intestinal BD but not in those with CD. IL-12B levels were increased with increasing disease activity in patients with UC (P <0.001). Likewise, patients with active intestinal BD had higher IL-12B levels than those without active disease (P = 0.008). IL-12B levels were correlated with the endoscopic disease activity of UC (P = 0.002) and intestinal BD (P = 0.001) but not that of CD. Serum IL-12B levels were significantly correlated with clinical and endoscopic disease activity in patients with UC and intestinal BD, suggesting its potential use as a biomarker for assessing disease activity in these patients. PMID:27281077

  1. Seasonal variations of 25-OH vitamin D serum levels are associated with clinical disease activity in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Christina; Obermeier, Viola; Gerdes, Lisa Ann; Brügel, Mathias; von Kries, Rüdiger; Kümpfel, Tania

    2017-04-15

    Low 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-[OH]-D) serum concentrations have been associated with higher disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In a large cross-sectional study we assessed the vitamin D status in MS patients in relation to seasonality and relapse rate. 415 MS-patients (355 relapsing-remitting MS and 60 secondary-progressive, 282 female, mean age 39.1years) of whom 25-(OH)-D serum concentrations were determined at visits between 2010 and 2013 were included in the study. All clinical data including relapse at visit and expanded disability status scale were recorded in a standardized manner by an experienced neurologist. Seasonal variations of 25-(OH)-D serum concentrations were modelled by sinusoidal regression and seasonal variability in the prevalence of relapse by cubic regression. The mean 25-(OH)-D serum concentration was 24.8ng/ml (range 8.3-140ng/ml) with peak levels of 32.2ng/ml in July/August and nadir in January/February (17.2ng/ml). The lowest modelled prevalence of relapse was in September/October (28%) and the highest modelled prevalence in March/April (47%). The nadir of 25-(OH)-D serum concentrations preceded the peak in prevalence of relapses by two months. In summary, seasonal variation of 25-(OH)-D serum levels were inversely associated with clinical disease activity in MS patients. Future studies should investigate whether vitamin D supplementation in MS patients may decrease the seasonal risk for MS relapses.

  2. Spectroscopic analysis on the binding interaction of biologically active pyrimidine derivative with bovine serum albumin

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    Vishwas D. Suryawanshi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A biologically active antibacterial reagent, 2–amino-6-hydroxy–4–(4-N, N-dimethylaminophenyl-pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile (AHDMAPPC, was synthesized. It was employed to investigate the binding interaction with the bovine serum albumin (BSA in detail using different spectroscopic methods. It exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus which are common food poisoning bacteria. The experimental results showed that the fluorescence quenching of model carrier protein BSA by AHDMAPPC was due to static quenching. The site binding constants and number of binding sites (n≈1 were determined at three different temperatures based on fluorescence quenching results. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH, free energy (ΔG and entropy change (ΔS for the reaction were calculated to be 15.15 kJ/mol, –36.11 kJ/mol and 51.26 J/mol K according to van't Hoff equation, respectively. The results indicated that the reaction was an endothermic and spontaneous process, and hydrophobic interactions played a major role in the binding between drug and BSA. The distance between donor and acceptor is 2.79 nm according to Förster's theory. The alterations of the BSA secondary structure in the presence of AHDMAPPC were confirmed by UV–visible, synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra. All these results indicated that AHDMAPPC can bind to BSA and be effectively transported and eliminated in the body. It can be a useful guideline for further drug design.

  3. Breast cancer proliferative activity: Is it the source of serum free DNA?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taha I. Hewala

    2013-04-13

    Apr 13, 2013 ... 165 Horria Avenue, El Hadara, Alexandria 21561, Egypt. Received 30 December ... serum of patients with various types of cancers including breast cancer.1 However, the .... to the QIAamp mini spin column. After washing, the ...

  4. Effects of Iron Supplementation and Activity on Serum Iron Depletion and Hemoglobin Levels in Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooter, G. Rankin; Mowbray, Kathy W.

    1978-01-01

    Research revealed that a four-month basketball training program did not significantly alter serum iron, total iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, and percent saturation levels in female basketball athletes. (JD)

  5. Influence of Rifampin Therapy on Serum Bactericidal Activity in the Presence of Cloxacillin and Vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew MR Mackenzie

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of rifampin on serum inhibitory and serum bactericidal titres was examined. Sera were prepared from pooled human serum to contain vancomycin (10 mg/L, cloxacillin (5 mg/L or rifampin (1 mg/L, and the combinations cloxacillin/rifampin and vancomycin/rifampin. These five sera were tested by a microtitre method for serum inhibitory power and serum bactericidal titre against 11 strains of Staphylococcus aureus. A 48 h incubation period was required to detect full colony growth for subculture plates. It was found with all strains that the effect of the addition of rifampin to the other two antibiotics was to increase the serum inhibitory power, lower the serum bactericidal titre, increase the inhibitory/cidal ratio, and slow colony growth on subculture. In the clinical part of the study it was shown that only three of 38 sera (8% from patients receiving betalactam or vanomycin but not rifampin gave an inhibitory/cidal ratio greater than 8, but that nine of 10 sera (90% from patients receiving rifampin in addition to betalactam or vancomycin gave a ratio greater than 8 (P<0.001. The study verified that the effect of rifampin in serum was to increase inhibitory power and decrease bactericidal titre. The clinical significance of these results is not known and it is suggested that a high ratio of inhibitory to bactericidal titre in the presence of rifampin is to be expected, and that a low bactericidal titre under these circumstances is not necessarily an indication to modify therapy.

  6. Impact of antibacterial drugs on human serum paraoxonase-1(hPON1)activity:an in vitro study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hakan; Syt; Elif; Duygu; Kaya; Skr; Beydemir

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the in vitro effects of the antihacterial drugs,mcropenem trihydrate.piperacillin sodium,and cefoperazone sodium,on the activity of human serum paraoxonase mPOND.Methods:hPQN1 was purified from human serum using simple chromatographic methods.including DEAE-Sephadex anion exchange and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography.Results:The three antihacterial drugs decreased in vitro hPON1 activity.Inhibition mechanisms meropcnem trihydrate was noncompetitive while piperacillin sodium and cefoperazone sodium were competitive.Conclusions:Our results showed that antihacterial drugs significantly inhibit hPON1 activity,both in vitro,with rank order meropenem trihydrate piperacillin sodium cefoperazone sodium in vitro.

  7. Effects of aerobic training on serum paraoxonase activity and its relationship with PON1-192 phenotypes in women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gulbin Rudarli Nalcakan; S. Rana Varol; Faruk Turgay; Mesut Nalcakan; M. Zeki Ozkol; S. Oguz Karamizrak

    2016-01-01

    Background: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme that protects high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein against oxidation. Limited studies have addressed the influenc of exercise on PON1 activity and its relationship with PON1 phenotypes. We investigated relationships between PON1-192 phenotypes, PON1 activity, aerobic exercise, and blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in middle-aged women. Methods: An exercise group (n=50) engaging in regular aerobic exercise and a control group (n=41) were selected from a subset of 300 Caucasian women that met the inclusion criteria. Serum PON1, salt-stimulated PON1 (SSPON1), and arylesterase (ARE) activities;cholesterol levels and ARE activities of total HDL and HDL subgroups (HDLs) (supernatants obtained by polyethylene glycol);and blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were determined by standardized enzymatic methods. PON1-192 QQ (low activity), QR (moderate activity), and RR (high activity) phenotype groups were define using serum SSPON1/ARE activity ratios. The R-carries (RC) phenotype group consisted of the QR and RR groups combined. Results: All lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were greater in the exercise group than in the control group. Regardless of phenotype, no significan differences were observed between the exercise and control groups in terms of serum PON1, SSPON1, or ARE activity associated with HDLs (p>0.05), whereas PON1 activities in QQ-phenotyped women in the exercise group were significant y higher than those in the control group (p Conclusion: These results showed that a regular aerobic exercise program can improve PON1 activity depending on PON1-192 phenotype, but not on lipid and lipoprotein levels, in middle-aged Turkish women.

  8. Bioassays for estrogenic activity: development and validation of estrogen receptor (ERalpha/ERbeta) and breast cancer proliferation bioassays to measure serum estrogenic activity in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Lee, L; Gong, Y; Shen, P; Wong, S P; Wise, Stephen D; Yong, E L

    2009-02-01

    Standard estrogenic prodrugs such as estradiol valerate (E2V) and increasingly popular phytoestrogen formulations are commonly prescribed to improve menopausal health. These drugs are metabolized to numerous bioactive compounds, known or unknown, which may exert combinatorial estrogenic effects in vivo. The aim of this study is to develop and validate estrogen receptor (ER) alpha/ERbeta reporter gene and MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation bioassays to quantify serum estrogenic activities in a clinical trial setting. We measured changes in serum estrogenicity following ingestion of E2V and compared this to mass spectrometric measurements of its bioactive metabolites, estrone and 17beta-stradiol. ERalpha bioactivity of the 192 serum samples correlated well (R = 79%) with 17beta-estradiol levels, and adding estrone improved R to 0.83 (likelihood ratio test, P estrogenic activity and that these assays suggest that the Epimedium formulation tested is unlikely to exert significant estrogenic effects in humans.

  9. Comparison of Deferoxamine, Activated Charcoal, and Vitamin C in Changing the Serum Level of Fe in Iron Overloaded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghafari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron is an essential mineral for normal cellular physiology but its overload can lead to cell injury. For many years, deferoxamine injection has been used as an iron chelator for treatment of iron overload. The aim of this study is to compare oral deferoxamine, activated charcoal, and vitamin C, as an absorbent factor of Fe, in changing the serum level of iron in iron overload rats. Methods: In this experimental study, all groups were administered 150 mg iron dextran orally by gavage. After eight hours, rats in the first group received oral deferoxamine while those in the second and third groups received oral activated charcoal 1 mg/kg and oral vitamin C 150 mg, respectively. Then, serum levels of iron ware measured in all rats. Results: The mean serum level of iron in rats that received oral deferoxamine was 258.11±10.49 µg/dl, whereas mean levels of iron in charcoal and vitamin C groups were 380.88±11.21 µg/dl and 401.22±13.28 µg/dl, respectively. None of the measurements were within safety limits of serum iron. Conclusion: It seems that oral deferoxamine per se may not help physicians in the management of cases presented with iron toxicity. Activated charcoal did not reduce serum iron significantly in this study and further investigations may be warranted to assess the potential clinical utility of its mixture with oral deferoxamine as an adjunct in the clinical management of iron ingestions.

  10. Environment sensitive fluorescent analogue of biologically active oxazoles differentially recognizes human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin: Photophysical and molecular modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Jyotirmay; Biswas, Suman; Chaudhuri, Ankur; Chakraborty, Sandipan; Chakraborty, Sibani; Das, Ranjan

    2017-03-01

    An environment sensitive fluorophore, 4-(5-(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)oxazol-2-yl)benzoic acid (DMOBA), that closely mimics biologically active 2,5-disubstituited oxazoles has been designed to probe two homologous serum proteins, human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) by means of photophysical and molecular modeling studies. This fluorescent analogue exhibits solvent polarity sensitive fluorescence due to an intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state. In comparison to water, the steady state emission spectra of DMOBA in BSA is characterized by a greater blue shift ( 10 nm) and smaller Stokes' shift ( 5980 cm- 1) in BSA than HSA (Stokes'shift 6600 cm- 1), indicating less polar and more hydrophobic environment of the dye in the former than the latter. The dye-protein binding interactions are remarkably stronger for BSA than HSA which is evident from higher value of the association constant for the DMOBA-BSA complex (Ka 5.2 × 106 M- 1) than the DMOBA-HSA complex (Ka 1.0 × 106 M- 1). Fӧrster resonance energy transfer studies revealed remarkably less efficient energy transfer (8%) between the donor tryptophans in BSA and the acceptor DMOBA dye than that (30%) between the single tryptophan moiety in HSA and the dye, which is consistent with a much larger distance between the donor (tryptophan)-acceptor (dye) pair in BSA (34.5 Å) than HSA (25.4 Å). Site specific competitive binding assays have confirmed on the location of the dye in Sudlow's site II of BSA and in Sudlow's site I of HSA, respectively. Molecular modeling studies have shown that the fluorescent analogue is tightly packed in the binding site of BSA due to strong steric complementarity, where, binding of DMOBA to BSA is primarily dictated by the van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interactions. In contrast, in HSA the steric complementarity is less significant and binding is primarily guided by polar interactions and van der Waals interactions appear to be less significant in the

  11. Synthesis of biological active thiosemicarbazone and characterization of the interaction with human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Wangshu; Shi, Lei; Hui, Guangquan [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Cui, Fengling, E-mail: fenglingcui@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China)

    2013-02-15

    The synthesis of a new biological active reagent, 2-((1,4-dihydroxy)-9,10-anthraquinone) aldehyde thiosemicarbazone (DHAQTS), was designed. The interaction between DHAQTS and HSA was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with molecular modeling under simulation of physiological conditions. According to the results of fluorescence measurements, the quenching mechanism was suggested to be static. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrophobic interactions are the predominant intermolecular forces stabilizing the complex. The number of binding sites (n) was calculated. Through the site marker competitive experiment, DHAQTS was confirmed to be located in site I of HSA. The binding distance r=2.83 nm between the donor HSA and acceptor DHAQTS was obtained according to Foerster's non-radiative energy transfer theory. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectral results showed the conformation and microenvironment of HSA changed in the presence of DHAQTS. The effects of common ions on the binding of DHAQTS to HSA were also evaluated. The experimental results were in agreement with the results obtained via a molecular docking study. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2-((1,4-dihydroxy)-9,10-anthraquinone)aldehyde thiosemicarbazone (DHAQTS) was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DHAQTS can quench the fluorescence of human serum albumin (HSA) by static quenching mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrophobic interactions were the predominant intermolecular forces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The competitive experiment was carried out to identify the DHAQTS binding site on HSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three-dimensional spectra confirmed DHAQTS caused the conformational change of HSA.

  12. Induction of phase 2 enzymes by serum oxidized polyamines through activation of Nrf2: effect of the polyamine metabolite acrolein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Mi-Kyoung; Kensler, Thomas W; Casero, Robert A

    2003-06-06

    The naturally occurring polycationic polyamines including putrescine, spermidine, and spermine play an important role in cell growth, differentiation, and gene expression. However, circulating polyamines are potential substrates for several oxidizing enzymes including copper-containing serum amine oxidase. These enzymes are capable of oxidizing serum polyamines to several toxic metabolites including aldehydes and H(2)O(2). In this study, we investigated the effects of polyamines as inducers of phase 2 enzymes and other genes that promote cell survival in a cell culture system in the presence of bovine serum. Spermidine and spermine (50 microM) increased NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) activity up to 3-fold in murine keratinocyte PE cells. Transcript levels for glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1, GST M1, NQO1, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase regulatory subunit, and UDP-glucuronyltransferase 1A6 were significantly increased by spermidine and this effect was mediated through the antioxidant response element (ARE). The ARE from the mouse GST A1 promoter was activated about 9-fold by spermine and 5-fold by spermidine treatment, but could be inhibited by the amine oxidase inhibitor, aminoguanidine, suggesting that acrolein or hydrogen peroxide generated from polyamines by serum amine oxidase may be mediators for phase 2 enzyme induction. Elevations of ARE-luciferase expression and NQO1 enzyme activity by spermidine were not affected by catalase, while both were completely repressed by aldehyde dehydrogenase treatment. Direct addition of acrolein to PE cells induced multiple phase 2 genes and elevated nuclear levels of Nrf2, a transcription factor that binds to the ARE. Expression of mutant Nrf2 repressed the activation of the ARE-luciferase reporter by polyamines and acrolein. These results indicate that spermidine and spermine increase the expression of phase 2 genes in cells grown in culture through activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway by generating the sulfhydryl

  13. Evaluating Soluble EMMPRIN as a Marker of Disease Activity in Multiple Sclerosis: Studies of Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Deepak K.; Yong, Heather Y. F.; Hahn, Jennifer N.; Silva, Claudia; Casha, Steven; Hurlbert, R. John; Jacques, Francois H.; Lisak, Robert; Khan, Omar; Ionete, Carolina; Larochelle, Catherine; Prat, Alex; Bar-Or, Amit; Yong, V. Wee

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN, CD147) is an inducer of matrix metalloproteinases and has roles in leukocyte activation and migration. We reported previously that in MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, cell surface-associated EMMPRIN was significantly elevated in leukocytes around inflammatory perivascular cuffs in the CNS. In this study we report that activated T-cells can secrete soluble form of EMMPRIN (sEMMPRIN) upon activation. As sEMMPRIN is also present in biological fluids, we determined whether sEMMPRIN is altered in the CSF and sera of MS subjects. Sera from individuals without neurological conditions served as controls, while CSFs collected from subjects undergoing discectomy, and without evidence of CNS pathology, were used as a comparator group. We found that serum levels of sEMMPRIN from clinically stable MS patients or other inflammatory conditions did not differ from control subjects. Paired serum and CSF samples demonstrated poor correlation of sEMMPRIN. Interestingly, sEMMPRIN levels were approximately 60% higher in CSFs compared to sera. sEMMPRIN CSF levels were significantly higher in secondary progressive compared to primary progressive subjects. Thus we conclude that measurement of sEMMPRIN in serum is not informative for disease activity in MS. The differential expression of sEMMPRIN in the CSF of primary and secondary progressive MS invites hypotheses of the still undefined roles of EMMPRIN in the CNS. PMID:27727297

  14. Effect of human serum albumin upon the permeabilizing activity of sticholysin II, a pore forming toxin from Stichodactyla heliantus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedón, Gloria; González, Gustavo; Gulppi, Felipe; Pazos, Fabiola; Lanio, María E; Alvarez, Carlos; Calderón, Cristian; Montecinos, Rodrigo; Lissi, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    Sticholysin II (St II) is a haemolytic toxin isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. The high haemolytic activity of this toxin is strongly dependent on the red cell status and the macromolecule conformation. In the present communication we evaluate the effect of human serum albumin on St II haemolytic activity and its capacity to form pores in the bilayer of synthetic liposomes. St II retains its pore forming capacity in the presence of large concentrations (up to 500 μM) of human serum albumin. This effect is observed both in its capacity to produce red blood cells haemolysis and to generate functional pores in liposomes. In particular, the capacity of the toxin to lyse red blood cells increases in the presence of human serum albumin (HSA). Regarding the rate of the pore forming process, it is moderately decreased in liposomes and in red blood cells, in spite of an almost total coverage of the interface by albumin. All the data obtained in red cells and model membranes show that St II remains lytically active even in the presence of high HSA concentrations. This stubbornness can explain why the toxin is able to exert its haemolytic activity on membranes immersed in complex plasma matrixes such as those present in living organisms.

  15. Glycoprotein biosynthesis in calf kidney. Glycoprotein sialyltransferase activities towards serum glycoproteins and calf Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, W; Lasthuis, A M; van den Eijnden, D H

    1979-04-18

    CMP-AcNeu:glycoprotein sialyltransltransltransltransltransferase of calf kidney cortex was characterized using serum glycoproteins and Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein, obtained from calf urine, as acceptors. Native calf Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein showed the best acceptor properties, followed by desialylated calf fetuin and desialylated human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein exhibiting V values of, respectively, 114, 63 and 41 nmol/h per g wet wt. of kidney cortex and Km values of 0.12, 0.16 and 0.26 mM glycoprotein acceptor. Desialylated ovine submaxillary mucine appeared to be a very poor acceptor. Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein sialyltransferase could be distinguished from serum glycoprotein sialyltransferase by competition studies. In addition the two glycoprotein sialyltransferase activities showed different distributions over the three regions of the calf kidney: the ratios of the Tamm-Horsfall to serum glycoprotein sialyltransferase activities decreased from 3.3 in the cortex to 0.8 and 0.4 in the medulla and the papilla, respectively. It was concluded that in calf kidney at least two different sialyltransferases exist. The high cortical Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein sialyltransferases activity corresponds markedly to the origin of the urinary Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein, namely the distal part of the kidney tubule. Inactivation of glycoprotein sialyltransferase activity by preincubation at various temperatures and during storage at 0 degree C, could be reduced by the addition of CMP-AcNeu. The possible relevance towards the in vivo sialylation of this finding is discussed.

  16. [Effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation on rat liver and blood serum enzyme activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersesova, L S; Petrosian, M S; Gazariants, M G; Mkrtchian, Z S; Meliksetian, G O; Pogosian, L G; Akopian, Zh I

    2014-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the rat liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase post-radiation activity levels after a total two-hour long single and fractional exposure of the animals to low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic field showed that the most sensitive enzymes to the both schedules of radiation are the liver creatine kinase, as well as the blood serum creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase. According to the comparative analysis of the dynamics of changes in the activity level of the liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, both single and fractional radiation schedules do not affect the permeability of a hepatocyte cell membrane, but rather cause changes in their energetic metabolism. The correlation analysis of the post-radiation activity level changes of the investigated enzymes did not reveal a clear relationship between them. The dynamics of post-radiation changes in the activity of investigated enzyme levels following a single and short-term fractional schedules of radiation did not differ essentially.

  17. The assessment of carotid intima media thickness and serum Paraoxonase-1 activity in Helicobacter pylori positive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbas Halide S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis has been increasingly discussed. Although the seroepidemiological studies have suggested a relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection and atherosclerosis; the issue is still controversial. It is well known that abnormal lipid profil is related to atherosclerosis and the measurement of carotid-intima media thickness (CIMT is one of the surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. The serum concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C has been known to have an inverse correlation with the development of atherosclerosis. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is a major anti-atherosclerotic component of HDL-C. PON1 activity is related to lipid peroxidation and prospective cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to investigate CIMT and serum PON1 activities along with lipid parameters in H. pylori positive and negative subjects. Methods Thirty H. pylori positive subjects and thirty-one negative subjects were enrolled. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by the presence of positivity of stool H. pylori antigen test or Carbon 14 labeled urea breath test. Serum PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were investigated and laboratory analysis included measurement of serum triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. We assessed CIMT by high-resolution ultrasound of both common carotid arteries. Results We found that the mean and maximum values of right and overall CIMT in H. pylori positive subjects were significantly thicker than those of H. pylori negative subjects. There was no significant differences in serum HDL-C, LDL-C, TC levels and TC/HDL-C ratios between two groups. Serum TG levels of H. pylori positive subjects were significantly higher than those of H. pylori negative subjects (p = 0.014. We found that PON1

  18. A vote for robustness: Monitoring serum enzyme activity by thin-layer chromatography of dabsylated bradykinin products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Malte; König, Simone

    2017-09-05

    High-end analytical methods provide excellent data but may lack the robustness required in large analytical studies. In particular complex chemical matrices may cause difficulties and increase the need for extensive sample preparation. For screening of patients we thus developed a low-tech assay to monitor bradykinin degradation by serum proteases. The bradykinin concentration mirrors the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Dabsylated bradykinin (DBK) and its labeled fragments DBK1-8 and DBK1-5 were visualized by thin-layer chromatography using only 3μL of serum. Lower DBK1-5 levels indicated reduced ACE activity due to medication (ACE-inhibitors) or disease. Provided that purified DBK is available, the assay protocol itself is very simple and does not require any expensive high-end equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A study on the serum adenosine deaminase activity in patients with typhoid Fever and other febrile illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketavarapu, Sameera; Ramani G, Uma; Modi, Prabhavathi

    2013-04-01

    Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) has been suggested to be an important enzyme which is associated with the cell mediated immunity, but its clinical significance in typhoid fever has not yet been characterized. The present study was taken up to evaluate the serum ADA activity in patients of typhoid fever. The levels of ADA were also measured in the patients who were suffering from other febrile illnesses. This was a case control study. The subjects who were included in this study were divided into 3 groups. Group A consisted of 50 normal healthy individuals who served as the controls. Group B consisted of 50 patients, both males and females of all age groups, who were suffering from culture positive typhoid fever. Group C consisted of 50 patients who were suffering from febrile illnesses other than typhoid fever like viral fever, gastro enteritis, malaria, tonsillitis, upper respiratory tract infections, etc. The serum levels of ADA were estimated in all the subjects who were under study. The serum ADA level was found to be increased in the patients of typhoid fever as compared to that in those with other febrile illnesses and in the controls. From the present study, it can be concluded that there was a statistically significant increase in the serum ADA levels in the patients with typhoid.

  20. Serum inflammatory mediators correlate with disease activity in electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Munckhof, Bart; de Vries, Evelien E; Braun, Kees P J; Boss, H Myrthe; Willemsen, Michèl A; van Royen, Annet; de Jager, Wilco; Jansen, Floor E

    We aimed to study serum cytokine levels in 11 electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) patients and 20 healthy control children. Patients showed significantly higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-10, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)8/IL-8

  1. Serum inflammatory mediators correlate with disease activity in electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Munckhof, Bart; de Vries, Evelien E; Braun, Kees P J; Boss, H Myrthe; Willemsen, Michèl A; van Royen, Annet; de Jager, Wilco; Jansen, Floor E

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study serum cytokine levels in 11 electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) patients and 20 healthy control children. Patients showed significantly higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-10, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)8/IL-8 t

  2. Increased serum YKL-40 in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis—a potential marker of disease activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, JS; Milman, N; Hansen, M

    2005-01-01

    diagnosis of pulmonal sarcoidosis. Immunohistochemical staining for YKL-40 antigen was performed in five biopsies with pulmonary sarcoid lesions. Serum YKL-40 was likewise measured in 173 healthy age-matched control subjects. Results: Mononuclear cells/macrophages and giant cells in pulmonary sarcoid...

  3. Defective serum opsonization activity in children aged 6-48 months having acute purulent otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, I; Yilmaz, Y; Oner, F; Yel, L; Sanal, O; Ersoy, F; Onerci, M; Berkel, A I

    1997-01-01

    Serum opsonization of yeast (Saccharomyces) was investigated in 51 patients whose ages were between six and 48 months (median 15 months) with acute purulent otitis media and in an age-matched control group (median 13 months). Opsonization was assessed by measuring yeast particle uptake in an assay based on an electronic count of the unphagocytosed particles in serum by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Despite normal levels of CH50 and serum immunoglobulins, a defective opsonization was determined in 13.7 percent of the patients (7 in 51). The corresponding figure was 2.9 percent in 103 healthy controls (p < 0.001). On the other hand, 218 percent (5 in 23) of the children having a history of recurrent purulent otitis media showed defective opsonization (p < 0.001). Previously, the presence of an opsonization defect has been linked to low levels of mannan binding lectin (MBL), a calcium dependent serum lectin that acts as an opsonin. Therefore, our findings indirectly support the idea that MBL has an important role as host defense, particularly in the earlier period of life when the antibody repertoire is restricted.

  4. Study on the relationship between serum interleukins, platelet activation indexes and cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Huang; Li-Bo Wang; Li-Li Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of calcium dobesilate combined with Qiming granule therapy on choroid as well as serum branched chain amino acids and cytokines in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy.Methods:A total of 76 patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy were divided into combined treatment group (calcium dobesilate combined with Qiming granule therapy) and western medicine treatment group (calcium dobesilate therapy). 3 months after treatment, the thickness of the choroid was determined by OCT scanning, and serum was collected to determine the levels of branched chain amino acids and cytokines.Results: (1) OCT scanning: the number of new blood vessels of combined treatment group was fewer, the choroid was thicker, and the thickness of subfoveal as well as the nasal, temporal, superior and inferior choroid 1mm from the central fovea of combined treatment group were significantly higher than those of western medicine treatment group; (2) serum indexes: serum VEGF, IGF-1, TF, leucine, isoleucine and valine levels of combined treatment group 3 months after treatment were lower than those of western medicine treatment group, and PEDF level was higher than that of western medicine treatment group.Conclusion:Calcium dobesilate combined with Qiming granule therapy can improve the choroidal circulation, inhibit the angiogenesis mediated by a variety of cytokines in retina and adjust the branched chain amino acid metabolism, and it is an ideal method for the treatment of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

  5. Activation of immune cells in bovine mammary gland secretions by zymosan treated bovine serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis, caused by bacterial infection of the mammary gland, is a major disease of dairy cattle. The greatest risks of intramammary infection occur at the end of lactation and at the initiation of the next lactation when the cow calves. Treating serum with zymosan (yeast cell wall preparation) ca...

  6. Serum Specific IgE to Thyroid Peroxidase Activates Basophils in Aspirin Intolerant Urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoo Seob; Suh, Dong-Hyeon; Yang, Eun-Mi; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

    2015-06-01

    Thyroid antibodies are frequently observed in urticaria patients, but their roles in urticaria are not clearly elucidated. We investigated the role of serum specific IgE to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in patients with aspirin intolerant acute urticaria (AIAU) and aspirin intolerant chronic urticaria (AICU). We recruited 59 AIAU and 96 AICU patients with 69 normal controls (NC). Serum specific IgE to TPO was measured by manual direct ELISA, and CD203c expressions on basophil with additions of TPO were measured to prove a direct role of TPO in effector cells. The prevalences of serum specific IgE to TPO were significantly higher in AIAU (15.2%) and AICU groups (7.5%) compared to NC (0%, P=0.018: P=0.013, respectively). Flow cytometry showed CD203c induction in a dose dependent manner with serial additions of TPO in some AIAU and AICU patients having high specific IgE to TPO. Our findings show that the prevalence of serum specific IgE to TPO was significantly higher in both AIAU and AICU patients than in NC. It is suggested that specific IgE to TPO play a pathogenic role in AIAU and AICU.

  7. Relationship of serum osteoprotegerin with arterial stiffness, preclinical atherosclerosis, and disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu Beyazal, Münevver; Erdoğan, Turan; Türkyılmaz, Aysegül Kücükali; Devrimsel, Gül; Cüre, Medine Cumhur; Beyazal, Mehmet; Sahin, Ismail

    2016-09-01

    Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) reportedly have a higher mortality and morbidity risk. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) was recently defined as an important cardiovascular (CV) marker in the general population. We aimed to assess the relationship of serum OPG levels with arterial stiffness, carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), and clinical and laboratory data in AS patients. We examined 60 AS patients without CV disease or risk factors and 50 healthy controls. Disease activity was evaluated using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS), whereas functional capacity was evaluated using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). Serum OPG levels were measured with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was used as an indicator of arterial stiffness, whereas CIMT (examined via carotid ultrasonography) was used to evaluate preclinical atherosclerosis. The mean serum OPG level, PWV, and CIMT were significantly higher in AS patients than in controls (106.7 ± 50.9 vs. 58.1 ± 12.7 pg/mL; 7.4 ± 1.8 vs. 6.2 ± 1.2 m/s; 0.72 ± 0.13 vs. 0.57 ± 0.07 mm, respectively; P < 0.001 for all). In AS patients, the serum OPG levels were not significantly correlated with PWV and CIMT but were significantly correlated with erthrocyte sedimentation rate, BASFI, and ASDAS. AS patients without CV disease or risk exhibited high OPG levels and increased PWV and CIMT values. Although OPG levels were not significantly correlated with PWV or CIMT, future long-term follow-up studies will help define the predictive value of OPG in these patients.

  8. Linking diet, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity to serum metabolite networks: findings from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floegel, A; Wientzek, A; Bachlechner, U; Jacobs, S; Drogan, D; Prehn, C; Adamski, J; Krumsiek, J; Schulze, M B; Pischon, T; Boeing, H

    2014-11-01

    It is not yet resolved how lifestyle factors and intermediate phenotypes interrelate with metabolic pathways. We aimed to investigate the associations between diet, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity with serum metabolite networks in a population-based study. The present study included 2380 participants of a randomly drawn subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam. Targeted metabolomics was used to measure 127 serum metabolites. Additional data were available including anthropometric measurements, dietary assessment including intake of whole-grain bread, coffee and cake and cookies by food frequency questionnaire, and objectively measured physical activity energy expenditure and cardiorespiratory fitness in a subsample of 100 participants. In a data-driven approach, Gaussian graphical modeling was used to draw metabolite networks and depict relevant associations between exposures and serum metabolites. In addition, the relationship of different exposure metabolite networks was estimated. In the serum metabolite network, the different metabolite classes could be separated. There was a big group of phospholipids and acylcarnitines, a group of amino acids and C6-sugar. Amino acids were particularly positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity. C6-sugar and acylcarnitines were positively associated with obesity and inversely with intake of whole-grain bread. Phospholipids showed opposite associations with obesity and coffee intake. Metabolite networks of coffee intake and obesity were strongly inversely correlated (body mass index (BMI): r = -0.57 and waist circumference: r = -0.59). A strong positive correlation was observed between metabolite networks of BMI and waist circumference (r = 0.99), as well as the metabolite networks of cake and cookie intake with cardiorespiratory fitness and intake of whole-grain bread (r = 0.52 and r = 0.50; respectively). Lifestyle factors

  9. Serum lipase activity and concentration during intravenous infusions of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 and after ad libitum meal ingestion in overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Stevner, Lene Susanne;

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effect on serum lipase activity and protein concentration of intravenous infusions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY3-36) and of an ad libitum meal in healthy overweight men. Twenty-five healthy, male subjects participated in this randomized, double...... the infusion and after intake of an ad libitum meal for measurement of serum lipase. Serum lipase levels measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) following mono-infusions of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 were comparable to serum lipase levels following placebo (P = 0.054 and P = 0.873, respectively...

  10. Amelioration of Altered Serum, Liver, and Kidney Antioxidant Enzymes Activities by Sodium Selenite in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ahmadvand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of sodium selenite on serum, liver, and kidney antioxidant enzymes activities in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Methods: Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into four groups; Group one as control, Group two as sham-treated with sodium selenite by 1 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p. injections daily, Group three as diabetic untreated, and Group four as diabetic treated with sodium selenite by 1 mg/kg i.p. injections daily . Diabetes was induced in the third and fourth groups by subcutaneous alloxan injections. After eight weeks the animals were euthanized and livers and kidneys were immediately removed and used fresh or kept frozen until analysis. Before the rats were killed blood samples were also collected to measure glutathione peroxidase (GPX and catalase (CAT activities in sera. Results: Glutathione peroxidase and CAT activities serum, liver, and kidney were all significantly less in the diabetic rats than in the controls. Sodium selenite treatment of the diabetic rats resulted in significant increases in GPX activity in the kidneys and livers, and CAT activity in the sera and livers. Conclusions: Our results indicate that sodium selenite might be a potent antioxidant that exerts beneficial effects on both GPX and CAT activities in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

  11. Rutin restores adenosine deaminase activity in serum and the liver and improves biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. CHIELLE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT denosine deaminase (ADA is a critical control point in the regulation of adenosine levels. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a polyphenolic flavonoid, rutin, on the activity of ADA in serum, the cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and biochemical parameters in diabetic rats. The animals were divided into four groups (n=6 for the following treatments: control; diabetic (streptozotocin 55 mg/kg; diabetic with rutin (100 mg/kg/day; diabetic with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg/day. After 30 days, ADA activity and biochemical parameters were analyzed. The ADA activity in the serum was significantly elevated in the diabetic group compared to the control group (p<0.01. The treatment with rutin prevented the increase in ADA activity in the STZ-induced rats when compared to control group. Our data showed that rutin reduced glucose, LDL levels, and hepatic enzymes in comparison with the control group. These results demonstrate that the increase of ADA activity observed in diabetic rats may be an important indicator of the immunopathogenesis of hyperglycemic disorders and suggest that rutin is important for regulating the enzymatic activities associated with immune, hyperglycemic, and inflammatory response in diabetes mellitus.

  12. Plasma IL-6 concentration correlates with clinical disease activity and serum C-reactive protein concentration in chronic urticaria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperska-Zajac, A; Sztylc, J; Machura, E; Jop, G

    2011-10-01

    Our previous study was the first to demonstrate enhanced plasma IL-6 concentrations in chronic urticaria (CU). It is known that C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker of an underlying systemic inflammation, triggered mainly as a response to IL-6. To evaluate plasma IL-6 concentration in CU patients relating to the clinical disease activity and serum CRP concentration. Serum CRP and plasma IL-6 concentrations were measured in 58 CU patients and 30 healthy subjects. Ten CU patients were evaluated twice, during the active period as well as upon the spontaneous clinical remission of the disease. CU activity was assessed with the use of the symptom scores recommended by EAACI/GALEN/EDF guidelines. IL-6 and CRP concentrations were significantly increased in CU patients as compared with the healthy subjects, whereas they decreased remarkably upon the spontaneous remission. IL-6 concentration was associated with weekly urticaria activity scores and also significant differences were found between patients showing different degrees of urticarial activity. Significant correlation was observed between IL-6 and CRP concentrations. This study reinforces evidence that, apart from a local cutaneous inflammation, CU is associated with a systemic inflammatory response. Such acute-phase response is manifested by increased circulating IL-6, which varies along with CRP changes and may be related to the urticarial activity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Effect of breed on plasma endothelin-1 concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, K.; Lequarré, A.-S.; Ljungvall, I.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are breed differences in several blood variables in healthy dogs. OBJECTIVE: Investigate breed variation in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration. ANIMALS: Five-hundred and thirty-one healthy dogs of 9 breeds examined...... blood pressure measurement, echocardiography, ECG, blood and urine analysis. RESULTS: Median ET-1 concentration was 1.29 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.97-1.82) pg/mL, median cortisol concentration 46.0 (IQR, 29.0-80.8) nmol/L, and median renin activity 0.73 (IQR, 0.48-1.10) ng/mL/h in all dogs. Overall...

  14. Superoxide dismutase activity of the naturally occurring human serum albumin-copper complex without hydroxyl radical formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryunosuke; Akiyama, Matofusa; Kawakami, Hiroyoshi; Komatsu, Teruyuki

    2014-01-01

    The superoxide radical anion (O2(.-)) is biologically toxic and contributes to the pathogenesis of various diseases. Here we describe the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of human serum albumin (HSA) complexed with a single Cu(II) ion at the N-terminal end (HSA-Cu complex). The structure of this naturally occurring copper-coordinated blood serum protein has been characterized by several physicochemical measurements. The O2(.-) dismutation ability of the HSA-Cu (1:1) complex is almost the same as that of the well-known SOD mimics, such as Mn(III) -tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium)porphyrin. Interestingly, the HSA-Cu complex does not induce a subsequent Fenton reaction to produce the hydroxyl radical (OH(.)), which is one of the most harmful reactive oxygen species.

  15. Statin Treatment Is Associated with Reduction in Serum Levels of Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand and Neutrophil Activation in Patients with Severe Carotid Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Lenglet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic and intraplaque biomarkers have been widely investigated in clinical cohorts as promising surrogate parameters of cardiovascular vulnerability. In this pilot study, we investigated if systemic and intraplaque levels of calcification biomarkers were affected by treatment with a statin in a cohort of patients with severe carotid stenosis and being asymptomatic for ischemic stroke. Patients on statin therapy had reduced serum osteopontin (OPN, RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG ratio, and MMP-9/pro-MMP-9 activity as compared to untreated patients. Statin-treated patients exhibited increased levels of collagen and reduced neutrophil infiltration in downstream portions of carotid plaques as compared to untreated controls. In upstream plaque portions, OPG content was increased in statin-treated patients as compared to controls. Other histological parameters (such as lipid, macrophage, smooth muscle cell, and MMP-9 content as well as RANKL, RANK, and OPG mRNA levels did not differ between the two patient groups. Serum RANKL/OPG ratio positively correlated with serum levels of neutrophilic products, intraplaque neutrophil, and MMP-9 content within downstream portions of carotid plaques. In conclusion, statin treatment was associated with improvement in serum RANKL levels and reduced neutrophil activity both systemically and in atherosclerotic plaques.

  16. Binding and biologic activity of diethylstilbestrol in the hamster: influence of a serum component on estrogen receptor binding and estrogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulicz, W C; Leavitt, W W

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biological activity and estrogen receptor (Re) binding affinity of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and estradiol (E2). Uterine weight response and cytosolic progesterone receptor (Rp) induction were equivalent following daily (3 days) injections of DES or E2 to ovariectomized animals. The biological equivalence of DES and E2 was not reflected by competition assays done with either uterine cytosolic or nuclear Re: the relative binding affinity (RBA) of DES to cytosolic Re was 46 +/- 5.3 and to nuclear Re was 380 +/- 42 compared to E2 (100). The RBAs of estrone, estriol and enclomiphene with cytosolic or nuclear Re were not significantly different. Further studies showed that this discrepancy in RBA of DES between cytosolic and nuclear Re could not be attributed to salt concentration but could be mimicked by addition of serum to nuclear Re preparations. The RBA of DES done with ammonium sulfate precipitated cytosolic Re approached that observed for nuclear Re. Gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S-300) of serum bound tritiated DES was shown to coelute with bovine serum albumin. These results suggest that a serum component (tentatively identified as albumin) can bind DES and cause a decrease in in vitro binding affinity and a reduction in biological activity in vivo.

  17. (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and serum cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in the assessment of disease activity in Takayasu's arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraes, Anne E D; de Souza, Alexandre W S; Mariz, Henrique A; Silva, Neusa P; Torres, Ivone C G; Pinto, Paula N V; Lima, Eduardo N P; Sato, Emilia I

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and serum levels of different cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in patients with Takayasu arteritis (TA) and associations with disease activity. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-18, MMP-3 and MMP-9 were measured in 36 TA patients and 36 controls. Maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) of (18)F-FDG in arterial walls was determined by PET-CT scans. TA patients were classified as active disease, inactive disease and possible active disease. Serum IL-6 and MMP-3 levels were higher in TA patients than in controls (p<0.001). Serum IL-6 was higher in patients with active disease and in patients with possible active disease than in inactive disease (p<0.0001). Patients with active disease had higher serum TNFα levels than patients with inactive disease (p=0.049) while patients with possible active disease presented higher IL-18 levels than patients with inactive disease (p=0.046). Patients with active disease had higher SUVmax values than those with inactive disease (p=0.042). By receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve SUVmax was predictive of active disease in TA and values ≥1.3 were associated with disease activity (p=0.039). Serum TNF-α levels were higher in patients with SUVmax≥1.3 than <1.3 (p=0.045) and controls (p=0.012). Serum IL-6 levels were higher in patients with SUVmax≥1.3 than in controls (p<0.001). No differences regarding other biomarkers were found between TA patients and controls. Higher serum IL-6 and TNFα levels as well as higher (18)F-FDG uptake in arterial wall are associated with active TA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. [(18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and serum cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in the assessment of disease activity in Takayasu's arteritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraes, Anne E D; de Souza, Alexandre W S; Mariz, Henrique A; Silva, Neusa P; Torres, Ivone C G; Pinto, Paula N V; Lima, Eduardo N P; Sato, Emilia I

    2015-07-30

    To evaluate (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT)-and serum levels of different cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in patients with Takayasu's arteritis (TA) and associations with disease activity. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-18, MMP-3 and MMP-9 were measured in 36 TA patients and 36 controls. Maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) of 18F-FDG in arterial walls was determined by PET-CT scans. TA patients were classified as active disease, inactive disease and possible active disease. Serum IL-6 and MMP-3 levels were higher in TA patients than in controls (p<0.001). Serum IL-6 was higher in patients with active disease and in patients with possible active disease than in inactive disease (p<0.0001). Patients with active disease had higher serum TNFα levels than patients with inactive disease (p=0.049) while patients with possible active disease presented higher IL-18 levels than patients with inactive disease (p=0.046). Patients with active disease had higher SUVmax values than those with inactive disease (p=0.042). By ROC curve SUVmax was predictive of active disease in TA and values ≥1.3 were associated with disease activity (p=0.039). Serum TNF-α levels were higher in patients with SUVmax ≥1.3 than<1.3 (p=0.045) and controls (p=0.012). Serum IL-6 levels were higher in patients with SUVmax ≥1.3 than in controls (p<0.001). No differences regarding other biomarkers were found between TA patients and controls. Higher serum IL-6 and TNFα levels as well as higher arterial 18F-FDG uptake are associated with active TA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of repeated administration of poloxamer 407 on serum lipoproteins and protease activity in mouse liver and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolenko, Tatyana A; Tuzikov, Fedor V; Johnston, Thomas P; Tuzikova, Natalia A; Kisarova, Yana A; Zhanaeva, Svetlana Ya; Alexeenko, Tatyana V; Zhukova, Natalia A; Brak, Ivan V; Spiridonov, Victor K; Filjushina, Elena E; Cherkanova, Marina S; Monoszon, Anna A

    2012-11-01

    The effects of repeated administration of poloxamer 407 (P-407) on lipoprotein-cholesterol (LP-C) and lipoprotein-triglyceride (LP-TG) fractions and subfractions, as well as the effect on liver and heart proteases, were studied. Repeated administration of P-407 to male CBA mice resulted in a model of atherosclerosis with increased diastolic blood pressure; there was a drastic increase in total serum cholesterol and especially TG. A novel small-angle X-ray scattering method for the determination of the fractional and subfractional composition of LP-C and LP-TG was used. In chronically P-407-treated mice, P-407 significantly increased atherogenic low-density lipoprotein C (LDL-C) fractions, as well as intermediate-density lipoprotein C (IDL-C), and LDL₁₋₃-C subfractions, and very-low-density lipoprotein-C (VLDL-C) fractions, as well as VLDL₁₋₂-C and VLDL₃₋₅-C subfractions), to a lesser extent, the total anti-atherogenic high-density lipoprotein C (HDL-C) fraction, as well as HDL₂-C and HDL₃-C subfractions. Additionally, we demonstrated an increase in the serum chitotriosidase activity, without significant changes in serum matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity. Morphological changes observed in P-407-treated mice included atherosclerosis in the heart and storage syndrome in the liver macrophages. P-407 significantly increased the activity of cysteine, aspartate proteases, and MMPs in the heart, and only the activity of cathepsin B and MMPs in the liver of mice. Thus, repeated administration of P-407 to mice induced atherosclerosis secondary to sustained dyslipidemia and formation of foamy macrophages in liver, and also modulated the activity of heart and liver proteases.

  20. Observation of Serum Bactericidal Activity of Brucella abortus RB51 OMPs Combined with Brucella abortus RB51 Live Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Gholizadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: vaccination is vital against brucellosis. Although current vaccines have low efficiency, some cell wall compartments such as Outer Membrane Proteins could be used as an immunogenic candidate in vaccine development. By this mean, our aim in this study was to evaluate the humoral immunity of the combination of Brucella abortus RB51 OMPs with the Brucella abortus RB51 live attenuated vaccine, by Serum Bactericidal Acitivity test. Materials and Methods: In this project, first Brucella abortus RB51 was cultivated in brucella agar. The OMPs were extracted by Sodium N-Lauryl Sarcosinate method, then added to the RB51 live attenuated vaccine. Immunization was done by injection of the vaccine to mice and rabbits. The blood was drawn on days 0, 15,30, and 45 from the rabbits and the sera were seperated. Brucella abortus 544 was also injected as challenge. Spleen colony count was also performed. Results: The data from Serum Bactericidal Assay has showed, there was a very high Humoral immunity and response as a bactericidal titre of the serum against Rb51 Live vaccine. There was a significant decrease of colonies in the group vaccinated with the combined vaccine in the Spleen colony count test. Statistical analysis of groups variances showed a significant difference between groups (P<0.05.Conclusions: The Serum Bactericidal Assay results showed despite previous studies, both the combine and live vaccine are capable to stimulate the Humoral immunity. greater activity of combined vaccine to boost the humoral activity might be due to the synergistic effect of this vaccine.

  1. Serum activities of adenosine deaminase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV and prolyl endopeptidase in patients with fibromyalgia: diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čulić, Ognjen; Cordero, Mario D; Žanić-Grubišić, Tihana; Somborac-Bačura, Anita; Pučar, Lara Batičić; Detel, Dijana; Varljen, Jadranka; Barišić, Karmela

    2016-10-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome with number of symptoms that present challenge in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Patients with FM show abnormal profile of purines in plasma. In this work, we measured serum activities of enzymes involved in purine metabolism, namely total adenosine deaminase (ADE) and its isoforms (ADE1 and ADE2), ecto-ATPase, and 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT). We also measured activity of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) and prolyl endopeptidase (PEP). Spectrophotometric and fluorometric methods were used for enzyme activity determinations. Enzyme activities were measured in sera of 24 patients with FM that were not undergoing pharmacological treatment during the study. Control group comprised 32 healthy control subjects. Significantly higher activities of total ADE (P = 0.025) and ADE2 (P = 0.011) were observed in FM patients, while no significant differences in ADE1, ecto-ATPase, and 5'-NT activities (P > 0.05) were found when compared to healthy controls. Moreover, increase in the activity of DPPIV (P = 0.015) and lower activity of PEP (P = 0.011) were also found in the FM group. ROC analysis pointed to different diagnostic sensitivities/specificities for individual enzyme activities measured as follows: ADE (50.0/87.5), ADE2 (41.7/90.6), DPPIV (62.5/71.9), and PEP (83.3/62.5). ADE2 and PEP were shown to be independent predictors of FM, while combination of the two gives AUC of 0.786 (95 % confidence interval of 0.656-0.885, P < 0.05). Our results are showing that serum activities of ADE2 and PEP could be useful as biomarkers for FM diagnosis. However, relatively low diagnostic sensitivity of ADE2 and specificity of PEP must be taken into account.

  2. 25-Hydroxivitamin D Serum Concentration, Not Free and Bioavailable Vitamin D, Is Associated with Disease Activity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloi, Marina; Horvath, Daniela Vargas; Ortega, João Carlos; Prado, Mônica Simon; Andrade, Luis Eduardo Coelho; Szejnfeld, Vera Lúcia

    2017-01-01

    We aim to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and investigate the association between total, free and bioavailable vitamin D serum concentrations and disease activity. Patients with SLE (ACR 1997) consecutively seen at UNIFESP’s outpatient’s clinics had disease activity measured after clinical and laboratory evaluation using SLEDAI (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index). 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) serum concentrations measured by chemiluminescence and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) measured by ELISA were used to calculate free and bioavailable vitamin D. Healthy blood donors were used as controls. A total of 142 patients (71.4%) had 25(OH)D serum concentrations below 30 ng/mL. Total 25(OH)D serum concentration was associated with disease activity categorized in 5 continuous groups of SLEDAI. 25(OH)D serum concentrations were higher among patients with SLEDAI 1–5 and lower in those with severe activity (SLEDAI≥20) (p <0.05). On the other hand, no statistically significant difference was observed for DBP, free and bioavailable vitamin D measurements in the disease activity subgroups evaluated. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among patients with SLE and was associated with higher disease activity. DBP serum level and calculation of free and bioavailable vitamin D were not associated with SLE disease activity. PMID:28085957

  3. Cold activation of serum complement in patients with chronic hepatitis C: study on activating pathway and involvement of IgG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Y

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been documented that the serum complement activities measured by hemolytic assay (CH50 are decreased after storage of sera at a low temperature in some patients with chronic hepatitis C. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon has not been identified yet. Here, we tried to elucidate factors involved in the cold activation of complement (CAC. To clarify what pathway is activated in CAC, we measured complement cleavage products after cold storage of sera. C4d increased significantly after 12 h-storage at cold temperatures in 5 CAC (+ sera compared with 5 CAC (- (P < 0.01 and 3 control sera (P < 0.05, while Bb did not increase in any of the groups. In order to determine whether IgG or IgG complex is necessary for CAC, 8 CAC (+ sera were incubated with Protein G Sepharose gel beads, and all of them retained hemolytic activities to some extent after cold storage. Column chromatography through Superose 6HR of CAC-positive serum identified the fractions containing molecules that induced CAC in normal serum, which were depleted by treatment with protein G Sepharose. In conclusion, CAC in hepatitis C seems to occur via a classical or lectin pathway, and the IgG complex produced in hepatitis C virus infection may be an important factor in inducing CAC, a common extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis C.

  4. Computational modeling of serum-binding proteins and clearance in extrapolations across life stages and species for endocrine active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeguarden, Justin G; Barton, Hugh A

    2004-06-01

    One measure of the potency of compounds that lead to the effects through ligand-dependent gene transcription is the relative affinity for the critical receptor. Endocrine active compounds that are presumed to act principally through binding to the estrogen receptor (e.g., estradiol, genistein, bisphenol A, and octylphenol) comprise one class of such compounds. For making simple comparisons, receptor-binding affinity has been equated to in vivo potency, which consequently defines the dose-response characteristics for the compound. Direct extrapolation of in vitro estimated affinities to the corresponding in vivo system and to specific species or life stages (e.g., neonatal, pregnancy) can be misleading. Accurate comparison of the potency of endocrine active compounds requires characterization of biochemical and pharmacokinetic factors that affect their free concentration. Quantitative in vitro and in vivo models were developed for integrating pharmacokinetics factors (e.g., serum protein and receptor-binding affinities, clearance) that affect potency. Data for parameterizing these models for several estrogenic compounds were evaluated and the models exercised. While simulations of adult human or rat sera were generally successful, difficulties in describing early life stages were identified. Exogenous compounds were predicted to be largely ineffective at competing estradiol off serum-binding proteins, suggesting this was unlikely to be physiologically significant. Discrepancies were identified between relative potencies based upon modeling in vitro receptor-binding activity versus in vivo activity in the presence of clearance and serum-binding proteins. The examples illustrate the utility of this approach for integrating available experimental data from in vitro and in vivo studies to estimate the relative potency of these compounds.

  5. Effects of rosiglitazone on serum paraoxonase activity and metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atamer, Y. [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakır (Turkey); Atamer, A. [Ministry of Health Haydarpaşa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ministry of Health Haydarpaşa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Can, A.S. [Termal Professional School, Yalova University, Yalova (Turkey); Hekimoğlu, A. [Dicle University, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Diyarbakir, Turkey, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakır (Turkey); Ilhan, N. [Firat University, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Elaziğ, Turkey, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Fırat University, Elazığ (Turkey); Yenice, N. [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Urfa (Turkey); Koçyiğit, Y. [Dicle University, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Diyarbakir, Turkey, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakır (Turkey)

    2013-06-25

    Human serum paraoxonase contributes to the anti-atherogenic effect of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and has been shown to protect both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-C against lipid peroxidation. We investigated the effects of rosiglitazone on paraoxonase activity and metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus [50 patients (30 males, 20 females); mean±SD age: 58.7±9.2 years, body mass index: 28.2±4.1'kg/m{sup 2}], in whom glucose control could not be achieved despite treatment with metformin, sulphonylurea, and/or insulin. The patients were given 4'mg/day rosiglitazone for 3 months in addition to their usual treatment. Serum paraoxonase activity, malondialdehyde, homocysteine, and lipid profile were measured at the time of initiation and at the end of therapy with rosiglitazone. After rosiglitazone therapy, serum levels of HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-1, and paraoxonase activity increased significantly (P<0.05) and malondialdehyde, homocysteine, lipoprotein(a), and glucose levels decreased significantly (P<0.05), but no significant changes in levels of total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were observed. Triglyceride levels also increased significantly (P<0.05). Rosiglitazone treatment led to an improvement in glycemic control and to an increase in paraoxonase activity and HDL-C levels. Although rosiglitazone showed favorable effects on oxidant/antioxidant balance and lipid profile, further studies are needed to determine the effect of rosiglitazone on cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  6. EMerging BiomARKers in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (EMBARK) study identifies fecal calprotectin, serum MMP9, and serum IL-22 as a novel combination of biomarkers for Crohn's disease activity: role of cross-sectional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubion, William A; Fletcher, Joel G; O'Byrne, Sharon; Feagan, Brian G; de Villiers, Willem Js; Salzberg, Bruce; Plevy, Scott; Proctor, Deborah D; Valentine, John F; Higgins, Peter D; Harris, Jeffrey M; Diehl, Lauri; Wright, Lilyan; Tew, Gaik Wei; Luca, Diana; Basu, Karen; Keir, Mary E

    2013-12-01

    In Crohn's disease (CD), clinical symptoms correspond poorly to inflammatory disease activity. Biomarkers reflective of mucosal and bowel wall inflammation would be useful to monitor disease activity. The EMBARK study evaluated disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and CD, and used endoscopy with or without cross-sectional imaging for biomarker discovery. UC (n=107) and CD (n=157) patients were characterized and underwent ileocolonoscopy (ICO). A subset of CD patients (n=66) also underwent computed tomography enterography (CTE). ICO and CTE were scored by a gastroenterologist and radiologist who incorporated findings of inflammation into a single score (ICO-CTE) for patients that underwent both procedures. Serum and fecal biomarkers were evaluated for association with the Mayo Clinic endoscopy score in UC patients and with ICO alone or ICO-CTE in CD patients. Individual biomarkers with a moderate degree of correlation (P≤0.3) were evaluated using multivariate analysis with model selection using a stepwise procedure. In UC, ordinal logistic regression using Mayo Clinic endoscopy subscore selected the combination of fecal calprotectin and serum matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9; pseudo R(2)=0.353). In CD, we found that use of the ICO-CTE increased specificity of known biomarkers. Using ICO-CTE as the dependent variable for biomarker discovery, the selected biomarkers were the combination of fecal calprotectin, serum MMP9, and serum IL-22 (r=0.699). Incorporation of both ICO and CTE into a single measure increased biomarker performance in CD. Combinations of fecal calprotectin and serum MMP9 for UC, and combinations of fecal calprotectin, serum MMP9, and serum interleukin-22 in CD, demonstrated the strongest association with imaging/endoscopy-defined inflammation.

  7. [N-acetyl-cystein-(NAC)-activated creatinkinase (CK) and isoenzyme CK-MB in the serum of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzmann, F C; Orth, H

    1983-08-01

    We have examined the variation of creatinekinase levels (NAC-activated) with age in 170 children. The subjects included 40 neonates, 18 premature neonates, 40 small babies, 32 infants and 40 schoolchildren. The enzyme activity of CK-MM was very high in the first hours after delivery and remained high for a few days. The isoenzyme MB in healthy newborns also showed a higher catalytic concentration. These values (about 2-12 U/l) reached normal levels of adults within 4 months of life (0.5-5 U/l). The same rule applied to CK-MM: enzyme activities of 160 U/l and more in the first days of life declined to 16-75 U/l during the first 4 months. No correlation between birth trauma and the increase in serum-CK was found. Because of the increased CK-MM (and CK-MB) found in normal newborns screening for Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy should be postponed for a few weeks after delivery. In view of the relatively high endogenous serum CK-MB in the neonates (release of CK-MB from the skeletal muscle) the test lacks the specificity for cardiac damage. Intramuscular injections of several drugs lead to a distinct increase in CK activity. A rise of CK-MM was seen 4-24 h after catheterization of the heart.

  8. Effect of streptococcal preparation (picibanil on the postoperative rise in serum alanine aminotransferase activity in patients with urogenital cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketa,Kazuhisa

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Picibanil, a streptococcal agent, on the development of liver injury after operations for urogenital cancer was studied retrospectively in the light of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity. The series comprised 32 cases receiving Picibanil and 33 controls with otherwise comparable clinical backgrounds. Picibanil reduced the incidence of postoperative ALT rise over 50 U/l within 6 weeks but increased it thereafter. The increase in ALT activity after 6 weeks was relatively small and was seen more often in patients given blood transfusions. It was interpreted as retardation and suppression of ALT rise and as being related to the induction of interferon or to immunopotentiation. Other antihepatotoxic effects of Picibanil, due to its antioxidant activity, for example, may also account for the prevention of the early postoperative rise in ALT activity.

  9. Serum IL-6 and IL-23 Levels and Their Correlation with Angiogenic Cytokines and Disease Activity in Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis, and SAPHO Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Przepiera-Będzak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-23 (IL-23 and their correlation with angiogenic cytokines and disease activity in ankylosing spondylitis (AS, psoriatic arthritis (PsA, and SAPHO syndrome. Patients and Methods. We studied 152 spondyloarthritis (SpA patients: 69 PsA, 61 AS, 22 SAPHO, and 29 controls. We recorded age, sex, disease duration, and treatment. We assessed BASDAI, VAS, and PASI scores. Serum IL-6, IL-23, VEGF, EGF, FGFb, and FGFa levels were determined using ELISA. We estimated ESR and CRP. Results. Serum IL-6 and IL-23 levels were higher in SpA than in control (P<0.00001 and P=0.0004, resp.. There was a positive correlation between serum IL-6 and CRP in AS (P=0.000001, PsA (P=0.000001, and SAPHO (P=0.0003 patients. There was a positive correlation between serum IL-6 and ESR in AS (P=0.000001, PsA (P=0.002, and SAPHO (P=0.02 patients. There was no correlation of serum IL-6 and IL-23 with VAS, BASDAI, and angiogenic cytokines in SpA. Conclusions. Serum IL-6 but not serum IL-23 correlated with ESR and CRP in SpA. No correlation was found of serum IL-6 and IL-23 with VAS, BASDAI, and angiogenic cytokines.

  10. Measures of anticholinergic drug exposure, serum anticholinergic activity, and all-cause postdischarge mortality in older hospitalized patients with hip fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangoni, Arduino A.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Woodman, Richard J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess possible associations between anticholinergic drug exposure and serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) and their capacities to predict all-cause mortality in older hospitalized patients. Setting: Academic medical center. Participants and Measurements: Data on clinical characteris

  11. Measures of anticholinergic drug exposure, serum anticholinergic activity, and all-cause postdischarge mortality in older hospitalized patients with hip fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangoni, Arduino A; van Munster, Barbara C; Woodman, Richard J; de Rooij, Sophia E

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess possible associations between anticholinergic drug exposure and serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) and their capacities to predict all-cause mortality in older hospitalized patients. SETTING: Academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Data on clinical characteris

  12. Gut microbiota composition in male rat models under different nutritional status and physical activity and its association with serum leptin and ghrelin levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel; Seoane, Luisa María; Murri, Mora; Pardo, María; Gomez-Zumaquero, Juan Miguel; Cardona, Fernando; Casanueva, Felipe; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    .... To evaluate the differences in the composition of gut microbiota in rat models under different nutritional status and physical activity and to identify their associations with serum leptin and ghrelin levels...

  13. Gut Microbiota Composition in Male Rat Models under Different Nutritional Status and Physical Activity and Its Association with Serum Leptin and Ghrelin Levels: e65465

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    María Isabel Queipo-Ortuño; Luisa María Seoane; Mora Murri; María Pardo; Juan Miguel Gomez-Zumaquero; Fernando Cardona; Felipe Casanueva; Francisco J Tinahones

    2013-01-01

    .... Objective To evaluate the differences in the composition of gut microbiota in rat models under different nutritional status and physical activity and to identify their associations with serum leptin and ghrelin levels...

  14. Measures of anticholinergic drug exposure, serum anticholinergic activity, and all-cause postdischarge mortality in older hospitalized patients with hip fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangoni, Arduino A.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Woodman, Richard J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    Objectives: To assess possible associations between anticholinergic drug exposure and serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) and their capacities to predict all-cause mortality in older hospitalized patients. Setting: Academic medical center. Participants and Measurements: Data on clinical

  15. Measures of anticholinergic drug exposure, serum anticholinergic activity, and all-cause postdischarge mortality in older hospitalized patients with hip fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangoni, Arduino A; van Munster, Barbara C; Woodman, Richard J; de Rooij, Sophia E

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess possible associations between anticholinergic drug exposure and serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) and their capacities to predict all-cause mortality in older hospitalized patients. SETTING: Academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Data on clinical characteris

  16. Measures of anticholinergic drug exposure, serum anticholinergic activity, and all-cause postdischarge mortality in older hospitalized patients with hip fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangoni, Arduino A.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Woodman, Richard J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess possible associations between anticholinergic drug exposure and serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) and their capacities to predict all-cause mortality in older hospitalized patients. Setting: Academic medical center. Participants and Measurements: Data on clinical characteris

  17. Gender difference of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in DD genotype of ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism in elderly Chinese

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Ya-Feng; Cheng, Qiong; Tang, Nelson LS; Chu, Tanya TW; Tomlinson, Brian; Liu, Fan; Kwok, Timothy CY

    2014-01-01

    ...) Hong Kong-dwelling elderly Chinese were recruited. ACE I/D genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification and serum ACE activity was determined using a commercially available kinetic kit...

  18. Correlation of serum paraoxonase activities in known cases of 130 elderly hypertensive South Asian aged 56-64 years - a hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate paraoxonase activity, antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in hypertensive participants and to address the hypothesis that oxidative modifications of lipids due to hypertension can cause changes in serum paraoxonase activities. Methods: The serum paraoxonase activities, antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were determined in 130 hypertensive participants and 130 age-sexes matched normotensive healthy volunteers served as control. Serum paraoxonase activities were measured by enzymatic kit. The glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity were determined by standard methods. Malondialdehyde was measured by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Conjugated diene level was measured by Recknagel and Glende method. Serum uric acid, total bilirubin, serum albumin, serum ascorbic acid and lipid profile were analyzed by standard methods. Results: Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly lower in hypertensive patients when compared to normotensive healthy controls. The superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were significantly lower in hypertensive when compared with normotensive. Similar findings were observed in the levels of albumin, uric acid, bilirubin and ascorbic acid when hypertensives were compared with normotensive. The oxidative stress indicators namely malondialdehyde and conjugated diene were significantly higher and paraoxonase activity were significantly lower in hypertensive. Conclusions: Our study concludes that paraoxonase activities are bound to alter in hypertension which is caused due to interplay of several confounding factors namely oxidative stress, increased oxidized low-density lipoprotein and depletion of antioxidants.

  19. Serum galectin-1 in patients with multiple myeloma: associations with survival, angiogenesis, and biomarkers of macrophage activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen MN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Morten Nørgaard Andersen,1–3,* Maja Ludvigsen,1,3,* Niels Abildgaard,4 Irma Petruskevicius,3 Rikke Hjortebjerg,5 Mette Bjerre,5 Bent Honoré,1 Holger J Møller,2 Niels F Andersen31Department of Biomedicine, Faculty of Health, Aarhus University, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, 3Department of Hematology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Department of Hematology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 5Medical Research Laboratory, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Galectin-1 (Gal-1 is known to regulate cell signaling within the immune system and may be a target for new anticancer immune therapy. In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL, high levels of Gal-1 within the tumor microenvironment were associated with worse disease state or poor outcome. Gal-1 can be secreted from cells by an unknown mechanism, and levels in blood samples were associated with high tumor burden and worse disease state in cHL and CLL patients. However, serum levels of Gal-1 have never been investigated in patients with multiple myeloma (MM. We measured serum Gal-1 levels in samples from patients with treatment demanding MM at the time of diagnosis (n=102 and after treatment (n=24 and examined associations of serum Gal-1 with clinicopathological information obtained from patient medical records, as well as data on bone marrow angiogenesis and the macrophage activation biomarkers soluble CD163 (sCD163 and soluble mannose receptor. Serum Gal-1 levels were not elevated in patients with MM at diagnosis compared with healthy donors (median values 8.48 vs 11.93 ng/mL, P=0.05, which is in contrast to results in cHL and CLL. Furthermore, Gal-1 levels did not show association with bone marrow angiogenesis, clinicopathological parameters, overall survival, or response to treatment. There was a statically significant

  20. [Concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone and activity of N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase and its isoenzymes, in serum of patients with thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierz, Piotr; Szajda, Sławomir D; Snarska, Jadwiga; Supronowicz, Zbigniew B; Zawadzki, Paweł; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Kamińsk, Fabian

    2006-11-01

    Thyroid cancer consists 1% of all malignant neoplasms. It is not known interrelationship between concentration of TSH in blood serum and condition of thyroid cancer. Thyroid cancer is difficult for diagnosis and differentiation. Therefore it is necessary to search for biochemical markers helpful in diagnostics of thyroid cancer. Significant increase in activity of N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B in serum of patients with neoplasms of kidney and pancreas suggest approporiateness of evaluation of HEX and its isoenzymes in diagnostics of thyroid cancer. of the study--evaluation of TSH concentration and activity of HEX and its isoenzymes A and B, in serum of patients with thyroid cancer. Blood was taken from 7 patients with thyroid cancer (6 men and 1 woman). Control consisted of 7 healthy men. In blood serum concentration of TSH was determined with immunoenzymatic method on analyzer Axsym of Abbott and expressed in microU/mL. The activity of HEX and its isoenzymes A and B was determined by method of Chatterjee et al., as modified by Zwierz et.al. Determination of HEX was performed on microplate reader ELX800 BIO-TEK. Activity of HEX, HEX A and B was expressed in pKat/mL, and specific activity in pKat/mg protein). Protein was determined by biuret method and results were expressed in mg/mL. Concentration of HEX A activity in serum of thyroid cancer patients is significantly higherin comparison to healthymen (p = 0.0191). Also specific activity of HEX A in serum of thyroid cancer patients is significantly higher in comparison to healthy men (p = 0.0393). 1. Determination of TSH concentration in serum of thyroid cancer before the operation may confirm euthyreosis. 2. Determination of HEX A activity in serum may be helpful in diagnostics of thyroid cancer.

  1. Development of a high-throughput method to evaluate serum bactericidal activity using bacterial ATP measurement as survival readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Allan; Rondini, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Serum Bactericidal Activity (SBA) assay is the method of choice to evaluate the complement-mediated functional activity of both infection- and vaccine-induced antibodies. To perform a typical SBA assay, serial dilutions of sera are incubated with target bacterial strains and complement. The conventional SBA assay is based on plating on agar the SBA reaction mix and counting the surviving bacterial colony forming units (CFU) at each serum dilution. Even with automated colony counting, it is labor-intensive, time-consuming and not amenable for large-scale studies. Here, we have developed a luminescence-based SBA (L-SBA) method able to detect surviving bacteria by measuring their ATP. At the end of the SBA reaction, a single commercially available reagent is added to each well of the SBA plate, and the resulting luminescence signal is measured in a microplate reader. The signal obtained is proportional to the ATP present, which is directly proportional to the number of viable bacteria. Bactericidal activity is subsequently calculated. We demonstrated the applicability of L-SBA with multiple bacterial serovars, from 5 species: Citrobacter freundii, Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, Shigella flexneri serovars 2a and 3a, Shigella sonnei and Neisseria meningitidis. Serum bactericidal titers obtained by the luminescence readout method strongly correlate with the data obtained by the conventional agar plate-based assay, and the new assay is highly reproducible. L-SBA considerably shortens assay time, facilitates data acquisition and analysis and reduces the operator dependency, avoiding the plating and counting of CFUs. Our results demonstrate that L-SBA is a useful high-throughput bactericidal assay. PMID:28192483

  2. Immunoassay for tumor markers in human serum based on Si nanoparticles and SiC@Ag SERS-active substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lu; Zhou, Jun; Feng, Zhao; Wang, Fuyan; Xie, Shushen; Bu, Shizhong

    2016-04-21

    Based on a sandwich structure consisting of nano-Si immune probes and a SiC@Ag SERS-active immune substrate, a kind of ultra-sensitive immunoassay protocol is presented to detect tumor markers in human serum. The nano-Si immune probes were prepared by immobilizing the detecting antibodies onto the surfaces of SiO2-coated Si nanoparticles (NPs) which were modified with 3-(aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane, and the SiC@Ag SERS-active immune substrates were prepared by immobilizing the captured antibodies on Ag film sputtered on SiC sandpaper. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that Si NPs are directly used as Raman tags in an immunoassay strategy. And, the SiC@Ag SERS-active substrates exhibit excellent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performances with an enhancement factor of ∼10(5), owing to the plasmonic effect of the Ag film on the rough surface of the SiC sandpaper. In our experiments, the sandwich immunoassay structure has been successfully applied to detect prostate specific antigen (PSA), α-fetoprotein (AFP) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in a human serum sample and the limit of detections are as low as 1.79 fg mL(-1), 0.46 fg mL(-1) and 1.3 × 10(-3) U mL(-1), respectively. It reveals that the proposed immunoassay protocol has demonstrated a high sensitivity for tumor markers in human serum and a potential practicability in biosensing and clinical diagnostics.

  3. The Effect of Gender and Menstrual Phase on Serum Creatine Kinase Activity and Muscle Soreness Following Downhill Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuyse, Tanja; Bosch, Andrew N

    2017-02-23

    Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity reflects muscle membrane disruption. Oestrogen has antioxidant and membrane stabilising properties, yet no study has compared the CK and muscle soreness (DOMS) response to unaccustomed exercise between genders when all menstrual phases are represented in women. Fifteen eumenorrhoeic women (early follicular, EF (n = 5); late follicular, LF (n = 5); mid-luteal, ML (n = 5) phase) and six men performed 20 min of downhill running (-10% gradient) at 9 km/h. Serum CK activity and visual analogue scale rating of perceived muscle soreness were measured before, immediately, 24-h, 48-h and 72-h after exercise. The 24-h peak CK response (relative to pre-exercise) was similar between women and men (mean change (95% confidence interval): 58.5 (25.2 to 91.7) IU/L; 68.8 (31.3 to 106.3) IU/L, respectively). However, serum CK activity was restored to pre-exercise levels quicker in women (regardless of menstrual phase) than men; after 48-h post exercise in women (16.3 (-4.4 to 37.0) IU/L; 56.3 (37.0 to 75.6) IU/L, respectively) but only after 72-h in men (14.9 (-14.8 to 44.6) IU/L). Parallel to the CK response, muscle soreness recovered by 72-h in men. Conversely, the women still reported muscle soreness at 72-h despite CK levels being restored by 48-h; delayed recovery of muscle soreness appeared mainly in EF and LF. The CK and DOMS response to downhill running is gender-specific. The CK response recovers quicker in women than men. The CK and DOMS response occur in concert in men but not in women. The DOMS response in women is prolonged and may be influenced by menstrual phase.

  4. The Effect of Gender and Menstrual Phase on Serum Creatine Kinase Activity and Muscle Soreness Following Downhill Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Oosthuyse

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Serum creatine kinase (CK activity reflects muscle membrane disruption. Oestrogen has antioxidant and membrane stabilising properties, yet no study has compared the CK and muscle soreness (DOMS response to unaccustomed exercise between genders when all menstrual phases are represented in women. Fifteen eumenorrhoeic women (early follicular, EF (n = 5; late follicular, LF (n = 5; mid-luteal, ML (n = 5 phase and six men performed 20 min of downhill running (−10% gradient at 9 km/h. Serum CK activity and visual analogue scale rating of perceived muscle soreness were measured before, immediately, 24-h, 48-h and 72-h after exercise. The 24-h peak CK response (relative to pre-exercise was similar between women and men (mean change (95% confidence interval: 58.5 (25.2 to 91.7 IU/L; 68.8 (31.3 to 106.3 IU/L, respectively. However, serum CK activity was restored to pre-exercise levels quicker in women (regardless of menstrual phase than men; after 48-h post exercise in women (16.3 (−4.4 to 37.0 IU/L; 56.3 (37.0 to 75.6 IU/L, respectively but only after 72-h in men (14.9 (−14.8 to 44.6 IU/L. Parallel to the CK response, muscle soreness recovered by 72-h in men. Conversely, the women still reported muscle soreness at 72-h despite CK levels being restored by 48-h; delayed recovery of muscle soreness appeared mainly in EF and LF. The CK and DOMS response to downhill running is gender-specific. The CK response recovers quicker in women than men. The CK and DOMS response occur in concert in men but not in women. The DOMS response in women is prolonged and may be influenced by menstrual phase.

  5. Stimulation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase activity by pp60/sup v-src/ or by serum: dissociation from phorbol ester-stimulated activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blenis, J.; Erikson, R.L.

    1986-03-01

    Ribosomal protein S6 kinase activity was measured in lysates prepared from serum-deprived chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) treated for various times with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Maximal activity was observed within 15 min, and it declined to the initial level by 4 hr. Incubation of these cells with PMA 4-60 hr after the initial treatment did not result in an additional increase in S6 protein kinase activity. These results are consistent with down-regulation of the PMA receptor, protein kinase C, and the dependence of PMA-stimulated S6 kinase activity on this enzyme. Long-term pretreatment of CEF with PMA only partially attenuated the stimulation of the S6 protein kinase activity by serum or by expression of the Rous sarcoma virus transforming gene product, pp60/sup v-src/. A similar protein kinase activity also was stimulated in cells treated with cycloheximide or sodium vanadate. Pretreatment with PMA had little effect on this response. These data indicate that it is likely that there are at least two mechanisms through which S6 kinase activity can be regulated, one of which apparently utilizes protein kinase C whereas the other(s) does not. Additional experiments show PMA-stimulated glucose transport was not attenuated by long-term incubation with phorbol ester, suggesting that another mechanism, which is not dependent on the presence of protein kinase C, maintains this response after the proposed down-regulation of the PMA receptor.

  6. Serum soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor levels in male patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Abdullah; Kalelioglu, Tevfik; Karamustafalioglu, Nesrin; Tasdemir, Akif; Genc, Esra Sena; Akkus, Mustafa; Emul, Murat

    2016-02-28

    Inflammatory abnormalities have been shown in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a protein that is measurable in the circulating blood and reflects the inflammation in the body. We aimed to investigate serum suPAR levels in patients with schizophrenia who were in acute state and to compare with healthy controls. Forty five patients and 43 healthy controls were included in the study. We found no significant difference in suPAR levels between patients and controls, suggesting that suPAR as an inflammatory marker does not have a role in the inflammatory process of acute schizophrenia.

  7. Regulation of Content of Malondialdehyde by Siqi Decoction via Increasing Activity of Superoxide Dismutase in Blood Serum of Rats with Myocardial Ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yan-bin; JIANG Yi-zhong; LU Ming; CHENG Ying-kun; SU Yan-wen; ZHANG Fen-rong; LI Zheng-qiang

    2009-01-01

    Effect of Siqi decoction on myocardial ischemia is to prevent cardiac myocyte membrane from damage associated with oxygen free radicals related to NO. To research the regulatoin of the content of malondialdehyde by Siqi decoction, an index of lipid peroxidation, via increasing activity of superoxide dismutase in blood serum of rats with Myocardial Ischemia, the model of myocardium ischemia was made in Wistar rats with posterior pituitary injection through vein in tail. Siqi decoction, Diaoxinxuekang(DK) and Fufangdanshenpian(FD), the latter two drugs of which are effective TCM drugs of anti-myocardial ischemia at present, were administrated to the rats with myocardium ischemia for 5 days to compare the effect of them on myocardium ischemia as reference drugs via measuring the changes of the content of malondialdehyde and the activity of superoxide dismutase in the rat blood serum with myocardial ischemia. There were a remarkable increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase and a decrease in the content of malondialdehyde in the serum of the rats administered Siqi decoction compared with those of the rats in control group, p<0.05. The contents of MDA in the serum of the prevention group rats in the experiments are lower than those of the cure group rats. Anti-Myocardium Ischemia mechanism of Siqi decoction is the regulation of the content of malondialdehyde via increasing activity of superoxide dismutase in the serum of Rats with myocardial ischemia and stimulating the activity of NOS in serum so as to increase NO concentration.

  8. Serum Inter-α-inhibitor activates the Yes tyrosine kinase and YAP/TEAD transcriptional complex in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijuan-Galitó, Sara; Tamm, Christoffer; Annerén, Cecilia

    2014-11-28

    We have previously demonstrated that the Src family kinase Yes, the Yes-associated protein (YAP) and TEA domain TEAD2 transcription factor pathway are activated by leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and contribute to mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal. In addition, we have shown that fetal bovine serum (FBS) induces Yes auto-phosphorylation and activation. In the present study we confirm that serum also activates TEAD-dependent transcription in a time- and dose-dependent manner and we identify Inter-α-inhibitor (IαI) as a component in serum capable of activating the Yes/YAP/TEAD pathway by inducing Yes auto-phosphorylation, YAP nuclear localization and TEAD-dependent transcription. The cleaved heavy chain 2 (HC2) sub-component of IαI, is demonstrated to be responsible for this effect. Moreover, IαI is also shown to efficiently increase expression of TEAD-downstream target genes including well-known stem cell factors Nanog and Oct 3/4. IαI is not produced by the ES cells per se but is added to the cells via the cell culture medium containing serum or serum-derived components such as bovine serum albumin (BSA). In conclusion, we describe a novel function of IαI in activating key pluripotency pathways associated with ES cell maintenance and self-renewal.

  9. Serum Inter-α-inhibitor Activates the Yes Tyrosine Kinase and YAP/TEAD Transcriptional Complex in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijuan-Galitó, Sara; Tamm, Christoffer; Annerén, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the Src family kinase Yes, the Yes-associated protein (YAP) and TEA domain TEAD2 transcription factor pathway are activated by leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and contribute to mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal. In addition, we have shown that fetal bovine serum (FBS) induces Yes auto-phosphorylation and activation. In the present study we confirm that serum also activates TEAD-dependent transcription in a time- and dose-dependent manner and we identify Inter-α-inhibitor (IαI) as a component in serum capable of activating the Yes/YAP/TEAD pathway by inducing Yes auto-phosphorylation, YAP nuclear localization and TEAD-dependent transcription. The cleaved heavy chain 2 (HC2) sub-component of IαI, is demonstrated to be responsible for this effect. Moreover, IαI is also shown to efficiently increase expression of TEAD-downstream target genes including well-known stem cell factors Nanog and Oct 3/4. IαI is not produced by the ES cells per se but is added to the cells via the cell culture medium containing serum or serum-derived components such as bovine serum albumin (BSA). In conclusion, we describe a novel function of IαI in activating key pluripotency pathways associated with ES cell maintenance and self-renewal. PMID:25301940

  10. Serum levels of P-glycoprotein and persistence of disease activity despite treatment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Guerrero, Edsaul Emilio; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan; Muñoz-Valle, Jose Francisco; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto German; Bonilla-Lara, David; Fajardo-Robledo, Nicte Selene; Nava-Zavala, Arnulfo Hernan; Garcia-Cobian, Teresa Arcelia; Rincón-Sánchez, Ana Rosa; Murillo-Vazquez, Jessica Daniela; Cardona-Müller, David; Vazquez-Villegas, Maria Luisa; Totsuka-Sutto, Sylvia Elena; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura

    2017-02-27

    Around 25% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) could be refractory to conventional therapies. P-glycoprotein expression on cell surface has been implied on drug resistance, however, to date, it is unknown if P-gp serum levels are associated with SLE disease activity. Evaluate the association of serum P-gp levels and SLE with disease activity despite treatment. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 93 female SLE patients, all receiving glucocorticoids at stable doses for the previous 6 months before to baseline. SLE patients were classified into two groups: (a) patients with active disease [SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) ≥ 3] despite treatment, and (b) patients with inactive disease (SLEDAI P-gp, anti-DNA, and both anti-nucleosome antibody levels were measured using ELISA. Active-SLE patients despite treatment had higher P-gp levels compared with inactive-SLE after treatment (78.02 ng/mL ± 114.11 vs. 33.75 ng/mL ± 41.11; p = 0.018) or versus reference group subjects (30.56 ng/mL ± 28.92; p = 0.011). P-gp levels correlated with the scores of SLEDAI (r = 0.26; p = 0.01), Mexican-SLEDAI (MEX-SLEDAI) (r = 0.32; p = 0.002), SLICC/ACR damage index (r = 0.47; p p = 0.001). In the multivariate model, the high P-gp levels were associated with SLICC/ACR score (p = 0.001), and SLEDAI score (p = 0.014). Our findings support a relationship between serum P-gp levels and SLE with disease activity despite treatment, but it requires further validation in longitudinal studies.

  11. Dynamic changes of serum cholinesterase activity after severe trauma%严重创伤后血清胆碱酯酶活性的动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li BA; Ding-qian WU; An-yu QIAN; Mao ZHANG; Bing XIONG

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine dynamic changes in serum cholinesterase (ChE) activity during early-stage severe trauma and the clinical significance of these changes. Methods: This prospective, observational study included 81 patients with severe trauma who were treated between October 2011 and April 2013 in the emergency intensive care unit (EICU) of a university-affiliated, tertiary-care, grade A general hospital in China. Serum ChE activity was measured on Days 1, 3, and 7 post-injury. The correlation of dynamic changes in serum ChE activity with trauma severity and prognosis was assessed. Correlations between changes in serum ChE activity after injury and albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PAB), transferrin (TRF), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were also analyzed. Results: Serum ChE activity in trauma patients was 42.3%–50.2% lower on Days 1, 3, and 7 compared with the control (P25 subgroup. ChE activity was significantly lower in both the death and the ISS>25 subgroups than in the survival and ISS≤25 subgroups on Days 1, 3, and 7 after injury. Activity was negatively correlated with ISS and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation III (APACHE III) at al time points. When comparing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for predicting prognosis, the area under the curve (AUC) in the plot of serum ChE was similar to the AUCs in plots of ISS and APACHE III, but significantly smaler than the AUC in the plot of the trauma and injury severity score (TRISS). Serum ChE activity was positively correlated with ALB, PAB, and TRF at al time points post-injury. Activity was not significantly correlated with CRP on Day 1, but was significantly and negatively correlated with CRP on Days 3 and 7. Conclusions: There is a significant decrease in serum ChE activity after severe trauma. Serum ChE may be regarded as a negative acute phase protein (APP) and the dynamic changes in serum ChE may be useful as an auxiliary indicator for

  12. Serum and urinary interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels as predicting factors of Kawasaki disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Y M; Lin, C Y; Hwang, B

    1993-01-01

    From January 1988 to Autumn 1991, 60 patients suffering from Kawasaki disease (KD) were recruited in this study. Their ages ranged from 4 months to 5 years. Diagnosis was based on the criteria revised in 1984 by the KD Research Committee in Japan. Of these, 12 cases developed coronary aneurysms. First, blood samples from 60 KD patients were taken on admission before aspirin and/or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. Convalescent blood samples were taken 3 months after onset of disease. The control group included (1) 10 cases of viral infection with skin rash and fever (aged 5 months to 5 years) and (2) 10 age and sex matched normal children admitted for elective pediatric surgery such as inguinal hernia. Second, urinary samples were collected from 32 cases during the acute phase of KD. Of these, 10 cases had pyuria and/or proteinuria. The results showed that the serum IL-6 levels from KD patients during the first week of acute phase were significantly increased while undetectable in the convalescent sera and controls. There was also a statistical difference between the with and without coronary aneurysm groups during the first week (336.8 +/- 95.1 vs 125.5 +/- 56.5 pg/ml, P Urinary IL-6 levels were significantly elevated in KD patients with pyuria and/or proteinuria (156.6 +/- 77.7 pg/mg Cr) and undetectable in the group without pyuria and proteinuria and controls during the first week. There was no difference between with and without coronary aneurysm. These results suggest that serum IL-6 level is a useful factor for predicting formation of coronary aneurysm even within one week after onset of disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Trimellitic anhydride-conjugated serum albumin activates rat alveolar macrophages in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloksma Nanne

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational exposure to airborne low molecular weight chemicals, like trimellitic anhydride (TMA, can result in occupational asthma. Alveolar macrophages (AMs are among the first cells to encounter these inhaled compounds and were previously shown to influence TMA-induced asthma-like symptoms in the Brown Norway rat. TMA is a hapten that will bind to endogenous proteins upon entrance of the body. Therefore, in the present study we determined if TMA and TMA conjugated to serum albumin induced the production of the macrophage mediators nitric oxide (NO, tumour necrosis factor (TNF, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 in vitro using the rat AM cell line NR8383 and primary AMs derived from TMA-sensitized and naïve Brown Norway rats. Methods Cells were incubated with different concentrations of TMA, TMA conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA, and BSA as a control for 24 h and the culture supernatant was analyzed for mediator content. Results TMA alone was not able to induce the production of mediators by NR8383 cells and primary AMs from sensitized and sham-treated rats. TMA-BSA, on the contrary, dose-dependently stimulated the production of NO, TNF, and IL-6 by NR8383 cells and of NO and TNF, but not IL-6, by primary AMs independent of sensitization. Conclusion Results suggest that although TMA is a highly reactive compound, conjugation to a suitable protein is necessary to induce mediator production by AMs. Furthermore, the observation that effects of TMA-BSA were independent of sensitization suggests involvement of an immunologically non-specific receptor. In the discussion it is argued that a macrophage scavenger receptor is a likely candidate.

  14. Association between serum levels of high sensitive C-reactive protein and inflammation activity in chronic gastritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Asghar; Moradkhani, Atefeh; Hafezi Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Jafari Heirdarlo, Ali; Abangah, Ghobad; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Gastritis is an important premalignant lesion and recent studies suggested a production of inflammatory cytokine-like C-reactive protein during gastritis. This study aimed to determine any relationship between high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and inflammation activity among patients with gastritis. Demographic and clinical variables of participants were collected by a validated questionnaire. Using histology of the gastric mucosa, Helicobacter pylori status was investigated and serum concentrations of hs-CRP were measured among dyspeptic patients. Correlation between hs-CRP serum levels and inflammation activities was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. The relation between active inflammation and other variables was evaluated by logic link function model. Totally 239 patients (56.6% female) were analysed. The prevalence of mild, moderate and severe inflammation activities was 66.5%, 23.8% and 9.6% respectively. Mean ± SD of hs-CRP among men and women were 2.85 ± 2.84 mg/dl and 2.80 ± 4.80 mg/dl (p = 0.047) respectively. Mean ± SD of hs-CRP among patients with H. pylori infection, gland atrophy, metaplasia and dysplasia were 2.83 ± 3.80 mg/dl, 3.52 ± 5.1 mg/dl, 2.22 ± 2.3 mg/dl and 5.3 ± 5.04 mg/dl respectively. Relationship between hs-CRP and inflammation activities (p gastritis, elevated hs-CRP levels may be considered as a predictive marker of changes in gastric mucosa and a promising therapeutic target for patients with gastritis.

  15. Fracture Risk in Relation to Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Physical Activity: Results from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Cristina; Lentjes, Marleen A. H.; Huybrechts, Inge; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and physical inactivity have been associated with bone loss and fractures, but their combined effect has scarcely been studied either in younger or older adults. Therefore, we aimed to assess the associations between physical activity, age and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status separately and in combination with the incidence of fracture risk in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study. Baseline (1993–1998) self-reported physical activity and serum 25(OH)D concentrations at follow-up (1998–2000) were collected in 14,624 men and women (aged 42–82 y between 1998 and 2000). Fracture incidence was ascertained up to March 2015. Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine HRs of fractures by plasma 25(OH)D (90 nmol/L), age (65 y) and physical activity (inactive and active) categories, by follow-up time per 20 nmol/L increase in serum 25(OH)D and to explore age-25(OH)D and physical activity-25(OH)D interactions. The age-, sex-, and month-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for all fractures (1183 fractures) by increasing vitamin D category were not significantly different. With additional adjustment for body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, supplement use and history of fractures, the fracture risk was 29% lower in those participants with 50 to 70 nmol/L compared with those in the lowest quintile (<30 nmol/L). Physical inactivity based on a single baseline assessment was not associated with fracture risk. Vitamin D status appeared inversely related to fractures in middle aged adults. In older adults, the relationship between vitamin D status and fracture risk was observed to be J-shaped. Clinical and public health practice in vitamin D supplementation could partially explain these findings, although definitive conclusions are difficult due to potential changes in exposure status over the long follow up period. PMID:27749911

  16. Titania nanotube delivery fetal bovine serum for enhancing MC3T3-E1 activity and osteogenic gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Jing, E-mail: pengjingtd@163.com [Airport College, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China); Zhang, Xinming, E-mail: xinmingmail@163.com [Tianjin Product Quality Inspection Technology Research Institute, Tianjin 300384 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Zhaoyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Yunde [School of Medical Laboratory, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300203 (China); Yang, Xianjin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-11-01

    Titania nanotube (TNT) delivery of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was conducted on titanium (Ti) to enhance bone tissue repair. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) showed FBS increased the tube wall thickness and decreased the tube diameter. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared further confirmed that FBS completely covered the TNT and changed the surface composition. Water contact angle tests showed TNT/FBS possessed hydrophilic properties. Compared to original Ti, the TNT/FBS group had more attached osteoblasts after 2 h and enhanced filopodia growth at 0.5 h. Significantly, more osteoblasts were also observed on TNT/FBS after 7 d culturing. FBS was released steadily from TNT; about 70% of FBS had been released at 3 d and 90% at 5 d, as shown by the bicinchoninic acid method. TNT/FBS also enhanced subsequent osteoblast differentiation and gene expression; the quantum real-time polymerase chain reaction test showed that TNT/FBS up-regulated alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin gene expression at 7 d and 14 d. Therefore, TNT/FBS delivered sustained in situ nutrition and enhanced osteoblast activity and osteogenic gene expression. - Highlights: • Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) was filled in titania nanotube (TNT) structures. • FBS provided sustained-release in situ nutrition for surface osteoblast growth. • TNT/FBS enhanced osteoblast activity and osteogenic gene expression.

  17. Influence of Sorghum Kafirin on Serum Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats (In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel A. Ortíz Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the antioxidant potential of sorghum kafirin and sorghum flour and their influence on lipids and antioxidant capacity in rats. The antioxidant activity in sorghum kafirin extract measured by the DPPH and TEAC methods was increased 30 and 65 times, respectively, compared to that of its counterpart, sorghum flour. According to electrophoresis assay, the kafirins tert-butanol extract showed a high proportion of α-kafirin monomers, and its amino acid composition revealed higher hydrophobic amino acid content such as alanine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine than sorghum flour extract. Diets supplemented with sorghum kafirin extract have improved lipid metabolism and increased the serum antioxidant potential (67% especially in rats fed with added cholesterol. The bioactive peptides generated from kafirin in vivo hydrolysis appear to be associated with the positive effect on serum lipids and antioxidant activity. According to these results, sorghum kafirin extract at the levels used in this study apparently could be used for prevention of atherosclerosis and other chronic diseases.

  18. Fetal bovine serum and human constitutive androstane receptor: Evidence for activation of the SV23 splice variant by artemisinin, artemether, and arteether in a serum-free cell culture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Aik Jiang; Chang, Thomas K.H., E-mail: thomas.chang@ubc.ca

    2014-06-01

    The naturally occurring SV23 splice variant of human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR-SV23) is activated by di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), which is detected as a contaminant in fetal bovine serum (FBS). In our initial experiment, we compared the effect of dialyzed FBS, charcoal-stripped, dextran-treated FBS (CS-FBS), and regular FBS on the basal activity and ligand-activation of hCAR-SV23 in a cell-based reporter gene assay. In transfected HepG2 cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% FBS, basal hCAR-SV23 activity varied with the type of FBS (regular > dialyzed > CS). DEHP increased hCAR-SV23 activity when 10% CS-FBS, but not regular FBS or dialyzed FBS, was used. With increasing concentrations (1–10%) of regular FBS or CS-FBS, hCAR-SV23 basal activity increased, whereas in DEHP-treated cells, hCAR-SV23 activity remained similar (regular FBS) or slightly increased (CS-FBS). Subsequent experiments identified a serum-free culture condition to detect DEHP activation of hCAR-SV23. Under this condition, artemisinin, artemether, and arteether increased hCAR-SV23 activity, whereas they decreased it in cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% regular FBS. By comparison, FBS increased the basal activity of the wild-type isoform of hCAR (hCAR-WT), whereas it did not affect the basal activity of the SV24 splice variant (hCAR-SV24) or ligand activation of hCAR-SV24 and hCAR-WT by 6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime (CITCO). The use of serum-free culture condition was suitable for detecting CITCO activation of hCAR-WT and hCAR-SV24. In conclusion, FBS leads to erroneous classification of pharmacological ligands of hCAR-SV23 in cell-based assays, but investigations on functional ligands of hCAR isoforms can be conducted in serum-free culture condition. - Highlights: • FBS leads to erroneous pharmacological classification of hCAR-SV23 ligands. • Artemisinin, artemether, and arteether activate h

  19. Clinical value of rapid urine trypsinogen-2 test strip, urinary trypsinogen activation peptide, and serum and urinary activation peptide of carboxypeptidase B in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesús Sáez; Juan Martínez; Celia Trigo; José Sánchez-Payá; Luis Compa(n)y; Raquel Laveda; Pilar Gri(n)ó; Cristina García; Miguel Pérez-Mateo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the usefulness of urinary trypsinogen-2 test strip, urinary trypsinogen activation peptide (TAP),and serum and urine concentrations of the activation peptide of carboxypeptidase B (CAPAP) in the diagnosisof acute pancreatitis.METHODS: Patients with acute abdominal pain and hospitalized within 24 h after the onset of symptoms were prospectively studied. Urinary trypsinogen-2 was considered positive when a clear blue line was observed (detection limit 50 μg/L). Urinary TAP was measured using a quantitative solid-phase ELISA, and serum and urinary CAPAP by a radioimmunoassay method.RESULTS: Acute abdominal pain was due to acute pancreatitis in 50 patients and turned out to be extrapancreatic in origin in 22 patients. Patients with acute pancreatitis showed significantly higher median levels of serum and urinary CAPAP levels, as well as amylase and lipase than extrapancreatic controls. Median TAP levels were similar in both groups. The urinary trypsinogen-2 test strip was positive in 68% of patients with acute pancreatitis and 13.6% in extrapancreatic controls (P<0.01). Urinary CAPAP was the most reliable test for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 95.5%, positive and negative predictive values 96.6% and 56.7%, respectively), with a 14.6 positive likelihood ratio for a cut-off value of 2.32 nmol/L.CONCLUSION: In patients with acute abdominal pain,hospitalized within 24 h of symptom onset, CAPAP in serum and urine was a reliable diagnostic marker of acute pancreatitis. Urinary trypsinogen-2 test strip showed a clinical value similar to amylase and lipase.Urinary TAP was not a useful screening test for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis.

  20. Active Stat3 is required for survival of human squamous cell carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiGiovanni John

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the skin is the most aggressive form of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC, and is the single most commonly diagnosed cancer in the U.S., with over one million new cases reported each year. Recent studies have revealed an oncogenic role of activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 in many human tumors, especially in those of epithelial origin, including skin SCC. Stat3 is a mediator of numerous growth factor and cytokine signaling pathways, all of which activate it through phosphorylation of tyrosine 705. Results To further address the role of Stat3 in skin SCC tumorigenesis, we have analyzed a panel of human skin-derived cell lines ranging from normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK, to non-tumorigenic transformed skin cells (HaCaT, to highly tumorigenic cells (SRB1-m7 and SRB12-p9 and observed a positive correlation between Stat3 phosphorylation and SCC malignancy. We next determined the role of Stat3 activity in cell proliferation and viability under serum-free culture conditions. This was accomplished by suppressing Stat3 activity in the SRB12-p9 cells through stable expression of a dominant negative acting form of Stat3β, which contains a tyrosine 705 to phenylalanine mutation (S3DN. The S3DN cells behaved similar to parental SRB12-p9 cells when cultured in optimal growth conditions, in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum. However, unlike the SRB12-p9 cells, S3DN cells underwent apoptotic cell death when cultured in serum-free medium (SFM. This was evidenced by multiple criteria, including accumulation of sub-G1 particles, induced PARP cleavage, and acquisition of the characteristic morphological changes associated with apoptosis. Conclusion This study provides direct evidence for a role for Stat3 in maintaining cell survival in the conditions of exogenous growth factor deprivation produced by culture in SFM. We also propose that delivery of the S3DN gene or

  1. Changes in serum thyroid hormone levels and thyroid gland activity of artificially maturing female Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Xiancheng(曲宪成); Massaki Nagae; Sinji Adachi; Kohei Yamauchi

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate the involvement of the thyroid gland in reproduction, thyroid func-tioning was described in female cultivated Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica ) in progressive stages of sex-ual maturation induced by chum salmon pituitary homogenate (SPH) treatment. Serum thyroid hor-mones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were also measured in each stage. Thyroid gland ac-tivity (epithelial cell height) was high before SPH injection (previtellogenic stage), further increasing at the early vitellogenic stage, thereafter decreasing to late vitellogenic and migratory nucleus stages. Theprofiles of both T3 and T4 changed during vitellogenesis, being high during previtellogenic and earlyvitellogenic stages, and subsequently declining, thus mimicking thyroid gland activity. These resultssuggest that the thyroid has relation with eel ovarian development during artificial maturation.

  2. Bovine Serum Albumin and Chitosan Coated Silver Nanoparticles and Its Antimicrobial Activity against Oral and Nonoral Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Francisco Espinosa-Cristóbal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial agents have been developed for drug-resistance infections, which have been rapidly increasing; however, the control of involved microorganisms is still a challenge. In this work, SNP with bovine serum albumin (BSA and chitosan (CS coatings were prepared with an aqueous reduction method, characterized using dispersion light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and thermal analysis. Antibacterial activity was tested on seven oral and nonoral bacteria by microdilution test and scanning electron microscopy. Six different sizes and shapes of coated SNP were prepared and used. Characterization revealed narrow size and good distribution of particles, spherical and pseudospherical shapes, and the presence of coatings on the SNP surfaces. All samples showed antimicrobial activity, although smaller sizes and CS samples had the best inhibition effects. The highest microbial resistance was shown by Gram-positive bacteria. Although coated SNP action depends on particular bacterium, BSA and CS coated SNP could be used for drug-resistance infections.

  3. Plasma and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma total antioxidant capacity in cats with IRIS stages I-IV chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krofič Žel, M; Tozon, N; Nemec Svete, A

    2014-01-01

    Serum selenium concentrations and the activity of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decrease with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in human patients. Selenium is considered a limiting factor for plasma GPx synthesis. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is decreased in CKD cats in comparison to healthy cats. Serum selenium concentrations and plasma and erythrocyte GPx activity in cats with CKD are lower than in healthy cats. Serum selenium concentrations, the activity of enzymes, and plasma TAC progressively decrease with the progression of kidney disease according to IRIS (International Renal Interest Society) classification. Twenty-six client-owned cats in IRIS stages I-IV of CKD were compared with 19 client-owned healthy cats. A CBC, serum biochemical profile, urinalysis, plasma and erythrocyte GPx activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC were measured in each cat. Cats in IRIS stage IV CKD had a significantly higher (P = .025) activity of plasma GPx (23.44 ± 6.28 U/mL) than cats in the control group (17.51 ± 3.75 U/mL). There were no significant differences in erythrocyte GPx, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC, either among IRIS stages I-IV CKD cats or between CKD cats and healthy cats. Erythrocyte GPx activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC do not change in CKD cats compared with healthy cats. Selenium is not a limiting factor in feline CKD. Increased plasma GPx activity in cats with stage IV CKD suggests induction of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Antioxidant defense systems might not be exhausted in CKD in cats. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Studies on the effect of long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide on serum and liver proteins level and enzyme activity in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdz, M; Kucharz, E; Ludyga, K; Molska-Drozda, T

    1976-01-01

    Forty male guinea pigs were exposed to nitrogen dioxide in a concentration of 2 mg/m3, 8 hours daily for a period of 180 days. Forty male animals were used as a control group. The following changes were found in intoxicated animals: the decrease of total protein and seromucoid concentration in blood serum and the decrease of total protein, perchloric acid-soluble proteins, protein-bound hexosamines and sialic acids content, in liver tissue. Electrophoretic examination of the serum proteins showed the increase of alpha 1- and beta 2-globulins and the decrease of albumin concentration. Changes in the level of glycoproteins fractions and protein-bound carbohydrates in blood serum were described also. Estimation of enzymes activity showed the decrease of alanine and aspartate transaminase activity in blood serum caused by the strong decrease of the cytoplasmic fraction of these enzymes. However the simultaneous increase of the mitochondrial fraction of transaminases activity was observed. The decrease of the activity of choline esterase was found also. Similar changes of enzymes activity were found in liver tissue. Histopathological studies were done for the further clearing the influenze of nitrogen dioxide on serum and liver proteins concentration and enzymes activity. It was found that after long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide the destruction processes may be observed in the liver. The possible mechanism of the nitrogen dioxide-induced damage of protein metabolism is discussed.

  5. Analysis of clobazam and its active metabolite norclobazam in plasma and serum using HPLC/DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerman, K K

    1996-11-01

    This report describes a simple reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) for analysing clobazam and norclobazam concentrations in human serum or plasma. For the HPLC analysis the samples and standards are prepared with an ASPEC automatic sample preparer using 100-mg Bond-Elut C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. The HPLC method is an isocratic method with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:methanol:10 mmol l-1 dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, pH 3.7 (30:2:100), at a flow rate of 1.5 ml min-1. The benzodiazepines are detected with a diode array detector (DAD) at 240 nm and the peak purity analyses are performed at 210-365 nm. The recovery is over 97% for both analytes, and it is independent of the drug concentration. The intra-assay CVs vary between 0.7 and 2.2% and inter-assay CVs between 3.8 and 4.6% at therapeutic drug concentrations. The detection limit is 15 nmol l-1. The assay is linear from 30 to 20,000 nmol l-1 (clobazam) and from 170 to 105,000 nmol l-1 (norclobazam). This method leads to a very good separation of norclobazam from carbamazepine and phenytoin. None of the anti-epileptic or antidepressant drugs tested interfere with the assay.

  6. Serum level of DNase1l3 in patients with dermatomyositis/polymyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, and its association with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Yang, Chunshu; Wang, Jianing; Li, Yujia; Yang, Pingting

    2016-12-30

    DNase1l3 is an endonuclease to degrade the chromatin of apoptotic or necrotic cells. Serum DNase1l3 may fulfill the function of clearance of chromatin released into the circulation by dying cells, which can trigger autoimmune responses. To date, it remains unclear whether serum DNase1l3 level associates with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Sixty-eight patients with dermatomyositis/polymyositis (DM/PM, n = 30), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n = 20) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n = 18), as well as 26 healthy blood donors were enrolled in the present study. Serum levels of DNase1l3 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. DNASE1L3 activity in serum was estimated by the capability of serum to digest nucleosomal DNA. Clinical, biochemical, serological and other markers of disease activity (CRP, ESR, C3, C4, anti-Jo-1 and anti-dsDNA, etc.) were measured by standard laboratory procedure. We found a decrease in DNase1l3 level in the DM/PM and SLE patients, resulting in the reduction in serum activity to digest nucleosome DNA. In contrast, the level and activity of DNase1l3 remained unchanged in the RA patients. The DNase1l3 level was relatively lower in the DM/PM patients with anti-Jo-1 antibody and interstitial lung disease, and in the SLE patients with SLE disease activity index higher than 6, renal involvement and anti-dsDNA antibody. DNase1l3 level negatively correlated with CRP and IgG in the PM/DM patients and correlated with ESR in the SLE patients. We found a significant reduction in serum DNase1l3 level in DM/PM and SLE, which may associate with clinic features and disease activity.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and effects on serum cholinesterase activities of organophosphorus pesticides acephate and chlorpyrifos in chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sota, Shigeto; Kuronuma, Miyuki; Shimizu, Makiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides acephate and chlorpyrifos in foods have potential to impact human health. The aim of the current study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of acephate and chlorpyrifos orally administered at lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level doses in chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes. Absorbed acephate and its metabolite methamidophos were detected in serum from wild type mice and chimeric mice orally administered 150mg/kg. Approximately 70% inhibition of cholinesterase was evident in plasma of chimeric mice with humanized liver (which have higher serum cholinesterase activities than wild type mice) 1day after oral administrations of acephate. Adjusted animal biomonitoring equivalents from chimeric mice studies were scaled to human biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors and in vitro metabolic clearance data with a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Estimated plasma concentrations of acephate and chlorpyrifos in humans were consistent with reported concentrations. Acephate cleared similarly in humans and chimeric mice but accidental/incidental overdose levels of chlorpyrifos cleared (dependent on liver metabolism) more slowly from plasma in humans than it did in mice. The data presented here illustrate how chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes in combination with a simple PBPK model can assist evaluations of toxicological potential of organophosphorus pesticides.

  8. Renin angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities in serum of pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martos, José Manuel; del Pilar Carrera-González, María; Dueñas, Basilio; Mayas, María Dolores; García, María Jesús; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús

    2011-10-01

    Angiotensin peptides regulate vascular tone and natriohydric balance through the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and are related with the angiogenesis which plays an important role in the metastatic pathway. Estrogen influences the aminopeptidases (APs) involved in the metabolism of bioactive peptides of RAS through several pathways. We analyze RAS-regulating AP activities in serum of pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer to evaluate the putative value of these activities as biological markers of the development of breast cancer. We observed an increase in aminopeptidase N (APN) and aminopeptidase B (APB) activities in women with breast cancer; however, a decrease in aspartyl-aminopeptidase (AspAP) activity in premenopausal women. These results suggest a slow metabolism of angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin III (Ang III) in premenopausal women and a rapid metabolism of Ang III to angiotensin IV (Ang IV) in pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer. An imbalance in the signals activated by Ang II may produce abnormal vascular growth with different response between pre- and postmenopausal women depending on the hormonal profile and the development of the disease.

  9. Catalytic stimulation by restrained active-site floppiness--the case of high density lipoprotein-bound serum paraoxonase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Moshe; Sussman, Joel L; Maxwell, Christopher I; Szeler, Klaudia; Kamerlin, Shina C L; Tawfik, Dan S

    2015-03-27

    Despite the abundance of membrane-associated enzymes, the mechanism by which membrane binding stabilizes these enzymes and stimulates their catalysis remains largely unknown. Serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a lipophilic lactonase whose stability and enzymatic activity are dramatically stimulated when associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Our mutational and structural analyses, combined with empirical valence bond simulations, reveal a network of hydrogen bonds that connect HDL binding residues with Asn168--a key catalytic residue residing >15Å from the HDL contacting interface. This network ensures precise alignment of N168, which, in turn, ligates PON1's catalytic calcium and aligns the lactone substrate for catalysis. HDL binding restrains the overall motion of the active site and particularly of N168, thus reducing the catalytic activation energy barrier. We demonstrate herein that disturbance of this network, even at its most far-reaching periphery, undermines PON1's activity. Membrane binding thus immobilizes long-range interactions via second- and third-shell residues that reduce the active site's floppiness and pre-organize the catalytic residues. Although this network is critical for efficient catalysis, as demonstrated here, unraveling these long-rage interaction networks is challenging, let alone their implementation in artificial enzyme design.

  10. Serum neutralizing activities from a Beijing homosexual male cohort infected with different subtypes of HIV-1 in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingshun Zhang

    Full Text Available Protective antibodies play a critical role in an effective HIV vaccine; however, eliciting antibodies to block infection by viruses from diverse genetic subtypes remains a major challenge. As the world's most populous country, China has been under the threat of at least three major subtypes of circulating HIV-1 viruses. Understanding the cross reactivity and specificities of serum antibody responses that mediate broad neutralization of the virus in HIV-1 infected Chinese patients will provide valuable information for the design of vaccines to prevent HIV-1 transmission in China. Sera from a cohort of homosexual men, who have been managed by a major HIV clinical center in Beijing, China, were analyzed for cross-sectional neutralizing activities against pseudotyped viruses expressing Env antigens of the major subtype viruses (AE, BC and B subtypes circulating in China. Neutralizing activities in infected patients' blood were most capable of neutralizing viruses in the homologous subtype; however, a subset of blood samples was able to achieve broad neutralizing activities across different subtypes. Such cross neutralizing activity took 1-2 years to develop and CD4 binding site antibodies were critical components in these blood samples. Our study confirmed the presence of broadly neutralizing sera in China's HIV-1 patient population. Understanding the specificity and breadth of these neutralizing activities can guide efforts for the development of HIV vaccines against major HIV-1 viruses in China.

  11. The positive relationship of serum paraoxonase-1 activity with apolipoprotein E is abrogated in metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.

    Background: High density lipoproteins (HDL) contain paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), which has strong anti-oxidative properties. Apolipoprotein E (apoE) may enhance PON-1 activity in vitro, but the extent to which PON-1 activity is determined by circulating apoE levels is unknown. Here we determined

  12. Using serum CA125 to assess the activity of potential cytostatic agents in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marcia R; Petruckevitch, Ann; Pascoe, Joanna; Persic, Mojca; Tahir, Saad; Morgan, Jamie S; Gourley, Charlie; Stuart, Nick; Crawford, S Michael; Kornbrot, Diana E; Qian, Wendi; Rustin, Gordon J

    2014-05-01

    New strategies are required to rapidly identify novel cytostatic agents before embarking on large randomized trials. This study investigates whether a change in rate of rise (slope) of serum CA125 from before to after starting a novel agent could be used to identify cytostatic agents. Tamoxifen was used to validate this hypothesis. Asymptomatic patients with relapsed ovarian cancer who had responded to chemotherapy were enrolled and had CA125 measurements taken every 4 weeks, then more frequently when rising. Once levels reached 4 times the upper limit of normal or nadir, they started continuous tamoxifen 20 mg daily, as well as fortnightly CA125 measurements until symptomatic progression. Because of the potentially nonlinear relationship of CA125 over time, it was felt that to enable normal approximations to be utilized a natural logarithmic standard transformation [ln(CA125)] was the most suitable to improve linearity above the common logarithmic transformation to base 10. From 235 recruited patients, 81 started tamoxifen and had at least 4 CA125 measurements taken before and 4 CA125 measurements taken after starting tamoxifen, respectively. The mean regression slopes from using at least 4 1n(CA125) measurements immediately before and after starting tamoxifen were 0·0149 and 0·0093 [ln(CA125)/d], respectively. This difference is statistically significant, P = 0·001. Therefore, in a future trial with a novel agent, at least as effective as tamoxifen, using this effect size, the number of evaluable patients needed, at significance level of 5% and power of 80%, is 56. Further validation of this methodology is required, but there is potential to use comparison of mean regression slopes of ln(CA125) as an interim analysis measure of efficacy for novel cytostatic agents in relapsed ovarian cancer.

  13. Apolipoprotein modulation of streptococcal serum opacity factor activity against human plasma high-density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Corina; Gillard, Baiba K; Courtney, Harry S; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Pownall, Henry J

    2009-08-25

    Human plasma HDL are the target of streptococcal serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence factor that clouds human plasma. Recombinant (r) SOF transfers cholesteryl esters (CE) from approximately 400,000 HDL particles to a CE-rich microemulsion (CERM), forms a cholesterol-poor HDL-like particle (neo HDL), and releases lipid-free (LF) apo A-I. Whereas the rSOF reaction requires labile apo A-I, the modulation effects of other apos are not known. We compared the products and rates of the rSOF reaction against human HDL and HDL from mice overexpressing apos A-I and A-II. Kinetic studies showed that the reactivity of various HDL species is apo-specific. LpA-I reacts faster than LpA-I/A-II. Adding apos A-I and A-II inhibited the SOF reaction, an effect that was more profound for apo A-II. The rate of SOF-mediated CERM formation was slower against HDL from mice expressing human apos A-I and A-II than against WT mice HDL and slowest against HDL from apo A-II overexpressing mice. The lower reactivity of SOF against HDL containing human apos is due to the higher hydropathy of human apo A-I, particularly its C-terminus relative to mouse apo A-I, and the higher lipophilicity of human apo A-II. The SOF-catalyzed reaction is the first to target HDL rather than its transporters and receptors in a way that enhances reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Thus, effects of apos on the SOF reaction are highly relevant. Our studies show that the "humanized" apo A-I-expressing mouse is a good animal model for studies of rSOF effects on RCT in vivo.

  14. Common HEXB polymorphisms reduce serum HexA and HexB enzymatic activities, potentially masking Tay-Sachs disease carrier identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Hilary; Morris, Tara J; Coulter-Mackie, Marion; Lim-Steele, Joyce; Kaback, Michael

    2006-02-01

    A DNA-proven Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier and his brother were found to have serum percent Hexosaminidase A (%HexA) enzymatic activities in the non-carrier range, while the leukocyte %HexA profiles clearly identified them as TSD heterozygotes. Both their serum HexA and HexB enzymatic activities were below reference range, suggesting inheritance of mutations in both the HEXA (alpha-subunit) and HEXB (beta-subunit) genes. DNA sequencing revealed that both individuals, carried the common HEXA 1277_1278insTATC mutation, and two common HEXB polymorphisms: [619A>G (+) delTG]. To determine if these HEXB polymorphisms reduce HexA and HexB enzymatic activities, 69 DNA samples from subjects previously screened enzymatically in both serum and leukocytes for TSD carrier status were selected for either high, mid-range or low serum Total Hex (defined as the sum of HexA and HexB) activities and were tested for the HEXB mutations. Further, three additional TSD carriers ascertained by the atypical pattern of normal serum %HexA but carrier leukocyte %HexA, were found to have the [delTG (+) 619A>G] genotype. In addition, the frequency of the [delTG (+) 619A>G] genotype was significantly higher (P G] haplotype in the Ashkenazi Jewish population (approximately 10%), up to 10% of TSD carriers may have normal serum %HexA values with low total Hex. Accordingly, serum %HexA should not be the sole criterion used for carrier status determination. Where total Hex activity is reduced, further testing with leukocyte Hex profiles is indicated.

  15. Heme oxygenase activity correlates with serum indices of iron homeostasis in healthy nonsmokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the breakdown of heme to carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin. While the use of genetically altered animal models in investigation has established distinct associations between HO activity and systemic iron availability, studies have not yet confirm...

  16. Serum markers of macrophage activation in pre-eclampsia: no predictive value of soluble CD163 and neopterin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Camilla S; Knudsen, Ulla Breth; Moestrup, Søren K;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alternatively activated macrophages expressing the CD163 and CD206 surface receptors are the dominant immune-cell type found in the placenta. The placental number and distribution of macrophages is altered in pre-eclampsia, and the generalised inflammatory reaction associated with pre-eclampsia...... might lead to shedding of soluble CD163 into the circulation. METHODS: Serum samples from 18 women with pre-eclampsia and 90 normal pregnancies were obtained from a longitudinal study of 955 pregnant women at Randers County Hospital, Denmark. sCD163 and Neopterin were measured by ELISA on samples....... Neopterin increased throughout pregnancy in both healthy (from median 5.4 to 6.7 nmol/l, ppre-eclampsia...

  17. Serum γ-glutamyltransferase activity as an indicator of chronic liver injury in cattle with no clinical signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N. Moreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the power of the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST and gamma-glutamyltransferasase (GGT activities and of the albumin and cholesterol dosages for detecting hepatic histopathological injuries. A total of 220 healthy male Nelore cattle that had been extensively bred were evaluated. Blood and liver samples were collected on the day of slaughter for biochemical and histopathological tests. The results showed that the sensitivity to AST, GGT, albumin, and cholesterol tests were respectively 22.4%, 22.4%, 36%, and 37.2%. The specificity of AST, GGT, albumin, and cholesterol tests was respectively 78.8%, 90.4%, 75.6%, and 68.3%. In short, the detection of minor liver injuries through biochemical tests is limited; however, the high specificity of the GGT allows its use as an indicator of hepatic chronic injuries in cattle herds.

  18. Effects of exercise in polluted air on the aerobic power, serum lactate level and cell blood count of active individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Poursafa, Parinaz; Rezanejad, Saber; Mousavinasab, Firouzeh

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of exercise on the aerobic power, serum lactate level, and cell blood count among active individuals in the environments with similar climatic characteristics differing in their level of air pollution. This trial comprised 20 volunteer students of Physical education in The University of Isfahan, Iran. Two places with the same climate (altitude, temperature, and humidity), but low and high level of air pollutants air were selected in Isfahan, Iran. Participants underwent a field Cooper test with a 12-minute run for fitness assessment. Then the aerobic power, serum lactate, and cell blood counts were measured and compared between the two areas. The study participants had a mean (SD) age of 21.70 (2.10) years and body mass index (BMI) of 24.44 (2.32) Kg/m2. We found a significant decrease in mean Vo2 max, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, as well as significant increase in mean lactate level, white blood cell count and mean corpuscular volume in the higher-polluted than in the lower-polluted area. No significant difference was documented for other parameters as platelet counts or maximum heart rate. Exercise in high-polluted air resulted in a significant reduction in the performance at submaximal levels of physical exertion. Therefore, the acute exposure to polluted air may cause a significant reduction in the performance of active individuals. The clinical importance of these findings should be assessed in longitudinal studies.

  19. Serum Albumin and C-Reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio Are Useful Biomarkers of Crohn's Disease Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guangming; Tu, Jiangfeng; Liu, Lingang; Luo, Laisheng; Wu, Jiaqi; Tao, Lisha; Zhang, Chenjing; Geng, Xiaoge; Chen, Xiaojun; Ai, Xinbo; Shen, Bo; Pan, Wensheng

    2016-11-16

    BACKGROUND Serum albumin (ALB) may be low during acute inflammation, but it is also affected by nutritional status. Therefore, we hypothesized that ALB and the C-reactive protein/ALB ratio (CRP/ALB) may be associated with disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). MATERIAL AND METHODS Altogether, 100 patients with CD and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were retrospectively enrolled in the current study. The patients with CD were subdivided into patients with active disease (Crohn's Disease Activity Index >150) and those in remission. ALB levels, CRP levels, and lipid profiles were measured. RESULTS ALB and CRP levels and the CRP/ALB ratio were the most useful for differentiating between active and nonactive CD. ALB levels (r=-0.50, Pratio (r=0.42, Panalysis indicated that the area under the curve (AUC) representing ALB (0.79) was higher than the AUC representing CRP (0.73) or CRP/ALB ratio (0.75; P>0.05). The AUCs corresponding to ALB level, CRP level, and CRP/ALB ratio were more prominent in males versus females (Pratio (0.69) had sensitivities of 67.7%, 72.6%, and 59.7%, and specificities of 73.7%, 78.9%, and 81.6%, respectively, for CD activity. CONCLUSIONS In the present retrospective study, we found that ALB level and CRP/ALB ratio were useful biomarkers for identifying CD activity, especially in males. These results suggest that, in addition to inflammation, assessment of patient nutritional status could also aid in identifying CD activity.

  20. Cytidine-5'-monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid. Asialoglycoprotein sialic acid transferase activity in liver and serum of patients with juvenile hepatic cirrhosis and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlenschmidt, M S; Peters, S P; Pinkard, O D; Glew, R H; Sharp, H

    1976-04-08

    The molecular basis for the accumulation of a substance which displays the immunological reactivity of alpha-1-antitrypsin within vesicles of liver parenchymal cells of individuals with hepatic cirrhosis and serum alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency remains unclear. We recently reported that serum from a patient with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and hepatic cirrhosis was substantially deficient in sialyltransferease (EC 2.4.99.1) an enzyme which transfers sialic acid from cytidine 5'-monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid to a variety of asialoglycoprotein acceptors. In the present report we have extended these studies to include serum from five additional patients with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and juvenile hepatic cirrhosis as well as a liver specimen obtained at autopsy of one of these patients. We find the sialytransferase activity in serum from six patients with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and hepatic cirrhosis to be 50% of healthy pediatric control values and 30% of pediatric patients with liver disease. However, serum from family members homozygous for alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency but without hepatic cirrhosis, and serum from patients with a variety of other kinds of liver disease, failed to exhibit the marked sialytransferase deficiency. Similar assays carried out on a homogenate of a liver sample from one patient with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and hepatic cirrhosis indicated that the deficiency of sialyltransferase activity was not demonstrable in liver. Furthermore, a comparative kinetic analysis of serum and liver sialytransferase in normal and afflicted individuals failed to detect differences in substrate affinities which might account for a decrease in functional sialyltransferase capacity in individuals with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and hepatic cirrhosis. These observations suggest that the serum sialyltransferase deficiency in such patients probably arises after chronic and extensive liver disease involving hepatic accumulation of

  1. Elevation of serum insulin concentration during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies leads to similar activation of insulin receptor kinase in skeletal muscle of subjects with and without NIDDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, H H; Vestergaard, H; Kotzke, G;

    1995-01-01

    The role of skeletal muscle insulin receptor kinase in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was investigated. Muscle biopsies from 13 patients with NIDDM and 10 control subjects at fasting serum insulin concentrations and approximately 1,000 pmol/l steady-state serum...... insulin during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps were immediately frozen. The biopsies were then solubilized, and the receptors were immobilized to anti-insulin receptor antibody-coated microwells. Receptor kinase and binding activities were consecutively measured in these wells. The increase in serum...... insulin concentration (73 +/- 14 to 1,004 +/- 83 and 45 +/- 7 to 1,07 +/- 77 pmol/l in the NIDDM and control groups, respectively) had similar effects on receptor kinase activity in both study groups (12 +/- 1 to 42 +/- 5 and 12 +/- 2 to 47 +/- 5 amol P.fmol binding activity-1. min-1 in the NIDDM...

  2. Xeno-oestrogenic activity in serum as marker of occupational pesticide exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2007-01-01

    in detectable impacts on hormonal activity in the blood. Abbreviations: HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography; E2, 17ß-oestradiol; PPE, personal protective equipment; RPE, relative proliferative effect; XE fraction, xeno-oestrogen fraction Exposure situations are often complex and involve several...

  3. Evaluation of Serum Trace Element Levels and Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Translating Basic Research into Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Erfan; Qujeq, Durdi; Taheri, Hassan; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah

    2016-11-18

    The relationship of minerals and trace elements with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is complex. Alterations in their metabolism can be induced by the diseases and their complications. To study the role of trace elements in IBD patients' serum zinc and copper and their related enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), activity were measured in patients with IBD patients as well as in healthy subjects. In addition, the correlation between serum trace element levels, albumin, total protein, urea level, copper/zinc ratio, and disease activity (DA) was determined in these subjects. Serum samples were obtained from 35 patients (19 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 16 Crohn's disease (CD)) in the active phase of the disease and 30 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of zinc, copper, SOD activity, albumin, total protein, and urea were measured. The results were compared between the two groups using independent Student's t test in statistical analysis. Serum levels of zinc, SOD activity, albumin, and total protein were significantly lower (P serum urea level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls. Copper concentrations did not differ between patients with IBD (mean ± SD, 58.8 ± 20.7 μg/d) and controls (55.57 ± 12.6 μg/d). Decreased levels of zinc and SOD activity are associated with increased inflammatory processes indicating inappropriate antioxidant system in patients with IBD. Additionally, lower levels of albumin and total protein with higher level of urea reflect metabolic problems in liver system.

  4. Electroluminescent TCC, C3dg and fB/Bb epitope assays for profiling complement cascade activation in vitro using an activated complement serum calibration standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, B Jansen; Bergseth, G; Mollnes, T E; Shaw, A M

    2014-01-15

    Electroluminescent assays for epitopes on the complement components C3dg, terminal complement complex (TCC) and factor B/Bb (fB/Bb) have been developed with capture and detection antibodies to produce detection limits C3dg=91±9ng/mL, TCC=3±0.1ng/mL and fB=55.7±0.1ng/mL. The assay performance was assessed against a series of zymosan and heat aggregated IgG (HAIgG) in vitro activations of complement using a calibrated activated complement serum (ACS) as calibration standard. The ACS standard was stable within 20% accuracy over a 6-month period with freeze-thaw cycles as required. Differential activation of the complement cascade was observed for TCC showing a pseudo-first order formation half-life of 3.5h after activation with zymosan. The C3dg activation fragment indicates a 10% total activation for both activation agents. The kinetic-epitope analysis for fB indicates that the capture epitope is on the fB/Bb protein fragment which can then become covered by the formation of C3bBb or C3bBbP complexes during the time course of the cascade.

  5. Methylene blue induces macroautophagy through 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase pathway to protect neurons from serum deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Luokun; Li, Wenjun; Winters, Ali; Yuan, Fang; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Methylene blue has been shown to be neuroprotective in multiple experimental neurodegenerative disease models. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects have not been fully elucidated. Previous studies have shown that macroautophagy has multiple beneficial roles for maintaining normal cellular homeostasis and that induction of macroautophagy after myocardial ischemia is protective. In the present study we demonstrated that methylene blue could protect HT22 hippocampal cell death induced by serum deprivation, companied by induction of macroautophagy. We also found that methylene blue-mediated neuroprotection was abolished by macroautophagy inhibition. Interestingly, 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, but not inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, was activated at 12 and 24 h after methylene blue treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Methylene blue-induced macroautophagy was blocked by AMPK inhibitor. Consistent with in vitro data, macroautophagy was induced in the cortex and hippocampus of mouse brains treated with methylene blue. Our findings suggest that methylene blue-induced neuroprotection is mediated, at least in part, by macroautophagy though activation of AMPK signaling. PMID:23653592

  6. Methylene blue induces macroautophagy through 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase pathway to protect neurons from serum deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Luokun; Li, Wenjun; Winters, Ali; Yuan, Fang; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Methylene blue has been shown to be neuroprotective in multiple experimental neurodegenerative disease models. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects have not been fully elucidated. Previous studies have shown that macroautophagy has multiple beneficial roles for maintaining normal cellular homeostasis and that induction of macroautophagy after myocardial ischemia is protective. In the present study we demonstrated that methylene blue could protect HT22 hippocampal cell death induced by serum deprivation, companied by induction of macroautophagy. We also found that methylene blue-mediated neuroprotection was abolished by macroautophagy inhibition. Interestingly, 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, but not inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, was activated at 12 and 24 h after methylene blue treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Methylene blue-induced macroautophagy was blocked by AMPK inhibitor. Consistent with in vitro data, macroautophagy was induced in the cortex and hippocampus of mouse brains treated with methylene blue. Our findings suggest that methylene blue-induced neuroprotection is mediated, at least in part, by macroautophagy though activation of AMPK signaling.

  7. Correlation of Pulmonary Involvement with Serum Anti-CCP Antibodies and Disease Activity in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songül Çilda¤

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Lung involvement substantially increases the morbidity and mortality rates in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, thus, the early detection of lung involvement is essential for proper management. Several recent reports revealed that anti-CCP is an important parameter in the early diagnosis of RA and is closely related with the extraarticular manifestations of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum anti-CCP antibodies and disease activity score-28 (DAS28, using the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ in patients with RA, whose pulmonary involvement was detected by computed tomography (CT. Methods: According to the high-resolution CT findings, the patients were divided into two groups - with pulmonary involvement (24 patients, and without a pulmonary disease (25 patients. Results: Statistically significant association was not found between pulmonary involvement and anti-CCP antibodies. There was no significant correlation between pulmonary involvement and disease activity evaluated by the HAQ. Conclusion: The disease activity determined by the DAS28 was significantly negatively correlated with pulmonary involvement (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2010; 48: 142-5

  8. Mass Spectrometric Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxin by Measuring its Activity in Serum and Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Suzanne R.; Pirkle, James L.; Barr, John R.

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are bacterial protein toxins which are considered likely agents for bioterrorism due to their extreme toxicity and high availability. A new mass spectrometry based assay called Endopep MS detects and defines the toxin serotype in clinical and food matrices via toxin activity upon a peptide substrate which mimics the toxin's natural target. Furthermore, the subtype of the toxin is differentiated by employing mass spectrometry based proteomic techniques on the same sample. The Endopep-MS assay selectively detects active BoNT and defines the serotype faster and with sensitivity greater than the mouse bioassay. One 96-well plate can be analyzed in under 7 h. On higher level or "hot" samples, the subtype can then be differentiated in less than 2 h with no need for DNA.

  9. Lead Exposure Is Associated with Decreased Serum Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Activity and Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wan-Fen; Pan, Mei-Hung; Chung, Meng-Chu; Ho, Chi-Kung; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2006-01-01

    Lead exposure causes cardiac and vascular damage in experimental animals. However, there is considerable debate regarding the causal relationship between lead exposure and cardiovascular dysfunction in humans. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme, is capable of hydrolyzing oxidized lipids and thus protects against atherosclerosis. Previous studies have shown that lead and several other metal ions are able to inhibit PON1 activity in vitro. To investig...

  10. Low serum diamine oxidase (DAO) activity levels in patients with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Casas, Joan; Comas-Basté, Oriol; Latorre-Moratalla, M Luz; Lorente-Gascón, Marian; Duelo, Adriana; Vidal-Carou, M Carmen; Soler-Singla, Luis

    2017-06-17

    Histamine intolerance is a disorder in the homeostasis of histamine due to a reduced intestinal degradation of this amine, mainly caused by a deficiency in the enzyme diamine oxidase (DAO). Among the several multi-faced symptoms associated with histamine intolerance, headache is one of the most recognized and disabling consequences. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of DAO deficiency in patients with a confirmed migraine diagnosis according to the current International Headache Society (IHS) and in non-migraine subjects. DAO activity was assessed in a total of 198 volunteers recruited at the Headache Unit of the Hospital General de Catalunya, 137 in the migraine group and 61 as a control group. DAO enzyme activity in blood samples was determined by ELISA test. Values below 80 HDU/ml (Histamine Degrading Unit/ml) were considered as DAO deficient. Mean value of DAO activity from migraine population (64.5 ± 33.5 HDU/ml) was significantly lower (p < 0.0001) than that obtained from healthy volunteers (91.9 ± 44.3 HDU/ml). DAO deficiency was more prevalent in migraine patients than in the control group. A high incidence rate of DAO deficiency (87%) was observed in the group of patients with migraine. On the other hand, 44% of non-migranous subjects had levels of DAO activity lower than 80 HDU/ml. Despite the multifactorial aetiology of migraine, these results seem to indicate that this enzymatic deficit could be related to the onset of migraine.

  11. Studies of bactericidal activity to Escherichia coli of porcine serum and colostral immunoglobulins and the role of lysozyme with secretory IgA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, I. R.; Porter, P.

    1974-01-01

    Gel filtration and immune inhibition techniques were used to study bactericidal activities of IgG, IgM and IgA against smooth strains of Escherichia coli 0141 and 08 in sow serum and colostrum and post-colostral piglet serum. Bactericidal activity in sow sera was primarily associated with IgM and a low molecular weight IgG component, 7S IgG activity was less frequently observed. In colostral whey fractions and post-colostral piglet sera, in the absence of lysozyme, bactericidal antibody activity was associated with IgM and 7S IgG. In post-colostral serum bactericidal antibody was also attributable to a low molecular weight form of IgG. IgA in serum from the sow and neonate showed no bactericidal activity, even in the presence of lysozyme, whereas in colostrum secretory 11S IgA had bactericidal activity, but only in the presence of complement and lysozyme. PMID:4212358

  12. Periodontal disease and high doses of inhaled corticosteroids alter NTPDase activity in the blood serum of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarabelot, Vanessa L; Cavagni, Juliano; Medeiros, Liciane F; Detânico, Bernardo; Rozisky, Joanna R; de Souza, Andressa; Daudt, Luciana Dondonis; Gaio, Eduardo José; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Battastini, Ana Maria O; Torres, Iraci L S

    2014-08-01

    Certain drugs such as glucocorticoids may interfere with the modulation of periodontal disease. In contrast, corticosteroid treatment has been associated with a protective effect with regard to periodontal breakdown, depending on the dose, pathway, and exposure time. Considering the potential relevance of nucleotidases in coordinating the cardiovascular system and inflammation processes, the aim of this study was to investigate the nucleotidase activities in the blood serum of rats with periodontal disease exposed chronically to inhaled corticosteroids. Adult male Wistar rats (n=26) were randomly assigned to one of the following four study groups: a control group that received no intervention; a periodontal disease group that received saline solution; a 'low dose' group that received 30 μg of budesonide daily; and a corresponding 'high dose' group that received 100 μg daily over a 15-day time course. The hydrolysis of ATP, ADP, and AMP were analysed in blood serum. Periodontal disease diminished the hydrolysis of ATP and enhanced the hydrolysis of ADP. Repeated administration of either a low or high dose in the periodontal disease model of inhaled corticosteroids reversed the observed increase in ADP hydrolysis, and only the repeated administration of low doses of inhaled corticosteroids was able to reverse the decrease in the hydrolysis of ATP induced by periodontal disease. The variables investigated in this study may be involved in the pathophysiology of periodontal disease and may participate in the mechanisms that mediate the development of some of the side effects of inhaled corticosteroids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacious gene silencing in serum and significant apoptotic activity induction by survivin downregulation mediated by new cationic gemini tocopheryl lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishan; Maiti, Bappa; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2015-02-02

    Nonviral gene delivery offers cationic liposomes as promising instruments for the delivery of double-stranded RNA (ds RNA) molecules for successful sequence-specific gene silencing (RNA interference). The efficient delivery of siRNA (small interfering RNA) to cells while avoiding unexpected side effects is an important prerequisite for the exploitation of the power of this excellent tool. We present here six new tocopherol based cationic gemini lipids, which induce substantial gene knockdown without any obvious cytotoxicity. All the efficient coliposomal formulations derived from each of these geminis and a helper lipid, dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), were well characterized using physical methods such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Zeta potential measurements were conducted to estimate the surface charge of these formulations. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the optimized coliposomal formulations could transfect anti-GFP siRNA efficiently in three different GFP expressing cell lines, viz., HEK 293T, HeLa, and Caco-2, significantly better than a potent commercial standard Lipofectamine 2000 (L2K) both in the absence and in the presence of serum (FBS). Notably, the knockdown activity of coliposomes of gemini lipids was not affected even in the presence of serum (10% and 50% FBS) while it dropped down for L2K significantly. Observations under a fluorescence microscope, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis substantiated the flow cytometry results. The efficient cellular entry of labeled siRNA in GFP expressing cells as evidenced from confocal microscopy put forward these gemini lipids among the potent lipidic carriers for siRNA. The efficient transfection capabilities were also profiled in a more relevant fashion while performing siRNA transfections against survivin (an anti-apoptotic protein) which induced substantial apoptosis. Furthermore, the survivin downregulation improved the therapeutic efficacy levels of an

  14. Gene expression analyses implicate an alternative splicing program in regulating contractile gene expression and serum response factor activity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twishasri Dasgupta

    Full Text Available Members of the CUG-BP, Elav-like family (CELF regulate alternative splicing in the heart. In MHC-CELFΔ transgenic mice, CELF splicing activity is inhibited postnatally in heart muscle via expression of a nuclear dominant negative CELF protein under an α-myosin heavy chain promoter. MHC-CELFΔ mice develop dilated cardiomyopathy characterized by alternative splicing defects, enlarged hearts, and severe contractile dysfunction. In this study, gene expression profiles in the hearts of wild type, high- and low-expressing lines of MHC-CELFΔ mice were compared using microarrays. Gene ontology and pathway analyses identified contraction and calcium signaling as the most affected processes. Network analysis revealed that the serum response factor (SRF network is highly affected. Downstream targets of SRF were up-regulated in MHC-CELFΔ mice compared to the wild type, suggesting an increase in SRF activity. Although SRF levels remained unchanged, known inhibitors of SRF activity were down-regulated. Conversely, we found that these inhibitors are up-regulated and downstream SRF targets are down-regulated in the hearts of MCKCUG-BP1 mice, which mildly over-express CELF1 in heart and skeletal muscle. This suggests that changes in SRF activity are a consequence of changes in CELF-mediated regulation rather than a secondary result of compensatory pathways in heart failure. In MHC-CELFΔ males, where the phenotype is only partially penetrant, both alternative splicing changes and down-regulation of inhibitors of SRF correlate with the development of cardiomyopathy. Together, these results strongly support a role for CELF-mediated alternative splicing in the regulation of contractile gene expression, achieved in part through modulating the activity of SRF, a key cardiac transcription factor.

  15. Contrasting effect of gold nanoparticles and nanorods with different surface modifications on the structure and activity of bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Soumyananda; Joshi, Prachi; Shanker, Virendra; Ansari, Z A; Singh, Surinder P; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2011-06-21

    Nanoparticles exposed to biofluids become coated with proteins, thus making protein-nanoparticle interactions of particular interest. The consequence on protein conformation and activity depends upon the extent of protein adsorption on the nanoparticle surface. We report the interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with gold nanostructures, particularly gold nanoparticles (GNP) and gold nanorods (GNR). The difference in the geometry and surface properties of nanoparticles is manifested during complexation in terms of different binding modes, structural changes, thermodynamic parameters, and the activity of proteins. BSA is found to retain native-like structure and properties upon enthalpy-driven BSA-GNP complexation. On the contrary, the entropically favored BSA-GNR complexation leads to substantial loss in protein secondary and tertiary structures with the release of a large amount of bound water, as indicated by isothermal calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and fluorescence spectroscopies. The esterase activity assay demonstrated a greater loss in BSA activity after complexation with GNR, whereas the original activity is retained in the presence of GNP. The formation of large assemblies (aggregates) and reduced average lifetime, as evidenced from dynamic light scattering and fluorescence decay measurements, respectively, suggest that GNR induces protein unfolding at its surface. The effect of temperature on the CD spectra of BSA-GNP was found to be similar to that of pristine BSA, whereas BSA-GNR shows distortion in CD spectra at lower wavelengths, strengthening the perception of protein unfolding. High binding constant and entropy change for BSA-GNR complexation determined by ITC are consistent with large surfacial interaction that may lead to protein unfolding. The present work highlights the differential response of a protein depending on the nature of the nanostructure and its surface chemistry, which need to be

  16. Changes in Serum Triiodothyronine Kinetics and Hepatic Type I 5’- Deiodinase Activity of Cold-Exposed Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Kren- mark, & Melendez. J. E. Silva, and A. Taurog. Effect of ning. Deiodination of thyroid hormone by human liver. J. Clin. iodine deficiency and cold...representative of temperature was not different between groups. the assay. The mean CV for triplicate assays was 14.5% for Thyroid hormone values. Serum TT4...thyroidecto- before death, as previously reported (22). The serum-to- mized swine that increased serum thyroid hormone tissue ratio of the tracer was

  17. A novel method for direct measurement of complement convertases activity in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, A M; Volokhina, E B; Fransson, V; Strömberg, P; Berghard, L; Viktorelius, M; Mollnes, T E; López-Trascasa, M; van den Heuvel, L P; Goodship, T H; Marchbank, K J; Okroj, M

    2014-10-01

    Complement convertases are enzymatic complexes that play a central role in sustaining and amplification of the complement cascade. Impairment of complement function leads directly or indirectly to pathological conditions, including higher infection rate, kidney diseases, autoimmune- or neurodegenerative diseases and ischaemia-reperfusion injury. An assay for direct measurement of activity of the convertases in patient sera is not available. Existing assays testing convertase function are based on purified complement components and, thus, convertase formation occurs under non-physiological conditions. We designed a new assay, in which C5 blocking compounds enabled separation of the complement cascade into two phases: the first ending at the stage of C5 convertases and the second ending with membrane attack complex formation. The use of rabbit erythrocytes or antibody-sensitized sheep erythrocytes as the platforms for convertase formation enabled easy readout based on measurement of haemolysis. Thus, properties of patient sera could be studied directly regarding convertase activity and membrane attack complex formation. Another advantage of this assay was the possibility to screen for host factors such as C3 nephritic factor and other anti-complement autoantibodies, or gain-of-function mutations, which prolong the half-life of complement convertases. Herein, we present proof of concept, detailed description and validation of this novel assay.

  18. Cysteine peptidase and its inhibitor activity levels and vitamin E concentration in normal human serum and colorectal carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Szwed; Zygmunt Grzebieniak; Yousif Saleh; Godwin Bwire Ekonjo; Maciej Siewinski

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Cysteine peptidase (CP) and its inhibitor (CPI) are a matrix protease that may be associated with colorectal carcinoma invasion and progression, and vitamin E is also a stimulator of the immunological system. Our purpose was to determine the correlation between the expression of cysteine peptidases and their endogenous inhibitors,and the level of vitamin E in sera of patients with colorectal cancer in comparison with healthy individuals.METHODS: The levels of cysteine peptidases and their inhibitors were determined in the sera of patients with primary and metastatic colorectal carcinoma and healthy individuals using fluorogenic substrate, and the level of vitamin E was determined by HPLC.RESULTS: The levels of cysteine peptidases and their inhibitors were significantly higher in the metastatic colorectal cancer patients than that in the healthy controls (P<0.05).The activity of CP increased 2.2-fold, CPI 2.8-fold and vitamin E decreased 3.4-fold in sera of patients with metastasis in comparison with controls. The level of vitamin E in healthy individuals was higher, whereas the activity of cysteine peptidases and their inhibitors associated with complexes was lower than that in patients with cancer of the digestive tract.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the serum levels of CP and their inhibitors could be an indicator of the prognosis for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Vitamin E can be administered prophylactically to prevent digestive tract neoplasmas.

  19. Fluorescent copper(II complexes: The electron transfer mechanism, interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA and antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Hazra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dinuclear copper(II complexes with formula [Cu2(L2(N32] (1 and [Cu2(L2(NCS2] (2 HL = (1-[(3-methyl-pyridine-2-ylimino-methyl]-naphthalen-2-ol were synthesized by controlling the molar ratio of Cu(OAC2·6H2O, HL, sodium azide (1 and ammonium thiocyanate (2. The end on bridges appear exclusively in azide and thiocyanate to copper complexes. The electron transfer mechanism of copper(II complexes is examined by cyclic voltammetry indicating copper(II complexes are Cu(II/Cu(I couple. The interactions of copper(II complexes towards bovine serum albumin (BSA were examined with the help of absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic tools. We report a superficial solution-based route for the synthesis of micro crystals of copper complexes with BSA. The antibacterial activity of the Schiff base and its copper complexes were investigated by the agar disc diffusion method against some species of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Streptococcus pneumonia and Bacillus cereus. It has been observed that the antibacterial activity of all complexes is higher than the ligand.

  20. Serum anticholinergic activity and cerebral cholinergic dysfunction: An EEG study in frail elderly with and without delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driessen Martin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium increases morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs especially in the elderly. Serum anticholinergic activity (SAA is a suggested biomarker for anticholinergic burden and delirium risk, but the association with cerebral cholinergic function remains unclear. To clarify this relationship, we prospectively assessed the correlation of SAA with quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG power, delirium occurrence, functional and cognitive measures in a cross-sectional sample of acutely hospitalized elderly (> 80 y with high dementia and delirium prevalence. Methods 61 consecutively admitted patients over 80 years underwent an extensive clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. SAA was determined by using radio receptor assay as developed by Tune, and standard as well as quantitative EEGs were obtained. Results 15 patients had dementia with additional delirium (DD according to expert consensus using DSM-IV criteria, 31 suffered from dementia without delirium (D, 15 were cognitively unimpaired (CU. SAA was clearly detectable in all patients but one (mean 10.9 ± 7.1 pmol/ml, but was not associated with expert-panel approved delirium diagnosis or cognitive functions. Delirium-associated EEG abnormalities included occipital slowing, peak power and alpha decrease, delta and theta power increase and slow wave ratio increase during active delirious states. EEG measures correlated significantly with cognitive performance and delirium severity, but not with SAA levels. Conclusion In elderly with acute disease, EEG parameters reliable indicate delirium, but SAA does not seem to reflect cerebral cholinergic function as measured by EEG and is not related to delirium diagnosis.

  1. Photophysical behavior and photodynamic therapy activity of conjugates of zinc monocarboxyphenoxy phthalocyanine with human serum albumin and chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, David O.; Prinsloo, Earl; Nyokong, Tebello

    2017-02-01

    Zinc monocarboxyphenoxy phthalocyanine (ZnMCPPc) was linked to human serum albumin (HSA) and chitosan via amide bond formation. The photophysical behavior and photodynamic therapy (PDT) activity (against human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7 cells) of ZnMCPPc alone and its conjugates were investigated. The conjugates showed improved fluorescence, triplet and singlet oxygen quantum yields when compared to ZnMCPPc alone. The in vitro dark cytotoxicity and PDT studies were carried out at a dose of 3.6 μg/mL to 57.1 μg/mL. The in vitro dark cytotoxicity studies of ZnMCPPc showed cell viability 50% in all their tested concentrations (3.6 to 57.1) μg/mL. Thus, conjugation of ZnMCPPc to HSA and chitosan improves its dark cytotoxicity, an important criteria for molecules meant for photodynamic therapy. Complex 1 showed the most efficacious PDT activity with cell viability < 50% at concentration range of (14.3 to 57.1) μg/mL in comparison to the conjugates which only showed < 50% cell viability at 28.6 μg/mL and 57.1 μg/mL for 1-HSA and 57.1 μg/mL for 1-Chitosan.

  2. The association of Pro12Ala polymorphism of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene with serum osteoprotegerin levels in healthy Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Ki-Won; Yun, Eun-Joo; Jung, Chan-Hee; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Eun-Sook; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Kang, Moo-Il; Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Sun-Woo

    2007-12-31

    Recent evidences suggest that the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, which is an important transcriptional factor in adipocyte differentiation, also plays an important role in the bone microenvironment. The objective of the study was to clarify whether Pro12Ala polymorphism was related to the serum OPG levels and bone mineral metabolism in healthy Korean women. In 239 Korean women (mean age 51 years), who participated in medical check-up program in a health promotion center, anthropometric measurements, lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, such as serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, urine deoxypyridinoline levels, and 24-h urine calcium excretion were measured. Serum levels of OPG were measured with ELISA method. DNAs were extracted from the samples and the genotyping of the Pro12Ala polymorphism (rs1801282) in the PPAR-gamma gene was performed via an allelic discrimination assay using a TaqMan probe. In addition, we examined the haplotype analysis between two polymorphisms of PPAR-gamma gene, Pro12Ala in exon B and C161T in exon 6 (rs3856806). Allelic frequencies were 0.950 for Pro allele and 0.050 for Ala allele, which was in compliance with Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium, and there was no Ala12Ala genotype among the genotyped subjects. Mean serum OPG level was significantly lower (P=0.035), and serum total ALP was significantly higher (P=0.014) in the Pro12Ala genotype group compared with the Pro12Pro genotype group, which were consistently significant even after adjustment for weight, height, and serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). In multiple regression analysis with serum OPG as the dependent variable and age, weight, ALP, femoral neck BMD and Pro12Ala genotype included in the model, only Pro12Ala genotype was significant determinant of serum OPG level (b=??0.136, P=0.035). The haplotype analysis with C161T polymorphism revealed that subjects with Ala and T alleles

  3. Synovial tissue and serum biomarkers of disease activity, therapeutic response and radiographic progression: analysis of a proof-of-concept randomised clinical trial of cytokine blockade.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rooney, Terence

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate synovial tissue and serum biomarkers of disease activity, therapeutic response and radiographic progression during biological therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Patients with active RA entered a randomised study of anakinra 100 mg\\/day, administered as monotherapy or in combination with pegsunercept 800 microg\\/kg twice a week. Arthroscopic synovial tissue biopsies were obtained at baseline and two further time points. Following immunohistochemical staining, selected mediators of RA pathophysiology were quantified using digital image analysis. Selected mediators were also measured in the serum. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were randomly assigned: 11 received monotherapy and 11 combination therapy. American College of Rheumatology 20, 50 and 70 response rates were 64%, 64% and 46% with combination therapy and 36%, 9% and 0% with monotherapy, respectively. In synovial tissue, T-cell infiltration, vascularity and transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) expression demonstrated significant utility as biomarkers of disease activity and therapeutic response. In serum, interleukin 6 (IL-6), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 1, MMP-3 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) were most useful in this regard. An early decrease in serum levels of TIMP-1 was predictive of the later therapeutic outcome. Pretreatment tissue levels of T-cell infiltration and the growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor\\/TGFbeta, and serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, MMP-1, TIMP-1, soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor types I and II and IL-18 correlated with radiographic progression. CONCLUSIONS: Synovial tissue analysis identified biomarkers of disease activity, therapeutic response and radiographic progression. Biomarker expression in tissue was independent of the levels measured in the serum.

  4. Addition of glutamate to serum free culture promotes recovery of electrical activity in adult hippocampal neurons in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Darin; Das, Mainak; Molnar, Peter; Hickman, James J.

    2010-01-01

    A long-term cell culture system utilizing normal adult hippocampal neurons would represent an important tool that could be useful in research on the mature brain, neurological disorders and age-related neurological diseases. Historically, in vitro neuronal systems are derived from embryonic rather than mature brain tissue, a practice predicated upon difficulties in supporting regeneration, functional recovery and long-term survival of adult neurons in vitro. A few studies have shown that neurons derived from the hippocampal tissue of adult rats can survive and regenerate in vitro under serum-free conditions. However, while the adult neurons regenerated morphologically under these conditions, both the electrical activity characteristic of in vivo neurons as well as long-term neuronal survival was not consistently recovered in vitro. In this study, we report on the development of a defined culture system with the ability to support functional recovery and long-term survival of adult rat hippocampal neurons. In this system, the cell-adhesive substrate, N-1 [3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl]-diethylenetriamine, supported neuronal attachment, regeneration, and long-term survival of adult neurons for more than 80 days in vitro. Additionally, the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, applied at 25 μM for 1 to 7 days after morphological neuronal regeneration in vitro, enabled full recovery of neuronal electrical activity. This low concentration of glutamate promoted the recovery of neuronal electrical activity but with minimal excitotoxicity. These improvements allowed electrically active adult neurons to survive in vitro for several months, providing a stable test-bed for the long-term study of regeneration in adult derived neuronal systems, especially for traumatic brain injury (TBI). PMID:20452373

  5. Addition of glutamate to serum-free culture promotes recovery of electrical activity in adult hippocampal neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Darin; Das, Mainak; Molnar, Peter; Hickman, James J

    2010-07-15

    A long-term cell culture system utilizing normal adult hippocampal neurons would represent an important tool that could be useful in research on the mature brain, neurological disorders and age-related neurological diseases. Historically, in vitro neuronal systems are derived from embryonic rather than mature brain tissue, a practice predicated upon difficulties in supporting regeneration, functional recovery and long-term survival of adult neurons in vitro. A few studies have shown that neurons derived from the hippocampal tissue of adult rats can survive and regenerate in vitro under serum-free conditions. However, while the adult neurons regenerated morphologically under these conditions, both the electrical activity characteristic of in vivo neurons as well as long-term neuronal survival was not consistently recovered in vitro. In this study, we report on the development of a defined culture system with the ability to support functional recovery and long-term survival of adult rat hippocampal neurons. In this system, the cell-adhesive substrate, N-1 [3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl]-diethylenetriamine, supported neuronal attachment, regeneration, and long-term survival of adult neurons for more than 80 days in vitro. Additionally, the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, applied at 25muM for 1-7 days after morphological neuronal regeneration in vitro, enabled full recovery of neuronal electrical activity. This low concentration of glutamate promoted the recovery of neuronal electrical activity but with minimal excitotoxicity. These improvements allowed electrically active adult neurons to survive in vitro for several months, providing a stable test-bed for the long-term study of regeneration in adult-derived neuronal systems, especially for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Atorvastatin intensive therapy on the serum inflammatory factors, platelet activity and fibrinolytic activity in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Li Zhu; Yun Zhou; Fang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of Atorvastatin intensive therapy on the serum inflammatory factors, platelet activity and fibrinolytic activity in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).Methods:A total of 92 patients with ACS were randomly divided into observation group (47 cases) and control group (45 cases). The control group was given Atorvastatin (10 mg/d) based on the conventional therapy, while the observation group was given Atorvastatin at an intensive dose (40 mg/d) based on the conventional therapy. Half a month later, the changes of IL-6, IL-8, hs-CRP, TNF-α, TXB2, GMP-140, PAI-1 and t-PA were observed and compared between the two groups.Results:After treatment, the inflammatory factors (IL-6, IL-8, hs-CRP and TNF-α) and the indicators of platelet activity (TXB2, GMP-140 and PAI-1) were obviously decreased, while the indicator of fibrinolytic activity (t-PA) was apparently increased in the two groups. Besides, the amplitudes of change referring to these indicators in the observation group were bigger than those in the control group after treatment, and the differences were statistically significant.Conclusion: The intensive therapy with the administration of Atorvastatin at a dose of 40 mg/d was better than the conventional therapy (Atorvastatin: 10 mg/d) in aspects of reducing inflammatory factors, inhibiting platelet activity and correcting the high coagulation state of fibrinolytic system.

  7. Reassessing the Role of the Active TGF-β1 as a Biomarker in Systemic Sclerosis: Association of Serum Levels with Clinical Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Tavares Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine active TGF-β1 (aTGF-β1 levels in serum, skin, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC culture supernatants and to understand their associations with clinical parameters in systemic sclerosis (SSc patients. Methods. We evaluated serum samples from 56 SSc patients and 24 healthy controls (HC. In 20 SSc patients, we quantified spontaneous or anti-CD3/CD28 stimulated production of aTGF-β1 by PBMC. The aTGF-β1 levels were measured by ELISA. Skin biopsies were obtained from 13 SSc patients and six HC, and TGFB1 expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. Results. TGF-β1 serum levels were significantly higher in SSc patients than in HC (p < 0.0001. Patients with increased TGF-β1 serum levels were more likely to have diffuse subset (p = 0.02, digital ulcers (p = 0.02, lung fibrosis (p < 0.0001, positive antitopoisomerase I (p = 0.03, and higher modified Rodnan score (p = 0.046. Most of our culture supernatant samples had undetectable levels of TGF-β1. No significant difference in TGFB1 expression was observed in the SSc skin compared with HC skin. Conclusion. Raised active TGF-β1 serum levels and their association with clinical manifestations in scleroderma patients suggest that this cytokine could be a marker of fibrotic and vascular involvement in SSc.

  8. Effects of Hemagglutination Activity in the Serum of a Deep-Sea Vent Endemic Crab, Shinkaia Crosnieri, on Non-Symbiotic and Symbiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, So; Tateno, Hiroaki; Watsuji, Tomoo; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Daisuke; Mino, Sayaka; Sugimura, Makoto; Sawabe, Tomoo; Takai, Ken; Sawayama, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    In deep-sea hydrothermal environments, most invertebrates associate with dense populations of symbiotic microorganisms in order to obtain nutrition. The molecular interactions between deep-sea animals and environmental microbes, including their symbionts, have not yet been elucidated in detail. Hemagglutinins/lectins, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins, have recently been reported to play important roles in a wide array of biological processes, including the recognition and control of non-self materials. We herein assessed hemagglutination activity in the serum of a deep-sea vent endemic crab, Shinkaia crosnieri, which harbors chemosynthetic epibionts on its plumose setae. Horse and rabbit erythrocytes were agglutinated using this serum (opt. pH 7.5 and opt. temperature 15°C). Agglutinating activity was inhibited by eight kinds of sugars and several divalent cations, did not require any divalent metal ions, and remained detectable even after heating the serum at 100°C for 30 min. By using fluorescently labeled serum, we demonstrated that deep-sea crab serum components bound to the epibionts even in the presence of sugars. This study represents the first immunological assessment of a deep-sea vent endemic crab and demonstrated the possibility of a non-lectin-mediated symbiont-host interaction.

  9. Adiponectin gene ADIPOQ SNP associations with serum adiponectin in two female populations and effects of SNPs on promoter activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyriakou, Theodosios; Collins, Laura J.; Spencer-Jones, Nicola J.; Malcolm, Claire; Wang, Xiaoling; Snieder, Harold; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Burling, Keith A.; Hart, Deborah J.; Spector, Tim D.; O'Dell, Sandra D.

    Adiponectin is an insulin sensitiser in muscle and liver, and low serum levels characterise obesity and insulin resistance. Eight tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in the ADIPOQ gene and promoter were selected, and association with serum adiponectin was tested, in two independent

  10. Adiponectin gene ADIPOQ SNP associations with serum adiponectin in two female populations and effects of SNPs on promoter activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyriakou, Theodosios; Collins, Laura J.; Spencer-Jones, Nicola J.; Malcolm, Claire; Wang, Xiaoling; Snieder, Harold; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Burling, Keith A.; Hart, Deborah J.; Spector, Tim D.; O'Dell, Sandra D.

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin is an insulin sensitiser in muscle and liver, and low serum levels characterise obesity and insulin resistance. Eight tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in the ADIPOQ gene and promoter were selected, and association with serum adiponectin was tested, in two independent sampl

  11. Specificity of, and influence of hemolysis, lipemia, and icterus on serum lipase activity as measured by the v-LIP-P slide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Joerg M; Gomez, Robynne; Suchodolski, Jan S; Lidbury, Jonathan A

    2017-06-21

    Measurement of pancreatic lipase in serum is being used for the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The aims of this study were to measure serum lipase activity by the v-LIP-P slide and serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) concentration by Spec cPL in dogs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) and in serum samples that were hemolyzed, lipemic, or icteric. Serum samples from 50 dogs with EPI, 8 samples spiked with canine hemoglobin, Intralipid, or ditaurobilirubin, and 8 samples from dogs with severe hypertriglyceridemia were evaluated using v-LIP-P and Spec cPL assays. Serum lipase activity (v-LIP-P) was in the lower 20% of the RI in 58% of EPI dogs, while serum cPLI (as measured by Spec cPL) was in the lower 20% of the RI in 98% of EPI dogs. The mean (±SD) observed-to-expected ratios for serum samples spiked with canine hemoglobin, Intralipid, or ditaurobilirubin were 63.0 ± 25.1%, 489.2 ± 469.7%, and 80.2 ± 11.6% for the v-LIP-P slide, respectively, and 99.3 ± 6.8%, 96.9 ± 9.4%, and 98.7 ± 11.0% for Spec cPL, respectively. However, naturally occurring hypertriglyceridemia did not appear to have a significant effect on serum lipase activity as measured by the v-LIP-P slide. These results show that Spec cPL is specific for pancreatic lipase, while the v-LIP-P slide is not. In addition, hemolysis and lipemia had no effect on Spec cPL, while severe icterus resulted in a slight decrease in Spec cPL. Hemolysis and icterus had a significant effect on the v-LIP-P slide. The effect of lipemia on the v-LIP-P slide cannot be conclusively established based on this study. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  12. Neuropsychological measures of attention and memory function in schizophrenia: relationships with symptom dimensions and serum monoamine activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Uwe

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some clinical symptoms or cognitive functions have been related to the overall state of monoamine activity in patients with schizophrenia, (e.g. inverse correlation of the dopamine metabolite HVA with delusions or visual-masking performance. However, profiles (as presented here of the relations of the activity of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin to neuropsychologic (dysfunctions in major patient sub-groups with their very different symptomatic and cognitive characteristics have not been reported. Methods Serum measures of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin turnover were examined by regression analyses for the prediction of performance on 10 neuropsychological measures reflecting left- and right-hemispheric and frontal-, parietal- and temporal-lobe function in 108 patients with schizophrenia and 63 matched controls. The neuropsychological battery included tests of verbal fluency, Stroop interference, trail-making, block-design, Mooney faces recognition, picture-completion, immediate and delayed visual and verbal recall. Paranoid and nonparanoid subgroups were based on ratings from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Groups with high and low ratings of ideas-of-reference and thought-disorder were formed from a median split on the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS. Results Verbal-fluency and Stroop-interference (left frontal and fronto-cingulate function were negatively associated with noradrenergic turnover in nonparanoid and thought-disordered patients. High dopamine turnover related to speeded trail-making (frontal modulation of set switching in those with many ideas-of-reference. In contrast, low dopamine turnover predicted poor recall in nonparanoid patients and those with little thought disorder. Serotonin metabolism did not independently contribute to the prediction any measure of cognitive performance. But, with regard to the relative activity between monoaminergic systems, increased

  13. Apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities and high serum levels of circulating nucleosomes and DNA in blood correlate with breast cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasimir-Bauer Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As cell-free circulating DNA exists predominantly as mono- and oligonucleosomes, the focus of the current study was to examine the interplay of circulating nucleosomes, DNA, proteases and caspases in blood of patients with benign and malignant breast diseases. Methods The concentrations of cell-free DNA and nucleosomes as well as the protease and caspase activities were measured in serum of patients with benign breast disease (n = 20, primary breast cancer (M0, n = 31, metastatic breast cancer (M1, n = 32, and healthy individuals (n = 28 by PicoGreen, Cell Death Detection ELISA, Protease Fluorescent Detection Kit and Caspase-Glo®3/7 Assay, respectively. Results Patients with benign and malignant tumors had significantly higher levels of circulating nucleic acids in their blood than healthy individuals (p = 0.001, p = 0.0001, whereas these levels could not discriminate between benign and malignant lesions. Our analyses of all serum samples revealed significant correlations of circulating nucleosome with DNA concentrations (p = 0.001, nucleosome concentrations with caspase activities (p = 0.008, and caspase with protease activities (p = 0.0001. High serum levels of protease and caspase activities associated with advanced tumor stages (p = 0.009. Patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer had significantly higher nucleosome levels in their blood than node-negative patients (p = 0.004. The presence of distant metastases associated with a significant increase in serum nucleosome (p = 0.01 and DNA levels (p = 0.04, and protease activities (p = 0.008. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that high circulating nucleic acid concentrations in blood are no indicators of a malignant breast tumor. However, the observed changes in apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities along with the elevated serum levels of nucleosomes and DNA in blood are linked to breast cancer progression.

  14. Effect of a mixture of pyridostigmine and atropine on forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and serum cholinesterase activity in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B F; Gefke, Kaj; Mosbech, H

    1985-01-01

    Pyridostigmine 0.143 mg kg-1 (maximum 10 mg) and atropine 0.0143 mg kg-1 (maximum 1 mg) were administered i.v. to six healthy male volunteers. Peripheral venous blood samples were drawn for measurement of serum cholinesterase activity. Maximum inhibition of the enzyme was found 5 min after inject...

  15. Serum paraoxonase-I activity is unaffected by short-term administration of simvastatin, bezafibrate, and their combination in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, R. P. F.; de Vries, R.; Voorbij, H. A. M.; Sluiter, W. J.; van Tol, A.

    Background The high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory enzyme, paraoxonase-I, has been found previously to be lower in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We studied whether statin and fibrate treatment, alone and in combination, affect serum paraoxonase-I activity in

  16. Serum level of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor is a strong and independent predictor of survival in human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, N; Sier, C.F.M.; Ullum, H

    2000-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection has been shown to result in up-regulation of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR/CD87) on leukocytes in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this up-regulation is paralleled by higher serum l...

  17. Daily physical activity, fasting glucose, uric acid, and body mass index are independent factors associated with serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Almeda-Valdes, Paloma; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J; Meza-Arana, Clara Elena; Cruz-Bautista, Ivette; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Navarrete-López, Mariana; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A

    2010-09-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) levels have been linked with beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in animals. It is elevated in humans with the metabolic syndrome. This study investigates independent factors associated with serum FGF21 levels. Cross-sectional study done in healthy blue-collar workers. A medical history was taken, and FGF21 (measured using an ELISA commercial kit), glucose, uric acid, plasma lipids, total/high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and retinal-binding protein 4 (RBP4) were measured in 210 individuals with (n=81) and without (n=129) metabolic syndrome. The median of serum FGF21 levels were higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome (339.5 vs 276.4 ng/l, P=0.01). Serum FGF21 levels correlated positively with body mass index (BMI; r=0.23, P=0.001) and age (r=0.17, P=0.01). After adjusting for age and BMI, a significant positive correlation persisted for fasting glucose, uric acid, and physical activity in both males (r=0.21, r=0.11, and r=0.19, all Pphysical activity (SB=0.223; P=0.004) are independent factors influencing serum FGF21 levels (F=10.05, r(2)=0.19, Pfasting hyperglycemia > or =100 mg/dl, excess body weight with BMI > or =25 kg/m(2), and uric acid > or =5.5 mg/dl predicted higher serum FGF21 levels. Serum FGF21 levels are influenced by BMI, fasting glycemia, uric acid, and physical activity.

  18. Serum biochemical profile, enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation in organs of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut shell liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, N M; Freitas, E R; Trevisan, M T S; do Nascimento, G A J; Salles, R P R; Cruz, C E B; Farias, N N P; da Silva, I N G; Watanabe, P H

    2017-03-16

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding laying hens diets containing cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) as a source of anacardic acid on the blood biochemical parameters as well as the enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation of liver and tissues of the reproductive system (ovary, magnum, and uterus). A total of 216 Hisex White commercial laying hens were distributed randomly into six treatments, with six replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a diet without growth promoter (GP); a diet with GP; and diets without GP, with addition of increasing levels of CNSL (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0%). Addition of CNSL to the diet did not affect the blood biochemical parameters (uric acid, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides), the enzymatic activity (superoxide dismutase and nonprotein sulphydryl groups) in the organs (liver, ovary, magnum and uterus) or the peroxidation of lipids from the blood serum, liver, magnum and uterus (p > 0.05). However, the addition of 0.75% and 1.00% CNSL provided a lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content in the birds' ovary (p < 0.001) compared to birds of other treatments, whereas the treatment without the GP provided a higher value. Addition of up to 1% of the CNSL as a source of anacardic acid in the laying hens' diets does not influence blood biochemical parameters or the endogenous enzymatic activity in the liver, ovary, magnum and uterus, but affects the lipid peroxidation in the ovary, although the problem is reduced from the inclusion of 0.75% CNSL. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Inhibition of platelet-activating factor- and zymosan-activated serum-induced chemotaxis of human neutrophils by nedocromil sodium, BN 52021 and sodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnzeel, P. L.; Warringa, R. A.; Kok, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    1. Inflammatory cells such as eosinophils and neutrophils are thought to contribute actively to the pathogenesis of asthma since they infiltrate into the lung tissue. These cells are mobilized by lipid-like and protein-like chemotactic factors. As illustrative examples of both groups, platelet-activating-factor (Paf) and zymosan-activated-serum (ZAS) were used in this study. The inhibitory effects of nedocromil sodium, the Paf antagonist BN 52021 and sodium cromoglycate on Paf- and ZAS-induced neutrophil chemotaxis were evaluated. 2. All tested drugs inhibited Paf-induced neutrophil chemotaxis with approximately the same potency (IC50 approximately 1 nM). 3. Nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate were equally potent in inhibiting ZAS-induced neutrophil chemotaxis (IC50 = 0.1-1 microM), whereas BN 52021 was considerably less potent (IC30 = 10 microM). 4. To find out whether the drugs tested could inhibit early events in cell activation, their capacity to inhibit Paf- and ZAS-induced cytosolic free Ca2+-mobilization was investigated. BN 52021, at a concentration of 100 microM, completely inhibited Paf-induced Ca2+-mobilization and inhibited ZAS-induced Ca2+-mobilization by about 50%. Nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate were ineffective. PMID:2551444

  20. Improved fusion technique. I. Human umbilical cord serum, a new and potent growth promoter, compared with other B cell and hybridoma activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerwoudt, R J; Blom, J; Naipal, A M; Van Rood, J J

    1983-08-12

    Accelerated proliferation of hybridoma cells was observed in the presence of human umbilical cord serum (HUCS). This had very strong growth-promoting activity, even at a concentration of 2%. A comparison was made between HUCS and other B cell growth promoters, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dextran sulfate (DxS), macrophage supernatant, and human endothelial culture supernatant (HECS). The growth-promoting effect of HUCS was superior. Using a microcytotoxicity assay, we found no significant differences in the number of antibody producing clones with the various culture media, except for fetal calf serum.

  1. Effect of anaesthetic technique on the natural killer cell anti-tumour activity of serum from women undergoing breast cancer surgery: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, A; McQuaid, S; Johnson, P; Buggy, D J

    2014-07-01

    Animal models and retrospective clinical data suggest that certain anaesthetic techniques can attenuate immunosuppression and minimize metastasis after cancer surgery. Natural killer (NK) T cells are a critical component of the anti-tumour immune response. We investigated the effect of serum from women undergoing primary breast cancer surgery, randomized to propofol-paravertebral block (PPA) or sevoflurane-opioid (GA) anaesthetic techniques, on healthy human donor NK cell function and cytotoxicity against oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer cells (HCC1500). Ten subjects who donated serum before operation and 24 h after operation in an ongoing randomized prospective trial (NCT 00418457) were randomly selected. Serum from PPA (n=5) and GA (n=5) subjects was co-cultured with HCC1500 and healthy primary NK cells. NK cell activating receptors (NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, 2b4, CD16, NKG2D), cytokine production, NK CD107a expression, and cytotoxicity towards HCC1500 were examined. Serum from PPA subjects did not alter normal NK marker expression or secretion of cytokines. Serum from GA subjects reduced NK cell activating receptor CD16 [from mean (sem), 82 (2)% to 50 (4)%, P=0.001], IL-10 [from 1700 (80) to 1200 (92) pg ml(-1), P=0.001], and IL-1β [from 68 (12) to 19 (4) pg ml(-1), P=0.01]. An increase in NK cell CD107a [23 (2)% to 37(3)%, P=0.007] and apoptosis of HCC1500 [11 (1)% to 21 (2)%, P=0.0001] was observed with PPA serum, but not GA serum, treated NK cells. Serum from women with breast cancer undergoing surgical excision who were randomized to receive a PPA anaesthetic technique led to greater human donor NK cell cytotoxicity in vitro compared with serum from women who received GA. NCT 041857. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Putative relationship between hormonal status and serum pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase activity in pre- and post- menopausal women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera-González, María del Pilar; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Dueñas, Basilio; Martínez-Ferrol, Julia; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-12-01

    In breast cancer, hormonal changes are rather constant in post-menopausal women since they tend to vary only over long time spans. However, in pre-menopausal women, the development of breast cancer is associated with hormonal physiological variations. The aim of the present work was to analyse the changes in circulating levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in pre- and post-menopausal women that were healthy or with breast cancer, and their connection to serum pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase (Pcp) activity. We observed significant changes in the hormonal profile in post-menopausal women with breast cancer compared to the control group. In pre-menopausal women, we found significant changes in circulating GnRH levels with respect to the healthy group. Our present results support the existence of neuroendocrine misregulation that could be involved in tumour progression, with Pcp being a potentially new pharmacological target in breast cancer treatments.

  3. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Complete Blood Counts, Serum Biochemical Values, and Intestinal Enzyme Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Stevens, Bruce R.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were fed an irradiated high-moisture diet (KSC-25) with or without access to a water bottle. Physiologic values were compared between these two groups and a group of rats fed a purified diet. Hematologic and serum biochemical values, urine specific gravity, and intestinal enzyme activities were determined from samples collected from the three groups of rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) fed the irradiated high-moisture diet with or without a water bottle were the test animals. Rats (n=16) fed an irradiated purified diet and water provided via a water bottle were the control group. The purified diet formulation, modified AIN-76A, is a commonly used purified diet for laboratory rodents. All rats remained alert and healthy throughout the study. A comparison of the physiologic values of rats in this study with reported normal values indicated that all of the rats in the study were in good health. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) of the physiologic values from each rat group are reported.

  4. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Complete Blood Counts, Serum Biochemical Values, and Intestinal Enzyme Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Stevens, Bruce R.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were fed an irradiated high-moisture diet (KSC-25) with or without access to a water bottle. Physiologic values were compared between these two groups and a group of rats fed a purified diet. Hematologic and serum biochemical values, urine specific gravity, and intestinal enzyme activities were determined from samples collected from the three groups of rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) fed the irradiated high-moisture diet with or without a water bottle were the test animals. Rats (n=16) fed an irradiated purified diet and water provided via a water bottle were the control group. The purified diet formulation, modified AIN-76A, is a commonly used purified diet for laboratory rodents. All rats remained alert and healthy throughout the study. A comparison of the physiologic values of rats in this study with reported normal values indicated that all of the rats in the study were in good health. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) of the physiologic values from each rat group are reported.

  5. The Value of Serum Prolidase Activity in Progression of Microalbuminuria in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuncu, Tevfik; Boduroglu, Omer; Eren, Mehmet Ali; Torun, Ayse Nur; Aksoy, Nurten

    2016-09-01

    Prolidase is a cytosolic exopeptidase that plays a pivotal role in collagen turnover. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is associated with structural changes in glomerular basement membrane accompanied with increased amounts of collagen. Prolidase is known to be abundant in kidney and collagen accumulation is increased in DN, so we aimed to determine the value of serum prolidase activity (SPA) in predicting the progression of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Thirty type 2 DM patients having microalbuminuria (microalbuminuric group), 30 type 2 DM patients without albuminuria (normoalbuminuric group), and 28 healthy controls (control group) were enrolled. Study groups had similar age, sex distribution, and body mass index (BMI). Metabolic parameters, SPA and urinary microalbumin were determined. SPA was significantly higher in microalbuminuric group when compared with normoalbuminuric and control groups (P = 0.05 and P lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were significantly lower in microalbuminuric group compared to control group (Both P < 0.05). SPA showed a negative correlation with HDL-C level and a positive correlation with urinary albumin excretion (r = -0.219, P < 0.05 and r = 0.39, P < 0.001 respectively). In regression analysis, albumin excretion was the sole parameter influencing SPA. SPA appears to be higher in type 2 DM patients having microalbuminuria compared to patients without microalbuminuria and healthy controls. The pathophysiological role and the significance of SPA in predicting DN need to be further evaluated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Affinity to bovine serum albumin and anticancer activity of some new water-soluble metal Schiff base complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Mozaffar; Asadi, Zahra; Zarei, Leila; Sadi, Somaye Barzegar; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2014-12-10

    Metal Schiff-base complexes show biological activity but they are usually insoluble in water so four new water-soluble metal Schiff base complexes of Na2[M(5-SO3-1,2-salben]; (5-SO3-1,2-salben denoted N,N'-bis(5-sulphosalicyliden)-1,2-diaminobenzylamine and M=Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn) were synthesized and characterized. The formation constants of the metal complexes were determined by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The interaction of these complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. Type of quenching, binding constants, number of binding sites and binding stoichiometries were determined by fluorescence quenching method. The results showed that the mentioned complexes strongly bound to BSA. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that hydrophobic association was the major binding force and that the interaction was entropy driven and enthalpically disfavoured. The displacement experiment showed that these complexes could bind to the subdomain IIA (site I) of albumin. Furthermore the synchronous fluorescence spectra showed that the microenvironment of the tryptophan residues was not apparently changed. Based on the Förster theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the distance between the donor (Trp residues) and the acceptor metal complexes was obtained. The growth inhibitory effect of complexes toward the K562 cancer cell line was measured.

  7. Variations of serum and mucus lysozyme activity and total protein content in the male and female Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum, Kamensky 1901) during reproductive period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoori, Zomorod; Heidari, Behrooz; Farzadfar, Fariba; Aghamaali, Mahmoudreza

    2014-03-01

    Serum and mucus lysozyme were measured in male and female Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) under seasonal temperature, gonadal growth and reproductive migration. Significant difference with almost similar trend in serum and mucus lysozyme of the female Caspian kutum in sampling time and ovarian growth was observed. However, while there was no significant difference in serum lysozyme of the male specimen in sampling time and testicular growth, significant variations was observed in mucus lysozyme. In addition, there was significant difference in mucus total protein both for male and female specimens. The effectiveness ratio of factors on lysozyme variations followed in descending order by seasonal temperature (main factor), reproductive activity and migration with negligible effect and the lysozyme level was not significantly different in male and female Caspian kutum.

  8. Serum Cytokine Profile by ELISA in Patients with Echinococcal Cysts of the Liver: A Stage-Specific Approach to Assess Their Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Piccoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the usefulness of serum cytokine dosage in the clinical management of cystic echinococcosis (CE, we analyzed serum levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in patients with hepatic CE in different cyst stages, CE1-2 (active, CE3a-3b (transitional, and CE4-5 (inactive. Ex vivo assessment of Th1 (IFN-γ and Th2 (IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10 cytokines in sera was carried out using ELISA. IL-10 was undetectable in all serum samples of patients and controls, while a few sera contained measurable amounts of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-13. No statistically significant difference was found between the percentages of positive samples for each cytokine and the different groups analyzed (patients/controls, stage, number, location, and size of the cyst, serology, and sex of patients, with the exception of the association of IL-4 and IL-13 with the cyst stage. Overall, this investigation showed many limits of serum cytokine dosage as a marker of biological activity of echinococcal cysts. Because of low sensitivity and lack of specificity of this test, we believe that other ways to evaluate ex vivo biological activity of the cysts should be explored.

  9. Effect of temperature and pH on carbamoylation and phosphorylation of serum cholinesterases. Theoretical interpretation of activation energies in complex reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, Vera; Reiner, Elsa; Vernon, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    1. The effect of temperature and pH was studied on the kinetics of inhibition of horse serum and human serum cholinesterase by four organophosphorus compounds and five carbamates. 2. For all compounds, and at each pH and temperature, the inhibition followed the kinetics of a bimolecular reaction with the inhibitor in excess, and with a negligible concentration of the Michaelis complex. 3. The second-order rate constants (ka) for inhibition of human serum cholinesterase by one organophosphate and one carbamate increased from 5° to 40°C with an apparent activation energy of 46kJ/mol (11kcal/mol). 4. The ka constant for inhibition of horse serum cholinesterase increased with temperature from 5° to 30°C, and then decreased from 30° to 40°C. The theoretical interpretation of such an unusual effect of temperature is derived. 5. The increase of ka with pH (human serum cholinesterase) followed the dissociation curve for a single group on the enzyme (pK7.5). 6. Rate constants for decarbamoylation (k+3) were determined, and the time-course of inhibition was calculated from the ka and k+3 constants. PMID:4677141

  10. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression levels in visceral adipose tissue, and serum CCL2 and interleukin-6 levels during visceral adipose tissue accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogarajah, Thaneswary; Bee, Yvonne-Tee Get; Noordin, Rahmah; Yin, Khoo Boon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in visceral adipose tissue, as well as serum adipokine levels, in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were fed either a normal (control rats) or excessive (experimental rats) intake of food for 8 or 16 weeks, then sacrificed, at which time visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, as well as blood samples, were collected. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARs in the visceral adipose tissues were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, the levels of adipokines in the serum samples were determined using commercial ELISA kits. The results revealed that at 8 weeks, the mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue was higher than that of the visceral adipose tissue in the experimental rats, but the reverse occurred at 16 weeks. Furthermore, at 16 weeks the experimental rats exhibited an upregulation of PPARγ mRNA and protein expression levels in the visceral adipose tissues, and significant increases in the serum levels of CCL2 and interleukin (IL)-6 were observed, compared with those measured at 8 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the PPARγ expression level was likely correlated with serum levels of CCL2 and IL-6, molecules that may facilitate visceral adipose tissue accumulation. In addition, the levels of the two adipokines in the serum may be useful as surrogate biomarkers for the expression levels of PPARγ in accumulated visceral adipose tissues.

  11. The activity of serum beta-galactosidase in colon cancer patients with a history of alcohol and nicotine dependence: preliminary data

    OpenAIRE

    Napoleon Waszkiewicz; Sławomir Dariusz Szajda; Magdalena Waszkiewicz; Aleksandra Wojtulewska-Supron; Agata Szulc; Alina Kępka; Sylwia Chojnowska; Jacek Dadan; Jerzy Robert Ładny; Krzysztof Zwierz; Beata Zalewska-Szajda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Beta-galactosidase (GAL) is a lysosomal exoglycosidase involved in the catabolism of glycoconjugates through the sequential release of beta-linked terminal galactosyl residues. The stimulation of activity of exoglycosidases and other degradative enzymes has been noted in cancers as well as in alcohol and nicotine addiction separately. This is the first study to evaluate the activity of the serum senescence marker GAL in colon cancer patients with a history of alcohol and nicotin...

  12. Glucocorticoid-like effects of antihepatocarcinogen Rotenone are mediated via enhanced serum corticosterone levels: Molecular Fitting and Receptor Activation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Jihan

    2003-02-01

    diminished similarity with a value of 1 or higher excluding any such similarities. Results Although the stimulatory effect exerted by rotenone on hepatocellular apoptosis was in the opposite direction of that produced by the glucocorticoid antagonist RU 486, data suggested that rotenone does not directly activate the glucocorticoid receptor. Molecular fitting of rotenone to glucocorticoid receptor agonists and antagonists as well as examination of the transcriptional activation of a glucocorticoid-responsive reporter gene (Mouse MammaryTumorVirus in response to rotenone indicated that it is highly unlikely that rotenone interacts directly with the glucocorticoid receptor. However, feeding male B6C3F1 mice a diet containing rotenone (600 ppm for 7 days resulted in a 3-fold increase in serum levels of corticosterone relative to control animals. Corticosterone is the major glucocorticoid in rodents. Conclusion Rotenone does not interact directly with the glucocorticoid receptor. Elevation of serum corticosterone levels in response to rotenone may explain the glucocorticoid-like effects of this compound, and may play a role in its anti-hepatocarcinogenic effect.

  13. Serum specific vasopressin-degrading activity is related to blood total cholesterol levels in men but not in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Arrazola, Marcelina; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Arias de Saavedra, José Manuel; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The role of vasopressin (AVP) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is controversial, but this peptide hormone is elevated in heart failure and some forms of hypertension. Also, AVP has vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, hyperplasic and renal fluid retaining properties which, by analogy with angiotensin II, may have deleterious effects when present in chronic excess. Furthermore, cholesterol blood levels are also associated with hypertension, although the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we analyze the relationship between blood total cholesterol levels and serum vasopressin- degrading cystyl-aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) in healthy humans, and the differences between men and women. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated to test relationships between AVP-DA and blood total cholesterol levels. Sex differences were observed for AVP-DA, being this activity higher in men than in women. According to the linear model of the regression analysis, AVP-DA showed a significant negative correlation with blood total cholesterol levels in men, whereas no correlation was observed in women. Several studies in humans demonstrate the existence of greater plasma AVP concentrations in normal men compared to normal women, which could explain the gender-differences observed in the present work in relation with AVP-DA. However, AVP-DA is related to blood cholesterol levels only in men, although in our hands, women showed higher blood cholesterol levels than men. This could indicate that the risk of high cholesterol-related hypertension is more probable in men than in women. Although AVP-DA misregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, its relation with cholesterol levels appears only in men, but not in women.

  14. Bacterial DNA induces the complement system activation in serum and ascitic fluid from patients with advanced cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francés, Rubén; González-Navajas, José M; Zapater, Pedro; Muñoz, Carlos; Caño, Rocío; Pascual, Sonia; Márquez, Dorkas; Santana, Francia; Pérez-Mateo, Miguel; Such, José

    2007-07-01

    Translocation of intestinal bacteria to ascitic fluid is, probably, the first step in the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis. Proteins of the complement system are soluble mediators implicated in the host immune response to bacterial infections and its activation has been traditionally considered to be an endotoxin-induced phenomenon. The aim of this study was to compare the modulation of these proteins in response to the presence of bacterial DNA and/or endotoxin in patients with advanced cirrhosis and ascites in different clinical conditions. Groups I and II consisted of patients without/with bacterial DNA. Group III included patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and Group IV with patients receiving norfloxacin as secondary long-term prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Serum and ascitic fluid levels of endotoxin and truncated residues of the complement system were measured by ELISA. The complement system is triggered in response to bacterial DNA, as evidenced by significantly increased levels of C3b, membrane attack complex, and C5a in patients from Groups II and III compared with patients without bacterial DNA (Group I) and those receiving norfloxacin (Group IV). Gram classification did not further differentiate the immune response between patients within groups II and III, even though endotoxin levels were, as expected, significantly higher in patients with bacterial DNA from gram-negative microorganisms. The complement protein activation observed in patients with bacterial DNA in blood and ascitic fluid is indistinguishable from that observed in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and may occur in an endotoxin-independent manner.

  15. Methodological constraints in interpreting serum paraoxonase-1 activity measurements: an example from a study in HIV-infected patients

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    Joven Jorge

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is an antioxidant enzyme that attenuates the production of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 in vitro. Although oxidation and inflammation are closely related processes, the association between PON1 and MCP-1 has not been completely characterised due, probably, to that the current use of synthetic substrates for PON1 measurement limits the interpretation of the data. In the present study, we explored the relationships between the circulating levels of PON1 and MCP-1 in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in relation to the multifunctional capabilities of PON1. Methods We measured selected variables in 227 patients and in a control group of 409 participants. Serum PON1 esterase and lactonase activities were measured as the rates of hydrolysis of paraoxon and of 5-(thiobutyl-butyrolactone, respectively. Oxidised LDL and MCP-1 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High-density lipoproteins cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and C-reactive protein concentrations were measured by standard automated methods. Results There were significant relationships between PON1 activity and several indices of oxidation and inflammation in control subjects and in infected patients. However, these relationships varied not only with disease status but also on the type of substrate used for PON1 measurement. Conclusion The present study is a cautionary tale highlighting that results of clinical studies on PON1 may vary depending on the methods used as well as the disease studied. Until more specific methods using physiologically-akin substrates are developed for PON1 measurement, we suggest the simultaneous employment of at least two different substrates in order to improve the reliability of the results obtained.

  16. Expression of ICAM1 and VCAM1 Serum Levels in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Activity. Association with Genetic Polymorphisms

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    Rosa Elena Navarro-Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the association of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 with ICAM1 721G>A and VCAM1 1238G>C polymorphisms and rheumatoid arthritis (RA clinical activity, sixty RA patients and 60 healthy non-related subjects (HS matched for age and sex were recruited. Soluble adhesion molecules were determined by ELISA technique. Rheumatoid factor (RF, C reactive protein (CRP and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR were measured by routine methods. Disability and clinical activity was measured with Spanish-HAQ-DI and DAS28 scores, respectively. The ICAM1 and VCAM1 polymorphism were identified using the PCR-RFLP procedure. Inter-group comparison showed increased levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 in RA patients (284 and 481 ng/mL versus HS (132 and 280 ng/mL; in the RA group, significant correlations between sVCAM-1 and RF (r = 0.402, ESR (r = 0.426, Spanish-HAQ-DI (r = 0.276, and DAS28 (r = 0.342 were found, whereas sICAM-1 only correlated with RF (r = 0.445. In RA patients, a significant association with the 721A allele of ICAM1 polymorphism (p = 0.04, was found. In addition, the allele impact (G/A + A/A of this polymorphism was confirmed, (p = 0.038, OR = 2.3, C.I. 1.1–5.0. sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 serum levels reflected the clinical status in RA, independently of the ICAM1 and VCAM1 polymorphism. However, the ICAM1 721A allele could be a genetic marker to RA susceptibility.

  17. Low serum PON1 activity: an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in North-West Indian type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Binu, K B K; Singh, Surjit; Maturu, Nagarjuna V; Sharma, Yash P; Bhansali, Anil; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2012-04-25

    The paraoxonase (PON1) gene polymorphisms are known to affect the PON1 activity and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. Studies done so far have given conflicting results. In the present study, we determined the role of PON1 genetic variants and PON1 activity in the development of CAD in North-West Indian Punjabis, a distinct ethnic group, having high incidence of both CAD and type 2 diabetes. 300 angiographically proven CAD with type 2 diabetics and 250 type 2 diabetics with no clinically evident CAD were enrolled. Serum PON1 activity and genotyping of coding (Q192R, L55M) and promoter (-909G/C, -162A/G, -108C/T) region polymorphisms were carried out and haplotypes were determined using PHASE software. The serum PON1 activity was significantly lower in CAD with type 2 diabetics as compared to diabetics alone (51.0 vs. 114.2nmol/min/ml). In logistic regression model after adjusting for confounding variables, lower PON1 activity was found to be significantly associated with CAD risk in type 2 diabetics with OR being 16.8 (95% CI: 10.2-27.7). The lower serum PON1 activity, irrespective of genotypes and haplotypes is a risk factor for development of CAD in North-West Indian Punjabis with type 2 diabetics.

  18. The activity of serum beta-galactosidase in colon cancer patients with a history of alcohol and nicotine dependence: preliminary data

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    Napoleon Waszkiewicz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Beta-galactosidase (GAL is a lysosomal exoglycosidase involved in the catabolism of glycoconjugates through the sequential release of beta-linked terminal galactosyl residues. The stimulation of activity of exoglycosidases and other degradative enzymes has been noted in cancers as well as in alcohol and nicotine addiction separately. This is the first study to evaluate the activity of the serum senescence marker GAL in colon cancer patients with a history of alcohol and nicotine dependence, as a potential factor of worse cancer prognosis.Material and Methods: The material was serum of 18 colon cancer patients and 10 healthy volunteers. Ten colon cancer patients met alcohol and nicotine dependence criteria. The activity of beta-galactosidase (pkat/ml was determined by the colorimetric method. Comparisons between groups were made using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis and differences evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used to measure the statistical dependence between two variables.Results: The activity of serum GAL was significantly higher in colon cancer patients with a history of alcohol and nicotine dependence, in comparison to colon cancer patients without a history of drinking/smoking (p=0.015; 46�0increase, and the controls (p=0.0002; 81�0increase. The activity of serum GAL in colon cancer patients without a history of alcohol/nicotine dependence was higher than the activity in the controls (p = 0.043; 24�0increase.Discussion/Conclusion: Higher activity of beta-galactosidase may potentially reflect the accelerated growth of the cancer, invasion, metastases, and maturation, when alcohol and nicotine dependence coincide with colon cancer. For a better prognosis of colon cancer, alcohol and nicotine withdrawal seems to be required.

  19. The activity of serum beta-galactosidase in colon cancer patients with a history of alcohol and nicotine dependence: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Waszkiewicz, Magdalena; Wojtulewska-Supron, Aleksandra; Szulc, Agata; Kępka, Alina; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Dadan, Jacek; Ładny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata

    2013-08-26

    Beta-galactosidase (GAL) is a lysosomal exoglycosidase involved in the catabolism of glycoconjugates through the sequential release of beta-linked terminal galactosyl residues. The stimulation of activity of exoglycosidases and other degradative enzymes has been noted in cancers as well as in alcohol and nicotine addiction separately. This is the first study to evaluate the activity of the serum senescence marker GAL in colon cancer patients with a history of alcohol and nicotine dependence, as a potential factor of worse cancer prognosis. The material was serum of 18 colon cancer patients and 10 healthy volunteers. Ten colon cancer patients met alcohol and nicotine dependence criteria. The activity of beta-galactosidase (pkat/ml) was determined by the colorimetric method. Comparisons between groups were made using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis and differences evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to measure the statistical dependence between two variables. The activity of serum GAL was significantly higher in colon cancer patients with a history of alcohol and nicotine dependence, in comparison to colon cancer patients without a history of drinking/smoking (p=0.015; 46% increase), and the controls (p=0.0002; 81% increase). The activity of serum GAL in colon cancer patients without a history of alcohol/nicotine dependence was higher than the activity in the controls (p = 0.043; 24% increase). Higher activity of beta-galactosidase may potentially reflect the accelerated growth of the cancer, invasion, metastases, and maturation, when alcohol and nicotine dependence coincide with colon cancer. For a better prognosis of colon cancer, alcohol and nicotine withdrawal seems to be required.

  20. eNOS genotype modifies the effect of leisure-time physical activity on serum triglyceride levels in a Japanese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide is a key molecule not only in the cardiovascular system, but also in the metabolic-endocrine system. The purpose of this study was to examine possible associations of the NOS3 T-786C polymorphism (rs2070744) with serum lipid levels on the basis of lifestyle factors for tailoring prevention of dyslipidemia. Methods For this cross-sectional study, a total of 2226 subjects aged 35 to 69 years (1084 men and 1142 women) were selected from Japanese participants in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. They were recruited in eight areas throughout Japan between February 2004 and November 2008. Results In a stratified analysis by leisure-time physical activity, the likelihood of hypertriglyceridemia (serum triglyceride levels ≥ 150 mg/dL) among subjects with the C allele was significantly lower than those without it in the active group (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.22-0.84 in the fasting group), but not in the sedentary group. A gene-environment interaction between the T-786C polymorphism and leisure-time physical activity for hypertriglyceridemia was significant (P = 0.007 in the fasting group). Additionally, serum triglyceride levels (mean ± SD) across leisure-time physical activity classes decreased significantly only in the TC + CC genotype group (111 ± 60 mg/dL for sedentary, 95 ± 48 mg/dL for moderately active, 88 ± 44 mg/dL for very active, P for trend = 0.008 in the fasting group), but not in the TT genotype group. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol levels had no significant association with the polymorphism. Conclusions This study suggests that the NOS3 T-786C polymorphism modifies the effect of leisure-time physical activity on serum triglyceride levels. PMID:23122449

  1. Effects of glucocorticoid dexamethasone on serum nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels in a rat model of lung disease-induced brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huajun Li; Ligang Jiang; Meng Xia; Haiping Li; Fanhua Meng; Wei Li; Lifeng Liu; Zhaohui Wang

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of dexamethasone, pertussis toxin (a Gi protein inhibitor), and actinomycin (a transcription inhibitor) on serum nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide content in a rat model of lung disease-induced brain injury. High-dose dexamethasone (13 mg/kg) and dexamethasone + actinomycin reduced lung water content, increased serum nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide content, diminished inflammatory cell infiltration in pulmonary alveolar interstitium, attenuated meningeal vascular hyperemia, reduced glial cell infiltration, and decreased cerebral edema. These results demonstrate that high-dose glucocorticoid treatment can reduce the severity of lung disease-induced brain injury by increasing nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels.

  2. Relationship between the Contents of MDA, the Activity of SOD in Serum of the Milk Goat with Fluorosis and the Erythrocytic Membrane Liquidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To research the relation among the erythrooytic membrane liquidity and the contents of MPA, the activity of SOD in serum of the milk goat with fluorosis. An animal model with fluorosia was constructed, and the fluorescent probe technique of DPH was used to measue the erythrocytic membrane liquidity. At the same time, the contents of MPA and the activity of SOD in serum were measured. The results showed that the erythrocytic membrane liquidity in the control group and flurosis group were 5.6742 ± 0.4417 and 3.7248 ± 0.4521 (P <0.01) respectively, the contents of MPA in serum were 2.0408 ± 0.198 and 4.494± 0.438 (P <0.01) respectively, the activities of SOD were 175.638 ± 22.201 and 113.714 ± 34.258 (P <0.01) respectively. The correlation analysis indicated that the relation between the activity of SOD and the liquidity of erythrocytic membrane was positive correlation ( r=0.7321, P <0.05), whereas the relation between the contents of MPA and the liquidity of erythrocytic membrane was negative correlation (r = -0.6438, P <0.01). The erythrocytio membrane liquidity decreased in milk goat with fluorosis, which played a role in the occurrence and development of the fluorosis. There was correlation among the erythrocytic membrane liquidity and the contents of MDA, the activity of SOD.

  3. Serum miR-29a Is Upregulated in Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease and Activates Dendritic Cells through TLR Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Parvathi; Ngankeu, Apollinaire; Zitzer, Nina C; Leoncini, PierPaolo; Yu, Xueyan; Casadei, Lucia; Challagundla, Kishore; Reichenbach, Dawn K; Garman, Sabrina; Ruppert, Amy S; Volinia, Stefano; Hofstetter, Jessica; Efebera, Yvonne A; Devine, Steven M; Blazar, Bruce R; Fabbri, Muller; Garzon, Ramiro

    2017-03-15

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) continues to be a frequent and devastating complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), posing as a significant barrier against the widespread use of HSCTs as a curative modality. Recent studies suggested serum/plasma microRNAs (miRs) may predict aGVHD onset. However, little is known about the functional role of circulating miRs in aGVHD. In this article, we show in two independent cohorts that miR-29a expression is significantly upregulated in the serum of allogeneic HSCT patients at aGVHD onset compared with non-aGVHD patients. Serum miR-29a is also elevated as early as 2 wk before time of diagnosis of aGVHD compared with time-matched control subjects. We demonstrate novel functional significance of serum miR-29a by showing that miR-29a binds and activates dendritic cells via TLR7 and TLR8, resulting in the activation of the NF-κB pathway and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. Treatment with locked nucleic acid anti-miR-29a significantly improved survival in a mouse model of aGVHD while retaining graft-versus-leukemia effects, unveiling a novel therapeutic target in aGVHD treatment or prevention. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. The effect of Omega-3 fatty acids on serum paraoxonase activity, vitamins A, E, and C in type 2 diabetic patients

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    Anis Kouchak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Studies showed paraoxonase activity, and vitamin C and A levels are decreased in diabetes. The effect of omega-3 fatty acids on serum paraoxonase activity and vitamins A, E, C in patients with type 2 diabetes is not fully understood. This study aimed to determine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on paraoxonase activity, vitamins C, A and E levels in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo controlled trial, 80 type 2 diabetic patients were randomly enrolled into the study. Study subjects received daily 2714 mg of omega-3 fatty acids or placebo for 8 weeks. Ten milliliter fasting blood was collected before and after treatments. Serum paraoxonase activity and vitamin C levels were measured by spectrophotometry. Vitamin A and vitamin E were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Nutrient intake was estimated using 24-hours dietary recall questionnaire (for 2 days before and after treatments. Dietary data were analyzed using FPII. To compare the means of variables between the two groups, independent t-test was employed. Differences between variables before and after interventions were calculated using paired t-test. Results: Serum levels of paraoxonase activity were significantly increased after omega-3 intake (126.47 IU/ml vs. 180.13 IU/ml. However, omega-3 intake caused no significant change in serum vitamin A, C, and E. Conclusions: Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids was found to increase paraoxonase activity in diabetic patients.

  5. Could both vitamin D and geomagnetic activity impact serum levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules in young men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleizgys, Andrius; Šapoka, Virginijus

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D might have a role in diminishing endothelial dysfunction (ED). The initial aim was to test the hypothesis of reciprocity between levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and levels of soluble endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that could serve as biomarkers of ED. Randomly selected men of age 20-39 were examined at February or March (cold season) and reexamined at August or September (warm season). Some lifestyle and anthropometrical data were recorded. Laboratory measurements, including those for serum levels of soluble CAMs—sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and sP-selectin—were also performed. As some of the results were rather unexpected, indices of geomagnetic activity (GMA), obtained from the online database, were included in further analysis as a confounder. In 2012-2013, 130 men were examined in cold season, and 125 of them were reexamined in warm season. 25(OH)D levels were found to be significantly negatively associated with sVCAM-1 levels ( β = -0.15, p = 0.043 in warm season; β = -0.19, p = 0.007 for changes). Levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 from the same seasons were notably different between years and have changed in an opposite manner. Soluble P-selectin levels were higher at warm season in both years. GMA was positively associated with sVCAM-1 ( β = 0.17, p = 0.039 in cold season; β = 0.22, p = 0.002 for changes) and negatively with sICAM-1 ( β = -0.30. p Vitamin D might play a role in diminishing sVCAM-1 levels. Levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 were associated with the GMA; this implies a need for further research.

  6. SGLT2 inhibitor lowers serum uric acid through alteration of uric acid transport activity in renal tubule by increased glycosuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Yukihiro; Samukawa, Yoshishige; Sakai, Soichi; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-01-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been reported to lower the serum uric acid (SUA) level. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for this reduction, SUA and the urinary excretion rate of uric acid (UEUA) were analysed after the oral administration of luseogliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, to healthy subjects. After dosing, SUA decreased, and a negative correlation was observed between the SUA level and the UEUA, suggesting that SUA decreased as a result of the increase in the UEUA. The increase in UEUA was correlated with an increase in urinary d-glucose excretion, but not with the plasma luseogliflozin concentration. Additionally, in vitro transport experiments showed that luseogliflozin had no direct effect on the transporters involved in renal UA reabsorption. To explain that the increase in UEUA is likely due to glycosuria, the study focused on the facilitative glucose transporter 9 isoform 2 (GLUT9ΔN, SLC2A9b), which is expressed at the apical membrane of the kidney tubular cells and transports both UA and d-glucose. It was observed that the efflux of [14C]UA in Xenopus oocytes expressing the GLUT9 isoform 2 was trans-stimulated by 10 mm d-glucose, a high concentration of glucose that existed under SGLT2 inhibition. On the other hand, the uptake of [14C]UA by oocytes was cis-inhibited by 100 mm d-glucose, a concentration assumed to exist in collecting ducts. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the UEUA could potentially be increased by luseogliflozin-induced glycosuria, with alterations of UA transport activity because of urinary glucose. PMID:25044127

  7. Apolipoprotein AI deficiency inhibits serum opacity factor activity against plasma high density lipoprotein via a stabilization mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Corina; Patel, Niket; Gillard, Baiba K; Yelamanchili, Dedipya; Yang, Yaliu; Courtney, Harry S; Santos, Raul D; Gotto, Antonio M; Pownall, Henry J

    2015-04-14

    The reaction of Streptococcal serum opacity factor (SOF) against plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) produces a large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM), a smaller neo HDL that is apolipoprotein (apo) AI-poor, and lipid-free apo AI. SOF is active versus both human and mouse plasma HDL. In vivo injection of SOF into mice reduces plasma cholesterol ∼40% in 3 h while forming the same products observed in vitro, but at different ratios. Previous studies supported the hypothesis that labile apo AI is required for the SOF reaction vs HDL. Here we further tested that hypothesis by studies of SOF against HDL from apo AI-null mice. When injected into apo AI-null mice, SOF reduced plasma cholesterol ∼35% in 3 h. The reaction of SOF vs apo AI-null HDL in vitro produced a CERM and neo HDL, but no lipid-free apo. Moreover, according to the rate of CERM formation, the extent and rate of the SOF reaction versus apo AI-null mouse HDL were less than that against wild-type (WT) mouse HDL. Chaotropic perturbation studies using guanidine hydrochloride showed that apo AI-null HDL was more stable than WT HDL. Human apo AI added to apo AI-null HDL was quantitatively incorporated, giving reconstituted HDL. Both SOF and guanidine hydrochloride displaced apo AI from the reconstituted HDL. These results support the conclusion that apo AI-null HDL is more stable than WT HDL because it lacks apo AI, a labile protein that is readily displaced by physicochemical and biochemical perturbations. Thus, apo AI-null HDL is less SOF-reactive than WT HDL. The properties of apo AI-null HDL can be partially restored to those of WT HDL by the spontaneous incorporation of human apo AI. It remains to be determined what other HDL functions are affected by apo AI deletion.

  8. Acid sphingomyelinase serum activity predicts mortality in intensive care unit patients after systemic inflammation: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kott

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acid sphingomyelinase is involved in lipid signalling pathways and regulation of apoptosis by the generation of ceramide and plays an important role during the host response to infectious stimuli. It thus has the potential to be used as a novel diagnostic marker in the management of critically ill patients. The objective of our study was to evaluate acid sphingomyelinase serum activity (ASM as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in a mixed intensive care unit population before, during, and after systemic inflammation. METHODS: 40 patients admitted to the intensive care unit at risk for developing systemic inflammation (defined as systemic inflammatory response syndrome plus a significant procalcitonin [PCT] increase were included. ASM was analysed on ICU admission, before (PCT before, during (PCT peak and after (PCT low onset of SIRS. Patients undergoing elective surgery served as control (N = 8. Receiver-operating characteristics curves were computed. RESULTS: ASM significantly increased after surgery in the eight control patients. Patients from the intensive care unit had significantly higher ASM on admission than control patients after surgery. 19 out of 40 patients admitted to the intensive care unit developed systemic inflammation and 21 did not, with no differences in ASM between these two groups on admission. In patients with SIRS and PCT peak, ASM between admission and PCT before was not different, but further increased at PCT peak in non-survivors and was significantly higher at PCT low compared to survivors. Survivors exhibited decreased ASM at PCT peak and PCT low. Receiver operating curve analysis on discrimination of ICU mortality showed an area under the curve of 0.79 for ASM at PCT low. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, ASM was generally higher in patients admitted to the intensive care unit compared to patients undergoing uncomplicated surgery. ASM did not indicate onset of systemic inflammation. In contrast to PCT however

  9. Serum IL8 and mRNA level of CD11b in circulating neutrophils are increased in clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis with active interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jing; Chen, Jie; Yan, Qingran; Guo, Qiang; Bao, Chunde

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess serum IL8 and the potential activity of circulating neutrophils on relative messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and their relationship with disease activity in clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD). We studied 18 CADM patients and compared them with 18 classic dermatomyositis (DM) patients and 18 healthy control subjects. Serum IL8 level and mRNA expressions of neutrophils (chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1 (CXCR1), cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b), cluster of differentiation 64 (CD64), myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1), interleukin-18 (IL18)) were detected. The overproduction of serum IL8 level was most significant in the CADM group with active period. The mRNA expressions of CD11b, IL18, and MCL1 were greatly increased in the neutrophils in patients with CADM compared with DM or healthy controls. Up-expressions of CD11b, IL18, and MCL1 were detected in the neutrophils in CADM patients of active period compared with remission period. A positive correlation was found between CD11b mRNA level and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score, in CADM associated with ILD. Serum IL8 level and mRNA levels of CD11b, MCL1, and IL18 in circulating neutrophils are related with the disease activity of CADM-ILD. The mRNA level of CD11b is positively correlated with HRCT score in CADM-ILD.

  10. Effects of Nephrolithiasis on Serum DNase (Deoxyribonuclease I and II) Activity and E3 SUMO-Protein Ligase NSE2 (NSMCE2) in Malaysian Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Faridah; Mehde, Atheer Awad; Mehdi, Wesen Adel; Raus, Raha Ahmed; Ghazali, Hamid; Rahman, Azlina Abd

    2015-09-01

    Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. The aim of this study was to examine a possible relationship between DNase I/II activity and E3 SUMO-protein ligase NSE2 in the sera of nephrolithiasis patients to evaluate the possibility of a new biomarker for evaluating kidney damage. Sixty nephrolithiasis patients and 50 control patients were enrolled in a case-control study. Their blood urea, creatinine, protein levels and DNase I/II activity levels were measured by spectrometry. Serum NSMCE2 levels were measured by ELISA. Blood was collected from patients of the government health clinics in Kuantan-Pahang and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The result indicated that mean levels of sera NSMCE2 have a significantly increase (P<0.01) in patients compared to control group. Compared with control subjects, activities and specific activities of serum DNase I and II were significantly elevated in nephrolithiasis patients (P$lt;0.01). This study suggests that an increase in serum concentrations of DNase I/II and E3 SUMO-protein ligase NSE2 level can be used as indicators for the diagnosis of kidney injury in patients with nephrolithiasis. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  12. Activation of the human complement system by cholesterol-rich and pegylated liposomes - Modulation of cholesterol-rich liposome-mediated complement activation by elevated serum LDL and HDL levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S.M.; Hamad, I.; Bunger, R.;

    2006-01-01

    Intravenously infused liposomes may induce cardiopulmonary distress in some human subjects, which is a manifestation of "complement activation-related pseudoallergy." We have now examined liposome-mediated complement activation in human sera with elevated lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) levels, since...... level of S-protein-bound form of the terminal complex (SC5b-9). However, liposome-induced rise of SC5b-9 was significantly suppressed when serum HDL cholesterol levels increased by 30%. Increase of serum LDL to levels similar to that observed in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia also suppressed...

  13. Correlation between serum 25(OH)D values and lupus disease activity: an original article and a systematic review with meta-analysis focusing on serum VitD confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebari, M; Nabavi, N; Salehi, M

    2014-10-01

    Notwithstanding that several original studies and some systematic reviews have been undertaken on the subject "correlation between serum values of vitamin D (VitD) and lupus disease activity," there is still no consensus on the importance of sectional measurement of serum VitD in the prediction of disease activity and important confounders in estimation of serum VitD. Medline, Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases were searched from 1995 to 2013. The following medical subject heading (MeSH) terms and/or text words were used: "Vitamin D" OR "25OHD" OR "25(OH)D" combined with "systemic lupus erythematosus" OR "lupus" OR "SLE." References cited in the identified articles were also manually searched. Human studies in any language were included. Original research on this topic was also carried out on 82 lupus patients, considering important VitD confounders according to our systematic review and we included them in the meta-analysis. A total of 35 studies were registered for this study. Only 11 of these pointed to this correlation by Pearson test. The pooled Pearson correlation (r) of associations between disease activity and VitD was -0.365 (95% CI: -0.536, -0.165) with significant heterogeneity (p = 0.001 I (2 )= 93%). Sensitivity analysis resulted in no significant differences. The most important adjustable confounders considered by researchers were drugs, especially hydroxychloroquine, prednisolone and supplementary VitD, body mass index (BMI) and proteinuria or renal function. Only proteinuria was reported to influence VitD concentration strongly. BMI was another probable influencing factor. Our original research presented no correlation between VitD and SLEDAI (p = 0.68, r s = 0.003). This meta-analysis demonstrated that most of the studies on the relationship between VitD and lupus disease activity that found no correlation did not present the details of the statistics. However, analyzing 11 studies, most of which found a reverse correlation and

  14. Canine distemper virus neutralization activity is low in human serum and it is sensitive to an amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinsheng, E-mail: xzhang@iavi.org [AIDS Vaccine Design and Development Laboratory, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), Brooklyn, NY (United States); Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, State University of New York, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Wallace, Olivia L.; Domi, Arban; Wright, Kevin J.; Driscoll, Jonathan [AIDS Vaccine Design and Development Laboratory, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), Brooklyn, NY (United States); Anzala, Omu [Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative (KAVI)-Institute of Clinical Research, Nairobi (Kenya); Sanders, Eduard J. [Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Kilifi, Kenya & Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, Headington (United Kingdom); Kamali, Anatoli [MRC/UVRI Uganda Virus Research Unit on AIDS, Masaka and Entebbe (Uganda); Karita, Etienne [Projet San Francisco, Kigali (Rwanda); Allen, Susan [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Fast, Pat [Department of Medical Affairs, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, NY, NY (United States); Gilmour, Jill [Human Immunology Laboratory, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, London (United Kingdom); Price, Matt A. [Department of Medical Affairs, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, NY, NY (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Parks, Christopher L. [AIDS Vaccine Design and Development Laboratory, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), Brooklyn, NY (United States); Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, State University of New York, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Serum was analyzed from 146 healthy adult volunteers in eastern Africa to evaluate measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb) prevalence and potency. MV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results indicated that all sera were positive for MV nAbs. Furthermore, the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) for the majority of sera corresponded to antibody titers induced by MV vaccination. CDV nAbs titers were low and generally were detected in sera with high MV nAb titers. A mutant CDV was generated that was less sensitive to neutralization by human serum. The mutant virus genome had 10 nucleotide substitutions, which coded for single amino acid substitutions in the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins and two substitutions in the large polymerase (L) protein. The H substitution occurred in a conserved region involved in receptor interactions among morbilliviruses, implying that this region is a target for cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. - Highlights: • Screened 146 serum samples for measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb). • MV nAb is prevalent in the sera. • CDV neutralizing activity is generally low or absent and when detected it is present in sera with high MV nAb titers. • A neutralization-resistant CDV mutant was isolated using human serum selection. • A mutation was identified in the receptor-binding region of CDV hemagglutinin protein that confers the neutralization resistance.

  15. Effect of nikkomycin Z and 50% human serum on the killing activity of high-concentration caspofungin against Candida species using time-kill methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Judit; Földi, Richárd; Bayegan, Sedigh; Kardos, Gábor; Majoros, László

    2012-02-01

    Caspofungin and nikkomycin Z (NIK) efficacy alone and in combination were tested against seven Candida species showing or not showing paradoxical growth (PG) against caspofungin in time-kill test in RPMI-1640. Selected isolates against caspofungin and NIK were also tested in 50% serum. PG was always eliminated by NIK as well as by serum. In the serum, 1 and 16 μg/ml caspofungin yielded 0.14-4.0 and 0.34-4.0 log CFU decreases from the starting inocula for C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis, respectively. CFU decrease (0.10-2.08 log) at 16 μg/ml, but not at lower caspofungin concentration was noted against C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. One C. parapsilosis isolate was not inhibited even by 16 μg/ml caspofungin. Caspofungin against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis maintained its activity in serum at even 1 μg/ml concentration. PG seems to an in vitro phenomenon, without clinical relevance.

  16. Serum antibodies to 25 myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein epitopes in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica: clinical value for diagnosis and disease activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yan; ZHANG Yao; LIU Cai-yan; PENG Bin; WANG Jian-ming; ZHANG Xiao-jun; LI Hai-feng; CUI Li-ying

    2012-01-01

    Background Whether antibody to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) can be a diagnostic marker for multiple sclerosis (MS) is still controversial.Recent studies suggested that serum specific anti-MOG epitope antibody might be an MS specific marker.However,these studies did not include neuromyelitis optica (NMO) which might be proven to also have anti-MOG antibody.Hence,the present study was undertaken to investigate the clinical value of serum antibodies to 25 MOG epitopes in conventional MS (CMS) and NMO.Methods Serum anti-MOG epitope IgG was detected in 61 CMS patients,54 NMO patients,and 77 healthy controls,using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Anti-MOG27-38 IgG levels in both CMS and NMO patients were significantly higher than that in healthy controls (optical density (OD):0.64±0.38,0.48±0.23 vs.0.19±0.09; P=0.000).CMS and NMO patients in relapse stage had significantly higher anti-MOG27-38 IgG level than patients in remission stage (OD:0.55±0.14 vs.0.24±0.09,P=0.027).Conclusion Although serum anti-MOG epitope IgG could not differentiate MS from NMO,it may be a useful marker for monitoring disease activity.

  17. Suppressing Akt phosphorylation and activating Fas by safrole oxide inhibited angiogenesis and induced vascular endothelial cell apoptosis in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Miao, Junying; Zhao, Baoxiang; Zhang, Shangli; Yin, Deling

    2006-01-01

    At present, vascular endothelial cell (VEC) apoptosis induced by deprivation of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and serum has been well studied. But how to trigger VEC apoptosis in the presence of FGF-2 and serum is not well known. To address this question, in this study, the effects of safrole oxide on angiogenesis and VEC growth stimulated by FGF-2 were investigated. The results showed that safrole oxide inhibited angiogenesis and induced VEC apoptosis in the presence of FGF-2 and serum. To understand the possible mechanism of safrole oxide acting, we first examined the phosphorylation of Akt and the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS); secondly, we analyzed the expressions and distributions of Fas and P53; then we measured the activity of phosphatidylcholine specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) in the VECs treated with and without safrole oxide. The results showed that this small molecule obviously suppressed Akt phosphorylation and the activity of NOS, and promoted the expressions of Fas and P53 markedly. Simultaneously, Fas protein clumped on cell membrane, instead of homogenously distributed. The activity of PC-PLC was not changed obviously. The data suggested that safrole oxide effectively inhibited angiogenesis and triggered VEC apoptosis in the presence of FGF-2 and serum, and it might perform its functions by suppressing Akt/NOS signal pathway, upregulating the expressions of Fas and P53 and modifying the distributing pattern of Fas in VEC. This finding provided a powerful chemical probe for promoting VEC apoptosis during angiogenesis stimulated by FGF-2.

  18. 578 Comparison of the Modified Autologous Serum Skin Test and the Cd63 Basophil Activation Test in Chronic Urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Irinyi, B; Gyimesi, E.; Garaczi, E.; Bata, Zs.; Hodosi, K.; Zeher, M; Remenyik, É.; Szegedi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The modified CD63 basophil activation test in the diagnosis of chronic autoimmun urticaria was first described in 2004 by Szegedi et al. We demonstrated that the strongly sensitized basophils of atopic donors can be successfully used without the addition of IL-3 for the in vitro evaluation of autoimmun urticaria. Positive correlation was found between the basophil CD63 expression test and the autolog serum skin test (ASST), and between the CD63 test and the gold standard histamine ...

  19. Preoperative plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and serum C-reactive protein levels in patients with colorectal cancer. The RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Sørensen, Steen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a prognostic variable in patients with colorectal cancer. It has been suggested, however, that plasma PAI-1 is a nonspecific prognostic parameter similar to the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP). In the present...... statistical analysis including Dukes classification, gender, age, tumor location, perioperative blood transfusion, PAI-1 and CRP, plasma PAI-1 was a dependent prognostic variable, while serum CRP (P

  20. 9G4 autoreactivity is increased in HIV-infected patients and correlates with HIV broadly neutralizing serum activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Kobie

    Full Text Available The induction of a broadly neutralizing antibody (BNAb response against HIV-1 would be a desirable feature of a protective vaccine. Vaccine strategies thus far have failed to elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses; however a minority of HIV-infected patients do develop circulating BNAbs, from which several potent broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have been isolated. The findings that several BNmAbs exhibit autoreactivity and that autoreactive serum antibodies are observed in some HIV patients have advanced the possibility that enforcement of self-tolerance may contribute to the rarity of BNAbs. To examine the possible breakdown of tolerance in HIV patients, we utilized the 9G4 anti-idiotype antibody system, enabling resolution of both autoreactive VH4-34 gene-expressing B cells and serum antibodies. Compared with healthy controls, HIV patients had significantly elevated 9G4+ serum IgG antibody concentrations and frequencies of 9G4+ B cells, a finding characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients, both of which positively correlated with HIV viral load. Compared to the global 9G4-IgD--memory B cell population, the 9G4+IgD--memory fraction in HIV patients was dominated by isotype switched IgG+ B cells, but had a more prominent bias toward "IgM only" memory. HIV envelope reactivity was observed both in the 9G4+ serum antibody and 9G4+ B cell population. 9G4+ IgG serum antibody levels positively correlated (r = 0.403, p = 0.0019 with the serum HIV BNAbs. Interestingly, other serum autoantibodies commonly found in SLE (anti-dsDNA, ANA, anti-CL did not correlate with serum HIV BNAbs. 9G4-associated autoreactivity is preferentially expanded in chronic HIV infection as compared to other SLE autoreactivities. Therefore, the 9G4 system provides an effective tool to examine autoreactivity in HIV patients. Our results suggest that the development of HIV BNAbs is not merely a consequence of a general breakdown in

  1. Sex differences in serum CK activity but not in glomerular filtration rate after resistance exercise: is there a sex dependent renal adaptative response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Mayra Z; Machado, Marco; Hackney, Anthony C; de Oliveira, Wilkes; Luz, Carla Patrícia Novais; Pereira, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We investigated differences in sex responses in serum CK activity and renal function measured by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after an exercise session. Twenty-two healthy and trained volunteers (11 males and 11 females) performed 17 resistance exercises with 3 × 12 repetitions in a circuit training fashion. Subjects provided blood samples prior to exercise session, and at 24, 48, and 72 h following exercise sessions for creatine kinase and creatinine. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected before and 72 h after the exercise. Estimate (e) GFR was obtained by using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation adjusted for males and females. After the exercise session, males showed greater serum CK activity than females (p  0.05) between sex for serum and urinary creatinine. eGFR decreased significantly for males (~10 %) and females (~8 %), but also without a difference between the sexes (p > 0.05). The correlation between CK and eGFR was significant for males (r = -0.794; p = 0.003), and females (r = -0.8875; p < 0.001). A significant negative correlation between CK activity and the eGFR indice of renal function in both males and females was observed. Additionally, the renal function compromise was similar for both sexes, despite males presenting greater exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage when compared to females.

  2. Association of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity measured as a serum cholesterol esterification rate and low-density lipoprotein heterogeneity with cardiovascular risk: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Shigemasa; Takahashi, Atsuhiko; Nagao, Ken; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    The cholesterol-esterifying enzyme, lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), is believed to play a key role in reverse cholesterol transport. However, recent investigations have demonstrated that higher LCAT activity levels increase the formation of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and atherogenesis. We hypothesized that higher LCAT activity measured as a serum cholesterol esterification rate by the endogenous substrate method might increase the formation of TRLs and thereby alter low-density lipoprotein (LDL) heterogeneity. The estimated LDL particle size [relative LDL migration (LDL-Rm)] was measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with the LipoPhor system (Joko, Tokyo, Japan) in 538 consecutive patients with at least risk factor for atherosclerosis. Multivariate regression analysis after adjustments for traditional risk factors identified elevated TRL-related marker (TG, remnant-like particle cholesterol, apolipoprotein C-II, and apolipoprotein C-III) levels as independent predictors of smaller-sized LDL particle size, both in the overall subject population and in the subset of patients with serum LDL cholesterol levels of cardiovascular disease, it may be of importance to pay attention not only to a quantitative change in the serum LDL-C, but also to the LCAT activity which is possibly associated with LDL heterogeneity.

  3. Selenium fortification of an Italian rice cultivar via foliar fertilization with sodium selenate and its effects on human serum selenium levels and on erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacosa, Attilio; Faliva, Milena Anna; Perna, Simone; Minoia, Claudio; Ronchi, Anna; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2014-03-24

    Selenium food fortification could be a cost-effective strategy to counteract the inadequacy of selenium intake among the Italian population. In this study, the effect of foliar fertilization with sodium selenate of an Italian rice cultivar and the increase of serum selenium and of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity after intake of fortified rice, have been evaluated. The effect of foliar fertilization with sodium selenate (50 g Se/ha) vs. water was studied. Moreover, in a randomized, double-blind study, 10 healthy women supplemented their usual diet with a daily dose of 80 g of Se-enriched-rice and 10 matched-women with 80 g of regular rice. Before, after 5 and 20 days of supplementation, serum Se and GPx-activity were evaluated. The mean selenium content in Se-enriched-rice was 1.64 ± 0.28 μg/g, while in regular rice it was 0.36 ± 0.15 μg/g (p foliar fertilization with sodium selenate and that the 20 days intake of this Se-enriched-rice increases the serum selenium levels and GPx-activity.

  4. Honey reduces blood alcohol concentration but not affects the level of serum MDA and GSH-Px activity in intoxicated male mice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peiying; Chen, Bing; Chen, Conghai; Xu, Jingyang; Shen, Zhenhuang; Miao, Xiaoqing; Yao, Hong

    2015-07-14

    For a long time, honey was purportedly helpful to prevent drunkenness and relieve hangover symptoms. However, few of the assertions have experienced scientific assessment. The present study examined the effects of honey on intoxicated male mice. Low or high doses of lychee flower honey (2.19 or 4.39 g/kg body weight, respectively) were single orally administrated 30 min before the ethanol intoxication of mice, followed by recording the locomotor activity by autonomic activity instrument and observing the climbing ability after alcohol. On the other hand, 2.19 g/kg honey was single orally administrated 5 min after the ethanol intoxication of mice, followed by determining the ethanol concentration in mice blood. In addition, subacute alcoholism mice models were developed and after the treatment of 2.19 g/kg honey s.i.d for successive three days, the level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were detected in the models. Both of the two doses of honey increased the autonomic activity of alcoholized mice. Furthermore, the treatment of 2.19 g/kg honey could decrease significantly the blood ethanol concentration in intoxicated mice. The anti-intoxication activity of honey could be due to the effect of the fructose contained in the honey. Meanwhile, honey could not affect the serum MDA level and GSH-Px activity in alcoholism mice models. Honey indeed possesses anti-intoxication activity.

  5. Replacement of dietary saturated fat with trans fat reduces serum paraoxonase activity in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de N.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Scheek, L.M.; Tol, van A.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    A high intake of saturated fat and of trans isomers of unsaturated fat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently, we found that replacement of saturated fat by trans fat in a dietary controlled study with 32 men and women decreased serum high-density lipoprotein

  6. Replacement of dietary saturated fat with trans fat reduces serum paraoxonase activity in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de N.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Scheek, L.M.; Tol, van A.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    A high intake of saturated fat and of trans isomers of unsaturated fat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently, we found that replacement of saturated fat by trans fat in a dietary controlled study with 32 men and women decreased serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cho

  7. Serum amyloid P component bound to gram-negative bacteria prevents lipopolysaccharide-mediated classical pathway complement activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, CJC; van Leeuwen, EMM; van Bommel, T; Verhoef, J; van Kessel, KPM; van Strijp, JAG

    Although serum amyloid P component (SAP) is known to bind many ligands, its biological function is not yet clear. Recently, it was demonstrated that SAP binds to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), In the present study, SAP was shown to bind to gram-negative bacteria expressing short types of LPS or

  8. Serum amyloid P component bound to gram-negative bacteria prevents lipopolysaccharide-mediated classical pathway complement activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, CJC; van Leeuwen, EMM; van Bommel, T; Verhoef, J; van Kessel, KPM; van Strijp, JAG

    2000-01-01

    Although serum amyloid P component (SAP) is known to bind many ligands, its biological function is not yet clear. Recently, it was demonstrated that SAP binds to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), In the present study, SAP was shown to bind to gram-negative bacteria expressing short types of LPS or lipo-olig

  9. Surface functionalization of zirconium dioxide nano-adsorbents with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane and promoted adsorption activity for bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gen; Wu, Chaochao [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Xia, E-mail: xzhang@mail.neu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Yufeng, E-mail: liuyufeng@bjmu.edu.cn [College of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Meng, Hao; Xu, Junli; Han, Yide; Xu, Xinxin; Xu, Yan [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Surface functionalization of zirconium dioxide (ZrO{sub 2}) nano-adsorbents was carried out by using 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) as the modifier. The addition amount of APTES was varied to determine the optimum modification extent, and the bulk ZrO{sub 2} microparticles were also modified by APTES for comparison. Some means, such as TEM, XRD, FT-IR, XPS and TG-DSC were used to character these ZrO{sub 2} particles. The results showed that the APTES molecules were chemically immobilized on the surface of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles via Zr−O−Si bonds, and the nano-ZrO{sub 2} samples showed larger special surface area. In the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA), nano-ZrO{sub 2} samples exhibited enhanced adsorption activity, and APTES modified nano-ZrO{sub 2} with proper APTES content presented the best adsorption property. Under the same adsorption conditions, the equilibrium adsorption capacity of BSA on APTES-ZrO{sub 2}-2 was almost 2.3 times as that on pristine nano-ZrO{sub 2} and 3.0 times as on bulk ZrO{sub 2} microparticles. The increased adsorption capacity of APTES-ZrO{sub 2} nano-adsorbents can be attributed to the chemical interaction between amino and carboxyl groups at APTES-ZrO{sub 2}/BSA interface. The pH-dependent experiments showed that the optimum pH value for the adsorption and desorption was 5.0 and 9.0, respectively, which suggested that the adsorption and release of BSA could be controlled simply by adjusting the solution pH condition. - Highlights: • APTES chemically immobilized on ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles via Zr−O−Si bond. • Enhanced adsorption capacity of BSA was observed on APTES-ZrO{sub 2}. • Chemical adsorption character of BSA on APTES-ZrO{sub 2}. • Adsorption/release of BSA on APTES-ZrO{sub 2} accomplished by adjusting pH value.

  10. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 serum levels and 4G/5G gene polymorphism in morbidly obese Hispanic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Alberto; Villagrán, Andrea; Vollrath, Valeska; Hanckes, Paulina; Salas, Roberto; Farah, Andrea; Solís, Nancy; Pizarro, Margarita; Escalona, Alex; Boza, Camilo; Pérez, Gustavo; Carrasco, Gonzalo; Padilla, Oslando; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Nervi, Flavio; Chavez-Tapia, Norberto C; Arab, Juan Pablo; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Arrese, Marco; Riquelme, Arnoldo

    2011-01-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) has been implicated in the regulation of fibrinolysis and extracellular matrix components. The single base pair guanine insertion/deletion polymorphism (4G/5G) within the promoter region of the PAI-1 gene influences PAI-1 synthesis and may modulate hepatic fibrogenesis. To evaluate the influence of PAI-1 serum levels and 4G/5G polymorphism on the risk of liver fibrosis associated to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in morbidly obese patients. Case-control study of 50 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery and 71 non-obese subjects matched by age and sex. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed, including PAI-1 serum levels. Genomic DNA was obtained to assess the presence of 4G/5G polymorphism. BMI, insulinemia, triglycerides, HOMA-IR, hypertension and diabetes were significantly higher in obese patients compared to control subjects. PAI-1 serum levels observed in obese patients were significantly lower (10.63 ± 4.82) compared to controls (14.26 ± 11.4; p 5G promoter genotypes frequencies (p = 0.12). No differences were observed in PAI-1 plasma levels among obese patients with liver fibrosis (10.64 ± 4.35) compared to patients without liver fibrosis (10.61 ± 5.2; p = 0.985). PAI-1 4G/5G promoter genotypes frequencies were similar in patients with or without liver fibrosis associated to NASH (p = 0.6). Morbidly obese patients had significantly lower PAI-1 serum levels with similar PAI-1 4G/5G genotypes frequencies compared to non-obese subjects. The frequency of 4G/5G genotypes in Chilean Hispanic healthy subjects was similar to that described in other populations. No association was found between PAI-1 serum levels or 4G/5G genotype with liver fibrosis in obese patients.

  11. Correlations Between Serum Uric Acid Level and Disease Activity, Intrathecal Inflammation Reactivity in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai-yan Liu; Yan Xu; Li-ying Cui; Bin Peng; Li-zhen Zhong; Xing-wang Chen; Jian-ming Wang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlations between serum uric acid (UA) levels and the clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters of multiple sclerosis (MS).Methods The medical reports of 47 MS patients admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital during 2008 and 2010 were reviewed.And 49 age- and gender-matched cerebral infarction patients were enrolled as control.The mean serum UA level of the MS patients was compared with that of the control group.The correlations betveen the UA levels and the clinical parameters including gender,disease duration,relapse rate,and disease disabilities as assessed by the Expanded Disability Status Scale score,were explored.Forty-one patients had CSF examinations.The correlations between the UA levels and the CSF parameters reflecting inflammation and tissue damage,including CSF protein,white blood cell count,oligoclonal band,24-hour IgG index,and myelin basic protein,were also investigated.Results The mean serum UA level in the MS patients was lower than that in the control group (247.75 ± 52.59 μmol/L vs.277.94 ± 74.33 μmol/L,P=0.025) and inversely correlated with the relapse rate (P=0.049).MS patients with lower serum UA levels tended to have higher white blood cell counts and myelin basic protein level.But there was no correlation between CSF protein levels (r=0.165,P=0.273),white blood cell counts (r=0.051,P=0.732),IgG index (r =0.045,P=0.802),or myelin basic protein level (r =0.248,P=0.145) and the serum UA level,respectively.Conclusion In MS patients,UA levels might partly reflect the extent of disability and inflammation.

  12. Serum Levels of IL-6 Type Cytokines and Soluble IL-6 Receptors in Active B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and in Cladribine Induced Remission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Robak

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and two IL-6 family cytokines-oncostatin M (OSM and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF-in 63 patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL and 17 healthy controls using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Simultaneously, we measured the serum levels of the soluble forms of two subunits of the IL-6 receptor complex-ligand binding glycoprotein 80 (sIL-6R and glycoprotein 130 (sgp130. The cytokines and receptors were evaluated in 25 untreated patients and 38 patients treated with cladribine (2-CdA, as well as in 17 healthy controls. We have correlated the serum levels of these proteins with Rai's clinical stage of the disease, the response to 2-CdA treatment and some hematological parameters. We have also evaluated the correlation of the IL-6 serum level with the concentration of OSM and IL-6 soluble receptors. IL-6 was measurable in 62/63 (98.4%, OSM in 20/25 (80% of untreated and 14/38 (37.8% of the treated patients. sIL-6R and sgp130 were detectable in all 63 patients and LIF in none of the CLL patients. IL-6 serum level in untreated patients was not significantly different as compared to its concentration in the control group (P>0.05. However, in the patients treated with 2-CdA the IL-6 level was significantly lower (P0.05. We have found significant positive correlation between the levels of sIL6R and the lymphocytes count in CLL patients (Ρ=0.423; P<0.001. In addition, sIL-6R and OSM serum concentrations correlated also with CLL Rai stage. In conclusion, the serum level of IL-6, OSM and sIL-6R, but not LIF and sgp130, are useful indicators of CLL activity.

  13. Initial evidence for the link between activities and health: Associations between a balance of activities, functioning and serum levels of cytokines and C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dür, Mona; Steiner, Günter; Stoffer, Michaela Alexandra; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Dejaco, Clemens; Ekmekcioglu, Cem; Prodinger, Birgit; Binder, Alexa; Smolen, Josef; Stamm, Tanja Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence shows interrelations of psychological factors, neurological and immunological processes. Therefore, constructs like a balance of activities, the so called "occupational balance", could also have biological correlates. The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between occupational balance, functioning, cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients suffering from a chronic inflammatory disease like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy people. Moreover, we wanted to explore potential differences in gender and employment status. A descriptive study in patients with RA and healthy people was conducted using the Occupational Balance-Questionnaire (OB-Quest) and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). Serum levels of cytokines, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and 8 (IL-8), interferon alpha (INFα), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), rheumatoid factor (RF) and of CRP were measured. Descriptive statistics, as well as Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearmen's rank correlation coefficients (rs) were calculated. One-hundred-thirty-two patients with RA and 76 healthy people participated. Occupational balance was associated with functioning, cytokines and CRP. The strongest associations were identified in the unemployed healthy-people sample with cytokines and CRP being within the normal range. For example, the OB-Quest item challenging activities was associated with IL-8 (rs=-0.63, p=0.04) and the SF-36 sub-scale bodily pain was associated with IFNα (rs=-0.69, p=0.02). The items rest and sleep (rs=-0.71, p=0.01) and variety of different activities (rs=-0.74, psocial functioning. Employed and unemployed people differed in their age and CRP levels. Additionally, gender differences were found in two OB-Quest items in that fewer women were able to adapt their activities to changing living conditions and fewer men were overstressed. In conclusion, we found preliminary biological evidence for the link between occupation and health in that the

  14. Disparate Proteome Responses of Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Aspergilli to Human Serum Measured by Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedner, Susan D.; Ansong, Charles; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pederson, Leeanna M.; Fortuin, Suereta; Hofstad, Beth A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the primary pathogen causing the devastating pulmonary disease Invasive Aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. Genomic analysis shows high synteny between A. fumigatus and closely related rarely pathogenic Neosartorya fischeri and Aspergillus clavatus genomes. To investigate the presence of unique or highly inducible protein reactivity in the pathogen, we applied activity-based protein profiling to compare protein reactivity of all three fungi over time in minimal media growth and in response to human serum. We found 350 probe-reactive proteins exclusive to A. fumigatus, including known virulence associated proteins, and 13 proteins associated with stress response exclusive to A. fumigatus culture in serum. Though the fungi are highly orthologous, A. fumigatus has significantly more activity across varied biological process. Only 50% of expected orthologs of measured A. fumigatus reactive proteins were observed in N. fischeri and A. clavatus. Human serum induced processes uniquely or significantly represented in A. fumigatus include actin organization and assembly, transport, and fatty acid, cell membrane, and cell wall synthesis. Additionally, signaling proteins regulating vegetative growth, conidiation, and cell wall integrity, required for appropriate cellular response to external stimuli, had higher reactivity over time in A. fumigatus and N. fisheri, but not in A. clavatus. Together, we show that measured proteins and physiological processes identified solely or significantly over-represented in A. fumigatus reveal a unique adaptive response to human protein not found in closely related, but rarely aspergilli. These unique protein reactivity responses may reveal how A. fumigatus initiates pulmonary invasion leading to Invasive Aspergillosis.

  15. Elevated serum IL-35 and increased expression of IL-35-p35 or -EBI3 in CD4+CD25+ T cells in patients with active tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Bin; Liu, Gan-Bin; Zhang, Jun-Ai; Fu, Xiao-Xia; Xiang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yu-Chi; Lu, Yuan-Bin; Wu, Xian-Jing; Qiu, Feng; Wang, Wan-Dang; Yi, Lai-Long; Zhong, Ji-Xin; Chen, Zheng W; Xu, Jun-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent appreciation of interleukin 35 (IL-35) function in inflammatory diseases, little is known for IL-35 response in patients with active tuberculosis (ATB). In the current study, we demonstrated that ATB patients exhibited increases in serum IL-35 and in mRNA expression of both subunits of IL-35 (p35 and EBI3) in white blood cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Consistently, anti-TB drug treatment led to reduction in serum IL-35 level and p35 or EBI3 expression. TB infection was associated with expression of p35 or EBI3 protein in CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells. Most p35+CD4+ T cells and EBI3+CD4+ T cells expressed Treg-associated marker CD25. Our findings may be important in understanding immune pathogenesis of TB. IL-35 in the blood may potentially serve as a biomarker for immune status and prognosis in TB. PMID:27158354

  16. Elevated serum IL-35 and increased expression of IL-35-p35 or -EBI3 in CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells in patients with active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Bin; Liu, Gan-Bin; Zhang, Jun-Ai; Fu, Xiao-Xia; Xiang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yu-Chi; Lu, Yuan-Bin; Wu, Xian-Jing; Qiu, Feng; Wang, Wan-Dang; Yi, Lai-Long; Zhong, Ji-Xin; Chen, Zheng W; Xu, Jun-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent appreciation of interleukin 35 (IL-35) function in inflammatory diseases, little is known for IL-35 response in patients with active tuberculosis (ATB). In the current study, we demonstrated that ATB patients exhibited increases in serum IL-35 and in mRNA expression of both subunits of IL-35 (p35 and EBI3) in white blood cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Consistently, anti-TB drug treatment led to reduction in serum IL-35 level and p35 or EBI3 expression. TB infection was associated with expression of p35 or EBI3 protein in CD4(+) but not CD8(+) T cells. Most p35(+)CD4(+) T cells and EBI3(+)CD4(+) T cells expressed Treg-associated marker CD25. Our findings may be important in understanding immune pathogenesis of TB. IL-35 in the blood may potentially serve as a biomarker for immune status and prognosis in TB.

  17. NEUROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDERS : A FOCUS ON TARDIVE DYSKINESIA AND SOFT NEUROLOGICAL SIGNS IN RELATION TO SERUM DOPAMINE BETA HYDROXYLASE ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Utpal; Basu, S.; Khastgir, U.; Kumar, Unnati; Chandrasekaran, R.; Gangadhar, B.N.; Sagar, Rajesh; Bapna, J.S.; Channabasavanna, S.M.; Moore, P. Brain; Ferrier, I. Nicol

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the prognostic determinants were investigated involving bipolar patients classified into two groups-one with favourable course and outcome, and the other with clearly unfavourable prognosis, based on certain recommended criteria, with intermediate prognosis were excluded. As compared to the poor prognosis group, the good prognosis group had lower social dysfunctions, lower ratings on psychopathotogy fewer indicators of neurodysfunction in form of neurological soft signs (NSS) and tardive dyskinesia (TD). The poor prognosis group was characterized by: (i) older age at onset; (ii) more manic than depressive episodes (5:1) and (HI) lower levels of serum dopamine-β-hydroxylase activity (DBH). The association between poor prognosis bipolar disorder having neuroleptic intolerance (TD and NSS) with low serum DBH, suggests that it is genetically governed. Further research in this direction seems in order, particularly the follow up of first episode manic disorders. PMID:21494474

  18. The frequency of marcroamylasemia and the diagnostic value of the amylase to creatinine clearance ratio in patients with elevated serum amylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, H K; Bindrich, D; Bode, J C

    1977-01-01

    190 patients with elevated serum amylase levels were tested for macroamylasemia and the amylase to creatinine clearance ratio. Macroamylasemia was found in 3 patients. In these patients macroamylasemia persisted after the total activity of serum amylase had fallen to nearly normal levels. The Cam/Ccr-ratios were determined 14 times in the 3 macroamylasemic patients. Only one of the 14 values was clearly less than 1%. Cam/Ccr-ratios above 4% were found in 83 patients. In 56 of them the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis could not be confirmed. 19 out of 46 patients with the established diagnosis of acute pancreatitis had Cam/Ccr-ratios below 4%. Cam/Ccr-ratios below 1% were also found in patients without macroamylasemia. It is concluded that high and low Cam/Ccr-ratios are not specific for acute pancreatitis and macroamylasemia, respectively, and--moreover--that a normal Cam/Ccr-ratio excludes neither acute pancreatitis nor macroamylesemia.

  19. Serum levels of parathyroid hormone and markers of bone metabolism in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Relationship to disease activity and glucocorticoid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tonny Joran; Hansen, M; Madsen, J C;

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of inflammatory activity and glucocorticoid (GC) treatment on serum parathyroid hormone (s-PTH) and bone metabolism in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Furthermore, in patients with active RA, to examine the PTH secretion and Ca2+ set point before...... and after treatment with GC. METHODS: A range of biochemical markers of bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis were measured in 95 patients with definite RA stratified into groups according to disease activity and GC treatment. In a subgroup of 12 patients with active disease, initiating slow...... groups. The levels of urine pyridinoline (Pyr) and s-albumin-corrected calcium (s-AlbCorrCa2+) were elevated in patients with active disease and patients treated with GC. S-PTH and s-phosphate were within normal ranges. S-TAP, s-ICTP, Pyr and s-AlbCorrCa2+ correlated positively with indices of disease...

  20. A novel protein from the serum of Python sebae, structurally homologous with type-γ phospholipase A(2) inhibitor, displays antitumour activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnini, Sandra; Finetti, Federica; Francese, Simona; Boscaro, Francesca; Dani, Francesca R; Maset, Fabio; Frasson, Roberta; Palmieri, Michele; Pazzagli, Mario; De Filippis, Vincenzo; Garaci, Enrico; Ziche, Marina

    2011-12-01

    Cytotoxic and antitumour factors have been documented in the venom of snakes, although little information is available on the identification of cytotoxic products in snake serum. In the present study, we purified and characterized a new cytotoxic factor from serum of the non-venomous African rock python (Python sebae), endowed with antitumour activity. PSS (P. sebae serum) exerted a cytotoxic activity and reduced dose-dependently the viability of several different tumour cell lines. In a model of human squamous cell carcinoma xenograft (A431), subcutaneous injection of PSS in proximity of the tumour mass reduced the tumour volume by 20%. Fractionation of PSS by ion-exchange chromatography yielded an active protein fraction, F5, which significantly reduced tumour cell viability in vitro and, strikingly, tumour growth in vivo. F5 is composed of P1 (peak 1) and P2 subunits interacting in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio to form a heterotetramer in equilibrium with a hexameric form, which retained biological activity only when assembled. The two peptides share sequence similarity with PIP {PLI-γ [type-γ PLA(2) (phospholipase A(2)) inhibitor] from Python reticulatus}, existing as a homohexamer. More importantly, although PIP inhibits the hydrolytic activity of PLA(2), the anti-PLA(2) function of F5 is negligible. Using high-resolution MS, we covered 87 and 97% of the sequences of P1 and P2 respectively. In conclusion, in the present study we have identified and thoroughly characterized a novel protein displaying high sequence similarity to PLI-γ and possessing remarkable cytotoxic and antitumour effects that can be exploited for potential pharmacological applications.

  1. Serum Levels of Soluble P-Selectin Are Increased and Associated With Disease Activity in Patients With Behçet's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Turkoz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Behçet's syndrome (BS is a relapsing, chronic, inflammatory disease characterized by endothelial dysfunction, atherothromboembogenesis, and leukocytoclastic vasculitis with complex immunologic molecular interactions. Generalized derangements of the lymphocyte and neutrophil populations, activated monocytes, and increased PMNLs motility with upregulated cell surface molecules such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin, which are found on the endothelial cells, leukocytes, and platelets, have all been demonstrated during the course of BS. Our aim is to investigate the association of serum concentrations of soluble P-selectin in patients with BS, and to evaluate whether disease activity has an effect on their blood levels. This multicenter study included 31 patients with BS (15 men and 16 women and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control volunteers (11 men and nine women. Neutrophil count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and acute-phase reactants as well as soluble P-selectin levels were determined. The mean age and sex distributions were similar (P>.05 between BS patients (35 years and control volunteers (36 years. Serum levels of soluble P-selectin in patients with BS (399 ± 72 ng/mL were significantly (P<.001 higher when compared with control subjects (164±40   ng/mL. In addition, active BS patients (453±37 ng/mL had significantly (P<.001 elevated levels of soluble P-selectin than those in inactive period (341±52 ng/mL. This study clearly demonstrated that serum soluble P-selectin levels are increased in BS patients when compared with control subjects, suggesting a modulator role for soluble P-selectin during the course of platelet activation and therefore, atherothrombogenesis formation in BS, especially in active disease.

  2. Elevated Serum Levels of Interleukin-29 Are Associated with Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients with Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qiong-Jie; Lv, Cheng; Zhao, Feng; Xu, Ting-Shuang; Li, Ping

    2017-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease that may lead to progressive joint destruction. The anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody is an essential marker for the diagnosis of RA and has a crucial role in the bone destruction in RA. Recent studies have shown that interleukin (IL)-29, a vital member of type III interferon (IFN) family, could enhance proinflammatory cytokine production and might be involved in the joint destruction in RA. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to examine the role of IL-29 in RA patients with anti-CCP antibodies. The result showed that the serum IL-29 levels were higher in RA patients (n = 68) compared with healthy controls (HC, n = 68, P = 0.019). Correlation analysis demonstrated a significant positive correlation among serum IL-29 level, rheumatoid factor (RF, P anti-CCP antibodies (P = 0.042). However, when RA patients were divided into two groups according to anti-CCP antibodies, the serum IL-29 levels were significantly higher in anti-CCP-antibodies positive RA patients (n = 54) than those in HC (n = 68) and anti-CCP-antibodies negative RA patients (n = 14). Furthermore, the serum IL-29 levels were positively correlated with the disease activity (P anti-CCP-antibodies positive RA patients, whereas no significant change was found in the anti-CCP-antibodies negative RA patients (P > 0.05). The findings indicate that IL-29 is a potential biomarker for disease activity in anti-CCP-antibodies positive RA patients.

  3. Gut microbiota composition in male rat models under different nutritional status and physical activity and its association with serum leptin and ghrelin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel; Seoane, Luisa María; Murri, Mora; Pardo, María; Gomez-Zumaquero, Juan Miguel; Cardona, Fernando; Casanueva, Felipe; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Several evidences indicate that gut microbiota is involved in the control of host energy metabolism. To evaluate the differences in the composition of gut microbiota in rat models under different nutritional status and physical activity and to identify their associations with serum leptin and ghrelin levels. In a case control study, forty male rats were randomly assigned to one of these four experimental groups: ABA group with food restriction and free access to exercise; control ABA group with food restriction and no access to exercise; exercise group with free access to exercise and feed ad libitum and ad libitum group without access to exercise and feed ad libitum. The fecal bacteria composition was investigated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time qPCR. In restricted eaters, we have found a significant increase in the number of Proteobacteria, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Enterococcus, Prevotella and M. smithii and a significant decrease in the quantities of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, B. coccoides-E. rectale group, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium with respect to unrestricted eaters. Moreover, a significant increase in the number of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and B. coccoides-E. rectale group was observed in exercise group with respect to the rest of groups. We also found a significant positive correlation between the quantity of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and serum leptin levels, and a significant and negative correlation among the number of Clostridium, Bacteroides and Prevotella and serum leptin levels in all experimental groups. Furthermore, serum ghrelin levels were negatively correlated with the quantity of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and B. coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group and positively correlated with the number of Bacteroides and Prevotella. Nutritional status and physical activity alter gut microbiota composition affecting the diversity and similarity. This study highlights the associations

  4. Human pregnancy serum contains at least two distinct proteolytic activities with the ability to degrade insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, P; Fielder, P J

    1997-09-01

    The presence of a proteolytic activity in sera from pregnant humans and rodents capable of degrading insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) has been known for some time. However, the identity of this activity has remained elusive. We have attempted to purify the IGFBP-3 protease activity from pregnant human serum (PHS) using the degradation of 125I-IGFBP-3 as a marker. Following ammonium sulfate precipitation of PHS and further enrichment of active fractions by ion-exchange, protein-A Sepharose, and size-exclusion chromatography, a protease of approximately 70-90 kDa was isolated and subjected to N-terminal analysis. The N-terminal sequence was consistent with plasminogen, a known fibrinolytic enzyme. To further characterize the IGFBP-3 protease activities in both PHS and nonpregnant human serum (NHS), aliquots of serum were first enriched by polyethylene glycol-precipitation and subjected to size-exclusion chromatography. The size-separated fractions were then incubated with 125I-IGFBP-3, and proteolytic activity was measured. PHS contained two separate proteases (>150 kDa and 70-90 kDa), whereas NHS contained only one (70-90 kDa) that had a inhibitor profile similar to plasmin. However, inhibitors of plasmin had no effect on the activity of the >150-kDa protease. Plasminogen activators (PAs) greatly increased the activity of the 70- to 90-kDa protease, but had little effect on the >150-kDa protease activity. Addition of PAs greatly increased the ability of NHS to proteolyze IGFBP-3. In contrast, the ability of plasminogen-depleted plasma to degrade 125I-IGFBP-3 was not affected by the addition of PAs. Both urokinase and tissue-type PA had the ability to proteolyze IGFBP-3 and were, in contrast to the >150-kDa protease activity, inhibited by the specific PA inhibitor D-PHE-PRO-ARG chloromethyl ketone. The present data suggest that sera has the ability to proteolyze IGFBP-3, and that this ability, as demonstrated by NHS, can be regulated by protease

  5. Bioassay for follicle stimulating activity of equine gonadotropic hormone in mare serum using frozen/thawed transiently transfected reporter cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmi, F; Nicola, E; Price, C A

    2012-09-01

    The objective was to establish a cell line-based bioassay for FSH in horse serum for screening samples with high eCG bioactivity. A cell line (HEK293) was transiently cotransfected with an FSH reporter expression plasmid and a cAMP-responsive β-galactosidase reporter plasmid. Cells were bulk frozen, and thawed for assay purposes. This assay was specific for FSH, with no cross-reaction with LH or insulin-like growth factor-1. Standard curves (eCG) and serum samples from pregnant mares passed parallel line bioassay validity tests (linearity and parallelism). Estimates of bioactivity with this bioassay were highly correlated with estimates obtained with the Steelman-Pohley hCG augmentation assay. The colorimetric end point permitted the use of this assay as a rapid screen for FSH bioactivity without the need for animal use or complex cell culture facilities.

  6. RELATED CHANGES OF SERUM CYTOKINES AND MARKERS OF THE SECRETORY ACTIVITY OF THE GASTRIC MUCOSA AT ULCEROUS PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Matveeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of cytokines and pepsinogen in identifying the presence and strength of them relationship with acute gastric ulcer. ELISA method in the serum of the subjects were evaluated levels pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines and pepsinоgenes. Found a number of statistically significant, pathogenetic correla-tions that can be recommended for the combined determination of the immunodiagnostics and individual correction therapy.

  7. SGLT2 inhibitor lowers serum uric acid through alteration of uric acid transport activity in renal tubule by increased glycosuria

    OpenAIRE

    Chino, Yukihiro; Samukawa, Yoshishige; Sakai, Soichi; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-01-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been reported to lower the serum uric acid (SUA) level. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for this reduction, SUA and the urinary excretion rate of uric acid (UEUA) were analysed after the oral administration of luseogliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, to healthy subjects. After dosing, SUA decreased, and a negative correlation was observed between the SUA level and the UEUA, suggesting that SUA decreased as a result of the increase in the...

  8. Elevated Concentrations of Serum Immunoglobulin Free Light Chains in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients in Relation to Disease Activity, Inflammatory Status, B Cell Activity and Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette H Draborg

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the concentration of serum immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients and investigated its association with various disease parameters in order to evaluate the role of FLCs as a potential biomarker in SLE. Furthermore, FLCs' association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV antibodies was examined.Using a nephelometric assay, κFLC and λFLC concentrations were quantified in sera from 45 SLE patients and 40 healthy controls. SLE patients with renal insufficiency were excluded in order to preclude high concentrations of serum FLCs due to decreased clearance.Serum FLC concentrations were significantly elevated in SLE patients compared to healthy controls (p<0.0001 also after adjusting for Ig levels (p<0.0001. The concentration of serum FLCs correlated with a global disease activity (SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI score of the SLE patients (r = 0.399, p = 0.007. Furthermore, concentrations of FLCs correlated with titers of dsDNA antibodies (r = 0.383, p = 0.009, and FLC levels and SLEDAI scores correlated in the anti-dsDNA-positive SLE patients, but not in anti-dsDNA-negative SLE patients. Total immunoglobulin (IgG and IgA concentrations correlated with FLC concentrations and elevated FLC levels were additionally shown to associate with the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein and also with complement consumption determined by low C4 in SLE patients. Collectively, results indicated that elevated serum FLCs reflects increased B cell activity in relation to inflammation. SLE patients had an increased seropositivity of EBV-directed antibodies that did not associate with elevated FLC concentrations. An explanation for this could be that serum FLC concentrations reflect the current EBV activity (reactivation whereas EBV-directed antibodies reflect the extent of previous infection/reactivations.SLE patients have elevated concentrations of serum FLCs that correlate with global disease

  9. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) Suppresses the Effects of Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) on Human T Cell Activation and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Michael S.; Houtman, Jon C. D.

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a monoglyceride with well characterized anti-microbial properties. Because of these properties, GML is widely used in food, cosmetics, and personal care products and currently being tested as a therapeutic for menstrual associated toxic shock syndrome, superficial wound infections, and HIV transmission. Recently, we have described that GML potently suppresses select T cell receptor (TCR)-induced signaling events, leading to reduced human T cell effector functions. However, how soluble host factors present in the blood and at sites of infection affect GML-mediated human T cell suppression is unknown. In this study, we have characterized how human serum albumin (HSA) affects GML-induced inhibition of human T cells. We found that HSA and other serum albumins bind to 12 carbon acyl side chain of GML at low micromolar affinities and restores the TCR-induced formation of LAT, PLC-γ1, and AKT microclusters at the plasma membrane. Additionally, HSA reverses GML mediated inhibition of AKT phosphorylation and partially restores cytokine production in GML treated cells. Our data reveal that HSA, one of the most abundant proteins in the human serum and at sites of infections, potently reverses the suppression of human T cells by GML. This suggests that GML-driven human T cell suppression depends upon the local tissue environment, with albumin concentration being a major determinant of GML function. PMID:27764189

  10. Long-term study of the impact of methotrexate on serum cytokines and lymphocyte subsets in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: correlation with pharmacokinetic measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Joel M; Lawrence, David A; Hamilton, Robert; McInnes, Iain B

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe changes in immune parameters observed during long-term methotrexate (MTX) therapy in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and explore correlations with simultaneously measured MTX pharmacokinetic (PKC) parameters. Design Prospective, open-label, long-term mechanism of action study. Setting University clinic. Methods MTX was initiated at a single weekly oral dose of 7.5 mg and dose adjusted for efficacy and toxicity for the duration of the study. Standard measures of disease activity were performed at baseline and every 6–36 months. Serum cytokine measurements in blood together with lymphocyte surface immunophenotypes and stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine production were assessed at each clinical evaluation. Results Cytokine concentrations exhibited multiple significant correlations with disease activity measures over time. The strongest correlations observed were for interleukin (IL)-6 (r=0.45, p<0.0001 for swollen joints and r=0.32, p=0.002 for tender joints) and IL-8 (r=0.25, p=0.01 for swollen joints). Significant decreases from baseline were observed in serum IL-1B, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations. The most significant changes were observed for IL-6 (p<0.001). Significant increases from baseline were observed in IL-2 release from PBMCs ex vivo (p<0.01). In parallel, multiple statistically significant correlations were observed between MTX PKC measures and immune parameters. The change in swollen joint count correlated inversely with the change in area under the curve (AUC) for MTX (r=−0.63, p=0.007). Conclusions MTX therapy of patients with RA is accompanied by a variety of changes in serum cytokine expression, which in turn correlate strongly with clinical disease activity and MTX pharmacokinetics (PKCs). These data strongly support the notion that MTX mediates profound and functionally relevant effects on the immunological hierarchy in the RA lesion. PMID:27335660

  11. Soluble aggregates of the amyloid-β peptide are trapped by serum albumin to enhance amyloid-β activation of endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Velasquez Francisco J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-assembly of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. As a result, synthetic molecules capable of inhibiting Aβ self-assembly could serve as therapeutic agents and endogenous molecules that modulate Aβ self-assembly may influence disease progression. However, increasing evidence implicating a principal pathogenic role for small soluble Aβ aggregates warns that inhibition at intermediate stages of Aβ self-assembly may prove detrimental. Here, we explore the inhibition of Aβ1–40 self-assembly by serum albumin, the most abundant plasma protein, and the influence of this inhibition on Aβ1–40 activation of endothelial cells for monocyte adhesion. Results It is demonstrated that serum albumin is capable of inhibiting in a dose-dependent manner both the formation of Aβ1–40 aggregates from monomeric peptide and the ongoing growth of Aβ1–40 fibrils. Inhibition of fibrillar Aβ1–40 aggregate growth is observed at substoichiometric concentrations, suggesting that serum albumin recognizes aggregated forms of the peptide to prevent monomer addition. Inhibition of Aβ1–40 monomer aggregation is observed down to stoichiometric ratios with partial inhibition leading to an increase in the population of small soluble aggregates. Such partial inhibition of Aβ1–40 aggregation leads to an increase in the ability of resulting aggregates to activate endothelial cells for adhesion of monocytes. In contrast, Aβ1–40 activation of endothelial cells for monocyte adhesion is reduced when more complete inhibition is observed. Conclusion These results demonstrate that inhibitors of Aβ self-assembly have the potential to trap small soluble aggregates resulting in an elevation rather than a reduction of cellular responses. These findings provide further support that small soluble aggregates possess high levels of physiological activity and underscore the importance of

  12. The Paraoxonase 1 Arylesterase Activity, Total Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide and Vitamin C Levels in Maternal Serum, and Their Relation to Birth Weight of Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogarekar, Mukund Ramchandra; Dhabe, Mahendra G; Gujrathi, Chanchal C

    2016-10-01

    Aim of this study is to find out clinical relevance of estimating PON1 arylesterase activity, total oxidative stress (TOS), nitric oxide (NO), and vitamin C levels in maternal serum for prediction of birth weight of newborn. We have investigated the PON1 arylesterase activity, TOS, NO, vitamin C, total protein, and albumin levels in 56 postnatal clinic patients having newborn weighing 2500 gm. Samples were collected immediately after delivery. PON1 arylesterase activity levels show significant decrease in cases as compared to controls (93.27 ± 13.76 kU/l vs. 112.77 ± 9.42 kU/l). Nitric oxide (nitrate + nitrite) levels are also found to be significantly decreased in cases with respect to controls (22.89 ± 2.65 umol/l vs. 24.73 ± 3.80 umol/l). Total oxidative stress is significantly increased in cases than in control subjects (23.34 ± 2.64 μmol H2O2 equiv./l vs. ± 21.43 ± 2.47 μmol H2O2 equiv/l). Vitamin C levels are also significantly decreased in cases as compared to controls (1.23 ± 0.25 mg/dl vs. 1.34 ± 0.28 mg/dl). Positive correlation between neonatal birth weight and maternal serum PON1 arylesterase activity (r = 0.682, p stress (r = -0.478, p levels with increased total oxidative stress in maternal serum may be considered as the additional risk factors for the development of low birth weight newborn.

  13. Effect of excess dietary L-valine on laying hen performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Dai, L; Zou, X T

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of laying hens for an excessive L-valine (L-val) supply on laying performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 720 HyLine Brown hens were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 24 hens, from 40 to 47 weeks of age. Graded amounts of L-val were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg, respectively, in the experimental diets. 3. Supplementing the diet with L-val did not affect egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR) or egg quality. The average daily feed intake response to supplemental L-val was quadratic and was maximised at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. No differences were observed for total protein, total amino acids, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), Ca and P concentrations among the treatments. 4. Serum albumin concentration increased significantly in response to supplemental L-val and was also maximised at 2.0 g/kg. In addition, serum glucose increased quadratically to peak at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. Serum free valine increased as L-val concentration increased to 2.0 g/kg diet and then decreased linearly. 5. Supplementation of L-val did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). L-val supplementation did not affect the concentrations of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and complements (C3 and C4). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) increased significantly at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. 6. It is concluded that high concentrations of L-val are tolerated and can be successfully supplemented into diets without detrimental effects on laying performance or immune function of laying hens.

  14. Serum dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity in insulin resistant patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a novel liver disease biomarker.

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    Gábor Firneisz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a cross-sectional study we studied the fasting serum DPP-4 enzymatic activity (sDPP-4 and the insulin resistance index (HOMA2-IR in gliptin naïve patients with type 2 diabetes and in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and in healthy controls (CNTRL. METHODS AND FINDINGS: sDPP-4 was measured by kinetic assay in 39 NAFLD (F/M:19/20, mean age: 47.42 yrs and 82 type 2 diabetes (F/M:48/34, 62.8 yrs patients and 26 (F/M:14/12, 35.3 yrs controls. Definition of T2D group as patients with type 2 diabetes but without clinically obvious liver disease created non-overlapping study groups. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography and the exclusion of other etiololgy. Patients in T2D and NAFLD groups were similarly obese. 75 g CH OGTT in 39 NAFLD patients: 24-NGT, 4-IGT or IFG ("prediabetes", 11-type 2 diabetes. HOMA2-IR: CNTRL: 1.44; T2D-group: 2.62 (p = 0.046 vs CNTRL, parametric tests; NAFLD(NGTonly: 3.23 (p = 0.0013 vs CNTRL; NAFLD(IFG/IGT/type 2 diabetes: 3.82 (p<0.001 vs CNTRL, p = 0.049 vs 2TD group. sDPP-4 activity was higher in NAFLD both with NGT (mean:33.08U/L and abnormal glucose metabolism (30.38U/L than in CNTRL (25.89U/L, p<0.001 and p = 0.013 or in T2D groups (23.97U/L, p<0.001 and p = 0.004. Correlations in NAFLD among sDPP-4 and ALT: r = 0.4637,p = 0.0038 and gammaGT: r = 0.4991,p = 0.0017 and HOMA2-IR: r = 0.5295,p = 0.0026 and among HOMA2-IR and ALT: r = 0.4340,p = 0.0147 and gammaGT: r = 0.4128,p = 0.0210. CONCLUSIONS: The fasting serum DPP-4 activity was not increased in T2D provided that patients with liver disease were intentionally excluded. The high serum DPP-4 activities in NAFLD were correlated with liver tests but not with the fasting plasma glucose or HbA1C supporting that the excess is of hepatic origin and it might contribute to the speedup of metabolic deterioration. The correlation among gammaGT, ALT and serum DPP-4 activity and also between serum DPP-4 activity and HOMA2-IR in NAFLD strongly

  15. Hereditary fructose intolerance mimicking a biochemical phenotype of mucolipidosis: A review of the literature of secondary causes of lysosomal enzyme activity elevation in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carlos R; Devaney, Joseph M; Hofherr, Sean E; Pollard, Laura M; Cusmano-Ozog, Kristina

    2017-02-01

    We describe a patient with failure to thrive, hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction, and elevation of multiple plasma lysosomal enzyme activities mimicking mucolipidosis II or III, in whom a diagnosis of hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) was ultimately obtained. She presented before introduction of solid foods, given her consumption of a fructose-containing infant formula. We present the most extensive panel of lysosomal enzyme activities reported to date in a patient with HFI, and propose that multiple enzyme elevations in plasma, especially when in conjunction with a normal plasma α-mannosidase activity, should elicit a differential diagnosis of HFI. We also performed a review of the literature on the different etiologies of elevated lysosomal enzyme activities in serum or plasma. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.<