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Sample records for serum liver enzymes

  1. The effect of steroidal contraceptives on liver enzymes and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the influence of steroidal contraceptives on liver enzymes and serum total protein using 48 adult female rats in four groups -A as control and B, C and D as tests. The animals were further divided into two subgroups - treatment (A1 - D1; n=6 each) and reversal (A2 - D2; n=6 each). Groups A1&A2 ...

  2. Effects of dexamethasone on liver enzymes and some serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concomitant usage of dexamethasone and other medications may alter electrolyte metabolism and increase the formation of potentially hepatotoxic reactive metabolites which can contribute to elevated liver enzymes. The role of dexamethasone in liver functions and electrolyte metabolism during pregnancy in Yankasa ...

  3. Evaluating correlation between serum liver enzymes and toxocariasis: a case control study

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    Hosein Miladi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of toxocariasis in individuals with the normal and abnormal level of liver enzymes. Methods: In this case-control study, the serum samples were collected in the individuals referred to diagnostic laboratories of Arak in Iran. A total of 144 sera with abnormal level of liver enzymes were selected as cases and the same numbers of sera with the normal level of liver enzymes also were selected as controls. The sera were examined for anti-Toxocara IgG. Results: Twelve (4.2% sera contained anti-Toxocara antibody and all of them were in the case group. Although the mean of all liver enzymes was significantly different in the two groups (P < 0.05, statistical test showed no relationship between the level of liver enzymes and toxocariasis. Conclusions: It was concluded that the liver enzyme alteration is not the valid indicator for predicting toxocariasis. Because the kind of liver dysfunction, that is caused by the larvae of Toxocara, is unspecified, and it seems factors such as the number of larvae can play a basic role for the emergence of alterations.

  4. CHANGES IN SERUM ENZYMES LEVELS ASSOCIATED WITH LIVER FUNCTIONS IN STRESSED MARWARI GOAT

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    Kataria N.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Serum enzyme levels were determined in goats of Marwari breed belonging to farmers’ stock of arid tract of Rajasthan state, India. The animals were grouped into healthy and stressed comprising of gastrointestinal parasiticised, pneumonia affected, and drought affected. The serum enzymes determined were sorbitol dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, ornithine carbamoyl transferase, gamma-glutamayl transferase, 5’nucleotidase, glucose-6-phosphatase, arginase, and aldolase. In stressed group the mean values of all the enzymes increased significantly (p≤0.05 as compared to respective healthy mean value. All the enzymes showed highest values in the gastrointestinal parasiticised animals and least values in the animals having pneumonia. In gastrointestinal parasiticised animals maximum change was observed in G-6-Pase activity and minimum change was observed in malate dehydrogenase mean value. It was concluded that Increased activity of all the serum enzymes was due to modulation of liver functions directly or indirectly.

  5. Diagnostic performances of serum liver enzymes and cytokines in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Hakan Turkon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is affecting people worldwide with increasing prevalence. Non-invasive tests are required for both diagnosis and staging of the disease. We aimed to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of routine liver enzymes and cytokines in NAFLD. Methods:A total of 88 cases, aged between 20 and 62 years, were included in the study. Serum ALT, AST, GGT, triglyceride, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-8 were measured in 40 patients with NAFLD and in 48 healthy control patients with similar BMI and demographic characteristics. Diagnostic performances of serum biomarkers for diagnosis of NAFLD were evaluated with ROC analysis. Results:ALT and AST showed good diagnostic performance in predicting patients with NAFLD in the overall group (AUC=0.817; 95% CI[0.721-0.913], AUC=0.815;95% CI[0.718-0.911] respectively but in obese subjects ALT and AST showed poor performance (AUC=0.659;95% CI[0.478-0.841], AUC=0.680; 95% CI[0.498-0.861] respectively. Among cytokines TNF-alpha showed best performance in the diagnosis of NAFLD in both overall group and obese subjects (AUC=0.892; 95% CI[0.824- 0.959], AUC=0.858; 95% CI[0.739-0.977] respectively. The optimal cut off value for TNF-alpha was 10.65pg/ml with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 93% in the overall group. IL-6 and IL-8 showed poor performance. Conclusion: TNF-alpha may be a good parameter for predicting patients with NAFLD. J Clin Exp Invest 2015;6 (1: 16-20

  6. Serum biochemical and liver enzymes changes in dogs with single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The serum biochemical changes that occur in dogs with single and conjunct experimental infections of Trypanosoma brucei and Ancylostoma caninum were studied. Four groups (GPI, GPII, GPIII and GPIV) of five dogs each were used for this study. GPI was the uninfected control while GPII, GPIII and GPIV were infected ...

  7. Increased serum levels of hyaluronic acid in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia or hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome.

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    Osmers, R G; Schütz, E; Diedrich, F; Wehry, B; Krauss, T; Oellerich, M; Kuhn, W

    1998-02-01

    Fifteen percent of patients who later have hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome develop initially have nonspecific symptoms. Early diagnosis could ensure adequate obstetric management; however, prognostic biochemical tests are lacking. We hypothesized that elevated hyaluronic acid serum levels might be an early indicator of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome because it is known to be a sensitive marker of liver cell function. Hyaluronic acid in serum was measured in patients with normal pregnancies (n = 109) and in those patients with pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (n = 14) or hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome (n = 11). A significant increase in hyaluronic acid serum concentrations was observed in patients with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome or with preeclampsia (p hyaluronic acid serum levels in hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome correlated with the clinical severity of the individual course of disease as measured by intensive care unit time (r = 0.72; p hyaluronic acid in preeclampsia and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome are significantly elevated and might play an important diagnostic and prognostic role in patients with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome.

  8. Serum activities of liver enzymes in workers exposed to sub-TLV levels of dimethylformamide

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    Jinjiang He

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate serum activities of liver enzymes in workers exposed to sub-TLV levels of dimethylformamide (DMF. Material and Methods: Seventy-two workers and 72 healthy controls participated in the study. All subjects underwent complete physical examinations and abdominal ultrasound examination. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and c-glutamyl transpeptidase (c-GT were determined by an auto-chemistry analyzer. The data of airborne concentrations of DMF was obtained from the local Center of Disease Control and Prevention. The level of urine N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoylcysteine (AMCC was measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: Time weighted average (TWA concentration of the DMF in workplace was 18.6 (range: 9.8–36.2 mg/m3. The concentration of the AMCC in workers’ urine was 28.32 (range: 1.8–58.6 mg/l and 9 workers’ AMCC exceeded the biological exposure index (40 mg/l. Thirty-one workers reported gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, anorexia and 10 workers reported headache, dizziness and/or palpitation in the exposed group. Serum analysis revealed that both the mean of serum activities of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and c-GT and the percentage of workers with abnormal liver function were significantly higher in the exposed group as compared to the controls. Conclusions: Dimethylformamide can cause liver damage even if air concentration is in the sub-threshold limit value (sub-TLV level. The protection of skin contact against the exposure to the DMF might be a critical issue as far as the occupational health is concerned.

  9. Metabolic Syndrome and Serum Liver Enzymes Level at Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Music, Miralem; Dervisevic, Amela; Pepic, Esad; Lepara, Orhan; Fajkic, Almir; Ascic-Buturovic, Belma; Tuna, Enes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate liver function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with and without metabolic syndrome (MS) by determining serum levels of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). We also investigated correlation between levels of liver enzymes and some components of MS in both groups of patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 96 patients (age 47–83 years) with T2DM. All patients were divided according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) in two groups: 50 patients with T2 DM and MS (T2DM-MS) and 46 patients with T2DM without MS (T2DM-Non MS). The analysis included blood pressure monitoring and laboratory tests: fasting blood glucose (FBG), total lipoprotein cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), fibrinogen and liver enzymes: GGT, ALT and AST. T2DM-MS group included patients which had FBG ≥ 6,1 mmol/L, TG ≥ 1,7 mmol/L and blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm Hg. Results: T2DM-MS patients had significant higher values of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and medium arterial pressure compared to T2DM-Non MS patients. Serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and FBG were significantly higher in the T2DM-MS group compared to the T2DM-Non MS group. Serum fibrinogen level and GGT level were significantly higher in patients with T2DM-MS compared to the serum fibrinogen level and GGT level in T2DM-Non MS patients. Mean serum AST and ALT level were higher, but not significantly, in patients with T2DM and MS compared to the patients with T2DM without MS. Significant negative correlations were observed between TC and AST (r= -0,28, p<0,05), as well as between TC and ALT level (r= -0,29, p<0,05) in T2DM-MS group of patients. Conclusion: These results suggest that patients with T2DM and MS have markedly elevated liver enzymes. T2DM and MS probably play a role in

  10. Serum levels of angiotensin converting enzyme as a biomarker of liver fibrosis

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    Miranda, Aline Silva; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is classically conceived as a circulating hormonal system involved in blood pressure control and hydroelectrolyte balance. The discovery that RAS components are locally expressed in a wide range of organs and tissues, including the liver, pointed to a role for this system in the pathogenesis of several conditions including hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. It has been widely reported that the classical RAS axis composed by the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-angiotensin (Ang) II-Ang type 1 (AT1) receptor mediates pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic, and pro-fibrotic processes. On the other hand, the alternative axis comprising ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas receptor seems to play a protective role by frequently opposing Ang II action. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is one of the leading causes of liver fibrosis, accounting for the death of nearly one million people worldwide. Liver fibrosis is a key factor to determine therapeutic interventions for patients with CHB. However, the establishment of non-invasive and accurate methods to detect reversible stages of liver fibrosis is still a challenge. In an elegant study published in the 36th issue of the World Journal of Gastroenterology, Noguchi et al showed the predictive value of serum ACE levels in detecting not only advanced stages of liver fibrosis but also initial and intermediate fibrotic stages. The serum levels of ACE might represent an accurate, non-invasive, widely available, and easy method to evaluate fibrosis related to CHB. Moreover, therapies involving the inhibition of the classical RAS axis components might be promising in the control of CHB-related liver fibrosis. PMID:29358853

  11. Liver enzymes serum levels in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis: a comprehensive review

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    Luís Henrique Bezerra Cavalcanti Sette

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the literature regarding the serum levels of the enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis with and without viral hepatitis. Original articles published up to January 2013 on adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis were selected. These articles contained the words “transaminases” “aspartate aminotransferase” “alanine aminotransferase” “gamma glutamyl transferase,” “liver enzymes”, AND “dialysis” OR “hemodialysis”. A total of 823 articles were retrieved. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 49 articles were selected. The patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis had reduced serum levels of aminotransferases due to hemodilution, lower pyridoxine levels, or elevated homocysteine levels. The chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis infected with the hepatitis C virus also had lower aminotransferase levels compared with the infected patients without chronic kidney disease. This reduction is in part due to decreased viremia caused by the dialysis method, the production of a hepatocyte growth factor and endogenous interferon-α, and lymphocyte activation, which decreases viral action on hepatocytes. Few studies were retrieved on gamma-glutamyl transferase serum levels; those found reported that there were no differences between the patients with or without chronic kidney disease. The serum aminotransferase levels were lower in the patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis (with or without viral hepatitis than in the patients with normal renal function; this reduction has a multifactorial origin.

  12. Elevated Liver Enzymes

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    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  13. Investigation of the associations between low-dose serum perfluorinated chemicals and liver enzymes in US adults.

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    Lin, Chien-Yu; Lin, Lian-Yu; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Wang, Wei-Jie; Su, Yi-Ning; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2010-06-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been largely used for years in a variety of products worldwide. However, the toxic effect of PFCs on exposure to the liver in the general population has not yet been determined. In this study, 2,216 adults (18 years of age or older) were recruited in a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999-2000 and 2003-2004 to determine the relationship between serum level of PFCs and the levels of liver enzymes. The data were adjusted for all other confounding variants. After performing mathematical analysis, we determined when serum log-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increases in one unit, the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentration (U/l) increases by 1.86 units (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-2.48; P=0.005), and the serum log-gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) concentration (U/l) is 0.08 unit higher (95% CI, 0.05-0.11; P=0.019). The association between PFOA and liver enzymes was more evident in obese subjects, as well as subjects with insulin resistance and/or metabolic syndromes. When dividing the serum PFOA into quartiles in the fully adjusted models in subjects with a body mass index>or=30 kg/m2, the ALT level trend across the serum PFOA quartiles was significant (P=0.003). On the basis of these data, we conclude that a higher serum concentration of PFOA may cause liver enzymes to increase abnormally in the general population, particularly in obese individuals. Further studies are warranted to clarify the casual relationship between PFCs and these liver enzymes.

  14. Effect of parenteral serum plant sterols on liver enzymes and cholesterol metabolism in a patient with short bowel syndrome.

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    Hallikainen, Maarit; Huikko, Laura; Kontra, Kirsi; Nissinen, Markku; Piironen, Vieno; Miettinen, Tatu; Gylling, Helena

    2008-01-01

    Hepatobiliary complications are common during parenteral nutrition. Lipid moiety in commercially available solutions contains plant sterols. It is not known whether plant sterols in parenteral nutrition interfere with hepatic function in adults. We detected how different amounts of plant sterols in parenteral nutrition solution affected serum plant sterol concentrations and liver enzymes during a 1.5-year follow-up in a patient with short bowel syndrome. Serum lipid, plant sterol, and liver enzyme levels were measured regularly during the transition from Intralipid (100% soy-based intravenous fat emulsion) to ClinOleic (an olive oil-based intravenous fat emulsion with 80% olive oil, 20% soy oil and lower plant sterols); the lipid supply was also gradually increased from 20 to 35 g/d. Plant sterols in parenteral nutrition solution and serum were measured with gas-liquid chromatography. During infusion of soy-based intravenous fat emulsion (30 g/d, total plant sterols 87 mg/d), the concentrations of sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol were 4361, 1387, and 378 microg/dL, respectively, and serum liver enzyme values were >or= 2.5 times above upper limit of normal. After changing to olive oil-based intravenous fat emulsion (20-35 g/d, plant sterols 37-65 mg/d), concentrations decreased to 2148 to 2251 microg/dL for sitosterol, 569-297 microg/dL for campesterol, and 95-55 microg/dL for stigmasterol. Concomitantly, liver enzyme values decreased to 1.4 to 1.8 times above upper limit of normal at the end of follow-up. The nutrition status of the patient improved. The amount of plant sterols in lipid emulsion affects serum liver enzyme levels more than the amount of lipid.

  15. [Effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation on rat liver and blood serum enzyme activities].

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    Nersesova, L S; Petrosian, M S; Gazariants, M G; Mkrtchian, Z S; Meliksetian, G O; Pogosian, L G; Akopian, Zh I

    2014-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the rat liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase post-radiation activity levels after a total two-hour long single and fractional exposure of the animals to low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic field showed that the most sensitive enzymes to the both schedules of radiation are the liver creatine kinase, as well as the blood serum creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase. According to the comparative analysis of the dynamics of changes in the activity level of the liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, both single and fractional radiation schedules do not affect the permeability of a hepatocyte cell membrane, but rather cause changes in their energetic metabolism. The correlation analysis of the post-radiation activity level changes of the investigated enzymes did not reveal a clear relationship between them. The dynamics of post-radiation changes in the activity of investigated enzyme levels following a single and short-term fractional schedules of radiation did not differ essentially.

  16. The Effects of Short-Term Intensive Exercise on Levels of Liver Enzymes and Serum Lipids in Kick Boxing Athletes

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    Ömer Kaynar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the ef­fects of short-term intensive exercise on liver enzymes and serum lipid levels with kick boxing athletes. Methods: 23 voluntary athletes who were between the ages of 15-46 and who engaged in kick–boxing have tak­en place this study. Athletes were made to do 45 minutes of warming-up, breathing, and stretching and 50 minutes of technical and tactical practices and then they were made to do a training match, which is equal to a 2 min­utes 3 circuits (1 minute rest kick-box match. In venous blood samples which were taken from athletes before and after training, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and gamma glutamine transpeptidase (GGT, enzyme activity and total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and triglycerides serum levels were analyzed via spectropho­tometric method in Beckman Coulter AU 5800 auto ana­lyzer. Body composition measurements of athletes were made with Tanita TBF 300 brand device, which works with bio-impedance analysis (BIA system. Results: As a result of our study, statistically increases in serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT enzyme activities and in serum total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels were detected following short-term intensive exercise, but no significant difference was observed in TG levels after in­tensive exercise. Conclusion: The blows to the abdomen during kickbox­ing sports competitions result in increased liver enzymes and increased serum lipids may occur to meet energy de­mand of the body during exercise.

  17. The Effect of Chlorella vulgaris Supplementation on Liver Enzymes, Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is becoming a public health problem worldwide and using microalgae is a new approach on its treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Chlorella vulgaris supplementation on liver enzymes, serum glucose and lipid profile in patients with NAFLD. Methods: This double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 NAFLD patients from specialized clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from December 2011 to July 2012. The subjects were randomly allocated into 2 groups: 1 “intervention” (n=30 received 400 mg/day vitamin E plus four 300 mg tablets of Chlorella vulgaris and, 2 “placebo” (n=30 received 400 mg/day vitamin E and four placebo tablets per day for 8 weeks. Weight, liver enzymes and metabolic factors were assessed in fasting serum and dietary data was collected at baseline and end of the study. Results: Weight, liver enzymes, fasting blood sugar (FBS and lipid profile decreased significantly in both groups (P<0.05. The differences in weight, ALP and FBS between the two groups were statistically significant (P=0.01, P=0.04 and P=0.02, respectively. Conclusion: C. vulgaris seems to improve FBS and lipid profile and therefore could be considered as an effective complementary treatment in NAFLD.

  18. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between serum liver enzymes level and the incidence of impaired fasting glucose in males and females.

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    Qin, Guangming; Lu, Lihong; Xiao, Yufei; Zhu, Yimiao; Pan, Wensheng; Xu, Xiang; Shen, Shengrong; Das, Undurti N

    2014-07-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible correlation between levels of serum liver enzymes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in Chinese adults and to provide a new perspective for the prevention of pre-diabetes. Serum liver enzymes of the samples including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and g-glutamyl transferase (GGT), as well as plasma glucose, blood lipids, and insulin, were measured. The cumulative incidences of IFG between different quartiles of liver enzymes were compared by the chi-square test. A logistic regression model (binary regression) was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of IFG with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The total incidence of IFG was 20.3% and the cumulative incidence of IFG was higher in men compared to women. In both sexes, IFG is more prevalent in higher quartiles of liver enzymes. After adjusting for age, BMI, blood pressure, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and total cholesterol (TC), the cumulative incidences of IFG were significantly higher in the highest quartiles of liver enzymes than in the lowest quartiles. A significantly higher cumulative incidence of IFG was found in the highest GGT quartile than in the lowest quartile for woman. The results of this study suggest that serum liver enzymes are related to the risk of IFG in Chinese adults. We infer that preserving the hepatic function may be an efficient way to prevent the development of IFG, especially in males.

  19. Prevalence of abnormal serum liver enzymes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study from China.

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    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Chen, Yintao; Dong, Siyuan; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients and identify contributing risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in rural areas of China, and 1,198 type 2 diabetic patients with complete data were recruited. Elevated ALT and AST levels were defined as >40 U/L. Prevalence of abnormal liver enzymes was analyzed and multivariable analysis was used to identify independent risk factors. 10.3% and 6.1% diabetic patients had elevated ALT and elevated AST, respectively. The prevalence of elevated liver enzymes was gender-related; it was 13.8% in men and 7.5% in women for elevated ALT, and 7.4% in men and 3.1% in women for elevated AST. High triglyceride was positively associated with both elevated ALT (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.08-3.01, p = 0.024) and elevated AST (OR 2.24, 95%CI 1.08-4.65, p = 0.031), while taking anti-diabetes medicine was inversely related to both elevated ALT (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.80, p = 0.005) and elevated AST (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.17-0.82, p = 0.014). The risk of elevated ALT in diabetic patients increased with the presence of obesity (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.07-6.01, p = 0.034), and was lower in women (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.72, p = 0.003). Hypertension (OR 4.33, 95% CI 1.41-13.30, p = 0.011), current drinking status (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.21-6.96, p = 0.017) and national minority (OR 3.26, 95%CI 1.31-8.12, p = 0.011) were risk factors for elevated AST. A relatively high prevalence of abnormal serum liver enzymes in diabetic patients was demonstrated in China, especially in males. More attention should be paid to preventing liver injuries in diabetic patients.

  20. Association between hepatic steatosis and serum liver enzyme levels with atrial fibrillation in the general population: The Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP).

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    Markus, Marcello Ricardo Paulista; Meffert, Peter J; Baumeister, Sebastian Edgar; Lieb, Wolfgang; Siewert, Ulrike; Schipf, Sabine; Koch, Manja; Kors, Jan A; Felix, Stephan Burkhard; Dörr, Marcus; Targher, Giovanni; Völzke, Henry

    2016-02-01

    Hepatic steatosis (HS) affects up to 35% of adults in the general population. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent sustained arrhythmia and has a substantial impact on healthcare costs. We analyzed cross-sectional associations of HS and serum liver enzyme levels with prevalent AF in a general population sample. We analyzed data from 3090 women and men, aged 20-81 years, from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania. HS was determined by ultrasonography. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) were measured photometrically. AF was determined by automatic electrocardiographic analysis software. The prevalences of HS and AF were 30.3% and 1.49%, respectively. ALT, AST and GGT showed a positive linear association with the risk of prevalent AF, after multivariable adjustment. The adjusted odds ratios for AF per 1-standard deviation increment in log-transformed serum liver enzyme levels were 1.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16 to 2.35; p = 0.006) for ALT, 1.47 (95%CI: 1.07 to 2.02; p = 0.017) for AST and 2.17 (95%CI: 1.64 to 2.87; p < 0.001) for GGT. In contrast, ultrasonographic HS was not associated with AF. Our findings indicate that moderately elevated serum liver enzymes, but not sonographic liver hyperechogenicity, were associated with increased AF prevalence in the general adult population. The hepatic release of increased levels of serum liver enzymes might be accompanied by higher levels of pro-inflammatory, pro-coagulant and pro-fibronogenic mediators that might lead to structural and electrical remodeling of the atrium resulting in the development and persistence of AF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Artemisia dracunculus Aqueous Extract on Blood Sugar, Serum Insulin, Triglyceride and Liver Enzymes in Fructose Drinking Water Male Rats

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    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Artemisia are various groups of plants which are used as an herbal medicine in all countries; the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Artemisia dracunculus (AD leaves aqueous extract on blood sugar, serum insulin, and triglyceride and liver enzymes in Fructose Drinking water (FDW male rats. Methods At the beginning of experiment, 48 Wistar-albino male rats, weighing 200 - 250g were divided into control (C and FDW groups (n = 24. FDW group received FDW (10%, w/v for a month but control group did not receive any agents during the trial period. A half of control and FDW groups received AD L aqueous extract daily during trial period. At the end, animals were anesthetized, sacrificed and blood samples were collected from cervical vessels. Serum insulin, Blood glucose, insulin resistance index, triglyceride and liver enzymes were measured by ordinary methods. Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-17 via one way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results Our results showed that serum insulin, blood sugar, insulin resistance index, triglyceride, Aspartate amino transferase (AST and Alanine amino transferase (ALT values in FDW group significantly increased compared to C and C + E groups but these values in group FDW + E were significantly decreases compared to group FDW (P < 0.001. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that AD L aqueous extract improves blood sugar, serum insulin, insulin resistance index and liver enzymes in rat model.

  2. Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI of the liver: Correlation of relative hepatic enhancement, relative renal enhancement, and liver to kidneys enhancement ratio with serum hepatic enzyme levels and eGFR

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    Talakic, Emina; Steiner, Jürgen; Kalmar, Peter; Lutfi, Andre [Division of General Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, 8036 Graz (Austria); Quehenberger, Franz [Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 2, 8036 Graz (Austria); Reiter, Ursula; Fuchsjäger, Michael [Division of General Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, 8036 Graz (Austria); Schöllnast, Helmut, E-mail: helmut.schoellnast@medunigraz.at [Division of General Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, 8036 Graz (Austria)

    2014-04-15

    Objectives: To assess the correlation of relative hepatic enhancement (RHE), relative renal enhancement (RRE) and liver to kidneys enhancement ratio (LKR) with serum hepatic enzyme levels and eGFR in Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI of the liver and to assess threshold levels for predicting enhancement of the liver parenchyma. Methods: Data of 75 patients who underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI of the liver were collected. Images were obtained before contrast injection, during the early arterial phase, late arterial phase, venous phase, delayed phase, and hepatobiliary phase which was 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. Signal intensity of the liver and the kidneys in all phases was defined using region-of-interest measurements for relative enhancement calculation. Serum hepatic enzyme levels and eGFR were available in all patients. Spearman correlation test was used to test the correlation of RHE, RRE and LKR with serum hepatic enzyme levels and eGFR. Results: In the hepatobiliary phase all serum hepatic enzymes were significantly correlated with RHE; total bilirubin (TBIL) and cholin esterase (CHE) showed strongest correlations. TBIL and CHE were significantly correlated with RRE in the arterial phases. TBIL and CHE were significantly correlated with LKR in the arterial phase and hepatobiliary phase. eGFR showed no correlation. Conclusions: In Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI, TBIL and CHE levels may predict RHE, RRE and LKR.

  3. Independent and supra-additive effects of alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and metabolic syndrome on the elevation of serum liver enzyme levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Park

    Full Text Available We investigated the independent and combined effects of alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome on abnormal liver function, i.e., the elevation of serum liver enzyme levels. Participants of a Korean population-based prospective cohort aged ≥30 years without liver disease, diabetes, or cardiovascular diseases were included. Information on alcohol consumption, smoking status, and metabolic syndrome, defined as per the criteria of the Adult Treatment Panel III, were applied to evaluate their impact on serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome were the significant individual factors that elevated serum liver enzyme levels. Supra-additive effects of metabolic syndrome and either alcohol consumption or cigarette smoking were also identified. The combination of heavy drinking (≥24 g/day and metabolic syndrome conferred an effect that was higher than the sum of the two individual effects (Synergic Index (SI: AST, 2.37 [1.20-4.67]; GGT, 1.91 [1.17-3.13]. Only GGT level (odds ratio 6.04 [3.68-9.94], SI 2.33 [1.24-4.41] was significantly elevated when the effect of moderate drinking (20 pack years, 1.80 for ≥24 g/day and ≤20 pack years, 2.03 for ≥24 g/day and >20 pack years, while only the combined effect of drinking ≥24 g/day and smoking >20 pack years elevated the AST level (SI 4.55 [3.12-6.61]. The combined effect of cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome was not supra-additive. To prevent fatty liver disease and other related diseases, a multifactorial prevention strategy that includes limited alcohol consumption, smoking cessation and rectification of adverse metabolic profiles is required.

  4. Biochemical assessement of liver enzymes in immunocompromised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study aims at the estimation of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and glutmyltransferase GGT (Liver enzymes) in Human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) and/or Acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS) patients in parts of Edo State, Nigeria.

  5. Strong association between non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and low 25(OH vitamin D levels in an adult population with normal serum liver enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozzilli Paolo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypovitaminosis D has been recently recognized as a worldwide epidemic. Since vitamin D exerts significant metabolic activities, comprising free fatty acids (FFA flux regulation from the periphery to the liver, its deficiency may promote fat deposition into the hepatocytes. Aim of our study was to test the hypothesis of a direct association between hypovitaminosis D and the presence of NAFLD in subjects with various degree of insulin-resistance and related metabolic disorders. Methods We studied 262 consecutive subjects referred to the Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases clinics for metabolic evaluation. NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was diagnosed by upper abdomen ultrasonography, metabolic syndrome was identified according to the Third Report of National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP/ATPIII modified criteria. Insulin-resistance was evaluated by means of HOMA-IR. Fatty-Liver-Index, a recently identified correlate of NAFLD, was also estimated. Serum 25(OHvitamin D was measured by colorimetric method. Results Patients with NAFLD (n = 162,61.8% had reduced serum 25(OH vitamin D levels compared to subjects without NAFLD (14.8 ± 9.2 vs 20.5 ± 9.7 ng/ml, p Conclusions Low 25(OHvitamin D levels are associated with the presence of NAFLD independently from metabolic syndrome, diabetes and insulin-resistance profile.

  6. Serum markers of liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tougas, Gervais

    2010-01-01

    -epitopes, may be targeted for novel biochemical marker development in fibrosis. We used the recently proposed BIPED system (Burden of disease, Investigative, Prognostic, Efficacy and Diagnostic) to characterise present serological markers. METHODS: Pubmed was search for keywords; Liver fibrosis, neo......, a systematic use of the neo-epitope approach, i.e. the quantification of peptide epitopes generated from enzymatic cleavage of proteins during extracellular remodeling, may prove productive in the quest to find new markers of liver fibrosis....

  7. Analysis of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, B R

    2002-09-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) levels are influenced by genetic polymorphism. Interpretation of serum levels with the appropriate genotypic reference range improves the diagnostic sensitivity of the assay for sarcoidosis. SACE assays are performed by a large number of routine clinical laboratories. However, there is no external quality assessment (EQA) for SACE other than an informal regional scheme. This showed analytical performance of SACE assays to be poor, with a diversity of reference ranges, leading to widely disparate clinical classification of EQA samples. Genetic polymorphism combined with poor analytical performance suggest that perhaps SACE assays should revert to being the province of specialized laboratories.

  8. Correlation of Endothelin-1 Concentration and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Activity with the Staging of Liver Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kardum, Duško; Fabijanić, Damir; Lukić, Anita; Romić, Željko; Petrovečki, Mladen; Bogdanović, Zoran; Jurić, Klara; Urek-Crnčević, Marija; Banić, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Increased serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) activity and serum concentration of endothelin-1 (ET-1) were found in liver cirrhosis. We investigated a correlation between the different stages of liver fibrosis and SACE activity and serum ET-1 concentration. Seventy patients with pathohistologically established chronic liver disease were divided in three groups according to Ishak criteria for liver fibrosis: minimal fibrosis (Ishak score 0–1, n=20), medium fibrosis (Ishak sc...

  9. Serum iron parameters in liver cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, G. A.; Maail, W.

    2018-03-01

    The liver plays a fundamental role in iron homeostasis. Iron parameters change, especially ferritin, need to be evaluated in patients with liver cirrhosis. Serum ferritin could predict the prognosis of patients with decompensated cirrhosis since it reflects immunemediated and infectious stimuli. Ferritin could express the severity of liver disease and possible subsequent complications. Finally, it might reflect an iron overload condition resulting in significant morbidity and early mortality. 70 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis divided into three Child-Pugh subgroups. Serum iron parameters include serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and ferritin was measured in these groups. From these 70 patients, 30 (42.9%) with HbsAg positive, 26 (37.1%) with anti-HCV positive and 14 (20%) with both HbsAg and anti-HCV positive. Of the 70 patients, 14 (20%) had CTP Class A cirrhosis, 17 (24.3%) had CTP Class B cirrhosis, and 39 (55.7%) had CTP C cirrhosis. The median (range) value of serum iron was 36 (10-345) μg/dl, TIBC was 160 (59-520) μg/dl, Ferritin was 253.5 (8-6078) ng/ml and the transferrin saturation was 22.9 (3.65-216.98) %.We found a significant difference in serum ferritin level with CTP score. Ferritin levels increased as Child-Pugh class progressed (p<0.001).

  10. [Effect of melaxen on free radical processes intensity and some antioxidant enzymes activity in rats liver and blood serum under type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verevkin, A N; Popova, T N; Agarkov, A A; Semenikhina, A V

    2015-01-01

    The effect of melaxen on free radical processes and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been investigated. It was established that melaxen administration to diabetic rats caused a decrease of the intensity of free radical processes as evidenced a decrease of the lipid peroxidation primary products content and biochemiluminescence parameters. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes changed towards normal values. These effects were probably induced by the correction of the melatonin level at the result of the melaxen action.

  11. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of fatty liver and relations with body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Young Deog; Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kwon, K. H.; Kim, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hepatic fatty infiltration appears as an area of increased echogenicity. And many factors concerned to fatty infiltration. With 65 cases of fatty liver and 42 cases of normal group, we analyzed fatty liver with grading and attempt to find relations between grade of fatty liver and levels of body index, serum triglyceride, and serum lipid. And compared fatty liver with normal control group. Patients with fatty liver are higher percentage of supra-normal value in body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride than normal control group. As fatty infiltration progressed, serum lipid, serum trig-lyceride and body index are also increased. Conclusively ultrasonographic examination of liver with serum triglyceride, serum lipid, and body index are simple method, useful follow-up examination of fatty liver, and preventive routine check-up of chronic liver disease

  12. Inheritance patterns of enzymes and serum proteins of mallard-black duck hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R.P.; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.A.; Sulkin, S.T.; Lee, F.B.; Henny, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce hybrids of black ducks and mallards for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and serum, liver and muscle enzymes. In addition to the crosses designed to produce hybrids, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns of a hybrid with either a black duck or mallard. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished using serum proteins. However, once a hybrid was crossed back to either a mallard or black duck, only 12?23% of the progeny were distinguishable from black ducks or mallards using serum proteins and 23?39% using esterases. Muscle, serum and liver enzymes were similar between the two species.

  13. Peroxisomal enzymes in the liver of rats with experimental diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecký, L; Kupčová, V; Uhlíková, E; Mojto, V

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is relatively frequently associated with fatty liver disease. Increased oxidative stress probably plays an important role in the development of this hepatopathy. One of possible sources of reactive oxygen species in liver is peroxisomal system. There are several reports about changes of peroxisomal enzymes in experimental diabetes, mainly enzymes of fatty acid oxidation. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible changes of activities of liver peroxisomal enzymes, other than enzymes of beta-oxidation, in experimental diabetes mellitus type 2. Biochemical changes in liver of experimental animals suggest the presence of liver steatosis. The changes of serum parameters in experimental group are similar to changes in serum of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We have shown that diabetes mellitus influenced peroxisomal enzymes by the different way. Despite of well-known induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, the activities of catalase, aminoacid oxidase and NADH-cytochrome b(5) reductase were not significantly changed and the activities of glycolate oxidase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly decreased. The effect of diabetes on liver peroxisomes is probably due to the increased supply of fatty acids to liver in diabetic state and also due to increased oxidative stress. The changes of metabolic activity of peroxisomal compartment may participate on the development of diabetic hepatopathy.

  14. Haematological and serum enzymes biomarkers of heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological and serum enzymes biomarkers of heavy metals in Chrysichthys Nigrodigitatus and Cynoglossus senegalensis. ... Haematological and serum enzymes activities are predilective biomarkers for the detection and monitoring of aquatic ecosystems pollution. The inclusion of Allium sativum at 1.5g/kg is ...

  15. Association of liver enzymes and computed tomography markers of liver steatosis with familial longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Sala

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Familial longevity is marked by enhanced peripheral but not hepatic insulin sensitivity. The liver has a critical role in the pathogenesis of hepatic insulin resistance. Therefore we hypothesized that the extent of liver steatosis would be similar between offspring of long-lived siblings and control subjects. To test our hypothesis, we investigated the extent of liver steatosis in non-diabetic offspring of long-lived siblings and age-matched controls by measuring liver enzymes in plasma and liver fat by computed tomography (CT. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured nonfasting alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and Υ-glutamyl transferase (GGT in 1625 subjects (736 men, mean age 59.1 years from the Leiden Longevity Study, comprising offspring of long-lived siblings and partners thereof. In a random subgroup, fasting serum samples (n = 230 were evaluated and CT was performed (n = 268 for assessment of liver-spleen (L/S ratio and the prevalence of moderate-to-severe non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Linear mixed model analysis was performed adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, use of alcohol and hepatotoxic medication, and correlation of sibling relationship. RESULTS: Offspring of long-lived siblings had higher nonfasting ALT levels as compared to control subjects (24.3 mmol/L versus 23.2 mmol/L, p = 0.03, while AST and GGT levels were similar between the two groups. All fasting liver enzyme levels were similar between the two groups. CT L/S ratio and prevalence of moderate-to-severe NAFLD was similar between groups (1.12 vs 1.14, p = 0.25 and 8% versus 8%, p = 0.91, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Except for nonfasting levels of ALT, which were slightly higher in the offspring of long-lived siblings compared to controls, no differences were found between groups in the extent of liver steatosis, as assessed with liver biochemical tests and CT. Thus, our data indicate that the extent of liver

  16. Association of liver enzymes and computed tomography markers of liver steatosis with familial longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Michiel; Kroft, Lucia J M; Röell, Boudewijn; van der Grond, Jeroen; Slagboom, P Eline; Mooijaart, Simon P; de Roos, Albert; van Heemst, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Familial longevity is marked by enhanced peripheral but not hepatic insulin sensitivity. The liver has a critical role in the pathogenesis of hepatic insulin resistance. Therefore we hypothesized that the extent of liver steatosis would be similar between offspring of long-lived siblings and control subjects. To test our hypothesis, we investigated the extent of liver steatosis in non-diabetic offspring of long-lived siblings and age-matched controls by measuring liver enzymes in plasma and liver fat by computed tomography (CT). We measured nonfasting alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and Υ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in 1625 subjects (736 men, mean age 59.1 years) from the Leiden Longevity Study, comprising offspring of long-lived siblings and partners thereof. In a random subgroup, fasting serum samples (n = 230) were evaluated and CT was performed (n = 268) for assessment of liver-spleen (L/S) ratio and the prevalence of moderate-to-severe non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Linear mixed model analysis was performed adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, use of alcohol and hepatotoxic medication, and correlation of sibling relationship. Offspring of long-lived siblings had higher nonfasting ALT levels as compared to control subjects (24.3 mmol/L versus 23.2 mmol/L, p = 0.03), while AST and GGT levels were similar between the two groups. All fasting liver enzyme levels were similar between the two groups. CT L/S ratio and prevalence of moderate-to-severe NAFLD was similar between groups (1.12 vs 1.14, p = 0.25 and 8% versus 8%, p = 0.91, respectively). Except for nonfasting levels of ALT, which were slightly higher in the offspring of long-lived siblings compared to controls, no differences were found between groups in the extent of liver steatosis, as assessed with liver biochemical tests and CT. Thus, our data indicate that the extent of liver steatosis is similar between offspring of long-lived siblings and

  17. Defining the optimal cut-off values for liver enzymes in diagnosing blunt liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tomohide; Hamada, Hirohisa; Nishida, Masamichi; Naess, Paal A; Gaarder, Christine; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-01-25

    Patients with blunt trauma to the liver have elevated levels of liver enzymes within a short time post injury, potentially useful in screening patients for computed tomography (CT). This study was performed to define the optimal cut-off values for serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in patients with blunt liver injury diagnosed with contrast enhanced multi detector-row CT (CE-MDCT). All patients admitted from May 2006 to July 2013 to Teikyo University Hospital Trauma and Critical Care Center, and who underwent abdominal CE-MDCT within 3 h after blunt trauma, were retrospectively enrolled. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the optimal cut-off values for AST and ALT were defined, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Of a total of 676 blunt trauma patients 64 patients were diagnosed with liver injury (Group LI+) and 612 patients without liver injury (Group LI-). Group LI+ and LI- were comparable for age, Revised Trauma Score, and Probability of survival. The groups differed in Injury Severity Score [median 21 (interquartile range 9-33) vs. 17 (9-26) (p tool for CT scan in patients otherwise eligible for observation only or as a transfer criterion to a facility with CT scan capability.

  18. Serum paraoxonase-1 as biomarker for improved diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Ayman Samir; Honkawa, Kazuyuki; Fath, Eman Mohamed; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro

    2013-04-11

    Fatty liver is a major metabolic disorder in dairy cows and is believed to result in major economic losses in dairy farming due to decreased health status, reproductive performance and fertility. Currently, the definitive means for diagnosing fatty liver is determining the fat content of hepatic tissue by liver biopsy, which is an invasive and costly procedure, making it poorly suited to dairy farms. Therefore, the key aim of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1), an enzyme exclusively synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive noninvasive biomarker for diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows. A comparative cohort study using serum specimens from Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (46 healthy and 46 fatty liver cases) was conducted. Serum PON1 (paraoxonase, lactonase and arylesterase) activity and other biochemical and hematological parameters were measured. We found that serum PON1 activity was lower (Pratio (+LR), negative likelihood ratio (-LR), diagnostic odd ratio (DOR) and overall diagnostic accuracy in diagnosing fatty liver. The present results indicate that addition of serum PON1 activity measurement to the biochemical profile could improve the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows, which would have a considerable clinical impact and lead to greater profitability in the dairy industry.

  19. Evaluation of liver marker enzymes and biochemical indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver marker enzymes, total protein, amylase and glucose were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats treated with aqueous extract of Pennisetum purpureum. The liver marker enzymes evaluated were alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Sixteen wistar rats were grouped into ...

  20. Rat Liver Enzyme Release Depends on Blood Flow-Bearing Physical Forces Acting in Endothelium Glycocalyx rather than on Liver Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta A. Díaz-Juárez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have found selective elevation of serum enzyme activities in rats subjected to partial hepatectomy (PH, apparently controlled by hemodynamic flow-bearing physical forces. Here, we assess the involvement of stretch-sensitive calcium channels and calcium mobilization in isolated livers, after chemical modifications of the endothelial glycocalyx and changing perfusion directionality. Inhibiting in vivo protein synthesis, we found that liver enzyme release is influenced by de novo synthesis of endothelial glycocalyx components, and released enzymes are confined into a liver “pool.” Moreover, liver enzyme release depended on extracellular calcium entry possibly mediated by stretch-sensitive calcium channels, and this endothelial-mediated mechanotransduction in liver enzyme release was also evidenced by modifying the glycocalyx carbohydrate components, directionality of perfusing flow rate, and the participation of nitric oxide (NO and malondialdehyde (MDA, leading to modifications in the intracellular distribution of these enzymes mainly as nuclear enrichment of “mitochondrial” enzymes. In conclusion, the flow-induced shear stress may provide fine-tuned control of released hepatic enzymes through mediation by the endothelium glycocalyx, which provides evidence of a biological role of the enzyme release rather to be merely a biomarker for evaluating hepatotoxicity and liver damage, actually positively influencing progression of liver regeneration in mammals.

  1. Ethosuximide: liver enzyme induction and D-glucaric acid excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, J C; Scott, A K; Galloway, D B; Petrie, J C

    1974-06-01

    1 A study has been carried out to determine if ethosuximide induces liver enzymes. 2 Ethosuximide did not affect the urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid by healthy adult subjects nor was the mean daily D-glucaric acid excretion of three epileptic children on long term ethosuximide therapy different from that of three matched controls. 3 Ethosuximide (10 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg daily) did not influence D-glucaric acid excretion or liver microsomal protein and cytochrome P450 contents of guinea pigs but at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily in rats it increased liver microsomal protein and cytochrome P450 without altering D-glucaric acid excretion. 4 These results suggest that at anticonvulsant doses ethosuximide is unlikely to induce liver enzymes. The precise relationship between D-glucaric acid excretion and liver enzyme induction remains in doubt.

  2. Serum zinc level in patients with liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, A.A.; Devrajani, B.R.; Shaikh, K.; Shah, S.Z.A.; Devrajani, T.; Bibi, I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the serum zinc level in patients with liver cirrhosis. Methodology: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted at Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad Sindh, Pakistan. All patients above 12 years of age, of either gender and known (diagnosed) cases of liver cirrhosis were further evaluated for their serum zinc level. The data was analyzed in statistical software (SPSS) and the p value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result: One hundred twenty seven cirrhotic patients with means age 42.7559 +- 15.8894 were evaluated and assessed. The serum zinc was low in 69% patients. According to Child-Pugh classification 72% zinc deficient cirrhotic subjects were in class C, 16% in class B and 12% in class A. 94% subjects had hepatitis C virus infection, 4% had hepatitis B virus infection and 2% had history of alcoholism. Conclusion: The serum zinc level was low in patients with liver cirrhosis. (author)

  3. Analytical study of cell liver proliferation and serum AFP in various liver diseases other than hepatomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takino, T; Okuda, K; Kitamura, O; Takahashi, T; Ashihara, T [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1974-12-01

    Cell proliferative activity in the liver tissue obtained in 50 cases by liver biopsy, was analyzed using in vitro labeling of /sup 3/H-thymidine autoradiography. The proliferating cells were found to be located mainly in the periportal areas of the lobules. The mean labeling indices of the liver cells were 0.06 % in chronic hepatitis in its active form, 0.05 % in pre-cirrhosis of the liver, 0.03 % in liver cirrhosis, 0.02 % in chronic hepatitis in an inactive form and 0.018 % in acute hepatitis at the restoractive stage. The labeling indices of the liver parenchymal cells of each specimen studied were very low being at most 0.2 %. On the other hand, when the serum AFP was analyzed by radioimmunoassay technique in 185 patients with various liver diseases, level of the mean serum AFP in each group of the liver diseases was found to correspond to that of the proliferative activity of the liver cells in its respective group. From these data it was suggested that the proliferative activity of the liver cells in various liver diseases, with the exception of hepatomas, was closely related to release of AFP into the serum.

  4. The effect of aqueous extract of Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh. leaves on liver enzymes' activity, oxidative stress parameters and liver histopathology in male diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Hamzevi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Avicennia marina has antioxidant and anti-diabetic properties. This study was conducted to examine the effect of aqueous extract of A. marina on liver enzymes' activity, oxidative stress parameters and liver histopathology in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 male rats were allocated into the equal groups of control, diabetic control and experimental diabetic 1 and 2. The diabetes in diabetic control and experimental diabetic groups was induced using an intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg alloxan. The experimental diabetic groups received the aqueous extract of A. marina (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p. in alternate days for one month. Sterile distilled water was injected to the animals of control and diabetic control groups. At the end of the treatment period, serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and ALP were measured. Then, levels of SOD, GST, CAT and MDA were measured in the liver tissue. The liver sections were prepared and examined by an optical microscope. Results: Results showed that administration of the A. marina extract (100 and 300 mg/kg, ip to the diabetic rats significantly decreased the serum levels of liver enzymes and tissue level of MDA. Also, the activity of the liver tissue's antioxidant enzymes was increased (P<0.05. The A. marina extract dose-dependently decreased liver damages in diabetic rats. Conclusion: Administration of the A. marina extract improves liver tissue oxidative stress indices and decreases the serum level of liver enzymes. Also, A. marina extract improves liver tissue injuries induced by diabetes.

  5. Influence of Fasciola Hepatica on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Vascular and Biliary System of Sheep Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hodžić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity of the liver based on the activity of specific enzymes and bilirubin in serum and also to investigate the influence of mechanical and toxic effects of Fasciola hepatica on the structures of the blood vessels and biliary tract in the sheep liver.Methods: Blood samples and liver of 63 indigenous sheep of Pramenka breed, slaughtered in the period from March to December 2009 were used. Based on parasitological findings in the liver, all animals were divided into two groups: control (n=34 and infected group (n=29. For investigation and description of pathological changes in sheep liver, naturally infected with F. hepatica, corrosion cast technique was used.Results: Biochemical analysis of tested parameters showed a significant elevation (P≤0.05 of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, total bilirubin (TBIL and direct bilirubin (DBIL in infected sheep group comparing with the control group. No significant differences were observed for activity of aspartate aminotranferase (AST between groups. Vascular and biliary systems of the liver were found to be affected.Conclusion: Results of biochemical analysis are consistent with pathological findings and measuring of tested parameters could be used in early diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis and to test the effectiveness of anthelmintic therapy. Corrosion cast technique is very useful for investigation of pathological changes and neoangiogenesis of vascular and biliary system in sheep liver, caused by mechanical and toxic effects of F. hepatica.

  6. Expression of serum MMP-13, TNF-α and IL-6 in patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhengfu; Yao Dengfu; Qiu Liwei; Wu Wei; Wu Xinhua; Lu Cuihua

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To detect serum MMP-13, TNF-α and IL-6 levels of the patients with chronic hepatitis B and liver cirrhosis, and evaluate their significant changes. To explore the correlation between serum TNF-α, IL-6 and MMP-13 levels. Method: Double antibody Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA) was used to detect chronic hepatitis in 13 cases, Liver cirrhosis in 28 cases and MMP-13 in the 13 controls, TNF-α in the 20 controls and IL-6 in the 30 controls. Results: Compared with the controls and chronic hepatitis, the serum MMP-13 levels of the patients with liver cirrhosis were significantly higher; the serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels of patients with chronic hepatitis as well as liver cirrhosis were significantly higher; the serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels did not relate to serum MMP-13 in patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. Conclusions: MMP-13 has important effect on formation of liver fibrosis. TNF-α and IL-6 have little effect on expression of MMP-13 levels of the patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. (authors)

  7. High serum soluble CD30 does not predict acute rejection in liver transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinlauri, I; Höckerstedt, K; Isoniemi, H

    2006-12-01

    Increased pre- and posttransplantation values of soluble CD30 (sCD30) have been shown to be associated with acute kidney transplant rejection. We sought to study whether high sCD30 could predict rejection early after liver transplantation. The study population included 54 consecutive liver transplant patients, whose samples were collected before liver transplantation and at discharge, which was at a mean time of 3 weeks after transplantation. During the first 6 months posttransplantation, 22 patients experienced an acute rejection episode. Serum sCD30 concentrations were measured by an enzyme-linked immunoassay; changes in serum sCD30 levels posttransplantation were also expressed as relative values compared with pretransplantation results. Liver patients before transplantation displayed higher serum sCD30 values compared with healthy controls: mean values +/- SD were 93 +/- 58 IU/mL vs 17 +/- 8 IU/mL, respectively. At 3 weeks after transplantation the mean sCD30 concentration in liver transplant patients decreased to 59 +/- 42 IU/mL (P = .005). The mean pretransplantation serum sCD30 value was slightly lower among rejecting vs nonrejecting patients: 78 +/- 43 IU/mL vs 104 +/- 65 IU/mL (P = NS). Posttransplantation values in both groups decreased significantly: 47 +/- 34 IU/mL in patients with rejection (P = .014) vs 69 +/- 45 IU/mL in patients without rejection (P = .012). The relative value at 3 weeks posttransplantation decreased slightly more among patients with vs without rejection (70% vs 88%; NS). No correlation was found between serum sCD30 and anti-HLA class I antibodies or crossmatch positivity. In conclusion, neither pre- nor posttransplantation sCD30 levels were associated with acute rejection in liver transplant patients.

  8. Liver enzymes and psychological well-being response to aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Background: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a medical condition that has broad implications for a person's physical and ... Objective: The aim of this study was to detect changes in liver enzymes and psychological well-being in response to aerobic .... of mood that can be used to calculate a Total Mood.

  9. Evaluation of liver marker enzymes in diabetic subjects in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity levels of the liver marker enzymes; Aspartate and Alanine amino transferases (AST and ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) and Gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects within the ages of 25 to 86 were assayed. This study was for two weeks. The results indicated that the plasma ...

  10. Decrease in Activities of Selected Rat Liver Enzymes following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the chemical effluent from Soap and Detergent Industry on some rat liver enzymes were investigated. Chemical analyses of both the effluent and tap water which served as the control were carried out before various concentrations of the effluent (5%v/v, 25%v/v, 50%v/v and 100%v/v) were made. The effluent ...

  11. In vitro biotransformation of tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) in human liver and serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Eede, Nele, E-mail: nele.vandeneede@uantwerpen.be [Toxicological Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Antwerp (Belgium); Erratico, Claudio [Toxicological Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Antwerp (Belgium); Exarchou, Vassiliki [Natural Products & Food Research and Analysis (NatuRA), Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Antwerp (Belgium); Maho, Walid; Neels, Hugo [Toxicological Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Antwerp (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.covaci@uantwerpen.be [Toxicological Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2015-04-15

    Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is a plasticizer present in indoor dust, reaching levels of several micrograms per gram. Such levels could lead to significant daily exposure of adults and children. Currently, no toxicokinetic data are available to estimate TBOEP clearance in humans after uptake and therefore, one objective of this study was to investigate intrinsic clearance of TBOEP by human liver microsome (HLM) and serum enzymes. Another objective was to generate information to identify and prioritize several metabolites of TBOEP for investigation of human exposure by biomonitoring. 1D and 2D-NMR methodologies were successfully applied on a mixture of the metabolites to confirm the structure of 3-HO-TBOEP (bis(2-butoxyethyl) 3-hydroxyl-2-butoxyethyl phosphate) and to tentatively assign structures to 1-HO-TBOEP and 2-HO-TBOEP. HO-TBOEP isomers and bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEP), bis(2-butoxyethyl) hydroxyethyl phosphate (BBOEHEP) were further monitored by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Rates of formation of BBOEHEP and HO-TBOEP metabolites by liver enzymes were best described by the Michaelis–Menten model. Apparent K{sub m} values for BBOEHEP, 3-HO-TBOEP, and sum of 1- and 2-HO-TBOEP isomer formation were 152, 197 and 148 μM, respectively. Apparent V{sub max} values for the formation of BBOEHEP, 3-HO-TBOEP, and the sum of 1- and 2-HO-TBOEP isomers were 2560, 643, and 254 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively. No detectable formation of BBOEP occurred with liver or serum enzymes. Our findings indicate that intrinsic clearance of TBOEP is mainly catalyzed by oxidative enzymes in the liver and that its major in vitro metabolite is BBOEHEP. These findings can be applied in human biomonitoring studies and risk assessment. - Highlights: • First steps in the elucidation of TBOEP toxicokinetics • Quantification of TBOEP metabolites in human serum and liver microsomes • No detectable formation of BBOEP occurred with liver or serum

  12. Role of Liver Function Enzymes in Diagnosis of Choledocholithiasis in Biliary Colic Patients

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    Mohammad Hussein Mirshamsi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Liver functional tests due to inflammatory process which induced by cholecystitis might changed and some clinicians suggested that these changes might help us to stone prediction in common bile ducts and decrease hazards of performing ERCP and other invasive procedures. Present study was performed for assessment of role of liver functional test in diagnosis of common bile duct stone in patients with cholecystitis and help in their management. Present prospective study was performed between April 2010 and March 2011 on 350 patients who come to our hospital with cholecystitis or biliary colic diagnosis. Patients with cholesistitis diagnosis were underwent operation for removing gall bladder stone and retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP was performed for patients with suspicious to biliary colic and common bile duct (CBD stones. Ultrasonography, Aspartate Aminotransferases (AST, Alanine Aminotransferases (ALT, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP and direct and total serum bilirubin were measured for all of participated patients. Mean of AST. ALT, ALP and total and direct bilirubin were had no significant differences between two study groups. In logistic regression analysis, after entering into the model only CBD diameter (OR: 20; P=0.00 and elevated serum level of ALT (OR: 2; P=0.04 were remained into the model and were known as independent predictor of cholelithiasis. Elevated level of liver enzymes had not main role in CBD diagnosis and ERCP had no to perform for suspicious CBD stone only with elevated liver enzyme and even with normal ultrasonography findings. Endosonography as non invasive procedure recommend for patients before ERCP.

  13. Elevated serum angiotensin converting enzyme levels in metastatic ovarian dysgerminoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    A case of a 32-year-old XY genotype female is described, presenting with mediastinal and abdominal lymphadenopathy and associated with an elevated serum angiotensin I converting enzyme (SACE) level. Lymph node histology showed a malignant dysgerminoma of ovarian origin. Combined chemotherapy led to a radiological regression of the lymphadenopathy and coincided with a decrease in SACE concentration. The authors suggest that SACE may be a marker for disseminated germinoma tumours and may be useful for monitoring treatment.

  14. Serum-thyroglobulin in women with cirrhosis of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, R.; Kopp, L.; Kaffarnik, H.

    1985-01-01

    In 68 women with liver cirrhosis of different origin (alcoholic n=34, cryptogenetic n=18, post hepatitic B n=9, PBC n=5, Morbus Wilson n=2) the median concentration of serum thyroglobulin (TG) was slightly but significantly elevated (31,7 ng/ml versus 22,1 ng/ml in controls). No difference could be found between TG levels in alcoholic and non alcoholic cirrhosis. The TG-concentrations overlapped to a large extent with the data of a control group and showed no significant correlation to other parameters of thyroid function (T 4 , T 3 , TBG, T 4 /TBG-quotient, TSH). The missing correlation to the concentrations of estradiol and estrone argues against a significant influence of estrogen concentrations on TG-concentrations. The increase in serum TG was highest in the subgroup with decompensated liver cirrhosis and is possibly caused by the reduced metabolic capacity of the liver. (orig.) [de

  15. Determination of triiodothyronine in serum by enzyme- and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oellerich, M.; Haindl, H.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation of a heterogeneous enzyme immunoassay for determination of triiodothyronine in serum (Enzymun-Test T 3 , Boehringer Mannheim) is presented. The enzyme immunoassay was compared with the laboratory routine radioimmunoassay. The precision of both assays was satisfactory at triiodothyronine concentrations between 1.0 and 8.0 nmol/l (coefficients of variation from day to day 3 from 96-104% and with the radioimmunoassay from 88-111%. A comparison of the results obtained by Enzymun-Test T 3 and the radioimmunoassay in a series of 103 patients showed a good correlation between both methods. L-thyroxine did not cause a relevant cross-reaction in the enzyme immunoassay. About 20 unknown samples can be analyzed in triplicate by Enzymun-Test T 3 within 260 minutes. (orig.) [de

  16. Correlation of secretory phospholipase-A2 activity and fatty acids in cerebrospinal fluid with liver enzymes tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Ghodoosifar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim was to determine whether secretory phospholipase-A2 (sPLA2 activity and fatty acids in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are correlated with liver enzymes tests. Methods: CSF and serum samples were collected from 49 patients (age 18-65 as part of routine diagnostic testing. Along with serum liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, the fatty acid composition of CSF was measured by gas liquid chromatography. CSF enzyme activities of sPLA2 were measured using the standard assay with diheptanoyl thio-phosphatidylcholin as substrate. Results: The saturated fatty acids (SFAs including palmitic acid and stearic acid were positively, and the unsaturated fatty acids including oleic acid and linoleic acid were negatively correlated with liver enzymes tests. In regression analysis with adjustment for body mass index (BMI, the elevated liver enzymes tests were positively associated with activity of sPLA2 (β > 0.31, P 0.38, P < 0.010 and negatively with total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs (β < -0.40, P < 0.001 contents of CSF. Conclusion: CSF activity of sPLA2 and fatty acids may be linked to peripheral markers of liver function, suggesting an indirect impact of central fatty acids on hepatocytes function and metabolism.

  17. [Comparison of various noninvasive serum markers of liver fibrosis in chronic viral liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Min; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Kim, Tae Yeob; Roh, Young Wook; Eun, Chang Soo; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Han, Dong Soo; Oh, Young Ha

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical performances of noninvasive serum markers for the prediction of liver fibrosis in chronic viral liver diseases. We analyzed a total of 225 patients with chronic viral liver diseases (180 with hepatitis B virus, 43 with hepatitis C virus, and 2 with hepatitis B+C virus) who underwent a liver biopsy procedure at the Hanyang University Guri Hospital between March 2002 and February 2007. Serum was also obtained at the time of liver biopsy. Liver fibrosis was staged according to the scoring system proposed by the Korean Study Group for the Pathology of Digestive Diseases. Various noninvasive serum markers were evaluated, including the aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio (AAR), age-platelet (AP) index, AST/platelet ratio index (APRI), cirrhosis discriminant score (CDS), platelet count, hyaluronic acid (HA), and type IV collagen. There were 17, 40, 61, 74, and 33 patients at stages F0, F1, F2, F3, and F4, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracies of each marker, as determined by the area under receiver operating characteristics curves, were APRI=0.822, CDS=0.776, platelet count=0.773, AP index=0.756, HA=0.749, type IV collagen=0.718, and AAR=0.642 for predicting significant fibrosis (> or =F2); and CDS=0.835, platelet count=0.795, AP index=0.794, HA=0.766, AAR=0.711, type IV collagen=0.697, and APRI=0.691 for predicting extensive fibrosis (> or =F3). All noninvasive serum markers evaluated in this study were useful for predicting significant or extensive liver fibrosis in chronic viral liver diseases. In particular, APRI was most useful for the prediction of significant fibrosis, and CDS was most useful for the prediction of extensive fibrosis.

  18. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Portulaca Oleracea on the serum concentreation of Hepatic enzymes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zarei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Hyperlipidemia can be cause a variety of diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and fatty liver and subsequent liver enzyme increases. The Portulaca Oleracea plant has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Therefore, in this study the effect of Portulca Oleracea herb extract on serum liver enzymes including aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT or AST, alanine aminotransferase (SGPT or ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in rats were studied. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 60 Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=10. Control group with normal diet, fat diet group and other groups, the experimental group received the same diet plus fat Portulaca oleracea extract maximum dose (800, the mean dose of (400, and a minimum dose of (200 mg / kg or intraperitoneally injection (ip and sort of Atorvastatin (10 mg kg. After the end of this period (21 days, blood sampling was performed and collected data were analyzed using the t and Tukey test, and SPSS software version 11.5. Results Comparison of statistical results indicated that alanine aminotransferase (ALT and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP increase in the control group that received only fatty foods, while the experimental groups received extract of Portulaca Oleracea, and groups receiving Atorvastatin had reduced levels of liver enzymes. Conclusion: Regarding hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic antioxidant activity of the extract and its effect on reducing liver enzymes, plant extracts can be recommended to improve liver function.

  19. Serum adipokines might predict liver histology findings in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Raika; Razavizade, Mohsen; Arj, Abbas; Aarabi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-06-07

    To assess significance of serum adipokines to determine the histological severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Patients with persistent elevation in serum aminotransferase levels and well-defined characteristics of fatty liver at ultrasound were enrolled. Individuals with a history of alcohol consumption, hepatotoxic medication, viral hepatitis or known liver disease were excluded. Liver biopsy was performed to confirm non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD). The degrees of liver steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis were determined based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver activity score (NAS) by a single expert pathologist. Patients with a NAS of five or higher were considered to have steatohepatitis. Those with a NAS of two or lower were defined as simple fatty liver. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the independent association of adipokines with histological findings. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to determine cut-off values of serum adipokines to discriminate the grades of liver steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis. Fifty-four participants aged 37.02 ± 9.82 were enrolled in the study. Higher serum levels of visfatin, IL-8, TNF-α levels were associated independently with steatosis grade of more than 33% [β = 1.08 (95%CI: 1.03-1.14), 1.04 (95%CI: 1.008-1.07), 1.04 (95%CI: 1.004-1.08), P < 0.05]. Elevated serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels were associated independently with advanced lobular inflammation [β = 1.4 (95%CI: 1.09-1.8), 1.07 (95%CI: 1.003-1.15), P < 0.05]. Similarly, higher TNF-α, resistin, and hepcidin levels were associated independently with advanced fibrosis stage [β = 1.06 (95%CI: 1.002-1.12), 19.86 (95%CI: 2.79-141.19), 560.72 (95%CI: 5.98-5255.33), P < 0.05]. Serum IL-8 and TNF-α values were associated independently with the NAS score, considering a NAS score of 5 as the reference value [β = 1.05 (95%CI: 1.01-1.1), 1.13 (95%CI: 1.04-1.22), P < 0.05]. Certain adipokines may

  20. Association of serum retinoic acid with hepatic steatosis and liver injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Hongen; Wang, Jingjing; Zhou, Wenjing; Sun, Ruifang; Xia, Min

    2015-07-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), an active metabolite of vitamin A (retinol), has been implicated in the regulation of lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis in animal models. However, the relation between RA and liver histology in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unknown. This study aimed at examining the association of RA with NAFLD and NASH in Chinese subjects. Serum RA concentration was determined by ELISA in 41 control subjects, 45 patients with NAFLD, and 38 patients with NASH. The associations of RA with adiposity, serum glucose, lipid profiles, and markers of liver damage were studied. Moreover, both mRNA and protein levels of retinoic X receptor α (RXRα) in the liver were analyzed in subjects with different degrees of hepatic steatosis. Serum RA concentrations in patients with NAFLD (1.42 ± 0.47 ng/mL) and NASH (1.14 ± 0.26 ng/mL) were significantly lower than those in control subjects (2.70 ± 0.52 ng/mL) (P hepatic steatosis. Both serum RA concentrations and RXRα mRNA levels were inversely correlated with intrahepatic triglyceride content (r = -0.700, P hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01940263. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Role of serum angiotensin converting enzyme in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A H; Ghani, F; Khan, A; Khan, M A; Khurshid, M

    1998-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the role of Serum Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (SACE) as a marker in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary diseases and prognosis of sarcoidosis. A retrospective analysis of 113 medical records of patients at The Aga Khan University Hospital, with laboratory investigation for SACE was performed. Among 113 patients, 51 cases were found to have sarcoidosis, 44 of them had SACE levels greater than 52 IU/L (mean ACE 104.44). SACE levels were also found elevated in other clinical conditions like tuberculosis (mean 58.64 IU/L), but the enzyme level were less (p 0.04) than those found in sarcoidosis (mean (92.97 IU/L). SACE activity was found to be considerably lower in other chronic lung diseases such as, fibrosing alveolitis (mean 43.98 IU/L), interstitial lung disease (mean 42.11 IU/L) and chronic obstructive lung disease (mean 40.85 IU/L). Twenty patients of sarcoidosis, who received steroid treatment subsequently showed a decline in the SACE levels. SACE is a useful marker in differential diagnosis as 37.2% cases of sarcoidosis compared to only 9.09% of tuberculosis had SACE levels greater than 100 IU/L. In addition, our data also suggest that serum ACE is useful for the diagnosis as well as monitoring prognosis in sarcoidosis.

  2. Assessment of Patients with Chronic Liver Disease and Hepatic Encephalopathy using Serum Cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheid, S.A.; Alkady, M.M.; Emam, W.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by central neural depression which may develop in both acute and chronic liver diseases. Its pathogenesis is not clearly understood and its main cause(s) is not yet known. The relations between several cytokines and HE pathogenesis were evaluated in many studies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of TNF--α, IL-6 and IL-8 in the pathogenesis of HE . Furthermore, the relation between the severity of HE and the levels of these cytokines was assessted. Methods: fourty patients with liver cirrhosis [20 patients with clinical findings of HE (group 3) and 20 without any symptoms of HE (group 2)] and 20 healthy controls (group 1) were included in this study. Serum TNF--α, IL-6 and IL-8 levels of patients and control subjects were studied using competitive enzyme immunoassay method (EIA). Results: There were statistically significant difference between serum TNF--α. IL-6 and IL-8 levels of patients with liver cirrhosis and healthy subjects, and between patients with and without HE. There was a positive correlation between the severity of liver cirrhosis according to Child-Pugh classification and cytokine levels. The severity of HE (grade 1-4) was closely related with cytokine levels, especially TNF-α. On the other hand, there was no relation between cytokine levels and the etiological factors

  3. A case of moderate liver enzyme elevation after acute acetaminophen overdose despite undetectable acetaminophen level and normal initial liver enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Shiner, Drew C; Varney, Shawn M

    2014-01-01

    Liver function test (LFT) increase is an early sign of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. Typically, when an acute overdose patient is evaluated and has an initial undetectable APAP level and normal liver enzymes, the patient is not treated with N-acetylcysteine, and liver enzymes are not expected to increase later. We report a case of moderate LFT increase despite normal LFTs and an undetectable APAP level after delayed presentation of an APAP ingestion. A 22-year-old male with no medical history ingested 15-25 hydrocodone/APAP tablets (5 mg/500 mg). His suicide note and his bunkmate corroborated the overdose time. He arrived at the emergency department 16 hours after ingestion. At that time, his APAP level was enzymes were normal [aspartate transaminase (AST) 31 U/L and alanine transaminase (ALT) 34 U/L]. Twenty-nine hours after ingestion, the psychiatry team obtained LFTs (AST 45, ALT 61). He had persistent nausea and diffuse abdominal pain. On repeat analysis, the APAP level at 36 hours was found to be <10 μg/mL, AST 150, and ALT 204. After 2 more days of increasing LFTs and persistent abdominal pain and nausea, the toxicology department was consulted, the patient was transferred to the medicine department, and intravenous N-acetylcysteine was started 66 hours after ingestion. He was treated for 16 hours and had a significant decline in LFTs and symptom resolution. His prothrombin time, bilirubin, lactate, creatinine, and mental status were normal throughout the admission. Other cases of LFT increase were excluded. Our case report illustrates that a moderate increase in liver transaminase may occur despite an initial undetectable APAP level and normal transaminases after a delayed presentation. In our case, no serious clinical effects were reported.

  4. Serum adiponectin is increased in advancing liver fibrosis and declines with reduction in fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chee-Kin; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Lee, Nikki P; Chan, Weng; Yueng, Yui-Hung; Leung, Kar-Wai; Lu, Lei; Leung, Nancy; Lo, Chung-Mau; Fan, Sheung-Tat; Luk, John M; Xu, Aimin; Lam, Karen S; Kwong, Yok-Lam; Lau, George K K

    2007-08-01

    Despite the possible role of adiponectin in the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis, few data have been collected from patients in different stages of liver fibrosis. We studied the role of adiponectin in 2 chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-patient cohorts. Serum adiponectin was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One-hundred liver biopsy specimens from CHB patients with different stages of fibrosis and 38 paired liver biopsies from hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients randomized to lamivudine (n=15), pegylated interferon alfa-2a (n=15) or pegylated interferon alfa-2a plus lamivudine (n=8) therapy for 48 weeks were assessed. Serum adiponectin was detected at levels ranging over fourfold magnitude with advancing fibrosis stage and correlated positively with fibrosis stage [r=0.45, p<0.001]. CHB patients with stage 0-1 fibrosis had higher composition of high molecular weight (HMW) form of adiponectin when compared with CHB patients with liver cirrhosis [mean+/-SEM 51.2+/-2.1% vs. 40.9+/-1.7%, respectively, p=0.001]. After antiviral therapy, patients with fibrosis reduction had marked decline in serum adiponectin level and increase in HMW form of adiponectin [mean+/-SEM 43.5+/-1.2% vs. 37.0+/-3.0%, respectively, p=0.04]. Serum adiponectin may have a role in fibrosis progression in CHB infection. A marked decline in serum adiponectin after antiviral therapy is associated with fibrosis reduction.

  5. Activity of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme as a tumour marker of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardum, D; Huskic, J; Fabijanic, D; Banic, M; Buljevac, M; Kujundzic, M; Loncar, B

    1999-11-01

    Previous studies have pointed to the changes of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) values in patients with liver disease and cancer located in different sites. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in SACE values in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver cirrhosis. The study comprised 30 patients with HCC (22 men and eight women) of average age 48.6 +/- 9.0 years and 30 patients with liver cirrhosis (21 men, nine women) of average age 49.1 +/- 9.5 years. The control group consisted of 30 healthy volunteers with matching anthropometric characteristics. SACE activity was determined by a spectrophotometric method using synthetic hippuryl-glycyl-glycine as substrate. The mean SACE value was considerably lower in patients with HCC, 22.8 U/ml (95% CI, 22.5-23.9), both those in whom HCC developed in cirrhotic liver (n = 23), 23.7 (22.9-24.5) as well as those with HCC without cirrhosis (n = 7), 21.8 (21.0-22.6), with regard to patients with liver cirrhosis, 37.2 (36.6-37.8) (P SACE value was increased in accordance with the severity of the disease expressed by Child's classification; however, at each stage SACE values were considerably lower in patients with HCC in cirrhotic liver (Child A, 35.8 vs 22.1; Child B, 38.7 vs 24.2; Child C, 40.0 vs 28.3) (P SACE activity. The SACE value was also significantly decreased in patients with HCC whose AFP were not altered. The study has shown that SACE values are low in patients with advanced HCC. It may be helpful in detecting HCC in patients with cirrhosis, where it can be difficult to differentiate between small HCC tumours and regeneration nodules.

  6. Liver volume in thalassaemia major: relationship with body weight, serum ferritin, and liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan Yuleung; Law Manyee; Howard, Robert [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Li Chikong; Chik Kiwai [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Paediatrics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    It is not known whether body weight alone can adjust for the volume of liver in the calculation of the chelating dose in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients, who frequently have iron overload and hepatitis. The hypothesis is that liver volume in children and adolescents suffering from {beta}-thalassaemia major is affected by ferritin level and liver function. Thirty-five {beta}-thalassaemia major patients aged 7-18 years and 35 age- and sex-matched controls had liver volume measured by MRI. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ferritin levels were obtained in the thalassaemia major patients. Body weight explained 65 and 86% of the change in liver volume in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients and age-matched control subjects, respectively. Liver volume/kilogram body weight was significantly higher (P<0.001) in thalassaemia major patients than in control subjects. There was a significant correlation between ALT level and liver volume/kilogram body weight (r=0.55, P=0.001). Patients with elevated ALT had significantly higher liver volume/kilogram body weight (mean 42.9{+-}12 cm{sup 3}/kg) than control subjects (mean 23.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg) and patients with normal ALT levels (mean 27.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg). Body weight is the most important single factor for liver-volume changes in thalassaemia major patients, but elevated ALT also has a significant role. Direct liver volume measurement for chelation dose adjustment may be advantageous in patients with elevated ALT. (orig.)

  7. Changes in activities of adaptive liver enzymes in rats after non-lethal x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropila, M.; Ahlersova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Benova, K.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of a single dose of whole-body X-irradiation of 2.39 Gy (250 R) on the activities of selected adaptive rat liver enzymes and blood serum corticosterone concentrations was followed for a period of 28 days. Rats of Wistar strain SPF breeding (VELAZ Prague) were used. Both irradiated and control animals were fed in pairs with the same amount of feed as was consumed by irradiated animals in the pilot experiment. The feed intake of irradiated animals decreased significantly until the fourth day. During the rest of the experimental period no significant differences were recorded in feed intake between the experimental and control groups. The activity of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) in the liver of irradiated animals increased, with the exception of the initial period. Similar changes were recorded in the activity of tryptophane-2-3 dioxygenase (TO). A significant increase on the third day and a significant decrease from the seventh day after irradiation was recorded in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Similar changes were observed with alanine aminotransferase (ALT). It is necessary to stress that the activity of this enzyme decreased also on the first day after irradiation. Until the third day there was a marked increase of serum corticosterone in the irradiated animals. The results point not only towards significant changes to the parameters observed, caused by a non-lethal irradiation dose, but also towards the importance of the nutritional regime, so-called paired feeding

  8. Serum level of IL-6 in liver cirrhosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, I.; Effendi-YS, R.; Dairi, L. B.; Siregar, G. A.; Zain, L. H.

    2018-03-01

    Cytokines are polypeptides that have a wide spectrum of inflammatory, metabolic, hematopoietic and immunologic regulatory properties. The liver represents an important site of synthesis and clearance organ for several cytokines. This study aimed to evaluate serum IL-6 in liver cirrhosis with the type of underlying disease, child pugh group and various clinical and laboratory parameter. This cross-sectional study was at Adam Malik General Hospital and Pirngadi General Hospital from July - December 2016. We examine 75 patients with liver cirrhosis. The exclusion criteria were hepatoma, sepsis and renal impairment. There were 28 (37.3%), 8 (10.6%) and 39 (52%) for HBV-positive; HCV-positive and HBV- HCV negative liver cirrhosis patients, respectively were 14 (18.7 %), 15 (20 %) and 46 (61.3%) for Child- Pugh A, B and C respectively. There was no significant difference value of IL-6 between HBV positive, HCV positive, and HBV-HCV negative group (7.7/6.1/10.9). There was no significant difference value of IL-6 between child pugh A, B, and C group (4.2/11.0/7.9).

  9. Serum glucose and liver glycogen in gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlersova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Molcanova, A.

    1988-01-01

    Overnight fasted male rats of Wistar strain were irradiated with single whole-body doses of 4.78-7.17-9.57 and 14.35 Gy of gamma rays. After decapitation at intervals 1-28 d (4.78 and 7.17 Gy), 1-7 d (9.57 Gy) and 1-3 d (14.35 Gy) glucose concentration in serum and glycogen concentration in liver of irradiated and non-irradiated animals were determined. The higher was radiation dose the more expressive extent and depth of changes (hyperglycemia, accumulation of glycogen) occured. Blood glucose and liver glycogen may serve as a reliable and dose-dependent biological indicators of metabolic changes in irradiated rats. (author)

  10. Effect of Vitamin B5 on Liver Enzyme Levels in Bile Duct Ligation Cholestatic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadat Emami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Accumulation of toxic bile salts in a bile duct ligation (BDL animal model plays a pivotal role in the induction of liver fibrosis. Vitamin B5 is an essential nutrient, which acts as a cofactor in many detoxification system enzymes. In the present research, the antifibrotic effect of vitamin B5 was investigated on liver cholestasis induced by BDL in rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 72 male Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups: Control, sham-operated, vitamin B5 (5, 50, and 100mg/kg bw, BDL, and BDL+vitamin B5 (5, 50, and 100mg/kg bw. After BDL, rats were given vitamin B5 via intragastric gavage for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the experiment, blood was collected from heart and activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzymes, were measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. Results: In the BDL animals, the serum activities of AST, ALT, and ALP significantly increased (p<0.001. Treatment of BDL rats with vitamin B5 significantly attenuated these changes. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that vitamin B5 has hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects in the cholestatic liver, which is likely due to the antioxidative and free radical scavenging effects of this vitamin.

  11. Changes in Liver Function Enzymes of HIV/AIDS Patients Treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    on liver enzyme markers (Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase ... the diagnosis and advanced infection of the liver cells by HIV. ... recommended guideline for the treatment of HIV ... HIV-positive patients not on treatment and.

  12. Evaluation of pre- and posttransplantation serum interferon-gamma and soluble CD30 for predicting liver allograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K H; Oh, E-J; Jung, E-S; Park, Y-J; Choi, J Y; Kim, D-G; Lee, K Y; Kang, C S

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify whether the serum interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), a Th1 cytokine, or soluble CD30 (sCD30), a marker for activation of Th2 cytokine-producing T cells, predict acute cellular rejection episodes among liver graft patients. Pretransplant and posttransplant sera from 32 living donor liver transplant recipients obtained on days 1, 3, and 7 after surgery were tested for serum IFNgamma and sCD30 concentrations using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Recipients with an acute rejection episode (ARE) (n=14) displayed significantly higher IFNgamma concentrations pretransplant than did the patients with no ARE (n=18) (PsCD30 were not different between the non-ARE and ARE groups. However, in comparison with the non-ARE group, who showed steadily decreasing serum sCD30 levels after transplantation, 12 among the 14 patients in the ARE group showed increasing sCD30 levels from day 1 to day 3 after transplantation (PsCD30 increment during the early period after liver transplantation affects the immune response of rejection. This observation emphasizes the clinical relevance of serum sCD30, in addition to serum IFNgamma, as predictive markers for acute liver graft rejection.

  13. Correlation of endothelin-1 concentration and angiotensin-converting enzyme activity with the staging of liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardum, Dusko; Fabijanić, Damir; Lukić, Anita; Romić, Zeljko; Petrovecki, Mladen; Bogdanović, Zoran; Jurić, Klara; Urek-Crncević, Marija; Banić, Marko

    2012-06-01

    Increased serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) activity and serum concentration of endothelin-1 (ET-1) were found in liver cirrhosis. We investigated a correlation between the different stages of liver fibrosis and SACE activity and serum ET-1 concentration. Seventy patients with pathohistologically established chronic liver disease were divided in three groups according to Ishak criteria for liver fibrosis: minimal fibrosis (Ishak score 0-1, n =20), medium fibrosis (Ishak score 2-5, n=20) and cirrhosis (Ishak score 6, n=30). SACE activity and ET-1 concentration were determined using commercial ELISA kits. SACE activity and ET-1 concentrations were proportional to the severity of disease, the highest being in patients with liver cirrhosis. Maximal increase in SACE activity was found between minimal and medium fibrosis while maximal increase in ET-1 concentration was revealed between medium fibrosis and cirrhosis. The analysis of the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve for SACE activity suggested a cut-off value to separate minimal from medium fibrosis at 59.00 U/L (sensitivity 100%, specificity 64.7%). The cut-off value for serum ET-1 concentration to separate medium fibrosis from cirrhosis was 12.4 pg/mL (sensitivity 96.8%, specificity 94.4%). A positive correlation between SACE activity and ET-1 concentration was registered (Spearman's ñ = 0.438, p = 0.004). Both SACE activity and ET-1 concentration were increased in all stages of liver fibrosis. Cut-off points for SACE activity and ET-1 concentration could be a biochemical marker for the progression of fibrosis. Positive correlation between SACE activity and ET-1 concentration might indicate their interaction in the development of liver cirrhosis.

  14. Hydrolysis of pyrethroids by human and rat tissues: Examination of intestinal, liver and serum carboxylesterases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, J. Allen; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Potter, Philip M.; Ross, Matthew K.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrolytic metabolism of pyrethroid insecticides in humans is one of the major catabolic pathways that clear these compounds from the body. Rodent models are often used to determine the disposition and clearance rates of these esterified compounds. In this study the distribution and activities of esterases that catalyze pyrethroid metabolism have been investigated in vitro using several human and rat tissues, including small intestine, liver and serum. The major esterase in human intestine is carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2). We found that the pyrethroid trans-permethrin is effectively hydrolyzed by a sample of pooled human intestinal microsomes (5 individuals), while deltamethrin and bioresmethrin are not. This result correlates well with the substrate specificity of recombinant hCE2 enzyme. In contrast, a sample of pooled rat intestinal microsomes (5 animals) hydrolyze trans-permethrin 4.5-fold slower than the sample of human intestinal microsomes. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that pooled samples of cytosol from human or rat liver are ∼ 2-fold less hydrolytically active (normalized per mg protein) than the corresponding microsomal fraction toward pyrethroid substrates; however, the cytosolic fractions do have significant amounts (∼ 40%) of the total esteratic activity. Moreover, a 6-fold interindividual variation in carboxylesterase 1 protein expression in human hepatic cytosols was observed. Human serum was shown to lack pyrethroid hydrolytic activity, but rat serum has hydrolytic activity that is attributed to a single CE isozyme. We purified the serum CE enzyme to homogeneity to determine its contribution to pyrethroid metabolism in the rat. Both trans-permethrin and bioresmethrin were effectively cleaved by this serum CE, but deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, alpha-cypermethrin and cis-permethrin were slowly hydrolyzed. Lastly, two model lipase enzymes were examined for their ability to hydrolyze pyrethroids. However, no hydrolysis products could be detected

  15. Relationships among alcoholic liver disease, antioxidants, and antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Hashimoto, Naoto; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-01-07

    Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is a serious cause of liver disease worldwide. The metabolism of ethanol generates reactive oxygen species, which play a significant role in the deterioration of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Antioxidant phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, regulate the expression of ALD-associated proteins and peptides, namely, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. These plant antioxidants have electrophilic activity and may induce antioxidant enzymes via the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-NF-E2-related factor-2 pathway and antioxidant responsive elements. Furthermore, these antioxidants are reported to alleviate cell injury caused by oxidants or inflammatory cytokines. These phenomena are likely induced via the regulation of mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK) pathways by plant antioxidants, similar to preconditioning in ischemia-reperfusion models. Although the relationship between plant antioxidants and ALD has not been adequately investigated, plant antioxidants may be preventive for ALD because of their electrophilic and regulatory activities in the MAPK pathway.

  16. Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on the anthropometric variables, lipid profiles and liver enzymes in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Jafarvand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 41 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Patients in intervention group received 100 mg/day coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 for four weeks. There was a significant reduction in waist circumference and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations after CoQ10 supplementation (p<0.05. Dietary fiber was in negative correlation with change in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT concentrations (r = -410, p = 0.04, and dietary fat intake was in positive relation with serum triglyceride (r = 463, p = 0.04 and in negative relation with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (r = -533, p = 0.02 in CoQ10-treated group. CoQ10 supplement is able to reduce central obesity and improve liver function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Dietary factors were also significant determinants of change in liver-specific enzyme ALT and lipid profile in these patients. Further trials with higher dose of CoQ10 and longer treatment periods are warranted to better clarify these findings.

  17. Relationship of Liver X Receptors α and Endoglin Levels in Serum and Placenta with Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Dong, Xing; Wu, Hong-Yan; Wu, Nan; Zhang, Xue-Jun; Wang, Xin; Shang, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) and endoglin have been postulated to play roles in trophoblast invasion and lipid metabolic disturbances. However, the relationship between LXRα and endoglin levels in serum and placenta of patients with preeclampsia remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify correlations between LXRα, endoglin and preeclampsia and provide new feasible methods of clinical prediction and treatment for preeclampsia. We enrolled 45 patients with preeclampsia (24 with moderate preeclampsia and 21 with severe preeclampsia) and 15 normal pregnant women (control group) who were admitted to the Department of Obstetrics of the General Hospital of Beijing Command between October 2012 and July 2013 in this study. Serum and placental LXRα and endoglin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time quantitative PCR, tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. Serum and placental LXRα and endoglin levels were significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia than those in control group (Ppreeclampsia displayed significantly higher LXRα and endoglin levels than those with moderate preeclampsia (Ppreeclampsia were positively correlated (serum: r = 0.486, Ppreeclampsia pathogenesis and development and could be used as potential predictors for this disorder.

  18. Serum aminotransferases in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are a signature of liver metabolic perturbations at the amino acid and Krebs cycle level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookoian, Silvia; Castaño, Gustavo O; Scian, Romina; Fernández Gianotti, Tomas; Dopazo, Hernán; Rohr, Cristian; Gaj, Graciela; San Martino, Julio; Sevic, Ina; Flichman, Diego; Pirola, Carlos J

    2016-02-01

    Extensive epidemiologic studies have shown that cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with serum concentrations of liver enzymes; however, fundamental characteristics of this relation are currently unknown. We aimed to explore the role of liver aminotransferases in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and MetS. Liver gene- and protein-expression changes of aminotransferases, including their corresponding isoforms, were evaluated in a case-control study of patients with NAFLD (n = 42), which was proven through a biopsy (control subjects: n = 10). We also carried out a serum targeted metabolite profiling to the glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and Krebs cycle (n = 48) and an exploration by the next-generation sequencing of aminotransferase genes (n = 96). An in vitro study to provide a biological explanation of changes in the transcriptional level and enzymatic activity of aminotransferases was included. Fatty liver was associated with a deregulated liver expression of aminotransferases, which was unrelated to the disease severity. Metabolite profiling showed that serum aminotransferase concentrations are a signature of liver metabolic perturbations, particularly at the amino acid metabolism and Krebs cycle level. A significant and positive association between systolic hypertension and liver expression levels of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2 (GOT2) messenger RNA (Spearman R = 0.42, P = 0.03) was observed. The rs6993 located in the 3' untranslated region of the GOT2 locus was significantly associated with features of the MetS, including arterial hypertension [P = 0.028; OR: 2.285 (95% CI: 1.024, 5.09); adjusted by NAFLD severity] and plasma lipid concentrations. In the context of an abnormal hepatic triglyceride accumulation, circulating aminotransferases rise as a consequence of the need for increased reactions of transamination to cope with the liver metabolic derangement that is associated with greater gluconeogenesis and

  19. Performance and Serum Hepatic Enzymes of Hy-Line W-36 Laying Hens Intoxicated with Dietary Carbon Tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadavi A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 on post-peak performance and serum enzymes of Hy-Line W-36 laying hens from 32-36 weeks of age. The experiment was carried out with a total of 192 laying hens in a completely randomized block design. During the experiment laying hens were allocated to 4 groups consisted of T1 no CCl4 as control diet, T2, T3 and T4 control diet supplemented with 1, 3 and 5 mL CCl4/100 g diet, respectively. Each experimental group was divided into 6 blocks of 8 hens each. Egg production, cracked egg percentage and feed intake were recorded weekly. Blood samples were taken from wing veins of hens at the middle and end of the experiment to measure serum hepatic enzymes of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Data showed that in comparison with the control group, the inclusion of CCl4 to the diets had no significant effect on performance parameters. However, by increasing the level of CCl4, egg production was linearly decreased and feed intake was linearly increased (P < 0.05. The effect of CCl4 on cracked eggs was significant and this effect was linearly increased (P < 0.05. Dietary supplementation of 3 and 5 mL CCl4 elevated the serum concentration of hepatic enzymes of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, linearly (P < 0.0001. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of CCl4 has the ability to decrease the performance and egg quality. CCl4 is also a potent hepatic toxicity inducer and may damage liver hepatocytes. Therefore, the level of 3 mL CCl4 was assigned as the one had the maximum negative effect on serum hepatic enzymes concentration (maximum liver damage alongside the minimum negative effect on laying hen performance for further studies.

  20. MATERNAL HEMOLYSIS, ELEVATED LIVER-ENZYMES AND LOW PLATELETS SYNDROME - SPECIFIC PROBLEMS IN THE NEWBORN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EELTINK, CM; VANLINGEN, RA; AARNOUDSE, JG; DERKS, JB; OKKEN, A

    To evaluate the effects of maternal haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome on the fetus and neonate we retrospectively investigated the outcome of 87 pregnancies. All women showed thrombocytopenia, elevated liver enzymes and haemolysis. None of them died. Nine infants

  1. the effect of steroidal contraceptives on liver enzymes and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-31

    Oct 31, 2015 ... hypertension and venous and arterial cardiovascular complications (Gate and ... 1991) as well as blood coagulation disorders (Chadwick, et al., 2002), jaundice, deep vein thrombosis, .... milk of a population of Nigerian nursing mothers using hormonal ... Health-and- Fitness/Contraceptives-Birth-Control.

  2. Evaluation of coagulation parameters and liver enzymes among alcohol drinkers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adias TC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Teddy Charles Adias,1 Everton Egerton,2 Osaro Erhabor3 1Bayelsa College of Health Technology, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; 3Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Department of Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria Abstract: Alcohol is a major contributor to the global burden of disease, disability, and death in high, middle, and low-income countries. Harmful use of alcohol is one of the main factors contributing to premature deaths and avoidable disease burden worldwide and has a major impact on public health. The aim of this present cross-sectional study was to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on coagulation parameters and liver enzymes of subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Two hundred adults consisting of 120 alcohol dependent subjects and 80 age, gender-matched nondrinkers aged 25–65 years (mean age 45.25 ± 11.50 years were enrolled in this study. Of the 120 chronic alcohol drinkers, 37 were dependent on local dry gin, while 83 were dependent on other alcoholic beverages. The mean values of the liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase, were significantly higher (P = 0.002 and P = 0.02 respectively among the chronic alcohol consumers compared with their nondrinker counterparts. Although the value of alanine aminotransferase was higher in the chronic drinkers, it did not reveal any significant difference (P = 0.11. The coagulation parameters, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were investigated among chronic drinkers and nondrinkers. The mean value of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time was significantly higher in the chronic alcohol drinkers compared to the nondrinkers (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02 respectively. We observed a positive and significant correlation between values of liver enzymes, serum

  3. Coffee bean extracts rich and poor in kahweol both give rise to elevation of liver enzymes in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schouten Evert G

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee oil potently raises serum cholesterol levels in humans. The diterpenes cafestol and kahweol are responsible for this elevation. Coffee oil also causes elevation of liver enzyme levels in serum. It has been suggested that cafestol is mainly responsible for the effect on serum cholesterol levels and that kahweol is mainly responsible for the effect on liver enzyme levels. The objective of this study was to investigate whether coffee oil that only contains a minute amount of kahweol indeed does not cause elevation of liver enzyme levels. Methods The response of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT and aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT to Robusta coffee oil (62 mg/day cafestol, 1.6 mg/day kahweol was measured in 18 healthy volunteers. Results After nine days one subject was taken off Robusta oil treatment due to an ALAT level of 3.6 times the upper limit of normal (ULN. Another two subjects stopped treatment due to other reasons. After 16 days another two subjects were taken off Robusta oil treatment. One of those subjects had levels of 5.8 ULN for ALAT and 2.0 ULN for ASAT; the other subject had an ALAT level of 12.4 ULN and an ASAT level of 4.7 ULN. It was then decided to terminate the study. The median response of subjects to Robusta oil after 16 days was 0.27 ULN (n = 15, 25th,75th percentile: 0.09;0.53 for ALAT and 0.06 ULN (25th,75th percentile -0.06;0.22 for ASAT. Conclusions We conclude that the effect on liver enzyme levels of coffee oil containing hardly any kahweol is similar to that of coffee oil containing high amounts of kahweol. Therefore it is unlikely that kahweol is the component of coffee oil that is responsible for the effect. Furthermore, we conclude that otherwise unexplained elevation of liver enzyme levels observed in patients might be caused by a switch from consumption of filtered coffee to unfiltered coffee.

  4. Assessment of serum level cholinesterase as a biomarker of liver cirrhosis in Egyptian cirrhotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Amin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum cholinesterase levels are closely correlated with the severity of liver disease. The aim of the paper was to assess the value of serum cholinesterase in evaluating liver reserve function in cirrhotic patients. 90 patients with liver cirrhosis and thirty healthy control group were included. Liver cirrhosis patients were classified according to child score into three equal groups: Child A liver cirrhosis, Child B liver cirrhosis and Child C liver cirrhosis. Patients were subjected to clinical evaluation, laboratory analysis, abdominal U/S. Measuring serum cholinesterase, and Calculation of both Child and model of end stage liver disease (MELD scores. The level of serum cholinesterase was higher in control group than the three groups of liver cirrhosis with median (IQR 17,410 (12,111-21,774, 7528 (5200-9856, 6021 (4500-7542, 3828.5 (1541-6060, respectively P<0.001. And the level of serum cholinesterase was higher in Child A more than Child B and Child C and the level of serum cholinesterase was higher in Child B more than Child C with very strong negative correlation between serum Cholinesterase level and Child score (r=-0.9, P<0.001. Also strong negative correlation between serum Cholinesterase level and MELD score (r=- 0.85, P=0.001, and positive correlation with prothrombin concentration (r=0.554, P=0.009, and serum albumin levels (r=0.582, P=0.0002. Serum cholinesterase is a good biomarker of cirrhosis. Since it distinguishes decompensated from compensated cirrhosis well, low levels in cirrhosis may serve as a useful prognostic marker of advanced liver disease.

  5. Detection of serum leptin levels in patients with viral hepatitis and fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shuhong; Sun Bingmei; Niu Airong; Lan Cuixia

    2007-01-01

    In order to find out the correlations between serum leptin levels and viral hepatitis, the serum leptin levels in 167 patients with viral chronic hepatitis, 87 patients with fatty liver, and 80 control subjects were determined by radioimmunoassay. The liver function (ALT, AST), glucose(Glu) and total cholesterol(TC) in these patients were also measured. Compared with controls and patients with fatty liver, the levels of serum leptin in patients with viral hepatitis were significantly increased (P 0.05). The increase of serum leptin levels in the patients with viral hepatitis was correlated positively with the severity of liver inflammation. Therefore, the leptin can be regarded as an indicator to reflect the severity of liver inflammation. (authors)

  6. Serum microRNA-122 predicts survival in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Waidmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. MicroRNAs (miRs circulating in the blood are an emerging new class of biomarkers. In particular, the serum level of the liver-specific miR-122 might be a clinically useful new parameter in patients with acute or chronic liver disease. AIM: Here we investigated if the serum level of miR-122 might be a prognostic parameter in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: 107 patients with liver cirrhosis in the test cohort and 143 patients in the validation cohort were prospectively enrolled into the present study. RNA was extracted from the sera obtained at the time of study enrollment and the level of miR-122 was assessed. Serum miR-122 levels were assessed by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR and were compared to overall survival time and to different complications of liver cirrhosis. RESULTS: Serum miR-122 levels were reduced in patients with hepatic decompensation in comparison to patients with compensated liver disease. Patients with ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal syndrome had significantly lower miR-122 levels than patients without these complications. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the miR-122 serum levels were associated with survival independently from the MELD score, sex and age. CONCLUSIONS: Serum miR-122 is a new independent marker for prediction of survival of patients with liver cirrhosis.

  7. Prevalence of abnormal plasma liver enzymes in older people with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morling, J R; Strachan, M W J; Hayes, P C; Butcher, I; Frier, B M; Reynolds, R M; Price, J F

    2012-04-01

    To determine the prevalence and distribution of abnormal plasma liver enzymes in a representative sample of older adults with Type 2 diabetes. Plasma concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase were measured in a randomly selected, population-based cohort of 1066 men and women aged 60-75 years with Type 2 diabetes (the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study). Overall, 29.1% (95% CI 26.1-31.8) of patients had one or more plasma liver enzymes above the upper limit of the normal reference range. Only 10.1% of these patients had a prior history of liver disease and a further 12.4% reported alcohol intake above recommended limits. Alanine aminotransferase was the most commonly raised liver enzyme (23.1% of patients). The prevalence of abnormal liver enzymes was significantly higher in men (odds ratio 1.40, 95% CI 1.07-1.83), in the youngest 5-year age band (odds ratio 2.02, 95% CI 1.44-2.84), in patients with diabetes duration enzyme abnormality. The prevalence of elevated liver enzymes in people with Type 2 diabetes is high, with only modest variation between clinically defined patient groups. Further research is required to determine the prognostic value of raised, routinely measured liver enzymes to inform decisions on appropriate follow-up investigations. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  8. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD Enzyme Activity Assay in Fasciola spp. Para-sites and Liver Tissue Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Assady

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this comparative study was to detect superoxide dismutase (SOD activities in Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica parasites, infected and healthy liver tissues in order to determine of species effects and liver infection on SODs activity level.Methods: Fasciola spp. parasites and sheep liver tissues (healthy and infected liver tissues, 10 samples for each, were collected, homogenized and investigated for protein measurement, protein detection and SOD enzyme activity assay. Protein concentration was measured by Bradford method and SODs band protein was detected on SDS-PAGE. SODs activity was determined by iodonitrotetrazolium chloride, INT, and xanthine substrates. Independent samples t-test was conducted for analysis of SODs activities difference.Results: Protein concentration means were detected for F. hepatica 1.3 mg/ ml, F. gigantica 2.9 mg/ml, healthy liver tissue 5.5 mg/ml and infected liver tissue 1.6 mg/ml (with similar weight sample mass. Specific enzyme activities in the samples were obtained 0.58, 0.57, 0.51, 1.43 U/mg for F. hepatica, F. gigantica, healthy liver and infected liver respectively. Gel electrophoresis of Fasciola spp. and sheep liver tissue extracts revealed a band protein with MW of 60 kDa. The statistical analysis revealed significant difference between SOD activities of Fasciola species and also between SOD activity of liver tissues (P<.05.Conclusion: Fasciola species and liver infection are effective causes on SOD enzyme activity level.

  9. Serum vaspin level as a predictive indicator in the amelioration of fatty liver and metabolic disturbance in patients with severe obesity after laparoscopic vertical banded gastroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Zong-Fan; Cheng, Yun-Sheng; Jia, Ben-Li; Yu, Gang; Yin, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Yang

    2017-07-01

    This study is all about predicting the value of serum vaspin level in the amelioration of fatty liver and metabolic disturbance in patients with severe obesity after laparoscopic vertical banded gastroplasty (LVBG). A total of 164 patients (from January 2012 to May 2015) with severe obesity were chosen and performed LVBG. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect the serum vaspin level. The patients were given a biochemical automatic analyzer to measure the biochemical indicators. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) helps in the calculation of fasting insulin level (FINS) and insulin resistance (IR). The changes in fatty liver were examined by computed tomography (CT). Receiver operating characteristic curve is used to increase the predictive value of serum vaspin level in the amelioration of liver function and disturbances in the metabolism. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, serum vaspin level, and triglyceride (TG) decreased, but CT value of liver increased at 4th, 7th, and 12th month after surgery. After the 7th and 12th month period of surgery, the alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, FINS, and HOMA-IR reduced in the patients (P fatty liver and metabolic disturbance. This study proves that the serum vaspin level serves as a predictive indicator in the amelioration of fatty liver and metabolic disturbance in patients with severe obesity after LVBG.

  10. Aldolase A isoenzyme levels in serum and tissues of patients with liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaka, M.; Nagase, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Alpert, E.

    1983-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay specific for human aldolase A was used to measure human aldolase A levels in human tissue and serum of patients with various liver diseases. The method was a double-antibody technique using radio-iodinated purified aldolase A, chicken antibody to aldolase A, and rabbit antibody to chicken immunoglobulin G. Normal liver tissue contains only a small amount of aldolase A. In contrast, aldolase A predominates in liver cell carcinoma tissue. Aldolase A levels in the sera of normal subjects were 171 +/- 39 ng/ml (mean +/- 2 SD). In almost all of the nonmalignant liver diseases, the aldolase A levels remained less than 210 ng/ml. The serum aldolase A levels increased remarkable only in fulminant hepatitis. in contrast, 32 of 34 patients with liver cell carcinoma and all of 29 patients with metastatic liver carcinoma showed clearly increased serum aldolase A levels. More patients with primary liver cell carcinoma had increased serum aldolase A levels than elevations of serum alpha-fetoprotein. These results suggest that the determination of aldolase A by radioimmunoassay may be useful to differentiate malignant form nonmalignant liver diseases

  11. Measurement of peroxisomal enzyme activities in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta, using spectrophotometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende Albina D

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was aimed primarily at testing in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta spectrophotometric methods previously used to measure the activities of catalase and hydrogen peroxide producing oxidases in mammals. To evaluate the influence of temperature on the activities of those peroxisomal enzymes was the second objective. A third goal of this work was the study of enzyme distribution in crude cell fractions of brown trout liver. Results The assays revealed a linear increase in the activity of all peroxisomal enzymes as the temperature rose from 10° to 37°C. However, while the activities of hydrogen peroxide producing oxidases were strongly influenced by temperature, catalase activity was only slightly affected. A crude fraction enriched with peroxisomes was obtained by differential centrifugation of liver homogenates, and the contamination by other organelles was evaluated by the activities of marker enzymes for mitochondria (succinate dehydrogenase, lysosomes (aryl sulphatase and microsomes (NADPH cytochrome c reductase. For peroxisomal enzymes, the activities per mg of protein (specific activity in liver homogenates were strongly correlated with the activities per g of liver and with the total activities per liver. These correlations were not obtained with crude peroxisomal fractions. Conclusions The spectrophotometric protocols originally used to quantify the activity of mammalian peroxisomal enzymes can be successfully applied to the study of those enzymes in brown trout. Because the activity of all studied peroxisomal enzymes rose in a linear mode with temperature, their activities can be correctly measured between 10° and 37°C. Probably due to contamination by other organelles and losses of soluble matrix enzymes during homogenisation, enzyme activities in crude peroxisomal fractions do not correlate with the activities in liver homogenates. Thus, total homogenates will be used in future seasonal and

  12. Effect of citric acid and microbial phytase on serum enzyme activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of citric acid and microbial phytase on serum enzyme activities and plasma minerals retention in broiler chicks. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... An experiment was conducted to study the effect of microbial phytase supplementation and citric acid in broiler chicks fed corn-soybean meal base diets on enzyme ...

  13. Everolimus immunosuppression reduces the serum expression of fibrosis markers in liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Yunquera, Ainhoa; Ripoll, Cristina; Bañares, Rafael; Puerto, Marta; Rincón, Diego; Yepes, Ismael; Catalina, Vega; Salcedo, Magdalena

    2014-06-24

    To evaluate the expression of serum fibrosis markers in liver transplantation (LT) recipients on everolimus monotherapy compared to patients on an anti-calcineurin regimen. This cross-sectional case-control study included LT patients on everolimus monotherapy (cases) (E) (n = 30) and matched controls on an anti-calcineurin regimen (calcineurin inhibitors, CNI), paired by etiology of liver disease and time since LT (n = 30). Clinical characteristics, blood tests and elastography were collected. Serum levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), angiopoietin-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), platelet derived growth factor, amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), hyaluronic acid (HA), VCM-1 (ng/mL), interleukin (IL)-10, interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) (pg/mL) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of these markers between E and CNI was compared. Stratified analysis was done according to factors that may influence liver fibrosis. Variables are described with medians (interquartillic range) or percentages. A total of 60 patients [age: 59 (49-64), hepatitis C virus (HCV): n = 21 (35%), time from LT: 73 mo (16-105)] were included. Patients had been on everolimus for a median of 15 mo. No differences in inflammatory activity, APRI test or liver elastography were found between the groups. No significant differences were observed between the groups in serum levels of PIIINP, metalloproteinase type = 1, angiopoietin, HGF, IP-10, TNF-α, IL-10 and vascular cell adhesion molecule. Patients on E had a lower expression of TGF-β [E: 12.7 (3.7-133.6), CNI: 152.5 (14.4-333.2), P = 0.009] and HA [E: 702.89 (329.4-838.2), CNI: 1513.6 (691.9-1951.4), P = 0.001] than those on CNI. This difference was maintained in the stratified analysis when recipient age is more than 50 years (TFG-β1: P = 0.06; HA: P = 0.005), in patients without active neoplasia (TFG-β1

  14. ENZYME MARKERS ACTIVITY AND BILE FORMATION FUNCTION OF LIVER IN CASES OF TUBERCULOSTATICS AND HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS AFFECTION IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Burmas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Currently, the growing incidence of toxic lesions of the liver is associated with industrial chemicalization and uncontrolled use of hepatotoxic drugs in everyday life. There are about one thousand drugs with high or low hepatotoxicity, such as anti-TB drugs. Objective. In this research we studied the intracellular enzymes activity and bile formation function of the liver in rats of different ages in cases of tuberculostatic (isoniazid and rifampicin affection and chromium (potassium dichromate intoxication. Methods. The experimental affection of rats of different ages was performed by combined injection of hexavalent chromium compounds (a solution of potassium dichromate, 3 mg/kg, isoniazid (0.05 g/kg and rifampicin (0.25 g/kg. On the 7th and 14th days the rats were injected with enterosorbent Sorbex (150 mg/kg. Enzyme markers activity of the liver was evaluated due to alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP rates. Bile formation function of the liver was evaluated by total bilirubin and bile acids content in blood. Results. The disorders in hepatocytes plasma membranes permeability were defined by the increased rates of ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase in blood serum which were decreased in the liver. It was determined that total bilirubin and bile acids content in blood serum of the affected animals increased. It influenced hepatocytes excretion in bile capillaries and caused cholestasis and revenues decrease in bile. Conclusions. The most significant metabolic disorders in cases of chrome-isoniazid-rifampicin affection were defined in immature and senior animals in comparison with mature animals.

  15. Liver enzymes in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Ramos de Oliveira Liberato

    2012-01-01

    hemodialysis session were significantly higher than the samples collected before the session. Taken together, the present data suggest that hemodilution could alter the serum levels of liver enzymes.

  16. High prevalence of abnormal liver enzymes in South African patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of liver function test abnormalities in South African black and Indian adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending a tertiary diabetes clinic. iabetes clinic. Recorded data included the past medical and drug history, history of alcohol abuse, anthropometry, lipid profile and liver ...

  17. Evaluation Of Antibody Elisa, Coproscopy And Serum Enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le titrage avec immunoadsorbant lié à une enzyme (ELISA), la sédimentation fécale et les tests de l'action de l'enzyme du sérum ont été faits sur des échantillons de fèces et de sérum recueillis de 134 bovins (55 positifs et 79 négatifs pour les lésions dues à la douve du foie) lors de l'inspection de viande en Ethiopie.

  18. Effect of bilirubin on the spectrophotometric and radionuclide assay for serum angiotensin-converting enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxe, A.W.; Hollinger, M.A.; Essam, T.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of bilirubin on serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was studied with spectrophotometric and radionuclide assays. In the spectrophotometric assay addition of bilirubin to normal serum from dog, mouse, and human produced a dose-related inhibition of ACE activity. A 50% decrease in human ACE activity was produced by the addition of approximately 250 mg/L in vitro. Serum from icteric patients with elevated bilirubin was also associated with a reduction in ACE activity in the spectrophotometric assay. A 50% decrease in ACE activity in these samples was associated with a serum bilirubin of approximately 220 mg/L. In the radionuclide assay, however, addition of bilirubin to normal human serum failed to reduce measured ACE activity. The use of a radionuclide assay for serum ACE in clinical samples offers the advantage of less interference from serum bilirubin

  19. Serum protein and enzyme levels in rats following administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of caffeinated and non-caffeinated paracetamol administration, with or without vitamins A and E supplementation on the protein and enzyme levels in Wistar albino rats were investigated using cafeinated paracetamol and paracetamol as caffeinated and non-caffeinated paracetamol respectively, and water ...

  20. Effects of enzyme additive on haematological and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (ROXAZYME G®) on blood parameters of calves fed fresh grass and grass hay-based diets. Chemical composition of concentrate, fresh grass and grass-hay were determined. Sixteen crossbred (N'dama × Muturu) calves were subjected to ...

  1. Serum Progranulin as an Independent Marker of Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Biopsy-Proven Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Yusuf; Eren, Fatih; Yonal, Oya; Polat, Zulfikar; Bacha, Mohammad; Kurt, Ramazan; Ozturk, Oguzhan; Avsar, Erol

    2011-01-01

    Background: Elevated progranulin levels are associated with visceral obesity, elevated plasma glucose, and dyslipidemia. Progranulin has not been previously investigated as a biomarker of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We sought to determine whether serum progranulin levels are altered in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and if they are associated with their clinical, biochemical, and histological characteristics. Subjects and methods: We measured serum progranulin levels in 95 pa...

  2. Biochemical Changes in the Serum and Liver of albino rats exposed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical changes in the serum and liver of albino rats chronically exposed to rats administered 5gk-1 , 7.5gk-1 and 15gk-1 of gasoline , kerosine and crude petroleum(bonny light) respectively were studied. The petroleum samples were administered intraperitoneally and the biochemical changes in the rat serum and the ...

  3. Influence of Thyroxine on Blood Parameters and Liver Enzymes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    control group of twelve adult rats (six females and six males) received feed and water ... energy expenditure through actions on protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. With specific regard to liver lipid metabolism, thyroid hormones.

  4. Relation of Serum Alkaline Phosphatase to liver scintigram in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, H; Harada, T; Nawata, J; Hayakawa, M; Nishioka, M; Takemoto, T; Yokoyama, T; Takahashi, M

    1982-12-01

    Serum Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) was studied in relation to liver scintigrams of 54 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The ALP activity was higher with larger tumors and in multiple tumors. Within the single tumor group, the activity was higher when the tumor was located in the hilum than in the periphery. The incidence of ALP-1 isoenzyme (bile ALP) roughly paralleled the total ALP activity. These results suggest that the variation of serum ALP seen in each individual patients with hepatocellular carcinoma reflects the volume of cholestatic liver tissue, which is changed by the number, size and localization of the tumor nodules in the liver.

  5. ROLE OF LEPTIN ON CYTOCHROME P-450 AND SOME LIVER MICROSOMAL ENZYMES ACTIVITIES IN THE OBESE AND LEAN MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEBEISHY, M.I.A.; MAZEN, G.M.A.; SHAHIN, M.I

    2008-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone that is secreted by adipocytes and regulates body weight through its effect on satiety and energy metabolism. The obese mouse is deficient in this protein and is characterized by obesity and other metabolic disorders. This study investigated the alterations of several hepatic cytochrome P 4 -5 0 (CYP), conjugation and antioxidant enzymes in lean and obese mice and the role of leptin in the modulation of these enzymes. Lean and obese male mice were injected with leptin (100 μg / rat) for 15 days. The obtained results revealed that administration of leptin to lean mice caused a significant elevation in the level of blood glucose, serum insulin, 6α, 6β, 16α- hydroxylation of testosterone, the activity of CYP 1 A 1 , CYP 4 A and GSH reductase in liver microsomes while serum corticosterone and the activity of total GSH were significantly decreased when compared to lean control mice. Moreover, obese mice treated with leptin recorded significant reduction in body weight, blood glucose concentration, serum levels of insulin and corticosterone, 7α and 16α- hydroxylation of testosterone, the activity of CYP 1A 1, CYP 2 B 1 and CYP 4 A and GST in liver microsomes. On the other hand, 6α, 6β-hydroxylation of testosterone, the activity of CYP 2 E 1 and GSH reductase in liver microsome were significantly increased when compared to obese control mice. The mechanism for the observed alterations may be due to direct leptin effects or via indirect alterations in insulin, corticosterone and/or growth hormone

  6. Serum γ-glutamyl transferase levels, insulin resistance and liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Petta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Serum levels of γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase(γ-GT were associated with liver disease severity and metabolic alterations, which in turn are able to affect hepatic damage. In patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C (G1CHC and chronic hepatitis B (CHB, we assessed the link between liver fibrosis and γ-GT serum levels, and we evaluated if normal or high γ-GT serum levels affect the association between insulin resistance (IR and severity of liver fibrosis. METHODS: 843 consecutive patients with chronic liver disease (CLD(193 NAFLD, 481 G1CHC, 169 CHB were evaluated by liver biopsy (Kleiner and Scheuer scores and clinical and metabolic measurements. IR was diagnosed if HOMA>3. A serum γ-GT concentration of >36 IU/L in females and >61 IU/L in males was considered the threshold value for identifying high levels of γ-GT. RESULTS: By multivariate logistic regression analysis, abnormal γ-GT serum levels were independently linked to severe liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD (OR2.711,CI1.120-6.564,p = 0.02, G1CHC (OR3.461,CI2.138-5.603,p80%. Interestingly, among patients with high or normal γ-GT values, even if IR prevalence was significantly higher in patients with severe fibrosis compared to those without, IR remained significantly associated with severe fibrosis in patients with abnormal γ-GT values only (OR4.150,CI1.079-15.970,p = 0.03 for NAFLD; OR2.250,CI1.211-4.181,p = 0.01 for G1CHC; OR3.096,CI2.050-34.220,p = 0.01 for CHB. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CLD, IR is independently linked to liver fibrosis only in patients with abnormal γ-GT values, without differences according to liver disease etiology, and suggesting a role of γ-GT as a marker of metabolic-induced liver damage. These data could be useful for the clinical and pharmacologic management of patients with CLD.

  7. Comparing Effects of Medication Therapy and Exercise Training with Diet on Liver enzyme Levels and Liver Sonography in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Nabizadeh Haghighi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by the deposition of fat in liver cells, can cause fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cell damage if not controlled. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of medication therapy and exercise training with diet on liver enzyme levels and liver sonography in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Materials & Methods :In this quasi-experimental study, female patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver were randomly divided into two groups: medication therapy (n = 10 and exercise therapy (n = 10 for 8 weeks. During this period, the exercise group performed exercise training three days a week for 90 minutes per session. The drug was given to the medication group. In both groups, the diet was 500 calories less than their daily energy. Before and after intervention, blood tests and liver sonography were executed. All statistical analyses were done using SPSS for Windows version 20. Comparisons between and within groups were performed by Student's t-test and Wilcoxon test on paired and unpaired data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results :In both groups, liver enzyme levels and disease severity in sonography reduced significantly (p<0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present research showed that both methods of therapy have the same effect on reducing the severity of NAFLD.

  8. Elevated liver enzymes in women with a family history of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Miyoshi, Yuji; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2008-03-01

    Both elevated liver enzymes and a family history of diabetes mellitus (FHDM) are independent risk factors for type 2 diabetes. This study evaluates the epidemiological association between elevated liver enzymes and FHDM. Subjects included 3512 women workers without diabetes, hepatitis, a smoking habit, or a history of alcohol intake. Blood samples and personal data were collected from all subjects. Subjects with FHDM had a higher mean body mass index (BMI: 23.9kg/m(2) vs. 23.4kg/m(2); p=0.003). Laboratory testing also revealed higher mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG: 5.67mmol/L vs. 5.22mmol/L; penzymes were associated with FHDM. In particular, elevated GGT was related to FHDM, independent of the other variables. Elevated liver enzymes, probably due to fat deposition in the liver, may play a role in increasing the risk of diabetes in individuals with FHDM.

  9. Reactivation in vitro of zinc-requiring apo-enzymes by rat liver zinc-thionein

    OpenAIRE

    Udom, Albert O.; Brady, Frank O.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of rat liver zinc-thionein to donate its metal to the apo-enzymes of the zinc enzymes horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase, yeast aldolase, thermolysin, Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase and bovine erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase was investigated. Zinc-thionein was as good as, or better than, ZnSO4, Zn(CH3CO2)2 or Zn(NO3)2 in donating its zinc to these apo-enzymes. Apo-(alcohol dehydrogenase) could not be reactivated by zinc salts or by zinc-thionein. Incubation of the other apo-e...

  10. Protection from radiation induced changes in liver and serum transaminase of whole body gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkashef, H.S.; Roushdy, H.M.; Saada, H.N.; Abdelsamie, M.

    1986-01-01

    Whole body gamma irradiation of rats with a dose of 5.5 Gy induced significant changes in the activity of liver and serum transaminase. The results indicated that this radiation dose caused a significant increase in the activity of serum Got and GPT on the third and seventh days after irradiation. This was followed by significant decreases on the fourteenth post-irradiation day. The activity of Got returned to is control activity, while the activity of GPT was significantly above the control on the twenty ones post-irradiation day. The activity of Got, in the liver of irradiated rats was elevated during the post-irradiation days, but on the twenty one day activity was about the normal value. The activity of liver GPT firstly decreased and then increased very much but attained the control level on the fourteenth after irradiation. The intraperitoneal injection of testosterone-vitamin E mixture 10 days before whole body gamma irradiation caused complete recovery for the activity of liver and serum Got. No indication of remarkable recovery in the case of GPT activity was recorded either in liver or in serum of irradiated rats. The applied mixture could protect against radiation induced changes in Got activity of liver and serum but could not protect or ameliorate the changes which occurred in the activity of GPT of the two tissues. 2 tab

  11. Serum Progranulin as an Independent Marker of Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Biopsy-Proven Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Yilmaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevated progranulin levels are associated with visceral obesity, elevated plasma glucose, and dyslipidemia. Progranulin has not been previously investigated as a biomarker of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. We sought to determine whether serum progranulin levels are altered in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and if they are associated with their clinical, biochemical, and histological characteristics.

  12. Serum Leptin Levels in Post-Hepatitis Band C Liver Cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosseir, N.M.; Abdel-Messeih, Ph.L.; Ismael, N.E.R.

    2010-01-01

    A healthy liver is able to regenerate most of its own cells when they become damaged, with the end stage cirrhosis the liver no longer replace damaged cells. Leptin is a hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and expenditure including appetite and metabolism. This study was done to investigate serum Leptin level in liver cirrhosis (post hepatitis B and post-hepatitis C cirrhosis), as well as to determine its level in relation to liver functions in cirrhotic patients. In this study, serum Leptin level was significantly lower in post-hepatitis B cirrhosis than controls and insignificant changes were observed in patients with post-hepatitis C cirrhosis. Also a significant reduction in leptin level was observed as liver functions worsen as indicated by albumin decrease.

  13. Liver lipase and high-density lipoprotein. Lipoprotein changes after incubation of human serum with rat liver lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, P H; Scheek, L M; Jansen, H

    1983-05-16

    Human sera were incubated with rat liver lipase after inactivation of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, and the changes in serum lipoprotein composition were measured. In the presence of liver lipase serum triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine were hydrolyzed. The main changes in the concentrations of these lipids were found in the high-density lipoprotein fraction. Subfractionation of high-density lipoprotein by rate-zonal ultracentrifugation showed a prominent decrease in all constituents of high-density lipoprotein2, a smaller decrease in the 'light' high-density lipoprotein3 and an increase in the 'heavy' high-density lipoprotein3. These data support a concept in which liver lipase is involved in high-density lipoprotein2 phospholipid and triacylglycerol catabolism and suggest that as a result of this action high-density lipoprotein2 is converted into high-density lipoprotein3.

  14. Study of vitamin D serum level in patients with epilepsy treated with enzyme-inducing and non enzyme-inducing medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sima Hashemipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Changes of serum minerals and vitamin D have been reported in anticonvulsant drugs user patients. The present study aimed at comparing the changes of serum minerals and vitamin D among two groups of enzyme-inducing and non enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant drug users. Methods: In this study 22 patients treated with enzyme-inducing drugs (carbamazepin, phenytoin, phenobarbital were compared to 25 patients of matched sex, age, and BMI treated with non enzyme-inducing drugs (sodium evaporate, lamotrigine. Serum calcium, phosphate, parathormone, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D were calculated in both groups. Calcium was measured by Calorimetery method. Parathormone and vitamin D were measured using ELISA method. Results: The mean serum vitamin D level was lower in enzyme-inducing than non enzyme-inducing drugs users (15.9±8.3 and 24.2±14.8, P=0.02. Frequency of vitamin D deficiency was higher in enzyme-inducing compared to non enzyme-inducing drugs users, 84% and 48% , respectively (P=0.016. The mean serum calcium level was significantly lower in enzyme-inducing drugs users. (8.7±0.2 vs. 9.0± 0.7, p= 0.05. Four percent in enzyme-inducing group compared to twenty four percent of non enzyme-inducing group had secondary hyperparathyroidism (P=0.016. Conclusion: While vitamin D deficiency is more frequent in enzyme-inducing drug users, secondary hyperparathyroidism is less frequent.

  15. The value of peri-interventional procedure serum bile acid (TBA) detection in patients with primary liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Chen; Liu Yizhi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of peri-interventional procedure serum bile acid (TBA) detection in patients with primary liver cancer. Methods: The serum TBA was examined peri-operatively in 160 patients with primary liver cancer for testing the correlations between TBA, liver function, the degree of hepatocirrhosis, interventional therapy method and hepatic failure. Results: The preoperative mean value of serum TBA increased significantly in comparing with that of the control group (P<0.01). The preoperative value of serum TBA in different Child grading patients with primary liver cancer were different significantly (P<0.01), Child A< Child B< Child C, the increased degree of serum TBA corresponded with Child grading of the liver function and the cirrhotic degree of liver. In patients with liver function of Child B and C, the postoperative mean values of serum TBA in different interventional therapy methods were different significantly (P<0.01). Comparing with that of the patients without hepatic failure, the postoperative value of serum TBA in the patients with hepatic failure increased significantly (P<0.01). Conclusions: The value of serum TBA can sensitively and accurately reflect liver reserve ability and damage degree of peri-interventional procedure liver function. Hepatic failure can be detected in time and the prognosis of the patients with primary liver cancer can be predicted by testing the value of serum TBA continually. (authors)

  16. Relationship between changed alveolar-capillary permeability and angiotensin converting enzyme activity in serum in sarcoidosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, A; Blaschke, E

    1986-01-01

    The effect of altered alveolar-capillary permeability on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in serum (SACE) was studied in 45 patients with sarcoidosis and 21 healthy controls. In sarcoidosis increased albumin concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (L albumin) and increased ratios of L albumin to albumin in serum (S albumin) indicated an increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary membrane. ACE activity in the lavage fluid (LACE) was correlated with the number of al...

  17. Acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes after concurrent abuse of alcohol and cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hosseinnezhad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine has been associated with known adverse effects on cardiac, cerebrovascular and pulmonary systems. However, the effect of cocaine on other organs has not been extensively reported. A middle age man presented with abdominal pain and nausea after inhalation of crack cocaine. On admission, he was found to be hypertensive and tachycardic. Physical examination revealed mild abdominal tenderness without rebound. Laboratory investigations were significant for acute kidney failure with elevated serum creatinine (3.72 mg/dL, thrombocytopenia (platelet count 74,000/UL, elevated alanine and aspartate transaminases (ALT 331 U/L; AST 462 U/L and elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK 5885 U/L. Urine toxicology screening solely revealed cocaine. A clinical diagnosis of cocaine toxicity was made and patient was admitted to the intensive care unit because of multi organ failure. Despite downward trending of liver enzymes during the hospital course, he continued to have residual renal insufficiency and a low platelet count at the time of discharge. In a patient with history of recent cocaine use presenting with these manifestations, cocaine itself should be considered as a likely cause.

  18. The Effect of Tobacco Snuff Consumption on Liver Enzymes | Ugbor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the changes in liver biochemical profile following oral tobacco dust ingestion. Adult Wistar rats (42) weighing 150-300g were involved. They were divided into four groups; group A serving as control, while groups B, C and D served as the test groups. The test groups were further ...

  19. Zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, is increased in association with liver enzymes in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hee; Heo, Ju Sun; Baek, Kyung Suk; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Kim, Jung Hyun; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Kim, Ki Eun; Sheen, Youn Ho

    2018-06-01

    Zonulin is acknowledged as the only physiological mediator established to reversibly regulate intestinal permeability through modulation of intercellular tight junctions. We aimed to determine whether there are differences in zonulin levels between 74 subjects with overweight or obesity and 76 with normal-weight and to assess correlations of circulating zonulin levels with anthropometric measures and obesity-related biomarkers. We assessed anthropometric and laboratory measures, including body mass index (BMI) z-score, blood pressure, liver enzymes, lipid profiles, and insulin resistance. Serum zonulin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean age of the participants was 12.8 ± 1.5 years. Circulating serum zonulin levels were significantly increased in subjects with overweight/obesity compared with those of normal-weight (P = 0.03). Zonulin levels were significantly and positively associated with BMI z-score, alanine aminotransferase levels, triglyceride, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance as indicated by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (all P zonulin levels in adolescents with overweight or obesity (P zonulin levels in this subgroup analysis (P = 0.06). Serum zonulin is a biomarker associated with hepatic metabolic disturbances in young adolescents with overweight or obesity. The positive relationship suggests a potentially relevant pathophysiological mechanism linking zonulin to hepatic metabolism in this age group of young adolescents with overweight or obesity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Role of Liver in Determining Serum Colon-Derived Uremic Solutes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Jui Lin

    Full Text Available Evidence has shown that indoxyl sulfate (IS and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS may be alternative predictors of clinical outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD. Both toxins are derived from the gastrointestinal tract and metabolised in the liver. However, it is unclear whether the liver affects the production of IS and PCS. Here, we explore the association between IS and PCS levels in liver cirrhosis and a CKD-based cohort (N = 115. Liver and kidney function was assessed and classified by a Child-Pugh score (child A-C and a modified version of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD equation (Stages 1-4, respectively. An animal model was also used to confirm the two toxin levels in a case of liver fibrosis. In patients with early liver cirrhosis (child A, IS and PCS were significantly associated with CKD stages. In contrast, serum IS and PCS did not significantly change in advanced liver cirrhosis (child C. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis also showed that T-PCS was significantly associated with stages of liver cirrhosis after adjusting for other confounding factors (B = -2.29, p = 0.012. Moreover, the serum and urine levels of T-PCS and T-IS were significantly lower in rats with liver failure than in those without (p<0.01, p<0.05 and p<0.01, p<0.05, respectively. These results indicated that in addition to the kidneys, the liver was an essential and independent organ in determining serum IS and PCS levels. The production rate of IS and PCS was lower in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis.

  1. Influencing factors on the serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in benign liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompecki, R.; Mehl, H.; Fehr, R.; Braun, H. von

    1982-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was determined in the sera of 452 patients with benign liver diseases by radioimmunoassay (CEA-RIA Kit, Abbott). The CEA-level exceeded 2.5 ng/ml in 39 percent and 5.0 ng/ml in 9 percent of the cases. Independent influences of age, nicotin, and alcohol consumption and connective tissue proliferation of the liver on the CEA level were demonstrated and quantified by two- and higher-dimensional contingency table analysis. Toxic liver diseases were combined with elevated serum CEA values more often than inflammatory diseases. This aspect could not be investigated independently since there were only a few cases of toxic liver diseases without alcohol consumption. Sex and relative body weight do not seem to affect the CEA level. Additional diseases of the gastrointestinal tract or the cardiovascular system did not influence the serum CEA level in liver diseases. Therefore, in patients with benign liver diseases, an elevated serum CEA level indicates increased proliferation of the connective tissue. Age, nicotin, and alcohol consumption have to be considered independently in the clinical judgement of elevated serum CEA levels, irrespective of the underlying disease. (orig.) [de

  2. Serum immunoglobulin levels predict fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Stuart; Henderson, Elsbeth; Burt, Alastair D; Day, Christopher P; Anstee, Quentin M

    2014-05-01

    A third of the population are estimated to have NAFLD of varying severity. Serum immunoglobulins are frequently elevated in patients with chronic liver disease, but little is known about serum immunoglobulin levels in patients with NAFLD. Aim of this study was to evaluate serum immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgG, and IgM) in a large cohort of patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and determine if immunoglobulin levels are associated with clinical or histological features. Patients seen in a tertiary fatty liver clinic between 1999 and 2009 were included. Liver biopsies were assessed using the Kleiner score. Immunoglobulin levels and other blood tests were taken at time of biopsy. 285 patients (110 simple steatosis and 175 NASH) had serum immunoglobulins measured within 6months of liver biopsy. 130 (46%) patients had elevated (>1× upper limit of normal) serum IgA levels, 28 (10%) patients had elevated IgG and 22 (8%) raised IgM. Serum IgA levels were elevated more frequently in patients with NASH compared with subjects with simple steatosis (55% vs. 31%, pliver fibrosis (Kleiner stage 3-4). There was a significant positive association between serum IgA levels and the stage of fibrosis (pfibrosis following multivariate analysis. A model constructed from these independent predictors accurately predicted advanced fibrosis (AUROC 0.87). The serum IgA level was frequently elevated in patients with NAFLD and was an independent predictor of advanced fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of 6-Month Calorie Restriction and Exercise on Serum and Liver Lipids and Markers of Liver Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Newcomer, Bradley R.; Heilbronn, Leonie K.; Volaufova, Julia; Smith, Steven R.; Alfonso, Anthony J.; Lefevre, Michael; Rood, Jennifer C.; Williamson, Donald A.; Ravussin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    objective Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its association with insulin resistance are increasingly recognized as major health burdens. The main objectives of this study were to assess the relation between liver lipid content and serum lipids, markers of liver function and inflammation in healthy overweight subjects, and to determine whether caloric restriction (CR) (which improves insulin resistance) reduces liver lipids in association with these same measures. Methods and Procedures Forty-six white and black overweight men and women (BMI = 24.7-31.3 kg/m2) were randomized to “control (CO)” = 100% energy requirements; “CR” = 25%; “caloric restriction and increased structured exercise (CR+EX)”= 12.5% CR + 12.5% increase in energy expenditure through exercise; or “low-calorie diet (LCD)” = 15% weight loss by liquid diet followed by weight-maintenance, for 6 months. Liver lipid content was assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and computed tomography (CT). Lipid concentrations, markers of liver function (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALK)), and whole-body inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)) were measured in fasting blood. Results At baseline, increased liver lipid content (by MRS) correlated (P triglyceride (r = 0.52), ALT (r = 0.42), and hsCRP (r = 0.33) concentrations after adjusting for sex, race, and alcohol consumption. With CR, liver lipid content was significantly lowered by CR, CR+EX, and LCD (detected by MRS only). The reduction in liver lipid content, however, was not significantly correlated with the reduction in triglycerides (r = 0.26; P = 0.11) or with the changes in ALT, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, or markers of whole-body inflammation. Discussion CR may be beneficial for reducing liver lipid and lowering triglycerides in overweight subjects without known NAFLD. PMID:18421281

  4. Purification of PON1 from human serum and assessment of enzyme kinetics against metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Deniz; Beydemir, Sükrü

    2010-06-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an organophosphate hydrolyser enzyme which has also antioxidant properties in metabolism. Due to its crucial functions, inhibition of the enzyme is undesirable and very dangerous. PON1 enzyme activity should not be altered in any case. Inhibitory investigations of this enzyme are therefore important and useful. Metal toxicology of enzymes has become popular in the recent years. Here, we report the in vitro inhibitory effects of some metal ions, including Pb(+2), Cr(+2), Fe(+2), and Zn(+2), on the activity of human serum PON1 (hPON1; EC 3.1.8.1.). For this purpose, we purified the enzyme from human serum and analyzed the alterations in the enzyme activity in the presence of metal ions. The results show that metal ions exhibit inhibitory effects on hPON1 at low concentrations with IC (50) values ranging from 0.838 to 7.410 mM. Metal ions showed different inhibition mechanisms: lead and iron were competitive, chrome was noncompetitive, and zinc was uncompetitive. Lead was determined to be the most effective inhibitor.

  5. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone and Estradiol Levels in Positive Hepatitis C Virus in Liver Insufficiency Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.A.; Fekry, A.E.; Abdelgawad, M.R.; Ali, S.E.; Ali, W.I.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-two positive HCV male patients with liver insufficiency were classified into 4 different groups: steatohepatitis (16), chronic hepatitis (17), cirrhosis (12) and HCC (7), beside 24 healthy subjects served as control to evaluate serum sex hormones testosterone and estradiol, and trace elements Zn and Cu in different liver insufficiency positive male HCV patients. The results of the present study showed significant decrease (P<0.05 and P<0.001) in serum testosterone level and testosterone/estradiol ratio in patients with different liver states when compared with control. The serum testosterone level was significantly decreased (P<0.05 and P<0.001)) in patients with cirrhosis than other patient groups. On the other hand, there was significant increase (P<0.01 and P<0.001) in serum estradiol level in all groups as compared with control. Serum testosterone/estradiol ratio was less affected and significantly increased (P<0.01 and P<0.001) in patients with steatohepatitis than other patient groups. Also, the results showed significant decrease (P<0.001) in serum Zn level in patients when compared with control and significant decrease (P<0.05) in cirrhosis as compared with HCC. Also, significant increase (P<0.01 and P<0.001) was determined in serum Cu level and Cu/Zn ratio in different groups as compared with control group. Serum Cu level was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in chronic hepatitis as compared with cirrhosis and HCC. On the other hand, serum Cu/Zn ratio was significantly increased in cirrhosis as compared with steatohepatitis and chronic hepatitis groups (P<0.05 and P<0.01). The patient groups can be detected by using either zinc, copper, testosterone or estradiol contents in serum. It could be concluded that the levels of serum sex hormones (testosterone and estradiol) and trace elements (Zn and Cu and their ratio) may used as markers for liver insufficiency and liver complications, especially in the early diagnosis and prediction of HCC in patients

  6. Serum parameters predict the severity of ultrasonographicifndingsinnon-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohsen Razavizade; Raika Jamali; Abbas Arj; Hamidreza Talari

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Controversy exists about the correlation between liver ultrasonography and serum parameters for evaluating the severity of liver involvement in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study was designed to determine the association between liver ultrasonography staging in NAFLD and serum parameters correlated with disease severity in previous studies; and set optimal cut-off points for those serum parameters correlated with NAFLD staging at ultrasonography, in order to differentiate ultrasonographic groups (USGs). METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated outpatients with evidence of NAFLD in ultrasonography referred to a general hospital. Those with positive viral markers, abnormal serum ceruloplasmin or gamma-globulin concentrations were excluded. A radiologist performed the ultrasonography staging and stratiifed the patients into mild, moderate, and severe groups. Fasting serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglyceride (TG), high and low density lipoprotein (HDL, LDL), and cholesterol were checked. RESULTS:Two hundred and forty-ifve patients with a mean age (±standard deviation) of 41.63(±11.46) years were included. There were no signiifcant differences when mean laboratory concentrations were compared between moderate and severe USGs. Therefore, these groups were combined to create revised USGs ("mild"versus"moderate or severe"). There were associations between the revised USGs, and ALT, TG, HDL levels, and diabetes mellitus [odds ratios=2.81 (95%conifdence interval (CI):1.37-5.76), 2.48 (95%CI:1.29-4.78), 0.36 (95%CI:0.18-0.74), and 5.65 (95%CI:2.86-11.16) respectively;all P values CONCLUSIONS: Serum ALT, TG, and HDL concentrations seem to be associated with the staging by liver ultrasonography in NAFLD. They might be used to predict the staging of liver ultrasonography in these patients.

  7. Studies on bile acid and bilirubin in liver diseases Part 2. Clinical significance of serum bilirubin sulfate in various liver diseases

    OpenAIRE

    石川, 泰祐

    1980-01-01

    The clinical significance of serum bilirubin sulfate, one of the direct bilirubin, was evaluated in various liver diseases with over 2 mg/dl of serum bilirubin concentration. The diagnosis included 25 cases of acute hepatitis, 8 cases of chronic hepatitis, 8 cases of liver cirrhosis and 16 cases of liver cirrhosis with hepatoma. Bilirubin sulfate was fractioned by Yonei's solvent partition method. The clinical significance of bilirubin sulfate was assessed by comparison of bilirubin sulfate w...

  8. Fatty acid composition in serum correlates with that in the liver and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-He; Li, Chun-Yan; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Zhang, Xiu-Ying

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the serum fatty acid composition and hepatic steatosis, inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning scores, and liver fatty acids composition in mice fed a high-fat diet. Livers were collected for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease score analysis. Fatty acid compositions were analysed by gas chromatography. Correlations were determined by Pearson correlation coefficient. Exposed to a high-fat diet, mice developed fatty liver disease with varying severity without fibrosis. The serum fatty acid variation became more severe with prolonged exposure to a high-fat diet. This variation also correlated significantly with the variation in livers, with the types of fatty acids corresponding to liver steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocellular ballooning scores. Results of this study lead to the following hypothesis: the extent of serum fatty acid variation may be a preliminary biomarker of fatty liver disease caused by high-fat intake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Posttraumatic levels of liver enzymes can reduce the need for CT in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Peter James; Østerballe, Lene; Hillingsø, Jens

    2016-01-01

    alternative diagnostic modalities. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are hepatic enzymes, which are elevated in peripheral blood in relation to liver injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential role of normal liver transaminase levels in the decision......BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard in the initial evaluation of the hemodynamically stable patient with suspected liver trauma. However, the adverse effects of radiation exposure are of specific concern in the pediatric population. It is therefore desirable to explore...... algorithm in suspected pediatric blunt liver trauma. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of consecutively collected data from children (0-17 years) with blunt liver trauma, admitted to a single trauma centre in Denmark, between 2000 and 2013. Patients underwent abdominal CT during initial evaluation...

  10. The effect of rutin on lipid profile and liver function enzymes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... However, there was a significant (p<0.05) inc compared to diabetic control. Furthermore, serum liver .... orange, grapefruit, lemon and lime) and apple; berries such as mulberry, ash tree fruits and ... Glibenclamide and alloxan were purchased from. Sigma chemical Company St. Louis U.S.A. Rutin was.

  11. Role of Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor I and Ghrelin in Chronic Liver Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EI-Nashar, N A [Health Radiation Research Dept., National Centre for Radiation Research alld Technology (NCRRT), P.G: 29 Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) is characterized by numerous metabolic alterations resulting in the clinical picture of malnutrition or even cachexia and contributing to complications such as hepatic encephalopathy and ascetics. In view of these alternations, this study was conducted to investigate the role of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and ghrelin in CLD with or without cirrhosis and evaluate their relationships with liver functions and clinical complications. Serum IGF-I levels were very highly significantly lowered (P< 0.0001) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients and in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients than in the control group. However, serum ghrelin levels were significantly elevated in HCV and in HCC patients when compared with controls (P< 0.05). IGF-I significantly decreased with every stage of cirrhosis according to Child-Pugh classification. In contrast, serum ghrelin levels were significantly elevated in Child C liver cirrhosis compared to non cirrhotic patients (Child A and Child B cirrhosis). IGF-I levels inversely correlated with prothrombin time (PT.), total bilirubin and positively correlated with serum albumin. While serum ghrelin correlated with clinical complications of CLD. No correlations were found between IGF-I and ghrelin in all studied groups, however, both inversely correlated with a-feto protein (AFP) in HCC patients. We conclude that IGF-I.and ghrelin can predict the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with severe CLD as they have potential relationships with hepatic failure and HCC.

  12. Role of Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor I and Ghrelin in Chronic Liver Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Nashar, N.A.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) is characterized by numerous metabolic alterations resulting in the clinical picture of malnutrition or even cachexia and contributing to complications such as hepatic encephalopathy and ascetics. In view of these alternations, this study was conducted to investigate the role of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and ghrelin in CLD with or without cirrhosis and evaluate their relationships with liver functions and clinical complications. Serum IGF-I levels were very highly significantly lowered (P< 0.0001) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients and in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients than in the control group. However, serum ghrelin levels were significantly elevated in HCV and in HCC patients when compared with controls (P< 0.05). IGF-I significantly decreased with every stage of cirrhosis according to Child-Pugh classification. In contrast, serum ghrelin levels were significantly elevated in Child C liver cirrhosis compared to non cirrhotic patients (Child A and Child B cirrhosis). IGF-I levels inversely correlated with prothrombin time (PT.), total bilirubin and positively correlated with serum albumin. While serum ghrelin correlated with clinical complications of CLD. No correlations were found between IGF-I and ghrelin in all studied groups, however, both inversely correlated with a-feto protein (AFP) in HCC patients. We conclude that IGF-I.and ghrelin can predict the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with severe CLD as they have potential relationships with hepatic failure and HCC

  13. Real time shear wave elastography in chronic liver diseases: Accuracy for predicting liver fibrosis, in comparison with serum markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Yoon; Kim, Tae Yeob; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Kim, Yongsoo; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Oh, Young-Ha; Yoo, Kyo-Sang

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the correlation between liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by real-time shear wave elastography (SWE) and liver fibrosis stage and the accuracy of LSM for predicting significant and advanced fibrosis, in comparison with serum markers. METHODS: We consecutively analyzed 70 patients with various chronic liver diseases. Liver fibrosis was staged from F0 to F4 according to the Batts and Ludwig scoring system. Significant and advanced fibrosis was defined as stage F ≥ 2 and F ≥ 3, respectively. The accuracy of prediction for fibrosis was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: Seventy patients, 15 were belonged to F0-F1 stage, 20 F2, 13 F3 and 22 F4. LSM was increased with progression of fibrosis stage (F0-F1: 6.77 ± 1.72, F2: 9.98 ± 3.99, F3: 15.80 ± 7.73, and F4: 22.09 ± 10.09, P < 0.001). Diagnostic accuracies of LSM for prediction of F ≥ 2 and F ≥ 3 were 0.915 (95%CI: 0.824-0.968, P < 0.001) and 0.913 (95%CI: 0.821-0.967, P < 0.001), respectively. The cut-off values of LSM for prediction of F ≥ 2 and F ≥ 3 were 8.6 kPa with 78.2% sensitivity and 93.3% specificity and 10.46 kPa with 88.6% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity, respectively. However, there were no significant differences between LSM and serum hyaluronic acid and type IV collagen in diagnostic accuracy. CONCLUSION: SWE showed a significant correlation with the severity of liver fibrosis and was useful and accurate to predict significant and advanced fibrosis, comparable with serum markers. PMID:25320528

  14. Cu isotopic signature in blood serum of liver transplant patients: a follow-up study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauwens, Sara; Costas-Rodríguez, Marta; van Vlierberghe, Hans; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2016-07-01

    End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is life-threatening and liver transplantation (LTx) is the definitive treatment with good outcomes. Given the essential role of hepatocytes in Cu homeostasis, the potential of the serum Cu isotopic composition for monitoring a patient’s condition post-LTx was evaluated. For this purpose, high-precision Cu isotopic analysis of blood serum of ESLD patients pre- and post-LTx was accomplished via multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). The Cu isotopic composition of the ESLD patients was fractionated in favour of the lighter isotope (by about -0.50‰). Post-LTx, a generalized normalization of the Cu isotopic composition was observed for the patients with normal liver function, while it remained light when this condition was not reached. A strong decrease in the δ65Cu value a longer term post-LTx seems to indicate the recurrence of liver failure or cancer. The observed trend in favour of the heavier Cu isotopic composition post-LTx seems to be related with the restored biosynthetic capacity of the liver, the restored hepatic metabolism and/or the restored biliary secretion pathways. Thus, Cu isotopic analysis could be a valuable tool for the follow-up of liver transplant patients and for establishing the potential recurrence of liver failure.

  15. Serum Fetuin-A levels in obese children with biopsy proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampanini, V; Inzaghi, E; Germani, D; Alterio, A; Puglianiello, A; Alisi, A; Nobili, V; Cianfarani, S

    2018-01-01

    Fetuin-A has been proposed as a marker of liver damage in adults with obesity-related NAFLD. The aim of this study was to test serum fetuin-A concentrations in obese children with NAFLD diagnosed either by ultrasonography or by liver biopsy and to determine its applicability as predictive tool in pediatric NAFLD. Metabolic parameters and fetuin-A levels were investigated in 81 obese children with NAFLD diagnosed by biopsy, 79 obese children with NAFLD defined by liver ultrasonography and 23 lean subjects. Serum fetuin-A correlated significantly with age, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting insulin and 2-h postload insulin during OGTT, HOMA-IR, ISI, CRP, and apo B levels. Obese children with NAFLD detected by ultrasonography had significantly higher fetuin-A levels compared to those with normal liver. In obese children who underwent liver biopsy, no significant differences were detected in fetuin-A levels between subject with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and those with simple steatosis. Fetuin-A was not different between obese and lean children. Fetuin-A is not related with the degree of liver damage in obese children with NAFLD and its routine measurement as marker of liver disease severity is therefore not recommended. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Daily chocolate consumption is inversely associated with insulin resistance and liver enzymes in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Stranges, Saverio

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the association of chocolate consumption with insulin resistance and serum liver enzymes in a national sample of adults in Luxembourg. A random sample of 1153 individuals, aged 18-69 years, was recruited to participate in the cross-sectional Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study. Chocolate consumption (g/d) was obtained from a semi-quantitative FFQ. Blood glucose and insulin levels were used for the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Hepatic biomarkers such as serum γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GT), serum aspartate transaminase and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) (mg/l) were assessed using standard laboratory assays. Chocolate consumers (81·8 %) were more likely to be younger, physically active, affluent people with higher education levels and fewer chronic co-morbidities. After excluding subjects taking antidiabetic medications, higher chocolate consumption was associated with lower HOMA-IR (β=-0·16, P=0·004), serum insulin levels (β=-0·16, P=0·003) and γ-GT (β=-0·12, P=0·009) and ALT (β=-0·09, P=0·004), after adjustment for age, sex, education, lifestyle and dietary confounding factors, including intakes of fruits and vegetables, alcohol, polyphenol-rich coffee and tea. This study reports an independent inverse relationship between daily chocolate consumption and levels of insulin, HOMA-IR and liver enzymes in adults, suggesting that chocolate consumption may improve liver enzymes and protect against insulin resistance, a well-established risk factor for cardiometabolic disorders. Further observational prospective research and well-designed randomised-controlled studies are needed to confirm this cross-sectional relationship and to comprehend the role and mechanisms that different types of chocolate may play in insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders.

  17. Serum Sialic Acid Concentration and Content in ApoB-Containing Lipoproteins in Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska, Monika; Gruszewska, Ewa; Cylwik, Bogdan; Panasiuk, Anatol; Filisiak, Robert; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Chrostek, Lech

    2016-01-01

    The great significance for the metabolism of lipoproteins is the composition of carbohydrate chain of apolipoproteins, where sialic acid (SA) is located. In VILDL and LDL sialic acid is attached to apolipoprotein B. The sialylation of serum proteins including apolipoprotein B can be affected in the course of liver diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of liver diseases on the concentration and content of SA in ApoB-containing lipoproteins. The tested group consisted of 165 patients (118 males, 47 females) with liver diseases: alcoholic cirrhosis, non-alcoholic cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, toxic hepatitis, chronic viral hepatitis, and liver cancer. ApoB-containing lipoproteins were isolated by a turbidimetric procedure and SA concentration was measured according to an enzymatic method. There was a significant increase in the serum concentration of SA in ApoB-containing lipoproteins in viral hepatitis. Although the serum concentration of ApoB was not significantly different between specific liver diseases, the serum levels of SA in ApoB-containing lipoproteins appeared to be different. There is an association between SA concentration and triglycerides in alcoholic cirrhosis and viral hepatitis. Also, in viral hepatitis SA concentration correlated negatively with HDL-cholesterol. The content of SA in ApoB-containing lipoproteins in alcoholic cirrhosis and viral hepatitis was significantly higher than that in the control group, but did not differ between diseases. This study may explain the variations in serum lipids and lipoproteins in liver diseases. It seems that the reason for these abnormalities is the changes in the concentration of sialic acid in ApoB-containing lipoproteins.

  18. Study on the changes of serum HA and CG levels in several diseases besides liver disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhiping; Ma Yunbao; Zhang Xiaoyi; Lv Weihua

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum hyaluronic acid (HA) and cholyglycine (CG) in several diseases besides liver disorders. Methods: Serum HA and CG levels were measured with RIA in 78 patients with chronic liver diseases (with 70 controls), (84 patients with primary hepatic carcinoma ), 70 pediatric patients with various infections diseases (with 40 controls), 50 pediatric patients with recurrent respiratory infection (RRI, with 30 controls) and 428 pregnant women ( with 60 controls). In addition, RBC C 3 b receptor ratio (RBCC 3 bRR) and RBC immune-complex ratio (RBCICR) (both with yeast rosette method) as well as serum IgG,IgM,IgA,C 3 levels (with immunoturbidity test) were examined in the 50 RRI pediatric patients, ALT levels were examined in the 70 pediatric patients with infectious diseases and SF examined in the 78 patients with chronic liver diseases. Results: The serum CG, HA and SF levels in the three groups of patients with chronic liver diseases ( CPH, CAH, Cirrhosis) were significantly higher than those in the controls (all P 0.05). In patients with hepatic carcinoma, the CG and HA levels were positively correlated with the mortality at 4 months (P 0.05). For ALT, levels only increased in patients with hepatitis and typhoid fever with none in bacillary dysentery and mumps. In pediatric patients with RRI, RBCC 3 bRR (%), CG, C 3 , IgG levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Various infectious diseases in pediatric patients could induce mild liver damage, which was closely related to the depressed immune status. High CG and HA levels in liver cancer patients suggested high mortality at 4 months. Women in late pregnancy might harbour disturbances in CG metabolism and mild liver injury though without overt symptoms. (authors)

  19. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent serum assay specific for the 7S domain of Collagen Type IV (P4NP 7S)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana J; Nielsen, Mette J; Dai, Yueqin

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  The present study describes the ability of a newly developed N-terminal pro-peptides of type IV collagen 7S domain (P4NP 7S) competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for describing liver fibrosis. The assay applies a monoclonal antibody specific for a PIVNP 7S epitope 100...... were significantly elevated in rat with liver fibrosis as seen by histology (CCL4: 283% elevated in the highest quartile of total hepatic collagen compared with controls, P = 0.001; BDL: 183% elevated at week 4 compared with sham, P type IV collagen...... expression in BDL rats (r = 0.49, P serum assay specific for P4NP 7S was highly related to liver fibrosis...

  20. Vitamin D status, liver enzymes, and incident liver disease and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Borglykke, Anders

    2014-01-01

    , alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, dietary habits, education, body mass index, and ALT). The risk of having a high level of ALT, AST, or GGT tended to be higher for lower vitamin D levels, although not statistically significant. In this general population study, vitamin D status...... was inversely associated with incident liver disease. Further studies are needed to determine whether patients in risk of developing impaired liver function should be screened for vitamin D deficiency for preventive purposes....

  1. Serum prolidase enzyme activity in obese subjects and its relationship with oxidative stress markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Mehmet; Duzenli, Ufuk; Esen, Ramazan; Soyoral, Yasemin Usul

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between increased serum enzyme activity of prolidase and increased rate of collagen turnover in the arterial wall has been asserted in previous studies. Collagen reflects much of the strength to the connective tissue involved in the arterial wall. Atherosclerosis is very common vessel disease and oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the etiopathogenesis. Our objective was to examine the serum enzyme activity of prolidase and its possible relationships with oxidative stress parameters in obese subjects. Our present study was conducted 27 obese subjects and 26 age-matched healthy control subjects. The serum enzyme activity of prolidase in all study population was evaluated spectrophotometrically. Oxidative stress levels in obese subjects were analyzed with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) as well as oxidative stress index (OSI). Obese subjects have higher serum TOS and OSI indicators as well as prolidase activity than those in control subjects (for all; pstress levels in obese subjects. The significantly correlation between increased oxidative stress and increased prolidase activity may play a pivotal role in etiopathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in obese subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential role of liver enzymes levels as predictor markers of glucose metabolism disorders in Tunisian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhajja, Houda; Abdelhedi, Rania; Amouri, Ali; Hadj Kacem, Faten; Marrakchi, Rim; Safi, Wajdi; Mrabet, Houcem; Chtourou, Lassaad; Charfi, Nadia; Fourati, Mouna; Bensassi, Salwa; Jamoussi, Kamel; Abid, Mohamed; Ayadi, Hammadi; Feki, Mouna Mnif; Elleuch, Noura Bougacha

    2018-03-10

    The relationship between liver enzymes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the association between liver markers and risk of carbohydrate metabolism disorders and their discriminatory power for T2D prediction. This cross-sectional study enrolled 216 participants classified as normoglycemic, prediabetes, newly-diagnosed diabetes and diagnosed diabetes. All participants underwent anthropometric and biochemical measurements. The relationship between hepatic enzymes and glucose metabolism markers was evaluated by ANCOVA analyses. The associations between liver enzymes and incident carbohydrate metabolism disorders were analyzed through logistic regression and their discriminatory capacity for T2D by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. High alkaline phosphatase (AP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and aspartate aminotrasferase (AST) levels were independently related to decreased insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, higher AP level was significantly associated with increased risk of prediabetes (p=0.017), newly-diagnosed diabetes (p=0.004) and T2D (p=0.007). Elevated γGT level was an independent risk factor for T2D (p=0.032) and undiagnosed-T2D (p=0.010) in prediabetic and normoglycemic subjects, respectively. In ROC analysis, AP was a powerful predictor of incident diabetes and significantly improved T2D prediction. Liver enzymes within normal range, specifically AP levels, are associated with increased risk of carbohydrate metabolism disorders and significantly improved T2D prediction.

  3. Thyroid hormones and thyroxine-binding globulin in relation to liver function and serum testosterone in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) increased with progressing liver dysfunction. Serum concentrations of tetraiodothyronine (T4), TBG and T4/TBG ratio did not correlate significantly with liver function. Serum T3 concentrations...

  4. Bluetongue virus: comparative evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunodiffusion, and serum neutralization for detection of viral antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Poli, G; Stott, J; Liu, Y S; Manning, J S

    1982-01-01

    Comparative studies on the detection of bovine serum immunoglobulin G antibodies to bluetongue virus with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, an immunodiffusion method, and a serum neutralization assay demonstrated complete concordance between the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the serum neutralization assay results. However, the immunodiffusion method failed to detect bluetongue virus antibody in a substantial number of sera found to possess bluetongue virus immunoglobulin G with th...

  5. Effect of quality protein maize diet on liver integrity and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of quality protein maize (QPM) diet on the histology of the liver and on the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in albino wistar rats. The AST level in rats fed QPM diet was 57.4 ± 8.92U/L which compared favourably with that ...

  6. Dose and duration dependent of aluminium in the serum liver and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis on dose and duration dependent aluminum concentration in serum, liver and brain digests of three groups of male Wistar albino rats were investigated after seven and fourteen days of daily 0.38mg/kg, 3.8mg/kg and 38mg/kg aluminum administration respectively.

  7. A proteomic strategy to identify novel serum biomarkers for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer in individuals with fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Stephen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has a prevalence of over 20% in Western societies. Affected individuals are at risk of developing both cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer (HCC. Presently there is no cost effective population based means of identifying cirrhotic individuals and even if there were, our ability to perform HCC surveillance in the at risk group is inadequate. We have performed a pilot proteomic study to assess this as a strategy for serum biomarker detection. Methods 2D Gel electrophoresis was performed on immune depleted sera from 3 groups of patients, namely those with (1 pre-cirrhotic NAFLD (2 cirrhotic NAFLD and (3 cirrhotic NAFLD with co-existing HCC. Five spots differentiating at least one of these three groups were characterised by mass spectroscopy. An ELISA assay was optimised and a cross sectional study assessing one of these serum spots was performed on serum from 45 patients with steatohepatitis related cirrhosis and HCC and compared to 77 patients with histologically staged steatohepatitis. Results Four of the spots identified were apolipoprotein isoforms, the pattern of which was able to differentiate the three groups. The 5th spot, seen in the serum of cirrhotic individuals and more markedly in those with HCC, was identified as CD5 antigen like (CD5L. By ELISA assay, although CD5L was markedly elevated in a number of cirrhotic individuals with HCC, its overall ability to distinguish non-cancer from cancer individuals as determined by AUC ROC analysis was poor. However, serum CD5L was dramatically increased, independently of age, sex, and the presence of necroinflammation, in the serum of individuals with NAFLD cirrhosis relative to those with pre-cirrhotic disease. Conclusion This novel proteomic strategy has identified a number of candidate biomarkers which may have benefit in the surveillance and diagnosis of individuals with chronic liver disease and/or HCC.

  8. Prediction of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Via a Novel Panel of Serum Adipokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Raika; Arj, Abbas; Razavizade, Mohsen; Aarabi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Considering limitations of liver biopsy for diagnosis of nonalcoholic liver disease (NAFLD), biomarkers’ panels were proposed. The aims of this study were to establish models based on serum adipokines for discriminating NAFLD from healthy individuals and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from simple steatosis. This case-control study was conducted in patients with persistent elevated serum aminotransferase levels and fatty liver on ultrasound. Individuals with evidence of alcohol consumption, hepatotoxic medication, viral hepatitis, and known liver disease were excluded. Liver biopsy was performed in the remaining patients to distinguish NAFLD/NASH. Histologic findings were interpreted using “nonalcoholic fatty liver activity score.” Control group consisted of healthy volunteers with normal physical examination, liver function tests, and liver ultrasound. Binary logistic regression analysis was applied to ascertain the effects of independent variables on the likelihood that participants have NAFLD/NASH. Decreased serum adiponectin and elevated serum visfatin, IL-6, TNF-a were associated with an increased likelihood of exhibiting NAFLD. NAFLD discriminant score was developed as the following: [(−0.298 × adiponectin) + (0.022 × TNF-a) + (1.021 × Log visfatin) + (0.709 × Log IL-6) + 1.154]. In NAFLD discriminant score, 86.4% of original grouped cases were correctly classified. Discriminant score threshold value of (−0.29) yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 83% respectively, for discriminating NAFLD from healthy controls. Decreased serum adiponectin and elevated serum visfatin, IL-8, TNF-a were correlated with an increased probability of NASH. NASH discriminant score was proposed as the following: [(−0.091 × adiponectin) + (0.044 × TNF-a) + (1.017 × Log visfatin) + (0.028 × Log IL-8) − 1.787] In NASH model, 84% of original cases were correctly classified. Discriminant score threshold value of (−0.22) yielded a

  9. Liver enzymes and markers of inflammation in Nigerian adults with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udenze Ifeoma Christiana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the plasma levels of the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in people with metabolic syndrome and to determine the association between the liver enzymes and obesity, insulin resistance, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: This was a case control study of 50 adult men and women with metabolic syndrome, and 50 age- and sex-matched males and females without metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Venous blood was collected after an overnight fast. The ethics committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria, approved the study protocol. Comparison of continuous variables was done using the student′s t-test. Regression and correlation analysis were used to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in the liver enzymes ALP (P = 0.031, ALT (P = 0.019, and GGT (P = 0.037, as well as in the inflammatory markers CRP (P = 0.019 and the cytokine IL-6 (P = 0.040 between the two study groups. ALP and ALT showed significant correlation with waist circumference, BMI, fasting insulin, and waist/hip ratio (P < 0.05. Multivariate regression also identified ALT, AST, and ALP to be associated with IL-6 and CRP (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Liver enzyme levels were increased in metabolic syndrome and associated with obesity, fasting insulin, and CRP. Elevated liver enzymes may indicate dysmetabolism and increased

  10. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene expression in experimentally induced liver cirrhosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Syed Muhammad; Fatima, Syeda Nuzhat; Mahboob, Tabassum

    2013-09-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a key player of Renin Angiotensin System (RAS), involved in conversion of active product, angiotensin-II. Alterations in RAS have been implicated in the pathophysiology of various diseases involving heart, kidney, lung and liver. This study is designed to investigate the association of ACE gene expression in induction of liver cirrhosis in rats. Total 12 male albino Wistar rats were selected and divided in two groups. Control group received 0.9% NaCl, where as Test group received thioacidamide (TAA), dissolved in 0.9%NaCl, injected intraperitoneally at a dosage of 200mg/Kg of body weight, twice a week for 12 weeks. The rats were decapitated and blood sample was collected at the end of experimental period and used for liver functions, enzyme activity, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation estimations. Genomic DNA was isolated from excised tissue determine the ACE genotypes using specific primers. The ACE gene expression in liver tissue was assessed using the quantitative RT-PCR method. The activity of ALT, total and direct bilirubin, SOD and CAT levels were significantly high (pACE gene expression after 12 weeks TAA treatment in cirrhotic rats was significantly increased (pACE gene expression. The finding of major up-regulation of ACE in the experimental rat liver provides further insight into the complexities of the RAS and its regulation in liver injury. The development of specific modulators of ACE activity and function, in future, will help determine the role of ACE and its genetic variants in the pathophysiology of liver disease.

  11. Serum proteome profiling identifies novel and powerful markers of cystic fibrosis liver disease.

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    Timo Rath

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cystic Fibrosis associated liver disease (CFLD develops in approximately 30% of CF patients. However, routine sensitive diagnostic tools for CFLD are lacking. Within this study, we aimed to identify new experimental biomarkers for the detection of CFLD. METHODS: 45 CF patients were included in the study and received transient elastography. Differential regulation of 220 different serum proteins was assessed in a subgroup of patients with and without CFLD. Most interesting candidate proteins were further quantified and validated by ELISA in the whole patient cohort. To assess a potential relation of biomarker expression to the degree of hepatic fibrosis, serum biomarkers were further determined in 18 HCV patients where liver histology was available. RESULTS: 43 serum proteins differed at least 2-fold in patients with CFLD compared to those without liver disease as identified in proteome profiling. In ELISA quantifications, TIMP-4 and Endoglin were significantly up-regulated in patients with CFLD as diagnosed by clinical guidelines or increased liver stiffness. Pentraxin-3 was significantly decreased in patients with CFLD. Serum TIMP-4 and Endoglin showed highest values in HCV patients with liver cirrhosis compared to those with fibrosis but without cirrhosis. At a cut-off value of 6.3 kPa, transient elastography compassed a very high diagnostic accuracy and specificity for the detection of CFLD. Among the biomarkers, TIMP-4 and Endoglin exhibited a high diagnostic accuracy for CFLD. Diagnostic sensitivities and negative predictive values were increased when elastography and TIMP-4 and Endoglin were combined for the detection of CFLD. CONCLUSIONS: Serum TIMP-4 and Endoglin are increased in CFLD and their expression correlates with hepatic staging. Determination of TIMP-4 and Endoglin together with transient elastography can increase the sensitivity for the non-invasive diagnosis of CFLD.

  12. Modulation of liver enzymes by an Iranian preparation of Echinacea purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manayi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B, a common infectious disease of liver, is transmitted by blood and body fluids like semen and vaginal fluid that carry hepatitis B virus (HBV.  In chronic infection, medical care is required to decrease possibility of cirrhosis and liver cancer. In the present report, the hepatoprotective effect of an Echinacea purpurea preparation (Echiherb® has been described in a patient who suffered from HBV infection. The levels of both enzymes of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT decreased to their normal level after 6 weeks of treatment. Therefore, this report may provide a new perspective for protection of liver in patients with HBV infection along with other diseases which damage liver cells using E. purpurea preparations.

  13. Muscular sufficiency, serum protein, enzymes and bioenergetic studies in chronic malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Mittal, R.D.; Agarwal, K.N.; Agarwal, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Muscle sufficiency was significantly lower in 1336 children with chronic malnutrition of moderate to severe degree. 18 children with a chronic moderate degree of malnutrition and 8 well-nourished age-matched controls were selected for biochemical and 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31-P MRS) studies. The results shows that: a) serum total protein, albumin, iron, calcium and inorganic phosphate were similar in both groups; b) serum enzyme levels were significantly increased in the malnuourished group; c) 31-P MRS showed significantly higher means for total ATP, β-ATP, α-ATP and inorganic phosphate for the malnourished compared to the control group. In chronic malnutrition, proteins are maintained by degradation in muscle resulting in release of amino acids and enzymes. 31-P MRS studies showing increases in total ATP, β-ATP and inorganic phosphate and a decrease in phosphocreatine suggest that ATP is maintained at the cost of phosphocreatine. 22 refs., 4 tabs. 1 fig

  14. Muscular sufficiency, serum protein, enzymes and bioenergetic studies in chronic malnutrition. [31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R K; Mittal, R D; Agarwal, K N; Agarwal, D K [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India)

    1994-03-01

    Muscle sufficiency was significantly lower in 1336 children with chronic malnutrition of moderate to severe degree. 18 children with a chronic moderate degree of malnutrition and 8 well-nourished age-matched controls were selected for biochemical and 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31-P MRS) studies. The results shows that: (a) serum total protein, albumin, iron, calcium and inorganic phosphate were similar in both groups; (b) serum enzyme levels were significantly increased in the malnuourished group; (c) 31-P MRS showed significantly higher means for total ATP, [beta]-ATP, [alpha]-ATP and inorganic phosphate for the malnourished compared to the control group. In chronic malnutrition, proteins are maintained by degradation in muscle resulting in release of amino acids and enzymes. 31-P MRS studies showing increases in total ATP, [beta]-ATP and inorganic phosphate and a decrease in phosphocreatine suggest that ATP is maintained at the cost of phosphocreatine. 22 refs., 4 tabs. 1 fig.

  15. Clinical evaluation of serum bile acids as a new liver function test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffl, H; Pristautz, H; Parsche, P; Passath, A; Leb, G [Graz Univ. (Austria). Medizinische Klinik

    1980-01-01

    In a randomized patient material, with various histologically verified hepatobiliary diseases, the serum levels of Cholyl glycine (CG) and Sulfolithocholyl glycine (SLCG) were compared with each other. SLCG levels are a more sensitive parameter and permit a more significant differentiation between fatty and normal livers and between cases with and without portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis. There were poor correlations between the hitherto routinely performed laboratory tests and the SLCG levels, but good correlations between SLCG and defined parenchymal liver diseases. The publication ends with the presentation of a newly developed SLCG-stimulation test, which provides a staging of parenchymal liver diseases without unnecessary requirements of time and material and with minimal stress to the patients.

  16. Value of serum PCT in early diagnosis of bacterial infection in patients with liver failure

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    WANG Chuanmin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the value of serum procalcitonin (PCT in early diagnosis of bacterial infection in patients with liver failure. MethodsA total of 463 patients with hepatitis B were selected from January to December, 2014, in the Department of Infectious Diseases, Taihe Hospital. According to the degree of liver injury, the patients were divided into four groups: mild liver injury group (n=120, moderate liver injury group (n=222, sever liver injury group (n=53, and liver failure group (n=68. Serum PCT was measured for all patients, and the white blood cell count (WBC and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP were measured for patients with liver failure. The clinical manifestations were observed and recorded. The t test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data, while the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for non-normally distributed continuous data; the Mann-Whitney U test was used for pairwise comparison of continuous data. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used for the analysis of predictive value. ResultsThe liver failure group had a significantly higher PCT level than the severe liver injury group, moderate liver injury group, and mild liver injury group (0.81[0.34-2.15] vs 0.53[0.21-1.59], 0.35[010-1.18], and 0.17[0.10-0.60], χ2=25.091, P<0.05. The liver failure patients with PCT levels of <0.25 ng/ml (n=10, 0.25-0.5 ng/ml (n=10, and >0.5 ng/ml (n=48 had infection rates of 20%, 30%, and 66.7%, respectively, with a significant difference between the patients with a PCT level of >0.5 ng/ml and those with PCT levels of <0.25 ng/ml and 0.25-0.5 ng/ml (χ2=5631,4650,P=0018,0031. Among the liver failure patients, the infection cases had significantly higher PCT, WBC, and hsCRP than the non-infection cases (PCT: 3.72±1.33 ng/ml vs 0.34±0.12 ng/ml, t=-2.547, P=0.015; hsCRP: 16.70±7.03 mg

  17. Effects of Cinnamon extract on biochemical enzymes, TNF-α and NF-κB gene expression levels in liver of broiler chickens inoculated with Escherichia coli

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    Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Infection with Escherichia coli (E. coli is a common disease in poultry industry. The use of antibiotics to treat diseases is facing serious criticism and concerns. The medicinal plants may be effective alternatives because of their multiplex activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cinnamon extract on the levels of liver enzymes, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB gene expressions in liver of broiler chickens infected with E. coli. Ninety Ross-308 broilers were divided into healthy or E. coli-infected groups, receiving normal or cinnamon extract (in concentrations of 100 or 200mg/kg of food supplemented diets. E. coli suspension (108cfu was injected subcutaneously after 12 days cinnamon administration. Seventy-two hours after E. coli injection, the blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis of liver enzymes in serum (spectrophotometrically, and liver tissue samples were obtained for detection of gene expression of inflammatory markers TNF-α and NF-κB, using real-time PCR. Infection with E. coli significantly increased the levels of TNF-α and NF-κB gene expressions as well as some liver enzymes including creatine-kinase (CK, lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH, alanine-transferase (ALT and aspartate-transferase (AST as compared with control group (P<0.05. Pre-administration of cinnamon extract in broilers diet (in both concentrations significantly reduced the tissue levels of TNF-α and NF-κB gene expressions and enzymes CK and ALT in serum of broiler chickens inoculated with E. coli in comparison with E. coli group (P<0.05 and P<0.01. The levels of LDH and AST were significantly decreased only by 200mg/kg cinnamon extract in infected broilers. The level of alkaline-phosphatase (ALP was not affected in any groups. Pre-administration of cinnamon extract in diets of broiler chickens inoculated with E. coli could significantly reduce the gene expression levels of pro

  18. Soapwort extract supplementation alters antioxidant status of serum, liver and heart tissues in growing Japanese quails reared under chronic intermittent cold stress

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    Bestami Dalkilic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant effect of dietary soapwort extract supplementation was studied in growing Japanese quails suffering from chronic intermittent cold stress. For this purpose, a total of ninety 15-d-old quails were divided into three groups with three replicates. Chronic intermittent cold stress was applied every night between 22.00 to 06.00 h; starting at 14 °C for the first week, and gradually weekly lowered to 8 °C. Three groups were fed with corn-soy based standard diets supplemented with 0, 50, and 100 ppm soapwort extract for four weeks. At the end of the study, three males and three females were slaughtered to determine total antioxidant and oxidant status of serum, malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity, superoxide dismutase of liver and heart tissues. Although the dietary soapwort extract had no effect on serum total antioxidant capacity, it significantly lowered the total oxidant status of serum in cold stressed quails. Glutathione and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity of liver and heart tissues were similar among groups. While the dietary soapwort extract had no effect on glutathione peroxidase activity of the heart tissue, it significantly increased glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver tissue. In relation to the control group, malondialdehyde concentrations in the liver and heart tissues were significantly lower in soapwort extract groups. These data suggest that dietary soapwort extract could alleviate the detrimental effects of oxidative stress in growing Japanese quails exposed to cold stress.

  19. Comparative Circadian Metabolomics Reveal Differential Effects of Nutritional Challenge in the Serum and Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondante, Serena; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L; Ceglia, Nicholas J; Baldi, Pierre; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2016-02-05

    Diagnosis and therapeutic interventions in pathological conditions rely upon clinical monitoring of key metabolites in the serum. Recent studies show that a wide range of metabolic pathways are controlled by circadian rhythms whose oscillation is affected by nutritional challenges, underscoring the importance of assessing a temporal window for clinical testing and thereby questioning the accuracy of the reading of critical pathological markers in circulation. We have been interested in studying the communication between peripheral tissues under metabolic homeostasis perturbation. Here we present a comparative circadian metabolomic analysis on serum and liver in mice under high fat diet. Our data reveal that the nutritional challenge induces a loss of serum metabolite rhythmicity compared with liver, indicating a circadian misalignment between the tissues analyzed. Importantly, our results show that the levels of serum metabolites do not reflect the circadian liver metabolic signature or the effect of nutritional challenge. This notion reveals the possibility that misleading reads of metabolites in circulation may result in misdiagnosis and improper treatments. Our findings also demonstrate a tissue-specific and time-dependent disruption of metabolic homeostasis in response to altered nutrition. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Enzyme immunoassay of oestrogen receptors in needle biopsies from human liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Andersen, J; Poulsen, H S

    1991-01-01

    For quantitative assessments of sex hormone receptors in liver tissue, ligand binding assays are inconvenient, as they require large biopsies (0.5-1.0 g). The present study shows that it is possible to measure oestrogen receptors (ER) quantitatively in needle biopsy specimens as small as 10 mg...... by modifications of a commercial enzyme immunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies. Sucrose gradient centrifugation and the dextran charcoal method served as reference methods. A consecutive series of needle biopsies from patients suspected of liver disease were investigated. The biopsies (n = 37) had a median...

  1. Clinical significance of changes of serum insulin-like growth factors contents in patients with cirrhosis of liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Haiqiang; Lei Qiufang; Ye Peihong; Li Xiaohong; Gao Wenjin; Wang Mingtao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between the serum contents of IGF-I, IGF-II and liver dysfunction (as classified with Child-Pugh grades). Methods: Liver function test profiles as well as serum IGF-I, IGF-II contents ( with IRMA) were studied in 46 patients with liver cirrhosis and 32 controls. Results: According to the degree of liver dysfunction, these 46 patients with cirrhosis could be classified as: Child Grade A, n=17; Child B, n=20; and Child C, n=9. The serum IGF-I and IGF-II contents in the cirrhotic patients were significantly lower than those in the controls (P<0.001). The levels dropped along with the progression of child classification grades. Changes of IGF-II were more sensitive than those of IGF-I. Conclusion: Serum IGF-I and IGF-II contents were closely associated with degree of liver dysfunction and might be of prognostic significance. (authors)

  2. Determination of Selected Amino Acids in Serum of Patients with Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanďár, Roman; Drábková, Petra; Toiflová, Tereza; Čegan, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The determination of amino acids can be a reliable approach for extended diagnosis of liver diseases. This is because liver disease can be a cause of impaired amino acid metabolism. Therefore, a method for the determination of serum amino acids, applicable for clinical purposes, is necessary. The aim of this study was to find differences in the levels of selected amino acids between patients with liver disease and a control group. Samples of peripheral venous blood were obtained from a group of patients with liver disease (n = 131, 59 women at an average age of 60 years and 72 men at an average age of 52 years) and a control group (n = 105, 47 women at an average age of 62 years and 58 men at an average age of 58 years). Before the separation, the amino acids were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde. For the separation, reverse phase column was used. The effluent was monitored with a fluorescence detector. There were significant differences in the concentrations of some amino acids between the patients and the control group, but also between women and men. Correlations between some amino acids and markers of liver blood tests and lipid metabolism were observed. A simple, relatively rapid and selective HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of selected amino acids in serum has been developed.

  3. HFE Genotyping in Patients with Elevated Serum Iron Indices and Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Silva Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron abnormalities in chronic liver disease may be the result of genetic diseases or secondary factors. The present study aimed to identify subjects with HFE-HH in order to describe the frequency of clinical manifestations, identify risk factors for iron elevation, and compare the iron profile of HFE-HH to other genotypes in liver disease patients. A total of 108 individuals with hepatic disease, transferrin saturation (TS > 45%, and serum ferritin (SF > 350 ng/mL were tested for HFE mutations. Two groups were characterized: C282Y/C282Y or C282Y/H63D genotypes (n=16 were the HFE hereditary hemochromatosis (HFE-HH group; and C282Y and H63D single heterozygotes, the H63D/H63D genotype, and wild-type were considered group 2 (n=92. Nonalcoholic liver disease, alcoholism, and chronic hepatitis C were detected more frequently in group 2, whereas arthropathy, hepatocarcinoma, diabetes, and osteoporosis rates were significantly higher in the HFE-HH group. TS > 82%, SF > 2685 ng/mL, and serum iron > 178 μg/dL were the cutoffs for diagnosis of HFE-HH in patients with liver disease. Thus, in non-Caucasian populations with chronic liver disease, HFE-HH diagnosis is more predictable in those with iron levels higher than those proposed in current guidelines for the general population.

  4. Study on the changes of serum HA and CG levels in several diseases besides liver disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiping, Lu; Yunbao, Ma; Xiaoyi, Zhang; Weihua, Lv [Changshu Hospital Attached to Medical College of Yangzhou Univ., Changshu No.2 People' s Hospital, Changshu (China)

    2005-12-15

    Objective: To study the changes of serum hyaluronic acid (HA) and cholyglycine (CG) in several diseases besides liver disorders. Methods: Serum HA and CG levels were measured with RIA in 78 patients with chronic liver diseases (with 70 controls), (84 patients with primary hepatic carcinoma ), 70 pediatric patients with various infections diseases (with 40 controls), 50 pediatric patients with recurrent respiratory infection (RRI, with 30 controls) and 428 pregnant women ( with 60 controls). In addition, RBC C{sub 3}b receptor ratio (RBCC{sub 3} bRR) and RBC immune-complex ratio (RBCICR) (both with yeast rosette method) as well as serum IgG,IgM,IgA,C{sub 3} levels (with immunoturbidity test) were examined in the 50 RRI pediatric patients, ALT levels were examined in the 70 pediatric patients with infectious diseases and SF examined in the 78 patients with chronic liver diseases. Results: The serum CG, HA and SF levels in the three groups of patients with chronic liver diseases ( CPH, CAH, Cirrhosis) were significantly higher than those in the controls (all P<0.01 ) with the exception of HA in CPH patients (P > 0.05). In patients with hepatic carcinoma, the CG and HA levels were positively correlated with the mortality at 4 months (P < 0.05). Among pregnant women, serum levels of HA and CG were significantly higher during the second and third trimesters (P<0.05-0.01) than those in the controls but not so during the first trimester. In the pediatric patients with infectious diseases, CG and HA levels were significantly higher in all these patients (P<0.01) with the only exception of HA in patients with mumps (P>0.05). For ALT, levels only increased in patients with hepatitis and typhoid fever with none in bacillary dysentery and mumps. In pediatric patients with RRI, RBCC{sub 3}bRR (%), CG, C{sub 3}, IgG levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05 ) with no significant differences in the case of RBCICR (%), HA, IgM and IgA levels (P>0

  5. Effect of Jiangzhi tablet on serum indexes of mice with fatty liver induced by CCL4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiuli; Kong, Xuejun; Li, Chongxian; Hao, Shaojun; Wang, Hongyu; Chen, Weiliang; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effect of Jiangzhi tablet on serum indexes of mice with fatty liver induced by CCL4, 60 mice were randomly divided into blank control group, model group, positive group, high, middle and low dose group. High fat diet fed mice for 2 weeks, in second the beginning of the weekend, each group of experimental animal except the blank group in the afternoon 1:00 subcutaneous injection of 40% CCl4 of edible oil (0.05 mL/10g, 2 times / week) for modeling; at the same time, 9:00 in the morning to lipid-lowering tablets LARGEMEDTUM and small dose group (0.1125g/ml, 0.05625g/ml, 0.02815g/ml) and Gantai tablet group (0.045g/ml) mice fed with corresponding drugs, the model group received the same volume of physiological saline. At the end of the fifth week, the eyeballs were collected and the serum was separated. The levels of serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, serum AST, ALT and ALP were detected. Compared with the model group, Dongbao Gantai group, Jiangzhi tablets, high dose group had significantly decreased TG and LDL content in serum of mice (ptablets low dose group can significantly reduce TG and LDL content in serum (ptablet high dose group and middle dose group could significantly reduce the content of ALT, ALP, AST in serum of mice (ptablets in small dose group can significantly reduce ALP and AST content in serum (ptablets have a better intervention effect on the mice model of fatty liver induced by small dose of carbon tetrachloride.

  6. Mammalian folylpoly-γ-glutamate synthetase. 1. Purification and general properties of the hog liver enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichowicz, D.J.; Shane, B.

    1987-01-01

    Folylpolyglutamate synthetase was purified 30,000-150,000-fold from hog liver. Purification required the use of protease inhibitors, and the protein was purified to homogeneity in two forms. Both forms of the enzyme were monomers of M/sub r/ 62,000 and had similar specific activities. The specific activity of the homogeneous protein was over 2000-fold higher than reported for partially purified folylpolyglutamate synthetases from other mammalian sources. Enzyme activity was absolutely dependent on the presence of a reducing agent and a monovalent cation, of which K + was most effective. The purified enzyme catalyzed a MgATP-dependent addition of glutamate to tetrahydrofolate with the concomitant stoichiometric formation of MgADP and phosphate. Under conditions that resembled the expected substrate and enzyme concentrations in hog liver, tetrahydrofolate was metabolized to long glutamate chain length derivatives with the hexaglutamate, the major in vivo folate derivative, predominating. Enzyme activity was maximal at about pH 9.5. The high-pH optimum was primarily due to an increase in the K/sub m/ value for the L-glutamate substrate at lower pH values, and the reaction proceeded effectively at physiological pH provided high levels of glutamate were supplied

  7. Effect of benazepril and pimobendan on serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J N; Christinaz, C; Strehlau, G; Hornfeld, J

    2018-06-01

    To support their combined use, the objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of benazepril and pimobendan on serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in dogs. A total of 48 healthy beagle dogs were randomized into four groups (n = 12 per group) in a parallel-group design study: A (control, placebo twice daily (BID)); B (0.5-1.0 mg/kg benazepril once daily (SID) in the morning, placebo in the evening); C (0.25-0.5 mg/kg benazepril BID); D (0.25-0.5 mg/kg benazepril and 0.125-0.25 mg/kg pimobendan, both BID). The test items were administered orally for 15 days. Serum ACE activity was measured on days 1 and 15. Groups B, C and D had significantly lower average serum ACE activity compared to baseline and to the control group, on both days 1 and 15. There were no significant differences in average ACE activity between groups B, C and D. Noninferiority of group C to B was demonstrated. In conclusion, 0.25-0.5 mg/kg benazepril administered BID produced noninferior inhibition of serum ACE activity compared to 0.5-1.0 mg/kg benazepril dosed SID. Pimobendan had no significant effect on benazepril's action on serum ACE activity. The results support the use of benazepril BID in dogs and in combination with pimobendan. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Correlation of serum GP73, SOD and GPC3 contents with cell proliferation and angiogenesis in liver cancer lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Xin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of serum GP73, SOD and GPC3 contents with cell proliferation and angiogenesis in liver cancer lesion. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with primary liver cancer in Jianghan Oilfield General Hospital between June 2014 and February 2017 were selected as liver cancer group, and healthy subjects who received physical examination in Jianghan Oilfield General Hospital during the same period were selected as control group. Serum was collected from two groups of subjects to determine the contents of GP73, SOD and GPC3; liver cancer lesion and adjacent lesion were collected from liver cancer group to determine the expression of cell proliferation molecules and angiogenesis molecules. Results: Serum GP73 and GPC3 levels of liver cancer group were obviously higher than those of control group while SOD content was obviously lower than that of control group; DNMT3B, STC2, SIRT6, LETM1, EphB4, SULT2B1, HIF-1α, VEGF, Ang-2, HGF and TGF-β1 protein expression levels in liver cancer lesion of liver cancer group were significantly higher than those in adjacent lesion; DNMT3B, STC2, SIRT6, LETM1, EphB4, SULT2B1, HIF-1α, VEGF, Ang-2, HGF and TGF-β1 protein expression levels in liver cancer lesion of liver cancer group were positively correlated with serum GP73 and GPC3 levels, and negatively correlated with serum SOD level. Conclusion: The changes of GP73, SOD and GPC3 levels in the serum of patients with liver cancer are closely related to the cell proliferation and angiogenesis in liver cancer lesion.

  9. First Trimester Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, Low Platelets Syndrome in a Surrogate Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Emily; Hill, James

    2015-10-01

    Background The occurrence of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome before 20 weeks of gestation is rare. HELLP is a possible but rare syndrome in gestational surrogate pregnancies for surrogates with risk factors for development of preeclampsia. Case A 32-year-old patient with chronic hypertension and positive antinuclear antibody presented for prenatal care at 13 weeks and 1 day. She was a surrogate for the embryo of a 43-year-old couple. By 15 weeks she developed uncontrolled hypertension requiring hospitalization. She was expectantly managed until her condition deteriorated. At 16 weeks and 1 day she developed hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, thrombocytopenia, and fetal demise. Conclusions HELLP syndrome is rare and carries a significant morbidity and mortality for the mother and fetus. Clinicians should encourage the surrogate to share her medical history with the embryo donor for appropriate counseling on pregnancy risks.

  10. Influence of thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum cholesterol and triglycerides in young pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the effect of feeding thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum fatty acid and cholesterol concentration in young pigs, 102 barrows (6.67 ± 0.03 kg BW) were divided into 3 groups and randomly assigned to dietary tr...

  11. Embryonic turkey liver: activities of biotransformation enzymes and activation of DNA-reactive carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrone, Carmen E.; Duan, Jian Dong; Jeffrey, Alan M.; Williams, Gary M.; Ahr, Hans-Juergen; Schmidt, Ulrich; Enzmann, Harald H.

    2004-01-01

    Avian embryos are a potential alternative model for chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity research. Because the toxic and carcinogenic effects of some chemicals depend on bioactivation, activities of biotransformation enzymes and formation of DNA adducts in embryonic turkey liver were examined. Biochemical analyses of 22-day in ovoturkey liver post-mitochondrial fractions revealed activities of the biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxycoumarin de-ethylase (ECOD), 7-ethoxyresorufin de-ethylase (EROD), aldrin epoxidase (ALD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (GLUT). Following the administration of phenobarbital (24 mg/egg) on day 21, enzyme activities of ECOD, EROD, ALD, EH and GLUT, but not of GST, were increased by two-fold or higher levels by day 22. In contrast, acute administration of 3-methylcholanthrene (5 mg/egg) induced only ECOD and EROD activities. Bioactivation of structurally diverse pro-carcinogens was also examined using 32 P-postlabeling for DNA adducts. In ovoexposure of turkey embryos on day 20 of gestation to 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) resulted in the formation of DNA adducts in livers collected by day 21. Some of the DNA adducts had 32 P-postlabeling chromatographic migration patterns similar to DNA adducts found in livers from Fischer F344 rats exposed to the same pro-carcinogens. We conclude that 21-day embryonic turkey liver is capable of chemical biotransformation and activation of genotoxic carcinogens to form DNA adducts. Thus, turkey embryos could be utilized to investigate potential chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity. (orig.)

  12. Health behavior associated with liver enzymes among obese Korean adolescents, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Young; Choi, Hwa Young; Cho, Hyunsoon; Kim, Bo Hyun; Ki, Moran

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is major risk factor for liver health. This study aimed to clarify whether specific health behaviors were associated with liver function in obese adolescents in Korea. Based on national school health examination data from 2009 to 2014, 25,142 obese or overweight students were examined for aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels, and health behaviors. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio for liver enzyme elevation. Subjects who thought of themselves as "very fat" had a 1.6 times higher odds ratio for liver enzyme elevations than those who thought of themselves as "normal." Those who consumed fast food 3 to 5 times weekly had 1.3 times higher odds ratio (OR = 1.27, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.54) for the elevation of ALT than those who did not consume fast food. Those who took sugar-sweetened beverage 3 to 5 times weekly had 1.2 times higher odds ratio (OR = 1.24, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.42) for the elevation of ALT than those who did not take it. Those who played computer game more than 2 hours a day showed 1.1 times higher odds ratio (OR = 1.10, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.21) for the elevation of ALT than those who did not. Specific food item and its frequency of consumption were identified for the positive and negative association with the elevation of liver enzymes. Self-image of body shape, sleeping time and need of help for alcohol or smoking problems also showed substantial association with the elevation.

  13. Associated liver enzymes with hyperlipidemic profile in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Farah A; Arjumand, Sadia; Khan, Mohammad F; Tabassum, Hajera

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia and is associated with dyslipidemia and disturbed liver function. Aim of the present work is to assess the liver enzymes and to find its association with hyperlipidemic profile in T2DM. Total of 157 subjects were studied and divided into two groups; diabetes (n=81) and non-diabetes (n=76). Various biochemical parameters like fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (Tg), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were analyzed by ROCHE module Cobas 6000 (C501 & C601) analyzer, kits were procured by ROCHE diagnostics. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was estimated by Freidwald's formula. Statistical analysis was performed by applying student t test and Pearson's correlation coefficient, at 0.0001 and 0.05 level of significance, respectively. All the glycemic control parameters, lipid profile parameters except HDL-C and liver enzymes were found increased in diabetes group and significantly differ from non-diabetes group (p>0.0001). ALT showed significant positive correlation with fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, TC, Tg, LDL-C and GGT at p>0.05. AST showed very weak relation with all parameters while GGT was positively associated with fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, TC, Tg, LDL-C and ALT at p>0.05. In conclusion, T2DM incline to elevate liver enzymes, especially ALT and GGT were of significance. Routine screening of ALT and GGT in T2DM patients may assists early detection of liver abnormalities and to arrest the progress of disease.

  14. Health behavior associated with liver enzymes among obese Korean adolescents, 2009-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Lee

    Full Text Available Obesity is major risk factor for liver health. This study aimed to clarify whether specific health behaviors were associated with liver function in obese adolescents in Korea.Based on national school health examination data from 2009 to 2014, 25,142 obese or overweight students were examined for aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels, and health behaviors. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio for liver enzyme elevation.Subjects who thought of themselves as "very fat" had a 1.6 times higher odds ratio for liver enzyme elevations than those who thought of themselves as "normal." Those who consumed fast food 3 to 5 times weekly had 1.3 times higher odds ratio (OR = 1.27, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.54 for the elevation of ALT than those who did not consume fast food. Those who took sugar-sweetened beverage 3 to 5 times weekly had 1.2 times higher odds ratio (OR = 1.24, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.42 for the elevation of ALT than those who did not take it. Those who played computer game more than 2 hours a day showed 1.1 times higher odds ratio (OR = 1.10, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.21 for the elevation of ALT than those who did not.Specific food item and its frequency of consumption were identified for the positive and negative association with the elevation of liver enzymes. Self-image of body shape, sleeping time and need of help for alcohol or smoking problems also showed substantial association with the elevation.

  15. Embryonic turkey liver: activities of biotransformation enzymes and activation of DNA-reactive carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrone, Carmen E.; Duan, Jian Dong; Jeffrey, Alan M.; Williams, Gary M. [New York Medical College, Department of Pathology, Valhalla (United States); Ahr, Hans-Juergen; Schmidt, Ulrich [Bayer AG, Institute of Toxicology, Wuppertal (Germany); Enzmann, Harald H. [Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, Bonn (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    Avian embryos are a potential alternative model for chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity research. Because the toxic and carcinogenic effects of some chemicals depend on bioactivation, activities of biotransformation enzymes and formation of DNA adducts in embryonic turkey liver were examined. Biochemical analyses of 22-day in ovoturkey liver post-mitochondrial fractions revealed activities of the biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxycoumarin de-ethylase (ECOD), 7-ethoxyresorufin de-ethylase (EROD), aldrin epoxidase (ALD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (GLUT). Following the administration of phenobarbital (24 mg/egg) on day 21, enzyme activities of ECOD, EROD, ALD, EH and GLUT, but not of GST, were increased by two-fold or higher levels by day 22. In contrast, acute administration of 3-methylcholanthrene (5 mg/egg) induced only ECOD and EROD activities. Bioactivation of structurally diverse pro-carcinogens was also examined using {sup 32}P-postlabeling for DNA adducts. In ovoexposure of turkey embryos on day 20 of gestation to 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) resulted in the formation of DNA adducts in livers collected by day 21. Some of the DNA adducts had {sup 32}P-postlabeling chromatographic migration patterns similar to DNA adducts found in livers from Fischer F344 rats exposed to the same pro-carcinogens. We conclude that 21-day embryonic turkey liver is capable of chemical biotransformation and activation of genotoxic carcinogens to form DNA adducts. Thus, turkey embryos could be utilized to investigate potential chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity. (orig.)

  16. Effect of pH 5 enzyme from liver on the protein synthesis by mammary gland subcellular fractions in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jaspal; Singh, Ajit; Ganguli, N.C.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of pH 5 enzyme fraction of liver on the protein synthesizing activity of the subcellular fractions of the mammary gland has been investigated. Results indicate that (1) lactating liver pH 5 enzyme stimulates protein synthesis which is enhanced by the addition of ATP-generating system and (2) the enzyme fractions from the non-lactating liver inhibits the protein synthesis by mammary fractions, but in some cases like mitochondrial and supernatant fractions of mammary it elevates the synthesis when supplemented with ATP-generating system. Chlorella protein hydrolysate- 14 C was used as a tracer and rabits were used as experimental animals. (M.G.B.)

  17. Dynamics of some conjugated enzymes of aminonitrogen metabolism in the liver of the irradiated body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskij, V.I.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in the activity of five conjugated enzymes of the aminonitrogen metabolism in subcellular fractions of liver tissue have been studied on irradiated (450 R) rabbits during thirty days after exposure. These changes are peculiar for their manifestation in time, their depth and trend. It is suggested that in the early period of radiation damage, gluconeogenesis is enhanced, and in the later period, biosynthesis of pyrimidine bases is intensified

  18. Pattern of some risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and liver enzymes among Iranian seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baygi, Fereshteh; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Little information is available on the trend in cardiovascular risk factors and hepatic enzymes in Iranian seafarers. Thepresent study aimed at assessing the pattern of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, elevated serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase(SGOT), and serum glutamate pyruvate...... of antihypertensive drug use. Diabetes (DM) was defined as fasting blood sugar(FBS) > 110 mg/dl, or having a history of oral hypoglycemic agents; and elevated SGOT and SGPT were defined as SGOT > 40 U/Land SGPT > 40 U/L, respectively.Results: The BMI mean±SD values of Iranian seafarers were 24.81±3.07 kg/m2, 25...

  19. Serum levels of polyamine synthesis enzymes increase in diabetic patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Kenan Çelik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship between diabetes and breast cancer and the detection of enzymes and ornithine levels in polyamine synthesis pathway in diabetes, breast cancer and diabetic breast cancer patients. Methods: Ornithine, arginine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase and agmatinase levels have been measured in serum of all groups. Ornithine levels were measured spectrophotometrically. Arginine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase and agmatinase levels were determined by ELISA kits. Results: Except for the diabetic group, the levels of enzymes in the polyamine synthesis pathway were increased in all and statistically significant (P < 0.05. The increase in the levels of agmatinase was very important among the enzymes (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Decreased levels of polyamine synthase enzymes in diabetes mellitus were found to be increased patients with breast cancer. Whether and how diabetes-based breast cancer development relates to increase activity of enzymes responsible for polyamine synthesis requires further mechanistic and prospective monitoring studies in larger patient cohorts.

  20. Effect of Electromagnetic Waves Generated by Base Transiver Station on Liver Enzymes in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam-Ali Jelodar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was investigating the effect of electromagnetic wave generated by mobile and base transceiver station (900 MHz on liver enzymes in both mature and immature female age.Materials and Methods: In this study, 20 rats Sprague Dawley white mature female age 8 to 9 weeks and weight 180 to 200 g and 20 rats immature age 3 to 4 weeks, weight 80 to 100 g, each age group were randomly divided in two groups (control and test. Test groups, were daily for four hours and four different times exposed to electromagnetic waves with signal generator (900 MHz, 5-meter intervals. Control groups were kept at equal condition (themperature and light in laboratory during experiment. After at the end experimental period, blood was collected by heart puncture of all animal. Exposure to EMF generated by BTS had significant effect on liver enzymes composition in mature and immature rats.Results: AST, ALT and ALP in immature-test groups decreased significantly compared with their respective control groups (p<0.05. ALP in mature-test groups increased significantly compared with their respective control groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: These result suggest that exposure to EMF generated by BTS has a deleterious effect on liver enzymes and that this effect is more sever in immature animals.

  1. The effects of space flight on some rat liver enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of space flight conditions on the activities of certain enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rat liver are investigated in an attempt to account for the losses in body weight observed during space flight despite preflight caloric consumption. Liver samples were analyzed for the activities of 32 cytosolic and microsomal enzymes as well as hepatic glycogen and individual fatty acid levels for ground control rats and rats flown on board the Cosmos 936 biosatellite under normal space flight conditions and in centrifuges which were sacrificed upon recovery or 25 days after recovery. Significant decreases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in palmitoyl CoA desaturase are found in the flight stationary relative to the flight contrifuged rats upon recovery, with all enzymes showing alterations returning to normal values 25 days postflight. The flight stationary group is also observed to be characterized by more than twice the amount of liver glycogen of the flight centrifuged group as well as a significant increase in the ratio of palmitic to palmitoleic acid. Results thus indicate metabolic changes which may be involved in the mechanism of weight loss during weightlessness, and demonstrate the equivalence of centrifugation during space flight to terrestrial gravity.

  2. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus affects lysosomal enzymes in rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.B. Peres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been previously shown that dextran sulfate administered to diabetic rats accumulates in the liver and kidney, and this could be due to a malfunction of the lysosomal digestive pathway. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and activities of lysosomal enzymes that act upon proteins and sulfated polysaccharides in the livers of diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin in 26 male Wistar rats (12 weeks old, while 26 age-matched controls received only vehicle. The livers were removed on either the 10th or the 30th day of the disease, weighed, and used to evaluate the activity, expression, and localization of lysosomal enzymes. A 50-60% decrease in the specific activities of cysteine proteases, especially cathepsin B, was observed in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Expression (mRNA of cathepsins B and L was also decreased on the 10th, but not on the 30th day. Sulfatase decreased 30% on the 30th day, while glycosidases did not vary (or presented a transitory and slight decrease. There were no apparent changes in liver morphology, and immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of cathepsin B in hepatocyte granules. The decrease in sulfatase could be responsible for the dextran sulfate build-up in the diabetic liver, since the action of sulfatase precedes glycosidases in the digestive pathway of sulfated polysaccharides. Our findings suggest that the decreased activities of cathepsins resulted from decreased expression of their genes, and not from general lysosomal failure, because the levels of glycosidases were normal in the diabetic liver.

  3. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus affects lysosomal enzymes in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, G.B.; Juliano, M.A.; Aguiar, J.A.K.; Michelacci, Y.M.

    2014-01-01

    It has been previously shown that dextran sulfate administered to diabetic rats accumulates in the liver and kidney, and this could be due to a malfunction of the lysosomal digestive pathway. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and activities of lysosomal enzymes that act upon proteins and sulfated polysaccharides in the livers of diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin in 26 male Wistar rats (12 weeks old), while 26 age-matched controls received only vehicle. The livers were removed on either the 10 th or the 30 th day of the disease, weighed, and used to evaluate the activity, expression, and localization of lysosomal enzymes. A 50-60% decrease in the specific activities of cysteine proteases, especially cathepsin B, was observed in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Expression (mRNA) of cathepsins B and L was also decreased on the 10 th , but not on the 30 th day. Sulfatase decreased 30% on the 30 th day, while glycosidases did not vary (or presented a transitory and slight decrease). There were no apparent changes in liver morphology, and immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of cathepsin B in hepatocyte granules. The decrease in sulfatase could be responsible for the dextran sulfate build-up in the diabetic liver, since the action of sulfatase precedes glycosidases in the digestive pathway of sulfated polysaccharides. Our findings suggest that the decreased activities of cathepsins resulted from decreased expression of their genes, and not from general lysosomal failure, because the levels of glycosidases were normal in the diabetic liver

  4. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus affects lysosomal enzymes in rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, G.B. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Departamento de Bioquímica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Juliano, M.A. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Departamento de Biofísica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Biofísica, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Aguiar, J.A.K.; Michelacci, Y.M. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Departamento de Bioquímica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    It has been previously shown that dextran sulfate administered to diabetic rats accumulates in the liver and kidney, and this could be due to a malfunction of the lysosomal digestive pathway. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and activities of lysosomal enzymes that act upon proteins and sulfated polysaccharides in the livers of diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin in 26 male Wistar rats (12 weeks old), while 26 age-matched controls received only vehicle. The livers were removed on either the 10{sup th} or the 30{sup th} day of the disease, weighed, and used to evaluate the activity, expression, and localization of lysosomal enzymes. A 50-60% decrease in the specific activities of cysteine proteases, especially cathepsin B, was observed in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Expression (mRNA) of cathepsins B and L was also decreased on the 10{sup th}, but not on the 30{sup th} day. Sulfatase decreased 30% on the 30{sup th} day, while glycosidases did not vary (or presented a transitory and slight decrease). There were no apparent changes in liver morphology, and immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of cathepsin B in hepatocyte granules. The decrease in sulfatase could be responsible for the dextran sulfate build-up in the diabetic liver, since the action of sulfatase precedes glycosidases in the digestive pathway of sulfated polysaccharides. Our findings suggest that the decreased activities of cathepsins resulted from decreased expression of their genes, and not from general lysosomal failure, because the levels of glycosidases were normal in the diabetic liver.

  5. Levels of muscle enzymes in the serum after esophageal pneumatic dilation in patients with achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, N A; Ron, Y; Abramowich, D; Shirin, H; Scapa, E; Avni, Y

    2005-01-01

    The success rate of pneumatic dilation of the esophagus in patients with achalasia is variable. We aim to assess whether levels of muscle enzymes in the serum are useful for predicting the efficacy of this procedure. Consecutive adults with symptomatic achalasia treated with pneumatic dilation were included. Blood samples were taken immediately before the procedure and after 12, 24 and 32 h. Clinical efficacy of the pneumatic dilation was evaluated on the basis of a symptom score defined prior to, and 2 months after the procedure. Eleven patients underwent 13 pneumatic dilations. In nine patients this was the first dilation attempt. Ten dilations were clinically effective. The study was discontinued after enzyme levels did not show a trend of increase in any of our patients. Moreover, a statistically significant unexpected decrease in creatine phosphokinase values was found 12 h after the procedure, among the 10 successful dilations. We believe that levels of muscle enzymes in the serum cannot predict the efficacy of pneumatic dilation in patients with achalasia.

  6. Comparative digoxin determination in serum by means of a radioimmuno- and an enzyme immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, M.

    1981-01-01

    Two immunologic measuring methods for the quantitative digoxin determination in serum were compared. One method bases on the principle of radioisotope dilution, the second one on the principle of enzyme inhibition. The radioimmunoassay served as reference method. The limit of detection for RIA is 0.23 ng/ml, for EIA 0.40 ng/ml. For both methods the measuring range extends up to approx. 5.5 ng/ml. The degree of precision in series is 8.2% for RIA, 10.8% for EIA. Day-to-day precision is 4.4% for RIA, 15.2% for EIA. On comparison, the 59 serum samples of patients who received digoxin did not show any systematic difference. The results obtained can be transformed by means of the equations Csub(EIA) = 0.041 ng/ml + 0.936 Csub(RIA). In pathologic sera, however, there are significant differences disfavoring EIA, because due to high color concentrations or turbidities these sera do not permit any or any exact extinction measurements. The enzyme immunoassay should not be used with such sera. With regard to practicability the EIA corresponds more or less to RIA. The EIA can essentially be economized by using semi-microcuvettes and applying only the half of the recommended enzyme and antibody volume. (orig.) [de

  7. Serum Antioxidative Enzymes Levels and Oxidative Stress Products in Age-Related Cataract Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the activity of antioxidative enzymes and the products of oxidative stress in patients with age-related cataracts and compare the findings with those in healthy control subjects. Method. Sixty patients with age-related cataract and sixty healthy controls of matched age and gender were included in this study. Serum samples were obtained to detect the antioxidative enzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and oxidation degradation products of malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, conjugated diene (CD, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, protein carbonyl (PC, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG. Results. Serum SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities in cataract group were significantly decreased as compared to the control subjects (P<0.05. The levels of MDA, 4-HNE, and CD in cataract patients were significantly higher than those in the control subjects (P<0.05, P<0.01. Cataract patients had higher levels of 8-OHdG, AOPP, and PC with respect to the comparative group of normal subjects (P<0.01. And there was no statistical significance in concentration of antioxidative enzymes and oxidative stress products in patients with different subtype cataract. Conclusions. Oxidative stress is an important risk factor in the development of age-related cataract, and augmentation of the antioxidant defence systems may be of benefit to prevent or delay cataractogenesis.

  8. Effect of Probiotics on Serum Biochemical and Blood Constituents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Salmonella challenge affects serum albumin, globulin and GOT enzyme. The results obtained suggest that the probiotic, Toyocerin, mitigates the negative effects of Salmonella challenge. Keywords: Bacillus subtilis PB6, Bacillus Cereus var. toyoi, Probiotics, Liver enzymes, Hematology,. Salmonella enterica.

  9. The relationship between sugar-sweetened beverages and liver enzymes among healthy premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimony, Maya K; Schliep, Karen C; Schisterman, Enrique F; Ahrens, Katherine A; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Rotman, Yaron; Perkins, Neil J; Pollack, Anna Z; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mumford, Sunni L

    2016-03-01

    To prospectively assess the association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), added sugar, and total fructose and serum concentrations of liver enzymes among healthy, reproductive-age women. A prospective cohort of 259 premenopausal women (average age 27.3 ± 8.2 years; BMI 24.1 ± kg/m(2)) were followed up for up to two menstrual cycles, providing up to eight fasting blood specimens/cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls/cycle. Women with a history of chronic disease were excluded. Alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST, respectively) were measured in serum samples. Linear mixed models estimated associations between average SSB, added sugar, and total fructose intake and log-transformed liver enzymes adjusting for age, race, body mass index, total energy and alcohol intake, and Mediterranean diet score. For every 1 cup/day increase in SSB consumption and 10 g/day increase in added sugar and total fructose, log ALT increased by 0.079 U/L (95 % CI 0.022, 0.137), 0.012 U/L (95 % CI 0.002, 0.022), and 0.031 (0.012, 0.050), respectively, and log AST increased by 0.029 U/L (-0.011, 0.069), 0.007 U/L (0.000, 0.014), and 0.017 U/L (0.004, 0.030), respectively. Women who consumed ≥1.50 cups/day (12 oz can) SSB versus less had 0.127 U/L (95 % CI 0.001, 0.254) higher ALT [percent change 13.5 % (95 % CI 0.1, 28.9)] and 0.102 (95 % CI 0.015, 0.190) higher AST [percent change 10.8 % (95 % CI 1.5, 20.9)]. Sugar-sweetened beverages were associated with higher serum ALT and AST concentrations among healthy premenopausal women, indicating that habitual consumption of even moderate SSB may elicit hepatic lipogenesis.

  10. Hepatic copper content, urinary copper excretion, and serum ceruloplasmin in liver disease. [Activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritland, S; Skrede, S [Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Steinnes, E [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway)

    1977-01-01

    Liver copper content, urinary copper output and plasma ceruloplasmin have been evaluated in a variety of liver disorders. An activation analysis procedure for the determination of liver copper content is described. Dried biopsy samples were irradiated for two days at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5x10/sup 13/ ncm/sup -2/sec/sup -1/. After one day's delay the samples were dissolved in an acid mixture with copper carrier, and separated on an anion exchange column. The /sup 64/Cu activity in the separated fractions was recorded by gamma spectrometry using a Ge(Li) solid detector. The urinary copper excretion and the serum ceruloplasmin were determined by conventional laboratory methods.

  11. Serum biotin in Japanese children: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Kenji; Kodama, Hiroko; Ogawa, Eishin; Sato, Yasuhiro; Motoyama, Kahoko; Suzuki, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    Biotin deficiency has been reported in Japanese infants fed special formulas for medical reasons, including those with milk allergy and congenital metabolic diseases, because these formulas contain little biotin. Serum biotin measurement is useful for diagnosing biotin deficiency. We applied a simple and rapid method to analyze serum biotin, and established normal ranges for children and adults. Serum biotin in 188 healthy Japanese children aged 0-4 years and in 25 healthy adults was analyzed using a Biotin ELISA Kit (immundiagnostik). The effects of various conditions on the measurement of serum biotin were also examined. Median biotin in children aged 0-4 years was 10.4 ng/dL (IQR, 7.9-13.4 ng/dL), and that in adults was 12.9 ng/dL (IQR, 10.8-15.8 ng/dL). Normal range was 4.7-22.0 ng/dL in children and 8.4-20.5 ng/dL in adults (calculated using two-sided 95%CI). Measurements obtained with this method were not affected by frozen storage, freeze-thaw, or hemolysis, indicating that serum biotin can be analyzed accurately under these conditions, with a possible application to plasma samples. Serum biotin was significantly lower in children than in adults, with the normal range being 4.7-22.0 ng/dL in children and 8.4-20.5 ng/dL in adults. This simple and accurate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method is useful for diagnosing biotin deficiency. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatrics International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Effects of albumin administration in serum liver enzymes of rats in the presence of extrahepatic biliary obstruction Efeitos da administração de albumina nos níveis séricos de enzimas hepáticas em ratos com obstrução biliar extra-hepática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernando Rebouças Lessa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the influence of albumin on changes of liver function in the extrahepatic biliary obstruction through an experimental model in rats. METHODS: Sixty rats were divided into four groups: Group C (Control: 6 animals. Group M (Fictitious Operation: 18 rats underwent laparotomy and handling of the bile ducts; Groups O (extrahepatic biliary obstruction and A (Treated with 2% albumin: 18 animals in each group underwent ligation of the ductus liver; The animals in groups M, O and A were divided into three subgroups of 6 animals each to be killed in the 7, 14 and 21 days postoperative (POD. Blood was drawn for determination of total bilirubin (TB, indirect bilirubin (IB, direct bilirubin (DB, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. RESULTS: On POD 7, BI levels were 4.5 mg / dl in group O and 2.1 mg / dl in group A (p = 0.025. On the 14th POD, the levels of PA were 1185.2 U / l in the group and O 458.3 U / l in group A (p = 0.004. ALT levels were 101.7 U / l in the group O and 75.7 U / l in group A (= 0.037. On POD 21, the levels of ALP were 1069.5 U / l in the group O and 468.3 U / l in group A (p = 0, 004. CONCLUSION: The administration of albumin reduced the serum levels of bilirubin in the 7th day of supplementationOBJETIVO: Estudar a influência da albumina em alterações funcionais do fígado na obstrução biliar extra-hepática por meio de um modelo experimental desenvolvido em ratos. MÉTODOS: 60 ratos distribuídos em quatro grupos: Grupo C (Controle: 6 animais. Grupo M (Operação Fictícia: 18 ratos submetidos à laparotomia e manuseio das vias biliares; Grupos O (Obstrução Biliar Extra-hepática e A (Tratados com albumina a 2%: 18 animais, em cada grupo, submetidos à ligadura do ducto hepático; Os animais dos grupos M, O e A foram distribuídos em três subgrupos de 6 animais cada, para serem mortos nos 7°, 14° e 21° dias pós- operatórios (DPO. Foi colhido sangue

  13. Erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and serum enzyme concentrations in trained and sedentary men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijnen, P; Hespel, P; Van Oppens, S; Fiocchi, R; Goossens, W; Vanden Eynde, E; Amery, A

    1986-04-01

    The acute effect of exercise on the intraerythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration and on various serum enzymes and some related variables was investigated in 14 male athletes before and after a 50-min cross-country run and compared at rest to 15 sedentary subjects. Compared to the sedentary subjects, the athletes had higher resting levels of serum creatine phosphokinase, plasma myoglobin, and renin substrate but had a lower plasma renin activity. The red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration increased after exercise in the runners and was not different at rest between the athletes and the sedentary subjects. Our data therefore suggest that the resting plasma renin activity is reduced in athletes when compared to sedentary subjects. Training seems however not to alter the resting level of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in the red blood cells.

  14. Effects of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on Liver Fibrosis in HIV and Hepatitis C Coinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey J. Reese

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Liver fibrosis is accelerated in HIV and hepatitis C coinfection, mediated by profibrotic effects of angiotensin. The objective of this study was to determine if angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is attenuate liver fibrosis in coinfection. Methods. A retrospective review of 156 coinfected subjects was conducted to analyze the association between exposure to ACE-Is and liver fibrosis. Noninvasive indices of liver fibrosis (APRI, FIB-4, Forns indices were compared between subjects who had taken ACE-Is and controls who had not taken them. Linear regression was used to evaluate ACE-I use as an independent predictor of fibrosis. Results. Subjects taking ACE-Is for three years were no different than controls on the APRI and the FIB-4 but had significantly higher scores than controls on the Forns index, indicating more advanced fibrosis. The use of ACE-Is for three years remained independently associated with an elevated Forns score when adjusted for age, race, and HIV viral load (P<0.001. There were significant associations between all of the indices and significant fibrosis, as determined clinically and radiologically. Conclusions. There was not a protective association between angiotensin inhibition and liver fibrosis in coinfection. These noninvasive indices may be useful for ruling out significant fibrosis in coinfection.

  15. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay of serum pepsinogen A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pals, Gerard; Meuwissen, S.G.M.; Frants, R.R.; Kostense, P.J.; Eriksson, A.W.; Raesaenen, Vesa

    1987-01-01

    The determination of serum pepsinogen A (=pepsinogen I) levels is of clinical importance in the study of duodenal ulcer, atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. In the present study two different quantitative immunological techniques for serum pepsinogen A were compared: a radioimmunoassay (RIA) (Helsinki) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Amsterdam). Serum samples of 177 subjects with various gastric diseases were tested in a double blind study. The correlation was excellent (r=0.954 in the range 0-760 μg/l and r=0.971 in the range 0-100 μg/l). The functional relationship between ELISA (x) and RIA (y), determined by weighted model II regression, was y=1.12x-0.54. Initially the use of goat anti-PGA in the ELISA resulted in falsely high values in about 10% of the individuals. This was caused by circulating antibodies cross-reacting with goat IgG. This artefact was eliminated by pre-incubation of all samples with non-immune goat serum. (author)

  16. Comparison of Salivary and Serum Enzyme Immunoassays for the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Embil

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Helicobacter pylori has been established as an important risk factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastritis and gastric cancer. The diagnosis of H pylori infection can be established by invasive or noninvasive techniques. Two noninvasive enzyme immunoassays (EIAs for antibody detection – HeliSal and Pylori Stat – were compared with histology. Both assays detect immunoglobulin (Ig G directed against purified H pylori antigen. The test populations consisted of 104 consecutive patients scheduled for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Of these patients, 97 (93% had symptoms compatible with peptic ulcer disease. Saliva and serum were collected simultaneously at the time of endoscopy. Salivary EIA had a sensitivity of 66%, specificity of 67%, positive predictive value of 67% and negative predictive value of 66% compared with the serum EIA, where the results were 98%, 48%, 64% and 96%, respectively. Although the salivary EIA is an appealing noninvasive test, it was not a sensitive and specific assay. The serum EIA also lacked specificity, but was highly sensitive with a good negative predictive value. Although a negative serum EIA rules out H pylori infection, a positive result must be interpreted in the clinical context and confirmed with a more specific measure.

  17. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay of serum pepsinogen A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pals, G; Meuwissen, S G.M.; Frants, R R; Kostense, P J; Eriksson, A W; Raesaenen, V

    1987-02-01

    The determination of serum pepsinogen A (=pepsinogen I) levels is of clinical importance in the study of duodenal ulcer, atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. In the present study two different quantitative immunological techniques for serum pepsinogen A were compared: a radioimmunoassay (RIA) (Helsinki) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Amsterdam). Serum samples of 177 subjects with various gastric diseases were tested in a double blind study. The correlation was excellent (r=0.954 in the range 0-760 ..mu..g/l and r=0.971 in the range 0-100 ..mu..g/l). The functional relationship between ELISA (x) and RIA (y), determined by weighted model II regression, was y=1.12x-0.54. Initially the use of goat anti-PGA in the ELISA resulted in falsely high values in about 10% of the individuals. This was caused by circulating antibodies cross-reacting with goat IgG. This artefact was eliminated by pre-incubation of all samples with non-immune goat serum.

  18. Association between serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and fatty liver disease: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Xu, Cheng-Fu; Wan, Xing-Yong; Yu, Chao-Hui; Shen, Chao; Chen, Peng; Xu, Gen-Yun; Li, You-Ming

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and fatty liver disease (FLD) in a Chinese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among subjects who presented for a health examination at the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University in 2013. FLD was diagnosed based on an ultrasonography examination. Serum AFP levels were measured with a chemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: Of the 9800 subjects enrolled, 2601 were diagnosed with FLD. Subjects with FLD had higher serum AFP levels than those without the disease. Subjects with high serum AFP levels had a higher prevalence of FLD, metabolic syndrome, and its components. Univariate logistic analysis showed that elevated serum AFP levels were associated with an increased risk of FLD (OR = 1.057, 95%CI: 1.031-1.084). However, after adjusting for covariates, AFP no longer remained significantly associated with the risk factors for FLD. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that serum AFP levels are significantly associated with FLD and that AFP acts as a cofactor, but not as an independent factor, for FLD. PMID:25206293

  19. Bronchoalveolar lavage, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme, and 67Ga scanning in extrathoracic sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallaert, B.; Ramon, P.; Fournier, E.; Tonnel, A.B.; Voisin, C.

    1982-01-01

    Results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), 67Ga scanning, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) assay are compared in the assessment of pulmonary involvement in ten cases of extrathoracic sarcoidosis. Standard clinical, radiologic, and pulmonary function tests detected no pulmonary changes in these patients, but BAL demonstrated an increased alveolar lymphocytosis in eight of ten cases. SACE levels were increased in two cases, and the thoracic gallium uptake was normal in all cases. BAL appears to be the best technique for diagnosing latent pulmonary involvement in extrathoracic sarcoidosis

  20. Liver Enzymes and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Junxi; Au Yeung, Shiu Lun; Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    We used Mendelian randomization to estimate the causal effects of the liver enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), on diabetes and cardiovascular disease, using genetic variants predicting these liver enzymes at genome wide significance applied to extensively genotyped case-control studies of diabetes (DIAGRAM) and coronary artery disease (CAD)/myocardial infarction (MI) (CARDIoGRAMplusC4D 1000 Genomes). Genetically higher ALT ...

  1. Effects of 60Co gamma-ray local irradiation on rat liver on alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and catalase in the liver and serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishikawa-Itoh, Youko; Ayakawa, Yoshio; Miyata, Nobuki

    1980-01-01

    Rats were given a single exposure of various doses (0, 5, 50, 500, and 5000 rads) to local irradiation of 60 Co γ-ray on liver. Activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and catalase in the serum and liver were measured at various time intervals after irradiation. These results were summarized as follows; 1. ALP activity in the serum had no effect on irradiation up to 500 rads, but in the case of 5000 rads irradiation exhibited a marked loss from 4 days after irradiation. ALP activity in the liver to 5000 rads exposure on 7 days after irradiation increased, on the other hand in the serum decreased, and the patterns of ALP activities in the liver and serum to the irradiation doses were opposite. 2. LDH activity in the serum by exposure to 5, 500 and 5000 rads increased at 4 days after irradiation, but at 7 days significantly decreased. LDH activity in the liver to the irradiation doses on 7 days after irradiation did not markedly change, but in the serum it tended to be low in inverse proportion to the irradiation doses. 3. Catalase activity in the serum to 50 and 500 rads exposure increased at 4 days after irradiation and decreased at 7 days, but to 5000 rads exposure it decreased in the course of time. Catalase activity in the liver and serum on 7 days after irradiation were inversely proportional to irradiation doses. It is difficult that catalase activity makes a index of clinical irradiation effects, because catalase activity decrease under the various conditions, such as cancer, anemia, infection of bacterias and so on. Since activities of ALP and LDH increase in almost disease, decrease of ALP activity and decrease following temporary increase of LDH activity by irradiation may be able to become a clinical indicator on irradiation effects. (author)

  2. The effects of space flight on some rat liver enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

    We have examined, in the livers of rats carried aboard the Cosmos 936 biosatellite, the activities of about 30 enzymes concerned with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In addition to the enzyme studies, the levels of glycogen and of the individual fatty acids in hepatic lipids were determined. Livers from flight and ground control rats at recovery (R0) and 25 days after recovery (R25) were used for these analyses. For all parameters measured, the most meaningful comparisons are those made between flight stationary (FS) and flight centrifuged (FC) animals at R0. When these two groups of flight rats were compared at R0, statistically significant decreases in the activity levels of glycogen phosphorylase, α-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in the palmitoyl CoA desaturase were noted in the weightless group (FS). The significance of these findings was strengthened by the fact that all enzyme activities showing alterations at R0 returned to normal 25 days postflight. When liver glycogen and total fatty acids of the two sets of flight animals were determined, significant differences that could be attributed to reduced gravity were observed. The weightless group (FS) at R0 contained, on the average, more than twice the amount of glycogen than did the centrifuged controls (FC) and a remarkable shift in the ratio of palmitate to palmitoleate was noted. These metabolic alterations, both in enzyme levels and in hepatic constituents, appear to be characteristic of the weightless condition. Our data seem to justify the conclusion that centrifugation during flight is equivalent to terrestrial gravity.

  3. Lipasin, a novel nutritionally-regulated liver-enriched factor that regulates serum triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren

    2012-08-10

    The metabolic syndrome, a common disorder including glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia, poses a major public health issue. Patients with high blood lipids, such as triglycerides, are at high risk in developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. To identify genes involved in metabolism, we performed RNA-seq experiments on the liver and fat in mice treated with a high-fat diet or fasting, and identified Gm6484 (named Lipasin) as a novel nutritionally regulated gene. Human LIPASIN is liver specific, while the mouse one is enriched in the liver and fat, including both brown and white adipose tissues. Obesity increases liver Lipasin, whereas fasting reduces its expression in fat. ANGPTL3 (Angiopoietin-like 3) and ANGPTL4 are critical regulators of blood lipids. LIPASIN shares homology with ANGPTL3's N-terminal domain that is needed for lipid regulation, and with ANGPTL4's N-terminal segment that mediates lipoprotein lipase (LPL) binding. Lipasin overexpression by adenoviruses in mice increases serum triglyceride levels, and a recombinant Lipasin inhibits LPL activity. Therefore, a potential mechanism for Lipasin-mediated triglyceride elevation is through reduced triglyceride clearance by LPL inhibition. Lipasin is thus a novel nutritionally-regulated liver-enriched factor that plays a role in lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Do serum ALAT values reflect the inflammatory activity in the liver of patients with chronic viral hepatitis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cahen, D. L.; van Leeuwen, D. J.; ten Kate, F. J.; Blok, A. P.; Oosting, J.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out in 40 patients with chronic viral hepatitis, to assess whether serum alanine aminotransferase reflects the inflammatory process in the liver. Twenty liver biopsy specimens were included for each disease. Five histological aspects were scored: periportal

  5. Serum and tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme in patients with alopecia areata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Shabnam; Montazer, Fatemeh; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Naraghi, Zahra Safaei; Abedini, Robabeh; Nasimi, Maryam; Ghandi, Narges

    2018-03-27

    Alopecia areata is an immune-dependent disorder characterized by the interaction of T-lymphocytes with follicular antigens. Recent studies have shown the existence of a local renin-angiotensin system in the skin, where angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a role in autoimmunity and inflammation. The objective of this study was to evaluate serum and tissue ACE activity in patients with alopecia areata. This case-control study was conducted on patients with alopecia areata and healthy controls. Serum and tissue ACE activity were assessed and compared between the two groups. Twenty-five alopecia areata patients (60% male, mean age 32.1 ± 9.9 years) and 24 controls (50% male, mean age 37.4 ± 8.8 years) were included. Mean serum ACE activity was 52.1 ± 9 U/L in cases and 55.3 ± 14.7 U/L in controls (P = 0.37). Tissue ACE activity was significantly lower in cases in all parts of the skin i.e. epidermis (P = 0.016), follicular epithelium (P = 0.004), and endothelium (P = 0.037). Among cases, serum ACE activity was significantly higher in patients with more severe disease (P = 0.030), nonpatchy alopecia areata (alopecia universalis; ophiasis, patchy and ophiasis, diffuse) (P = 0.029), and with nail involvement (P = 0.027). The sample size was too small to draw definite conclusions. Further, most of the patients had only mild or moderate alopecia areata. Unlike in some other inflammatory diseases, the tissue level of ACE seems to be significantly lower in alopecia areata compared to normal controls. Serum ACE was significantly higher in patients with more severe disease.

  6. Liver enzymes in diabetic and non diabetic subjects with clinically diagnosed hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidhan Chandra Sarkar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of liver disease and raised liver enzymes is common in diabetic patients and the increasing level of enzymes indicates the severity of hepatic injury. Very few studies have addressed this issue in Bangladesh though Bangladeshi population is very much susceptible to diabetes. This study investigated a total of 1400 diabetic patients and 100 non diabetic individuals to compare the level of liver enzymes between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. The comparisons were made among subjects who were referred to the department of Gastro-hepato-pancreatic diseases (GHPD of BIRDEM with the clinical diagnosis of chronic hepatitis and other gastro-intestinal disorders. The investigations included alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bilirubin levels. The subjects were categorized with and without hepatitis based on these investigations. The biochemical markers (ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin did not differ significantly between non-diabetic male and female subjects. Neither the differences were significant between diabetic males and females though the diabetic patients had higher level of markers. In contrast, when compared between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects there were striking differences in either sex. Compared with the non-diabetic the diabetic subjects had significantly higher level of ALT (48.3 vs. 277.0, AST (42.0 vs. 213.0 and ALP (148 vs. 302 in males (p<0.005 for all. Similarly, these values were found significantly higher in diabetic females than their non-diabetic counterparts (p<0.01. For bilirubin, it was also found significant in males (p<0.001. The study revealed that the liver enzymes were found elevated in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects who were referred with clinically diagnosed hepatitis. The enzymes were found markedly elevated among the diabetic than non diabetic patients, which indicate hepatic injury was more marked among the diabetic patients. Further

  7. Effects of Lipotropic Products on Productive Performance, Liver Lipid and Enzymes Activity in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravinia H

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a 42-d experiment, 576 one-day-old Vencobb 308 broiler chicks were used to investigate the effects of lecithin extract (0.5 g/kg, choline chloride 60% (1 g/kg and Bio choline (1 g/kg in diets of moderate and high energy in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement on performance and certain physiological traits in broiler chickens. The inclusion of Bio choline and lecithin extract in the diet significantly increased average daily gain and improved feed conversion ratio  in overall (1 to 42 d period (P < 0.05. Performance efficiency index was improved in the birds fed with Bio choline compared to those fed control diet. Broilers fed diets containing Bio choline and lecithin extract had less abdominal fat percentage than those fed choline chloride or control diet. Regardless of dietary energy level, supplementation of diet with Bio choline, choline chloride and lecithin extract significantly decreased liver lipid concentration (P < 0.05. Aspartate aminotransferase activity increased in the serum of broilers fed high energy diets while it was decreased in the birds received diets containing choline chloride. Lipotropic compounds decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase activity in the birds fed on high energy diets. The addition of Bio choline and lecithin extract to diet significantly decreased serum γ–glutamyltransferase activity (P < 0.05. Results of the present study revealed that dietary supplementation of commercial lipotropic compounds could remove potential detrimental effects from high energy diets through reducing liver fat and maintaining liver health.

  8. Correlation between serum levels of PC III and the degree of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xue; Xu Yu; Li Wenjie; Zhang Jun; Yu Ying; Wang Kun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between serum level of PC III and the degree of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases. Methods: Serum level of PC III was assayed with RIA and other markers of liver function (including ALT, AST, STB, SDB, TP, ALB, TBA) were assayed with automatic biochemical analyzer in 188 patients with various chronic liver diseases. PC III only were examined in 70 controls. Results: (1) The serum levels of PC III were in this order: chronic severe hepatitis (n=27, 501.17 ± 191.09) > liver cirrhosis from chronic hepatitis (n=27,334.52 ± 139.14) > chronic moderate hepatitis ( n = 32,298.02 ± 151.02) > primary liver cancer (n=39,281.42 ± 143.48) > normal controls (n=70,122.56 ± 92.94). (2) The serum levels of PC III were positively correlated with STB and SDB levels (P<0.05) in patients with chronic severe hepatitis and was significantly positively correlated with ALP levels (P<0.01). (3) The serum level of PC III were significantly positively correlated with STB, SDB, TBA and ALP in patients with cirrhosis from chronic hepatitis (P<0.01). (4) The serum levels of PC III were significantly positively correlated with AST and ALP levels in patients with chronic moderate hepatitis (P<0.01). (5) The serum levels of PC III were significantly positively correlated with STB, SDB, TBA, AST and ALP in patients with primary liver cancer (P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum level of PC III might adequately reflect the activity of the process of hepatic fibrosis, but did not necessarily reflect the degree of fibrosis already attained. (authors)

  9. Comparison of serum lipid profile in non alcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, A.; Ain, Q.U.A.; Ahmed, N.; Shafiq, A.M.; Sapna, K.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare serum lipid profile in different ultrasonographic grades of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: PNS SHIFA hospital, Karachi, from Oct 2015 to Jul 2016. Material and Methods: Seventy three adults of either gender were consecutively inducted after diagnosis of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on ultrasonography (USG). These individuals were further classified into grade I, II and III of NAFLD depending on US findings. Fasting blood sample of all the subjects was analyzed for serum fasting lipid profile comprising of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Serum non HDL cholesterol (nonHDL-C) was calculated by subtracting HDL-C from TC. Results: Among 73 subjects with NAFLD, 42.5%, 37% and 20.5% had grade I, II and III NAFLD respectively. All parameters showed significant increase in frequency of abnormal results with increasing grade of NAFLD except TG. Significant difference was found in mean TC (p=0.000), LDL-C (p=0.000), HDL-C (p=0.005) and nonHDL-C (p=0.000) between grades of NAFLD. Post hoc analysis revealed that only mean nonHDL-C was significantly different amongst all the grades of NAFLD. Conclusion: The increasing severity of NAFLD was found associated with increased frequency of dyslipidemia. Though most frequent dyslipidemia in NAFLD was low serum HDL-C followed by hypertriglyceridemia, only serum nonHDL-C was statistically different amongst all the grades of NAFLD. (author)

  10. Atorvastatin induces bile acid-synthetic enzyme Cyp7a1 by suppressing FXR signaling in both liver and intestine in mice[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Cui, Julia Yue; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-01-01

    Statins are effective cholesterol-lowering drugs to treat CVDs. Bile acids (BAs), the end products of cholesterol metabolism in the liver, are important nutrient and energy regulators. The present study aims to investigate how statins affect BA homeostasis in the enterohepatic circulation. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with atorvastatin (100 mg/kg/day po) for 1 week, followed by BA profiling by ultra-performance LC-MS/MS. Atorvastatin decreased BA pool size, mainly due to less BA in the intestine. Surprisingly, atorvastatin did not alter total BAs in the serum or liver. Atorvastatin increased the ratio of 12α-OH/non12α-OH BAs. Atorvastatin increased the mRNAs of the BA-synthetic enzymes cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) (over 10-fold) and cytochrome P450 27a1, the BA uptake transporters Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1b2, and the efflux transporter multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 in the liver. Noticeably, atorvastatin suppressed the expression of BA nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) target genes, namely small heterodimer partner (liver) and fibroblast growth factor 15 (ileum). Furthermore, atorvastatin increased the mRNAs of the organic cation uptake transporter 1 and cholesterol efflux transporters Abcg5 and Abcg8 in the liver. The increased expression of BA-synthetic enzymes and BA transporters appear to be a compensatory response to maintain BA homeostasis after atorvastatin treatment. The Cyp7a1 induction by atorvastatin appears to be due to suppressed FXR signaling in both the liver and intestine. PMID:25278499

  11. Quantitative aspects of enzyme histochemistry on sections of freeze-substituted glycol methacrylate-embedded rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, W. M.; Bosch, K. S.

    1993-01-01

    Freeze-substituted rat liver embedded in glycol methacrylate (GMA) has been used to demonstrate the activities of several enzymes. The following enzymes could be detected in GMA-sections by the indicated histochemical procedure(s): 5'-nucleotidase (lead salt, cerium-diaminobenzidine), alkaline

  12. Serum Lipoprotein (a Levels in Chronic Renal Failure and Liver Cirrhosis Patients. Relationship with Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Mady

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between lipoprotein (a levels and the development of atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure (CRF patients with the possible role of the liver. Serum Lp (a levels were measured in samples from 20 CRF patients on hemodialysis (HD, 20 liver cirrhosis (LC patients, 20 patients having both CRF and LC and undergoing HD, and 20 normal control subjects. Renal function (blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine, hepatic function (transaminases (ALT and AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total bilirubin investigations and serum cholesterol were carried out for all the subjects enrolled in this study. Serum Lp (a concentration in CRF patients without LC was 87.25 ± 6.17 mg/dl, which was significantly higher than all the investigated groups (P < 0.001. Lp(a concentration in patients with both CRF and LC was 24.65 ± 1.98 mg/dl, which was not significantly different from the controls, but was significantly higher than that in the subjects with LC only (P < 0.001 where the latter group had significantly low Lp (a values (11.1 ± 0.99 relative to all the other groups (P < 0.001. Lp (a correlated positively with cholesterol in all groups except the LC subjects, but did not correlate with age, or renal function in both CRF groups.

  13. Cyclic fatty acid monomers from dietary heated fats affect rat liver enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboni, C; Sébédio, J L; Perkins, E G

    1998-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM), contained in heated fat from a commercial deep-fat frying operation, on rat liver enzyme activity. A partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) used 7 d (7-DH) for frying foodstuffs, or 0.15% methylated CFAM diets was fed to male weanling rats in comparison to a control group fed a nonheated PHSBO (NH) diet in a 10-wk experiment. All diets were isocaloric with 15% fat. Animals fed either CFAM or 7-DH diets showed increased hepatic content of cytochrome (cyt.) b5 and P450 and increased activity of (E.C. 1.6.2.4) NADPH-cyt. P450 reductase in comparison to the control rats. In addition, the activities of (E.C. 2.3.1.21) carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I and (E.C. 1.1.1.42) isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly decreased when compared to that of rats fed the NH diet. A significantly depressed activity of (E.C. 1.1.1.49) glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase was also observed for these animals compared to the control rats fed NH diet. Moreover, liver and microsomal proteins were significantly increased when CFAM or 7-DH diets were fed to animals in comparison to controls while liver glycogen was decreased significantly in experimental groups of rats. The results obtained in this study indicate that the CFAM in the diet from either synthetic sources or used fats increase the activity of liver enzyme systems that detoxify them.

  14. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Baek, Eun Hye; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Kyung Soon; Shin, Hea Soon; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Jin Eung; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2009-06-11

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20 approximately 30 years old) to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108 approximately 109 CFU/ml) were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet) every day for 2 weeks. B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  15. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  16. First Trimester Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, Low Platelets Syndrome in a Surrogate Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Myer, Emily; Hill, James

    2015-01-01

    Background The occurrence of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome before 20 weeks of gestation is rare. HELLP is a possible but rare syndrome in gestational surrogate pregnancies for surrogates with risk factors for development of preeclampsia. Case A 32-year-old patient with chronic hypertension and positive antinuclear antibody presented for prenatal care at 13 weeks and 1 day. She was a surrogate for the embryo of a 43-year-old couple. By 15 weeks she developed...

  17. Prospective comparison of magnetic resonance imaging to transient elastography and serum markers for liver fibrosis detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyvorne, Hadrien A; Jajamovich, Guido H; Bane, Octavia; Fiel, M Isabel; Chou, Hsin; Schiano, Thomas D; Dieterich, Douglas; Babb, James S; Friedman, Scott L; Taouli, Bachir

    2016-05-01

    Establishing accurate non-invasive methods of liver fibrosis quantification remains a major unmet need. Here, we assessed the diagnostic value of a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in comparison with transient elastography (TE) and blood tests [including ELF (Enhanced Liver Fibrosis) and APRI] for liver fibrosis detection. In this single centre cross-sectional study, we prospectively enrolled 60 subjects with liver disease who underwent multiparametric MRI (DWI, DCE-MRI and MRE), TE and blood tests. Correlation was assessed between non-invasive modalities and histopathologic findings including stage, grade and collagen content, while accounting for covariates such as age, sex, BMI, HCV status and MRI-derived fat and iron content. ROC curve analysis evaluated the performance of each technique for detection of moderate-to-advanced liver fibrosis (F2-F4) and advanced fibrosis (F3-F4). Magnetic resonance elastography provided the strongest correlation with fibrosis stage (r = 0.66, P fibrosis (F2-F4), AUCs were 0.78, 0.82, 0.72, 0.79, 0.71 for MRE, TE, DCE-MRI, DWI and APRI, respectively. For detection of advanced fibrosis (F3-F4), AUCs were 0.94, 0.77, 0.79, 0.79 and 0.70, respectively. Magnetic resonance elastography provides the highest correlation with histopathologic markers and yields high diagnostic performance for detection of advanced liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, compared to DWI, DCE-MRI, TE and serum markers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Changes of liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in patients with trichloroethylene induced drugrash-like dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Senhua; Xie Guoqiang; Zeng Zeming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the liver function damage and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels changes in patients suffering from trichloroethylene induced drugrash-like dermatitis. Methods: Serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), procollagen type III (PC III), type IV collagen ( IV C) levels (with RIA), mono-amine oxidase (MAO) activity (with chemo-colorimetry) and liver function tests (including ALT, AGT, total protein, albumin, total bile acid, with automated biochemical analysis system) were determined in 30 controls and 30 patients with trichloroethylene induced drugrash-like dermatitis. Results: Severe liver function damage was demonstrated in all the patients. The serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels were significantly increased (vs controls, P<0.01) and correlated well with the degree of hepatic damage. Conclusion: Liver damage occurred early in patients with trichloroethylene induced dermatitis, accompanied with laboratory evidence of hepatic fibrosis. (authors)

  19. Improved simultaneous determination method of beta-carotene and retinol with saponification in human serum and rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosotani, Keisuke; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2003-07-05

    Among the many simultaneous determination methods for carotenoid and retinoid, there are only a few reports including the saponification process. However, the yields of beta-carotene and retinol were higher when using this process. In this study, the analytical conditions, including saponification, were investigated. The extraction solvent was n-hexane and the sample solvent was HPLC mobile phase in the beta-carotene and retinol analysis. BHT as an antioxidant was added at concentrations of 0.125 and 0.025%, respectively, to ethanol and n-hexane phase in the extraction process for serum. The recovery rates were 99.7, 93.7 and 98.3% for beta-carotene, retinol and retinyl palmitate in serum, respectively, and 107.1, 92.8 and 98.8% for beta-carotene, retinol and retinyl palmitate in liver, respectively. The within-day coefficients of variation (C.V.) were 6.0% for serum and 4.7% for liver in the case of beta-carotene, 7.1% for serum, and 5.1% for liver in the case of retinol. The between-day coefficients of variation were 2.7% for serum and 2.7% for liver in the case of beta-carotene, and for retinol, 6.4% for serum and 2.7% for liver.

  20. Serum thymidine kinase activity of various cancer and HBV positive liver diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torizumi, Kazutami; Aibata, Hirofumi; Kiji, Shigeyuki; Ohta, Kiichiro; Okamoto, Yukiharu; Ohshiro, Iwao; Hirose, Tetsuhito

    1987-03-01

    Clinical utility of determination of serum deoxythymidine kinase (TK) activity is described. It is well known that elevated TK level is observed in leukemia and other malignant diseases, or some viral infectious diseases. The TK activity was assayed on normal subjects, hepatitis B virus (HBV) positive liver diseases and various cancer by a newly developed high sensitive method, radioenzyme assay (REA) utilizing /sup 125/I-iododeoxyuridine as the substrate. Measurement of TK activity by the REA is revealed to be useful for ''the marker of DNA metabolism anomaly'' in leukemia, etc.

  1. Association between serum irisin levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in health screen examinees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Sung Choi

    Full Text Available Irisin is a recently found myokine that aids obesity control and improves glucose homeostasis by acting on white adipose tissue cells and increases total energy consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum irisin levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and to compare these levels with those of normal controls. Among 595 health screen examinees who had visited our institute between January 2013 to March 2013, 355 patients (84 NAFLD patients and 271 normal controls were enrolled depending on whether they gave written informed consents and their history of alcohol intake, blood tests, and abdominal ultrasonographic findings. Age; sex; laboratory test parameters; homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; and levels of leptin, adiponectin, and irisin were assessed. Serum irisin levels (ng/ml were significantly higher in the NAFLD group than in normal controls (63.4 ± 32.6 vs. 43.0 ± 29.7, p<0.001 and higher in the mild fatty liver group than in the moderate-to-severe fatty liver group (68.3 ± 38.2 vs. 56.6 ± 21.2, p<0.001. Additionally, serum irisin levels were not different between the non-obese and obese groups (48.4 ± 34.2 vs. 45.8 ± 22.9, p = 0.492; however, the levels were significantly lowest in normal controls and highest in the mild fatty liver group in the non-obese (44.9 ± 31.7 vs. 73.1 ± 48.5 vs 59.7 ± 18.0, p<0.001 and obese groups (35.0 ± 17.0 vs. 62.9 ± 21.2 vs. 54.6 ± 23.3, p<0.001. Serum irisin levels were significantly higher in NAFLD patients, which is not consistent with the results of previously published studies. Therefore, more studies are needed to confirm the role of irisin in NAFLD.

  2. Subcellular distribution of histone-degrading enzyme activities from rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, P.C.; Raydt, G.; Puschendorf, B.; Jusic, M.

    1976-01-01

    Chromatin prepared from liver tissue contains a histone-degrading enzyme activity with a pH optimum of 7.5-8.0, whereas chromatin isolated from purified nuclei is devoid of it. The histone-degrading enzyme activity was assayed with radioactively labelled total histones from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Among the different subcellular fractions assayed, only lysosomes and mitochondria exhibited histone-degrading enzymes. A pH optimum around 4.0-5.0 was found for the lysosomal fraction, whereas 7.5-8.0 has been found for mitochondria. Binding studies of frozen and thawed lysosomes or mitochondria to proteinase-free chromatin demonstrate that the proteinase associated with chromatin isolated from frozen tissue originates from damaged mitochondria. The protein degradation patterns obtained after acrylamide gel electrophoresis are similar for the chromatin-associated and the mitochondrial proteinase and different from that obtained after incubation with lysosomes. The chromatin-associated proteinase as well as the mitochondrial proteinase are strongly inhibited by 1.0 mM phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. Weak inhibition is found for lysosomal proteinases at pH 5. Kallikrein-trypsin inhibitor, however, inhibits lysosomal proteinase activity and has no effect on either chromatin-associated or mitochondrial proteinases. The higher template activity of chromatin isolated from a total homogenate compared to chromatin prepared from nuclei may be due to the presence of this histone-degrading enzyme activity. (orig.) [de

  3. Association between Serum Uric Acid and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntur Darmawan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is known to be associated with some metabolic disorders. Recent studies suggested the role of uric acid in NAFLD through oxidative stress and inflammatory process. This study is aimed to evaluate the association between serum uric acid and NAFLD. Methods: a systematic literature review was conducted using Pubmed and Cochrane library. The quality of all studies was assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE. All data were analyzed using REVIEW MANAGER 5.3. Results: eleven studies from America and Asia involving 100,275 subjects were included. The pooled adjusted OR for NAFLD was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.66-2.23; p<0.00001. Subgroup analyses were done based on study design, gender, non-diabetic subjects, non-obese subjects. All subgroup analyses showed statistically significant adjusted OR and most of which having low to moderate heterogeneity. Two studies revealed relationship between increased serum uric acid levels and severity of NAFLD. No publication bias was observed. Conclusion: our study demonstrated association between serum uric acid level and NAFLD. This finding brings a new insight of uric acid in clinical practice. Increased in serum uric acid levels might serve as a trigger for physician to screen for NAFLD.

  4. Effects of dietary probiotic supplementation on LXRα and CYP7α1 gene expression, liver enzyme activities and fat metabolism in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z; Mu, C; Chen, Y; Zhu, Z; Chen, C; Lan, L; Xu, Q; Zhao, W; Chen, G

    2015-04-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary probiotic supplementation on liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7α1) mRNA levels, protein enzymatic activities and fat metabolism in Cherry Valley Pekin ducks. 2. A total of 750 one-day-old Cherry Valley Pekin ducks were randomly divided into 5 groups with three replicates of 50 ducks each in a completely randomised experiment. Each group was fed on a basal diet supplemented with 0, 500, 1000, 1500 or 2000 mg probiotics/kg. 3. Body rate and feed conversion ratio were highest and abdominal subcutaneous fat % was lowest at 1000 mg probiotic/kg. 4. The mRNA levels of LXRα and CYP7α1 in liver tissue was estimated by RT-PCR; serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations were measured by ELISA. 5. The expression levels and enzyme activity of LXRα and CYP7α1 increased in conjunction with decreases in TG and TC concentrations following probiotic supplementation to a maximum at 1000 mg probiotics/kg and decreased thereafter. 6. It is concluded that dietary probiotics can enhance LXRα and CYP7α1 enzyme activities in the liver and reduce lipid concentrations and fat deposition in ducks.

  5. Quantitative analysis of core fucosylation of serum proteins in liver diseases by LC-MS-MRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junfeng; Sanda, Miloslav; Wei, Renhuizi; Zhang, Lihua; Goldman, Radoslav

    2018-02-07

    Aberrant core fucosylation of proteins has been linked to liver diseases. In this study, we carried out multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) quantification of core fucosylated N-glycopeptides of serum proteins partially deglycosylated by a combination of endoglycosidases (endoF1, endoF2, and endoF3). To minimize variability associated with the preparatory steps, the analysis was performed without enrichment of glycopeptides or fractionation of serum besides the nanoRP chromatography. Specifically, we quantified core fucosylation of 22 N-glycopeptides derived from 17 proteins together with protein abundance of these glycoproteins in a cohort of 45 participants (15 disease-free control, 15 fibrosis and 15 cirrhosis patients) using a multiplex nanoUPLC-MS-MRM workflow. We find increased core fucosylation of 5 glycopeptides at the stage of liver fibrosis (i.e., N630 of serotransferrin, N107 of alpha-1-antitrypsin, N253 of plasma protease C1 inhibitor, N397 of ceruloplasmin, and N86 of vitronectin), increase of additional 6 glycopeptides at the stage of cirrhosis (i.e., N138 and N762 of ceruloplasmin, N354 of clusterin, N187 of hemopexin, N71 of immunoglobulin J chain, and N127 of lumican), while the degree of core fucosylation of 10 glycopeptides did not change. Interestingly, although we observe an increase in the core fucosylation at N86 of vitronectin in liver fibrosis, core fucosylation decreases on the N169 glycopeptide of the same protein. Our results demonstrate that the changes in core fucosylation are protein and site specific during the progression of fibrotic liver disease and independent of the changes in the quantity of N-glycoproteins. It is expected that the fully optimized multiplex LC-MS-MRM assay of core fucosylated glycopeptides will be useful for the serologic assessment of the fibrosis of liver. We have quantified the difference in core fucosylation among three comparison groups (healthy control, fibrosis and cirrhosis patients) using a sensitive and

  6. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Mehmet; Coskun, Omer; Budancamanak, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L (NS) and Urtica dioica L (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats. METHODS: Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated) and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals. All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc, twice a week for 60 d). In addition, B, C and D groups also received daily i.p. injections of 0.2 mL/kg NS or/and 2 mL/kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment. RESULTS: The CCl4 treatment for 60 d increased the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and also decreased the antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (alone or combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increased the reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. The weight of rats decreased in group A, and increased in groups B, C and D. CONCLUSION: NS and UD decrease the lipid per-oxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the anti-oxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats. PMID:16425366

  7. Distinct Prominent Roles for Enzymes of Plasmodium berghei Heme Biosynthesis in Sporozoite and Liver Stage Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuschewski, Kai; Haussig, Joana M.

    2016-01-01

    Malarial parasites have evolved complex regulation of heme supply and disposal to adjust to heme-rich and -deprived host environments. In addition to its own pathway for heme biosynthesis, Plasmodium likely harbors mechanisms for heme scavenging from host erythrocytes. Elaborate compartmentalization of de novo heme synthesis into three subcellular locations, including the vestigial plastid organelle, indicates critical roles in life cycle progression. In this study, we systematically profile the essentiality of heme biosynthesis by targeted gene deletion of enzymes in early steps of this pathway. We show that disruption of endogenous heme biosynthesis leads to a first detectable defect in oocyst maturation and sporogony in the Anopheles vector, whereas blood stage propagation, colonization of mosquito midguts, or initiation of oocyst development occurs indistinguishably from that of wild-type parasites. Although sporozoites are produced by parasites lacking an intact pathway for heme biosynthesis, they are absent from mosquito salivary glands, indicative of a vital role for heme biosynthesis only in sporozoite maturation. Rescue of the first defect in sporogony permitted analysis of potential roles in liver stages. We show that liver stage parasites benefit from but do not strictly depend upon their own aminolevulinic acid synthase and that they can scavenge aminolevulinic acid from the host environment. Together, our experimental genetics analysis of Plasmodium enzymes for heme biosynthesis exemplifies remarkable shifts between the use of endogenous and host resources during life cycle progression. PMID:27600503

  8. Relationship between elevated liver enzyme with iron overload and viralhepatitis in thalassemia major patients in Northern Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameli, M.; Besharati, S.; Nemati, K.; Zamani, F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the relationship between elevated liverenzymes with iron overload and viral hepatitis in thalassemia patients. Thisdescriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the thalassemic ward ofTonekabon Hospital, Mazandaran, Northern Iran from 20 April to 20 Septemberof 2006. Patients were studied with respect to age, liver enzymes,anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg), transferring saturation (TSAT)and blood transfusion index(multiplication of frequency and units of transfusion). Alanineaminotransferase (ALT) >=40 U/L was considered elevated. Sixty-five patientswere evaluated (median age 19.51+-8.9 years, range 4-54). Eleven patientswere anti-HCV positive (16.9%). The mean serum ferritin was significantlyhigher in patients with ALT>=40 (2553.08 ug/L versus 1783.7750 ug/L)(p=0.012). The mean ALT was significantly higher in patients with TSAT >=60%(41.26 U/L versus 28.82 U/L) (p=0.021). The relationship between ALT>=40 andanti-HCV positively was statistically significant. The mean ALT was 60.91 U/Lin anti-HCV positive patients and 39.29 U/L in the negative group (p=0.001).The mean serum iron and transfusion index were significantly higher inanti-HCV positive versus negative patients (234.0 versus 195.4815; p=0.02),(1693.6 versus 1036.29, p=0.014). Close association between elevated ALT withiron overload, transfusion index, age and anti-HCV positivity in thalassemiapatients of Tonekabon is recommended to re-evaluate transfusion and Desferaldoses and therapies other than blood transfusion. (author)

  9. Persistently and asymptomatic raised liver enzymes as a form of presentation of Wilson's disease at pediatric age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Matos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wilson`s disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a change in the transport of copper in the liver, with progressive accumulation in this and other organs such as brain, kidney and cornea. Phenotypic expression of the disease varies widely and can range from elevated liver enzymes, fatty liver or gallstones in asymptomatic patients, to cirrhosis and fulminant hepatic failure, or disabling neuropsychiatric disease. Aim: To characterize a sample of patients with Wilson´s disease. Patients and Methods: Retrospective survey including children diagnosed with Wilson´s disease between 2002 and 2011 according to the criteria of the European Association for the Study of the Liver (2012. We analyzed family history; age, clinical data, imaging and histology at the time of diagnosis; genetic analysis; treatment and side effects; follow-up and current status. Results: We identified five patients. Three had a family history of disease. All were asymptomatic and had maintained raised liver enzymes. No patient had clinical stigmata of chronic liver disease. One female patient had overweight. All were treated with D-penicillamine, withdrawn in two patients because of side effects. Currently all patients remain asymptomatic, without evidence of progression of liver disease, with a median follow-up of 5 years and 3 months. Discussion: Our series show that Wilson´s disease may be present with raised liver enzymes in asymptomatic children. The overweight patient alerts us to screen the disease in overweight/obese patients with raised liver enzymes and/or steatosis persisting for more than six months after weight loss.

  10. Evaluation of electrochemiluminescene immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serum HBsAb detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Caiyun; Jiang Li; Ge Gaoxia; Zhang Xiaojie

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemiluminescene immunoassay (ECLIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) were used to detect the different concentrations of serum HBsAb, in order to compare the results of ECLIA and ELISA. The result showed that intra-assay coefficient of variation of ECLIA was about 0.95% for high value, 1.13% for mean values and 2.63% for low value, while that of ELISA was about 5.76%, 12.8% and 15.9%, respectively. The interassay coefficient of ECLIA was about 4.03% for high values, 4.93% for mean values and 7.34% for low values, while that of ELISA was about 10.1%, 19.6% and 25.2%, respectively. The analytical sensitivity of ECLIA was about 4.0IU/L, while that of ELISA is about 19.0IU/L. Only in 3 samples, the results measured by ECLIA and ELISA were different (ECLIA: positive; ELISA: negative) among 165 samples. It is concluded that the met hod of ECLIA is more efficient than ELISA for detection of HBsAb in serum. (authors)

  11. Comparative toxicity of low dose tributyltin chloride on serum, liver, lung and kidney following subchronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sumonto; Gera, Ruchi; Singh, Vikas; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2014-02-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) pollution is rampant worldwide and is a growing threat due to its bio-accumulative property. Isolated studies of TBT toxicity on different organs are available but consolidated information is greatly lacking. We planned this study to delineate the effect of subchronic (1 month) exposure to low dose TBT-chloride (TBTC) (1 and 5 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats. Total tin concentration was found to be significantly increased in liver, kidney and blood, and marginally in lungs. Organo-somatic indices were seen to be altered with little effect on serum biochemical markers (liver and kidney function, and general parameters). Reactive oxygen species but not lipid peroxidation content was observed to be significantly elevated both in the tissues and serum. TBTC was found to act as a hyperlipidemic agent and it also affected heme biosynthetic pathway. Hematological analysis showed that TBTC exposure resulted in minor alterations in RBC parameters. Histological studies demonstrated marked tissue damage in all the 3 organs. Calcium inhibitors (BAPTA-AM, EGTA) and antioxidants (NAC, C-PC) significantly restored TBTC induced loss in cell viability, under ex-vivo conditions. Antioxidants were evidently more efficient in comparison to the calcium inhibitors, implying major role of oxidative stress pathways in TBTC toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermometric enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in continuous flow system: optimization and evaluation using human serum albumin as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrebaeck, C; Börjeson, J; Mattiasson, B

    1978-06-15

    Thermometric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TELISA) is described. After the procedure of optimization, human serum albumin was assayed using anti-human serum albumin bound to Sepharose CL 4-B in the enzyme thermistor unit and catalase as label on the free antigen. The model system was used for assays down to 10(-13)M and the preparation of immobilized antibodies was used repeatedly up to 100 times. Comparative studies of the TELISA technique with bromocresol green, immunoturbidimetric and rocket immunoelectrophoretic methods were carried out and showed that TELISA could be used as an alternative method.

  13. Evaluation of the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Berberis vulgaris root on the activity of liver enzymes in male hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Taheri

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Noticing the antioxidant properties of B. vulgaris root extract  and its effects on reducing the activity of liver enzymes, the extract of this plant can be a good choice for improving the function of liver.

  14. Evaluation the effect of silver nanoparticles on oxidative stress biomarkers in blood serum and liver and kidney tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Tashakori Miyanroudi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs are one of the most widely used nanomaterials recently. Despite the wide application of nanomaterials, there is limited information concerning their impact on human health and the environment. This study aimed to find the effects of Ag-NPs (40 nm on blood serum, liver and kidney tissues of homing pigeons (Columbia livia.Materials and Methods: Columba livia, in vivo model used in ecotoxicity experiments were gavaged 3 times daily with 75 and 150 ppm of Ag-NPs within 14 days. A group of 30 Pigeon were randomly divided into three groups: Ag-NPs exposed and control groups (n=10. Data analysis was counducted by performing one-way variance (ANOVA in SPSS.v.16.0                                                                         Results: The results of this study illustrated that in the enzyme activity of Glutathione S –transferase (GST, Aspartate amino transferase (AST, Alanine amino transferase (ALT and lactate dehydrogenas (LDH there is a significant difference between treatment groups with Ag-NPs and the control group. Also, lipid peroxidation (LPO analysis and catalase activity CAT suggest Ag-NPs cause the main damage to the liver tissue. On the other hand: Ag-NPs have toxic and harmful effects in both concentrations (75 and 150 ppm, and cause LPO induction, oxidative stress and increase of biomarkers of liver necrosis in under treatment pigeons.Conclusion: The results of this study show that the organism’s exposure to Ag-NPs cause toxicity that is dose-dependant. in this study, the highest damage was observed in the liver. However, this issue will have to be considered more extensively in further studies.

  15. Effects of limited concentrate feeding on growth and blood and serum variables, and on nutrient digestibility and gene expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohakare, J D; van de Sand, H; Gerlach, K; Hosseini, A; Mielenz, M; Sauerwein, H; Pries, M; Südekum, K-H

    2012-02-01

    This study elucidated the effects of limited concentrate feeding on growth, nutrient digestibility, blood profile and gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in the liver of dairy calves. The study utilized 36 German Holstein dairy calves (5-7 days of age) divided into two groups of 18 calves each for 150 days. Control group calves received 2 kg/(calf × day) of concentrate, whereas calves in the restricted group received only 1 kg/(calf × day). Good quality forage (mixture of maize and grass silages) was available for ad libitum consumption to both groups. The intake of milk replacer before weaning, and of concentrate were recorded daily per calf; however, the consumption of forages was quantified as daily average of the group. Body weights (BW) were recorded at start and on days 35, 70, 112 and 150. Blood and serum samples and spot urinary and faecal samples were also collected at similar time points. On days 70 and 150, liver biopsies were collected from seven animals in each group. The BW was not different between the groups at all times. Total BW gain in the control group was 124 kg as opposed to 111 kg in restricted group that led to average BW gain of 827 g/day and 739 g/day in respective groups, and the differences were significant (p = 0.018). As planned, the control group had higher concentrate and lower forage intake than the restricted group. The blood haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum variables (glucose, total protein, albumin and urea) were within the normal range in both groups, but serum glucose was higher (p < 0.05) in control than in restricted group at 70 days. There was no difference between groups in organic matter (OM) digestibility which declined (p < 0.001) with increasing age in both groups. Microbial crude protein (MCP) synthesis estimated from urinary allantoin excretion increased (p < 0.001) in both groups with increasing age but was not different between groups. The mRNA expressions for the gluconeogenic enzymes, cytosolic and

  16. Serum angiotensin--converting enzyme (SACE) in sarcoidosis and other granulomatous disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studdy, P; Bird; James, D G; Sherlock, S

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) activity was significantly higher in 90 patients with sarcoidosis (55 +/- [S.D.] 23 nmol min-1 ml-1) than in 80 healthy controls (34 +/- 9 nmol min-1 ml-1). Steroid therapy modified SACE activity; 60 sarcoidosis patients who were not being treated with steroids had significantly higher enzyme activities (58 +/- 24 nmol min-1 ml-1) than 30 steroid-treated sarcoidosis patients (40 +/- 19 nmol min-1 ml-1). In 50% of the non-steroid treated sarcoidosis patients SACE activity was more than than 2 S.D. above the mean value for the controls. SACE activity was measured in 22 tuberculous patients (38 +/- 14 nmol min-1 ml-1), 20 leprosy patients (34 +/- 9 nmol min-1 ml-1), 31 with primary biliary cirrhosis (44 +/- 20 nmol min-1 ml-1), 26 with inflammatory bowel disease (31 +/- 9 nmol min-1 ml-1), eight with hepatic granulomatous disease, five with Hodgkin's disease, and two with schistosomiasis. The combined false-positive rate for these non-sarcoidosis patients was 10%. Serial SACE assays provide useful information on the course of sarcoidosis and response to steroid treatment.

  17. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) in sarcoidosis and other granulomatous disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studdy, P; Bird, R; James, D G

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) activity was significantly higher in 90 patients with sarcoidosis (55 +/- [S.D.] 23 nmol min-1 ml-1) than in 80 healthy controls (34 +/- 9 nmol min-1 ml-1). Steroid therapy modified SACE activity; 60 sarcoidosis patients who were not being treated with steroids had significantly higher enzyme activities (58 +/- 24 nmol min-1 ml-1) than 30 steroid-treated sarcoidosis patients (40 +/- 19 nmol min-1 ml-1). In 50% of the non-steroid treated sarcoidosis patients SACE activity was more than 2 S.D. above the mean value for the controls. SACE activity was measured in 22 tuberculous patients (38 +/- 14 nmol min-1 ml-1), 20 leprosy patients (34 +/- 9 nmol min-1 ml-1), 31 with primary biliary cirrhosis (44 +/- 20 nmol min-1 ml-1), 26 with inflammatory bowel disease (31 +/- 9 nmol min-1 ml-1), 8 with hepatic granulomatous disease, 5 with Hodgkin's disease, and 2 with schistosomiasis. The combined false-positive rate for these non-sarcoidosis patients was 10%. Serial SACE assays provide useful information on the course of sarcoidosis and response to steroid treatment.

  18. The relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and liver enzymes in overweight or obese adults: Cross-sectional and interventional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderpoor, Negar; Mousa, Aya; de Courten, Maximilian; Scragg, Robert; de Courten, Barbora

    2018-03-01

    history of liver disease, and vitamin D supplementation had no effect on the serum levels of hepatic enzymes in vitamin D-deficient and overweight or obese, otherwise healthy individuals. Hence, vitamin D supplementation is unlikely to prevent incident NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influenza A plasma and serum virus antibody detection comparison in dogs using blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Lin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The influenza A virus (IAV is an important zoonotic pathogen with infections also reported in dogs. IAV infections can be detected through the presence of antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Serum is the only standard sample source; however, there is no information on the availability of other sample sources for IAV antibody detection in dogs. Compared with serum, plasma is more widely employed in most animal hospitals. The object of this study is to investigate whether plasma collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA tubes (EDTA plasma or heparin tubes (heparin plasma could be used in the ELISA protocol instead of serum for IAV antibody detection in dogs. Materials and Methods: Totally, 82 matched EDTA plasma and serum sample pairs and 79 matched heparin plasma and serum sample pairs were employed using blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA. The agreement and correlation between the plasma (EDTA or heparin plasma and serum were assessed using the agreement index kappa (kD calculation and Pearson correlation coefficient, respectively. Results: The agreement index kD of EDTA plasma and serum was 1.0, and that of heparin plasma and serum was 0.85. The Pearson correlation coefficient of EDTA plasma and serum was 0.87 (p<0.01, and that of heparin plasma and serum was 0.82 (p<0.01. Conclusion: The results proved that plasma, especially EDTA plasma, could be substituted for serum in the bELISA test. This might greatly expand the clinical applicability of IAV antibody detection in dogs.

  20. Evaluation of serum angiotension converting enzyme (SACE) as a diagnostic marker for pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, S.N.H.; Naeem, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: A number of supportive laboratory tests such as ECG, Chest x-ray, ABGs SLDH, SGOT, S. Bilirubin and D-dimer with variable sensitivity and specificity are available to facilitate the clinical diagnosis of acute Pulmonary Embolism (PE). Serum Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (SACE) which is produced mainly by the pulmonary vascular endothelial cells, is found altered during a variety of diffuse lung diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the validity of SACE level as a marker for hypoxic damage to the pulmonary endothelium in PE. Design: A prospective study carried out on forty patients with high clinical suspicion of PE. Besides routine diagnostic tests mentioned above all of them had ventilation Perfusion isotope (v/q) scans (as a diagnostic test) and SACE level checked. Setting: Shaikh Zayed Hospital Lahore. Results: Among forty consecutive patients with age range 25-59 years (mean: 42 Yr). Twenty six patients (65%) with abnormal scans reported as High probability were included in group-A (True Positive), whereas 14(35)% patients having low-probability (suspected or Normal scan were included in group-b, low SACE level (<28iu/l) was found in 19/26 (sensitivity of 73% in group-A (positive Predictive Value: 47%) and 9/14(sensitivity of 64%) in Group-B. Whereas mean levels for both groups were 34.55 and 54.84 respectively. Rise in LDH was pronounced in group A. Only chest x-ray and ECGS were found to be more sensitive for group-A than group-B. Changes in ABGs (type-1 resp. Failure) had low sensitivity. Conclusion: Among clinically suspected cases of PE, fall in SACE level can be used as a sensitive and reliable diagnostic marker as more than 75% of the enzyme in produced in the lungs compared with other enzymes which have extra-pulmonary source. (author)

  1. Mass spectrometric characterization of human serum albumin dimer: A new potential biomarker in chronic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldi, Marina; Baldassarre, Maurizio; Nati, Marina; Laggetta, Maristella; Giannone, Ferdinando Antonino; Domenicali, Marco; Bernardi, Mauro; Caraceni, Paolo; Bertucci, Carlo

    2015-08-10

    Human serum albumin (HSA) undergoes several structural alterations affecting its properties in pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory environments, as it occurs during liver cirrhosis. These modifications include the formation of albumin dimers. Although HSA dimers were reported to be an oxidative stress biomarker, to date nothing is known about their role in liver cirrhosis and related complications. Additionally, no high sensitive analytical method was available for HSA dimers assessment in clinical settings. Thus the HSA dimeric form in human plasma was characterized by mass spectrometry using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-Q-TOF) and matrix assisted laser desorption time of flight (MALDI-TOF) techniques. N-terminal and C-terminal truncated HSA, as well as the native HSA, undergo dimerization by binding another HSA molecule. This study demonstrated the presence of both homo- and hetero-dimeric forms of HSA. The dimerization site was proved to be at Cys-34, forming a disulphide bridge between two albumin molecules, as determined by LC-MS analysis after tryptic digestion. Interestingly, when plasma samples from cirrhotic subjects were analysed, the dimer/monomer ratio resulted significantly increased when compared to that of healthy subjects. These isoforms could represent promising biomarkers for liver disease. Additionally, this analytical approach leads to the relative quantification of the residual native HSA, with fully preserved structural integrity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fibroblast growth factor-21 and omentin-1 hepatic mRNA expression and serum levels in morbidly obese women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluga, M; Kukla, M; Zorniak, M; Kajor, M; Liszka, L; Dyaczynski, M; Kowalski, G; Zadlo, D; Waluga, E; Olczyk, P; Buldak, R J; Berdowska, A; Hartleb, M

    2017-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) and omentin-1 have been recognized as potent antidiabetic agents with potential hepatoprotective activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate hepatic FGF21 and omentin-1 mRNA expression as well as their serum levels as predictive markers of liver injury and insulin resistance in morbidly obese women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study included 56 severely obese women who underwent intraoperative wedge liver biopsy during the bariatric surgery. Hepatic FGF21 and omentin-1 mRNA were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, while their serum concentrations were measured with commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The FGF21 serum level was significantly higher in patients with a greater extent of steatosis (grade 2 and 3) compared to those without or with mild steatosis (grade 0 and 1) (P = 0.049). Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis, however, showed poor discriminant power for the FGF21 serum levels in differentiating between more and less extensive steatosis with an AUC = 0.666. There was a tendency towards higher levels of hepatic FGF21 mRNA in patients with lobular inflammation and fibrosis and towards lower levels in the case of hepatocyte ballooning and steatosis. There was a positive mutual correlation between hepatic FGF21 and omentin-1 mRNA levels (r = 0.78; P hepatic omentin-1 mRNA levels showed a tendency to be lower in patients with advanced steatosis and hepatocyte ballooning. In conclusion, our study, which focused on hepatic FGF21 and omentin-1 mRNA expression, confirmed marked expression of both molecules in the liver of morbidly obese patients with NAFLD. More extensive steatosis was associated with evident changes in the serum FGF21 concentration in morbidly obese women with NAFLD, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The vast amount of fat, both visceral and subcutaneous, in severely obese patients may be the additional source and influence

  3. Inhaled ozone (O3)-induces changes in serum metabolomic and liver transcriptomic profiles in rats☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Desinia B.; Karoly, Edward D.; Jones, Jan C.; Ward, William O.; Vallanat, Beena D.; Andrews, Debora L.; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Snow, Samantha J.; Bass, Virginia L.; Richards, Judy E.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution has been linked to increased incidence of diabetes. Recently, we showed that ozone (O3) induces glucose intolerance, and increases serum leptin and epinephrine in Brown Norway rats. In this study, we hypothesized that O3 exposure will cause systemic changes in metabolic homeostasis and that serum metabolomic and liver transcriptomic profiling will provide mechanistic insights. In the first experiment, male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were exposed to filtered air (FA) or O3 at 0.25, 0.50, or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for two days to establish concentration-related effects on glucose tolerance and lung injury. In a second experiment, rats were exposed to FA or 1.0 ppm O3, 6 h/day for either one or two consecutive days, and systemic metabolic responses were determined immediately after or 18 h post-exposure. O3 increased serum glucose and leptin on day 1. Glucose intolerance persisted through two days of exposure but reversed 18 h-post second exposure. O3 increased circulating metabolites of glycolysis, long-chain free fatty acids, branched-chain amino acids and cholesterol, while 1,5-anhydroglucitol, bile acids and metabolites of TCA cycle were decreased, indicating impaired glycemic control, proteolysis and lipolysis. Liver gene expression increased for markers of glycolysis, TCA cycle and gluconeogenesis, and decreased for markers of steroid and fat biosynthesis. Genes involved in apoptosis and mitochondrial function were also impacted by O3. In conclusion, short-term O3 exposure induces global metabolic derangement involving glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolism, typical of a stress–response. It remains to be examined if these alterations contribute to insulin resistance upon chronic exposure. PMID:25838073

  4. Vitamin B2 content determination in liver paste by using acid and acid-enzyme hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basić Zorica

    2007-01-01

    the samples (r = 0.9994, and r = 0.99987. Hydrolysis procedures make a sample suitable for vitamin B2 determination. In the liver paste samples a high content of vitamin B2 was determined: 0.83 mg/100 g after acid hydrolysis, and 0.909 mg/100 g after acid-enzyme hydrolysis. There were statistically significantly higher values determined after the acid-enzyme hydrolysis (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Using acid-enzyme hydrolysis and separation instrument technique (liquid chromatography with a fluorescent detector as detection system, statistically significantly greater vitamin B2 quantities were determined than after using acid hydrolysis procedure. Vitamin B2 content determined in ten liver paste samples was high (0.881 − 0.936 mg/100g indicating that this meat product is a good vitamin B2 source.

  5. Changes of serum contents of LPO, SOD after treatment with vita. E-C complex in patients with liver spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qing; Feng Zheng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum contents of LPO, SOD and therapeutic efficacy after treatment with Vita. E-C complex in patients with liver spot. Methods: Serum LPO and SOD contents were measured both before and after treatment with Vita E-C complex (Vita. E l00mg, Vita. C 200mg x 3/d for 3 months) in 30 patients with liver spot as well as in 10 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum LPO contents in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls. After treatment, the LPO contents dropped markedly, being significantly lower than the values before treatment. However, the SOD contents were about the same as those in controls and changes little after treatment. Conclusion: Vita. E-C complex was of definite therapeutic value for the treatment of liver spot. (authors)

  6. Effect of Ganfukang on liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in SD rats with experimental hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Ying; Wang Shanju; Xu Tingting; Jiang Miaona; Jia Yujie

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of Ganfukang on liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in SD rats with experimental hepatic fibrosis. Methods: SD rat models of liver fibrosis was induced by CCl 4 (n=57). Liver function (GPT, GOT) and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels (HA, LN, C-IV, PC-III, with RIA) were tested in these models and 10 control rats. Eleven model rats were left untreated, the others were treated with Ganfukang of different concentrations and the above hepatic parameters were again determined after completion of treatment. Results: Lever function was much deteriorated and serum markers levels significantly increased in the model rats (vs controls, P<0.01). After treatment with Ganfukang, the improvement was significant (vs untreated models, P<0.01). Conclusion: Ganfukang is of definite therapeutic value for experimental hepatic fibrosis in rat models. (authors)

  7. Effect of L-ascorbic acid on nickel-induced alterations in serum lipid profiles and liver histopathology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kusal K; Gupta, Amrita Das; Dhundasi, Salim A; Patil, Ashok M; Das, Swastika N; Ambekar, Jeevan G

    2006-01-01

    Nickel exposure greatly depletes intracellular ascorbate and alters ascorbate-cholesterol metabolism. We studied the effect of the simultaneous oral treatment with L-ascorbic acid (50 mg/100 g body weight (BW) and nickel sulfate (2.0 mg/100 g BW, i.p) on nickelinduced changes in serum lipid profiles and liver histopathology. Nickel-treated rats showed a significant increase in serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and a significant decrease in serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. In the liver, nickel sulfate caused a loss of normal architecture, fatty changes, extensive vacuolization in hepatocytes, eccentric nuclei, and Kupffer cell hypertrophy. Simultaneous administration of L-ascorbic acid with nickel sulfate improved both the lipid profile and liver impairments when compared with rats receiving nickel sulfate only. The results indicate that L-ascorbic acid is beneficial in preventing nickel-induced lipid alterations and hepatocellular damage.

  8. Inhaled ozone (O3)-induces changes in serum metabolomic and liver transcriptomic profiles in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Desinia B.; Karoly, Edward D.; Jones, Jan C.; Ward, William O.; Vallanat, Beena D.; Andrews, Debora L.; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Snow, Samantha J.; Bass, Virginia L.; Richards, Judy E.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has been linked to increased incidence of diabetes. Recently, we showed that ozone (O 3 ) induces glucose intolerance, and increases serum leptin and epinephrine in Brown Norway rats. In this study, we hypothesized that O 3 exposure will cause systemic changes in metabolic homeostasis and that serum metabolomic and liver transcriptomic profiling will provide mechanistic insights. In the first experiment, male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were exposed to filtered air (FA) or O 3 at 0.25, 0.50, or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for two days to establish concentration-related effects on glucose tolerance and lung injury. In a second experiment, rats were exposed to FA or 1.0 ppm O 3 , 6 h/day for either one or two consecutive days, and systemic metabolic responses were determined immediately after or 18 h post-exposure. O 3 increased serum glucose and leptin on day 1. Glucose intolerance persisted through two days of exposure but reversed 18 h-post second exposure. O 3 increased circulating metabolites of glycolysis, long-chain free fatty acids, branched-chain amino acids and cholesterol, while 1,5-anhydroglucitol, bile acids and metabolites of TCA cycle were decreased, indicating impaired glycemic control, proteolysis and lipolysis. Liver gene expression increased for markers of glycolysis, TCA cycle and gluconeogenesis, and decreased for markers of steroid and fat biosynthesis. Genes involved in apoptosis and mitochondrial function were also impacted by O 3 . In conclusion, short-term O 3 exposure induces global metabolic derangement involving glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolism, typical of a stress–response. It remains to be examined if these alterations contribute to insulin resistance upon chronic exposure. - Highlights: • Ozone, an ubiquitous air pollutant induces acute systemic metabolic derangement. • Serum metabolomic approach provides novel insights in ozone-induced changes. • Ozone exposure induces leptinemia, hyperglycemia, and glucose intolerance

  9. Turmeric Supplementation Improves Serum Glucose Indices and Leptin Levels in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navekar, Roya; Rafraf, Maryam; Ghaffari, Aida; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Khoshbaten, Manouchehr

    2017-01-01

    Insulin and leptin resistance are important risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There is limited evidence regarding the effects of turmeric on NAFLD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of turmeric supplementation on glycemic status and serum leptin levels in patients with NAFLD. This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 46 patients with NAFLD (21males and 25 females) aged 20-60 years old and body mass index (BMI) between 24.9 and 40 kg/m2. The turmeric group (n = 23) was given six turmeric capsules daily for 12 weeks. Each capsule contained 500 mg turmeric powder (6×500 mg). The placebo group (n = 23) was given six placebo capsules daily for the same period. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and physical activity levels were collected at the baseline and at the end of the study. Daily dietary intakes also were obtained throughout the study. Data were analyzed by independent t test, paired t test and analysis of covariance. Turmeric consumption decreased serum levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and leptin (by 1.22, 17.69, 19.48 and 21.33% respectively, p Turmeric supplementation improved glucose indexes and serum leptin levels and may be useful in the control of NAFLD complications.

  10. Association between Serum Uric Acid and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, Guntur; Hamijoyo, Laniyati; Hasan, Irsan

    2017-04-01

    non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is known to be associated with some metabolic disorders. Recent studies suggested the role of uric acid in NAFLD through oxidative stress and inflammatory process. This study is aimed to evaluate the association between serum uric acid and NAFLD. a systematic literature review was conducted using Pubmed and Cochrane library. The quality of all studies was assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). All data were analyzed using REVIEW MANAGER 5.3. eleven studies from America and Asia involving 100,275 subjects were included. The pooled adjusted OR for NAFLD was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.66-2.23; puric acid levels and severity of NAFLD. No publication bias was observed. our study demonstrated association between serum uric acid level and NAFLD. This finding brings a new insight of uric acid in clinical practice. Increased in serum uric acid levels might serve as a trigger for physician to screen for NAFLD.

  11. Where should the safe limits of alcohol consumption stand in light of liver enzyme abnormalities in alcohol consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onni Niemelä

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for abnormal liver enzymes in a large age- and gender stratified population-based sample of apparently healthy individuals with or without alcohol consumption and other health-related risk factors (adiposity, physical inactivity, smoking.Data on alcohol use, smoking, diet and physical activity were recorded using structured questionnaires from 13,976 subjects (6513 men, 7463 women, aged 25-74 years in the national FINRISK studies. Alcohol data was used to categorize the participants into abstainers, light drinkers, moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activities were measured using standard kinetic methods.Male light drinkers, moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers showed significantly higher relative risks of abnormal GGT than abstainers: 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.71, p < 0.01, 2.72 (2.08 to 3.56, p < 0.0005, and 6.10 (4.55 to 7.17, p < 0.0005, respectively. Corresponding values for women were 1.22 (0.99 to 1.51, p = 0.065, 1.90 (1.44 to 2.51, p < 0.0005, and 5.91 (3.80 to 9.17, p < 0.0005. Estimated threshold doses for a significant GGT elevation was 14 standard weekly alcohol doses for men and 7 for women. Excess body weight and age over 40 years modulated the thresholds towards smaller quantities of alcohol. The risk of abnormal GGT was also significantly influenced by physical inactivity and smoking. The relative risks of abnormal ALT activities were increased in male heavy drinkers, especially in those presenting with adiposity and sedentary lifestyle.Alcohol use markedly increases the risk for abnormal liver enzyme activities in those presenting with age over 40 years, obesity, smoking or sedentary lifestyle. The data should be considered in public health recommendations and in the definitions of safe limits of alcohol use.

  12. Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  13. ENZYME MARKERS ACTIVITY AND BILE FORMATION FUNCTION OF LIVER IN CASES OF TUBERCULOSTATICS AND HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS AFFECTION IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    N. I. Burmas; L. S. Fira; P. H. Lyhackyy

    2016-01-01

    Background. Currently, the growing incidence of toxic lesions of the liver is associated with industrial chemicalization and uncontrolled use of hepatotoxic drugs in everyday life. There are about one thousand drugs with high or low hepatotoxicity, such as anti-TB drugs. Objective. In this research we studied the intracellular enzymes activity and bile formation function of the liver in rats of different ages in cases of tuberculostatic (isoniazid and rifampicin) affection and chromium (p...

  14. Preoperative assessment of congestive liver dysfunction using technetium-99m galactosyl human Serum albumin liver scintigraphy in patients with severe valvular heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Hiroyuki; Matsumiya, Goro; Takano, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Hajime; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Sawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Toshiki

    2007-01-01

    Severe valvular heart disease is often complicated by congestive liver dysfunction, which greatly compromises the operative results. We evaluated congestive liver dysfunction by a novel approach using technetium-99m galactosyl human serum albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA) with liver scintigraphy. Between 1998 and 2004, we performed scintigraphy accompanied by 99m Tc-GSA in 28 patients who had valvular heart disease with moderate-to-severe tricuspid regurgitation and who showed symptoms of right heart failure. Based on the results, we calculated a receptor index (LHL15) and an index of blood clearance (HH15) and assessed the correlation between these factors and postoperative liver dysfunction, defined as the maximum serum total bilirubin level (max T-bil) as >2.0 mg/dl. Nineteen patients, including four who died in hospital, had postoperative liver dysfunction. The level of HH15 was significantly higher and the level of cholinesterase was significantly lower (P 99m Tc-GSA is a clinically useful predictor of postoperative liver dysfunction in patients with severe valvular disease. (author)

  15. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups and serum levels of anti-oxidant enzymes in patients with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Moreno Mercedes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress play a main role in the initiation and progression of the OA disease and leads to the degeneration of mitochondria. To prevent this, the chondrocytes possess a well-coordinated enzymatic antioxidant system. Besides, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups are associated with the OA disease. Thus, the main goal of this work is to assess the incidence of the mtDNA haplogroups on serum levels of two of the main antioxidant enzymes, Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (Mn-SOD or SOD2 and catalase, and to test the suitability of these two proteins for potential OA-related biomarkers. Methods We analyzed the serum levels of SOD2 and catalase in 73 OA patients and 77 healthy controls carrying the haplogroups J, U and H, by ELISA assay. Knee and hip radiographs were classified according to Kellgren and Lawrence (K/L scoring from Grade 0 to Grade IV. Appropriate statistical analyses were performed to test the effects of clinical variables, including gender, body mass index (BMI, age, smoking status, diagnosis, haplogroups and radiologic K/L grade on serum levels of these enzymes. Results Serum levels of SOD2 appeared statistically increased in OA patients when compared with healthy controls (p Conclusions The increased levels of SOD2 in OA patients indicate an increased oxidative stress OA-related, therefore this antioxidant enzyme could be a suitable candidate biomarker for diagnosis of OA. Mitochondrial haplogroups significantly correlates with serum levels of catalase

  16. Effect of Simulated Microgravity on the Activity of Regulatory Enzymes of Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis in Mice Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Joaquin; Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.; Sharma, S. Chidananda

    2014-02-01

    Gravity supports all the life activities present on earth. Microgravity environments have effect on the biological functions and physiological status of an individual. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of simulated microgravity on important regulatory enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in liver using HLS mice model. Following hind limb unloading of mice for 11 days the animal's average body weights were found to be not different, while the liver weights were decreased and found to be significantly different ( p gluconeogenesis in liver and reciprocally regulated.

  17. Correlation of liver enzymes and sonographic findings with pulsatile index of middle cerebral and basilar arteries in nonalcoholic fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Rezamand

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Considering the increase of cerebral arteries PI in advanced liver disease, absence of increase in vascular PI of patients in the present study could be attributed to the short duration of disease from diagnosis to perform TCD, lack of advanced liver involvement (absence of liver dysfunction and the response effect to treatment before the TCD. Therefore, to assess vascular changes over time, repeating the TCD with assess other parameters such as Fibroscan and K18 factor that has more compatibility of liver function, could help to understand the pathophysiology of liver diseases and its effect on vascular resistance.

  18. The effects of gender, age, ethnicity, and liver cirrhosis on cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes and inducibility in cultured human hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, Andrew; Mudra, Daniel R.; Johnson, Cory; Dwyer, Anne; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    We have measured cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity in nearly 150 samples of human liver microsomes and 64 samples of cryopreserved human hepatocytes, and we have performed induction studies in over 90 preparations of cultured human hepatocytes. We have analyzed these data to examine whether the expression of CYP enzyme activity in liver microsomes and isolated hepatocytes or the inducibility of CYP enzymes in cultured hepatocytes is influenced by the gender, age, or ethnicity of the donor (the latter being limited to Caucasians, African Americans, and Hispanics due to a paucity of livers from Asian donors). In human liver microsomes, there were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) in CYP activity as a function of age, gender, or ethnicity with one exception. 7-Ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (CYP1A2) activity was greater in males than females, which is consistent with clinical observation. Liver microsomal testosterone 6β-hydroxylase (CYP3A4) activity was slightly greater in females than males, but the difference was not significant. However, in cryopreserved human hepatocytes, the gender difference in CYP3A4 activity (females = twice males) did reach statistical significance, which supports the clinical observation that females metabolize certain CYP3A4 substrates faster than do males. Compared with those from Caucasians and African Americans, liver microsomes from Hispanics had about twice the average activity of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP2C8 and half the activity of CYP1A2, although this apparent ethnic difference may be a consequence of the relatively low number of Hispanic donors. Primary cultures of hepatocytes were treated with β-naphthoflavone, an inducer of CYP1A2, phenobarbital or rifampin, both of which induce CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4, albeit it to different extents. Induction of these CYP enzymes in freshly cultured hepatocytes did not appear to be influenced by the gender or age of the donor. Furthermore, CYP3A4 induction in

  19. The influence of intravenous canrenoate on the determination of digoxin in serum by radio- and enzyme-immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rietbrock, N.; Lichey, J.; Borner, K.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    1979-01-01

    Ten patients were kept on a constant maintenance dose of digoxin. During a baseline period of 6 days, blood samples were taken daily for analysis of digoxin in serum. On the 6th day the maintenance dose of digoxin was withheld and a single intravenous dose of 200mg potassium-canrenoate (AldactoneR) was administered to all patients. Digoxin in serum was determined by a classical radioimmunoassay with 125 I-digoxin and solid phase technique (RIA-NEN) and partly by a heterogenous enzyme-immunoassay (EnzymunR-Digoxin, Boehringer, Mannheim). Results of the radioimmunoassay indicated a rise of apparent serum digoxin levels with an average maximum of 201% of the mean baseline value 30 min after injection of canrenoate and a gradual return to the baseline value within 6 to 10 hours. Contrary to the radioimmunoassay there was no interference when using the enzyme-immunoassay in a subgroup of identical serum samples: serum digoxin levels remained constant throughout the test. Interference of determinations of digoxin in serum by spironolactone and its metabolites appear to be related to two factors: 1. The mode of administration and the amount of interfering drug, 2. the specifity of the digoxin antibody used in the kit. (orig.) [de

  20. Evaluation of a magnetic particles-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for Golgi protein 73 in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyi; Wan, Xiaohua; Lu, Sheng; Zhang, Lijun; Yu, Shaohua; Lu, Xinxin

    2015-05-20

    Golgi protein 73 (GP73) is regarded as a potential serum biomarker for early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We developed a rapid magnetic particles-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (MPs-CLEIA) for the determination of serum GP73. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were used to label 2 different monoclonal antibodies to GP73. Serum GP73 was captured with labeled antibodies and formed a sandwiched immunoreaction. The magnetic particles (MPs) coated with anti-FITC antibody were used as a means of separation of the GP73 protein from other serum proteins. After adding the enzyme substrate solution, the relative light unit (RLU) was measured. A MPs-CLEIA for serum GP73 was established and evaluated. The RLU was directly proportional to the concentration of GP73. The method linearity was 5-600 μg/l. Limit of the blank was 2.19 μg/l. The intra- and inter-assay imprecision was 73-0.89), and the sensitivity and specificity, with cut-off value of 115.6 μg/l, were 75.4% and 92.1%, respectively. The proposed method demonstrates an acceptable performance for quantifying serum GP73. This assay could be appropriate for routine use in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 1H NMR-based serum metabolomics reveals erythromycin-induced liver toxicity in albino Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Rawat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Erythromycin (ERY is known to induce hepatic toxicity which mimics other liver diseases. Thus, ERY is often used to produce experimental models of drug-induced liver-toxicity. The serum metabolic profiles can be used to evaluate the liver-toxicity and to further improve the understanding of underlying mechanism. Objective: To establish the serum metabolic patterns of Erythromycin induced hepatotoxicity in albino wistar rats using 1H NMR based serum metabolomics. Experimental: Fourteen male rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 7 in each group: control and ERY treated. After 28 days of intervention, the metabolic profiles of sera obtained from ERY and control groups were analyzed using high-resolution 1D 1H CPMG and diffusion-edited nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra. The histopathological and SEM examinations were employed to evaluate the liver toxicity in ERY treated group. Results: The serum metabolic profiles of control and ERY treated rats were compared using multivariate statistical analysis and the metabolic patterns specific to ERY-induced liver toxicity were established. The toxic response of ERY was characterized with: (a increased serum levels of Glucose, glutamine, dimethylamine, malonate, choline, phosphocholine and phospholipids and (b decreased levels of isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, glutamate, citrate, glycerol, lactate, threonine, circulating lipoproteins, N-acetyl glycoproteins, and poly-unsaturated lipids. These metabolic alterations were found to be associated with (a decreased TCA cycle activity and enhanced fatty acid oxidation, (b dysfunction of lipid and amino acid metabolism and (c oxidative stress. Conclusion and Recommendations: Erythromycin is often used to produce experimental models of liver toxicity; therefore, the established NMR-based metabolic patterns will form the basis for future studies aiming to evaluate the efficacy of anti-hepatotoxic agents or the hepatotoxicity of new

  2. Changes in the level of urea, creatine and creatinine in the liver and serum of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Kashef, H.S.; Saada, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    This study aims to compare between the susceptibility of two tissues (liver and serum) toγ-radiation with respect to some protein end-products; namely urea, creatine and creatinine. The results indicated that in control rat liver, the concentration of urea, creatine and creatinine ranged between 262-266, 106-108 and 18.86-19.48 μg/g fresh tissue, respectively. In blood serum, the concentration of these end-products were 327-383, 94-97 and 12.36-12.51μg/ml blood serum. Whole body -irradiation at dose 5.5 Gy caused significant changes in the levels of both urea and creatine in the blood serum on the 7th and 14th post irradiation days, while the level of creatinine was not altered. As for the liver of whole body γ -irradiated rats, significant changes were observed in the content of urea at the all post-irradiation days except at the 3 rd day. The creatinine content of the liver was significantly decreased on the 3 rd, 14th and 21st days after irradiation. Similar decrease was noticed in the content of creatine, but on the 7th day, significant increase was observed. The variation in the studied parameters started early in the liver and lated longer, but it started later and lasted shorter in the serum of irradiated rats. It could be suggested that the liver of irradiated rats is more sensitive to the radiation dose 5.5 Gy than the blood.1 fig.,2 tab

  3. The Clinical Significance of Serum Beta{sub 2}-microglobulin Levels in Patients with Various Liver Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Suk Won; Cho, Tae Bong; Choe, Jung Ho; Kim, So Yon; Cho, Min Koo; Lee, Gwon Jun [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-09-15

    To evaluate the significance of serum beta{sub 2}-microglobulin in patients with various liver diseases, serum {sub 2} m levels were measured in 44 cases of normal controls, 32 cases of asymptomatic HBsAg carriers and 134 patients with various liver diseases, by radioimmunoassay using Phadebas Beta{sub 2}-micro test kits. The following results were obtained: I) The mean level of serum beta{sub 2} m was 1 39+-0.25 mg/l(Mean+-S.D.) in normal controls (1.39+-0.23 mg/l in 24 males, 1.38+-0,27 mg/l in 20 females). 2) The serum levels of beta{sub 2} in patients with various liver diseases and asymptomatic HBsAg carriers were as follows; 1.40+-0.27 mg/l in asymptomatic HBsAg carriers, 2.42+-0.377 mg/l in 45 patients with acute viral hepatitis, 2.10+-0.26 mg/l in 46 patients with chronic persistent hepatitis, 2.60+-0.34 mg/l in 23 patients with chronic active hepatitis, and 2.60+-0.49 mg/l in 20 patients with liver cirrhosis. Serum beta{sub 2}m levels of each disease group were significantly higher than that of normal controls(p<0.001). 3) There was significant correlation between the levels of serum beta{sub 2}m and the degrees of lymphocytic infiltration in patients with chronic active hepatitis(p<0.001). 4) Significant correlations were observed between the levels of serum beta{sub 2}-microglobulin and serum alanine aminotransferase(r=0.68, p<0.05) and bilirubin(r=0.63, p<0.05) in 15 patients with acute viral hepatitis. In conclusion, the serum beta{sub 2}-microglobulin levels were increased in patients with various liver diseases, and it may serve as a new index of liver disease activity.

  4. Evaluation and comparison of radio-, fluorescence, and enzyme-linked immunoassays for serum thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, L.A.; Gau, N.; Fearn, J.; Steain, E.A.; Chen, I.W.; Maxon, H.; Volle, C.

    1981-01-01

    We have compared three analytical systems for the measurement of serum thyroxine: enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA), fluorescent immunoassay (FIA) and a radioimmunoassay (RIA). These were evaluated with respect to their precision, accuracy, analytical sensitivity and sample throughput. The RIA is more sensitive than the EIA (10 μg/L vs. 35 μg/L). Both systems have excellent precision (X=86 μg/L, C.V.sub(RIA)=C.V.sub(EIA)=4.6 percent). Both the EIA and RIA demonstrate good accuracy with recovery of between 97-98 percent of added thyroxine. The FIA has an apparent sensitiviity between that of the RIA and EIA (25 μg/L), but a precision consistently lower than the other two systems (C.V. =7.4 percent, X=86 μg/L). Patients' results by RIA compared well with those from EIA (r=0.91,P 0.05). Although not fully automated, the EIA performed on the Abbott ABA-100 analyzer has a sample throughput equal to the automated RIA system (Micromedic, Concept 4)

  5. Effects of creatine supplementation along with resistance training on urinary formaldehyde and serum enzymes in wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Azadeh; Jafari, Afshar

    2016-04-01

    Formaldehyde is a cytotoxic agent produced from creatine through a metabolic pathway, and in this regard, it has been claimed that creatine supplementation could be cytotoxic. Even though the cytotoxic effects of creatine supplementation have been widely studied, yet little is known about how resistance training can alter these toxic effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of short-term creatine supplementation plus resistance training on the level of urinary formaldehyde and concentrations of serum enzymes in young male wrestlers. In a double-blind design twenty-one subjects were randomized into creatine supplementation (Cr), creatine supplementation plus resistance training (Cr + T) and placebo plus resistance training (Pl + T) groups. Participants ingested creatine (0.3 g/kg/day) or placebo for 7 days. The training protocol consisted of 3 sessions in one week, each session including three sets of 6-9 repetitions at 80-85% of one-repetition maximum for whole-body exercise. Urine and blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the supplementation. Creatine supplementation significantly increased the excretion rate of urinary formaldehyde in the Cr and Cr + T groups by 63.4% and 30.4%, respectively (P0.05). These findings indicate that resistance training may lower the increase of urinary formaldehyde excretion induced by creatine supplementation, suggesting that creatine consumption could be relatively less toxic when combined with resistance training.

  6. Elevated serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) activity in acute pulmonary histoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, S F; Rohrbach, M S; Thelen, V; Kuritsky, J; Gruninger, R; Simpson, M L; DeRemee, R A

    1984-03-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) levels were measured in 44 subjects six weeks after acute pulmonary histoplasmosis. All patients were infected in a common-source outbreak of histoplasmosis which occurred on one day. All patients had both strictly defined clinical and serologic evidence of infection. The SACE activity was elevated at six weeks compared to normal controls, and seven of the 44 had levels more than 2 SD above the normal mean. SACE levels were also measured at three and 24 weeks after acute infection in a smaller number of the same subjects. Serial observations demonstrated that all subjects (including those with normal and elevated SACE at six weeks) had a rise and fall in SACE activity following symptomatic acute pulmonary histoplasmosis. Our findings suggest that elevated SACE does not reliably separate sarcoidosis from histoplasmosis, although elevations in histoplasmosis are much less common and may occur only briefly following acute pulmonary histoplasmosis. More important, it seems that SACE activity rises acutely in all patients with symptomatic acute histoplasmosis and then falls gradually toward baseline over several months, coinciding temporally with the granulomatous response.

  7. [The changes of serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity in Type 2 diabetes and its vascular complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Qu, S; Zhang, Y; Deng, J; Li, J; Zhou, J

    2000-09-01

    This investigation was made with reference to the changes of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) activity in type 2 diabetes and its vascular complications. SACE activity was studied in 127 type 2 diabetic patients and 90 healthy persons by using a spectrophotometric assay. The results showed SACE activity was obviously higher in diabetic patients (459.51 +/- 175.85 U) than in healthy persons (321.14 +/- 121.27 U); SACE activity was significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy (548.27 +/- 166.60 U) than in patients without diabetic nephropathy (383.2 +/- 139.00 U), but there was no difference between patients with microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria; no statistical difference was detected in SACE activity between diabetic patients with diabetic retinopathy (465.64 +/- 178.93 U) and without retinopathy (449.07 +/- 170.04 U); SACE activity was not associated with the course of diabetes, blood pressure, blood lipid and blood glucose. These data suggest that raised SACE activity might only play a role in the initiation of type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy, but not relate to the progress of diabetic nephropathy, the onset of diabetic retinopathy and hypertension.

  8. The relationship between HbA(1c) and fasting plasma glucose in patients with increased plasma liver enzyme measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, R; Rasmussen, L Melholt; Nybo, H

    2012-01-01

    levels of increased liver enzyme concentrations. Methods:  Data from 10 065 patients with simultaneous measurement of HbA(1c) , venous fasting plasma glucose, alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase were extracted from our laboratory database. Correlations were investigated in four patient...

  9. Utility of serum pancreatic enzyme levels in diagnosing blunt trauma to the pancreas: a prospective study with systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Abhishek; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Sripathi, Smiti; Rodrigues, Gabriel Sunil; Rao, Vedula Rajanikanth; Koteshwar, Prakashini

    2014-09-01

    Reliability of serum pancreatic enzyme levels in predicting pancreatic injuries has been a parameter of interest and the present recommendations on its utility are based primarily on anecdotal observations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of serum pancreatic enzyme assessment in predicting blunt pancreatic injury with imaging and surgical correlation and compare our results with a systematic review of literature till date. A prospective cohort study conducted over 4 years in a tertiary care referral centre with 164 consecutive patients who presented to the emergency department with a history of blunt abdominal trauma and had serum pancreatic enzyme assessment, USG and subsequent diagnostic CECT were analyzed. The CT findings and AAST grade of pancreatic injury, various intra-abdominal injuries and time elapsed since injury and other associated factors were correlated with serum pancreatic enzyme levels. For systematic review of literature MEDLINE database was searched between 1940 and 2012, also the related citations and bibliographies of relevant articles were analyzed and 40 articles were included for review. We compared our results with the systematic critique of literature till date to formulate recommendations. 33(21%) patients had pancreatic injury documented on CT and were graded according to AAST. Statistically significant elevated serum amylase levels were observed in patients with pancreatic and bowel injuries. However, elevated serum lipase was observed specifically in patients with pancreatic injury with or without bowel injury. Combined serum amylase and lipase showed 100% specificity, 85% sensitivity in predicting pancreatic injury. Elevated (n=28, 85%) vs. normal (n=5, 15%) serum amylase and lipase levels showed sole statistically significant association with time elapse since injury to admission, with a cutoff of 3h. Based on our results and the systematic review of the literature till date we conclude, persistently elevated or

  10. Effect of dietary fiber on serum bile acids in patients with chronic cholestatic liver disease under ursodeoxycholic acid therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter, G.; Beuers, U.; Paumgartner, G.

    1995-01-01

    During ursodeoxycholic acid therapy for chronic cholestatic liver disease, the serum levels of lithocholic acid increase about twofold. Lithocholic acid has been shown to be hepatotoxic in some animal species. Administration of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid (PHM), a dietary fiber, has been reported

  11. Recovery from radiation induced changes in some protein end-products in the liver and blood serum of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkashef, H.S.; Roushdy, H.M.; Saada, H.N.; Abdelsamie, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    When rats were subjected to whole body gamma-irradiation at the dose of 5.5 Gy it caused significant changes in the content of urea and creatine the serum at 7 and 14 days postirradiation. In the liver significant changes were observed in the content of urea, creatine and creatinine at all post-irradiation days except the third day for urea and seventh day for creatine. Ten days pre-irradiation of the rats a mixture of 5 mg testosterone propionate and 10 mg of vitamin E was intraperitoneally injected. The results indicated that this mixture could help in obtaining complete recovery for radiation induced changes in the content of urea in both liver and serum of irradiated protected rats. Also this mixture provided good protection and caused recovery from radiation induced changes in the liver creatine on the third and seventh days after irradiation. But for serum creatine, the recovery was observed only on the third post irradiation day. The applied radiation dose did not induce any significant changes in the level of serum creatinine, while a partial recovery was noticed for liver creatinine in irradiated protected rats. The recovery process seems to be related to the radiosensitivity of the animal tissue, with the chemical structure of the radioprotector substances and the estimated compounds as well as the post-irradiation time intervals.3 tab

  12. Oral administration of Nigella sativa oil ameliorates the effect of cisplatin on membrane enzymes, carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative damage in rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeba Farooqui

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CP is a potent anti-cancer drug widely used against solid tumors. However, it exhibits pronounced adverse effects including hepatotoxicity. Several strategies were attempted to prevent CP hepatotoxicity but were not found suitable for therapeutic application. Nigella sativa has been shown to prevent/reduce the progression of certain type of cardiovascular, kidney and liver diseases. Present study investigates whether N. sativa oil (NSO can prevent CP induced hepatotoxic effects. Rats were divided into four groups viz. control, CP, NSO and CPNSO. Animals in CPNSO and NSO group were administered NSO (2 ml/kg bwt, orally with or without single hepatotoxic dose of CP (6 mg/kg bwt, i.p. respectively. CP hepatotoxicity was recorded by increased serum ALT and AST activities. CP treatment caused oxidant/antioxidant imbalances as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation and decreased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Furthermore, the activities of various carbohydrate metabolism and membrane enzymes were altered by CP treatment. In contrast, NSO administration to CP treated rats, markedly ameliorated the CP elicited deleterious alterations in liver. Histopathological observations showed extensive liver damage in CP treated animals while greatly reduced tissue injury in CPNSO group. In conclusion, NSO appears to protect CP induced hepatotoxicity by improving energy metabolism and strengthening antioxidant defense mechanism. Keywords: Cisplatin, Nigella sativa oil, Carbohydrate metabolism, Antioxidant

  13. (99m) Tc-labelled human serum albumin cannot replace (125) I-labelled human serum albumin to determine plasma volume in patients with liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Henriksen, Jens H; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and aims Determination of plasma volume (PV) is important in several clinical situations. Thus, patients with liver disease often have augmented PV as part of their sodium–water retention. This study was undertaken to compare PV determination by two indicators: technetium......-labelled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) and iodine-labelled human serum albumin (125I-HSA), as the former may have advantages at repeated measurements and the latter is the classical gold standard. Study population and methods In 88 patients, (64 with liver disease, mainly cirrhosis, and 24 patients without...... In all patients, a close correlation was present between PV determined by the two indicators (r = 0·89, Pdetermined with 99mTc-HSA exceeded PV determined with 125I-HSA by 367 ml (5·2 ml kg...

  14. Serum Concentrations of Selected Heavy Metals in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis from the Lublin Region in Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Prystupa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the WHO report, alcohol is the third most significant health risk factor for the global population. There are contrary reports about heavy metals concentrations in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of selected heavy metals in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis living in the eastern part of Poland according to cirrhosis stage. The participants came from various hospitals of the Lublin region were enrolled. The study group included 46 male and 16 female patients. The control group consisted of 18 healthy individuals without liver disease. High Performance Ion Chromatography was used to determine the concentrations of metal ions (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Mn, and Pb in serum samples. The concentrations of copper, zinc, nickel, and cobalt were found to be significantly lower in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. The serum concentration of cadmium was significantly higher in patients with advanced alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. We hypothesize that disorders of metabolism of heavy metals seem to be the outcome of impaired digestion and absorption, which are common in cirrhosis, improper diet, environmental and occupational exposure.

  15. Development of {sup 68}Ga-labelled DTPA galactosyl human serum albumin for liver function imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haubner, Roland [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Medizinische Universitaet Innsbruck, Universitaetsklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Innsbruck (Austria); Vera, David R.; Farshchi-Heydari, Salman [University of California, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, and the UCSD Molecular Imaging Program, San Diego, CA (United States); Helbok, Anna; Rangger, Christine; Putzer, Daniel; Virgolini, Irene J. [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-08-15

    The hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor is responsible for degradation of desialylated glycoproteins through receptor-mediated endocytosis. It has been shown that imaging of the receptor density using [{sup 99m}Tc]diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) galactosyl human serum albumin ([{sup 99m}Tc]GSA) allows non-invasive determination of functional hepatocellular mass. Here we present the synthesis and evaluation of [{sup 68}Ga]GSA for the potential use with positron emission tomography (PET). Labelling of GSA with {sup 68}Ga was carried out using a fractionated elution protocol. For quality control thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) techniques were evaluated. Stability of [{sup 68}Ga]GSA was studied in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum. For in vivo evaluation [{sup 68}Ga]GSA distribution in Lewis rats was compared with [{sup 99m}Tc]GSA by using a dual isotope protocol. PET and planar imaging studies were performed using the same scaled molar dose of [{sup 68}Ga]GSA and [{sup 99m}Tc]GSA. Time-activity curves (TAC) for heart and liver were generated and corresponding parameters calculated (t50, t90). [{sup 68}Ga]GSA can be produced with high radiochemical purity. The best TLC methods for determining potential free {sup 68}Ga include 0.1 M sodium citrate as eluent. None of the TLC methods tested were able to determine potential colloids. This can be achieved by SEC. HPLC confirmed high radiochemical purity (>98 %). Stability after 120 min incubation at 37 C was high in PBS (>95 % intact tracer) and low in human serum ({proportional_to}27 % intact tracer). Biodistribution studies simultaneously injecting both tracers showed comparable liver uptake, whereas activity concentration in blood was higher for [{sup 68}Ga]GSA compared to [{sup 99m}Tc]GSA. The [{sup 99m}Tc]GSA TACs exhibited a small degree of hepatic metabolism compared to the [{sup 68}Ga]GSA curves. The mean

  16. Curative effect of spleen homogenate against radiation injury to serum glucose, liver glycogen and plasma protein fractions in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.; Ibrahim, H.A.; Edrees, G.M.F.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of the spleen homogenate injection as a curative substance against gamma irradiation effects has been investigated in male albino rats. The parameters tested were, life span, serum glucose level, liver glycogen content, serum protein fractions and A/G ratio. The results obtained are as follows: Irradiated group showed 100% mortality over 22 days, this percentage dropped to 60% over 30 days for irradiated group received spleen homogenate treatment. Irradiated animals, recorded initial hyperglycaemia which diminished by time, whereas the liver glycogen concentration showed first to initially increase then to decrease abruptly. Treatment with spleen homogenate after irradiation ameliorated the magnitude of radiation induced hyperglycaemia and liver glycogen depletion. The serum Albumin/Globulin ratio decreased by irradiation due to the decrease in the serum albumin accompanied by an increase in the serum globulin content. This ratio could be restored towards its normal level in irradiated animals received spleen homogenate treatment. The data obtained suggests the possibility of using spleen homogenate for the treatment of accidental radiation syndrome

  17. Comparison of Serum Ferritin and Vitamin D in Association with the Severity of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Jeong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIncreased serum ferritin and decreased vitamin D levels associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. However, their association with the severity of NAFLD has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the association of serum ferritin and 25(OHD3 levels with the severity of ultrasonographically detected NAFLD (US-NAFLD and hepatic steatosis defined by fatty liver index (FLI in Korean adults.MethodsA cross-sectional analysis of clinical and anthropometric data, including serum ferritin and 25(OHD3, from men (n=295 and women (n=263 who underwent a routine health check-up in 2012.ResultsIn men, with an increase in the quartile of serum ferritin level, the incidences of subjects with metabolic syndrome (P=0.002, US-NAFLD (P=0.041, and FLI ≥60 (P=0.010 were significantly elevated. In women, the incidence of subjects with US-NAFLD was also significantly elevated with increases in the serum ferritin quartile (P=0.012. Regarding 25(OHD3, no statistical differences were observed among the different quartiles in either gender. Serum ferritin level significantly increased as the severity of US-NAFLD increased (P<0.001; however, no significant differences in 25(OHD3 level were observed in men. No significant differences in either serum ferritin or 25(OHD3 level were observed among women with different levels of severity of US-NAFLD.ConclusionIncreased serum ferritin level showed a closer association with severity of NAFLD compared with level of serum vitamin D, suggesting that serum ferritin level may be a better marker than vitamin D level for predicting the severity of US-NAFLD and hepatic steatosis in a clinical setting.

  18. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  19. Serum microRNA signatures as "liquid biopsies" for interrogating hepatotoxic mechanisms and liver pathogenesis in human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Krauskopf

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs released into the peripheral circulation upon cellular injury have shown a promise as a new class of tissue-specific biomarkers. We were first to demonstrate that next-generation sequencing analysis of serum from human subjects with acetaminophen-induced liver injury revealed a specific signature of circulating miRNAs. We consequently hypothesized that different types of hepatic liver impairments might feature distinct signatures of circulating miRNAs and that this approach might be useful as minimally invasive diagnostic "liquid biopsies" enabling the interrogation of underlying molecular mechanisms of injury in distant tissues. Therefore we examined serum circulating miRNAs in a total of 72 serum samples from a group of 53 subjects that included patients with accidental acetaminophen overdose, hepatitis B infection, liver cirrhosis and type 2 diabetes as well as gender- and age-matched healthy subjects with no evidence of liver disease. The miRNA signatures were identified using next-generation sequencing that provided analysis for the whole miRNome, including miRNA isoforms. Compared to the healthy subjects, a total of 179 miRNAs showed altered serum levels across the diseased subjects. Although many subjects have elevated alanine aminotransferase suggesting liver impairments, we identified distinct miRNA signatures for different impairments with minimum overlap. Furthermore, the bioinformatics analysis of miRNA signatures revealed relevant molecular pathways associated with the mechanisms of toxicity and or pathogenesis of disease. Interestingly, the high proportion of miRNA isoforms present in the respective signatures indicated a new level of complexity in cellular response to stress or disease. Our study demonstrates for the first time that signatures of circulating miRNAs show specificity for liver injury phenotypes and, once validated, might become useful for diagnosis of organ pathologies as "liquid biopsies".

  20. Serum microRNA signatures as "liquid biopsies" for interrogating hepatotoxic mechanisms and liver pathogenesis in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauskopf, Julian; de Kok, Theo M; Schomaker, Shelli J; Gosink, Mark; Burt, Deborah A; Chandler, Patricia; Warner, Roscoe L; Johnson, Kent J; Caiment, Florian; Kleinjans, Jos C; Aubrecht, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) released into the peripheral circulation upon cellular injury have shown a promise as a new class of tissue-specific biomarkers. We were first to demonstrate that next-generation sequencing analysis of serum from human subjects with acetaminophen-induced liver injury revealed a specific signature of circulating miRNAs. We consequently hypothesized that different types of hepatic liver impairments might feature distinct signatures of circulating miRNAs and that this approach might be useful as minimally invasive diagnostic "liquid biopsies" enabling the interrogation of underlying molecular mechanisms of injury in distant tissues. Therefore we examined serum circulating miRNAs in a total of 72 serum samples from a group of 53 subjects that included patients with accidental acetaminophen overdose, hepatitis B infection, liver cirrhosis and type 2 diabetes as well as gender- and age-matched healthy subjects with no evidence of liver disease. The miRNA signatures were identified using next-generation sequencing that provided analysis for the whole miRNome, including miRNA isoforms. Compared to the healthy subjects, a total of 179 miRNAs showed altered serum levels across the diseased subjects. Although many subjects have elevated alanine aminotransferase suggesting liver impairments, we identified distinct miRNA signatures for different impairments with minimum overlap. Furthermore, the bioinformatics analysis of miRNA signatures revealed relevant molecular pathways associated with the mechanisms of toxicity and or pathogenesis of disease. Interestingly, the high proportion of miRNA isoforms present in the respective signatures indicated a new level of complexity in cellular response to stress or disease. Our study demonstrates for the first time that signatures of circulating miRNAs show specificity for liver injury phenotypes and, once validated, might become useful for diagnosis of organ pathologies as "liquid biopsies".

  1. Profile of liver enzymes in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and newly detected untreated type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Sanyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The perception of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD as an uncommon and benign condition is rapidly changing. Approximately, 70% type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients have a fatty liver, which may follow an aggressive course with necroinflammation and fibrosis. Aims: To assess the profile of liver enzymes in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, new onset treatment naive T2DM and normal glucose tolerance (NGT with and without NAFLD. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional clinic-based study. Subjects and Methods: 152 IGT and 158 recently detected T2DM subjects aged between 30 and 69 years, along with 160 age and gender matched controls with NGT. An ultrasonography scan of the upper abdomen was done in all patients in order to examine presence of fatty liver. Anthropometry, lipid profile, liver enzymes were also analyzed in all patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired t-test, Chi-square/Fisher Exact test (for categorical variables, Pearson/Spearmen correlation test to find significant difference, association and correlation between two or more groups respectively. Results: NAFLD was significantly associated with higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT but not ALP levels in IGT and T2DM patients. ALT, GGT significant correlated with waist circumference, body mass index, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment- insulin resistance, fasting blood glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride. 57% of NAFLD patients had normal ALT between 25 and 40 U/L, 53% of NAFLD subjects had normal GGT between 15 and 30 U/L. ALT 40 U/L and GGT > 30 U/L had highest positive predictivity for presence of NAFLD in our study sample. Conclusions: Mild elevations of liver enzymes in the upper normal range are associated with features of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD even in IGT and recently detected T2DM patients. Novel cut-offs for liver enzymes are warranted in order to prevent unnecessary

  2. Protective effects of Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang), and its major component mangiferin, on iron-induced oxidative damage to rat serum and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Barrios, Mariela Forrellat; Curti, Carlos; Hernández, Ivones; Merino, Nelson; Lemus, Yeny; Martínez, Ioanna; Riaño, Annia; Delgado, René

    2008-01-01

    In vivo preventive effects of a Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang) or its major component mangiferin on iron overload injury have been studied in rats given respectively, 50, 100, 250 mg kg(-1) body weight of Vimang, or 40 mg kg(-1) body weight of mangiferin, for 7 days prior to, and for 7 days following the administration of toxic amounts of iron-dextran. Both Vimang or mangiferin treatment prevented iron overload in serum as well as liver oxidative stress, decreased serum and liver lipid peroxidation, serum GPx activity, and increased serum and liver GSH, serum SOD and the animals overall antioxidant condition. Serum iron concentration was decreased although at higher doses, Vimang tended to increase it; percent tranferrin saturation, liver weight/body mass ratios, liver iron content was decreased. Treatment increased serum iron-binding capacity and decreased serum levels of aspartate-amine transferase (ASAT) and alanine-amine transferase (ALAT), as well as the number of abnormal Kupffer cells in iron-loaded livers. It is suggested that besides acting as antioxidants, Vimang extract or its mangiferin component decrease liver iron by increasing its excretion. Complementing earlier in vitro results from our group, it appears possible to support the hypothesis that Vimang and mangiferin present therapeutically useful effects in iron overload related diseases.

  3. [Current seroprevalence, vaccination and predictive value of liver enzymes for hepatitis B among refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Annika; Solbach, Philipp; Cornberg, Markus; Schmidt, Reinhold E; Behrens, Georg M N; Jablonka, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    Currently only vague estimates exist for the seroprevalence and vaccination status for viral hepatitis B (HBV) in refugees arriving in Germany during the current refugee crisis. To assess the prevalence of hepatitis B in refugees arriving in northern Germany in 2015. In a cross-sectional study in 793 patients from all age groups tests for serological markers of hepatitis B virus infection (HBsAg, anti-HBc) and liver enzymes (ALT, AST, bilirubin, γGT, alkaline phosphatase) were performed in August 2015 at six reception centers in northern Germany. In 258 patients anti-HBs antibodies were assessed additionally. Of the tested refugees, 76.7 % were male, the median age was 28.8 ± 11.4 years, and 7.8 % were children under the age of 18. The overall prevalence of HBsAg and total anti-HBc was 2.3 % and 14.0 % respectively (2.5 % and 14.5 % in men; 1.2 % and 13.5 % in women). Prevalence was highest in 35 to 49-year-old patients for HBsAg (3.1 %) and for refugees over 50 years for anti-HBc (38 %). No immunity to Hepatitis B was found in 62 %, 18.6 % had been vaccinated against Hepatitis B, while 50 % of children aged up to 15 years (n = 12) had been vaccinated. Positive predictive values of elevated AST and ALT for detection of HBsAg was 0 and 0.016, respectively. Only two patients with a positive HBsAg had elevated transaminases. This study showed a high prevalence of HBsAg in a German refugee sample in comparison to the general German population. Liver enzymes are not an appropriate tool for screening for hepatitis B virus infection.

  4. Insertion/Deletion Polymorphisms and Serum Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Levels in Iranian Patients with Sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    JAVADI, Alireza; SHAMAEI, Masoud; ZAREI, Masoud; REZAEIAN, Lida; KIANI, Arda; ABEDINI, Atefeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown origin with characterization of small granulomas. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a pathophysiologic marker of sarcoidosis. We present the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in correlation with serum ACE level in Iranian patients with sarcoidosis. Methods: From Jan 2014 to Jan 2015, 102 Iranian patients who histopathologically diagnosed for sarcoidosis and 192 healthy age and sex-matched controls were recruited. PCR was used for detection of I/D polymorphism in ACE gene. Results: Frequency of II/ID/DD genotype in sarcoidosis disease was 17%, 35.5%, and 47.1%, respectively. The frequency of D allele was 0.65. A significant association between I/D genotypes and mean of sACE level was seen (DD=85.2±22.9, P<0.001). More frequent genotype in sarcoidosis patients was DD (47%), ID genotype (45.9%) was found more in controls. Logistic regression analysis adjusting age and sex showed that ID to II (OR=0.35, 95%CI=0.17–0.73, P=0.005) and DD to II (OR=2.11, 95%CI=0.98–4.54, P=0.05) could be considered as a predictor factor for the disease activity. No significant model for men in sarcoidosis group was seen, while women with II/ID were associated with a reduced risk for the disease. Conclusion: Although more regional studies with appropriate statistical scale must be done to provide a better diagnosis and prognostic tool for this disease, this study demonstrates that ID and DD genotype could be predictive factors for sarcoidosis. PMID:28032065

  5. Correlation between serum VEGF level and CT perfusion imaging in patients with primary liver cancer pre-and post TACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Zhongzhi; Huang Yuanquan; Feng Yaoliang; Shi Haibin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between serum vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) level and CT perfusion parameters in patients with primary liver cancer (PLC) pre-and post-transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment. Methods: Serum VEGF level was measured and CT perfusion imaging was performed 1 day before and 6 ∼ 8, 32 ∼ 40 days after TACE in 18 patients with PLC. Before and after TACE, the serum VEGF level, the tumor's artery liver perfusion (ALP), the portal vein perfusion (PVP) and the hepatic artery perfusion index (HPI) were measured pre-and post-TACE. The pre-TACE and post-TACE results were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: Based on the therapeutic results, the patients were divided into complete response (CR) group and partial response or stable disease(PR+SD) group. Although no significant difference in serum VEGF level, tumor's ALP, PVP and HPI existed between two groups pre-TACE, there was significant difference in ALP, HPI 6-8 days after TACE (P<0.05). Significant difference in serum VEGF level also existed in CR group (P<0.05), but not in (PR+SD) group, at (32-40) days post-TACE (P=0.221). The serum VEGF level carried a positive correlation with the tumor's ALP and HPI. Conclusion: The serum VEGF level can indirectly reflect the neovascularization of the tumor, while the CTPI can directly and quantitatively reflect the hemodynamic changes of the tumor post-TACE. Moreover, a positive correlation exists between serum VEGF level and ALP, HPI. Therefore, the determination of serum VEGF level together with CTPI is very useful in both evaluating TACE efficacy and making therapeutic schedule. (authors)

  6. Acute cadmium intoxication induces alpha-class glutathione S-transferase protein synthesis and enzyme activity in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casalino, Elisabetta; Sblano, Cesare; Calzaretti, Giovanna; Landriscina, Clemente

    2006-01-01

    Acute cadmium intoxication affects glutathione S-transferase (GST) in rat liver. It has been found that 24 h after i.p. cadmium administration to rats, at a dose of 2.5 mg CdCl 2 kg -1 body weight, the activity of this enzyme in liver cytosol increased by 40%. A less stimulatory effect persisted till 48 h and thereafter the enzyme activity normalized. Since, GST isoenzymes belong to different classes in mammalian tissues, we used quantitative immunoassays to verify which family of GST isoenzymes is influenced by this intoxication. Only alpha-class glutathione S-transferase (α-GST) proteins were detected in rat liver cytosol and their level increased by about 25%, 24 h after cadmium treatment. No pi-GST isoforms were found in liver cytosol from either normal or cadmium-treated rats. Co-administration of actinomycin D with cadmium normalized both the protein level and the activity of α-GST, suggesting that some effect occurs on enzyme transcription of these isoenzymes by this metal. On the other hand, it seems unlikely that the stimulatory effect is due to the high level of peroxides caused by lipid peroxidation, since Vitamin E administration strongly reduced the TBARS level, but did not cause any GST activity decrease

  7. Association between angiotensin II receptor gene polymorphism and serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) activity in patients with sarcoidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Takemoto, Y.; Sakatani, M.; Takami, S.; Tachibana, T.; Higaki, J.; Ogihara, T.; Miki, T.; Katsuya, T.; Tsuchiyama, T.; Yoshida, A.; Yu, H.; Tanio, Y.; Ueda, E.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) is considered to reflect disease activity in sarcoidosis. SACE activity is increased in many patients with active sarcoid lesions. The mechanism for the increased SACE activity in this disease has not been clarified. ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism has been reported to have an association with SACE levels in sarcoidosis, but no evidence of an association between angiotensin II receptor gene polymorphism and SA...

  8. Evaluation of amino acids changes in liver and serum during the recovery from gamma-irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkashef, H.S.; Saada, H.N.; Roushdy, H.M.; Abdelsamie, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Recovery from radiation induced changes in glutamic and aspartic acids in both liver and serum was evaluated in rats treated with a mixture of testosterone and vitamin E and subjected to whole body gamma irradiation of 5.5 Gy. The intraperitoneal injection of the mixture 10 days before exposing the rat gamma radiation improved the recovery process from radiation induced changes in the level of aspartic and glutamic acid. The recovery occurred in liver two weeks after irradiation in injected irradiated rats, while in irradiated rats self recovery was noticed on the third week after irradiation for aspartic acid but this mixture has no protective effect on the radiation induced changes in the liver glutamic acid. With respect to changes in blood serum, recovery was recorded in the first week after irradiation in the case of aspartic acid while recovery in glutamic acid was attained latter, in the second week. The results suggested that blood serum is more sensitive to the radiation dose 5.5 Gy than the liver of whole body gamma-irradiated rats. Also, it could be suggested that glutamic acid and aspartic acid have different susceptibility to this radiation dose.2 tab

  9. Prediction of non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease and liver fat content by serum molecular lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orešic, Matej; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Kotronen, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether analysis of lipids by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to MS allows the development of a laboratory test for non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD), and how a lipid-profile biomarker compares with the prediction of NAFLD and liver-fat content based...

  10. The mouse liver displays daily rhythms in the metabolism of phospholipids and in the activity of lipid synthesizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorné, Lucas D; Acosta-Rodríguez, Victoria A; Pasquaré, Susana J; Salvador, Gabriela A; Giusto, Norma M; Guido, Mario Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    The circadian system involves central and peripheral oscillators regulating temporally biochemical processes including lipid metabolism; their disruption leads to severe metabolic diseases (obesity, diabetes, etc). Here, we investigated the temporal regulation of glycerophospholipid (GPL) synthesis in mouse liver, a well-known peripheral oscillator. Mice were synchronized to a 12:12 h light-dark (LD) cycle and then released to constant darkness with food ad libitum. Livers collected at different times exhibited a daily rhythmicity in some individual GPL content with highest levels during the subjective day. The activity of GPL-synthesizing/remodeling enzymes: phosphatidate phosphohydrolase 1 (PAP-1/lipin) and lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) also displayed significant variations, with higher levels during the subjective day and at dusk. We evaluated the temporal regulation of expression and activity of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesizing enzymes. PC is mainly synthesized through the Kennedy pathway with Choline Kinase (ChoK) as a key regulatory enzyme or through the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway. The PC/PE content ratio exhibited a daily variation with lowest levels at night, while ChoKα and PEMT mRNA expression displayed maximal levels at nocturnal phases. Our results demonstrate that mouse liver GPL metabolism oscillates rhythmically with a precise temporal control in the expression and/or activity of specific enzymes.

  11. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on liver enzymes in Guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, S.; Hayatgeiby, H.; Alivandy Farkhad, S.; Tagizadeh, A.

    2007-01-01

    Electromagnetic field has various effects on living organisms such as blood composition or enzymatic changes. The effects depend on the electromagnetic intensity and the time of exposure. This study has been carried out to measure the variations of liver enzymes SGOT and SGPT Levels in 36 adult male, Guinea Pigs, that have been divided into 6 groups. Group A, as the control, exposed to nil electromagnetic field for two hours per day for 5 days. Group B, exposed to 0.013 micro T in 5 Hz for the same period. Group C, exposed to 0.207 micro T in 50 Hz in the similar condition. Group D, exposed for' four hours per day for 5 days in 0.013 micro T in 5Hz. Group E, tested in 0.207 micro T in 50 Hz as the group D. Group F, used as the controlled group exposed for four hours per day in nil electromagnetic field. Blood of the Guinea pigs were analysed after 5 days. The results have shown significant differences among different groups, regarding the SCOT and SGPT when compared with those of the controlled group. Statistically, they are meaningful when measured by Dunnett test indicating a significant difference between the controlled group and the tested group, soas the SGOT and SGPT have decreased in both cases

  12. Ophthalmic manifestations of 107 cases with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbagci, I.; Okumus, S.; Bekir, Necdet A.; Karaca, M.; Ugur, Mete G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to present various ophthalmologic disorders in a clinical series of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome cases. This is a prospective clinical study performed between 2002 and 2005. One hundred seven HELLP attended in either Departments of Ophthalmology or Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey were evaluated. Mean age was 25.5 (22-36 years). Mean levels were 2.5 gravidity, 1.3 parity, 55,200/mm3 platelet counts, 308.7 U/I aspartate transaminase, 255.4 U/I alanine transminase and 1711.6U/I lactate dehydrogenase. Four patients died (3.7%) despite the proper treatments. Cortical blindness was observed in 3 cases (2.7%), serous retinal detachments in 4 (3.7%) and mild hypertension changes in 18 (16%). Ophthalmic complications are possible during and after this syndrome. Almost all ophthalmologic changes recover after delivery by cesarean section, nevertheless, it is essential that ophthalmologists should be aware of retinal disorders when this fatal complication of pregnancy is encountered. (author)

  13. 17β-estradiol increases liver and serum docosahexaenoic acid in mice fed varying levels of α-linolenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Julie K; Kharotia, Shikhil; Wiggins, Ashleigh K A; Kitson, Alex P; Chen, Jianmin; Bazinet, Richard P; Thompson, Lilian U

    2014-08-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is considered to be important for cardiac and brain function, and 17β-estradiol (E2) appears to increase the conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA) into DHA. However, the effect of varying ALA intake on the positive effect of E2 on DHA synthesis is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of E2 supplementation on tissue and serum fatty acids in mice fed a low-ALA corn oil-based diet (CO, providing 0.6 % fatty acids as ALA) or a high ALA flaxseed meal-based diet (FS, providing 11.2 % ALA). Ovariectomized mice were implanted with a slow-release E2 pellet at 3 weeks of age and half the mice had the pellet removed at 7 weeks of age. Mice were then randomized onto either the CO or FS diet. After 4 weeks, the DHA concentration was measured in serum, liver and brain. A significant main effect of E2 was found for liver and serum DHA, corresponding to 25 and 15 % higher DHA in livers of CO and FS rats, respectively, and 19 and 13 % in serum of CO and FS rats, respectively, compared to unsupplemented mice. There was no effect of E2 on brain DHA. E2 results in higher DHA in serum and liver, at both levels of dietary ALA investigated presently, suggesting that higher ALA intake may result in higher DHA in individuals with higher E2 status.

  14. Serum vitamin C and other biomarkers differ by genotype of phase 2 enzyme genes GSTM1 and GSTT1123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nishat; Jensen, Christopher D; Volberg, Vitaly; Holland, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Background: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) detoxify environmental chemicals and are involved in oxidative stress pathways. Deletion polymorphisms affect enzyme activities and have been associated with risk of disease. Objective: The objective was to clarify whether biomarkers of oxidation, antioxidation, inflammation, and nutritional factors differ by GST genotype in healthy adults. Design: Subjects (n = 383) consisted of nonsmokers and nonusers of antiinflammatory drugs and antioxidant vitamin supplements. Deletion polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were genotyped. F2-isoprostanes, malondialdehyde, C-reactive protein, serum vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, and other nutritional factors were assessed. Results: The concentration of serum vitamin C was higher in persons with the inactive GSTM1-0 genotype (P = 0.006). This relation was unchanged after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, or dietary vitamin C. F2-isoprostanes and malondialdehyde were lower in the GSTM1-0 and GSTT1-0 groups, respectively, but significance was lost after control for serum vitamin C. The dual deletion, GSTM1-0/GSTT1-0 (n = 37), was associated with higher serum iron and total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (all P ascorbic acid in the GST enzyme system. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00079963. PMID:21813807

  15. Abnormal serum pancreatic enzymes, but not pancreatitis, are associated with an increased risk of malignancy in patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Alexandra M; Parikh, Janak A; Al-Haddad, Mohammad A; DeWitt, John M; Ceppa, Eugene P; House, Michael G; Nakeeb, Attila; Schmidt, C Max

    2014-10-01

    Pancreatitis is associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). This association is in part due to inflammation from pancreatic ductal obstruction. Although the correlation between pancreatitis and the malignant potential of IPMN is unclear, the 2012 International Consensus Guidelines (ICG) consider pancreatitis a "worrisome feature." We hypothesized that serum pancreatic enzymes, markers of inflammation, are a better predictor of malignancy than pancreatitis in patients with IPMN. Between 1992 and 2012, 364 patients underwent resection for IPMN at a single university hospital. In the past decade, serum amylase and lipase were collected prospectively as an inflammatory marker in 203 patients with IPMN at initial surveillance and "cyst clinic" visits. The latest serum pancreatic enzyme values within 3 months preoperatively were studied. Pancreatitis was defined according to the 2012 revision of the Atlanta Consensus. Of the 203 eligible patients, there were 76 with pancreatitis. Pancreatitis was not associated with an increased rate of malignancy (P = .51) or invasiveness (P = .08). Serum pancreatic enzymes categorically outside of normal range (high or low) were also not associated with malignancy or invasiveness. In contrast, as a continuous variable, the higher the serum pancreatic enzymes were, the greater the rate of invasive IPMN. Of the 127 remaining patients without pancreatitis, serum pancreatic enzymes outside of normal range (low and high) were each associated with a greater rate of malignancy (P enzyme levels above normal range (high) were associated with a greater rate of invasiveness (P = .02). In patients with IPMN without a history of pancreatitis, serum pancreatic enzymes outside of the normal range are associated with a greater risk of malignancy. In patients with a history of pancreatitis, there is a positive correlation between the levels of serum pancreatic enzymes and the presence of invasive IPMN. These data suggest

  16. Study on the relationship between serum TNF-α, IGF-I levels and lipid peroxidation in patients with fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuqiang; Niu Guoping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between serum TNF-α, IGF-I levels and lipid peroxidation in patients with fatty liver. Methods: Serum TNF-α, IGF-I (with RIA) levels were examined in 44 patients with fatty liver and 30 controls. Ser- um levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxidase (SOD) were measured with chemocolorimetry in these subjects. Results: Serum levels of TNF-α, IGF-I were significantly higher in patients with fatty liver than those in controls P<0.01 ), while the serum levels of MDA, SOD were significantly lower (P<0.01). Serum levels of IGF-I were negatively correlated with MDA levels ( r -0. 4132, P<0.05), TNF-α levels were positive correlated with MDA levels (r=0.4318, P<0.05). Conclusion: Lipid peroxidation was present in patients with fatty liver, with correlated changes of TNF-α and IGF-I levels. (authors)

  17. The effect of enriched chicory inulin on liver enzymes, calcium homeostasis and hematological parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Javid, Ahmad Zare; Dehghan, Parvin

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) as one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality is associated with immune system disturbances and metabolic abnormalities. In the current study we aimed to evaluate the effects of enriched chicory inulin supplementation on liver enzymes, serum calcium and phosphorous concentrations and hematological parameters in patients with T2DM. Forty-six diabetic females patients were randomly allocated into intervention (n=27) and control (n=22) groups. Subjects in the intervention group received a daily dose of 10g of chicory and subjects in control group received a placebo for two months. Anthropometric variables, glucose homeostasis, hematological parameters and metabolic indices including serum alanine aminotransfersae (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium and phosphorous as well as creatinine concentrations, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and blood pressure were assessed at the beginning and end of the trial. Significant reductions in fasting serum glucose (FSG), Hb A1C, AST and ALP concentrations were observed in chicory-treated group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were also reduced in chicory-treated group. Serum calcium significantly increased after chicory supplementation but no change in placebo treated group has been occurred (P=0.014). Supplementation with enriched chicory for two months significantly reduced hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values (Pliver function tests, blood pressure and reduction in hematologic risk factors of diabetes in female patients with T2DM. Further studies in both genders are needed to generalize these findings to total population. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of starvation, triton WR-1339 and [131I]-human serum albumin on rat liver lysosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harikumar, P.; Ninjoor, V.

    1986-01-01

    The response of rat liver lysosomes to starvation and administration of lysosomotropic agents viz. Triton WR-1339 and [ 131 I]-human serum albumin, was assessed in terms of their distribution pattern after isopycnic sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Starvation induced changes in lysosomes appeared to be similar to that produced by the detergent uptake. Both the treatments caused a distinct decline in the equilibration densities of the organelles. On the other hand, injected labelled protein failed to comigrate with the lysosomal markers in starved as well as Triton treated rats and conspicuously remained in a region of high specific gravity in the gradient. These findings indicate retarded fusion between secondary lysosomes and [ 131 I]-human serum albumin containing phagosomes in the livers of rats subjected to starvation or detergent treatment. (author)

  19. The Effect of Symbiotic Supplementation on Liver Enzymes, C-reactive Protein and Ultrasound Findings in Patients with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharian, Atefe; Askari, Gholamreza; Esmailzade, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Mohammadi, Vida

    2016-01-01

    Regarding to the growing prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), concentrating on various strategies to its prevention and management seems necessary. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of symbiotic on C-reactive protein (CRP), liver enzymes, and ultrasound findings in patients with NAFLD. Eighty NAFLD patients were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Participants received symbiotic in form of a 500 mg capsule (containing seven species of probiotic bacteria and fructooligosaccharides) or a placebo capsule daily for 8 weeks. Ultrasound grading, CRP, and liver enzymes were evaluated at the baseline and the end of the study. In the symbiotic group, ultrasound grade decreased significantly compared to baseline (P symbiotic supplementation was not associated with changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels. In the placebo group, there was no significant change in steatosis grade whereas ALT and AST levels were significantly increased (P = 0.002, P = 0.02, respectively). CRP values remained static in either group. Symbiotic supplementation improved steatosis in NAFLD patients and might be useful in the management of NAFLD or protective against its progression.

  20. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae: the sensitivities of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detecting vaccinated sows of unknown disease status using serum and colostrum, and the correlation of the results for sow serum, colostrum, and piglet serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenvey, Caitlin J; Reichel, Michael P; Cockcroft, Peter D

    2015-03-01

    Due to relatively high concentrations of immunoglobulins, colostrum has the potential to improve the sensitivity of diagnostic tests for diseases in pigs when compared with serum. It is possible that colostrum could improve the sensitivity of the antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) compared with serum. Colostrum is also essential for piglets, providing protection against infections in the first few weeks and months of life. The sensitivity of 2 commercially available ELISAs, one for the detection of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and the second for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antibodies, when used with sow colostrum in comparison with serum was investigated. The correlation of maternal E. rhusiopathiae- and M. hyopneumoniae-specific antibody levels with specific-antibody serum levels in the piglet was also determined. The sensitivity was defined as the proportion of vaccinated sows that were correctly identified as vaccinated at a given cutoff point. The true disease status of the sows with regard to the 2 infections was unknown. Blood and colostrum samples were collected from 20 sows, 10 primiparous and 10 multiparous, and blood samples were also collected from the piglets of each sow, 48-72 hr post-farrowing. The sensitivities of both ELISAs were significantly improved when using colostrum compared with serum. Sow serum and colostrum optical density (OD) values were significantly correlated. The mean sow OD values for serum for E. rhusiopathiae and M. hyopneumoniae and colostrum for E. rhusiopathiae were significantly correlated with piglet serum OD levels. If the improved sensitivity of colostrum can be demonstrated in infected animals, this will increase the ability of the test to identify infected animals using both individual and pooled colostrum. Testing serum and/or colostrum using ELISA can be useful predictors of piglet disease-specific OD values. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Geraniol Pharmacokinetics, Bioavailability and Its Multiple Effects on the Liver Antioxidant and Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pavan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Geraniol is a natural monoterpene showing anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective and anticancer effects. No pharmacokinetic and bioavailability data on geraniol are currently available. We therefore performed a systematic study to identify the permeation properties of geraniol across intestinal cells, and its pharmacokinetics and bioavailability after intravenous and oral administration to rats. In addition, we systematically investigated the potential hepatotoxic effects of high doses of geraniol on hepatic phase I, phase II and antioxidant enzymatic activities and undertook a hematochemical analysis on mice. Permeation studies performed via HPLC evidenced geraniol permeability coefficients across an in vitro model of the human intestinal wall for apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical transport of 13.10 ± 2.3 × 10-3 and 2.1 ± 0.1⋅× 10-3 cm/min, respectively. After intravenous administration of geraniol to rats (50 mg/kg, its concentration in whole blood (detected via HPLC decreased following an apparent pseudo-first order kinetics with a half-life of 12.5 ± 1.5 min. The absolute bioavailability values of oral formulations (50 mg/kg of emulsified geraniol or fiber-adsorbed geraniol were 92 and 16%, respectively. Following emulsified oral administration, geraniol amounts in the cerebrospinal fluid of rats ranged between 0.72 ± 0.08 μg/mL and 2.6 ± 0.2 μg/mL within 60 min. Mice treated with 120 mg/kg of geraniol for 4 weeks showed increased anti-oxidative defenses with no signs of liver toxicity. CYP450 enzyme activities appeared only slightly affected by the high dosage of geraniol.

  2. [L-arginine metabolism enzyme activities in rat liver subcellular fractions under condition of protein deprivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopyl'chuk, G P; Buchkovskaia, I M

    2014-01-01

    The features of arginase and NO-synthase pathways of arginine's metabolism have been studied in rat liver subcellular fractions under condition of protein deprivation. During the experimental period (28 days) albino male rats were kept on semi synthetic casein diet AIN-93. The protein deprivation conditions were designed as total absence of protein in the diet and consumption of the diet partially deprived with 1/2 of the casein amount compared to in the regular diet. Daily diet consumption was regulated according to the pair feeding approach. It has been shown that the changes of enzyme activities, involved in L-arginine metabolism, were characterized by 1.4-1.7 fold decrease in arginase activity, accompanied with unchanged NO-synthase activity in cytosol. In mitochondrial fraction the unchanged arginase activity was accompanied by 3-5 fold increase of NO-synthase activity. At the terminal stages of the experiment the monodirectional dynamics in the studied activities have been observed in the mitochondrial and cytosolfractions in both experimental groups. In the studied subcellular fractions arginase activity decreased (2.4-2.7 fold with no protein in the diet and 1.5 fold with partly supplied protein) and was accompanied by NO-synthase activity increase by 3.8 fold in cytosole fraction, by 7.2 fold in mitochondrial fraction in the group with no protein in the diet and by 2.2 and 3.5 fold in the group partialy supplied with protein respectively. The observed tendency is presumably caused by the switch of L-arginine metabolism from arginase into oxidizing NO-synthase parthway.

  3. Association of Ghrelin Gene Polymorphisms and Serum Ghrelin Levels with the Risk of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Liver Diseases in a Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolian Zhang

    Full Text Available The functions of ghrelin (GHRL include anti-inflammatory effects, reduction of the fibrogenic response, protection of liver tissue, and regulation of cell proliferation. Genetic variations in the GHRL gene may play an important role in the development of chronic hepatitis B (CHB, liver cirrhosis (LC and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Therefore, we investigated whether GHRL gene polymorphisms and its serum levels are associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV-related diseases risk in a Chinese population.176 patients with CHB, 106 patients with HBV-related LC, 151 patients with HBV-related HCC, and 167 healthy controls were recruited in the study. Genotyping of GHRL rs26311, rs27647, rs696217, and rs34911341 polymorphisms were determined with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing. The serum GHRL concentrations were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.Binary logistic regression analyses adjusting for gender and age revealed that a significant increased risk of LC was found in the GHRL rs26311 GC genotype and combined GC+CC genotypes when compared with the GG genotype (GC vs. GG: OR = 1.671, 95% CI = 1.013-2.757, P = 0.044; GC+CC vs. GG: OR = 1.674, 95% CI = 1.040-2.696, P = 0.034. In subgroup analysis by gender, binary logistic regression analyses adjusting for age showed that the GHRL rs26311 C allele and combined GC+CC genotypes were associated with a significantly increased risk to LC in males (C vs. G OR = 1.416, 95% CI = 1.017-1.972, P = 0.040; GC+CC vs. GG: OR = 1.729, 95% CI = 1.019-2.933, P = 0.042. In addition, we found significant decreased serum GHRL levels in LC patients compared with the healthy controls. However, there was no significant association of the GHRL rs26311 polymorphism with serum GHRL levels in LC patients.These observations suggest that the GHRL rs26311 polymorphism is associated with an increased risk to HBV-related LC, especially in men

  4. Association of Ghrelin Gene Polymorphisms and Serum Ghrelin Levels with the Risk of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Liver Diseases in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolian; Zhai, Limin; Rong, Chengzhi; Qin, Xue; Li, Shan

    2015-01-01

    The functions of ghrelin (GHRL) include anti-inflammatory effects, reduction of the fibrogenic response, protection of liver tissue, and regulation of cell proliferation. Genetic variations in the GHRL gene may play an important role in the development of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, we investigated whether GHRL gene polymorphisms and its serum levels are associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related diseases risk in a Chinese population. 176 patients with CHB, 106 patients with HBV-related LC, 151 patients with HBV-related HCC, and 167 healthy controls were recruited in the study. Genotyping of GHRL rs26311, rs27647, rs696217, and rs34911341 polymorphisms were determined with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequencing. The serum GHRL concentrations were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Binary logistic regression analyses adjusting for gender and age revealed that a significant increased risk of LC was found in the GHRL rs26311 GC genotype and combined GC+CC genotypes when compared with the GG genotype (GC vs. GG: OR = 1.671, 95% CI = 1.013-2.757, P = 0.044; GC+CC vs. GG: OR = 1.674, 95% CI = 1.040-2.696, P = 0.034). In subgroup analysis by gender, binary logistic regression analyses adjusting for age showed that the GHRL rs26311 C allele and combined GC+CC genotypes were associated with a significantly increased risk to LC in males (C vs. G OR = 1.416, 95% CI = 1.017-1.972, P = 0.040; GC+CC vs. GG: OR = 1.729, 95% CI = 1.019-2.933, P = 0.042). In addition, we found significant decreased serum GHRL levels in LC patients compared with the healthy controls. However, there was no significant association of the GHRL rs26311 polymorphism with serum GHRL levels in LC patients. These observations suggest that the GHRL rs26311 polymorphism is associated with an increased risk to HBV-related LC, especially in men. We also

  5. Utilization of metabolomics to identify serum biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ressom, Habtom W.; Xiao, Jun Feng; Tuli, Leepika; Varghese, Rency S.; Zhou Bin; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Nezami Ranjbar, Mohammad R.; Zhao Yi; Wang Jinlian; Di Poto, Cristina; Cheema, Amrita K.; Tadesse, Mahlet G.; Goldman, Radoslav; Shetty, Kirti

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyzed sera from HCC and cirrhotic patients by LC–MS in three experiments. ► Metabolites with significant and consistent changes in HCC vs. cirrhosis were selected. ► Verification of the identities of selected metabolites was performed by MS/MS. ► Quantitation of candidate metabolites was conducted using isotope dilution by SRM. - Abstract: Characterizing the metabolic changes pertaining to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis is believed to contribute towards early detection, treatment, and understanding of the molecular mechanisms of HCC. In this study, we compare metabolite levels in sera of 78 HCC cases with 184 cirrhotic controls by using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC–QTOF MS). Following data preprocessing, the most relevant ions in distinguishing HCC cases from patients with cirrhosis are selected by parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. Putative metabolite identifications for these ions are obtained through mass-based database search. Verification of the identities of selected metabolites is conducted by comparing their MS/MS fragmentation patterns and retention time with those from authentic compounds. Quantitation of these metabolites is performed in a subset of the serum samples (10 HCC and 10 cirrhosis) using isotope dilution by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) on triple quadrupole linear ion trap (QqQLIT) and triple quadrupole (QqQ) mass spectrometers. The results of this analysis confirm that metabolites involved in sphingolipid metabolism and phospholipid catabolism such as sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P) and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC 17:0) are up-regulated in sera of HCC vs. those with liver cirrhosis. Down-regulated metabolites include those involved in bile acid biosynthesis (specifically cholesterol metabolism) such as glycochenodeoxycholic acid 3-sulfate (3-sulfo-GCDCA), glycocholic acid

  6. Utilization of metabolomics to identify serum biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ressom, Habtom W., E-mail: hwr@georgetown.edu [Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Xiao, Jun Feng; Tuli, Leepika; Varghese, Rency S.; Zhou Bin; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Nezami Ranjbar, Mohammad R.; Zhao Yi; Wang Jinlian; Di Poto, Cristina; Cheema, Amrita K. [Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Tadesse, Mahlet G. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Goldman, Radoslav [Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Shetty, Kirti [Department of Surgery, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC 20057 (United States)

    2012-09-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyzed sera from HCC and cirrhotic patients by LC-MS in three experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metabolites with significant and consistent changes in HCC vs. cirrhosis were selected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Verification of the identities of selected metabolites was performed by MS/MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitation of candidate metabolites was conducted using isotope dilution by SRM. - Abstract: Characterizing the metabolic changes pertaining to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis is believed to contribute towards early detection, treatment, and understanding of the molecular mechanisms of HCC. In this study, we compare metabolite levels in sera of 78 HCC cases with 184 cirrhotic controls by using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF MS). Following data preprocessing, the most relevant ions in distinguishing HCC cases from patients with cirrhosis are selected by parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. Putative metabolite identifications for these ions are obtained through mass-based database search. Verification of the identities of selected metabolites is conducted by comparing their MS/MS fragmentation patterns and retention time with those from authentic compounds. Quantitation of these metabolites is performed in a subset of the serum samples (10 HCC and 10 cirrhosis) using isotope dilution by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) on triple quadrupole linear ion trap (QqQLIT) and triple quadrupole (QqQ) mass spectrometers. The results of this analysis confirm that metabolites involved in sphingolipid metabolism and phospholipid catabolism such as sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P) and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC 17:0) are up-regulated in sera of HCC vs. those with liver cirrhosis. Down-regulated metabolites include those involved in bile acid biosynthesis (specifically

  7. Effects of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation on lipid peroxidation and the lipid content in the liver and serum of magnesium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Satoko; Uehara, Mariko; Katsumata, Shin-ichi; Ihara, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Naotaka; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the effects of ascorbic acid (AsA) supplementation on lipid peroxidation and the lipid content in the liver and serum of magnesium (Mg)-deficient rats. Eighteen 3-week-old male Sprague-Dawley strain rats were divided into 3 groups and maintained on a control diet (C group), a low-Mg diet (D group), or a low-Mg diet supplemented with AsA (DA group) for 42 d. At the end of this period, the final body weight, weight gain, and serum Mg concentrations were significantly decreased in the Mg-deficient rats. Further, dietary AsA supplementation had no effect on the growth, serum Mg concentration, Mg absorption, and Mg retention. The serum concentration of AsA was significantly lower in the D group than in the C group but was unaltered in the DA group. The levels of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) in the serum and of triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) in the serum and liver were significantly higher in the D group than in the C group. The serum PCOOH, liver TG, and liver TC levels were decreased in the DA group. These results indicate that Mg deficiency increases the AsA requirement of the body and that AsA supplementation normalizes the serum levels of PCOOH and the liver lipid content in Mg-deficient rats, without altering the Mg status.

  8. The effect on serum enzymes of intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine and isotonic sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Damsgaard, T

    1976-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine or isotonic sodium chloride have been given to 39 patients. We followed the serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH isoenzymes for 4 days. Ten patients receiving...

  9. Association between Pre-Transplant Serum Malondialdehyde Levels and Survival One Year after Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lorente

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found higher levels of serum malondialdehyde (MDA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients compared to healthy controls and higher MDA concentrations in tumoral tissue of HCC patients than in non-tumoral tissue. However, the association between pre-transplant serum levels of MDA and survival in HCC patients after liver transplantation (LT has not been described, and the aim of the present study was to determine whether such an association exists. In this observational study we measured serum MDA levels in 127 patients before LT. We found higher pre-LT serum MDA levels in 15 non-surviving than in 112 surviving patients one year after LT (p = 0.02. Exact binary logistic regression analysis revealed that pre-LT serum levels of MDA over 3.37 nmol/mL were associated with mortality after one year of LT (Odds ratio = 5.38; 95% confidence interval (CI = from 1.580 to infinite; p = 0.007 adjusting for age of the deceased donor. The main finding of our study was that there is an association between serum MDA levels before LT for HCC and 1-year survival after LT.

  10. Association between Pre-Transplant Serum Malondialdehyde Levels and Survival One Year after Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Leonardo; Rodriguez, Sergio T.; Sanz, Pablo; Abreu-González, Pedro; Díaz, Dácil; Moreno, Antonia M.; Borja, Elisa; Martín, María M.; Jiménez, Alejandro; Barrera, Manuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found higher levels of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients compared to healthy controls and higher MDA concentrations in tumoral tissue of HCC patients than in non-tumoral tissue. However, the association between pre-transplant serum levels of MDA and survival in HCC patients after liver transplantation (LT) has not been described, and the aim of the present study was to determine whether such an association exists. In this observational study we measured serum MDA levels in 127 patients before LT. We found higher pre-LT serum MDA levels in 15 non-surviving than in 112 surviving patients one year after LT (p = 0.02). Exact binary logistic regression analysis revealed that pre-LT serum levels of MDA over 3.37 nmol/mL were associated with mortality after one year of LT (Odds ratio = 5.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) = from 1.580 to infinite; p = 0.007) adjusting for age of the deceased donor. The main finding of our study was that there is an association between serum MDA levels before LT for HCC and 1-year survival after LT. PMID:27058525

  11. Short-term effects of splenectomy on serum fibrosis indexes in liver cirrhosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Degang; Chen, Xiuli; Lu, Shichun; Guo, Qingliang; Lai, Wei; Wu, Jushan; Lin, Dongdong; Zeng, Daobing; Duan, Binwei; Jiang, Tao; Cao, Jilei

    2015-01-01

    To determine the changing patterns of 4 liver fibrosis markers pre and post splenectomy (combined with pericardial devascularization [PCDV]) and to examine the short-term effects of splenectomy on liver fibrosis. Four liver fibrosis markers of 39 liver cirrhosis patients were examined pre, immediately post, 2 days post, and 1 week post (15 cases) splenectomy (combined with PCDV). The laminin (LN) level decreased immediately post surgery compared with the preoperative LN level (P splenectomy showed characteristic changes, splenectomy may transiently initiate the degradation process of liver fibrosis.

  12. 2-Hexadecynoic acid inhibits plasmodial FAS-II enzymes and arrests erythrocytic and liver stage Plasmodium infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Deniz; Sanabria, David; Lauinger, Ina L; Tarun, Alice; Herman, Rob; Perozzo, Remo; Zloh, Mire; Kappe, Stefan H; Brun, Reto; Carballeira, Néstor M

    2010-11-01

    Acetylenic fatty acids are known to display several biological activities, but their antimalarial activity has remained unexplored. In this study, we synthesized the 2-, 5-, 6-, and 9-hexadecynoic acids (HDAs) and evaluated their in vitro activity against erythrocytic (blood) stages of Plasmodium falciparum and liver stages of Plasmodium yoelii infections. Since the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (PfFAS-II) has recently been shown to be indispensable for liver stage malaria parasites, the inhibitory potential of the HDAs against multiple P. falciparum FAS-II (PfFAS-II) elongation enzymes was also evaluated. The highest antiplasmodial activity against blood stages of P. falciparum was displayed by 5-HDA (IC(50) value 6.6 μg/ml), whereas the 2-HDA was the only acid arresting the growth of liver stage P. yoelii infection, in both flow cytometric assay (IC(50) value 2-HDA 15.3 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 2.5 ng/ml) and immunofluorescence analysis (IC(50) 2-HDA 4.88 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 0.37 ng/ml). 2-HDA showed the best inhibitory activity against the PfFAS-II enzymes PfFabI and PfFabZ with IC(50) values of 0.38 and 0.58 μg/ml (IC(50) control drugs 14 and 30 ng/ml), respectively. Enzyme kinetics and molecular modeling studies revealed valuable insights into the binding mechanism of 2-HDA on the target enzymes. All HDAs showed in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC(50) values 3.7-31.7 μg/ml), Trypanosoma cruzi (only 2-HDA, IC(50) 20.2 μg/ml), and Leishmania donovani (IC(50) values 4.1-13.4 μg/ml) with generally low or no significant toxicity on mammalian cells. This is the first study to indicate therapeutic potential of HDAs against various parasitic protozoa. It also points out that the malarial liver stage growth inhibitory effect of the 2-HDA may be promoted via PfFAS-II enzymes. The lack of cytotoxicity, lipophilic nature, and calculated pharmacokinetic properties suggests that 2-HDA could be a useful compound to

  13. 2-Hexadecynoic Acid Inhibits Plasmodial FAS-II Enzymes and Arrest Erythrocytic and Liver Stage Plasmodium Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Deniz; Sanabria, David; Lauinger, Ina L.; Tarun, Alice; Herman, Rob; Perozzo, Remo; Zloh, Mire; Kappe, Stefan H.; Brun, Reto; Carballeira, Néstor M.

    2010-01-01

    Acetylenic fatty acids are known to display several biological activities, but their antimalarial activity has remained unexplored. In this study, we synthesized the 2-, 5-, 6-, and 9-hexadecynoic acids (HDAs) and evaluated their in vitro activity against erythrocytic (blood) stages of Plasmodium falciparum and liver stages of P. yoelii infections. Since the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (PfFAS-II) has recently been shown to be indispensable for liver stage malaria parasites, the inhibitory potential of the HDAs against multiple P. falciparum FAS-II (PfFAS-II) elongation enzymes was also evaluated. The highest antiplasmodial activity against blood stages of P. falciparum was displayed by 5-HDA (IC50 value 6.6. μg/ml), whereas the 2-HDA was the only acid arresting the growth of liver stage P. yoelii infection, in both flow cytometric assay (IC50 value 2-HDA 15.3 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 2.5 ng/ml) and immunofluorescense analysis (IC50 2-HDA 4.88 μg/ml, control drug atovaquone 0.37 ng/ml). 2-HDA showed the best inhibitory against the PfFAS-II enzymes PfFabI and PfFabZ with IC50 values of 0.38 and 0.58 μg/ml (IC50 control drugs 14 and 30 ng/ml) respectively. Enzyme kinetics and molecular modeling studies revealed valuable insights into the binding mechanism of 2-HDA on the target enzymes. All HDAs showed in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC50 values 3.7–31.7 μg/ml), Trypanosoma cruzi (only 2-HDA, IC50 20.2 μg/ml), and Leishmania donovani (IC50 values 4.1–13.4 μg/ml) with generally low or no significant toxicity on mammalian cells. This is the first study to indicate therapeutic potential of HDAs against various parasitic protozoa. It also points out that the malarial liver stage growth inhibitory effect of the 2-HDA may be promoted via PfFAS-II enzymes. The lack of cytotoxicity, lipophilic nature and calculated pharmacokinetic properties suggest that 2-HDA could be a useful compound to study the interaction of fatty

  14. The effect of fenbuconazole on cell proliferation and enzyme induction in the liver of female CD1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juberg, Daland R.; Mudra, Daniel R.; Hazelton, George A.; Parkinson, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Fenbuconazole, a triazole fungicide, has been associated with an increase in the incidence of liver adenomas in female mice following long-term dietary exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the mode of action for liver tumor formation by fenbuconazole is similar to that of phenobarbital. Treatment of CD1 mice with 0, 20, 60, 180 or 1300 ppm fenbuconazole for up to 4 weeks caused a dose-dependent increase in liver weight that was associated with centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy, cytoplasmic eosinophilia and panlobular hepatocellular vacuolation, as well as an initial increase in the cell proliferation labeling index. Fenbuconazole also caused a dose-dependent increase in liver microsomal cytochromes b 5 and P450 and the levels of immunoreactive CYP2B10 and its associated activity 7-pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (PROD). Treatment of mice with 1000 ppm phenobarbital elicited the same effects as treatment of mice with 1300 ppm fenbuconazole, except that phenobarbital was more effective than fenbuconazole at inducing PROD activity, even though fenbuconazole induced CYP2B10 to the same extent as did phenobarbital. This difference was attributed to the ability of fenbuconazole to bind tightly to CYP2B10 and partially mask its catalytic activity in liver microsomes, which is characteristic of several azole-containing drugs. All hepatocellular changes and induced enzyme activity returned to control levels within 4 weeks of discontinuing treatment with fenbuconazole or phenobarbital, indicating that the observed changes were fully reversible. We conclude that fenbuconazole is a phenobarbital-type inducer of mouse liver cytochrome P450, and the mode of action by which fenbuconazole induces liver adenomas in mice is similar to that of phenobarbital

  15. Effects of Delta-tocotrienol Supplementation on Liver Enzymes, Inflammation, Oxidative stress and Hepatic Steatosis in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Muhammad Amjad; Khan, Dishad Ahmet; Ijaz, Aamir; Khan, Shamrez

    2018-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing public health problem worldwide and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Currently, there is no definitive treatment for this disease. δ-Tocotrienol has potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and may reduce liver injury in NAFLD. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of δ-tocotrienol in the treatment of NAFLD. The present study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study conducted in patients aged > 20 years, belonging to both sexes, having ultrasound-proven fatty liver disease, having a fatty liver index (FLI) of ≥ 60, and persistent elevation of alanine transaminase. A total of 71 patients were assigned to receive either oral δ-tocotrienol (n=35, 300 mg twice daily) or placebo (n=36) for 12 weeks. At the baseline and at the end of the study, clinical and biochemical parameters, including lipid profile, liver function tests, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. Body mass index and FLI were calculated, and ultrasound grading of hepatic steatosis was performed. Out of 71 enrolled patients, 64 patients, 31 in the δ-tocotrienol group and 33 in the placebo group, completed the study. After 12 weeks of supplementation, δ-tocotrienol showed greater efficacy than placebo by decreasing serum aminotransferases, hs-CRP, MDA, and FLI score (phepatic steatosis on ultrasound examination. No adverse effects were reported. δ-Tocotrienol was safe, and it effectively improved aminotransferase levels and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in patients with NAFLD. Large-scale randomized clinical trials are warranted to further support these findings.

  16. The role of enzyme and substrate concentration in the evaluation of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition by enalaprilat in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisser, K; Schloos, J

    1991-10-09

    The relationship between serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity and concentration of the ACE inhibitor enalaprilat was determined in vitro in the presence of different concentrations (S = 4-200 mM) of the substrate Hip-Gly-Gly. From Henderson plots, a competitive tight-binding relationship between enalaprilat and serum ACE was found yielding a value of approximately 5 nM for serum ACE concentration (Et) and an inhibition constant (Ki) for enalaprilat of approximately 0.1 nM. A plot of reaction velocity (Vi) versus total inhibitor concentration (It) exhibited a non-parallel shift of the inhibition curve to the right with increasing S. This was reflected by apparent Hill coefficients greater than 1 when the commonly used inhibitory sigmoid concentration-effect model (Emax model) was applied to the data. Slopes greater than 1 were obviously due to discrepancies between the free inhibitor concentration (If) present in the assay and It plotted on the abscissa and could, therefore, be indicators of tight-binding conditions. Thus, the sigmoid Emax model leads to an overestimation of Ki. Therefore, a modification of the inhibitory sigmoid Emax model (called "Emax tight model") was applied, which accounts for the depletion of If by binding, refers to It and allows estimation of the parameters Et and IC50f (free concentration of inhibitor when 50% inhibition occurs) using non-linear regression analysis. This model could describe the non-symmetrical shape of the inhibition curves and the results for Ki and Et correlated very well with those derived from the Henderson plots. The latter findings confirm that the degree of ACE inhibition measured in vitro is, in fact, dependent on the concentration of substrate and enzyme present in the assay. This is of importance not only for the correct evaluation of Ki but also for the interpretation of the time course of serum ACE inhibition measured ex vivo. The non-linear model has some advantages over the linear Henderson

  17. Detection of antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 12 in pig serum using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Klausen, Joan; Barfod, Kristen

    2002-01-01

    and from herds declared free of infection with Ap. The Ap serotype 12 blocking ELISA showed a herd sensitivity of 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.88) and a herd specificity of 1.00 (0.95-1.00) with a cut-off value at 40% relative absorbance or 60% inhibition. The assay may be used advantageously......The objective was to develop a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) serotype 12 in pig serum. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Ap serotype 12 was purified and used as antigen in the assay. Antibodies to the LPS antigen...... in samples of pig serum were detected by inhibition of the binding of polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against Ap serotype 12. The assay was evaluated against sera from experimentally infected pigs, from pig herds naturally infected with Ap and from herds declared free of Ap serotypc 12 infection...

  18. A study of the prevalence of significant increases in serum creatinine following angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitor administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, M L; Ditmer, D G; Nash, M K; Wise, R; Jaderholm, P L; Smith, J D; Chan, W

    2005-05-01

    Angiontension-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are beneficial in the treatment of diabetic and nondiabetic kidney disease, coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. One adverse effect of ACEIs use is a rise in serum creatinine and potential renal failure. This paper attempts to quantify this risk and assess the need for pre- and post-ACEI serum creatinine measurements. A computerized search of Kaiser Permanente Northwest's electronic medical record was conducted to find patients over the age of 40 years taking lisinopril between July 1, 2000 and June 30, 2002. Patient demographic information and presence in diabetes and coronary artery disease registries was collected. A subsequent search for pre- and postlisinopril serum creatinine levels within 6 months of initial lisinopril prescription was conducted. Patients with prelisinopril creatinine 2.5 mg/dl underwent chart review to discern adverse events associated with the rise in serum creatinine. A total of 18,977 patients were prescribed lisinopril between July 1, 2000 and June 30, 2002. In all 13 166 patients had a pre- and postlisinopril creatinine checked. In all, 31 patients had a rise in creatinine from 2.5 mg/dl (0.2%). Possible contributors to rise in creatinine included congestive heart failure, dehydration and infection. No patients developed end-stage renal disease, although three died. In conclusion, end-stage renal disease is an unlikely outcome among patients prescribed lisinopril and is most likely associated with other events.

  19. The Effect of Myrtus communis Extract on Liver Enzymes and Blood Biochemical Factors in Diabetic Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habiballah Johari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was the effect of Myrtus communis extract on liver enzymes and blood biochemical factors in diabetic adult male rats. Materials and Methods: This study has been carried out experimentally and completely random. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided in 7 groups including: control which received no treatment, sham who received 2 mL of distilled water, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd experimental groups which received 0.75, 1.5 and 3 mg/kg Myrtus communis leaf extract respectively, the 4th experimental group as the diabetic control group who received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg and the 5th experimental group as the diabetic treatment group who received 3 mg/kg of extract. This experiment lasted 14 days with prescript orally. After this period, all the rats, were weighted, anesthetized and blood samples were taken from the heart centrifuged and sera were evaluated for the concentration of various factors. In addition liver were removed and sliced. Results: According to the obtained results, the plasma concentration of liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol and glucose presented a significant decrease at (p≤0.05. Whereas no significant change were seen in body weight, triglyceride, urea, albumin and total protein. Histological studies of the liver tissue showed no significant difference among various groups. Conclusion: Myrtus communis is comprise of collections of flavonoids and other various components with antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties. Thence it can effective in treatment of liver diseases and decrease of blood sugar and cholesterol in diabetes mellitus patients.

  20. Performance characteristics of bioassay, radioenzymatic assay, homogeneous enzyme immunoassay, and high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of serum gentamicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, C.J.; Opheim, K.E.; Smith, A.L.; Plorde, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    We compared the accuracy, precision, and between-method error of the microbiological assay, the radioenzymatic assay, the homogeneous enzyme immunoassay, and the high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the quantitation of gentamicin in serum. Precision and accuracy were evaluated by reference samples prepared to contain 0.0 to 32.7 micrograms of gentamicin per ml. Correlations between the methods utilized patient sera with gentamicin concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 13.3 micrograms/ml. All methods were reliable within acceptable limits for routine clinical use; intermethod correlation coefficients exceeded 0.96. Relative to the microbiological assay, the alternative methods offer the advantage of rapid analysis. The elapsed times for acquiring data on a set of 10 specimens under routine operating conditions were 0.5 h by the enzyme immunoassay, 4 h by the radioenzymatic assay, 5 h by the high-performance liquid chromatographic assay, and 10 h by the microbiological assay

  1. A Clinical study of HBsAg and Anti-HBs in the serum of patients with various liver diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak San; Kim, Jong Mann; Kim, Hwa Sook; Kim, Yul Ja; Lee, Hak Choong; Lee, Chong Suk [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-09-15

    Serum HBsAg and Anti-HBs obtained by radioimmunoassay were studied in 109 cases of various liver diseases who visited or were admitted to National Medical Center from December, 1980 to July, 1981. The results were as follows; 1) HBsAg was detected in 67.0% of total 109 cases; 71.9% of 32 cases with acute viral hepatitis, 71.4% of 14 cases with chronic hepatitis, 65.2% of 46 cases with liver cirrhosis and 58.8% of 17 cases with hepatoma. 2) Anti-HBs was detected in 32.1% of total 109 cases; 37.0% of 46 cases with liver cirrhosis, 29.4% of 17 cases with hepatoma, 28.6% of 14 cases with chronic hepatitis, 28.1% of 32 cases with acute viral hepatitis. 3) HBsAg or Anti-HBs, the markers of Hepatitis B virus was detected in 89.0% of total 109 cases; 93.6% of 32 cases with acute viral hepatitis, 89.1% of 46 cases with liver cirrhosis, 85.7% of 14 cases with chronic hepatitis and 82.4% of 17 cases with hepatoma, which strongly suggested that the various liver diseases were associated with hepatitis B virus infection.

  2. A Clinical study of HBsAg and Anti-HBs in the serum of patients with various liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak San; Kim, Jong Mann; Kim, Hwa Sook; Kim, Yul Ja; Lee, Hak Choong; Lee, Chong Suk

    1981-01-01

    Serum HBsAg and Anti-HBs obtained by radioimmunoassay were studied in 109 cases of various liver diseases who visited or were admitted to National Medical Center from December, 1980 to July, 1981. The results were as follows; 1) HBsAg was detected in 67.0% of total 109 cases; 71.9% of 32 cases with acute viral hepatitis, 71.4% of 14 cases with chronic hepatitis, 65.2% of 46 cases with liver cirrhosis and 58.8% of 17 cases with hepatoma. 2) Anti-HBs was detected in 32.1% of total 109 cases; 37.0% of 46 cases with liver cirrhosis, 29.4% of 17 cases with hepatoma, 28.6% of 14 cases with chronic hepatitis, 28.1% of 32 cases with acute viral hepatitis. 3) HBsAg or Anti-HBs, the markers of Hepatitis B virus was detected in 89.0% of total 109 cases; 93.6% of 32 cases with acute viral hepatitis, 89.1% of 46 cases with liver cirrhosis, 85.7% of 14 cases with chronic hepatitis and 82.4% of 17 cases with hepatoma, which strongly suggested that the various liver diseases were associated with hepatitis B virus infection.

  3. Inositol and hepatic lipidosis. I. Effect of inositol supplementation and time from parturition on liver and serum lipids in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, B J; Herdt, T H; Wells, W W; Liesman, J S; Emery, R S

    1986-06-01

    Percutaneous liver biopsies and blood samples were obtained from 80 multiparous dairy cows in nine Michigan herds. Biopsies and samples were obtained serially over the peripartum period. Thirty-nine cows received 17 g of supplemental myoinositol in the diet to test its use as a possible lipotropic substance and 41 received a placebo. Liver biopsies were assayed for triglyceride (TG) and total myoinositol content. Serum was assayed for dextran precipitable cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Inositol supplementation had no effect on any of the lipid variables. There was a significant herd effect on liver inositol, serum dextran precipitable cholesterol and NEFA concentrations. Serum NEFA and liver TG concentrations increased in the immediate postpartum period, while dextran precipitable cholesterol decreased. A significant herd X period interaction existed for liver TG and serum dextran precipitable cholesterol concentrations. Liver TG and serum NEFA concentrations were positively correlated. Excessive infiltration of bovine liver with lipid at calving appears to be an exaggerated manifestation of normal metabolic changes.

  4. Is serum apelin related to portal hemodynamics in patients with liver cirrhosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf G Dala

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion Serum apelin is elevated in patients with cirrhosis and PH, and a positive correlation is found between serum apelin and the degree of hepatic fibrosis. Measurement of serum apelin represents a rapid, noninvasive method for the prediction of PH in cirrhotics and can assess the degree of hepatic fibrosis.

  5. Serum levels of YKL-40 and PIIINP as prognostic markers in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Johansen, Julia S; Christensen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    in the patients compared to controls. Patients with steatosis or no fibrosis had the lowest serum levels of YKL-40 and PIIINP, whereas patients with alcoholic hepatitis and/or cirrhosis had the highest levels. Serum YKL-40 was associated with the presence of fibrosis, and serum PIIINP was also associated...

  6. High biological variation of serum hyaluronic acid and Hepascore, a biochemical marker model for the prediction of liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Enrico; Adams, Leon A; Ching, Helena L; Bulsara, Max; MacQuillan, Gerry C; Jeffrey, Gary P

    2013-05-01

    Serum hyaluronic acid and biochemical models which require hyaluronic acid analysis are commonly used as predictors of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease, however biological variation data for hyaluronic acid are deficient. Four serial serum samples were obtained at weekly intervals from healthy volunteers and patients with chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C and non- alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; 20 in each group). The within-individual week-to-week variation (CVI) and reference change values for hyaluronic acid, α₂-macroglobulin and Hepascore were obtained. Hepascore is calculated from hyaluronic acid, α2-macroglobulin, bilirubin and γ-glutamyltransferase activity. Hyaluronic acid displayed large within-individual variation, the CVI values were 62% in healthy subjects, 38% in hepatitis C, 37% in hepatitis B and 36% in NAFLD patients. Hepascore CVIs were 43% in healthy subjects, 24% in hepatitis C, 28% in hepatitis B and 39% in NAFLD patients. α₂-Macroglobulin was much less variable with CVIs ranging from 4.4% to 7.6%. Bland-Altman plots of week-to-week variations showed rates of significant disagreement for samples collected in any 2 successive weeks varied from 5% in NAFLD patients to 8.3% in healthy subjects. When using non-fasting serum samples, hyaluronic acid and to a lesser extent, the Hepascore model display large within-individual variations in both health and chronic liver disease. This information is critical for interpreting the significance of both single measurements and changes in serial measurements.

  7. Liver shear-wave velocity and serum fibrosis markers to diagnose hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian Xue; Ji, Yong Hao; Zhao Junzhi; Zhang, Yao Ren; Dun, Guo Liang; Ning, Bo [Dept. of Ultrasonography, Baoji Central Hospital, Baoji (China); Ai, Hong [Dept. of Ultrasonography, The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2016-06-15

    To compare several noninvasive indices of fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis B, including liver shear-wave velocity (SWV), hyaluronic acid (HA), collagen type IV (CIV), procollagen type III (PCIII), and laminin (LN). Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) was performed in 157 patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and in 30 healthy volunteers to measure hepatic SWV (m/s) in a prospective study. Serum markers were acquired on the morning of the same day of the ARFI evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the accuracies of SWV and serum markers using METAVIR scoring from liver biopsy as a reference standard. The most accurate test for diagnosing fibrosis F ≥ 1 was SWV with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.913, followed by LN (0.744), HA (0.701), CIV (0.690), and PCIII (0.524). The best test for diagnosing F ≥ 2 was SWV (AUC of 0.851), followed by CIV (0.671), HA (0.668), LN (0.562), and PCIII (0.550). The best test for diagnosing F ≥ 3 was SWV (0.854), followed by CIV (0.693), HA (0.675), PCIII (0.591), and LN (0.548). The best test for diagnosing F = 4 was SWV (0.965), followed by CIV (0.804), PCIII (0.752), HA (0.744), and LN (0.662). SWV combined with HA and CIV did not improve diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.931 for F ≥ 1, 0.863 for F ≥ 2, 0.855 for F ≥ 3, 0.960 for F = 4). The performance of SWV in diagnosing liver fibrosis is superior to that of serum markers. However, the combination of SWV, HA, and CIV does not increase the accuracy of diagnosing liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

  8. Liver shear-wave velocity and serum fibrosis markers to diagnose hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian Xue; Ji, Yong Hao; Zhao Junzhi; Zhang, Yao Ren; Dun, Guo Liang; Ning, Bo; Ai, Hong

    2016-01-01

    To compare several noninvasive indices of fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis B, including liver shear-wave velocity (SWV), hyaluronic acid (HA), collagen type IV (CIV), procollagen type III (PCIII), and laminin (LN). Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) was performed in 157 patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and in 30 healthy volunteers to measure hepatic SWV (m/s) in a prospective study. Serum markers were acquired on the morning of the same day of the ARFI evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the accuracies of SWV and serum markers using METAVIR scoring from liver biopsy as a reference standard. The most accurate test for diagnosing fibrosis F ≥ 1 was SWV with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.913, followed by LN (0.744), HA (0.701), CIV (0.690), and PCIII (0.524). The best test for diagnosing F ≥ 2 was SWV (AUC of 0.851), followed by CIV (0.671), HA (0.668), LN (0.562), and PCIII (0.550). The best test for diagnosing F ≥ 3 was SWV (0.854), followed by CIV (0.693), HA (0.675), PCIII (0.591), and LN (0.548). The best test for diagnosing F = 4 was SWV (0.965), followed by CIV (0.804), PCIII (0.752), HA (0.744), and LN (0.662). SWV combined with HA and CIV did not improve diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.931 for F ≥ 1, 0.863 for F ≥ 2, 0.855 for F ≥ 3, 0.960 for F = 4). The performance of SWV in diagnosing liver fibrosis is superior to that of serum markers. However, the combination of SWV, HA, and CIV does not increase the accuracy of diagnosing liver fibrosis and cirrhosis

  9. Liver Enzymes and the Development of Posttransplantation Diabetes Mellitus in Renal Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Gerald; Corpeleijn, Eva; Deetman, Nicole P E; Navis, Gerjan J; Bakker, Stephan J L; Zelle, Dorien M

    BACKGROUND: Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is common in renal transplant recipients (RTR), increasing the risk of graft failure, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. Early detection of a high risk for PTDM is warranted. Because liver function and liver fat are involved, we

  10. Liver enzyme elevations in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients on first-line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: All antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) are potentially toxic to the liver. In sub-Saharan Africa, the rising incidence of ART induced adverse events has complicated treatment leading to recent revisions of Namibian ART guidelines. Unfortunately there have been limited studies to date evaluating ART induced liver ...

  11. Microplasma jet treatment of bovine serum albumin coatings for controlling enzyme and cell attachmenttype="fn" rid="FN1">

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szili, Endre J.; Becker, Stefanie; Short, Robert D.; Al-Bataineh, Sameer A.

    2017-08-01

    We investigated a new approach to control protein and cell attachment inside 96-well polystyrene plates. The wells were first coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) to inhibit cell and protein attachment. The BSA-coated wells were then treated with a helium microplasma jet for increasing times that resulted in gradual removal of BSA from the surface. It was found that the amount of enzyme and cell attachment could be controlled in the wells where BSA was only partially removed by the microplasma jet. In addition to the surface coverage of BSA, the new surface chemistry induced by the microplasma jet treatment also had an important role in the control of enzyme and cell attachment. In summary, microplasma jet treatment of BSA-coated polystyrene wells is a simple and effective method for controlling enzyme and cell attachment. This might find use for high-throughput screening of new cell culture platforms where control over the level protein, enzyme or cell adherence is needed in order to maintain a specific cell function.

  12. Serum dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity in insulin resistant patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a novel liver disease biomarker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Firneisz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a cross-sectional study we studied the fasting serum DPP-4 enzymatic activity (sDPP-4 and the insulin resistance index (HOMA2-IR in gliptin naïve patients with type 2 diabetes and in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and in healthy controls (CNTRL. METHODS AND FINDINGS: sDPP-4 was measured by kinetic assay in 39 NAFLD (F/M:19/20, mean age: 47.42 yrs and 82 type 2 diabetes (F/M:48/34, 62.8 yrs patients and 26 (F/M:14/12, 35.3 yrs controls. Definition of T2D group as patients with type 2 diabetes but without clinically obvious liver disease created non-overlapping study groups. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography and the exclusion of other etiololgy. Patients in T2D and NAFLD groups were similarly obese. 75 g CH OGTT in 39 NAFLD patients: 24-NGT, 4-IGT or IFG ("prediabetes", 11-type 2 diabetes. HOMA2-IR: CNTRL: 1.44; T2D-group: 2.62 (p = 0.046 vs CNTRL, parametric tests; NAFLD(NGTonly: 3.23 (p = 0.0013 vs CNTRL; NAFLD(IFG/IGT/type 2 diabetes: 3.82 (p<0.001 vs CNTRL, p = 0.049 vs 2TD group. sDPP-4 activity was higher in NAFLD both with NGT (mean:33.08U/L and abnormal glucose metabolism (30.38U/L than in CNTRL (25.89U/L, p<0.001 and p = 0.013 or in T2D groups (23.97U/L, p<0.001 and p = 0.004. Correlations in NAFLD among sDPP-4 and ALT: r = 0.4637,p = 0.0038 and gammaGT: r = 0.4991,p = 0.0017 and HOMA2-IR: r = 0.5295,p = 0.0026 and among HOMA2-IR and ALT: r = 0.4340,p = 0.0147 and gammaGT: r = 0.4128,p = 0.0210. CONCLUSIONS: The fasting serum DPP-4 activity was not increased in T2D provided that patients with liver disease were intentionally excluded. The high serum DPP-4 activities in NAFLD were correlated with liver tests but not with the fasting plasma glucose or HbA1C supporting that the excess is of hepatic origin and it might contribute to the speedup of metabolic deterioration. The correlation among gammaGT, ALT and serum DPP-4 activity and also between serum DPP-4 activity and HOMA2-IR in NAFLD strongly

  13. Mitochondrial DNA Unwinding Enzyme Required for Liver Regeneration | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The liver has an exceptional capacity to proliferate. This ability allows the liver to regenerate its mass after partial surgical removal or injury and is the key to successful partial liver transplants. Liver cells, called hepatocytes, are packed with mitochondria, and regulating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is crucial to mitochondrial function, including energy production, during proliferation. Yves Pommier, M.D., Ph.D., of CCR’s Developmental Therapeutics Branch, and his colleagues recently showed that the vertebrate mitochondrial topoisomerase, Top1mt, was critical in maintaining mitochondrial function in the heart after doxorubicin-induced damage. The group wondered whether Top1mt might play a similar role in liver regeneration.

  14. Determination of serum DNA concentration by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) in gamma irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, J; Misurova, E

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive and specific ELISA method was used to determine changes in the serum DNA concentration in rats at hours 6 and 9 and on the days 1, 3, 7, 10, 15 and 30 after acute whole-body gamma irradiation with a dose of 8 Gy. Changes in the DNA serum concentration were determined also on day 10 after irradiation with doses of 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 Gy. The present results indicate that the pattern of changes in the serum DNA concentration is characterized by an initial decrease, typical also of the leukocyte count, followed by a statistically significant increase in the DNA concentration on day 10 and in later periods of time. These data confirmed, in principle, the authors' previous findings on changes in the DNA concentration in the rat blood plasma after acute X-ray irradiation assessed by the fluorimetric method with ethidium bromide. (author). 4 figs., 14 refs.

  15. [Jaundice and pathological liver values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbach, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-06-05

    Jaundice corresponds to elevated bilirubin- levels, whereat one has to distinguish between direct and indirect serum-bilirubin. In the present Mini Review causes and differential diagnosis of jaundice are outlined. Ultrasound-diagnostic plays a major role in identifying intrahepatic or extrahepatic jaundice. Attention is given to the differential diagnosis of elevated liver enzymes in presence of jaundice, pointing out the distinction between hepatocellular and cholestatic parameters as well as the differentiation in acute or chronic increase. Moreover, the consequences of liver enzyme elevations including further diagnostic procedures, are highlighted. Finally, possibilities and limitations of modern diagnostic tests for liver fibrosis are briefly overviewed.

  16. Protective Effect of Prosopis cineraria Against N-Nitrosodiethylamine Induced Liver Tumor by Modulating Membrane Bound Enzymes and Glycoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naina Mohamed Pakkir Maideen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of methanol extract of Prosopis cineraria (MPC against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN, 200mg/kg induced Phenobarbital promoted experimental liver tumors in male Wistar rats. Methods: The rats were divided into four groups, each group consisting of six animals. Group 1 served as control animals. Liver tumor was induced in group 2, 3, and 4 and Group 3 animals received MPC 200mg/kg and Group 4 animals received MPC 400mg/kg. Results: Administration of DEN has brought down the levels of membrane bound enzymes like Na+/ K+ ATPase, Mg2+ ATPase and Ca2+ATPase which were later found to be increased by the administration of Prosopis cineraria (200 and 400mg/kg in dose dependent manner. The MPC extract also suppressed the levels of glycoproteins like Hexose, Hexosamine and Sialic acid when compared to liver tumor bearing animals. Conclusions: Our study suggests that MPC may extend its protective role by modulating the levels of membrane bound enzymes and suppressing glycoprotein levels.

  17. The Effects of Exercise on Abdominal Fat and Liver Enzymes in Pediatric Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ruiz, Katherine; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Peterson, Mark D; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    Despite the prevalence of obesity and the multiple position stands promoting exercise for the treatment of obesity and hepatic function, a meta-analytic approach has not previously been used to examine the effects in the pediatric population. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of exercise interventions on abdominal fat, liver enzymes, and intrahepatic fat in overweight and obese youth. A computerized search was made using three databases. The analysis was restricted to studies that examined the effect of supervised exercise interventions on abdominal fat (visceral and subcutaneous fat), liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase), and intrahepatic fat. Fourteen clinical trials (1231 youths) were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Standardized mean difference [SMD] and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Exercise was associated with a significant reduction in visceral (SMD = -0.661; 95% CI, -0.976 to -0.346; p exercise programs that involve aerobic exercise longer than three sessions per week. This meta-analysis supports current recommendation for physical exercise, mainly aerobic, as an effective intervention for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progression by targeting hepatic lipid composition, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42016042163.

  18. beta-Glucuronidase-resistant bilirubin glucuronide isomers in cholestatic liver disease--determination of bilirubin metabolites in serum by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    "Direct reacting bilirubin" in serum of patients with cholestatic liver disease and in serum of bile duct-ligated rats consists of a complex mixture of bilirubin metabolites. These metabolites were studied by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography. Bilirubin glucuronides in normal bile are

  19. Serum amyloid A and haptoglobin concentrations and liver fat percentage in lactating dairy cows with abomasal displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzelbektes, H; Sen, I; Ok, M; Constable, P D; Boydak, M; Coskun, A

    2010-01-01

    There has been increased interest in measuring the serum concentration of acute phase reactants such as serum amyloid A [SAA] and haptoglobin [haptoglobin] in periparturient cattle in order to provide a method for detecting the presence of inflammation or bacterial infection. To determine whether [SAA] and [haptoglobin] are increased in cows with displaced abomasum as compared with healthy dairy cows. Fifty-four adult dairy cows in early lactation that had left displaced abomasum (LDA, n = 34), right displaced abomasum or abomasal volvulus (RDA/AV, n = 11), or were healthy on physical examination (control, n = 9). Inflammatory diseases or bacterial infections such as mastitis, metritis, or pneumonia were not clinically apparent in any animal. Jugular venous blood was obtained from all cows and analyzed. Liver samples were obtained by biopsy in cattle with abomasal displacement. [SAA] and [haptoglobin] concentrations were increased in cows with LDA or RDA/AV as compared with healthy controls. Cows with displaced abomasum had mild to moderate hepatic lipidosis, based on liver fat percentages of 9.3 +/- 5.3% (mean +/- SD, LDA) and 10.8 +/- 7.7% (RDA/AV). [SAA] and [haptoglobin] were most strongly associated with liver fat percentage, r(s) = +0.55 (P hepatic lipidosis in cattle with abomasal displacement.

  20. Effect of ionising radiation and salt of cadmium on the activity enzymes in serum of chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, I.; Danova, D.; Kalenicova, Z.; Toropila, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated changes of activities alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum of broiler chickens exposed to single of whole-body dose of 3 Gy gamma rays and concentration of cadmium 6 mg · kg -1 live weight. Samples of our experiment was analyse on the 7, 14. and 21 day after irradiation. (authors)

  1. Biochemical Effects Of Aluminum On Some Selected Serum Enzymes Of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogueche

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxic metals are widely found in our environment and humans are exposed to them via water contaminated air food and soil. Aluminum AL belongs to this group of toxic metals. Its neurological effects are well documented but effects on acid and alkaline phosphatases are poorly studied and this the essence of this study. Toxicity of aluminum was investigated based on the elevation of acid and alkali phosphatases in serum of male Wistar albino rats after days 7 and 14 of aluminum 0.38 3.8 and 38mgkg body weight administration respectively. The results showed significant increase p0.05 in serum acid phosphatase in the test animals given 38kgkg after days 14 while serum alkali phosphatase increased significantly p 0.05 in the test animals given 3.8 and 38 mgkg after days 7 and 14 when compared to the control animals. However lower dose 0.38mgkg showed increase in both serum acid and alkali phosphatases respectively but were statistically non-significant p0.05 at 7 and 14 as compared to control animals.

  2. Rapid determination of recent cocaine use with magnetic particles-based enzyme immunoassays in serum, saliva, and urine fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Juan C; Bertolín, Juan R; Bonel, Laura; Asturias, Laura; Arcos-Martínez, M Julia; Castillo, Juan R

    2016-06-05

    Cocaine is one of the most worldwide used illicit drugs. We report a magnetic particles-based enzyme-linked immunoassay (mpEIA) method for the rapid and sensitive determination of cocaine (COC) in saliva, urine and serum samples. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detections were 0.09ngmL(-1) (urine), 0.15ngmL(-1) (saliva), and 0.06ngmL(-1) COC (human serum). Sensitivities were in the range EC50=0.6-2.5ngmL(-1) COC. The cross-reactivity with the principal metabolite benzoylecgonine (BZE) was only 1.6%. Recovering percentages of doped samples (0, 10, 50, and 100ngmL(-1) of COC) ranged from about 86-111%. Some advantages of the developed mpEIA over conventional ELISA kits are faster incubations, improved reproducibility, and consumption of lower amounts of antibody and enzyme conjugates due to the use of magnetic beads. The reported method was validated following the guidelines on bioanalytical methods of the European Medicines Agency (2011). Unmetabolized COC detection has a great interest in pharmacological, pharmacokinetics, and toxicokinetics studies, and can be used to detect a very recent COC use (1-6h). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (ammonia) of rat and axolotl liver: determination of immunological cross-reactivity without purification of the axolotl enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, W. H.; de Graaf, A.; Mooren, P. G.; Moorman, A. F.; Charles, R.

    1982-01-01

    A method has been developed to establish the degree of cross-reactivity of an antiserum raised against purified carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (ammonia) from adult rat liver, toward a homologous enzyme from another species without purification of the latter enzyme. For that purpose the ratio between

  4. L-malate enhances the gene expression of carried proteins and antioxidant enzymes in liver of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Wu, J; Wu, Q; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory reported L-malate as a free radical scavenger in aged rats. To investigate the antioxidant mechanism of L-malate in the mitochondria, we analyzed the change in gene expression of two malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS)-related carried proteins (AGC, aspartate/glutamate carrier and OMC, oxoglutarate/malate carrier) in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and three antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px) in the mitochondria. The changes in gene expression of these proteins and enzymes were examined by real-time RT-PCR in the heart and liver of aged rats treated with L-malate. L-malate was orally administered in rats continuously for 30 days using a feeding atraumatic needle. We found that the gene expression of OMC and GSH-Px mRNA in the liver increased by 39 % and 38 %, respectively, in the 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment group than that in the control group. The expression levels of SOD mRNA in the liver increased by 39 %, 56 %, and 78 % in the 0.105, 0.210, and 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment groups, respectively. No difference were observed in the expression levels of AGC, OMC, CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px mRNAs in the heart of rats between the L-malate treatment and control groups. These results predicted that L-malate may increase the antioxidant capacity of mitochondria by enhancing the expression of mRNAs involved in the MAS and the antioxidant enzymes.

  5. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Psidium Guajava Leaves on Liver Enzymes, Histological Integrity and Hematological Indices in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uboh, Friday E.; Okon, Iniobong E.; Ekong, Moses B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin and total protein levels, as well as the tissue histological assay are known to be useful in assessing the functional integrity of the liver. Also, assessment of red and white blood cells count, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations is useful in determining the effect of some chemical substances on hemotopoietic system. In recent times, reports from medicinal plants research indicate that extracts from some plants are both hepatotoxic and hematotoxic, while others on the other hand are reported to be hepatoprotective and hematopoietic in action. This study considers the effects of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava (P. guajava) leaves on the histology and biochemical indices of liver function as well as hematological indices in rats. Methods In this study, phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of P. guajava leaves was carried out. Also, male and female rats were administered with 200 mg/kg body weight oral daily doses of aqueous extract of P. guajava leaves for a period of 30 days. At the end of the administration period, the rats were anaesthesized with chloroform vapors and dissected for the collection of blood and liver tissues which were used for the hematopoietic and liver functions investigations. Results Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant leaves showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, polyphenols, reducing compounds, saponins and tannins. Liver function tests revealed that the serum ALT, AST and ALP, as well as the concentrations of total protein and albumin in male and female rats were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by the oral administration of the extract. Histopathological study also did not show any adverse alteration in the morphological architecture of the liver tissues in both sexes of the animal model. However, red blood cell counts, hemotocrit and hemoglobin concentrations increased

  6. Effect of combined treatment of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and diuretics on serum creatinine levels among elderly patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweileh, Waleed M.

    2006-01-01

    The adverse effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and diuretics when given together need extensive research and attention. We performed a cross-sectional study of patients admitted to the internal department of a general medical hospital to investigate the effect of drug combinations on serum creatinine level and creatinine clearance upon admission. Age, sex, disease, status and prior consumption of the target drugs: diuretics and ACE-I were correlated with creatnine and creatinine clearance on admission. The levels of serum creatinine for groups receiving the target combination in both sexes were significantly higher than groups who were not receiving the target combination. Computing an estimate of creatinine clearance based on Cockroft equation yields similar results to that for serum level creatinine. The levels of creatinine clearance in both sexes were significantly higher in the control group compared to those receiving the target combinations. Low dose aspirin seems to have a synergistic negative effect on renal function when given in combination with the target medications. Taking ACE-I/diuretic combination was associated with significant changes in creatinine levels and creatinine clearance. Attention should be made to balance positive effects of theses medications against their negative effect on renal function. (author)

  7. Detection by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of coronavirus antibodies in bovine serum and lacteal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, L; Babiuk, L A; Acres, S D

    1982-07-01

    The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay (RIA), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a serum neutralization assay (SN) for detecting antibodies to bovine coronavirus in serum and colostrum were compared. Although there proved to be a good correlation among all three assays (r = 0.915 and 0.964 for RIA with SN and ELISA, respectively), RIA and ELISA proved to be at least 10 times more sensitive than neutralization tests. By using these techniques, it was possible to detect a time-dependent decrease in antibody levels in bovine colostrum after parturition. Using ELISA, we demonstrated that 12 of 12 herds in Saskatchewan, and 109 of 110 animals tested, and antibody to bovine coronavirus. There was no elevated antibody response in serum or lacteal secretions of cows vaccinated once or twice with a commercially available modified live rota-coronavirus vaccine. In addition to being more sensitive than SN, ELISA and RIA proved to have other advantages for measuring antibody levels to bovine coronavirus and therefore warrant wider use as tools in diagnostic virology.

  8. Relationships between serum selenium and zinc concentrations versus profibrotic and proangiogenic cytokines (FGF-19 and endoglin) in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prystupa, Andrzej; Kiciński, Paweł; Luchowska-Kocot, Dorota; Błażewicz, Anna; Kurys-Denis, Ewa; Niedziałek, Jarosław; Sak, Jarosław; Panasiuk, Lech

    2017-09-21

    Liver cirrhosis is a disease involving the liver parenchyma, which is characterised by fibrosis and impaired architectonics of the parenchyma with regenerative nodules. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between stage of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, concentrations of selenium, zinc and profibrotic and proangiogenic cytokines (FGF-19, ENG). The study included 99 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 20 healthy subjects. Ion chromatography with UV/VIS detection was used for determination of zinc ions in the previously mineralized serum samples. The measurements of selenium were performed with the ContrAA700 high-resolution continuum source graphite tube atomic absorption spectrometer. ELISA was used to determine concentration of FGF-19 and ENG in serum samples. Concentrations of zinc and selenium were significantly decreased in cirrhotic patients (pselenium in serum of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis are not independently related to concentrations of FGF-19 and ENG.

  9. Effect of ingestion of microwaved foods on serum anti-oxidant enzymes and vitamins of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict C. Eke, BSc, MSc

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ingestion of microwaved foods on serum antioxidant enzymes and vitamins in albino rats was investigated. In the study, thirty two (32 male wistar albino rats were obtained and grouped into four groups (A, B, C and D of eight animals each. The animals were acclimatized for 7 days on commercial rat feed. The animals in groups B, C and D were all fed ad libitum with porridge yam, porridge beans and jellof rice with meat/fish reheated for 2 min, 4 min and 6 min for groups B, C and D respectively for 42 days. Group A was fed with un-microwaved food and water for the duration of the study (42 days and served as control. Antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT activities, vitamins A and E concentrations were determined using standard methods. Result obtained from the study showed that microwaved food consumption resulted in a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in SOD and CAT activity in rats fed with the microwaved food. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity were more significantly (P < 0.05 reduced in rats exposed to food microwaved for 6 min compared to the control group (A. Also, serum vitamins A and E concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in rats fed with food exposed to microwaves for 6 min as compared to the control group. Microwaves and increased microwaving time resulted to a significant reduction in SOD, CAT, vitamin A and E in fed rats. Therefore our study demonstrated that consumption of microwaved foods resulted in a significant decrease in antioxidant protection and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress and degenerative diseases.

  10. Single administration of recombinant IL-6 restores the gene expression of lipogenic enzymes in liver of fasting IL-6-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, A L; Cabello, R; Suarez, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lipogenesis is intimately controlled by hormones and cytokines as well as nutritional conditions. IL-6 participates in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in the liver. We investigated the role of IL-6 in mediating fasting/re-feeding changes in the expression of hepatic...... lipogenic enzymes. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Gene and protein expression of lipogenic enzymes were examined in livers of wild-type (WT) and IL-6-deficient (IL-6(-/-) ) mice during fasting and re-feeding conditions. Effects of exogenous IL-6 administration on gene expression of these enzymes were evaluated...

  11. Serum neopterin and soluble CD163 as markers of macrophage activation in paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced human acute liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, D G; Lee, P; Pryde, E A; Hayes, P C; Simpson, K J

    2013-12-01

    Macrophage activation is implicated in the pathogenesis of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) following paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose (POD). Neopterin is synthesised from macrophages and reflects the intensity of monocyte/macrophage activation. Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a marker of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. To examine neopterin and sCD163 levels in a cohort of acute liver injury patients. Consecutive patients (n = 41, (18 (43.9%) male) with acute liver injury were enrolled. Neopterin and sCD163 levels were measured by ELISA. A total of 24/33 (72.7%) POD patients developed hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and therefore acute liver failure. Both neopterin and sCD163 levels were significantly higher in PODs compared with chronic liver disease (neopterin P paracetamol overdose, and reflect the degree of macrophage activation in this condition. Serum neopterin in particular may have value as an early proxy marker of macrophage activation following paracetamol overdose. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Somatostatin and serum gastrin in normal subjects and in patients with pernicious anaemia, chronic liver and renal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roith, D; Vinik, A I; Epstein, S; Baron, P; Olkenitzky, M N; Pimstone, B L

    1975-09-13

    The effects of somatostatin (growth hormone release inhibiting hormone) on basal gastrin were studied in patients suffering from pernicious anaemia and chronic renal and liver disease, and during sequential arginine/insulin-stimulated gastrin release in normal subjects. When basal gastrin concentrations were normal (10-50 pg/ml) in controls and in patients who were in renal and liver failure, somatostatin had no effect on gastrin levels. Raised basal gastrin levels in pernicious anaemia and in 2 cases of chronic renal disease, were significantly inhibited by somatostatin with a half-life (T-half) of 3 to 4 minutes. Arginine infusion caused an insignificant rise in serum gastrin which was unaffected by somatostatin, whereas insulin hypoglycaemia significantly stimulated gastrin release, which was inhibited by somatostatin.

  13. Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 Expression in Patients with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Taner Akyol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disease in developed countries. NAFLD may progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and cirrhosis. Emerging evidence suggests that NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MetS. NAFLD is closely linked to MetS, with a significant increase in cardiovascular risk. Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs play important roles in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and liver fibrosis. In this study we investigated the usefulness of serum metalloproteinases as noninvasive markers of NAFLD. Forty-six patients with NAFLD and twenty-six healthy controls were enrolled into the study, in Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Haydarpasa Training Hospital. Liver biopsies were performed on all patients with NAFLD and histopathological evaluations were made by an experienced pathologist. All NAFLD patients were divided into 2 subgroups according to MetS status using ATP III criteria. MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were studied in serum samples of all groups. Results were compared between both groups and subgroups. In this study, the NAFLD and control groups did not differ significantly on MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-1/MMP-9 ratio (p > 0.05. However, we found a significant relationship between the HOMA and TIMP-1 (p<0.05. Moreover, MMP-9 and TIMP-1/MMP-9 levels were significantly correlated with waist circumference (p<0.05. Our findings are not sufficient to suggest that MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-1/MMP-9 ratio might be used as noninvasive biochemical diagnostic tests among NAFLD patients. [Dis Mol Med 2015; 3(2.000: 11-17

  14. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Myung; Shin Hea; Lee Kyung; Kim Mi; Baek Eun; Jang Seok; Lee Do; Kim Jin; Lee Kang; Ha Nam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to ...

  15. A new factor from enteric bacteria of rats amplifying induction of liver enzyme by glucocorticoid. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, Hiroshi; Higashi, Takao; Katanuma, Nobuhiko

    1977-01-01

    1) An amplifier of the action of glucocorticoid was purified from Proteus mirabilis as described previously. It was found that it amplified the induction of liver tyrosine aminotransferase by dexamethasone markedly with doses of dexamethasone that caused minimal enzyme induction, but had little effect with doses that caused maximal induction. Thus the amplification may represent a saving of glucocorticoid. The amplification of enzyme activity was brought about by increase in amount of enzyme. 2) The amplification was observed when the amplifier was administered before or with dexamethasone, but not when it was given 2 h after dexamethasone. These results and the finding that actinomycin D inhibited the amplification indicate that the amplifier does not act on the translational level of enzyme induction. 3) It was found that the amplifier increased both incorporation of [ 3 H]dexamethasone into the cytosol and binding of [ 3 H]dexamethasone to cytosol protein and that it decreased decay of the [ 3 H]dexamethasone protein complex. (orig.) [de

  16. Serum liver fatty acid binding protein levels correlate positively with obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liver fatty acid-binding protein (FABP1 plays an inconclusive role in adiposity. We investigated the association of serum FABP1 levels with obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese young people under 30 years old. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross-sectional analysis including 200 obese and 172 normal-weight subjects matched for age and sex, anthropometric measurements were performed and serum FABP1 and biochemical characteristics were measured. Insulin resistance was determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and by the insulin sensitivity index (S(i derived from Bergman's minimal model. FABP1 levels in obese subjects were significantly higher than those in normal-weight subjects (p<0.001 and the significance remained after adjustment for age, gender, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (p<0.001. Serum FABP1 levels were significantly correlated with many metabolic-related parameters, with BMI and triglycerides as the independent determinants. FABP1 levels remained an independent risk factor of insulin resistance assessed by binary S(i (OR = 1.868 per SD unit, 95% CI [1.035-3.373], p = 0.038 after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol,. FABP1 levels were also elevated with an increasing number of components of the metabolic syndrome (p for trend <0.001. Multiple regression modeling for the MetS and its components demonstrated that hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol were significantly correlated to serum FABP1 levels. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Serum FABP1 correlates positively with obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese young adults. Our data supports the fact that FABP1 might be an important mediator participating in fatty acid metabolism and energy balance.

  17. Inositol and hepatic lipidosis. II. Effect of inositol supplementation and time from parturition on serum insulin, thyroxine and triiodothyronine and their relationship to serum and liver lipids in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, B J; Herdt, T H; Wells, W W; Nachreiner, R F; Emery, R S

    1986-06-01

    Percutaneous liver biopsies and blood samples were obtained from 80 dairy cows in nine Michigan herds over the peripartum period. Thirty-nine cows were fed 17 g of supplemental inositol and 41 were fed a placebo. Liver biopsies were assayed for total myoinositol and triglyceride (TG) concentrations. Blood samples were assayed for serum dextran precipitable cholesterol, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, thyroxine (T4), free (FT4), triiodothyronine (T3) and free T3 (FT3) concentrations. Serum concentrations of insulin and the thyroid hormones decreased near parturition, with lowest concentrations occurring in the immediate postpartum period. Concentrations of T3 correlated well with T4, and the concentrations of free thyroid hormones reflected concentrations of total thyroid hormones. The percentage of hormone in the free fraction remained constant over time. Serum insulin, T3 and T4 were negatively correlated with serum NEFA and liver TG concentrations. Thyroid hormone concentrations were positively correlated with serum dextran precipitable cholesterol concentrations. Inositol supplementation was associated with reduced circulating T3 and FT3 concentrations, but not T4 and FT4 concentrations. Changes in hormone concentrations at parturition and their relationship to liver TG and serum NEFA concentrations were consistent with a metabolic adaptation by the dairy cow to the negative energy balance of early lactation.

  18. Low Serum Levels of (Dihydro-Ceramides Reflect Liver Graft Dysfunction in a Real-World Cohort of Patients Post Liver Transplantation

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    Victoria Therese Mücke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients after orthopic liver transplantation (OLT are at risk of developing graft dysfunction. Sphingolipids (SL’s have been identified to play a pivotal role in the regulation of hepatocellular apoptosis, inflammation and immunity. We aimed to investigate the serum SL profile in a prospective real-world cohort of post-OLT patients. From October 2015 until July 2016, 149 well-characterized post-OLT patients were analyzed. SL’s were assessed in serum probes via Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Twenty-nine (20% patients had a biopsy proven graft rejection with decreased C20-ceramide (Cer (p = 0.042, C18-dihydroceramide (DHC (p = 0.022 and C24DHC (p = 0.060 levels. Furthermore, C18DHC (p = 0.044 and C24DHC (p = 0.011 were significantly down-regulated in patients with ischemic type biliary lesions (ITBL; n = 15; 10%. One-hundred and thirty-three patients (89% have so far received tacrolimus as the main immunosuppressive agent with observed elevations of C14Cer (p = 0.052, C18Cer (p = 0.049 and C18:1Cer (p = 0.024. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC pre-OLT was associated with increases in C24:1Cer (p = 0.024 and C24:1DHC (p = 0.024. In this large prospective cross-sectional study of patients, post-OLT serum levels of (very-long chain (dihydro-ceramides associate with graft rejection, ITBL, tacrolimus intake and HCC pre-OLT. Hence, serum SL’s may be indicative of graft complications. Further research is necessary to identify their diverse mechanistic role in regulating immunity and inflammation in patients post-OLT.

  19. Effect of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on The Amount of Blood Cells and Liver Enzymes in Wistar Rats

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    Rezaei Zarchi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the development of nanotechnology and extensive use of nano-materials are in different fields of industry, it is necessary to investigate their destructive effects on biological systems. Titanium dioxide(TiO2 is used in the production of different dyes, cosmetics, ceramics, photocatalysts, water and sewage treatment and a lot of other products. In the present study, the effect of TiO2 on the number of blood cells and the activity of liver enzymes of rat was assessed. Methods: Concentrations of 50, 100 and 500 mg/Kg TiO2 nanoparticles (25 nm size in distilled water were administered orally to Wistar rats for 14 days and some blood factors were studied on the blood samples collected. Results: Results showed that TiO2 nanoparticles cause different changes in blood cells, and the changes were significant for some of them such as white blood cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. Decreased number of red blood cells and increased level of liver enzymes was also observed after the administration of different concentrations of TiO2, which proves the toxic effects of TiO2 on the body. Conclusion: Results of the present study proved the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles on the living organisms. So, further studies are recommended to predict TiO2 toxicity.

  20. In vitro evaluation of the effect of botanical formulations used in the control of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae on liver enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Rejane de Andrade Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Dengue fever is a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti Linn. (1792 (Diptera: Culicidae mosquito, which is endemic in several regions of Brazil. Alternative methods for the control of the vector include botanical insecticides, which offer advantages such as lower environmental contamination levels and less likelihood of resistant populations. Thus, in this study, the ability of botanical insecticide formulations to inhibit the activity of the liver enzymes serum cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase was evaluated. METHODS: Inhibition profiles were assessed using in vitro assays for cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase activity and quantitated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy at 410nm to 340nm. RESULTS Insecticide products formulated from cashew nutshell liquid [A] and ricinoleic acid [B] showed cholinesterase activity levels of 6.26IU/mL and 6.61IU/mL, respectively, while the control level for cholinesterase was 5-12IU/mL. The products did not affect the level of 0.44IU/mL established for malate dehydrogenase, as the levels produced by [A] and [B] were 0.43IU/mL and 0.45IU/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our findings show that in vitro testing of the formulated products at concentrations lethal to A. aegypti did not affect the activity of cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase, indicating the safety of these products.

  1. In vitro evaluation of the effect of botanical formulations used in the control of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) on liver enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Karla Rejane de Andrade; Motti, Priscilla Rezende; Machado, Alexandre Alves; Roel, Antonia Railda

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti Linn. (1792) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito, which is endemic in several regions of Brazil. Alternative methods for the control of the vector include botanical insecticides, which offer advantages such as lower environmental contamination levels and less likelihood of resistant populations. Thus, in this study, the ability of botanical insecticide formulations to inhibit the activity of the liver enzymes serum cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase was evaluated. Inhibition profiles were assessed using in vitro assays for cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase activity and quantitated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy at 410nm to 340nm. Insecticide products formulated from cashew nutshell liquid [A] and ricinoleic acid [B] showed cholinesterase activity levels of 6.26IU/mL and 6.61IU/mL, respectively, while the control level for cholinesterase was 5-12IU/mL. The products did not affect the level of 0.44IU/mL established for malate dehydrogenase, as the levels produced by [A] and [B] were 0.43IU/mL and 0.45IU/mL, respectively. Our findings show that in vitro testing of the formulated products at concentrations lethal to A. aegypti did not affect the activity of cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase, indicating the safety of these products.

  2. Effect of Phenanthrene on the Tissue Structure of Liver and Aminotransferase Enzymes in Yellowfin Seabream (Acanthopagrus latus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Shirmohammadi*

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs such as phenanthrene (Phe represent one of the most abundant forms of organic pollutants. The aim of this study was to assess changes in plasma levels of aminotransferase enzymes, total protein and liver tissue as biomarkers of yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus exposed to Phe for 14 d. Methods: The research was carried out in January 2016 at Khorramshahr University of Marine Sciences and Technology, Khorramshahr, Iran. Some 72 fish were injected with 2, 20, 40 and 70 mg/kg of Phe. Then tissue and blood samples were obtained at 1, 4, 7 and 14 d after injection. Results: Exposure of fish to Phe resulted in a significant increase of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and decrease of total protein after 7 d of the experiment (P<0.05. The main histopathological alteration was showed in different sampling days including nucleus margination, hypertrophy, vacuolation, melanomacrophages aggregates, sinusoid dilation, degeneration and picnotic nucleus. Degree of tissue change (DTC of liver was recorded in the Phe-exposed fish from normal range to moderate changes. Conclusion: The studied biomarkers such as changes in concentrations of ALT, AST and total protein as well as tissue damages in liver may be served as beneficial biomarker to assess Phe toxicity in yellowfin seabream.

  3. Two Classifiers Based on Serum Peptide Pattern for Prediction of HBV-Induced Liver Cirrhosis Using MALDI-TOF MS

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    Yuan Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV is associated with the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis (LC in China. Although liver biopsy is the reference method for evaluation of cirrhosis, it is an invasive procedure with inherent risk. The aim of this study is to discover novel noninvasive specific serum biomarkers for the diagnosis of HBV-induced LC. We performed bead fractionation/MALDI-TOF MS analysis on sera from patients with LC. Thirteen feature peaks which had optimal discriminatory performance were obtained by using support-vector-machine-(SVM- based strategy. Based on the previous results, five supervised machine learning methods were employed to construct classifiers that discriminated proteomic spectra of patients with HBV-induced LC from those of controls. Here, we describe two novel methods for prediction of HBV-induced LC, termed LC-NB and LC-MLP, respectively. We obtained a sensitivity of 90.9%, a specificity of 94.9%, and overall accuracy of 93.8% on an independent test set. Comparisons with the existing methods showed that LC-NB and LC-MLP held better accuracy. Our study suggests that potential serum biomarkers can be determined for discriminating LC and non-LC cohorts by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These two classifiers could be used for clinical practice in HBV-induced LC assessment.

  4. Study on the effect of food irradiation on some blood serum enzymes in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwalli, O.M.

    1977-01-01

    Rats were fed irradiated diets as part of a study of screening tests for the safety of irradiated food. The diet consisted (g/100 g) of casein, 8.5; skim-milk, 9.4; potato starch, 50.00; wheat flour, 16.50; sucrose, 5.00; sunflower oil, 6.00; choline chloride, 0.10; salt mixture, 3.50; and vitamin mix.ure, 1.00. Diets were irradiated at 2.5 or 4.5 Mrad and were fed ad lib. for 4 months. Levels of serum (i) glutanic-pyruvic transaminase, (ii) glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, and (iii) lactic dehydrogenase were determined. No significant changes were observed in (i) or (iii) on ieeding irradiated diets, or in (ii) for male rats. Significant decreases (P [de

  5. Evaluation of Fucosylated Haptoglobin and Mac-2 Binding Protein as Serum Biomarkers to Estimate Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C.

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    Seiichi Tawara

    Full Text Available Fucosylated haptoglobin (Fuc-Hpt and Mac-2 binding protein (Mac-2 bp are identified as cancer biomarkers, based on the results from a glyco-proteomic analysis. Recently, we reported that these glyco-biomarkers were associated with liver fibrosis and/or ballooning hepatocytes in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. We evaluated the ability of these glycoproteins to estimate liver fibrosis in 317 patients with chronic hepatitis C. We measured the serum Fuc-Hpt and Mac-2 bp levels using a lectin-antibody ELISA and ELISA, respectively. The serum levels of both Fuc-Hpt and Mac-2 bp increased with the progression of liver fibrosis. The multivariate analysis revealed that Mac-2 bp was an independent factor associated with moderate liver fibrosis (F ≥ 2. In contrast, Fuc-Hpt was an independent factor associated with advanced liver fibrosis (F ≥ 3. In terms of evaluating liver fibrosis, the serum levels of these glycomarkers were correlated with well-known liver fibrosis indexes, such as the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI and Fibrosis-4 (FIB4 index. An assay that combined the APRI or FIB4 index and the Fuc-Hpt or Mac-2 bp levels increased the AUC value for diagnosing hepatic fibrosis. Interestingly, the cumulative incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC was significantly higher in the patients with elevated serum levels of Fuc-Hpt and Mac-2 bp. In conclusion, both Fuc-Hpt and Mac-2 bp could be useful glyco-biomarkers of liver fibrosis and predictors of HCC in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  6. AM-2201 Inhibits Multiple Cytochrome P450 and Uridine 5′-Diphospho-Glucuronosyltransferase Enzyme Activities in Human Liver Microsomes

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    Ju-Hyun Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AM-2201 is a synthetic cannabinoid that acts as a potent agonist at cannabinoid receptors and its abuse has increased. However, there are no reports of the inhibitory effect of AM-2201 on human cytochrome P450 (CYP or uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT enzymes. We evaluated the inhibitory effect of AM-2201 on the activities of eight major human CYPs (1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 and six major human UGTs (1A1, 1A3, 1A4, 1A6, 1A9, and 2B7 enzymes in pooled human liver microsomes using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry to investigate drug interaction potentials of AM-2201. AM-2201 potently inhibited CYP2C9-catalyzed diclofenac 4′-hydroxylation, CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1′-hydroxylation, UGT1A3-catalyzed chenodeoxycholic acid 24-acyl-glucuronidation, and UGT2B7-catalyzed naloxone 3-glucuronidation with IC50 values of 3.9, 4.0, 4.3, and 10.0 μM, respectively, and showed mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8-catalyzed amodiaquine N-deethylation with a Ki value of 2.1 μM. It negligibly inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, and UGT1A9 activities at 50 μM in human liver microsomes. These in vitro results indicate that AM-2201 needs to be examined for potential pharmacokinetic drug interactions in vivo due to its potent inhibition of CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, UGT1A3, and UGT2B7 enzyme activities.

  7. The i148m Pnpla3 polymorphism influences serum adiponectin in patients with fatty liver and healthy controls

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    Valenti Luca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced adiponectin is implicated in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and steatohepatitis (NASH, and the I148M Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3 polymorphism predisposes to NAFLD and liver damage progression in NASH and chronic hepatitis C (CHC by still undefined mechanisms, possibly involving regulation of adipose tissue function. Aim of this study was to evaluate whether the I148M PNPLA3 polymorphism influences serum adiponectin in liver diseases and healthy controls. Methods To this end, we considered 144 consecutive Italian patients with NAFLD, 261 with CHC, 35 severely obese subjects, and 257 healthy controls with very low probability of steatosis, all with complete clinical and genetic characterization, including adiponectin (ADIPOQ genotype. PNPLA3 rs738409 (I148M and ADIPOQ genotypes were evaluated by Taqman assays, serum adiponectin by ELISA. Adiponectin mRNA levels were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT of 35 obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. Results Adiponectin levels were independently associated with the risk of NAFLD and with the histological severity of the disease. Adiponectin levels decreased with the number of 148 M PNPLA3 alleles at risk of NASH both in patients with NAFLD (p = 0.03, and in healthy subjects (p = 0.04. At multivariate analysis, PNPLA3 148 M alleles were associated with low adiponectin levels (ADIPOQ genotype (OR 1.67, 95% c.i. 1.07-2.1 for each 148 M allele. The p.148 M PNPLA3 variant was associated with decreased adiponectin mRNA levels in the VAT of obese patients (p PNPLA3 and ADIPOQ genotypes and viral features. Conclusions The I148M PNPLA3 variant is associated with adiponectin levels in patients with NAFLD and in healthy subjects, but in the presence of adiponectin resistance not in CHC patients. The I148M PNPLA3 genotype may represent a genetic determinant of serum

  8. Serum ferritin is an independent predictor of histologic severity and advanced fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowdley, Kris V; Belt, Patricia; Wilson, Laura A; Yeh, Matthew M; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A; Chalasani, Naga; Sanyal, Arun J; Nelson, James E

    2012-01-01

    Serum ferritin (SF) levels are commonly elevated in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) because of systemic inflammation, increased iron stores, or both. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between elevated SF and NAFLD severity. Demographic, clinical, histologic, laboratory, and anthropometric data were analyzed in 628 adult patients with NAFLD (age, ≥ 18 years) with biopsy-proven NAFLD and an SF measurement within 6 months of their liver biopsy. A threshold SF >1.5 × upper limit of normal (ULN) (i.e., >300 ng/mL in women and >450 ng/mL in men) was significantly associated with male sex, elevated serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, iron, transferrin-iron saturation, iron stain grade, and decreased platelets (P 1.5 × ULN, including steatosis, fibrosis, hepatocellular ballooning, and diagnosis of NASH (P 1.5 × ULN was independently associated with advanced hepatic fibrosis (odds ratio [OR], 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-2.62; P = 0.028) and increased NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.06-3.75; P = 0.033). A SF >1.5 × ULN is associated with hepatic iron deposition, a diagnosis of NASH, and worsened histologic activity and is an independent predictor of advanced hepatic fibrosis among patients with NAFLD. Furthermore, elevated SF is independently associated with higher NAS, even among patients without hepatic iron deposition. We conclude that SF is useful to identify NAFLD patients at risk for NASH and advanced fibrosis. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  9. Evaluation of Serum Cystatin C as a Marker of Early Renal Impairment in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis

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    Mahmoud Omar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Serum cystatin C (CysC was proposed as an effective reflection of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR. However, its role in patients with liver cirrhosis has not been extensively verified especially in the detection of early RI. Patients and Methods. Seventy consecutive potential candidates for living donor liver transplantation with serum creatinine (Cr <1.5 mg/dL were included. CysC, Cr, and estimated GFR [creatinine clearance (CCr, Cockcroft-Gault formula (C-G, MDRD equations with 4 and 6 variables, CKD-EPI-Cr, CKD-EPI-CysC, and CKD-EPI-Cr-CysC] were all correlated to isotopic GFR. Early RI was defined as GFR of 60–89 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results. Patients were 25.7% and 74.3% Child-Pugh classes B and C, respectively. GFR was ≥90, 60–89, and 30–59 mL/min/1.73 m2 in 31.4%, 64.3%, and 4.3% of the patients, respectively. All markers and equations, except C-G, were significantly correlated to GFR with CKD-EPI-Cr-CysC formula having the highest correlation (r = 0.474 and the largest area under the ROC curve (0.808 for discriminating early RI. At a cutoff value of 1.2 mg/L, CysC was 89.6% sensitive and 63.6% specific in detecting early RI. Conclusion. In patients with liver cirrhosis, CysC and CysC-based equations showed the highest significant correlation to GFR and were measures that best discriminated early RI.

  10. Dietary ALA, EPA and DHA have distinct effects on oxylipin profiles in female and male rat kidney, liver and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shan; Winter, Tanja; Aukema, Harold M

    2018-04-18

    There is much data on the effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on tissue fatty acid compositions, but comparable comprehensive data on their oxygenated metabolites (oxylipins) is limited. The effects of providing female and male rats with diets high in α-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA or DHA for 6 weeks on oxylipins and fatty acids in kidney, liver and serum were therefore examined. The oxylipin profile generally reflected fatty acids, but it also revealed unique effects of individual n-3 fatty acids that were not apparent from fatty acid data alone. Dietary ALA increased renal and serum DHA oxylipins even though DHA itself did not increase, while dietary EPA did not increase DHA oxylipins in kidney or liver, suggesting that high EPA may inhibit this conversion. Oxylipin data generally corroborated fatty acid data that indicated that DHA can be retroconverted to EPA and that further retroconversion to ALA is limited. Dietary n-3 fatty acids decreased n-6 fatty acids and their oxylipins (except linoleic acid and its oxylipins), in order of effectiveness of DHA > EPA > ALA, with some exceptions: several arachidonic acid oxylipins modified at carbon 15 were not lower in all three sites, and EPA had a greater effect on 12-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid and its metabolites in the liver. Oxylipins were predominantly higher in males, which was not reflective of fatty acids. Tissue-specific oxylipin profiles, therefore, provide further information on individual dietary n-3 fatty acid and sex effects that may help explain their unique physiological effects and have implications for dietary recommendations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum Metabolomics to Identify the Liver Disease-Specific Biomarkers for the Progression of Hepatitis to Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rong; Cheng, Jianhua; Fan, Chunlei; Shi, Xiaofeng; Cao, Yuan; Sun, Bo; Ding, Huiguo; Hu, Chengjin; Dong, Fangting; Yan, Xianzhong

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy that has region specific etiologies. Unfortunately, 85% of cases of HCC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Reliable biomarkers for the early diagnosis of HCC are urgently required to reduced mortality and therapeutic expenditure. We established a non-targeted gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) metabolomics method in conjunction with Random Forests (RF) analysis based on 201 serum samples from healthy controls (NC), hepatitis B virus (HBV), liver cirrhosis (LC) and HCC patients to explore the metabolic characteristics in the progression of hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Ultimately, 15 metabolites were identified intimately associated with the process. Phenylalanine, malic acid and 5-methoxytryptamine for HBV vs. NC, palmitic acid for LC vs. HBV, and asparagine and β-glutamate for HCC vs. LC were screened as the liver disease-specific potential biomarkers with an excellent discriminant performance. All the metabolic perturbations in these liver diseases are associated with pathways for energy metabolism, macromolecular synthesis, and maintaining the redox balance to protect tumor cells from oxidative stress.

  12. Serum Mac-2 binding protein glycosylation isomer predicts grade F4 liver fibrosis in patients with biliary atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Naoya; Sanada, Yukihiro; Tashiro, Masahisa; Hirata, Yuta; Okada, Noriki; Ihara, Yoshiyuki; Urahashi, Taizen; Mizuta, Koichi

    2017-02-01

    Mac-2 Binding Protein Glycosylation Isomer (M2BPGi) is a novel fibrosis marker. We examined the ability of M2BPGi to predict liver fibrosis in patients with biliary atresia. Sixty-four patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) were included [median age, 1.1 years (range 0.4-16.0), male 16 patients (25.0 %)]. We examined M2BPGi levels in serum obtained the day before LDLT, and we compared the value of the preoperative M2BPGi levels with the histological evaluation of fibrosis using the METAVIR fibrosis score. Subsequently, we assessed the ability of M2BPGi levels to predict fibrosis. The median M2BPGi level in patients with BA was 6.02 (range, 0.36-20.0), and 0, 1, 1, 11, and 51 patients had METAVIR fibrosis scores of F0, F1, F2, F3, and F4, respectively. In patients with F4 fibrosis, the median M2BPGi level was 6.88 (quartile; 5.235, 12.10), significantly higher than that in patients with F3 fibrosis who had a median level of 2.42 (quartile; 1.93, 2.895, p F4 fibrosis. M2BPGi is a novel fibrosis marker for evaluating the status of the liver in patients with BA, especially when predicting grade F4 fibrosis.

  13. Validation of 2 commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for adiponectin determination in canine serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia; Ceron, José J

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to validate 2 commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for adiponectin in dogs, 1 canine-specific and 1 originally designed for measurements in humans. Intra-assay and interassay precision was evaluated by multiple measurements in canine serum samples, and assay accuracy was indirectly determined by linearity under dilution. Interference caused by hemolysis and lipemia was also studied. Both assays were subsequently used for measuring adiponectin concentrations in clinically healthy dogs and those with different grades of obesity. The intra-assay and inter-assay precision was less than 7.5% and 13.5% in serum samples with low and high adiponectin concentrations, respectively. Lipemia and hemolysis did not affect the results of any of the assays. Both assays were able to differentiate lean dogs from those that were overweight or obese on the basis of the measured adiponectin concentrations. From these results it can be concluded that canine adiponectin concentrations can be measured reliably by means of the 2 ELISAs evaluated in this study.

  14. Activity of some enzymes of the blood serum during irradiation of intrathoracic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syromyatnikova, E N; Kallistova, L P; Vasil' eva, I G; Korkina, L V; Goncharova, I M; Golovchenko, A G [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Rentgenologii i Radiologii, Moscow (USSR)

    1978-08-01

    Out of 90 patients with intrathoracic tumours (71) and with tumours of other localizations (19 patients - the control) by the end of the radiation therapy course in 13 patients with tumours of the thoracic cavity organs (the lung and esophagus) the activity of creatine phosphokinase increased with simultaneous increase of aspartate aminotransferase in 6 patients and lactate dehydrogenase in one patient. Electrocardiographically pathological shifts in the heart were registered only in 8 out of 13 patients that makes it possible to make a conclusion about the necessity of studying the enzymes of creatine phosphokinase, aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase in patients with intrathoracic tumours during the process and after radiation therapy for the diagnosis of the cardiac muscle affection.

  15. Role of MELD score and serum creatinine as prognostic tools for the development of acute kidney injury after liver transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Gomes Romano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score in predicting complications, such as Acute Kidney Injury (AKI, after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT has yet to be evaluated and serum creatinine may be too heavily weighted in the existing MELD formula, since it has many pitfalls in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Retrospective data of the perioperative period from consecutive adult OLTs performed from January to December 2009 were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to analyze the risk factors for AKI and mortality after OLT. RESULTS: There were 114 OLTs performed in the study period, 22 (19,2% were submitted to dialysis prior OLT and were excluded from the analysis for AKI. The median age was 52 years and 66% were male. Median creatinine value was 0.85mg/dL and MELD was 19. Fifty-two of the 92 patients (56,5% developed AKI in the first 72 hours after OLT. The only independent risk factor for AKI was calculated MELD and when the components of the MELD score were analyzed, INR had a much stronger impact in predicting AKI then serum creatinine. Overall mortality rate was 32,5% and anesthesia duration was the only variable associated with higher mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Although MELD score seems to have a good performance in predicting AKI after OLT, serum creatinine had no impact on its prediction despite its importance on MELD calculation. Modifying the MELD score, which could include novel AKI biomarkers, may improve its prognostic accuracy and provide a better tool for public health planning.

  16. Selective Activation of N,N'-Diacyl Rhodamine Pro-fluorophores Paired with Releasing Enzyme, Porcine Liver Esterase (PLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Kristopher K; Ramos-Hunter, Susan J; Romaine, Ian M; Godwin, J Shawn; Sulikowski, Gary A; Weaver, Charles David

    2018-04-21

    This study reports the synthesis and testing of a family of rhodamine pro-fluorophores and an enzyme capable of converting pro-fluorophores to Rhodamine 110. We prepared a library of simple N,N'-diacyl rhodamines and investigated Porcine Liver Esterase (PLE) as an enzyme to activate rhodamine-based pro-fluorophores. A PLE-expressing cell line generated an increase in fluorescence rapidly upon pro-fluorophore addition demonstrating the rhodamine pro-fluorophores are readily taken up and fluorescent upon PLE-mediated release. Rhodamine pro-fluorophore amides trifluoroacetamide (TFAm) and proponamide (PAm) appeared to be the best substrates using a cell-based assay using PLE expressing HEK293. Our pro-fluorophore series showed diffusion into live cells and resisted endogenous hydrolysis. The use of our engineered cell line containing the exogenous enzyme PLE demonstrated the rigorousness of amide masking when compared to cells not containing PLE. This simple and selective pro-fluorophore rhodamine pair with PLE offers the potential to be used in vitro and in vivo fluorescence based assays. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Changes in serum markers of iron metabolism and their clinical significance in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OU Qiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the changes in the serum markers of iron metabolism and their clinical significance in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. MethodsA total of 68 NAFLD patients who were admitted to The Eighth People′s Hospital of Shanghai from July 2014 to April 2016 were enrolled as NAFLD group, and 70 healthy persons who underwent physical examination were enrolled as healthy control group. Among the 68 patients in the NAFLD group, 24 had NAFLD alone and 44 were complicated by abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT level. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, ALT, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and serum markers of iron metabolism [serum iron (SI, serum ferritin (SF, and serum hepcidin (HEPC] were measured for all patients, and the correlations between abnormal ALT level and serum markers of iron metabolism were analyzed. The independent samples t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to investigate the correlation between two variables. ResultsThe NAFLD group had significantly higher body mass index and serum levels of ALT, AST, TC, and TG than the healthy control group (t=9.8, 8.6, 8.5, 9.2, and 2.7, all P<0.05. Compared with the healthy control group, the NAFLD group had significantly higher levels of SI (21.7±7.1 μmol/L vs 187±6.9 μmol/L, t=2.3, P=0.02 and SF (340.2±257.6 μg/L vs 119.1±81.2 μg/L, t=6.7, P<0.01 and a significantly lower level of HEPC (12.2±5.3 μg/L vs 22.2±6.5 μg/L, t=9.9, P<0.01. Compared with those with NAFLD alone, the patients complicated by abnormal ALT level had significantly higher serum levels of ALT (89±58 U/L vs 26±8 U/L, t=7.1, P<0.01, SI (23.4±6.2 μmol/L vs 19.6±7.9 μmol/L, t=2.2, P=0.03, and SF (406.2±290.0 μg/L vs 219.4±112.0 μg/L, t=3.7, P<0.01, as well as a significantly

  18. Inhaled ozone (O{sub 3})-induces changes in serum metabolomic and liver transcriptomic profiles in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Desinia B. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Karoly, Edward D.; Jones, Jan C. [Metabolon Incorporation, Durham, NC (United States); Ward, William O.; Vallanat, Beena D.; Andrews, Debora L. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Schladweiler, Mette C.; Snow, Samantha J. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Bass, Virginia L. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Richards, Judy E.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Ledbetter, Allen D. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kodavanti, Urmila P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Air pollution has been linked to increased incidence of diabetes. Recently, we showed that ozone (O{sub 3}) induces glucose intolerance, and increases serum leptin and epinephrine in Brown Norway rats. In this study, we hypothesized that O{sub 3} exposure will cause systemic changes in metabolic homeostasis and that serum metabolomic and liver transcriptomic profiling will provide mechanistic insights. In the first experiment, male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were exposed to filtered air (FA) or O{sub 3} at 0.25, 0.50, or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for two days to establish concentration-related effects on glucose tolerance and lung injury. In a second experiment, rats were exposed to FA or 1.0 ppm O{sub 3}, 6 h/day for either one or two consecutive days, and systemic metabolic responses were determined immediately after or 18 h post-exposure. O{sub 3} increased serum glucose and leptin on day 1. Glucose intolerance persisted through two days of exposure but reversed 18 h-post second exposure. O{sub 3} increased circulating metabolites of glycolysis, long-chain free fatty acids, branched-chain amino acids and cholesterol, while 1,5-anhydroglucitol, bile acids and metabolites of TCA cycle were decreased, indicating impaired glycemic control, proteolysis and lipolysis. Liver gene expression increased for markers of glycolysis, TCA cycle and gluconeogenesis, and decreased for markers of steroid and fat biosynthesis. Genes involved in apoptosis and mitochondrial function were also impacted by O{sub 3}. In conclusion, short-term O{sub 3} exposure induces global metabolic derangement involving glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolism, typical of a stress–response. It remains to be examined if these alterations contribute to insulin resistance upon chronic exposure. - Highlights: • Ozone, an ubiquitous air pollutant induces acute systemic metabolic derangement. • Serum metabolomic approach provides novel insights in ozone-induced changes. • Ozone exposure induces leptinemia

  19. Clinical efficacy of Qinggan Huashi Huoxue decoction combined with liver-protecting and enzyme-lowering drugs in treatment of alcoholic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAO Zhishan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of Qinggan Huashi Huoxue decoction combined with liver-protecting and enzyme-lowering drugs in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease (ALD. MethodsA total of 175 ALD patients who were admitted to The Second People′s Hospital of Tangshan from January 2012 to December 2015 were enrolled and randomly divided into treatment group (87 patients and control group (88 patients. The patients in the control group were asked to quit smoking and were given nutritional support and medications including polyene phosphatidylcholine, reduced glutathione, magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate, and ursodeoxycholic acid capsules, and those in the treatment group were given the self-made traditional Chinese medicine Qinggan Huashi Huoxue decoction in addition to the therapeutic regimen for the control group. During the three courses of treatment (12 weeks, the patients′ clinical symptoms and signs were observed, liver function [alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, albumin (Alb, and total bilirubin (TBil] and blood lipids [total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL] were performed regularly, the results of routine blood tests and abdominal ultrasound findings were recorded regularly, and adverse events which occurred during treatment were recorded. The independent samples t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, an analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to compare the differences at each time point between the two groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsAfter treatment, all patients achieved varying degrees of improvements in clinical symptoms and signs, which showed significant differences between the two groups at weeks 4, 8, and 12 of treatment (t=14.390, 10.487, and 13.547, all P

  20. Clinical value of combined measurement of serum alpha-fetoprotein, alpha-L-fucosidase and ferritin levels in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aimin; Chai Xiaohong; Jin Ying; Dong Xuemei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of combined measurement of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU) and ferritin (SF) levels in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer. Methods: Serum AFP, AFU (with RIA) and SF (with biochemical method) were determined in 52 patients with primary liver cancer and 40 controls. Results: The positive rates of AFP, AFU and SF in patient with liver cancer were 82.7%, 86.6% and 76.9%, respectively. Positive rates with combined measurement of AFP plus AFU, AFP plus SF, and AFP plus AFU, SF were 94.2%, 90.4% and 98.1% respectively. Conclusion: Combined measurement of AFP, AFU and SF can significantly increase the positive rate in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer. (authors)

  1. Activities of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in rat placenta and liver in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabian, Eric; Wang, Xinyi; Engel, Franziska; Li, Hequn; Landsiedel, Robert; Ravenzwaay, van Bennard

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess whether the placental metabolism of xenobiotic compounds should be taken into consideration for physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) modelling, the activities of seven phase I and phase II enzymes have been quantified in the 18-day placenta of untreated Wistar rats. To

  2. effect of hepatitis b virus co-infection on cd4 cell count and liver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-01

    Mar 1, 2015 ... total Protein, and liver enzymes were determined using standard ... The mean serum ALT, AST and ALP of mono ... HIV positivity was diagnosed by positive reactions to ..... the colorimetric Biuret method of protein determi.

  3. Role of Renin-Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Level and ACE Gene Polymorphism in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekatas, Demet D; Bahcecioglu, Ibrahim H; Ispiroglu, Murat; Sahin, Abdurrahman; Ilhan, Necip; Yalniz, Mehmet; Demirel, Ulvi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the histological and clinical effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE gene polymorphism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and their roles in the progression of the disease. Liver function tests, body mass index, waist circumference, lipid parameters, fasting blood glucose (FBG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR), ACE, and ACE gene polymorphism were evaluated in the NAFLD group and control group. The study group was evaluated by dividing the group into four subgroups by ACE gene polymorphism (D/D homozygous, I/I homozygous, D/I heterozygous, I/D heterozygous). Liver biopsies were evaluated according to Brunt Classification. A total of 31 patients who were diagnosed with NAFLD and 40 healthy individuals were included in the study. The ACE level was found to be 11.69 ± 1.99 in the NAFLD group and 11.52 ± 1.72 in the control group (p = 0.70). There was a negative correlation between ACE levels and HOMA-IR levels (p = 0.008, r= -0.512). Biochemical parameters were not different among ACE gene polimorphism subgroups, except FBG (between D/D, I/D and D/I, I/D; p = 0.02). When the ACE levels were compared in terms of grade and stage, no significant difference was found (for stage and grade p = 0.68). The ACE gene polymorphism subgroups did not differ by histopathologic findings; grade and stage (for grade p = 0.42, for stage p = 0.92). In this study, we could not find a correlation of ACE and ACE gene polymorphism with metabolic risk factors and the disease severity in NAFLD. Tekatas DD, Bahcecioglu IH, Ispiroglu M, Sahin A, Ilhan N, Yalniz M, Demirel U. Role of Renin-Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Level and ACE Gene Polymorphism in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(2):137-142.

  4. Biochemical changes in the liver, kidney and serum of rat following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of repeated administration of cimetidine, an antiulcer agent, twice daily for 7days on the phosphatase (acid and alkaline) and some function indices of rat liver and kidney was investigated. Sixty-four white albino rats were randomly grouped into two, A and B. Group A which consisted of 32 rats served as the ...

  5. Serum levels of DDT and liver function of malaria control personnel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-03-16

    Mar 16, 1991 ... a carcinogen in animal models,7 no such effects have been. Research ... found in people with excessive exposure to DDT, such as pesticide-factory workers.8 However, impaired liver function,9 ... of cement dwellings, which were treated with a different DDT ..... Men with intensive occupational exposure to.

  6. Association of Ghrelin Gene Polymorphisms and Serum Ghrelin Levels with the Risk of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Liver Diseases in a Chinese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaolian; Zhai, Limin; Rong, Chengzhi; Qin, Xue; Li, Shan

    2015-01-01

    Background The functions of ghrelin (GHRL) include anti-inflammatory effects, reduction of the fibrogenic response, protection of liver tissue, and regulation of cell proliferation. Genetic variations in the GHRL gene may play an important role in the development of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, we investigated whether GHRL gene polymorphisms and its serum levels are associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related diseases risk ...

  7. Effects of whole body exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF on serum and liver lipid levels, in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias-Viñas David

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgound The effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF on the blood serum and liver lipid concentrations of male Wistar rats were assessed. Methods Animals were exposed to a single stimulation (2 h of ELF-EMF (60 Hz, 2.4 mT or sham-stimulated and thereafter sacrificed at different times (24, 48 or 96 h after beginning the exposure. Results Blood lipids showed, at 48 h stimulated animals, a significant increase of cholesterol associated to high density lipoproteins (HDL-C than those observed at any other studied time. Free fatty acid serum presented at 24 h significant increases in comparison with control group. The other serum lipids, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol did not show differences between groups, at any time evaluated. No statistical differences were shown on total lipids of the liver but total cholesterol was elevated at 24 h with a significant decrease at 96 h (p = 0.026. The ELF-EMF stimulation increased the liver content of lipoperoxides at 24 h. Conclusion Single exposures to ELF-EMF increases the serum values of HDL-C, the liver content of lipoperoxides and decreases total cholesterol of the liver. The mechanisms for the effects of ELF-EMF on lipid metabolism are not well understand yet, but could be associated to the nitric oxide synthase EMF-stimulation.

  8. The effect of ZnO Nps of 20 nm on changes of enzyme and liver tissues of pregnant NMRI mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bager Seyed Alipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background :Nowadays, nanotechnology has been developing rapidly and may have considerable effects on industry, society and the environment. In this research the toxicity properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles with a size of 20 nm on enzyme and liver tissue of NMRI mice were studied. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed in standard conditions on 25 NMRI mice with an average weight of 30 ± 3 g so that they received different doses of zinc oxide nanoparticles, an a days, for 15 days intraperitoneally. Then, blood samples were taken on day 17 of NMRI mice. The collected tissues were washed with saline and fixed in Boin΄s fluied buffer and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathology evaluation. After data collection, statistical analysis was done using SAS software. Results: The results showed that activity of ALT enzyme at concentrations 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg ZnO Nps at a significant level (p<0.05 increased in comparison with the control group. Histopathological investigation showed that zinc oxide nanoparticles caused severe damage in liver. Damaged liver cells develop leaky membranes and escape of intracellular enzymes into the bloodstream. Conclusion: Our findings showed that using different concentration of zinc oxide nanoparticles could be caused undesirable effects on liver with damage to hepatocyte and level elevation of liver enzymes.

  9. Comparison of Bovine coronavirus-specific and Bovine respiratory syncytial virus-specific antibodies in serum versus milk samples detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, Anna; Blanco-Penedo, Isabel; Fall, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Bovine coronavirus (BCV; Betacoronavirus 1) and Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) are significant causes of enteric and respiratory disease in beef and dairy cattle throughout the world. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are widely used to detect serum antibodies for herd monitoring and prevalence studies. In dairy herds, milk is more readily collected than serum. Hence, in order to investigate the test agreement between serum and milk, both serum and milk samples from 105 cows in 27 dairy herds were analyzed in parallel for presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies to BCV and BRSV. The Bland-Altman analyses of data demonstrated good agreement between serum and milk antibody titers for both viruses. The results indicate milk samples are sufficient for surveillance of antibodies to BCV and BRSV.

  10. The clinical significance of determination of serum CTGF, PDGF and TGF-β1 levels in patients with post-hepatitis B liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingru; Sang Shibiao; Zhao Zhenhua; Jiang Jiwei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor-β 1 (TGF-β 1 )levels in patients with post-hepatitis B liver cirrhosis. Methods: Serum TGF-β 1 (with RIA), CTGF and PDGF (with ELISA) levels were determined in 50 patients with liver cirrhosis (mild, n=15 moderate n=16 severe, n=19) and 45 controls. Results: The serum level of CTGF in patients with mild post-hepatitis B liver cirrhosis were in significantly higher than those in the controls (P>0.05). The serum level of CTGF were significantly higher in patients with moderate (P 1 were also significantly higher in all the patients than those in the controls (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.01). Conclusion: The changes of those 3 markers serum levels were related to the progress of post-hepatitis B liver cirrhosis and the determination was helpful for outcome prediction. (authors)

  11. Determination of beta-carotene and vitamin A contents of serum and liver of sheep slaughtered in Ahvaz abattoir during different seasons of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Hedayat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of the particular role of vitamin A in different tissues and organs, various clinical signs are seen in its deficiency. Additionally, marginal deficiency of vitamin A without the presence of clinical signs leads to performance defects such as infertility. In this study, the seasonal changes of β-carotene and vitamin A of serum and liver of slaughtered sheep in Ahvaz abattoir were investigated. A total of 360 sheep were sampled from October 2013 to June 2014. Spectrophotometry was used for measuring values. The results were analyzed statistically with student t-test. The mean ±SE concentration of β-carotene and vitamin A of serum and liver were 209/9±1/5, 98±0/9 (µg/dl, 19/8±0/4, 32/3±0/8(µg/g, respectively. Although there wasn't significant difference in levels of the measured parameters in two age groups(sheep only with immature teeth and sheep with a minimum mature tooth but there was a significant difference in vitamin A of serum and liver in the two sexes. The serumic levels of vitamin A in male sheep was more than the females while the concentration of vitamin A in the liver of female sheep was more than the males. The difference between seasons in vitamin A of serum was also statistically different with higher concentrations observed in warm seasons in comparison to milder seasons.

  12. Gender difference of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in DD genotype of ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism in elderly Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Feng; Cheng, Qiong; Tang, Nelson L S; Chu, Tanya T W; Tomlinson, Brian; Liu, Fan; Kwok, Timothy C Y

    2014-12-01

    In this study we investigated the gender difference of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in a population of Hong Kong-dwelling elderly Chinese. A total of 1767 (843 male, 924 female) Hong Kong-dwelling elderly Chinese were recruited. ACE I/D genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification and serum ACE activity was determined using a commercially available kinetic kit. ACE I/D genotype distribution was compared by chi-square test, the correlation between ACE I/D polymorphism and serum ACE activity was analysed by ANOVA test and gender difference of serum ACE activity of different genotypes was compared by independent sample t-test. No statistically significant difference of genotype distribution between male and female subjects was found. Serum ACE activity was significantly correlated with ACE genotype. Overall, there was no gender difference of serum ACE activity; however, when sub-grouping the subjects by ACE I/D genotype, male subjects with DD genotype had higher serum ACE activity than female subjects with DD genotype. No significant gender difference of genotype distribution was found in elderly Chinese. Serum ACE activity was significantly correlated with ACE I/D polymorphism in elderly Chinese. Male subjects with DD genotype had higher serum ACE activity than female subjects with DD genotype. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Serum paraoxonase-1 gene polymorphism and enzyme activity in patients with urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Arda; Gedikbasi, Asuman; Sonmezay, Erkan; Kiraz, Zeynep Kusku; Abbasoglu, Semra; Tasci, Ali Ihsan; Tugcu, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein-associated enzyme implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by protecting lipoproteins against peroxidation. PON1 has two genetic polymorphisms both due to amino acid substitution, one involving glutamine and arginine at position 192 and the other leucine and methionine at position 55. Recent reports suggest that nephrolithiasis and atherosclerosis share a number of risk factors. Our study aimed to compare the effects of PON1 192, PON1 55 polymorphisms, and PON1 activity in patients with urolithiasis and controls. PON1's arylesterase/paraoxonase activities and phenotype were determined in 158 stone forming cases (Group 1) and 138 non-stone forming controls (Group 2). The PON1 192 and PON1 55 polymorphisms were studied by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism. Paraoxonase activity was significantly lower in Group 1 than Group 2 (112 ± 31.8 vs. 208 ± 53.1 IU/L) (p < 0.001). The PON1 L55M polymorphism was significantly higher in Group 1. The "M" allele coding for PON1 was higher in Group 1 (p < 0.001). PON1 192 RR homozygotes had significantly higher PON1 activity than QR and QQ genotypes among all the patients (p < 0.001). The results of our study demonstrate that the PON1 55 gene "M" allele is associated with renal stone disease. Individuals possessing the "M" allele have a higher incidence of urolithiasis. The results of this study provide genetic evidence that the PON1 gene may play a role in stone formation. PON1 genotype determination may provide a tool to identify individuals who are at risk of urolithiasis.

  14. Effect of radiotherapy on the activity of lysosomal enzymes in lymphocytes and immunoglobulins in the serum in patients with laryngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierek, T.; Lisiewicz, J.; Kusnierczyk, W.; Plich, J.; Sasiadek, U.; Namyslowski, G.

    1980-01-01

    In 30 male patients aged 40 to 70 years treated with radiotherapy for laryngeal carcinoma presence of the lysosomal apparatus of the lymphocytes was observed after 6-9 years, with diffusion of the enzymes (especially beta-glucuronidase and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, and in a lower degree of acid phosphatase) from the lysosomes into the cytoplasm, and disappearance of normal lysosomal granules. The increased immunological reactivity of the patients was manifested frequently by a rise in the level of immunoglobulins, especially IgA in the serum, and a rise in the number of enzyme-positive lymphocytes (with the above-mentioned enzymes). (author)

  15. Evaluation of liver function tests of HIV positive patients on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver enzymes-alanine and aspartate aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase (AST, ALT and ALP), bilirubin and serum proteins were determined using standard laboratory methods and these parameters were used to evaluate the liver function of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- positive patients receiving ...

  16. [Effects of berberine on the recovery of rat liver xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes after partial hepatectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverinsky, I V; Zverinskaya, H G; Sutsko, I P; Telegin, P G; Shlyahtun, A G

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the effect of berberine on the recovery processes of liver xenobiotic-metabolizing function during its compensatory growth after 70% partial hepatectomy. It was found the hepatic ability to metabolize foreign substances are not restored up to day 8. Administration of berberine (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) for 6 days led to normalization of both cytochrome P450-dependent and flavin-containing monooxygenases. It is suggested that in the biotransformation of berberine involved not only cytochrome P450, but also flavin-containing monooxygenases.

  17. Pharmacokinetic study of isocorynoxeine metabolites mediated by cytochrome P450 enzymes in rat and human liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lizhu; Zang, Bin; Qi, Wen; Chen, Fangfang; Wang, Haibo; Kano, Yoshihiro; Yuan, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Isocorynoxeine (ICN) is one of the major bioactive tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids found in Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks. that is widely used for the treatment of hypertension, vascular dementia, and stroke. The present study was undertaken to assess the plasma pharmacokinetic characteristics of major ICN metabolites, and the role of simulated gastric and intestinal fluid (SGF and SIF), human and rat liver microsomes (HLMs and RLMs), and seven recombinant human CYP enzymes in the major metabolic pathway of ICN. A rapid, sensitive and accurate UHPLC/Q-TOF MS method was validated for the simultaneous determination of ICN and its seven metabolites in rat plasma after oral administration of ICN at 40mg/kg. It was found that 18.19-dehydrocorynoxinic acid (DCA) and 5-oxoisocorynoxeinic acid (5-O-ICA) were both key and predominant metabolites, rather than ICN itself, due to the rapid and extensive metabolism of ICN in vivo. The further study indicated that ICN was mainly metabolized in human or rat liver, and CYPs 2C19, 3A4 and 2D6 were the major enzymes responsible for the biotransformation of ICN to DCA and 5-O-ICA in human. These findings are of significance in understanding of the pharmacokinetic nature of tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids, and provide helpful information for the clinical co-administration of the herbal preparations containing U. rhynchophylla with antihypertensive drugs that are mainly metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and one rapid immunoblot assay for detection of herpes simplex virus type 2-specific antibodies in serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, J; Van Dijk, G; Niesters, H G; Van Der Meijden, W I; Osterhaus, A D

    The sensitivities and specificities of three immunoassays for the detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in serum, including the one-strip rapid immunoblot assay (RIBA; Chiron Corporation) and two indirect enzyme immunosorbent assays (EIA; Gull

  19. Effect of Withania Somnifera Root Powder on the Levels of Circulatory Lipid Peroxidation and Liver Marker Enzymes in Chronic Hyperammonemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Harikrishnan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (L Dunal (Solanaceae, commonly called Ashwagandha (Sanskrit is an Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plant, which has been widely used as a home remedy for several ailments. We have investigated the influence of W.somnifera root powder on the levels of circulatory ammonia, urea, lipid peroxidation products such as TBARS (thiobarbituric acid and reactive substances, HP (hydroperoxides and liver marker enzymes such as AST (aspartate transaminase, ALT (alanine transaminase and ALP (alkaline phosphatase, for its hepatoprotective effect in ammonium chloride induced hyperammonemia. Ammonium chloride treated rats showed a significant increase in the levels of circulatory ammonia, urea, AST, ALT, ALP, TBARS and HP. These changes were significantly decreased in rats treated with W.somnifera root powder and ammonium chloride. Our results indicate that W.somnifera offers hepatoprotection by influencing the levels of lipid peroxidation products and liver markers in experimental hyperammonemia and this could be due to (i the presence of alkaloids, withanolids and flavonoids, (ii normalizing the levels of urea and urea related compounds, (iii its free radical scavenging property and (iv its antioxidant property. The exact underlying mechanism is still unclear and further research needed.

  20. The levels of liver enzymes and atypical lymphocytes are higher in youth patients with infectious mononucleosis than in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Ren, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Hong

    2013-12-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is the clinical presentation of primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus. Although the literature contains a massive amount of information on IM, most of this is related specifically to only children or adults separately. In order to distinguish any differences between preschool children and youth patients, we retrospectively analyzed their demographic and clinical features. Records of patients hospitalized from December 2001 to September 2011 with a diagnosis of IM were retrieved from Peking University First Hospital, which is a tertiary teaching hospital in Beijing. The demographic data and clinical characteristics were collected. IM was diagnosed in 287 patients during this 10-year period, with incidence peaks among preschool children (≤7 years old, 130/287, 45.3%) and youth patients (>15 and <24 years old, 101/287, 35.2%). Although the complaints at admission did not differ between these two patient groups, the incidence of clinical signs (tonsillopharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and edema of the eyelids) was much higher in preschool children. The incidence of liver lesion and percentage of atypical lymphocytes were significantly higher in the youth group (P<0.001), and the average hospital stay was longer in this group. Pneumonia was the most common complication, and there was no case of mortality. The incidence of IM peaks among preschool children and youth patients in Beijing, China. The levels of liver enzymes and atypical lymphocytes increase with age.

  1. Effects of antiretroviral agents during pregnancy on liver enzymes and amylase in HIV-exposed, uninfected newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia El Beitune

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of antiretroviral drugs administered to pregnant women on amylase and liver enzymes of the neonate. A prospective study was conducted on 52 neonates divided into three groups: infants born to HIV-infected mothers taking zidovudine (ZDV group, n = 18, infants born to mothers taking zidovudine + lamivudine + nelfinavir (TT group, n = 22 and infants born to normal women (control group, n = 12. Umbilical cord blood from the newborn infant was used to determine liver transaminases and amylase. Data were analyzed statistically by nonparametric tests, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. The median levels for TT group newborns were 33.3 U/L for oxaloacetic transaminase, 21.5 U/L for pyruvic transaminase, 1.9 mg/dL for total bilirubin, 153 mg/dL for alkaline phosphatase, and 9.6 U/L for amylase. These results did not differ from those obtained for Control newborns or newborns exposed to ZDV alone. No association was observed between the use of antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy and adverse effects on neonatal amylase and hepatic parameters at birth.

  2. The levels of liver enzymes and atypical lymphocytes are higher in youth patients with infectious mononucleosis than in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsInfectious mononucleosis (IM is the clinical presentation of primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus. Although the literature contains a massive amount of information on IM, most of this is related specifically to only children or adults separately. In order to distinguish any differences between preschool children and youth patients, we retrospectively analyzed their demographic and clinical features.MethodsRecords of patients hospitalized from December 2001 to September 2011 with a diagnosis of IM were retrieved from Peking University First Hospital, which is a tertiary teaching hospital in Beijing. The demographic data and clinical characteristics were collected.ResultsIM was diagnosed in 287 patients during this 10-year period, with incidence peaks among preschool children (≤7 years old, 130/287, 45.3% and youth patients (>15 and <24 years old, 101/287, 35.2%. Although the complaints at admission did not differ between these two patient groups, the incidence of clinical signs (tonsillopharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and edema of the eyelids was much higher in preschool children. The incidence of liver lesion and percentage of atypical lymphocytes were significantly higher in the youth group (P<0.001, and the average hospital stay was longer in this group. Pneumonia was the most common complication, and there was no case of mortality.ConclusionsThe incidence of IM peaks among preschool children and youth patients in Beijing, China. The levels of liver enzymes and atypical lymphocytes increase with age.

  3. The Effects of Space Flight on Some Liver Enzymes Concerned with Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

    1978-01-01

    The activities of about 30 enzymes concerned with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and the levels of glycogen and of individual fatty acids were measured in livers of rats ex- posed to prolonged space flight (18.5 days) aboard COSMOS 986 Biosatellite. When flight stationary, (FS) and flight centrifuged (FC) rats were compared at recovery (R(sub 0)), decrceases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha glycerphosphate, acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, acconitase and Epsilon-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were noted in the weightless group (FS). The significance of these findings was strengthened since all activities, showing alterations at R(sub 0), returned to normal 25 days post-flight. Differences were also seen in levels of two liver constituents. When glycogen and total fatty acids of the two groups of flight animals were determined, differences that could be attributed to reduced gravity were observed, the FS group at R(sub 0) contained, on the average, more than twice the amount of glycogen than did controls ad a remarkable shift in the ratio of palmitate to palmitoleate were noted. These metabolic alterations appear to be unique to the weightless condition. Our data justify the conclusion that centrifugation during space flight is equivalent to terrestrial gravity.

  4. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 serum levels and 4G/5G gene polymorphism in morbidly obese Hispanic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Alberto; Villagrán, Andrea; Vollrath, Valeska; Hanckes, Paulina; Salas, Roberto; Farah, Andrea; Solís, Nancy; Pizarro, Margarita; Escalona, Alex; Boza, Camilo; Pérez, Gustavo; Carrasco, Gonzalo; Padilla, Oslando; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Nervi, Flavio; Chavez-Tapia, Norberto C; Arab, Juan Pablo; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Arrese, Marco; Riquelme, Arnoldo

    2011-01-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) has been implicated in the regulation of fibrinolysis and extracellular matrix components. The single base pair guanine insertion/deletion polymorphism (4G/5G) within the promoter region of the PAI-1 gene influences PAI-1 synthesis and may modulate hepatic fibrogenesis. To evaluate the influence of PAI-1 serum levels and 4G/5G polymorphism on the risk of liver fibrosis associated to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in morbidly obese patients. Case-control study of 50 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery and 71 non-obese subjects matched by age and sex. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed, including PAI-1 serum levels. Genomic DNA was obtained to assess the presence of 4G/5G polymorphism. BMI, insulinemia, triglycerides, HOMA-IR, hypertension and diabetes were significantly higher in obese patients compared to control subjects. PAI-1 serum levels observed in obese patients were significantly lower (10.63 ± 4.82) compared to controls (14.26 ± 11.4; p 5G promoter genotypes frequencies (p = 0.12). No differences were observed in PAI-1 plasma levels among obese patients with liver fibrosis (10.64 ± 4.35) compared to patients without liver fibrosis (10.61 ± 5.2; p = 0.985). PAI-1 4G/5G promoter genotypes frequencies were similar in patients with or without liver fibrosis associated to NASH (p = 0.6). Morbidly obese patients had significantly lower PAI-1 serum levels with similar PAI-1 4G/5G genotypes frequencies compared to non-obese subjects. The frequency of 4G/5G genotypes in Chilean Hispanic healthy subjects was similar to that described in other populations. No association was found between PAI-1 serum levels or 4G/5G genotype with liver fibrosis in obese patients.

  5. Association between elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake with normal liver enzymes in HIV-HCV infected individuals: results from the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, M Patrizia; Lions, Caroline; Sogni, Philippe; Winnock, Maria; Roux, Perrine; Mora, Marion; Bonnard, Philippe; Salmon, Dominique; Dabis, François; Spire, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We used longitudinal data from the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort study of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals to investigate whether polyphenol rich food intake through coffee and/or daily chocolate consumption could play a role in reducing liver enzymes levels. Longitudinal data collection included self-administered questionnaires and medical data (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) liver enzymes). Two analyses were performed to assess the association between coffee (≥3 cups a day) and daily chocolate intake and abnormal values of AST and ALT (AST or ALT >2.5 × upper normal limit (UNL)) (N=990) over time, after adjustment for known correlates. Logistic regression models based on generalized estimating equations were used to take into account the correlations between repeated measures and estimate adjusted odds ratio. After adjustment, patients reporting elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake were less likely to present abnormal ALT (OR=0.65; p=0.04 and OR=0.57; p=0.04, for coffee and chocolate respectively), while only patients reporting elevated coffee consumption were less likely to have abnormal AST values (p=0.05). Nevertheless, the combined indicator of coffee and chocolate intake was most significantly associated with approximately 40% reduced risk of abnormal liver enzymes (p=0.003 for AST; p=0.002 for ALT). Elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake appear to be associated with reduced levels of liver enzymes in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. Further experimental and observational research is needed to better understand the role that polyphenol intake or supplementation can play on liver disease and liver injury. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J. Jr.; Barton Price, R.; Berkman, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluation of the liver for focal lesions is extremely important because the liver is one of the most common sites for metastatic disease. Most patients with metastatic deposits to the liver have a survival rate of about 6 months. Thus, metastatic disease to the liver has an extremely grave prognosis. In the past patients with hepatic lesions had no therapeutic recourse. However, with recent aggressive surgical advances (such as partial hepatectomies) and hepatic artery embolization, survival of patients with hepatic metastases has increased. Thus it is important for noninvasive imaging not only to detect lesions early in their course, but also to give their true hepatic involvement and the extent of the neoplastic process elsewhere in the body. Recent advances in imaging have been rapidly changing over the past 5 years. These changes have been more rapid in computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound than in radionuclide imaging. Thus, the question addressed in this chapter is: What is the relationship of hepatic ultrasound to the other current diagnostic modalities in detecting metastatic liver disease and other focal liver lesions? Also, what is its possible future relationship to nuclear magnetic resonance?

  7. The effect of resveratrol on oxidative stress in the liver and serum of a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ghowsi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of oxidative status in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS patients are limited with inconsistent results. The effects of resveratrol as a natural antioxidant on oxidative status in PCOS aren’t clear. Objective: This study evaluated effects of resveratrol on oxidative stress in the liver and serum of the PCOS rats. Materials and Methods: Fifteen female Wistar rats (3 wk old were divided into 3 groups (n=5/each e: Control group, PCO-Control group, and PCO-Resveratrol group. For induction of polycystic ovary phenotype, testosterone enanthate 10 mg/kg was injected for 35 days subcutaneously. Then, resveratrol 10 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally for 28 days to rats of the PCO-Resveratrol group. Ovarian sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin. The serum glucose and insulin and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in serum and liver were measured. Results: Control animals showed normal ovarian morphology and PCO-Control animals exhibited cystic follicles. There were no significant differences in liver TAC between groups. The serum MDA (p=0.034, and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p=0.014 levels in PCO-Control rats were higher than the controls. The liver MDA in PCO-Control rats was more than that of controls (p=0.001. The HOMA-IR (p=0.008 and serum MDA (p=0.006 levels in PCO-Control rats were more than those of PCO-Resveratrol rats (p=0.008. In PCO-Resveratrol group, serum TAC was higher than that of PCO-Control group (p=0.022 and liver MDA was more than controls (p=0.01. Conclusion: Results indicated that the induction of PCOS in rats increased lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance and resveratrol improved these complications.

  8. Effects of a Brussels sprouts extract on oxidative DNA damage and metabolising enzymes in rat liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Jensen, B.R.; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    2001-01-01

    and catalase activity was also assessed in the kidneys. In order to examine a possible effect of the Brussels sprouts related to oxidative stress, we measured oxidative DNA damage in terms of 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) formation...... on MDA levels were found. The present results support the data obtained in several studies that consumption of cruciferous vegetables is capable of inducing various phase II enzyme systems. However, the observed increase in oxidative DNA damage raises the question of whether greatly increased ingestion...

  9. Serum Bile Acids in Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot: A Marker for Liver and Heart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangl, Gernot; Zöhrer, Evelyn; Köstenberger, Martin; Jud, Alexandra; Fauler, Günter; Scharnagl, Hubert; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Marterer, Robert; Gamillscheg, Andreas; Jahnel, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot may develop chronic right ventricular dysfunction and hepatic congestion over time. We hypothesized that bile acid metabolism is altered in repaired tetralogy of Fallot patients and therefore sought to correlate right ventricular indices with serum bile acid levels. Indexed right ventricular end diastolic volume, as assessed by cardiac magnetic-resonance imaging, was classified as 150ml/m2 (Group 3, n = 6) in 29 patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Pulmonary regurgitation fraction and right ventricular ejection fraction were calculated. The serum bile acid profile, including 15 species, in these patients was determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Serum bile acid levels increased from Group 1 to Group 3 (2.5 ± 0.7; 4.1 ± 2.5; 6.0 ± 2.8 μmol/l, respectively) with significantly increased bile acid values in Group 3 compared to Group 1 (p≤0.05). In Group 3, but not in Group 1 and 2, a significant increase in glycine-conjugated bile acids was observed. Pulmonary regurgitation fraction increased (12 ± 1; 28 ± 16; 43 ± 3%, Groups 1-3, respectively) and right ventricular ejection fraction decreased (48.4 ± 6.4; 48.5 ± 6.5; 42.1 ± 5.3%, Groups 1-3, respectively) with rising indexed right ventricular end diastolic volume. These preliminary results suggest that serum bile acid levels are positively correlated with indexed right ventricular end-diastolic volume in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot; however, this needs to be confirmed in a larger patient cohort.

  10. Liver enzymes and psychological well-being response to aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Kader, Shehab M; Al-Jiffri, Osama H; Al-Shreef, Fadwa M

    2014-06-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a medical condition that has broad implications for a person's physical and psychological health. The aim of this study was to detect changes in liver enzymes and psychological well-being in response to aerobic exercise training in patients with CHC. Fifty CHC patients were included in two equal groups. The first group (A) received aerobic exercise training in addition to their regular medical treatment. The second group (B) received no training and only has their regular medical treatment. The program consisted of three sessions per week for three months. There was a significant decrease in mean values of Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Gamma - Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI ) & Profile of Mood States(POMS) and increase in Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) in group (A) after treatments, but the changes in group (B) were not significant. Also, there were significant differences between mean levels of the investigated parameters in group (A) and group (B) at the end of the study. Aerobic exercise training improves hepatic enzymes and psychological well-being in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  11. Serum transforming growth factor beta 1 in hepatitis c virus related chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-fouly, N.F.

    2007-01-01

    hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major type of primary liver cancer and one of the most frequent human malignant neoplasms. it is estimated to cause more than a quarter of a million deaths each year throughout the world. the aim of the present work was to assess the value of serum level of TGF-betal in patients with HCV related CLD and its level in patients with HCC and to evaluate its sensitivity and specificity in comparison to AFP in early diagnosis of HCC. the study was performed on two groups of egyptian patients, from the tropical medicine department and outpatient,s clinic for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), Ain Shams university hospitals; croup 1 consisted of forty patients with chronic liver disease, their ages ranged between 85 and 35 years (mean 51.8+ 9.2 years) included 23 male patients (57.5%) and 17 female patients (42.5%), group 11 consisted of forty patients with HCC, their age ranged between 72 and 42 years (mean 54.0+ 7.5 years) included 30 male patients (75%) and 10 female patients (25%)

  12. Chlorophyll-derived fatty acids regulate expression of lipid metabolizing enzymes in liver - a nutritional opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfrum Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional values of fatty acid classes are normally discussed on the basis of their saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated structures with implicit understanding that they are straight-chain. Here we focus on chlorophyll-derived phytanic and pristanic acids that are minor isoprenoid branched-chain lipid constituents in food, but of unknown nutritional value. After describing the enzyme machinery that degrades these nutrient fatty acids in the peroxisome, we show by the criteria of a mouse model and of a human cell culture model that they induce with high potency expression of enzymes responsible for beta-oxidation of straight-chain fatty acids in the peroxisome. We summarize present mechanistic knowledge on fatty acid signaling to the nucleus, which involves protein/protein contacts between peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR and fatty acid binding protein (FABP. In this signaling event the branched-chain fatty acids are the most effective ones. Finally, on the basis of this nutrient-gene interaction we discuss nutritional opportunities and therapeutic aspects of the chlorophyll-derived fatty acids.

  13. Effect of irradiation on membrane-bound rabit liver mitochondrial enzymes in embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirakhmedov, A.K.; Muradillaev, A.; Khan, M.Z.; Khamidov, D. Kh.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of irradiation on protein content of inner mitochondrial membrane and on activity of certain enzymes of respiratory chain of hepatic mitochondria has been studied. Within 24 and 48 hr after total irradiation (200 R) of pregnant rabbits, the protein content of the inner membranes of 25-30 day-old embryos and the mothers was broken with the increase in the thickness and densitometric height of the protein spots. Changes were seen in NADH-oxidase, succinate oxidase and in cytochrome-c-oxidase activities of mitochondria of 20 day-old embryos within 4 hr after irradiation and within 1 hr after irradiation in adult rabbits. The NADH-oxidase and the succinate oxidase activities of 30 day-old embryos were insensitive to the effect of irradiation. The cytochrome-c-oxidase activity increased in mitochondria of 25-30 day-old embryos upon 24 hr of irradiation. Substantial depression of the thermostability of the NADH-oxidase system was seen within 24 hr after irradiation while cytochrome-c-oxidase did not change its thermostability. The unequal disturbances of the emzyme activity and thermostability upon the total irradiation are connected with the different state of mitochondria and with the specificity of enzymes of the respiratory chain. (author)

  14. Effect of oral testosterone treatment on serum concentrations of sex steroids gonadotrophins and prolactin in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Copenhagen Study Group for Liver Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones in a randomly selected group of alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of oral testosterone treatment on the liver. Before treatment...

  15. A study of the relationship between serum bile acids and propranolol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in patients with liver cirrhosis and in healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taegtmeyer, Anne B.; Haschke, Manuel; Tchambaz, Lydia; Buylaert, Mirabel; Tschöpl, Martin; Beuers, Ulrich; Drewe, Jürgen; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives of the study were to determine the exposure and bioavailability of oral propranolol and to investigate their associations with serum bile acid concentration in patients with liver cirrhosis and in healthy controls. A further objective was to study the pharmacodynamics of

  16. Obese mice fed a diet supplemented with enzyme-treated wheat bran display marked shifts in the liver metabolome concurrent with altered gut bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) is a fermentable dietary fiber previously shown to decrease liver triglycerides and modify the gut microbiome in mice. It is not clear which mechanisms explain how ETWB feeding impacts hepatic metabolism, but factors (i.e., metabolites) associated with specific micro...

  17. A quantitative histochemical procedure for the demonstration of purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity in rat and human liver using Tetranitro BT and xanthine oxidase as auxiliary enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, W. M.; Bosch, K. S.; van Gulik, T.

    1993-01-01

    A quantitative histochemical procedure was developed for the demonstration of purine nucleoside phosphorylase in rat liver using unfixed cryostat sections and the auxiliary enzyme xanthine oxidase. The optimum incubation medium contained 18% (w/v) poly(vinyl alcohol), 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH

  18. Method of preparing highly active and thermostable preparations of liver uridin-kinase usable for enzymic synthesis of radioactive nucleoside-5'-phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cihak, A.; Vesely, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of preparing a high-activity uridine kinase for the enzymic synthesis of radioactive nucleoside-5m-phosphates of the pyrimidine series. The preparation is separated from male rat liver after intraperitoneal application of 5'-azacytidine. Examples are given showing detailed procedures for the conversion of uridine and 6-azauridine to the corresponding 5'-phosphates. (L.K.)

  19. Hepatic Rupture Caused by Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzyme, and Low Platelet Count Syndrome: A Case Report with Computed Tomographic and Conventional Angiographic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheong Bok; Ahn, Jae Hong; Choi, Soo Jung; Lee, Jong Hyeog; Park, Man Soo; Jung, Seung Mun; Ryu, Dae Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Foundation, Gangneung Asan Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    The authors recently obtained successful clinical outcome after embolization of the hepatic artery and right inferior phrenic artery in a pregnant patient with hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome causing hepatic rupture. We report the computed tomographic and conventional angiographic findings in a case of HELLP syndrome, resulting in hepatic infarction and rupture with active bleeding.

  20. Inhibitory Effects of Dimethyllirioresinol, Epimagnolin A, Eudesmin, Fargesin, and Magnolin on Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Activities in Human Liver Microsomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hyun Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnolin, epimagnolin A, dimethyllirioresinol, eudesmin, and fargesin are pharmacologically active tetrahydrofurofuranoid lignans found in Flos Magnoliae. The inhibitory potentials of dimethyllirioresinol, epimagnolin A, eudesmin, fargesin, and magnolin on eight major human cytochrome P450 (CYP enzyme activities in human liver microsomes were evaluated using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry to determine the inhibition mechanisms and inhibition potency. Fargesin inhibited CYP2C9-catalyzed diclofenac 4’-hydroxylation with a Ki value of 16.3 μM, and it exhibited mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C19-catalyzed [S]-mephenytoin 4’-hydroxylation (Ki, 3.7 μM; kinact, 0.102 min−1, CYP2C8-catalyzed amodiaquine N-deethylation (Ki, 10.7 μM; kinact, 0.082 min−1, and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1’-hydroxylation (Ki, 23.0 μM; kinact, 0.050 min−1 in human liver microsomes. Fargesin negligibly inhibited CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylation, CYP2A6-catalyzed coumarin 7-hydroxylation, CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylation, and CYP2D6-catalyzed bufuralol 1’-hydroxylation at 100 μM in human liver microsomes. Dimethyllirioresinol weakly inhibited CYP2C19 and CYP2C8 with IC50 values of 55.1 and 85.0 μM, respectively, without inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 activities at 100 μM. Epimagnolin A, eudesmin, and magnolin showed no the reversible and time-dependent inhibition of eight major CYP activities at 100 μM in human liver microsomes. These in vitro results suggest that it is necessary to investigate the potentials of in vivo fargesin-drug interaction with CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 substrates.

  1. Methylmercury exposure for 14 days (short-term) produces behavioral and biochemical changes in mouse cerebellum, liver, and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Júnior, Sérgio José; Luiz-Cerutti, Murilo; Nascimento, Denise B; Farina, Marcelo; Soares Santos, Adair Roberto; de Azevedo Maia, Alcíbia Helena

    2017-01-01

    Various studies on methylmercury (MeHg)-induced toxicity focused on the central nervous system (CNS) as a primary target. However, MeHg-mediated toxicity is related to metallic interaction with electrophilic groups, which are not solely restricted to the CNS, but these reactive groups are present ubiquitously in several systems/organs. The aim of this study was thus to examine MeHg-induced systemic toxicity in mice using a standardized neurotoxicology testing exposure model to measure cerebellar neurotoxicity by determining biochemical and behavioral parameters in the cerebellum. After 2 weeks exposure to MeHg (40 µg/ml; diluted in drinking water; ad libitum), adult male Swiss mice showed a marked motor impairment characteristic of cerebellar toxicity as noted in the following tests: rotarod, beam walking, pole, and hind limb clasping. MeHg treatment resulted in Hg deposition in the cerebellum as well as reduction in cerebellar weight, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and interleukin (IL)-6 levels. MeHg ingestion increased cerebellar glutathione reductase (GR) activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. In addition to cerebellar toxicity, MeHg treatment also elevated total and non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol levels, as well as serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) enzymatic activities, systemic parameters. Increased liver weight and reduced serum urea levels were also noted in MeHg-exposed mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that a well-standardized exposure protocol to examine MeHg-induced neurotoxicity also produced systemic toxicity in mice, which was characterized by changes in markers of hepatic function as well as serum lipid homeostasis.

  2. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of serum platelet-bindable IgG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, S E; Lynch, D M; Lynch, J M

    1984-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using F(ab')2 peroxidase-labeled antihuman immunoglobulin and o-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (OPD) as a substrate was developed to measure serum platelet bindable IgG (S-PBIgG). The assay was made quantitative by standardizing the number of normal "target" platelets bound to microtiter plate wells, and by incorporating quantitated IgG standards with each microtiter plate tested to prepare a standard calibration curve. By this method, S-PBIgG for normal individuals was 3.4 +/- 1.6 fg per platelet (mean +/- 1 SD; n = 40). Increased S-PBIgG levels were detected in 36 of 40 patients with clinical autoimmune thrombocytopenia (ATP), ranging from 7.0 to 85 fg per platelet. Normal S-PBIgG levels were found in 34 of 40 patients with nonimmune thrombocytopenia. This method showed a sensitivity of 90 percent, specificity of 85 percent, and in the sample population studied, a positive predictive value of 0.86 and a negative predictive value of 0.90. This assay is highly reproducible (coefficient of variation was 6.8%) and appears useful in the evaluation of patients with suspected immune-mediated thrombocytopenia.

  3. Effect of selective hepatic inflow occlusion during liver cancer resection on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Tian Deng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of selective hepatic inflow occlusion during liver cancer resection on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: A total of 68 patients with primary liver cancer who underwent left liver resection in our hospital between May 2012 and August 2015 were selected for study and divided into group A (selective hepatic inflow occlusion of left liver and group B (Prignle hepatic inflow occlusion according to different intraoperative blood occlusion methods, serum was collected before and after operation to determine liver enzyme content, the removed liver tissue was collected to determine energy metabolism indexes, inflammation indexes and oxidative stress indexes. Results: 1 d, 3 d and 5 d after operation, GPT, GOT, GGT, LDH and ALP content in serum of both groups were significantly higher than those before operation, and GPT, GOT, GGT, LDH and ALP content in serum of group A 1 d, 3 d and 5 d after operation were significantly lower than those of group B; ATP, ADP, AMP, PI3K, AKT, GSK3β, T-AOC, PrxI and Trx content in liver tissue of group A were significantly higher than those of group B while PTEN, IL-12p40, MDA and MPO content were significantly lower than those of group B. Conclusions: Selective hepatic inflow occlusion during liver cancer resection can reduce the liver ischemia-reperfusion injury, improve the energy metabolism of liver cells and inhibit inflammation and oxidative stress in liver tissue.

  4. Evaluation of liver enzyme levels in workers exposed to vinyl chloride vapors in a petrochemical complex: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolati Mandana

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyvinyl chloride is used in production and manufacturing of many essential tools (e.g. plastic pipes, photography films, etc.. Its production is impossible without the use of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM, which can cause liver damage in long-term. In this study we intend to assess the effects of mild to moderate long term exposure to VCM on liver and to assess the importance of liver enzyme measurements as a screening tool. Methods In this study, liver enzyme levels of 52 workers were compared to 48 control workers using the T-test. The cases all worked in a PVC production unit in a petrochemical complex and the controls were randomly selected from office personnel of the same complex. A questionnaire was also filled in about information such as age, weight, work history, etc. in both groups. Results Mean comparisons for ALP and GGT using T-test showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. For AST, ALT and bilirubin (total, direct the mean was higher in the case group but this difference was not statistically significant. Discussion This study showed that mild exposure to VCM can cause mild liver cholestasis. So, using cholestasis assessment tests such as ALP and GGT should be considered in periodic assessment of liver function in PVC producing units.

  5. The antioxidant effects of vitamin C on liver enzymes: aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotranferease, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities in rats under Paraquat insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Nnamdi Okolonkwo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ is a bipyridylium herbicide; applied around trees in orchards and between crop rows to control broad-leaved and grassy weeds. Its oxidation results in the formation of superoxides which causes damage to cellular components. In this study, we determined the antioxidant effect vitamin C has on the liver enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT, alanine aminotranferease (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT] of rats under this toxic insult. Male rats in groups (A, B, C and D were intraperitoneally injected with different sublethal increasing doses (0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 g/kg body weigh of PQ respectively on monthly basis. Subsequently, the subgroups (A2, B2, C2 and D2 were given orally, 200 mg/L vitamin C, while the subgroups A1, B1, C1, and D1, received only water. Four animals per subgroup were decapitated on monthly basis and blood samples taken for enzyme assay. The parameters studied were - SGOT, SGPT, ALP and GGT - liver enzymes. The dose and time dependent PQ toxicity effect resulted in highly elevated Liver enzymes activities. The subgroups on vitamin C had significantly lower enzyme activities when compared to the same subgroups on only PQ insult. But the values were high when compared to the control subgroups (A1 and A2. These results were indication that vitamin C when given at moderate doses and maintained for a longer period could be a life saving adjunct to toxic insult.

  6. Biliary excretion of ouabain in isolated perfused rat liver after treatment with microsomal enzyme inducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevasaari, K.; Alakare, B.; Kaerki, N.T.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with spironolactone, phenobarbital and 3,4-benzpyrene on biliary excretion of ouabain was studied in isolated perfused rat liver system after a single dose of 3 H-ouabain. Spironolactone pretreatment (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 4 days) changed the time course of the excretion, thus accelerating the transport of ouabain into the bile. Phenobarbital pretreatment (75 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 4 days) enhanced bile flow and increased biliary excretion of ouabain only after 15 min. At longer time periods the increase in bile flow diluted the bile level of ouabain there being no difference in the amounts excreted into the bile between the treated and untreated groups. 3,4-benzpyrene pretreatment (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 4 days) was without efffect on biliary excretion of ouabain. The results suggest that spironolactone differs from phenobarbital in its enhancing effect on biliary excretion of ouabain, possibly through a specific effect on an unknown hepatic transport mechanism. (author)

  7. Serum 1H-NMR metabolomic fingerprints of acute-on-chronic liver failure in intensive care unit patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Amathieu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute-on-chronic liver failure is characterized by acute deterioration of liver function in patients with compensated or decompensated, but stable, cirrhosis. However, there is no accurate definition of acute-on-chronic liver failure and physicians often use this term to describe different clinical entities. Metabolomics investigates metabolic changes in biological systems and identifies the biomarkers or metabolic profiles. Our study assessed the metabolomic profile of serum using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H-NMR spectroscopy to identify metabolic changes related to acute-on-chronic liver failure. PATIENTS: Ninety-three patients with compensated or decompensated cirrhosis (CLF group but stable liver function and 30 patients with cirrhosis and hospitalized for the management of an acute event who may be responsible of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF group, were fully analyzed. Blood samples were drawn at admission, and sera were separated and stored at -80°C until (1H-NMR spectral analysis. Using orthogonal projection to latent-structure discriminant analyses, various metabolites contribute to the complete separation between these both groups. RESULTS: The predictability of the model was 0.73 (Q(2 Y and the explained variance was 0.63 (R(2 Y. The main metabolites that had increased signals related to acute-on-chronic liver failure were lactate, pyruvate, ketone bodies, glutamine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and creatinine. High-density lipids were lower in the ALCF group than in CLF group. CONCLUSION: A serum metabolite fingerprint for acute-on-chronic liver failure, obtained with (1H-NMR, was identified. Metabolomic profiling may aid clinical evaluation of patients with cirrhosis admitted into intensive care units with acute-on-chronic liver failure, and provide new insights into the metabolic processes involved in acute impairment of hepatic function.

  8. Value of serum GP73, AFP, and AFP-L3 in diagnosis of liver cancer and recurrence monitoring after radiofrequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Qin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo explore the clinical value of three serum tumor markers, Golgi protein 73 (GP73, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and AFP-L3, in the diagnosis of liver cancer and recurrence monitoring after radio frequency ablation. MethodsA total of 174 patients who visited our hospital from July 2012 to October 2013 were included in the study, consisting of 86 patients with newly diagnosed liver cancer, 39 with liver cirrhosis, 29 with hepatitis, and 20 healthy controls. Among the patients with newly diagnosed liver cancer, 37 were followed up for three months after the radiofrequency ablation. Serum levels of GP73, AFP, and AFP-L3 were measured by ELISA, electrochemiluminescence, and affinity adsorption chromatography, respectively. Nonparametric tests were performed on the results of serum samples from the four groups which showed skewed distribution and were represented by median (quartile interval [M(P25-P75]. Overall comparison was made by Kruskal-Wallis H test, and comparison between groups was made by Mann-Whitney U test. Pair-matching rank-sum test was performed using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks, and categorical data were analyzed by χ2 test. ResultsThe levels of GP73, AFP, and AFP-L3 in the liver cancer group were significantly higher than those in other groups (all P<0.05. The positive rates of GP73 and AFP-L3 in the liver cancer group were significantly higher than those in other groups (all P<0.05, and the positive rates of the two markers were significantly higher than that of AFP among patients with liver cancer (P<0.05. Thirty-seven patients with newly diagnosed liver cancer were reexamined three months after radiofrequency ablation, and the preoperational AFP-L3 level in the patients who had recurrence was significantly higher than that in the patients without recurrence (P<0.05. ConclusionSerum GP73, AFP, and AFP-L3 show great values in the diagnosis of liver cancer. AFP-L3 can be used as an indicator for the identification of

  9. Exercise-induced serum enzyme elevations confounding the evaluation of investigational drug toxicity. Report of two cases in a vaccine trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Casey; Monath, Thomas P; Kanesa-Thasan, Niranjan; Mathis, Danell; Miller, Chuck; Shapiro, Seth; Nichols, Richard; McCarthy, Karen; Deary, Alison; Bedford, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Two subjects developed marked elevations in creatine kinase and other serum enzymes associated with mild myalgia during a randomized, double-blind, controlled Phase 1 clinical trial of an investigational live, attenuated vaccine against West Nile virus (ChimeriVax-WN02). One subject had received ChimeriVax-WN02 while the other subject was enrolled in an active control group and received licensed yellow fever 17D vaccine (YF-VAX). Subsequently, the clinical trial was interrupted, and an investigation was begun to evaluate the enzyme abnormalities. As daily serum samples were collected for determination of quantitative viremia, it was possible to define the enzyme elevations with precision and to relate these elevations to physical activity of the subjects, symptoms, and virological and serological measurements. Evaluation of both subjects clearly showed that skeletal muscle injury, and not cardiac or hepatic dysfunction, was responsible for the biochemical abnormalities. This investigation also implicated strenuous exercise as the cause of the apparent muscle injury rather than the study vaccines. As a result of this experience, subjects engaged in future early-stage trials of these live, attenuated viral vaccines will be advised not to engage in contact sports or new or enhanced exercise regimens for which they are not trained or conditioned. The inclusion of placebo control arm (in lieu of or addition to an active vaccine control) will also be useful in differentiating causally related serum enzyme elevations.

  10. Lung inflammation in sarcoidosis: comparison of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels with bronchoalveolar lavage and gallium-67 scanning assessment of the T lymphocyte alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberger, C.I.; Line, B.R.; Keogh, B.A.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Crystal, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is elevated in many patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and has been proposed as a measure of disease activity. The present study was designed to evaluate the possible relationship between serum ACE and direct measures of the intensity of the alveolitis of pulmonary sarcoidosis as measured by bronchoalveolar lavage and gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) scans. To accomplish this, 64 measurements of serum ACE, lavage T lymphocytes, and lung uptake of 67 Ga were performed in 41 patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis. Elevations of serum ACE were found on at least one occasion in 17 patients (41%). However, serum ACE was found to be a poor predictor of the intensity of alveolitis in sarcoidosis as assessed by the quantitation of bronchoalveolar lavage cells that were T lymphocytes and by 67 Ga scanning. Elevated serum ACE did not predict which patients would have elevated proportions of lavage T lymphocytes, which patients would demonstrate increased pulmonary uptake of 67 Ga, or which patients would have high-intensity alveolitis as defined by a combination of these criteria. These observations suggest that while serum ACE may be useful in diagnosing sarcoidosis, it does not reflect accurately the intensity of the alveolitis of the pulmonary component of this disease. (author)

  11. Hepatic necro-inflammation and elevated liver enzymes: Evaluation with MRI perfusion imaging with gadoxetic acid in chronic hepatitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.-B.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Yu, C.-W.; Kao, J.-H.; Lee, H.-S.; Liang, P.-C.; Wei, S.-Y.; Hwang, R.-M.; Shih, T.T.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate liver necro-inflammation and function by using gadoxetic acid-enhanced dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), with histological analysis as the reference standard. Materials and methods: Seventy-nine subjects (21 healthy subjects; 58 chronic hepatitis patients) who received gadoxetic acid-enhanced DCE-MRI were divided into three subgroups: no (A0, n = 31), mild (A1, n = 27), and moderate–severe (A2–A3, n = 21) activities. Two DCE-MRI models were measured: (1) a dual-input single-compartment model to obtain absolute arterial, portal venous, and total blood flow, arterial fraction (ART), distribution volume, and mean transit time; (2) a curve analysis method to obtain peak, slope, and AUC (area under curve). The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels also obtained. Statistical testing included Kruskal–Wallis tests for continuous data, Pearson's correlation tests, and multiple linear regression analyses. Results: Hepatic necro-inflammatory activity grades were significantly correlated with fibrotic stages, serum ALT level, ART and AUC. ART was helpful to predict the mild activity (≤A1 versus >A1; Az = 0.728), whereas AUC could differentiate no activity from any activity (A0 versus >A0; Az = 0.703). Peak, slope and AUC were all associated with AST and ALT (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced DCE-MRI parameters may be used to evaluate the severity of hepatic necro-inflammation and function

  12. Effects of buprenorphine and hepatitis C on liver enzymes in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschutz, Michael P; Abbott, Patrick J; Kushner, Robert; Tonigan, J Scott; Woody, George E

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore changes in transaminase values associated with buprenorphine treatment and hepatitis C status among opioid dependent subjects aged 15-21. 152 subjects seeking treatment for opioid dependence were randomized to 2-week detoxification with buprenorphine/naloxone (DETOX) or 12 weeks buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP). Liver chemistries including transaminases were obtained baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. 111 patients had at least one set of transaminases during treatment and were included in analyses of treatment effects. Overall, 8/60 BUP participants vs. 12/51 DETOX participants had at least one elevated ALT value during follow-up (Chi-square n.s.). 5/60 BUP participants vs. 11/51 DETOX participants had at least one elevated AST value (Chi-square = 3.194, p = .048). Twenty-eight out of 152 participants were hepatitis C (HCV) positive at baseline, and 4 seroconverted within 12 weeks, 2 in each group. HCV status was significantly associated with transaminase abnormalities (p = .009 and p = .006 for ALT an AST, respectively). HCV status had a strong effect on transaminase abnormalities among participants assigned to DETOX, but not among those assigned to BUP. No evidence was found for hepatotoxicity of buprenorphine in this exploratory analysis. HCV was present in a significant minority of participants and was a significant predictor of transaminase elevation. Results suggest that stabilization on buprenorphine may decrease the frequency of transaminase abnormalities associated with HCV in opioid dependent young people. The high rate of seroconversion underscores the importance of effective treatment and prevention.

  13. Liver enzyme abnormalities in taking traditional herbal medicine in Korea: A retrospective large sample cohort study of musculoskeletal disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinho; Shin, Joon-Shik; Kim, Me-Riong; Byun, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Shin, Ye-Sle; Kim, Hyejin; Byung Park, Ki; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study is to report the incidence of liver injury from herbal medicine in musculoskeletal disease patients as large-scale studies are scarce. Considering that herbal medicine is frequently used in patients irrespective of liver function in Korea, we investigated the prevalence of liver injury by liver function test results in musculoskeletal disease patients. Of 32675 inpatients taking herbal medicine at 7 locations of a Korean medicine hospital between 2005 and 2013, we screened for liver injury in 6894 patients with liver function tests (LFTs) at admission and discharge. LFTs included t-bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP. Liver injury at discharge was assessed by LFT result classifications at admission (liver injury, liver function abnormality, and normal liver function). In analyses for risk factors of liver injury at discharge, we adjusted for age, sex, length of stay, conventional medicine intake, HBs antigen/antibody, and liver function at admission. A total 354 patients (prevalence 5.1%) had liver injury at admission, and 217 (3.1%) at discharge. Of the 354 patients with liver injury at admission, only 9 showed a clinically significant increase after herbal medicine intake, and 225 returned to within normal range or showed significant liver function recovery. Out of 4769 patients with normal liver function at admission, 27 (0.6%) had liver injury at discharge. In multivariate analyses for risk factors, younger age, liver function abnormality at admission, and HBs antigen positive were associated with injury at discharge. The prevalence of liver injury in patients with normal liver function taking herbal medicine for musculoskeletal disease was low, and herbal medicine did not exacerbate liver injury in most patients with injury prior to intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of a newly designed sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of hydatid antigen in serum, urine and cyst fluid for diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Dr; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2013-07-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease of humans with variable clinical manifestations. Imaging and immunological methods are currently the mainstay of diagnosis of this disease. Although the immunological tests for detection of anti-echinococcal antibodies have several disadvantages, they are widely being used. Antigen is far more superior than antibody detection test as they can provide a specific parasitic diagnosis. A sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was designed using antibodies to 24 kDa urinary hydatid antigen for the detection of hydatid antigens in urine, serum and cyst fluid specimens. The performance of this novel test was compared with that of other hydatid antibody detection ELISA and enzyme immune transfer blot (EITB) using radiological and surgical confirmation as the gold standard. The antigen detection ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity when tested with cyst fluid. On testing urine and serum, the antigen detection ELISA was found to be more specific than antibody detection ELISA. EITB was found to be the most sensitive and specific test. ELISA using polyclonal antibodies against 24 kDa urinary hydatid protein was moderately sensitive to detect hydatid antigen in serum and urine. Hence polyclonal antibodies to 24 kDa urinary hydatid antigen can be used as an alternative source of antibody to detect hydatid antigen in serum, urine and cyst fluid. In the present study, EITB was found to be highly specific test for detection of hydatid antibodiesin serum. 24 kDa protein was found to be specific and of diagnostic value in CE.

  15. Differential induction of enzymes and genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco exposed to copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qi-Liang; Luo, Zhi; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhu, Qing-Ling; Sun, Lin-Dan; Zhuo, Mei-Qin; Hu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Cu downregulates lipogenesis and reduces lipid deposition in liver and adipose tissue. •Mechanism of Cu affecting lipid metabolism is determined at the enzymatic and molecular levels. •Cu exposure differentially influences lipid metabolism between liver and adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism of waterborne Cu exposure influencing lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to four waterborne copper (Cu) concentrations (2 (control), 24 (low), 71 (medium), 198 (high) μg Cu/l, respectively) for 6 weeks. Waterborne Cu exposure had a negative effect on growth and several condition indices (condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and visceral adipose index). In liver, lipid content, activities of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malic enzyme (ME), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and fatty acid synthase (FAS)) as well as mRNA levels of 6PGD, G6PD, FAS and sterol-regulator element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) genes decreased with increasing Cu concentrations. However, activity and mRNA level of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in liver increased. In VAT, G6PD, ME and LPL activities as well as the mRNA levels of FAS, LPL and PPARγ genes decreased in fish exposed to higher Cu concentrations. The differential Pearson correlations between transcription factors (SREBP-1 and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)), and the activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes were observed between liver and VAT. Thus, our study indicated that reduced lipid contents in liver and VAT after Cu exposure were attributable to the reduced activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes in these tissues. Different response patterns of several tested enzymes and genes to waterborne Cu

  16. Differential induction of enzymes and genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco exposed to copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qi-Liang; Luo, Zhi, E-mail: luozhi99@yahoo.com.cn; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhu, Qing-Ling; Sun, Lin-Dan; Zhuo, Mei-Qin; Hu, Wei

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Cu downregulates lipogenesis and reduces lipid deposition in liver and adipose tissue. •Mechanism of Cu affecting lipid metabolism is determined at the enzymatic and molecular levels. •Cu exposure differentially influences lipid metabolism between liver and adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism of waterborne Cu exposure influencing lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to four waterborne copper (Cu) concentrations (2 (control), 24 (low), 71 (medium), 198 (high) μg Cu/l, respectively) for 6 weeks. Waterborne Cu exposure had a negative effect on growth and several condition indices (condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and visceral adipose index). In liver, lipid content, activities of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malic enzyme (ME), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and fatty acid synthase (FAS)) as well as mRNA levels of 6PGD, G6PD, FAS and sterol-regulator element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) genes decreased with increasing Cu concentrations. However, activity and mRNA level of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in liver increased. In VAT, G6PD, ME and LPL activities as well as the mRNA levels of FAS, LPL and PPARγ genes decreased in fish exposed to higher Cu concentrations. The differential Pearson correlations between transcription factors (SREBP-1 and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)), and the activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes were observed between liver and VAT. Thus, our study indicated that reduced lipid contents in liver and VAT after Cu exposure were attributable to the reduced activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes in these tissues. Different response patterns of several tested enzymes and genes to waterborne Cu

  17. Niemann-Pick type C2 protein supplementation in experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Uhrenholt; Glavind, Emilie; Thomsen, Karen Louise

    2018-01-01

    the last two weeks or the entire four weeks. End-points were liver/body- and spleen/body weight ratios, histopathological NASH scores, fibrosis, serum liver enzymes, cholesterol, lipoproteins, cytokines, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction derived hepatic gene expression related to cholesterol...... metabolism, inflammation, and fibrosis. RESULTS: HFHC rats developed hepatomegaly, non-fibrotic NASH histopathology, elevated liver enzymes, serum cholesterol, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Their sterol regulatory element binding factor 2 (SREBF2) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) mRNAs were...... down-regulated compared with rats on standard chow. NPC2 did not improve liver weight, histopathology, levels of serum liver enzymes or pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), Interleukin (IL)-6, or IL-1β in HFHC rats. Two weeks of NPC2 treatment lowered hepatic TNFα and COL1A1 mRNA expression...

  18. Expression of genes for microRNA-processing enzymes is altered in advanced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Haveesh; Estep, Michael; Birerdinc, Aybike; Afendy, Arian; Moazzez, Amir; Elariny, Hazem; Goodman, Zachary; Chandhoke, Vikas; Baranova, Ancha; Younossi, Zobair M

    2013-08-01

    Recently, microRNAs (miRNA) have been linked to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). First transcribed as pri-miRNA, these molecules are further processed by a complex of endonuclear and cytosolic RNA binding molecules to form mature miRNAs. The aim of this study is to investigate mechanisms of miRNA regulation in the visceral adipose of obese NAFLD patients via measuring expression of miRNA processing enzymes and pri-miRNA. Total RNAs were extracted from visceral adipose tissue (VAT) samples collected from patients undergoing bariatric surgery. All patients had biopsy-proven NAFLD (NASH patients [n = 12] and non-NASH NAFLD [n = 12]). For each patient, we profiled mRNA levels for three miRNA processing elements (Drosha, DGCR8, and Dicer1) and seven pri-miRNAs (pri-miR-125b-2, pri-miR-16-2, pri-miR-26a-1, pri-miR-26a-2, pri-miR-7-1, pri-miR-7-2, and pri-miR-7-3). Expression of Dicer1, Drosha and DGCR8 was significantly increased within the NASH cohort along with expression of pri-miR-7-1. The presence of focal necrosis on the liver biopsy correlated significantly with levels of Dicer1 and DGRC8. Both NASH and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes correlated negatively with the expression levels of hsa-miR-125b. Histologic NASH correlated positively with the expression levels of pri-miR-16-2 and pri-miR-7-1. The presence of the hepatocyte's ballooning degeneration in the liver biopsy correlated positively with pri-miR-26a-1 and pri-miR-7-1. The expression profile of pri-miR-125b-2 also correlated positively with body mass index. Our findings support the hypothesis that VAT-derived miRNA may contribute to the pathogenesis of NASH in obese patients. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Taurine Biosynthesis in a Fish Liver Cell Line (ZFL) Adapted to a Serum-Free Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chieh-Lun; Watson, Aaron M; Place, Allen R; Jagus, Rosemary

    2017-05-25

    Although taurine has been shown to play multiple important physiological roles in teleosts, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying dietary requirements. Cell lines can provide useful tools for deciphering biosynthetic pathways and their regulation. However, culture media and sera contain variable taurine levels. To provide a useful cell line for the investigation of taurine homeostasis, an adult zebrafish liver cell line (ZFL) has been adapted to a taurine-free medium by gradual accommodation to a commercially available synthetic medium, UltraMEM™-ITES. Here we show that ZFL cells are able to synthesize taurine and be maintained in medium without taurine. This has allowed for the investigation of the effects of taurine supplementation on cell growth, cellular amino acid pools, as well as the expression of the taurine biosynthetic pathway and taurine transporter genes in a defined fish cell type. After taurine supplementation, cellular taurine levels increase but hypotaurine levels stay constant, suggesting little suppression of taurine biosynthesis. Cellular methionine levels do not change after taurine addition, consistent with maintenance of taurine biosynthesis. The addition of taurine to cells grown in taurine-free medium has little effect on transcript levels of the biosynthetic pathway genes for cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSAD), or cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO). In contrast, supplementation with taurine causes a 30% reduction in transcript levels of the taurine transporter, TauT. This experimental approach can be tailored for the development of cell lines from aquaculture species for the elucidation of their taurine biosynthetic capacity.

  20. Diagnostic usefulness of bronchoalveolar lavage, Ga scintigraphy and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity in granulomatous lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Ikuo; Tsuneta, Yasuhiro; Terai, Tsugio; Nishimura, Masaharu; Munakata, Mitsuru

    1983-01-01

    Cellular components of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were studied in 26 sarcoid patients, 8 patients with farmer's lung, 10 healthy controls and 10 control patients. The investigations by Ga scintigraphy or transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) and measurement of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) activity were also carried out in 21 sarcoid patients and 8 patients with farmer's lung. 1) Percentage of foamy cells in alveolar ma crophage fraction, percentage of lymphocytes and number of mast cells were increased significantly in BLA fluid from patients with farmer's lung as compared with that from sarcoid patients. Analysis of cellular component of BAL flu id is useful for differential diagnosis of these diseases. 2) Granulomatous lung lesions were frequently observed in specimens obtained by TBLB from patients with sarcoidosis and farmer's lung who showed abnormal Ga uptake in lung. In contrast, there was no significant difference in percentage of lymphocytes in BAL fluid between patients whose pulmonary Ga uptake was positive and those in whom pulmonary Ga uptake was negative. To investigate the mechanism of pulmonary Ga accumulation in granulomatous lung disease, BAL was performed in 2 sarcoid patients and 3 patients with farmer's lung at 48 to 72 hrs after Ga injection. The radioactivity in cell fractions was evaluated at 96 hrs after Ga injection. Most of the radioactivity was found in macrophages, with little in lymphocytes. Pulmonary Ga uptake in patients with sarcoidosis and farmer' s lung reflects granuloma formation or accumulation of activated macrophages in lung, but not the intensity of T-cell alveolitis. 3) Some relationship among SACE, granulomatous lung lesions in specimens obtained by TBLB and abnormal Ga accumulation in lung or hilar lymphnodes in sarcoid patients was observed, suggesting that SACE might reflect the degree of granuloma formation in sarcoidosis. (J.P.N.)

  1. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) activity as an indicator of total body granuloma load and prognosis in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuswamy, P P; Lopez-Majano, V; Ranginwala, M; Trainor, W D

    1987-09-01

    The relationship between the level of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) and the total body granuloma load in patients with sarcoidosis was studied in two groups using SACE levels and total body gallium67 scans. The study group consisted of 22 patients with SACE levels greater than or equal to 100 U/ml (EH-SACE group) and the control group consisted of 24 patients consecutively diagnosed to have sarcoidosis in a one year period with SACE level of less than 80 U/ml. The average number of organs involved in the EH-SACE group was 3.9 +/- 1 compared to 2.3 +/- 1 in the control group (p less than 0.0001). The incidence of extra pulmonary organ involvement in the EH-SACE group was 2.2 +/- 1 organs compared to 1.0 + 0.8 in the control group (p less than 0.0002). The SACE level was correlated with the number of organs involved for all patients with sarcoidosis (r = .55; p less than .0001). Following corticosteroid therapy for 39 +/- 41 weeks the SACE dropped to 64 +/- 45 units in the EH-SACE group. But it took only 13 +/- 10 weeks to normalize the SACE level to 27 +/- 9 units in the control group. The EH-SACE group patients were followed for 114 +/- 64 weeks and 73% of them still have active sarcoidosis requiring repeated cycles of corticosteroid therapy, while after 42 +/- 23 weeks of follow up only 10% of patients from the control group were still on therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Association between angiotensin II receptor gene polymorphism and serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) activity in patients with sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Y; Sakatani, M; Takami, S; Tachibana, T; Higaki, J; Ogihara, T; Miki, T; Katsuya, T; Tsuchiyama, T; Yoshida, A; Yu, H; Tanio, Y; Ueda, E

    1998-06-01

    Serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) is considered to reflect disease activity in sarcoidosis. SACE activity is increased in many patients with active sarcoid lesions. The mechanism for the increased SACE activity in this disease has not been clarified. ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism has been reported to have an association with SACE levels in sarcoidosis, but no evidence of an association between angiotensin II receptor gene polymorphism and SACE in this disease has been found. A study of the association of angiotensin II receptor gene polymorphisms with sarcoidosis was therefore undertaken. ACE (I/D), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1), and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AGTR2) gene polymorphisms were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and SACE levels were measured in three groups of patients: those with sarcoidosis or tuberculosis and normal controls. There was no difference in allele frequency of AGTR1 and AGTR2 polymorphism among the three groups. Neither AGTR1 nor AGTR2 polymorphisms were associated with sarcoidosis. SACE activity was higher in patients with sarcoidosis with the AGTR1 A/C genotype than in others. However, this tendency was not detected in patients with tuberculosis. The AGTR1 allele C is associated with high activity of SACE in patients with sarcoidosis. It is another predisposing factor for high levels of SACE in patients with sarcoidosis and is considered to be an independent factor from the ACE D allele for high levels of SACE in sarcoidosis. This fact could be one of the explanations for the increased SACE activity in sarcoidosis.

  3. Serum apolipoprotein A1 and haptoglobin, in patients with suspected drug-induced liver injury (DILI as biomarkers of recovery.

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    Valentina Peta

    Full Text Available There is a clear need for better biomarkers of drug-induced-liver-injury (DILI.We aimed to evaluate the possible prognostic value of ActiTest and FibroTest proteins apoliprotein-A1, haptoglobin and alpha-2-macroglobulin, in patients with DILI.We analyzed cases and controls included in the IMI-SAFE-T-DILI European project, from which serum samples had been stored in a dedicated biobank. The analyses of ActiTest and FibroTest had been prospectively scheduled. The primary objective was to analyze the performance (AUROC of ActiTest components as predictors of recovery outcome defined as an ALT <2x the upper limit of normal (ULN, and BILI <2x ULN.After adjudication, 154 patients were considered to have DILI and 22 were considered to have acute liver injury without DILI. A multivariate regression analysis (ActiTest-DILI patent pending combining the ActiTest components without BILI and ALT (used as references, apolipoprotein-A1, haptoglobin, alpha-2-macroglobulin and GGT, age and gender, resulted in a significant prediction of recovery with 67.0% accuracy (77/115 and an AUROC of 0.724 (P<0.001 vs. no prediction 0.500. Repeated apolipoprotein-A1 and haptoglobin remained significantly higher in the DILI cases that recovered (n = 65 versus those that did not (n = 16, at inclusion, at 4-8 weeks and at 8-12 weeks. The same results were observed after stratification on APAP cases and non-APAP cases.We identified that apolipoprotein-A1 and haptoglobin had significant predictive values for the prediction of recovery at 12 weeks in DILI, enabling the construction of a new prognostic panel, the DILI-ActiTest, which needs to be independently validated.

  4. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality following open surgical repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Wanpin; Wang, Yan; Yao, Kai; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Open surgical repair (OSR) is a conventional surgical method used in the repair a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA); however, OSR results in high perioperative mortality rates. The level of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been reported to be an independent risk factor for postoperative in-hospital mortality following major cardiopulmonary surgery. In the present study, the association of serum ACE2 levels with postoperative in-hospital mortality was investigated in patients undergoing OSR for ruptured AAA. The study enrolled 84 consecutive patients underwent OSR for ruptured AAA and were subsequently treated in the intensive care unit. Patients who succumbed postoperatively during hospitalization were defined as non-survivors. Serum ACE2 levels were measured in all patients prior to and following the surgery using ELISA kits. The results indicated that non-survivors showed significantly lower mean preoperative and postoperative serum ACE2 levels when compared with those in survivors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis also showed that, subsequent to adjusting for potential confounders, the serum ACE2 level on preoperative day 1 showed a significant negative association with the postoperative in-hospital mortality. This was confirmed by multivariate hazard ratio analysis, which showed that, subsequent to adjusting for the various potential confounders, the risk of postoperative in-hospital mortality remained significantly higher in the two lowest serum ACE2 level quartiles compared with that in the highest quartile on preoperative day 1. In conclusion, the present study provided the first evidence supporting that the serum ACE2 level is an independent risk factor for the in-hospital mortality following OSR for ruptured AAA. Furthermore, low serum ACE2 levels on preoperative day 1 were found to be associated with increased postoperative in-hospital mortality. Therefore, the serum ACE2 level on preoperative day 1 may be a potential

  5. Short-term calorie restriction feminizes the mRNA profiles of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in livers of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most effective anti-aging interventions in mammals. A modern theory suggests that aging results from a decline in detoxification capabilities and thus accumulation of damaged macromolecules. The present study aimed to determine how short-term CR alters mRNA profiles of genes that encode metabolism and detoxification machinery in the liver. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed CR (0, 15, 30, or 40%) diets for one month, followed by mRNA quantification of 98 xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in the liver, including 7 uptake transporters, 39 phase-I enzymes, 37 phase-II enzymes, 10 efflux transporters, and 5 transcription factors. In general, 15% CR did not alter mRNAs of most XPGs, whereas 30 and 40% CR altered over half of the XPGs (32 increased and 29 decreased). CR up-regulated some phase-I enzymes (fold increase), such as Cyp4a14 (12), Por (2.3), Nqo1 (1.4), Fmo2 (5.4), and Fmo3 (346), and numerous number of phase-II enzymes, such as Sult1a1 (1.2), Sult1d1 (2.0), Sult1e1 (33), Sult3a1 (2.2), Gsta4 (1.3), Gstm2 (1.3), Gstm3 (1.7), and Mgst3 (2.2). CR feminized the mRNA profiles of 32 XPGs in livers of male mice. For instance, CR decreased the male-predominantly expressed Oatp1a1 (97%) and increased the female-predominantly expressed Oatp1a4 (11). In conclusion, short-term CR alters the mRNA levels of over half of the 98 XPGs quantified in livers of male mice, and over half of these alterations appear to be due to feminization of the liver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Regular exercise is associated with a reduction in the risk of NAFLD and decreased liver enzymes in individuals with NAFLD independent of obesity in Korean adults.

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    Ji Cheol Bae

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated the association of regular physical exercise with the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and liver enzymes in relation to obesity and insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 72,359 healthy Korean adults without diabetes who participated in a comprehensive health check-up. Subjects who have been exercising regularly (more than 3 times per week, at least for 30 minutes each time and for consecutive 3 month were categorized into exercise group. All subjects were categorized into deciles based on their body mass index (BMI and we estimated the odds ratios (ORs for having NAFLD according to exercise regularity in each decile. The diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography findings. Individuals with NAFLD (n = 19,921 were analyzed separately to evaluate ORs for having elevated liver enzymes based on regularity of exercise. The risk for NAFLD was significantly reduced in exercise group with age- and sex-adjusted ORs of 0.53-0.72 for all BMI deciles except at BMI categories of <19.6 and 20.7-21.6 kg/m(2. While no difference was seen in BMI between subjects in exercise and non-exercise group across the BMI deciles, the values of body fat percentage and metabolic risk factors differed. Among NAFLD patients, subjects in exercise group had a lower risk for having elevated liver enzymes with multivariable adjusted OR of 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.99, for AST and 0.74 (95% CI 0.67-0.81, for ALT than did subjects in non-exercise group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Regular exercise was associated with a reduced risk for having NAFLD and decreased liver enzymes in patients with NAFLD, and this relationship was also independent of obesity.

  7. Detection of serum AFB1-lysine adduct in Malaysia and its association with liver and kidney functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Redzwan, S; Rosita, Jamaluddin; Mohd Sokhini, A M; Nurul 'Aqilah, A R; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Kang, Min-Su; Zuraini, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin is ubiquitously found in many foodstuffs and produced by Aspergillus species of fungi. Of many aflatoxin metabolites, AFB1 is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as group one carcinogen and linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study on molecular biomarker of aflatoxin provides a better assessment on the extent of human exposure to aflatoxin. In Malaysia, the occurrences of aflatoxin-contaminated foods have been documented, but there is a lack of data on human exposure to aflatoxin. Hence, this study investigated the occurrence of AFB1-lysine adduct in serum samples and its association with liver and kidney functions. 5ml fasting blood samples were collected from seventy-one subjects (n=71) for the measurement of AFB1-lysine adduct, albumin, total bilirubin, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine transaminase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase), GGT (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase), creatinine and BUN (blood urea nitrogen). The AFB1-lysine adduct was detected in all serum samples (100% detection rate) with a mean of 6.85±3.20pg/mg albumin (range: 1.13-18.85pg/mg albumin). Male subjects (mean: 8.03±3.41pg/mg albumin) had significantly higher adduct levels than female subjects (mean: 5.64±2.46pg/mg albumin) (p6.85pg/mg albumin) had significantly elevated level of total bilirubin (pMalaysia. Given that aflatoxin can pose serious problem to the health, intervention strategies should be implemented to limit/reduce human exposure to aflatoxin. Besides, a study with a big sample size should be warranted in order to assess aflatoxin exposure in the general population of Malaysia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced Glucose Uptake in Human Liver Cells and Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes by Nordic Berry Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giang Thanh Thi Ho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A Western lifestyle with low physical activity and a diet rich in sugar, fat and processed food contribute to higher incidences of diabetes and obesity. Enhanced glucose uptake in human liver cells was observed after treatment with phenolic extracts from different Nordic berries. All berry extracts showed higher inhibition against α-amylase and α-glucosidase than the anti-diabetic agent acarbose. Total phenolic content and phenolic profiles in addition to antioxidant activities, were also investigated. The berries were extracted with 80% methanol on an accelerated solvent extraction system (ASE and then purified by C-18 solid phase extraction (SPE. Among the ASE methanol extracts, black chokeberry, crowberry and elderberry extracts showed high stimulation of glucose uptake in HepG2 cells and also considerable inhibitory effect towards carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. SPE extracts with higher concentrations of phenolics, resulted in increased glucose uptake and enhanced inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase compared to the ASE extracts. Crowberry and cloudberry were the most potent 15-lipoxygenase inhibitors, while bog whortleberry and lingonberry were the most active xanthine oxidase inhibitors. These results increase the value of these berries as a component of a healthy Nordic diet and have a potential benefit against diabetes.

  9. Effect of Various Diets on the Expression of Phase-I Drug Metabolizing Enzymes in Livers of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Cui, Julia Yue; Lu, Hong; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that diets can alter the metabolism of drugs; however, it is difficult to compare the effects of multiple diets on drug metabolism among different experimental settings. Phase-I related genes play a major role in the biotransformation of pro-drugs and drugs.In the current study, effects of nine diets on the mRNA expression of phase-I drug-metabolizing enzymes in livers of mice were simultaneously investigated. Compared to the AIN-93M purified diet (control), 73 of the 132 critical phase-I drug metabolizing genes were differentially regulated by at least one diet. Diet restriction produced the most number of changed genes (51), followed by the atherogenic diet (27), high-fat diet (25), standard rodent chow (21), western diet (20), high-fructose diet (5), EFA deficient diet (3), and low n-3 FA diet (1). The mRNAs of the Fmo family changed most, followed by Cyp2b and 4a subfamilies, as well as Por (From 1121 to 21-fold increase of theses mRNAs). There were 59 genes not altered by any of these diets.The present results may improve the interpretation of studies with mice and aid in determining effective and safe doses for individuals with different nutritional diets. PMID:25733028

  10. Standardization of clinical enzyme analysis using frozen human serum pools with values assigned by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qing; Chen, Baorong; Zhang, Rui; Zuo, Chang

    Variation in clinical enzyme analysis, particularly across different measuring systems and laboratories, represents a critical but long-lasting problem in diagnosis. Calibrators with traceability and commutability are imminently needed to harmonize analysis in laboratory medicine. Fresh frozen human serum pools were assigned values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) by six laboratories with established International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures. These serum pools were then used across 76 laboratories as a calibrator in the analysis of five enzymes. Bias and imprecision in the measurement of the five enzymes tested were significantly reduced by using the value-assigned serum in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration. The median (interquartile range) of the relative biases of ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH were 2.0% (0.6-3.4%), 0.8% (-0.8-2.3%), 1.0% (-0.5-2.0%), 0.2% (-0.3-1.0%) and 0.2% (-0.9-1.1%), respectively. Before calibration, the interlaboratory coefficients of variation (CVs) in the analysis of patient serum samples were 8.0-8.2%, 7.3-8.5%, 8.1-8.7%, 5.1-5.9% and 5.8-6.4% for ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH, respectively; after calibration, the CVs decreased to 2.7-3.3%, 3.0-3.6%, 1.6-2.1%, 1.8-1.9% and 3.3-3.5%, respectively. The results suggest that the use of fresh frozen serum pools significantly improved the comparability of test results in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration.

  11. Gender Specific Association of Serum Leptin and Insulinemic Indices with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Prediabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Israt Ara; Akter, Salima; Rahman, Mohammad Khalilur; Ali, Liaquat

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived hormone leptin plays a functional role in glucose tolerance through its effects on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity which also represent the risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study explored the gender specific association of serum leptin and insulinemic indices with NAFLD in Bangladeshi prediabetic subjects. Under a cross-sectional analytical design a total of 110 ultrasound examined prediabetic subjects, aged 25-68 years consisting of 57.3% male (55.6% non NAFLD and 44.4% NAFLD) and 42.7% female (57.4% non NAFLD and 42.6% NAFLD), were investigated. Insulin secretory function (HOMA%B) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S) were calculated from homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Serum leptin showed significant positive correlation with fasting insulin (r = 0.530, P = 0.004), postprandial insulin (r = 0.384, P = 0.042) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.541, P = 0.003) as well as significant negative correlation with HOMA%S (r = -0.388, P = 0.046) and HOMA%B (r = -0.356, P = 0.039) in male prediabetic subjects with NAFLD. In multiple linear regression analysis, log transformed leptin showed significant positive association with HOMA-IR (β = 0.706, P binary logistic regression analysis, only log leptin [OR 1.29 95% (C.I) (1.11-1.51), P = 0.001] in male subjects as well as HOMA%B [OR 0.94 95% (C.I) (0.89-0.98), P = 0.012], HOMA-IR [OR 3.30 95% (C.I) (0.99-10.95), P = 0.049] and log leptin [OR 1.10 95% (C.I) (1.01-1.20), P = 0.026] in female subjects were found to be independent determinants of NAFLD after adjusting the BMI and TG. Serum leptin seems to have an association with NAFLD both in male and female prediabetic subjects and this association in turn, is mediated by insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance among these subjects.

  12. Gender Specific Association of Serum Leptin and Insulinemic Indices with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Prediabetic Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israt Ara Hossain

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue-derived hormone leptin plays a functional role in glucose tolerance through its effects on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity which also represent the risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The present study explored the gender specific association of serum leptin and insulinemic indices with NAFLD in Bangladeshi prediabetic subjects. Under a cross-sectional analytical design a total of 110 ultrasound examined prediabetic subjects, aged 25-68 years consisting of 57.3% male (55.6% non NAFLD and 44.4% NAFLD and 42.7% female (57.4% non NAFLD and 42.6% NAFLD, were investigated. Insulin secretory function (HOMA%B and insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S were calculated from homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Serum leptin showed significant positive correlation with fasting insulin (r = 0.530, P = 0.004, postprandial insulin (r = 0.384, P = 0.042 and HOMA-IR (r = 0.541, P = 0.003 as well as significant negative correlation with HOMA%S (r = -0.388, P = 0.046 and HOMA%B (r = -0.356, P = 0.039 in male prediabetic subjects with NAFLD. In multiple linear regression analysis, log transformed leptin showed significant positive association with HOMA-IR (β = 0.706, P <0.001 after adjusting the effects of body mass index (BMI, triglyceride (TG and HOMA%B in male subjects with NAFLD. In binary logistic regression analysis, only log leptin [OR 1.29 95% (C.I (1.11-1.51, P = 0.001] in male subjects as well as HOMA%B [OR 0.94 95% (C.I (0.89-0.98, P = 0.012], HOMA-IR [OR 3.30 95% (C.I (0.99-10.95, P = 0.049] and log leptin [OR 1.10 95% (C.I (1.01-1.20, P = 0.026] in female subjects were found to be independent determinants of NAFLD after adjusting the BMI and TG. Serum leptin seems to have an association with NAFLD both in male and female prediabetic subjects and this association in turn, is mediated by insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance among these subjects.

  13. Prognostic Value of Serum Caspase-Cleaved Cytokeratin-18 Levels before Liver Transplantation for One-Year Survival of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Leonardo Lorente

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytokeratin (CK-18 is the major intermediate filament protein in the liver and during hepatocyte apoptosis is cleaved by the action of caspases; the resulting fragments are released into the blood as caspase-cleaved cytokeratin (CCCK-18. Higher circulating levels of CCCK-18 have been found in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC than in healthy controls and than in cirrhotic patients. However, it is unknown whether serum CCCK-18 levels before liver transplantation (LT in patients with HCC could be used as a prognostic biomarker of one-year survival, and this was the objective of our study with 135 patients. At one year after LT, non-survivors showed higher serum CCCK-18 levels than survivors (p = 0.001. On binary logistic regression analysis, serum CCCK-18 levels >384 U/L were associated with death at one year (odds ratio = 19.801; 95% confidence interval = 5.301–73.972; p < 0.001 after controlling for deceased donor age. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve of serum CCCK-18 levels to predict death at one year was 77% (95% CI = 69%–84%; p < 0.001. The new finding of our study was that serum levels of CCCK-18 before LT in patients with HCC could be used as prognostic biomarker of survival.

  14. Prognostic Value of Serum Caspase-Cleaved Cytokeratin-18 Levels before Liver Transplantation for One-Year Survival of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Leonardo; Rodriguez, Sergio T.; Sanz, Pablo; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Padilla, Javier; Díaz, Dácil; González, Antonio; Martín, María M.; Jiménez, Alejandro; Barrera, Manuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Cytokeratin (CK)-18 is the major intermediate filament protein in the liver and during hepatocyte apoptosis is cleaved by the action of caspases; the resulting fragments are released into the blood as caspase-cleaved cytokeratin (CCCK)-18. Higher circulating levels of CCCK-18 have been found in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than in healthy controls and than in cirrhotic patients. However, it is unknown whether serum CCCK-18 levels before liver transplantation (LT) in patients with HCC could be used as a prognostic biomarker of one-year survival, and this was the objective of our study with 135 patients. At one year after LT, non-survivors showed higher serum CCCK-18 levels than survivors (p = 0.001). On binary logistic regression analysis, serum CCCK-18 levels >384 U/L were associated with death at one year (odds ratio = 19.801; 95% confidence interval = 5.301–73.972; p < 0.001) after controlling for deceased donor age. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of serum CCCK-18 levels to predict death at one year was 77% (95% CI = 69%–84%; p < 0.001). The new finding of our study was that serum levels of CCCK-18 before LT in patients with HCC could be used as prognostic biomarker of survival. PMID:27618033

  15. Simple serum markers for significant liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients with an alanine aminotransferase level lower than 2 times upper limit of normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the simple serum markers for significant liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients with an alanine aminotransferase (ALT level of <2 times upper limit of normal (ULN. MethodsThe clinical data of 278 CHB patients with ALT <2×ULN (ULN=40 U/L were analyzed retrospectively. Significant liver inflammation was defined as a liver inflammatory activity grade (G ≥2. The t-test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was used for non-normally distributed continuous data; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors for significant liver inflammation in CHB patients with ALT <2×ULN. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum markers in significant liver inflammation. ResultsOf the 278 CHB patients enrolled, 175 (62.9% had no significant liver inflammation (G0-1 group and 103 (37.1% had significant liver inflammation (G2-4 group. There were significant differences in ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, albumin, globulin, prothrombin time (PT, platelet, absolute neutrophil count, hyaluronic acid (HA, glycocholic acid, precollagen Ⅲ, and collagen type Ⅳ(ⅣC between the two groups (all P<0.05. The multivariate regression analysis showed that GGT, PT, ⅣC, and HA were independent predictors for significant liver inflammation in CHB patients with ALT<2×ULN (OR=1.015, 1.600, 1.151, and 1.014, P=0.008, 0.021, 0.003, and 0.018. The areas under the ROC curve for GGT, PT, IVC, and HA to diagnose significant liver inflammation were 0.804, 0.722, 0.707, and 0.632, respectively. The cut-off value of 48.5 U/L for GGT to predict significant liver inflammation had a specificity of 90.3% and a negative

  16. Effect of propylthiouracil on 125I-L-triiodothyronine binding to the nuclei and on malic enzyme activity in rat liver cytosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopp, J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of propylthiouracil (PTU), triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) on the malic enzyme activity of rat liver cytosol and on the binding of 125 I-L-triiodothyronine to the nuclear fraction were examined. A significant decrease in in vitro binding of 125 I-T 3 to the liver nuclei was found in rats fed PTU for 12 h, 24 h and 120 h. The hepatic malic enzyme activity was unchanged after 12 h, but markedly decreased after 24 h and 120 h of PTU treatment. In 120 h PTU fed animals the effect of T 3 on the malic enzyme activity was five times higher in comparison with an equimolar dose of T 4 . Finally, the effect of T 4 on the malic enzyme activity was observed which might result from the intrinsic activity of T 4 under the conditions of a decreased T 4 to T 3 conversion due to the PTU feeding. The obtained results show that there is a certain correlation between the nuclear T 3 binding and the cytosol malic enzyme activity which is presumably induced directly through the m-RNA synthesis stimulated by thyroid hormones. (author)

  17. Novel Electron Spin Resonance-Enzyme Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Occult Hepatitis B Infection in HCV Chronic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Badawi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B virus infection in patients who lack detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg is called occult hepatitis B infection (OHB. The very low level of HBV genome may hamper its detection by molecular techniques. Recently, a highly sensitive EIA utilizing a novel modified electron spin resonance (ESR technique (modified ESR-EIA was developed to detect HBsAg by measuring stabilized nitroxide radicals. Aim: to detect occult HBV infection, using ESR-EIA among HCV-related chronic liver disease (CLD Egyptian patients who were seronegative for HBsAg by standard EIA. Methods: The study was conducted on two periods of time; in 1st period, 72 inpatients in Tropical Medicine Department of TBRI, were enrolled in the study. They were divided into two groups; 44 seropositive anti-HCV patients (Group I, 28 seronegative anti-HCV patients (Group II. Sera were subjected to virological assays for HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBc IgM, anti-HBc IgG, anti-HBs, anti-HCV and HCV RNA. We also examined serum HBV DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique and real-time detection polymerase chain reaction (RTD-PCR. In the 2nd period; modified ESR-EIA was applied on 32 TBRI inpatients, 23 in Tropical Medicine Department (Group I and 9 from hemodialysis unit (Group II with HCV-related CLD. Results: OHB was detected in 18.1% and 86.9% of our patients in 2002 and 2006 respectively. In phase 1, there was a higher detection rate among HCV patients in Group I (25% than Group II (7%, with higher prevalence (52.4% in patients with positive HCV RNA in Group I versus those with negative HCV viremia (8% in Group II. HBV DNA by either PCR or RTD-PCR was negative in all patients of both groups as the HBV viral load of the samples were below detectable level of the methods used; less than 100 copies/ml. None of 9 hemodialysis patients were positive for OHB. Conclusion: The newly developed quantitative ESR-EIA technique represents a great evolution for screening and

  18. Dicranostiga leptopodu (Maxim.) Fedde extracts attenuated CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice through increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity to improve mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Deping; Wang, Fang; Tang, Jinzhou; Mao, Aihong; Liao, Shiqi; Wang, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Dicranostiga Leptodu (Maxim.) fedde (DLF), a poppy plant, has been reported have many benefits and medicinal properties, including free radicals scavenging and detoxifying. However, the protective effect of DLF extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced damage in mice liver has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that DLF extracts attenuated CCl 4 -induced liver damage in mice through increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity to improve mitochondrial function. In this study, the mice liver damage evoked by CCl 4 was marked by morphology changes, significant rise in lipid peroxidation, as well as alterations of mitochondrial respiratory function. Interestingly, pretreatment with DLF extracts attenuated CCl 4 -induced morphological damage and increasing of lipid peroxidation in mice liver. Additionally, DLF extracts improved mitochondrial function by preventing the disruption of respiratory chain and suppression of mitochondrial Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ -ATPase activity. Furthermore, administration with DLF extracts elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels and maintained the balance of redox status. This results showed that toxic protection effect of DLF extracts on mice liver is mediated by improving mitochondrial respiratory function and keeping the balance of redox status, which suggesting that DLF extracts could be used as potential toxic protection agent for the liver against hepatotoxic agent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Short-term calorie restriction feminizes the mRNA profiles of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in livers of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most effective anti-aging interventions in mammals. A modern theory suggests that aging results from a decline in detoxification capabilities and thus accumulation of damaged macromolecules. The present study aimed to determine how short-term CR alters mRNA profiles of genes that encode metabolism and detoxification machinery in the liver. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed CR (0, 15, 30, or 40%) diets for one month, followed by mRNA quantification of 98 xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in the liver, including 7 uptake transporters, 39 phase-I enzymes, 37 phase-II enzymes, 10 efflux transporters, and 5 transcription factors. In general, 15% CR did not alter mRNAs of most XPGs, whereas 30 and 40% CR altered over half of the XPGs (32 increased and 29 decreased). CR up-regulated some phase-I enzymes (fold increase), such as Cyp4a14 (12), Por (2.3), Nqo1 (1.4), Fmo2 (5.4), and Fmo3 (346), and numerous number of phase-II enzymes, such as Sult1a1 (1.2), Sult1d1 (2.0), Sult1e1 (33), Sult3a1 (2.2), Gsta4 (1.3), Gstm2 (1.3), Gstm3 (1.7), and Mgst3 (2.2). CR feminized the mRNA profiles of 32 XPGs in livers of male mice. For instance, CR decreased the male-predominantly expressed Oatp1a1 (97%) and increased the female-predominantly expressed Oatp1a4 (11). In conclusion, short-term CR alters the mRNA levels of over half of the 98 XPGs quantified in livers of male mice, and over half of these alterations appear to be due to feminization of the liver. - Highlights: • Utilized a graded CR model in male mice • The mRNA profiles of xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in liver were investigated. • CR up-regulates many phase-II enzymes. • CR tends to feminize the mRNA profiles of XPGs

  20. Short-term calorie restriction feminizes the mRNA profiles of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in livers of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Zidong Donna [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most effective anti-aging interventions in mammals. A modern theory suggests that aging results from a decline in detoxification capabilities and thus accumulation of damaged macromolecules. The present study aimed to determine how short-term CR alters mRNA profiles of genes that encode metabolism and detoxification machinery in the liver. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed CR (0, 15, 30, or 40%) diets for one month, followed by mRNA quantification of 98 xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in the liver, including 7 uptake transporters, 39 phase-I enzymes, 37 phase-II enzymes, 10 efflux transporters, and 5 transcription factors. In general, 15% CR did not alter mRNAs of most XPGs, whereas 30 and 40% CR altered over half of the XPGs (32 increased and 29 decreased). CR up-regulated some phase-I enzymes (fold increase), such as Cyp4a14 (12), Por (2.3), Nqo1 (1.4), Fmo2 (5.4), and Fmo3 (346), and numerous number of phase-II enzymes, such as Sult1a1 (1.2), Sult1d1 (2.0), Sult1e1 (33), Sult3a1 (2.2), Gsta4 (1.3), Gstm2 (1.3), Gstm3 (1.7), and Mgst3 (2.2). CR feminized the mRNA profiles of 32 XPGs in livers of male mice. For instance, CR decreased the male-predominantly expressed Oatp1a1 (97%) and increased the female-predominantly expressed Oatp1a4 (11). In conclusion, short-term CR alters the mRNA levels of over half of the 98 XPGs quantified in livers of male mice, and over half of these alterations appear to be due to feminization of the liver. - Highlights: • Utilized a graded CR model in male mice • The mRNA profiles of xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in liver were investigated. • CR up-regulates many phase-II enzymes. • CR tends to feminize the mRNA profiles of XPGs.